Anomalous mass dimension in multiflavor QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doff, A.; Natale, A. A.
2016-10-01
Models of strongly interacting theories with a large mass anomalous dimension (γm) provide an interesting possibility for the dynamical origin of the electroweak symmetry breaking. A laboratory for these models is QCD with many flavors, which may present a nontrivial fixed point associated to a conformal region. Studies based on conformal field theories and on Schwinger-Dyson equations have suggested the existence of bounds on the mass anomalous dimension at the fixed points of these models. In this note we discuss γm values of multiflavor QCD exhibiting a nontrivial fixed point and affected by relevant four-fermion interactions.
Spectrum and mass anomalous dimension of SU(2) adjoint QCD with two Dirac flavors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergner, Georg; Giudice, Pietro; Münster, Gernot; Montvay, Istvan; Piemonte, Stefano
2017-08-01
In this work we present the results of our investigation of SU(2) gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation (aQCD2), which belongs to the class of strongly interacting gauge theories that are of basic interest for extensions of the Standard Model. We have done numerical lattice simulations of this theory at two different values of the gauge coupling and several fermion masses. Our results include the particle spectrum and the mass anomalous dimension. The spectrum contains new exotic fermion-gluon states and flavor-singlet mesons. The mass anomalous dimension is determined from the scaling of the masses and the mode number. The remnant dependence of the universal mass ratios and mass anomalous dimension on the gauge coupling indicates the relevance of scaling corrections, such that earlier estimations for the universal fixed point value of the mass anomalous dimension are incomplete without their inclusion.
Unparticles and anomalous dimensions in the cuprates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karch, Andreas; Limtragool, Kridsanaphong; Phillips, Philip W.
2016-03-01
Motivated by the overwhelming evidence some type of quantum criticality underlies the power-law for the optical conductivity and T-linear resistivity in the cuprates, we demonstrate here how a scale-invariant or unparticle sector can lead to a unifying description of the observed scaling forms. We adopt the continuous mass formalism or multi band (flavor) formalism of the unparticle sector by letting various microscopic parameters be mass-dependent. In particular, we show that an effective mass that varies with the flavor index as well as a running band edge and lifetime capture the AC and DC transport phenomenology of the cuprates. A key consequence of the running mass is that the effective dynamical exponent can differ from the underlying bare critical exponent, thereby providing a mechanism for realizing the fractional values of the dynamical exponent required in a previous analysis [1]. We also predict that regardless of the bare dynamical exponent, z, a non-zero anomalous dimension for the current is required. Physically, the anomalous dimension arises because the charge depends on the flavor, mass or energy. The equivalent phenomenon in a d + 1 gravitational construction is the running of the charge along the radial direction. The nature of the superconducting instability in the presence of scale invariant stuff shows that the transition temperature is not necessarily a monotonic function of the pairing interaction.
The resurgence of the cusp anomalous dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aniceto, Inês
2016-02-01
This work addresses the resurgent properties of the cusp anomalous dimension’s strong coupling expansion, obtained from the integral Beisert-Eden-Staudacher (BES) equation. This expansion is factorially divergent, and its first non-perturbative corrections are related to the mass gap of the O(6)σ -model. The factorial divergence can also be analyzed from a resurgence perspective. Building on the work of Basso and Korchemsky, a transseries ansatz for the cusp anomalous dimension is proposed and the corresponding expected large-order behaviour studied. One finds non-perturbative phenomena in both the positive and negative real coupling directions, which need to be included to address the analyticity conditions coming from the BES equation. After checking the resurgence structure of the proposed transseries, it is shown that it naturally leads to an unambiguous resummation procedure, furthermore allowing for a strong/weak coupling interpolation.
Correspondence between Soft and Rapidity Anomalous Dimensions.
Vladimirov, Alexey A
2017-02-10
We establish a correspondence between ultraviolet singularities of soft factors for multiparticle production and rapidity singularities of soft factors for multiparton scattering. This correspondence is a consequence of the conformal mapping between scattering geometries. The correspondence is valid to all orders of perturbation theory and in this way, provides one with a proof of rapidity renormalization procedure for multiparton scattering [including the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization as a special case]. As a by-product, we obtain an exact relation between the rapidity anomalous dimension and the well-known soft anomalous dimension. The three-loop expressions for TMD and a general multiparton scattering rapidity anomalous dimension are derived.
Three loop cusp anomalous dimension in QCD.
Grozin, Andrey; Henn, Johannes M; Korchemsky, Gregory P; Marquard, Peter
2015-02-13
We present the full analytic result for the three loop angle-dependent cusp anomalous dimension in QCD. With this result, infrared divergences of planar scattering processes with massive particles can be predicted to that order. Moreover, we define a closely related quantity in terms of an effective coupling defined by the lightlike cusp anomalous dimension. We find evidence that this quantity is universal for any gauge theory and use this observation to predict the nonplanar n(f)-dependent terms of the four loop cusp anomalous dimension.
Correspondence between Soft and Rapidity Anomalous Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vladimirov, Alexey A.
2017-02-01
We establish a correspondence between ultraviolet singularities of soft factors for multiparticle production and rapidity singularities of soft factors for multiparton scattering. This correspondence is a consequence of the conformal mapping between scattering geometries. The correspondence is valid to all orders of perturbation theory and in this way, provides one with a proof of rapidity renormalization procedure for multiparton scattering [including the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization as a special case]. As a by-product, we obtain an exact relation between the rapidity anomalous dimension and the well-known soft anomalous dimension. The three-loop expressions for TMD and a general multiparton scattering rapidity anomalous dimension are derived.
Sturm, C.; Almeida, L.
2010-04-26
Light quark masses can be determined through lattice simulations in regularization invariant momentum-subtraction (RI/MOM) schemes. Subsequently, matching factors, computed in continuum perturbation theory, are used in order to convert these quark masses from a RI/MOM scheme to the {ovr MS} scheme. We calculate the two-loop corrections in QCD to these matching factors as well as the three-loop mass anomalous dimensions for the RI/SMOM and RI/SMOM{sub {gamma}{mu}} schemes. These two schemes are characterized by a symmetric subtraction point. Providing the conversion factors in the two different schemes allows for a better understanding of the systematic uncertainties. The two-loop expansion coefficients of the matching factors for both schemes turn out to be small compared to the traditional RI/MOM schemes. For n{sub f} = 3 quark flavors they are about 0.6%-0.7% and 2%, respectively, of the leading order result at scales of about 2 GeV. Therefore, they will allow for a significant reduction of the systematic uncertainty of light quark mass determinations obtained through this approach. The determination of these matching factors requires the computation of amputated Green's functions with the insertions of quark bilinear operators. As a by-product of our calculation we also provide the corresponding results for the tensor operator.
Almeida, Leandro G.; Sturm, Christian
2010-09-01
Light quark masses can be determined through lattice simulations in regularization invariant momentum-subtraction (RI/MOM) schemes. Subsequently, matching factors, computed in continuum perturbation theory, are used in order to convert these quark masses from a RI/MOM scheme to the MS scheme. We calculate the two-loop corrections in QCD to these matching factors as well as the three-loop mass anomalous dimensions for the RI/SMOM and RI/SMOM{sub {gamma}{sub {mu}} }schemes. These two schemes are characterized by a symmetric subtraction point. Providing the conversion factors in the two different schemes allows for a better understanding of the systematic uncertainties. The two-loop expansion coefficients of the matching factors for both schemes turn out to be small compared to the traditional RI/MOM schemes. For n{sub f}=3 quark flavors they are about 0.6%-0.7% and 2%, respectively, of the leading order result at scales of about 2 GeV. Therefore, they will allow for a significant reduction of the systematic uncertainty of light quark mass determinations obtained through this approach. The determination of these matching factors requires the computation of amputated Green's functions with the insertions of quark bilinear operators. As a by-product of our calculation we also provide the corresponding results for the tensor operator.
Resurgence of the cusp anomalous dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorigoni, Daniele; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki
2015-09-01
We revisit the strong coupling limit of the cusp anomalous dimension in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. It is known that the strong coupling expansion is asymptotic and non-Borel summable. As a consequence, the cusp anomalous dimension receives non-perturbative corrections, and the complete strong coupling expansion should be a resurgent transseries. We reveal that the perturbative and non-perturbative parts in the transseries are closely interrelated. Solving the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher equation systematically, we analyze in detail the large order behavior in the strong coupling pertur- bative expansion and show that the non-perturbative information is indeed encoded there. An ambiguity of (lateral) Borel resummations of the perturbative expansion is precisely canceled by the contributions from the non-perturbative sectors, and the final result is real and unambiguous.
NLO BFKL and Anomalous Dimensions of Light-Ray Operators
Balitsky, Ian
2014-01-01
The anomalous dimensions of light-ray operators of twist two are obtained by analytical continuation of the anomalous dimensions of corresponding local operators. I demonstrate that the asymptotics of these anomalous dimensions at the "BFKL point" j → 1 can be obtained by comparing the light-cone operator expansion with the high-energy expansion in Wilson lines.
Bootstrapping Rapidity Anomalous Dimensions for Transverse-Momentum Resummation
Li, Ye; Zhu, Hua Xing
2017-01-01
Soft function relevant for transverse-momentum resummation for Drell-Yan or Higgs production at hadron colliders are computed through to three loops in the expansion of strong coupling, with the help of bootstrap technique and supersymmetric decomposition. The corresponding rapidity anomalous dimension is extracted. An intriguing relation between anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation and threshold resummation is found.
Bootstrapping rapidity anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation
Li, Ye; Zhu, Hua Xing
2017-01-11
Soft function relevant for transverse-momentum resummation for Drell-Yan or Higgs production at hadron colliders are computed through to three loops in the expansion of strong coupling, with the help of bootstrap technique and supersymmetric decomposition. The corresponding rapidity anomalous dimension is extracted. Furthermore, an intriguing relation between anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation and threshold resummation is found.
Anomalous dimensions and non-gaussianity
Green, Daniel; Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2013-10-01
We analyze the signatures of inflationary models that are coupled to interacting field theories, a basic class of multifield models also motivated by their role in providing dynamically small scales. Near the squeezed limit of the bispectrum, we find a simple scaling behavior determined by operator dimensions, which are constrained by the appropriate unitarity bounds. Specifically, we analyze two simple and calculable classes of examples: conformal field theories (CFTs), and large-N CFTs deformed by relevant time-dependent double-trace operators. Together these two classes of examples exhibit a wide range of scalings and shapes of the bispectrum, including nearly equilateral, orthogonal and local non-Gaussianity in different regimes. Along the way, we compare and contrast the shape and amplitude with previous results on weakly coupled fields coupled to inflation. This signature provides a precision test for strongly coupled sectors coupled to inflation via irrelevant operators suppressed by a high mass scale up to ~ 103 times the inflationary Hubble scale.
Broken current anomalous dimensions, conformal manifolds, and renormalization group flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bashmakov, Vladimir; Bertolini, Matteo; Raj, Himanshu
2017-03-01
We consider deformations of a conformal field theory that explicitly break some global symmetries of the theory. If the deformed theory is still a conformal field theory, one can exploit the constraints put by conformal symmetry to compute broken currents anomalous dimensions. We consider several instances of this scenario, using field theory techniques and also holographic ones, where necessary. Field theoretical methods suffice to discuss examples of symmetry-breaking deformations of the O (N ) model in d =4 -ɛ dimensions. Holography is instrumental, instead, for computing current anomalous dimensions in β -deformed superconformal field theories and in a class of supersymmetric renormalization group flows at large N .
Broken Scale Invariance and Anomalous Dimensions
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Wilson, K. G.
1970-05-01
Mack and Kastrup have proposed that broken scale invariance is a symmetry of strong interactions. There is evidence from the Thirring model and perturbation theory that the dimensions of fields defined by scale transformations will be changed by the interaction from their canonical values. We review these ideas and their consequences for strong interactions.
Cusp Anomalous Dimension in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotanski, J.
2008-12-01
The main features of the cusp anomalous dimension in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are reviewed. Moreover, the strong coupling expansion of the cusp derived in B. Basso, G.P. Korchemsky, J. Kotanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091601 (2008) is presented.
NLO BFKL and anomalous dimensions of light-ray operators
Balitsky, Ian
2013-05-01
This presentation covers: Regge limit in the coordinate space; “BFKL” representation of 4-point correlation function in N = 4 SYM; light-ray operators; “DGLAP” representation of 4-point correlation function; and anomalous dimensions from DGAP vs BFKL representations.
Ghost anomalous dimension in asymptotically safe quantum gravity
Eichhorn, Astrid; Gies, Holger
2010-05-15
We compute the ghost anomalous dimension within the asymptotic-safety scenario for quantum gravity. For a class of covariant gauge fixings and using a functional renormalization group scheme, the anomalous dimension {eta}{sub c} is negative, implying an improved UV behavior of ghost fluctuations. At the non-Gaussian UV fixed point, we observe a maximum value of {eta}{sub c{approx_equal}}-0.78 for the Landau-deWitt gauge within the given scheme and truncation. Most importantly, the backreaction of the ghost flow onto the Einstein-Hilbert sector preserves the non-Gaussian fixed point with only mild modifications of the fixed-point values for the gravitational coupling and cosmological constant and the associated critical exponents; also their gauge dependence is slightly reduced. Our results provide further evidence for the asymptotic-safety scenario of quantum gravity.
Chiral kinetic theory and anomalous hydrodynamics in even spacetime dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwivedi, Vatsal; Stone, Michael
2017-04-01
We apply chiral kinetic theory to a gas of weakly interacting Weyl fermions coupled to electromagnetism in (2N + 1) + 1 spacetime dimensions to obtain the ‘Gibbs free energy current’ from which all equilibrium finite temperature anomalous contributions, such as the chiral magnetic and vortical currents, can be derived. Our results agree with those derived previously using thermodynamic constraints.
Anomalous dimensions from rotating open strings in AdS/CFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braga, Nelson R. F.; Iancu, Edmond
2014-08-01
We propose a new entry within the dictionary of the AdS/CFT duality at strong coupling: in the limit of a large spin or a large R-charge, the anomalous dimension of the gauge theory operator dual to a semiclassical rotating string is proportional to the string proper length. This conjecture is motivated by a generalization to strings of the rule for computing anomalous dimensions of massive particles and supergravity fields in the anti-de Sitter space. We show that this proportionality holds for a rotating closed string in global AdS space, representing a high spin operator made of fields in the adjoint representation. It is also valid for closed strings rotating in S 5 (representing operators with large R-charge), for closed strings with multiple AdS spin, and for giant magnons. Based on this conjecture, we calculate the anomalous dimension δ of operators made of fields in the fundamental representation, associated with high spin mesons, and which are represented by rotating open strings attached to probe D7-branes. The result is a logarithmic dependence upon the spin, , similar to the closed string case. We show that the operator properties — anomalous dimension and spin — are obtained from measurements made by a local observer in the anti-de Sitter space. For the open string case, this ensures that these quantities are independent of the mass scale introduced by the D7-branes (the quark mass), as expected on physical grounds. In contrast, properties of the gauge theory states, like the energy, correspond to measurements by a gauge theory observer and depend upon the mass scale — once again, as expected.
Three-loop cusp anomalous dimension and a conjecture for n loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kidonakis, Nikolaos
2016-05-01
I present analytical expressions for the massive cusp anomalous dimension in QCD through three loops, first calculated in 2014, in terms of elementary functions and ordinary polylogarithms. I observe interesting relations between the results at different loops and provide a conjecture for the n-loop cusp anomalous dimension in terms of the lower-loop results. I also present numerical results and simple approximate formulas for the cusp anomalous dimension relevant to top-quark production.
Cusp Anomalous Dimension in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory at Strong Coupling
Basso, B.; Korchemsky, G. P.; Kotanski, J.
2008-03-07
We construct an analytical solution to the integral equation which is believed to describe logarithmic growth of the anomalous dimensions of high-spin operators in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and use it to determine the strong coupling expansion of the cusp anomalous dimension.
Anomalous discrete symmetries in three dimensions and group cohomology.
Kapustin, Anton; Thorngren, Ryan
2014-06-13
We study 't Hooft anomalies for a global discrete internal symmetry G. We construct examples of bosonic field theories in three dimensions with a nonvanishing 't Hooft anomaly for a discrete global symmetry. We also construct field theories in three dimensions with a global discrete internal symmetry G(1) × G(2) such that gauging G(1) necessarily breaks G(2) and vice versa. This is analogous to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw axial anomaly in four dimensions and parity anomaly in three dimensions.
Anomalous dimension, chiral phase transition and inverse magnetic catalysis in soft-wall AdS/QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Zhen
2016-07-01
A modified soft-wall AdS/QCD model with a z-dependent bulk scalar mass is proposed. We argue for the necessity of a modified bulk scalar mass from the quark mass anomalous dimension and carefully constrain the form of bulk mass by the corresponding UV and IR asymptotics. After fixing the form of bulk scalar mass, we calculate the mass spectra of (axial-)vector and pseudoscalar mesons, which have a good agreement with the experimental data. The behavior of chiral phase transition is also investigated, and the results are consistent with the standard scenario and lattice simulations. Finally, the issue of chiral magnetic effects is addressed. We find that the inverse magnetic catalysis emerges naturally from the modified soft-wall model, which is consistent with the recent lattice simulations.
Anomalous center of mass shift: gravitational dipole moment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Eue Jin
1997-02-01
The anomalous, energy dependent shift of the center of mass of an idealized, perfectly rigid, uniformly rotating hemispherical shell which is caused by the relativistic mass increase effect is investigated in detail. It is shown that a classical object on impact which has the harmonic binding force between the adjacent constituent particles has the similar effect of the energy dependent, anomalous shift of the center of mass. From these observations, the general mode of the linear acceleration is suggested to be caused by the anomalous center of mass shift whether it's due to classical or relativistic origin. The effect of the energy dependent center of mass shift perpendicular to the plane of rotation of a rotating hemisphere appears as the non zero gravitational dipole moment in general relativity. Controlled experiment for the measurement of the gravitational dipole field and its possible links to the cylindrical type line formation of a worm hole in the extreme case are suggested. The jets from the black hole accretion disc and the observed anomalous red shift from far away galaxies are considered to be the consequences of the two different aspects of the dipole gravity.
AN ANOMALOUS QUIESCENT STELLAR MASS BLACK HOLE
Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.
2011-06-10
We present the results of a 40 ks Chandra observation of the quiescent stellar mass black hole GS 1354-64. A total of 266 net counts are detected at the position of this system. The resulting spectrum is found to be consistent with the spectra of previously observed quiescent black holes, i.e., a power law with a photon index of {Gamma} {approx} 2. The inferred luminosity in the 0.5-10 keV band is found to lie in the range 0.5-6.5 x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}, where the uncertainty in the distance is the dominant source of this large luminosity range. Nonetheless, this luminosity is over an order of magnitude greater than that expected from the known distribution of quiescent stellar mass black hole luminosities and makes GS 1354-64 the only known stellar mass black hole to disagree with this relation. This observation suggests the possibility of significant accretion persisting in the quiescent state.
Beyond cusp anomalous dimension from integrability in SYM{sub 4}
Fioravanti, Davide; Grinza, Paolo; Rossi, Marco
2011-07-15
We study the first sub-leading correction O((ln s){sup 0}) to the cusp anomalous dimension in the high spin expansion of finite twist operators in N = 4 SYM theory. This term is still governed by a linear integral equation which we study in the weak and strong coupling regimes. In the strong coupling regime we find agreement with the string theory computations.
The anomalous scaling exponents of turbulence in general dimension from random geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eling, Christopher; Oz, Yaron
2015-09-01
We propose an analytical formula for the anomalous scaling exponents of inertial range structure functions in incompressible fluid turbulence. The formula is a Knizhnik-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov (KPZ)-type relation and is valid in any number of space dimensions. It incorporates intermittency in a novel way by dressing the Kolmogorov linear scaling via a coupling to a lognormal random geometry. The formula has one real parameter γ that depends on the number of space dimensions. The scaling exponents satisfy the convexity inequality, and the supersonic bound constraint. They agree with the experimental and numerical data in two and three space dimensions, and with numerical data in four space dimensions. Intermittency increases with γ, and in the infinite γ limit the scaling exponents approach the value one, as in Burgers turbulence. At large n the nth order exponent scales as √{n} . We discuss the relation between fluid flows and black hole geometry that inspired our proposal.
Anomalous coupling, top-mass and parton-shower effects in W + W - production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellm, J.; Gieseke, S.; Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.; Plätzer, S.; Reuschle, C.; von Soden-Fraunhofen, J. F.
2016-05-01
We calculate the process ppto {W}+{W}-to {e}+{ν}_e{μ}-{overline{ν}}_{μ } at NLO QCD, including also effective field theory (EFT) operators mediating the ggW + W - interaction, which first occur at dimension eight. We further combine the NLO and EFT matrix elements produced by G oS am with the H erwig7/M atchbox framework, which offers the possibility to study the impact of a parton shower. We assess the effects of the anomalous couplings by comparing them to top-mass effects as well as uncertainties related to variations of the renormalisation, factorisation and hard shower scales.
Matter Dependence of the Three-Loop Soft Anomalous Dimension Matrix
Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC
2009-01-23
The resummation of soft gluon exchange for QCD hard scattering requires a matrix of anomalous dimensions, which has been computed through two loops. The two-loop matrix is proportional to the one-loop matrix. Recently there have been proposals that this proportionality extends to higher loops. One can test such proposals by computing the dependence of this matrix on the matter content in a generic gauge theory. It is shown that for the matter-dependent part the proportionality extends to three loops for arbitrary massless processes.
Geometric Explanation of Anomalous Finite-Size Scaling in High Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimm, Jens; Elçi, Eren Metin; Zhou, Zongzheng; Garoni, Timothy M.; Deng, Youjin
2017-03-01
We give an intuitive geometric explanation for the apparent breakdown of standard finite-size scaling in systems with periodic boundaries above the upper critical dimension. The Ising model and self-avoiding walk are simulated on five-dimensional hypercubic lattices with free and periodic boundary conditions, by using geometric representations and recently introduced Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithms. We show that previously observed anomalous behavior for correlation functions, measured on the standard Euclidean scale, can be removed by defining correlation functions on a scale which correctly accounts for windings.
O(n) vector model on a planar random lattice; spectrum of anomalous dimensions
Kostov, I.K.
1989-01-01
The O(n) model on a two-dimensional dynamical random lattice is reformulated as a random matrix problem. The critical properties of the model are encoded in the spectral density of the random matrix which satisfies an integral equation with Cauchy kernel. The analysis of its singularities shows that the model can be critical for - 2 /le/ eta /le/ 2 and allows the determination of the anomalous dimensions of an infinite series of magnetic operators. The results coincide with those found in Ref. 11 for 2d quantum gravity.
External Operators and Anomalous Dimensions in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory
Becher, Thomas
2003-11-07
It has recently been argued that soft-collinear effective theory for processes involving both soft and collinear partons contains a new soft-collinear mode, which can communicate between the soft and collinear sectors of the theory. The formalism incorporating the corresponding fields into the effective Lagrangian is extended to include external current and four-quark operators relevant to weak interactions. An explicit calculation of the anomalous dimensions of these operators reveals that soft-collinear modes are needed for correctly describing the ultraviolet behavior of the effective theory.
Island nucleation and growth with anomalous diffusion in one-dimension.
Sabbar, Ehsan H; Amar, Jacques G
2017-02-21
Recently a general rate-equation (RE) theory of submonolayer island nucleation and growth was developed [J. G. Amar and M. Semaan, Phys. Rev. E 93, 062805 (2016)] which takes into account the critical island-size i, island fractal dimension df, substrate dimension d, and diffusion exponent μ, and good agreement with simulations was found for the case of irreversible growth corresponding to a critical island-size i=1 with d = 2. Here we present the results of simulations carried out in 1D (corresponding to d = 1) of island nucleation and growth with anomalous diffusion which were carried out for both the case of superdiffusion (μ>1) and subdiffusion (μ<1). Excellent agreement is found with the general RE theory for both irreversible growth (i=1) and reversible growth with i=2 for all 0≤μ≤2.
Island nucleation and growth with anomalous diffusion in one-dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabbar, Ehsan H.; Amar, Jacques G.
2017-02-01
Recently a general rate-equation (RE) theory of submonolayer island nucleation and growth was developed [J. G. Amar and M. Semaan, Phys. Rev. E 93, 062805 (2016)] which takes into account the critical island-size i, island fractal dimension df, substrate dimension d, and diffusion exponent μ, and good agreement with simulations was found for the case of irreversible growth corresponding to a critical island-size i=1 with d = 2. Here we present the results of simulations carried out in 1D (corresponding to d = 1) of island nucleation and growth with anomalous diffusion which were carried out for both the case of superdiffusion (μ >1 ) and subdiffusion (μ <1 ). Excellent agreement is found with the general RE theory for both irreversible growth (i=1) and reversible growth with i=2 for all 0 ≤μ ≤2 .
Three-Loop Corrections to the Soft Anomalous Dimension in Multileg Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almelid, Øyvind; Duhr, Claude; Gardi, Einan
2016-10-01
We present the three-loop result for the soft anomalous dimension governing long-distance singularities of multileg gauge-theory scattering amplitudes of massless partons. We compute all contributing webs involving semi-infinite Wilson lines at three loops and obtain the complete three-loop correction to the dipole formula. We find that nondipole corrections appear already for three colored partons, where the correction is a constant without kinematic dependence. Kinematic dependence appears only through conformally invariant cross ratios for four colored partons or more, and the result can be expressed in terms of single-valued harmonic polylogarithms of weight five. While the nondipole three-loop term does not vanish in two-particle collinear limits, its contribution to the splitting amplitude anomalous dimension reduces to a constant, and it depends only on the color charges of the collinear pair, thereby preserving strict collinear factorization properties. Finally, we verify that our result is consistent with expectations from the Regge limit.
Anomalous dimensions and the renormalizability of the four-fermion interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mannheim, Philip D.
2017-10-01
We show that when the dynamical dimension of the ψ bar ψ operator is reduced from three to two in a fermion electrodynamics with scaling, a g(ψ bar ψ) 2 + g(ψ bar iγ5 ψ) 2 four-fermion interaction which is dressed by this electrodynamics becomes renormalizable. In the fermion-antifermion scattering amplitude every term in an expansion to arbitrary order in g is found to diverge as just a single ultraviolet logarithm (i.e. no log squared or higher), and is thus made finite by a single subtraction. While not necessary for renormalizability per se, the reduction in the dimension of ψ bar ψ to two leads to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in the infrared, with the needed subtraction then automatically being provided by the theory itself through the symmetry breaking mechanism, with there then being no need to introduce the subtraction by hand. Since the vector and axial vector currents are conserved, they do not acquire any anomalous dimension, with the four-fermion (ψ bar γμ ψ) 2 and (ψ bar γμγ5 ψ) 2 interactions instead having to be controlled by the standard Higgs mechanism.
Exact Spectrum of Anomalous Dimensions of Planar N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
Gromov, Nikolay; Kazakov, Vladimir; Vieira, Pedro
2009-09-25
We present a set of functional equations defining the anomalous dimensions of arbitrary local single trace operators in planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. It takes the form of a Y system based on the integrability of the dual superstring sigma model on the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}) background. This Y system passes some very important tests: it incorporates the full asymptotic Bethe ansatz at large length of operator L, including the dressing factor, and it confirms all recently found wrapping corrections. The recently proposed AdS{sub 4}/three-dimensional conformal field theory duality is also treated in a similar fashion.
On the cusp anomalous dimension in the ladder limit of mathcal{N}=4 SYM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beccaria, Matteo; Fachechi, Alberto; Macorini, Guido
2016-06-01
We analyze the cusp anomalous dimension in the (leading) ladder limit of mathcal{N}=4 SYMandpresentnewresultsforitshigher-orderperturbativeexpansion. Westudy two different limits with respect to the cusp angle ϕ. The first is the light-like regime where x = e iϕ → 0. This limit is characterised by a non-trivial expansion of the cusp anomaly as a sum of powers of log x, where the maximum exponent increases with the loop order. The coefficients of this expansion have remarkable transcendentality features and can be expressed by products of single zeta values. We show that the whole logarithmic expansion is fully captured by a solvable Woods-Saxon like one-dimensional potential. From the exact solution, we extract generating functions for the cusp anomaly as well as for the various specific transcendental structures appearing therein. The second limit that we discuss is the regime of small cusp angle. In this somewhat simpler case, we show how to organise the quantum mechanical perturbation theory in a novel efficient way by means of a suitable all-order Ansatz for the ground state of the associated Schrödinger problem. Our perturbative setup allows to systematically derive higher-order perturbative corrections in powers of the cusp angle as explicit non-perturbative functions of the effective coupling. This series approximation is compared with the numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation to show that we can achieve very good accuracy over the whole range of coupling and cusp angle. Our results have been obtained by relatively simple techniques. Nevertheless, they provide several non-trivial tests useful to check the application of Quantum Spectral Curve methods to the ladder approximation at non zero ϕ, in the two limits we studied.
Life Style Patterns: A New Dimension for Mass Communication Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Plummer, Joseph T.
In measuring the characteristics of mass-communication audiences, three dimensions are frequently used: demographics, social class, and psychological characteristics. The author proposes a fourth, "life style," which offers reliable data, is more colorful than demographics and more useful than psychological characteristics. This dimension is…
Bern, Zvi; Czakon, Michael; Dixon, Lance J.; Kosower, David A.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.
2006-11-15
We present an expression for the leading-color (planar) four-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 4-2{epsilon} dimensions, in terms of eight separate integrals. The expression is based on consistency of unitarity cuts and infrared divergences. We expand the integrals around {epsilon} = 0, and obtain analytic expressions for the poles from 1/{epsilon}{sup 8} through 1/{epsilon}{sup 4}. We give numerical results for the coefficients of the 1/{epsilon}{sup 3} and 1/e{sup 2} poles. These results all match the known exponentiated structure of the infrared divergences, at four separate kinematic points. The value of the 1/{epsilon}{sup 2} coefficient allows us to test a conjecture of Eden and Staudacher for the four-loop cusp (soft) anomalous dimension. We find that the conjecture is incorrect, although our numerical results suggest that a simple modification of the expression, flipping the sign of the term containing {zeta}{sub 3}{sup 2}, may yield the correct answer. Our numerical value can be used, in a scheme proposed by Kotikov, Lipatov and Velizhanin, to estimate the two constants in the strong-coupling expansion of the cusp anomalous dimension that are known from string theory. The estimate works to 2.6% and 5% accuracy, providing non-trivial evidence in support of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also use the known constants in the strong-coupling expansion as additional input to provide approximations to the cusp anomalous dimension which should be accurate to under one percent for all values of the coupling. When the evaluations of the integrals are completed through the finite terms, it will be possible to test the iterative, exponentiated structure of the finite terms in the four-loop four-point amplitude, which was uncovered earlier at two and three loops.
From normal to anomalous diffusion in comb-like structures in three dimensions.
Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Dagdug, Leonardo; Bezrukov, Sergey M
2014-08-07
Diffusion in a comb-like structure, formed by a main cylindrical tube with identical periodic dead ends of cylindrical shape, occurs slower than that in the same system without dead ends. The reason is that the particle, entering a dead end, interrupts its propagation along the tube axis. The slowdown becomes stronger and stronger as the dead end length increases, since the particle spends more and more time in the dead ends. In the limiting case of infinitely long dead ends, diffusion becomes anomalous with the exponent equal to 1/2. We develop a formalism which allows us to study the mean square displacement of the particle along the tube axis in such systems. The formalism is applicable for an arbitrary dead end length, including the case of anomalous diffusion in a tube with infinitely long dead ends. In particular, we demonstrate how intermediate anomalous diffusion arises when the dead ends are long enough.
The Two-loop Soft Anomalous Dimension Matrix and Resummation at Next-to-next-to Leading Pole
Mert Aybat, S.; Dixon, Lance J.; Sterman, George; /SUNY, Stony Brook
2006-09-08
We extend the resummation of dimensionally-regulated amplitudes to next-to-next-to-leading poles. This requires the calculation of two-loop anomalous dimension matrices for color mixing through soft gluon exchange. Remarkably, we find that they are proportional to the corresponding one-loop matrices. Using the color generator notation, we reproduce the two-loop single-pole quantities H{sup (2)} introduced by Catani for quark and gluon elastic scattering. Our results also make possible threshold and a variety of other resummations at next-to-next-to leading logarithm. All of these considerations apply to 2 {yields} n processes with massless external lines.
Massive gravity with mass term in three dimensions
Nakasone, Masashi; Oda, Ichiro
2009-05-15
We analyze the effect of the Pauli-Fierz mass term on a recently established, new massive gravity theory in three space-time dimensions. We show that the Pauli-Fierz mass term makes the new massive gravity theory nonunitary. Moreover, although we add the gravitational Chern-Simons term to this model, the situation remains unchanged and the theory stays nonunitary despite that the structure of the graviton propagator is greatly changed. Thus, the Pauli-Fierz mass term is not allowed to coexist with mass-generating higher-derivative terms in the new massive gravity.
Liu, Kuan-Hsien; Chou, Wu-Ching E-mail: wuchingchou@mail.nctu.edu.tw; Chang, Ting-Chang E-mail: wuchingchou@mail.nctu.edu.tw; Chen, Hua-Mao; Tai, Ya-Hsiang; Tsai, Ming-Yen; Hung, Pei-Hua; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Wu, Ming-Siou; Hung, Yi-Syuan; Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Yeh, Bo-Liang
2014-10-21
This paper investigates abnormal dimension-dependent thermal instability in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. Device dimension should theoretically have no effects on threshold voltage, except for in short channel devices. Unlike short channel drain-induced source barrier lowering effect, threshold voltage increases with increasing drain voltage. Furthermore, for devices with either a relatively large channel width or a short channel length, the output drain current decreases instead of saturating with an increase in drain voltage. Moreover, the wider the channel and the shorter the channel length, the larger the threshold voltage and output on-state current degradation that is observed. Because of the surrounding oxide and other thermal insulating material and the low thermal conductivity of the IGZO layer, the self-heating effect will be pronounced in wider/shorter channel length devices and those with a larger operating drain bias. To further clarify the physical mechanism, fast I{sub D}-V{sub G} and modulated peak/base pulse time I{sub D}-V{sub D} measurements are utilized to demonstrate the self-heating induced anomalous dimension-dependent threshold voltage variation and on-state current degradation.
Kidonakis, Nikolaos
2010-09-01
I present results for the two-loop soft anomalous dimensions for associated production of a single top quark with a W boson or a charged Higgs boson. The calculation uses expressions for the massive cusp anomalous dimension, which are presented in different forms, and it allows soft-gluon resummation at next-to-next-to-leading-logarithm (NNLL) accuracy. From the NNLL resummed cross section I derive approximate NNLO cross sections for bg{yields}tW{sup -} and bg{yields}tH{sup -} at LHC energies of 7, 10, and 14 TeV.
Anomalous quantum glass of bosons in a random potential in two dimensions.
Wang, Yancheng; Guo, Wenan; Sandvik, Anders W
2015-03-13
We present a quantum Monte Carlo study of the "quantum glass" phase of the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model with random potentials at filling ρ=1. In the narrow region between the Mott and superfluid phases, the compressibility has the form κ∼exp(-b/T^{α})+c with α<1 and c vanishing or very small. Thus, at T=0 the system is either incompressible (a Mott glass) or nearly incompressible (a Mott-glass-like anomalous Bose glass). At stronger disorder, where a glass reappears from the superfluid, we find a conventional highly compressible Bose glass. On a path connecting these states, away from the superfluid at larger Hubbard repulsion, a change of the disorder strength by only 10% changes the low-temperature compressibility by more than 4 orders of magnitude, lending support to two types of glass states separated by a phase transition or a sharp crossover.
Fermion masses without symmetry breaking in two spacetime dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
BenTov, Yoni
2015-07-01
I study the prospect of generating mass for symmetry-protected fermions without breaking the symmetry that forbids quadratic mass terms in the Lagrangian. I focus on 1+1 spacetime dimensions in the hope that this can provide guidance for interacting fermions in 3+1 dimensions. I first review the SO(8) Gross-Neveu model and emphasize a subtlety in the triality transformation. Then I focus on the " m = 0" manifold of the SO(7) Kitaev-Fidkowski model. I argue that this theory exhibits a phenomenon similar to "parity doubling" in hadronic physics, and this leads to the conclusion that the fermion propagator vanishes when p μ = 0. I also briefly explore a connection between this model and the two-channel, single-impurity Kondo effect. This paper may serve as an introduction to topological superconductors for high energy theorists, and perhaps as a taste of elementary particle physics for condensed matter theorists.
Anomalous behavior of mercury in one dimension: Density-functional calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Woo Youn; Nautiyal, Tashi; Youn, Suk Joo; Kim, Kwang S.
2005-03-01
We have investigated the effect of reduction of dimensionality on Zn, Cd, and Hg. Our results show that Hg stands out with uncommon properties in one dimension (1D). The overall trend has been reported for systems of group 8-12 elements all of which continue to be metallic in 1D too, with the exception of Hg: the interatomic distance (cohesive energy per bond) shows significant drop (rise) for all other systems at low dimensions. Hg linear chains settle for a larger interatomic distance, compared to the bulk or two-dimensional state, resulting in vanishing of the s-p band overlap robbing Hg of metallic property in 1D. Relativistic effects are shown to play a crucial role in this change of property.
Fermion Masses from Six Dimensions and Implications for Majorana Neutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frère, J.-M.; Libanov, M.; Mollet, S.; Troitsky, S.
2015-06-01
In these notes, we review the main results of our approach to fermion masses. The marge mass ratios between fermions, confronted with a unique breaking mechanism leading to vector bosons masses, led us to consider the possibility that they result from the overlap of fermion wave functions. Such overlaps vary indeed very strongly if the observed fermion families in 4 dimensions originate in a single family in 6 dimensions, through localized wave functions. This framework leads in a natural way to large mass ratios and small mixing angles between quarks. What came as a surprise is that if we impose that neutrinos behave as 2- component (“Majorana”) particles in 4D, a completely different situation is obtained for them. Instead of diagonal mass matrices, anti-diagonal ones emerge and lead to a generic prediction of combined inverted hierarchy, large mixing angles in the leptonicsector, and a suppression of neutrinoless-double beta decay placing it at the lower limit of the inverted hierarchy branch, a challenging situation for on-going and planned experiments. Our approach predicted the size of the θ13 mixing angle before its actual measurement. Possible signals at colliders are only briefly evoked.
Seki, Kazuhiko; Bagchi, Kaushik; Bagchi, Biman
2016-05-21
Diffusion in one dimensional rugged energy landscape (REL) is predicted to be pathologically different (from any higher dimension) with a much larger chance of encountering broken ergodicity [D. L. Stein and C. M. Newman, AIP Conf. Proc. 1479, 620 (2012)]. However, no quantitative study of this difference has been reported, despite the prevalence of multidimensional physical models in the literature (like a high dimensional funnel guiding protein folding/unfolding). Paradoxically, some theoretical studies of these phenomena still employ a one dimensional diffusion description for analytical tractability. We explore the dimensionality dependent diffusion on REL by carrying out an effective medium approximation based analytical calculations and compare them with the available computer simulation results. We find that at an intermediate level of ruggedness (assumed to have a Gaussian distribution), where diffusion is well-defined, the value of the effective diffusion coefficient depends on dimensionality and changes (increases) by several factors (∼5-10) in going from 1d to 2d. In contrast, the changes in subsequent transitions (like 2d to 3d and 3d to 4d and so on) are far more modest, of the order of 10-20% only. When ruggedness is given by random traps with an exponential distribution of barrier heights, the mean square displacement (MSD) is sub-diffusive (a well-known result), but the growth of MSD is described by different exponents in one and higher dimensions. The reason for such strong ruggedness induced retardation in the case of one dimensional REL is discussed. We also discuss the special limiting case of infinite dimension (d = ∞) where the effective medium approximation becomes exact and where theoretical results become simple. We discuss, for the first time, the role of spatial correlation in the landscape on diffusion of a random walker.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seki, Kazuhiko; Bagchi, Kaushik; Bagchi, Biman
2016-05-01
Diffusion in one dimensional rugged energy landscape (REL) is predicted to be pathologically different (from any higher dimension) with a much larger chance of encountering broken ergodicity [D. L. Stein and C. M. Newman, AIP Conf. Proc. 1479, 620 (2012)]. However, no quantitative study of this difference has been reported, despite the prevalence of multidimensional physical models in the literature (like a high dimensional funnel guiding protein folding/unfolding). Paradoxically, some theoretical studies of these phenomena still employ a one dimensional diffusion description for analytical tractability. We explore the dimensionality dependent diffusion on REL by carrying out an effective medium approximation based analytical calculations and compare them with the available computer simulation results. We find that at an intermediate level of ruggedness (assumed to have a Gaussian distribution), where diffusion is well-defined, the value of the effective diffusion coefficient depends on dimensionality and changes (increases) by several factors (˜5-10) in going from 1d to 2d. In contrast, the changes in subsequent transitions (like 2d to 3d and 3d to 4d and so on) are far more modest, of the order of 10-20% only. When ruggedness is given by random traps with an exponential distribution of barrier heights, the mean square displacement (MSD) is sub-diffusive (a well-known result), but the growth of MSD is described by different exponents in one and higher dimensions. The reason for such strong ruggedness induced retardation in the case of one dimensional REL is discussed. We also discuss the special limiting case of infinite dimension (d = ∞) where the effective medium approximation becomes exact and where theoretical results become simple. We discuss, for the first time, the role of spatial correlation in the landscape on diffusion of a random walker.
LHC multijet events as a probe for anomalous dimension-six gluon interactions
Krauss, Frank; Kuttimalai, Silvan; Plehn, Tilman
2017-02-22
Higher-dimensional multigluon interactions affect essentially all effective Lagrangian analyses at the LHC. We show that, contrary to common lore, such operators are best constrained in multijet production. Our limit on the corresponding new physics scale in the multi-TeV range exceeds the typical reach of global dimension-six Higgs boson and top analyses. As a result, this implies that the pure Yang-Mills operator can safely be neglected in almost all specific higher-dimensional analyses at Run II.
Anthropometric dimensions of male powerlifters of varying body mass.
Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter
2007-10-01
In this study, we examined the anthropometric dimensions of powerlifters across various body mass (competitive bodyweight) categories. Fifty-four male Oceania competitive powerlifters (9 lightweight, 30 middleweight, and 15 heavyweight) were recruited from one international and two national powerlifting competitions held in New Zealand. Powerlifters were assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. The powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and had large girths and bony breadths, both in absolute units and when expressed as Z(p)-scores compared through the Phantom (Ross & Wilson, 1974). These anthropometric characteristics were more pronounced in heavyweights, who were significantly heavier, had greater muscle and fat mass, were more endo-mesomorphic, and had larger girths and bony breadths than the lighter lifters. Although middleweight and heavyweight lifters typically had longer segment lengths than the lightweights, all three groups had similar Zp-scores for the segment lengths, indicating similar segment length proportions. While population comparisons would be required to identify any connection between specific anthropometric dimensions that confer a competitive advantage to the expression of maximal strength, anthropometric profiling may prove useful for talent identification and for the assessment of training progression in powerlifting.
Anomalous dimensions determine the power counting: Wilsonian RG analysis of nuclear EFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harada, Koji; Kubo, Hirofumi
2006-12-01
The Legendre flow equation, a version of exact Wilsonian renormalization group (WRG) equation, is employed to consider the power counting issues in nuclear effective field theory. A WRG approach is an ideal framework because it is nonperturbative and does not require any prescribed power counting rule. The power counting is determined systematically from the scaling dimensions of the operators at the nontrivial fixed point. The phase structure is emphasized and the inverse of the scattering length, which is identified as a relevant coupling, is shown to play a role of the order parameter. The relations to the work done by Birse, McGovern, and Richardson and to the Kaplan-Savage-Wise scheme are explained.
Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.; Carrete, Jesús; Mingo, Natalio; Reinecke, T. L.
2015-03-01
The lattice thermal conductivities (κ) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure P using a first-principles approach. Compounds with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in κ with P , consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios that create significant frequency gaps between acoustic and optic phonons (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing κ with increasing P , a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of κ. This anomalous P dependence of κ arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with small mass ratios. This work demonstrates the power of first-principles methods for thermal properties and advances a broad paradigm for understanding thermal transport in nonmetals.
Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds
Lindsay, Lucas R; Broido, David A.; Carrete, Jesus; ...
2015-03-27
The lattice thermal conductivities (k) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure P using a first-principles approach. Compound materials with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in k with P, consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing with increasing P, a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of k. This anomalous P dependence of k arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with smallmore » mass ratios. We find this work demonstrates the power of first principles methods for thermal properties and advances the understanding of thermal transport in non-metals.« less
Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds
Lindsay, Lucas R; Broido, David A.; Carrete, Jesus; Mingo, Natalio; Reinecke, Tom L.
2015-03-27
The lattice thermal conductivities (k) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure P using a first-principles approach. Compound materials with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in k with P, consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing with increasing P, a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of k. This anomalous P dependence of k arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with small mass ratios. We find this work demonstrates the power of first principles methods for thermal properties and advances the understanding of thermal transport in non-metals.
The influence of body mass on foot dimensions during pregnancy.
Chiou, Wen-Ko; Chiu, Hsin-Tzu; Chao, An-Shine; Wang, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Yi-Lang
2015-01-01
In this study, a time-series approach was used to measure women's feet to accurately analyze changes in foot size and body mass during pregnancy. One-hundred women who were pregnant for the first time were asked to respond to questions on subjective complaints of foot discomfort listed in a questionnaire. Among these 100 women, a sample of 30 was obtained and used to measure the women's feet from the twentieth week of the gestation period until labor. The data (from 5 of the 30 women) were used to establish a prediction model for the influence of body mass on changes in foot size during pregnancy. The results indicate that the women subjectively complained that their shoes were too tight, resulting in foot discomfort. From the twentieth to the thirty-eighth week of pregnancy, the average increase in foot length, width, and back foot surface was 0.86 cm (3.6%), 0.25 cm (2.6%), and 18.36 cm(2) (11.9%), respectively. The height of the arch decreased by an average of 0.52 cm (-24.2%). Body mass accounted for more than 90% of the variation (R(2)) in foot dimensions during pregnancy and, thus indicated satisfactory predictive ability. The prediction model developed in this study can serve as a reference for clinical applications and shoe design to prevent women from experiencing extreme discomfort in their feet during pregnancy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comolli, A.; Dentz, M.
2015-12-01
Solute transport in geological media is in general non-Fickian as it cannot be explained in terms of equivalent homogeneous media. This anomalous character can be traced back to the existence of multiscale heterogeneity and strong correlations within the medium. Here we investigate the impact of fast heterogeneous mass transfer properties as represented by a spatially varying retardation coefficient (mass exchange between mobile and immobile regions, linear sorption-desorption reactions, variable porosity). In order to estimate the effects of spatial correlation, and disorder distribution on the average transport, we consider 2D media characterized by complex multiscale geometries and point distributions of retardation of increasing heterogeneity. Within a Lagrangian framework, we coarse-grain the Langevin equation for the transport of solute particles due to advection and diffusion in the heterogeneous medium. The large-scale transport properties are derived within a stochastic modeling approach by ensemble averaging of the coarse-grained Langevin equation . This approach shows that the effective particle motion can be described by a coupled CTRW that is fully parametrized by the distribution of the retardation coefficient and the spatial medium organization. This allows for the explicit relation of the heterogeneous medium properties to observed anomalous transport in terms of solute dispersion, breakthrough curves and spatial concentration profiles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gopalswamy, Nat; Akiyama, Sachiko; Yashiro, Seiji; Xie, Hong; Makela, Pertti; Michalek, Grzegorz
2014-01-01
The familiar correlation between the speed and angular width of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is also found in solar cycle 24, but the regression line has a larger slope: for a given CME speed, cycle 24 CMEs are significantly wider than those in cycle 23. The slope change indicates a significant change in the physical state of the heliosphere, due to the weak solar activity. The total pressure in the heliosphere (magnetic + plasma) is reduced by approximately 40%, which leads to the anomalous expansion of CMEs explaining the increased slope. The excess CME expansion contributes to the diminished effectiveness of CMEs in producing magnetic storms during cycle 24, both because the magnetic content of the CMEs is diluted and also because of the weaker ambient fields. The reduced magnetic field in the heliosphere may contribute to the lack of solar energetic particles accelerated to very high energies during this cycle.
Constraining the Location and Dimensions of Mass Anomalies on Mercury from Mariner 10 Doppler Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, J. D.; Palguta, J.; Schubert, G.
2011-12-01
Analysis of radio Doppler data generated by the Deep Space Network with Mariner 10 during its first and third encounters with Mercury yielded a quadrupole gravitational field with J2 equal to 6.0 ± 2.0 and C22 equal to 1.0 ± 0.5 in units of 10-5 (Anderson et al., Icarus 71, 337, 1987) . However, this underlying global field leaves systematic Doppler residuals for the third encounter (Esposito et al., COSPAR: Space Res. 17, 639, 1978), residuals that are most likely caused by a large gravity anomaly in the region of closest approach to Mercury at latitude 67.96° and east longitude 53.09°. We report here a detailed characterization of the likely sources producing the putative gravity anomaly. The recovered Doppler residuals and ground track from Esposito et al. (1978) are fit by a model that includes the spacecraft's six trajectory initial conditions along with Mercury's mass GM = 22,032.09 ± 0.91 km3 s-2 (Anderson et al., 1987) and the two quadrupole coefficients. After convergence to the best-fit trajectory, any remaining residuals represent an unmodeled signal that is assumed to arise from anomalous mass concentrations on Mercury plus noise. In order to reduce the noise evident in the Doppler residuals, we smooth them with a variable-width Gaussian filter (Palguta et al., Icarus 180, 428, 2006). The filter width in the time domain increases with the spacecraft altitude, reducing the noise before and after closest approach. Accelerations along the line of sight (LOS) are calculated by sampling the differentiated Doppler smoothing curve at a 10-second time interval, the sample interval for the Doppler frequency data. Multiple spherical-cap disk models are then used to fit the LOS acceleration data. The spherical-cap disk models not only provide the locations and magnitudes of anomalous mass concentrations on Mercury, but also their vertical and horizontal dimensions. We find that a minimum of four mass anomalies on or near Mercury's surface is required to
Search for an anomalous spin-mass coupling with a dual isotope rubidium comagnetometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rios, Cesar; Valdez, Julian; Swiatlowski, Jerlyn; Kremer, Jackie; Kimball, Derek
2012-11-01
We discuss progress in our search for a hypothetical long-range coupling between rubidium (Rb) nuclear spins and the mass of the Earth. The experiment employs a dual-isotope Rb comagnetometer: the valence electron dominates magnetic interactions and serves as a precise magnetic field monitor for the nuclei in a simultaneous measurement of Rb-85 and Rb-87 spin precession frequencies, enabling accurate subtraction of magnetic perturbations. The nuclear structure of Rb makes the experiment particularly sensitive to non-magnetic, spin-dependent interactions of the proton. The majority of recent searches for similar effects limit anomalous couplings of either the neutron or electron spin, so the proposed experiment searches a parameter space to some degree, depending on the theoretical model, orthogonal to that constrained by previous experiments. We have begun to collect data and carry out in-depth analysis of systematic effects. The optimized dual-isotope Rb magnetometer has the sensitivity to improve experimental limits on long-range spin-mass couplings by an order of magnitude in general and by three orders of magnitude for the proton spin in particular.
Psychosocial work dimensions, personality, and body mass index: sex differences.
Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton
2013-08-01
The association between psychosocial work dimensions (i.e. demand and control) and obesity has been found to be inconclusive, indicating that individual differences factors might also contribute to explain the variability in BMI. The interaction between work dimensions and personality variables in a group of male and female workers (N = 506), and its associations with BMI were analyzed with a cross-sectional study with self-report data. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the BMI levels from work and individual differences variables and their interactions for males and females. The main effects of personality variables were not significant, physical workload interacted with neuroticism for males, whereas control interacted with activity for females. Psychosocial work dimensions and personality traits were related to BMI for men and women. These outcomes reinforce the notion that different models might account for the explanatory mechanisms of BMI in regard to sex.
Higgs mass and muon anomalous magnetic moment in the MSSM with gauge-gravity hybrid mediation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Bin; Ding, Ran; Li, Tianjun
2017-08-01
In general, we can propose the hybrid supersymmetry breakings and hybrid mediations in the supersymmetric standard models. In this paper, we study the hybrid mediation for supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking. In particular, we study how to keep the good properties of gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation, while solving their problems simultaneously. As an example, we consider the gauge-gravity mediation, where all the supersymmetric particles (sparticles) obtain the SUSY breaking soft terms from the traditional gravity mediation while gauge mediation gives dominant contributions to the soft terms in the colored sector due to the splitted messengers. Thus, we can realize the electroweak supersymmetry naturally where the sleptons, sneutrinos, and electroweakinos are light within one TeV while the squarks and gluino are heavy around a few TeVs. Then we can explain 125 GeV Higgs mass, satisfy the LHC SUSY search bounds, and explain the anomalous magnetic moment of muon, etc. Moreover, the gluino and squarks are well beyond the current LHC run II searches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capilla, J. E.; Sanchez Fuster, I.; Sanchez Barrero, L.
2012-12-01
The limitations of the classical Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) approach to model mass transport remain a subject of research. The term anomalous transport is usually applied when the ADE fails to reproduce real field or lab experiments tracer tests data. Some authors address this limitation using high-resolution heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity (K) fields. Besides, the non-Fickian behavior of transport is another issue addressed. However, the effects of the spatial variability of dispersivity, and the influence of the model support scale on this property, have been rarely studied. The lack of experimental knowledge on the dispersivity behavior leads to model this basic parameter as an averaged calibrated parameter highly dependent on the model discretization size. In order to study the local behavior of the dispersivity a porous medium tank was designed and built at the Technical University of Valencia (Spain). This paper presents new results and conclusions obtained from the experiments conducted in this lab prototype. The steady flow through the porous medium tank lab is quasi-2D, and the K field imitates the patterns of spatial variability found in a real and highly heterogeneous formation (MADE2 site). The tracer tests are run using a conservative dye tracer and the tank is monitored by a grid of pressure transducers and taking digital images that are processed to map the evolution of solute concentrations in the tank. The set of exhaustive head and concentration data is used to compute detail local information of the effective dispersivity field at different time steps, and at different support scales. The analysis of results shows that the dispersivity field displays patterns of spatial variability related with the physical nature of the local material and also with the local evolution of concentrations at every grid block. We have found that the anomalous transport behavior observed in the lab tank can be accurately modeled using the classical ADE
The origin of compact galaxies with anomalously high black hole masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barber, Christopher; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom
2016-07-01
Observations of local galaxies harbouring supermassive black holes (BH) of anomalously high mass, MBH, relative to their stellar mass, M*, appear to be at odds with simple models of the co-evolution between galaxies and their central BHs. We study the origin of such outliers in a Λ cold dark matter context using the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. We find 15 `MBH(M*)-outlier' galaxies, defined as having MBH more than 1.5 dex above the median MBH(M*) relation in the simulation, MBH, med(M*). All MBH(M*)-outliers are satellite galaxies, typically with M* ˜ 1010 M⊙ and MBH ˜ 108 M⊙. They have all become outliers due to a combination of tidal stripping of their outer stellar component acting over several Gyr and early formation times leading to rapid BH growth at high redshift, with the former mechanism being most important for 67 per cent of these outliers. The same mechanisms also cause the MBH(M*)-outlier satellites to be amongst the most compact galaxies in the simulation, making them ideal candidates for ultracompact dwarf galaxy progenitors. The 10 most extreme central galaxies found at z = 0 (with log10(MBH/MBH, med(M*)) ∈ [1.2, 1.5]) grow rapidly in MBH to lie well above the present-day MBH - M* relation at early times (z ≳ 2), and either continue to evolve parallel to the z = 0 relation or remain unchanged until the present day, making them `relics' of the high-redshift universe. This high-z formation mechanism may help to explain the origin of observed MBH(M*)-outliers with extended dark matter haloes and undisturbed morphologies.
Hambye, Thomas; Kannike, Kristjan; Raidal, Martti; Ma, Ernest
2007-05-01
The evidence for dark matter signals a new class of particles at the TeV scale, which may manifest themselves indirectly through loop effects. In a simple model we show that these loop effects may be responsible for the enhanced muon anomalous magnetic moment, for the neutrino mass, as well as for leptogenesis in a novel way. This scenario can be verified at LHC and/or ILC experiments.
Exploring dynamical gluon mass generation in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornwall, John M.
2016-01-01
We reexamine the d =3 dynamical gluon mass problem in pure-glue non-Abelian S U (N ) gauge theories, paying particular attention to the observed (in Landau gauge) violation of positivity for the spectral function of the gluon propagator. This is expressed as a large bulge in the propagator at small momentum, due to the d =3 avatar of asymptotic freedom. Mass is defined through m-2=Δ (p =0 ) , where Δ (p ) is the scalar function for the gluon propagator in some chosen gauge; it is not a pole mass and is generally gauge dependent, except in the gauge-invariant pinch technique (PT). We truncate the PT equations with a recently proposed method called the vertex paradigm that automatically satisfies the QED-like Ward identity relating the three-gluon PT vertex function with the PT propagator. The mass is determined by a homogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation involving this vertex and propagator. This gap equation also encapsulates the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the massless scalar excitations, essentially Nambu-Goldstone fields, that necessarily accompany gauge-invariant gluon mass. The problem is to find a good approximate value for m and at the same time explain the bulge, which by itself leads, in the gap equation for the gluon mass, to excessively large values for the mass. Our point is not to give a high-accuracy determination of m but to clarify the way in which the propagator bulge and a fairly accurate estimate of m can coexist, and we use various approximations that illustrate the underlying mechanisms. The most critical point is to satisfy the Ward identity. In the PT we estimate a gauge-invariant dynamical gluon mass of m ≈N g2/(2.48 π ) . We translate these results to the Landau gauge using a background-quantum identity involving a dynamical quantity κ such that m =κ mL , where mL-2≡ΔL(p =0 ) . Given our estimates for m , κ , the relation is fortuitously well satisfied for S U (2 ) lattice data.
Ballistic heat conduction and mass disorder in one dimension.
Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang
2014-08-20
It is well-known that in the disordered harmonic chain, heat conduction is subballistic and the thermal conductivity (κ) scales asymptotically as lim(L--> ∞) κ ∝ L(0.5) where L is the chain length. However, using the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method and analytical modelling, we show that there exists a critical crossover length scale (LC) below which ballistic heat conduction (κ ∝ L) can coexist with mass disorder. This ballistic-to-subballistic heat conduction crossover is connected to the exponential attenuation of the phonon transmittance function Ξ i.e. Ξ(ω, L) = exp[-L/λ(ω)], where λ is the frequency-dependent attenuation length. The crossover length can be determined from the minimum attenuation length, which depends on the maximum transmitted frequency. We numerically determine the dependence of the transmittance on frequency and mass composition as well as derive a closed form estimate, which agrees closely with the numerical results. For the length-dependent thermal conductance, we also derive a closed form expression which agrees closely with numerical results and reproduces the ballistic to subballistic thermal conduction crossover. This allows us to characterize the crossover in terms of changes in the length, mass composition and temperature dependence, and also to determine the conditions under which heat conduction enters the ballistic regime. We describe how the mass composition can be modified to increase ballistic heat conduction.
Adding a psychological dimension to mass gatherings medicine.
Hopkins, Nick; Reicher, Stephen
2016-06-01
Mass gatherings pose distinctive challenges for medicine. One neglected aspect of this is that the behaviour of people participating in such events is different from the behaviour they exhibit in their everyday lives. This paper seeks to describe a social psychological perspective on the processes shaping people's behaviour at mass gatherings and to explore how these are relevant for an understanding of the processes impacting on the transmission of infection. It is inadequate to conceptualize mass gatherings as simply an aggregate of a large number of individuals. Rather, those present may conceptualize themselves in terms of a collective with a shared group identity. Thinking of oneself and others as members of a collective changes one's behaviour. First, one behaves in terms of one's understanding of the norms associated with the group. Second, the relationships between group members become more trusting and supportive. Understanding these two behavioural changes is key to understanding how and why mass gathering participants may behave in ways that make them more or less vulnerable to infection transmission. Implications for health education interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Molecular secondary ion mass spectrometry: New dimensions in chemical characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colton, Richard J.; Campana, Joseph E.; Kidwell, David A.; Ross, Mark M.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.
1985-04-01
Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has become a diverse tool for the study of many substances other than metals and semiconductors. This paper discusses the emission of polyatomic and molecular ions from surfaces that contain various inorganic and organic compounds including polymers and biomolecules. The mass and abundance distribution of cluster ions emitted from various solids — Van der Waals, metallic, ionic and covalent — are compared. Trends in the emission patterns are discussed in terms of a recombination or direct emission mechanism. The emission of molecular ions is also discussed with respect to the method of ionization and the various sample preparation and matrix-assisted procedures used. The matrices include various solid-state and liquid matrices such as ammonium chloride, charcoal, glycerol and gallium. Various chemical derivatization procedures have been developed to enhance the sensitivity of molecular SIMS and to detect selectively components in mixtures. The procedures are demonstrated for the low-level detection of airborne contaminants from paints, for the analysis of drugs in biological fluids, and for the sequencing of biomolecules such as peptides and sugars. The emission of characteristic fragment ions from the surfaces of polymers is also described for thick, insulating films.
Belief Structure and Foreign Policy: Comparing Dimensions of Elite and Mass Opinion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oldendick, Robert, And Others
1981-01-01
This study compares the dimensions of elite (political leaders) and mass (general public) opinions towards foreign policy. A factor analysis revealed the elite's five major concerns (internationalism, international organization, Americanism, defense spending, and interventionism) and an overall preference for structured approaches. The masses also…
Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.
2016-01-01
Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.
A study of correlation of hand and foot dimensions for personal identification in mass disasters.
Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal; Sharma, Abhilasha; Menezes, Ritesh G
2010-06-15
The identification of isolated extremities is an issue of great significance in the investigation of the identity of victims of mass disasters and fatal assaults. In forensic investigations, the dimensions of the hand and foot have been used for determination of sex, age and stature of an individual. However, the data on correlation within and between hand and foot dimensions are very limited. The present research aims at analysing the anthropometrical relationships within and between hand and foot dimensions. The study was conducted on 240 Rajputs (120 males and 120 females) from North India. The results showed a significant correlation between and within the dimensions of hands and feet. Multiplication factors, linear and multiple regression models are derived to reconstruct the hand and foot even when a single dimension is available from the extremities. Besides medico-legal implications, the study may have significance in plastic and reconstructive surgery.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, Walter R.; Cummings, Alan C.; Cummings, Jay R.; Garrard, Thomas L.; Kecman, Branislav; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Selesnick, Richard S.; Stone, Edward C.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.
1993-01-01
The Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST) on SAMPEX is designed to provide high resolution measurements of the isotopic composition of energetic nuclei from He to Ni (Z = 2 to 28) over the energy range from about 10 to several hundred MeV/nuc. During large solar flares MAST will measure the isotopic abundances of solar energetic particles to determine directly the composition of the solar corona, while during solar quiet times MAST will study the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic rays. In addition, MAST will measure the isotopic composition of both interplanetary and trapped fluxes of anomalous cosmic rays, believed to be a sample of the nearby interstellar medium.
Progress toward a search for anomalous spin-mass couplings with a dual-isotope rubidium magnetometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valdez, Julian; Lacey, Ian; Peregrinaramirez, Rodrigo; Delcheva, Delyana; Jacome, L. R.; Kimball, Derek
2010-10-01
A coupling between spin and mass can arise from new spin-0 or spin-1 force-mediating particles or in non-standard gravity with scalar or vector components in addition to the usual tensor interaction. We report on progress toward a search for anomalous couplings between the mass of the earth and Rb spins. In the experiment, a natural isotopic mixture of Rb atoms is contained in an antirelaxation-coated cell. The atomic spins are polarized via laser optical pumping and spin precession is measured in both isotopes using optical rotation. The experiment is particularly sensitive to spin-mass interactions of the proton. We discuss the sensitivity of our experimental scheme and strategies for control of several important systematic effects such as differential light shifts, collisional frequency shifts, and frequency shifts due to the rotation of the earth.
MASS2, Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions, User Guide and Reference
Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2007-07-01
The Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions (MASS2) is a two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamics and transport model. The model simulates time varying distributions of depth-averaged velocities, water surface elevations, and water quality constituents. This manual documents the use of MASS2. It is the second of two reports on MASS2. The first report documents the theory and numerical methods used in MASS2, and is often referred to herein as the Theory Manual. MASS2 is applicable to a wide variety of environmental analyses of rivers and estuaries where vertical variations in the water column are negligible or unimportant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inclan, Rosa Maria
2016-04-01
Knowledge on three dimensional soil pore architecture is important to improve our understanding of the factors that control a number of critical soil processes as it controls biological, chemical and physical processes at various scales. Computed Tomography (CT) images provide increasingly reliable information about the geometry of pores and solids in soils at very small scale with the benefit that is a non-invasive technique. Fractal formalism has revealed as a useful tool in these cases where highly complex and heterogeneous meda are studied. One of these quantifications is mass dimension (Dm) and spectral dimension (d) applied to describe the water and gas diffusion coefficients in soils (Tarquis et al., 2012). In this work, intact soil samples were collected from the first three horizons of La Herreria soil. This station is located in the lowland mountain area of Sierra de Guadarrama (Santolaria et al., 2015) and it represents a highly degraded type of site as a result of the livestock keeping. The 3D images, of 45.1 micro-m resolution (256x256x256 voxels), were obtained and then binarized following the singularity-CA method (Martín-Sotoca et al. 2016). Based on these images Dm and d were estimated. The results showed an statistical difference in porosity, Dm and d for each horizon. This fact has a direct implication in diffusion parameters for a pore network modeling based on both fractal dimensions. These soil parameters will constitute a basis for site characterization for further studies regarding soil degradation; determining the interaction between soil, plant and atmosphere with respect to human induced activities as well as the basis for several nitrogen and carbon cycles modeling. References Martin Sotoca; J.J. Ana M. Tarquis, Antonio Saa Requejo, and Juan B. Grau (2016). Pore detection in Computed Tomography (CT) soil 3D images using singularity map analysis. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 18, EGU2016-829. Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo and the Gu
Mass extinction in a dynamical system of evolution with variable dimension.
Tokita, K; Yasutomi, A
1999-07-01
Introducing the effect of extinction into the so-called replicator equations in mathematical biology, we construct a general model where the diversity of species, i.e., the dimension of the equation, is a time-dependent variable. The system shows very different behavior from the original replicator equation, and leads to mass extinction when the system initially has high diversity. The present theory can serve as a mathematical foundation for the paleontologic theory for mass extinction. This extinction dynamics is a prototype of dynamical systems where the variable dimension is inevitable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kubitschek, Daniel G.; Born, George H.
2000-01-01
Shortly after launch of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) spacecraft (s/c), the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) Team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Center for Space Research at the University of Texas, discovered residual along-track accelerations, which were unexpected. Here, we describe the analysis of radiation pressure forces acting on the T/P s/c for the purpose of understanding and providing an explanation for the anomalous accelerations. The radiation forces acting on the T/P solar army, which experiences warping due to temperature gradients between the front and back surfaces, are analyzed and the resulting along-track accelerations are determined. Characteristics similar to those of the anomalous acceleration are seen. This analysis led to the development of a new radiation form model, which includes solar array warping and a solar array deployment deflection of as large as 2 deg. As a result of this new model estimates of the empirical along-track acceleration are reduced in magnitude when compared to the GSFC tuned macromodel and are less dependent upon beta(prime), the location of the Sun relative to the orbit plane. If these results we believed to reflect the actual orientation of the T/P solar array then motion of the solar array must influence the location of the s/c center of mass. Preliminary estimates indicate that the center of mass can vary by as much as 3 cm in the radial component of the s/c's position due to rotation of the deflected, warped solar array panel .The altimeter measurements rely upon accurate knowledge of the center of mass location relative to the s/c frame of reference. Any radial motion of the center of mass directly affects the altimeter measurements.
A physical meaning of mixed gluon-ghost condensate of mass dimension two
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2003-10-01
We demonstrate that a clear physical content and relevance can be attributed to the on-shell BRST-invariant mixed gluon-ghost condensate of mass dimension two which was recently proposed by the author. We argue that a gauge invariant observable is associated with the mixed condensate.
Lévy dusts, Mittag-Leffler statistics, mass fractal lacunarity, and perceived dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blumenfeld, Raphael; Mandelbrot, Benoit B.
1997-07-01
We study the Lévy dusts on the line on two accounts: the fluctuations around the average power law that characterizes the mass-radius relation for self-similar fractals, and the statistics of the intervals between strides along the logarithmic axis (their tail distribution is related to the dust's fractal dimension). The Lévy dusts are suggested as a yardstick of neutral lacunarity, against which non-neutral lacunarity can be measured objectively. A notion of perceived dimension is introduced. We conclude with an application of the Mittag-Leffler statistics to a nonlinear electrical network.
The area-to-mass ratio and fractal dimension of marine flocs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowers, D. G.; McKee, D.; Jago, C. F.; Nimmo-Smith, W. A. M.
2017-04-01
Optical instruments have proved invaluable in the study of suspended matter in the sea but the measurements they provide are more closely related to the cross-sectional area of the particles in suspension than the mass measured by filtration or predicted by theory. In this paper, we examine the factors controlling the relationship between particle area and mass, using the fractal model of particle structure as a theoretical framework. Both theory and observation agree that the area-to-mass ratio of particles (symbol A*) decreases with increasing fractal dimension (symbol Nf) as particles hide behind each other in compact flocs. The equation A* = 0.253-0.081Nf, in which A* is in m2 g-1 explains 81% of the variance in the area:mass ratio at 151 stations in coastal waters. In contrast, the effect of floc size on A* is small. Three optical parameters - beam attenuation, diffuse attenuation and remote sensing reflectance, expressed per unit mass of suspended material, all decrease with increasing Nf. As our understanding of the flocculation process grows and it becomes possible to predict the fractal dimension of particles as a function of the environmental conditions in which the flocs form, these results will lead to improved calibration of optical instruments in terms of the mass concentration of suspended materials and to better models of sediment suspension and transport.
Fermionic Fields with Mass Dimension One as Supersymmetric Extension of the O'Raifeartaigh Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wunderle, Kai E.
The objective of this thesis is to derive a supersymmetric Lagrangian for fermionic fields with mass dimension one and to discuss their coupling to the O'Raifeartaigh model which is the simplest model permitting supersymmetry breaking. In addition it will be shown that eigenspinors of the charge conjugation operator (ELKO) exhibit a different transformation behaviour under discrete symmetries than previously assumed. The calculations confirm that ELKO spinors are not eigenspinors of the parity operator and satisfy (CPT)2 = -- I which identifies them as representation of a nonstandard Wigner class. However, it is found that ELKO spinors transform symmetrically under parity instead of the previously assumed asymmetry. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that ELKO spinors transform asymmetrically under time reversal which is opposite to the previously reported symmetric behaviour. These changes affect the (anti)commutation relations that are satisfied by the operators acting on ELKO spinors. Therefore, ELKO spinors satisfy the same (anti)commutation relations as Dirac spinors, even though they belong to two different representations of the Lorentz group. Afterwards, a supersymmetric model for fermionic fields with mass dimension one based on a general superfield with one spinor index is formulated. It includes the systematic derivation of all associated chiral and anti-chiral superfields up to third order in covariant derivatives. Starting from these fundamental superfields a supersymmetric on-shell Lagrangian that contains a kinetic term for the fermionic fields with mass dimension one is constructed. This on-shell Lagrangian is subsequently used to derive the on-shell super-current and to successfully formulate a consistent second quantisation for the component fields. In addition, the Hamiltonian in position space that corresponds to the supersymmetric Lagrangian is calculated. As the Lagrangian is by construction supersymmetric and the second quantisation of the
Gluon-ghost condensate of mass dimension 2 in the Curci-Ferrari gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dudal, D.; Verschelde, H.; Lemes, V. E. R.; Sarandy, M. S.; Sorella, S. P.; Picariello, M.
2003-11-01
The effective potential for an on-shell BRST invariant gluon-ghost condensate of mass dimension 2 in the Curci-Ferrari gauge in SU( N) Yang-Mills is analysed by combining the local composite operator technique with the algebraic renormalization. We pay attention to the gauge parameter independence of the vacuum energy obtained in the considered framework and discuss the Landau gauge as an interesting special case.
Critical mass renormalization in renormalized ϕ4 theories in two and three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore
2015-12-01
We consider the O (N)-symmetric ϕ4 theory in two and three dimensions and determine the nonperturbative mass renormalization needed to obtain the ϕ4 continuum theory. The required nonperturbative information is obtained by resumming high-order perturbative series in the massive renormalization scheme, taking into account their Borel summability and the known large-order behavior of the coefficients. The results are in good agreement with those obtained in lattice calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubinin, M. N.; Petrova, E. Yu.
2017-03-01
In the framework of the effective field theory approach to heavy supersymmetry radiative corrections in the Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) for the effective potential decomposition up to the dimension-six operators are calculated. Symbolic expressions for the threshold corrections induced by F - and D -soft supersymmetry breaking terms are derived, and the Higgs boson mass spectrum respecting the condition mh=125 GeV for the lightest C P -even scalar is evaluated.
Radiatively induced Lorentz-violating operator of mass dimension five in QED
Mariz, T.
2011-02-15
The first higher derivative term of the photon sector of Lorentz-violating QED, with an operator of mass dimension d=5, is radiatively induced from the fermion sector, which contains a derivative term with the dimensionless coefficient g{sup {lambda}{mu}{nu}}. The calculation is performed perturbatively in the coefficient for Lorentz violation, and, due to the fact that the contributions are quadratically divergent, we adopt dimensional regularization.
Proton hexality from an anomalous flavor U(1) and neutrino masses: Linking to the string scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dreiner, Herbi K.; Luhn, Christoph; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc
2008-05-01
We devise minimalistic gauged U(1 Froggatt-Nielsen models which at low-energy give rise to the recently suggested discrete gauge Z-symmetry, proton hexality, thus stabilizing the proton. Assuming three generations of right-handed neutrinos, with the proper choice of X-charges, we obtain viable neutrino masses. Furthermore, we find scenarios such that no X-charged hidden sector superfields are needed, which from a bottom-up perspective allows the calculation of g, g and G's Kač-Moody levels. The only mass scale apart from M is m.
Search for anomalous spin-mass coupling with a rubidium magnetometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacey, Ian; Jacome, L. R.; Chan, Lok Fai; Muhsin, Sahar; Boyd, Alec; Bahr, Eric; Guttikonda, Srikanth; Kimball, Derek
2009-11-01
We report on progress of our experiment using a dual-isotope rubidium magnetometer to search for a hypothetical long-range coupling between Rb nuclear spins and the mass of the Earth. The valence electron dominates magnetic interactions and serves as a precise co-magnetometer for the nuclei in a simultaneous measurement of Rb-85 and Rb-87 spin precession frequencies, enabling accurate subtraction of magnetic perturbations. The construction and optimization of the apparatus is nearly complete, and we are now addressing several technical sources of noise and studying potential sources of systematic error. The optimized dual-isotope Rb magnetometer has sufficient shot- noise-projected sensitivity to improve experimental limits on long-range spin-mass couplings by an order of magnitude in general and by two orders of magnitude for the proton spin in particular.
Burger, Florian; Feng, Xu; Hotzel, Grit; Jansen, Karl; Petschlies, Marcus; Renner, Dru B.
2013-11-01
We present results for the leading order QCD correction to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon including the first two generations of quarks as dynamical degrees of freedom. Several light quark masses are examined in order to yield a controlled extrapolation to the physical pion mass. We analyse ensembles for three different lattice spacings and several volumes in order to investigate lattice artefacts and finite-size effects, respectively. We also provide preliminary results for this quantity for two flavours of mass-degenerate quarks at the physical value of the pion mass.
MASS2, Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions, Theory and Numerical Methods
Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2007-07-01
The Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions (MASS2) is a two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamics and transport model. The model simulates time varying distributions of depth-averaged velocities, water surface elevations, and water quality constituents. MASS2 uses a structured, multi-block, boundary-fitted, curvilinear computational mesh, which allows the simulation of very complex riverine or estuarine networks. The blocks may be of varying resolution, which allows high resolution to be used only where needed. MASS2 can simulate a wide variety of hydrodynamic conditions, including supercritical flow and hydraulic jumps. It can also simulate a wide variety of water quality conditions, including sediment, conservative or decaying contaminants, sediment-sorbed contaminants, water temperature, and total dissolved gas. Any number of these constituents may be simulated simultaneously. In addition, transport simulations may be performed using pre-calculated hydrodynamic conditions, allowing long-term transport simulations unencumbered by the more intensive hydrodynamic calculations, or repeated transport simulations without re-simulating hydrodynamics. This report documents the theory and numerical methods used in MASS2. In addition, the results are presented from several of hydrodynamic and transport validation tests to which MASS2 was subjected. The companion user manual documents the application of MASS2.
Evading Weinberg's no-go theorem to construct mass dimension one fermions: Constructing darkness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vir Ahluwalia, Dharam
2017-06-01
Recent theoretical work reporting the construction of a new quantum field of spin one-half fermions with mass dimension one requires that Weinberg's no-go theorem must be evaded. Here we show how this comes about. The essence of the argument is to first define a quantum field with due care being taken in fixing the locality phases attached to each of the expansion coefficients. The second ingredient is to systematically construct the dual of the expansion coefficients to define the adjoint of the field. The Feynman-Dyson propagator constructed from the vacuum expectation value of the field and its adjoint then yields the mass dimensionality of the field. For a quantum field constructed from a complete set of eigenspinors of the charge conjugation operator, with locality phases judiciously chosen, the Feynman-Dyson propagator determines the mass dimension of the field to be one, rather than three halves. The Lorentz symmetry is preserved, locality anticommutators are satisfied, without violating fermionic statistics as needed for the spin one-half field.
Glacier mass balance in high-arctic areas with anomalous gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharov, A.; Rieser, D.; Nikolskiy, D.
2012-04-01
All known glaciological models describing the evolution of Arctic land- and sea-ice masses in changing climate treat the Earth's gravity as horizontally constant, but it isn't. In the High Arctic, the strength of the gravitational field varies considerably across even short distances under the influence of a density gradient, and the magnitude of free air gravity anomalies attains 100 mGal and more. On long-term base, instantaneous deviations of gravity can have a noticeable effect on the regime and mass budget of glaciological objects. At best, the gravity-induced component of ice mass variations can be determined on topographically smooth, open and steady surfaces, like those of arctic planes, regular ice caps and landfast sea ice. The present research is devoted to studying gravity-driven impacts on glacier mass balance in the outer periphery of four Eurasian shelf seas with a very cold, dry climate and rather episodic character of winter precipitation. As main study objects we had chosen a dozen Russia's northernmost insular ice caps, tens to hundreds of square kilometres in extent, situated in a close vicinity of strong gravity anomalies and surrounded with extensive fields of fast and/or drift ice for most of the year. The supposition about gravitational forcing on glacioclimatic settings in the study region is based on the results of quantitative comparison and joint interpretation of existing glacier change maps and available data on the Arctic gravity field and solid precipitation. The overall mapping of medium-term (from decadal to half-centennial) changes in glacier volumes and quantification of mass balance characteristics in the study region was performed by comparing reference elevation models of study glaciers derived from Russian topographic maps 1:200,000 (CI = 20 or 40 m) representing the glacier state as in the 1950s-1980s with modern elevation data obtained from satellite radar interferometry and lidar altimetry. Free-air gravity anomalies were
Elko and mass dimension one field of spin one-half: Causality and Fermi statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahluwalia, Dharam Vir; Nayak, Alekha Chandra
2014-03-01
We review how Elko arise as an extension of complex-valued four-component Majorana spinors. This is followed by a discussion that constrains certain elements of phase freedom. A proof is reviewed that unambiguously establishes that Elko, and for that matter the indicated Majorana spinors, cannot satisfy Dirac equation. They, however do, as they must, satisfy spinorial Klein-Gordon equation. We then introduce a quantum field with Elko as its expansion coefficients and show that it is causal, satisfies Fermi statistics, and then refer to the existing literature to remind that its mass dimension is one. We conclude by providing an up-to-date bibliography on the subject.
Progress toward a search for anomalous spin-mass couplings with a dual-isotope rubidium magnetometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valdez, Julian; Lacey, Ian; Peregrinaramirez, Rodrigo; Jackson Kimball, Derek
2011-05-01
We report progress in our development of a dual-isotope rubidium magnetometer to be used to search for a long-range coupling between proton spins and the mass of the Earth. The valence electron dominates magnetic interactions and serves as a precise co-magnetometer for the nuclei in a simultaneous measurement of Rb-85 and Rb-87 spin precession frequencies, enabling accurate subtraction of magnetic perturbations. Both Rb nuclei have valence protons, but in Rb-87 the proton spin is parallel to the nuclear spin and magnetic moment while for Rb-85 the proton spin is anti-parallel to the nuclear spin and magnetic moment. Thus anomalous interactions of the proton spin produce a differential shift between the Rb spin-precession frequencies, whereas many sources of systematic error produce common-mode shifts of the spin-precession frequencies which can be controlled through auxiliary measurements. We discuss significant enhancement of the sensitivity through the use of new alkene-based antirelaxation coatings, and methods to control systematic effects due to light shifts, collisions, and the gyro-compass effect. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0969666.
Pons, A J; Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi
2010-09-01
The structural changes that arise as the brain ages influence its functionality. In many cases, the anatomical degradation simply leads to normal aging. In others, the neurodegeneration is large enough to cause neurological disorders (e.g. Alzheimer's disease). Structure and function can be both currently measured using noninvasive techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) respectively. However, a full theoretical scheme linking structural and functional degradation is still lacking. Here we present a neural mass model that aims to bridge both levels of description and that reproduces experimentally observed multichannel EEG recordings of alpha rhythm in young subjects, healthy elderly subjects, and patients with mild cognitive impairment. We focus our attention in the dominant frequency of the signals at different electrodes and in the correlation between specific electrode pairs, measured via the phase-lag index. Our model allows us to study the influence of different structural connectivity pathways, independently of each other, on the normal and aberrantly aging brain. In particular, we study in detail the effect of the thalamic input on specific cortical regions, the long-range connectivity between cortical regions, and the short-range coupling within the same cortical area. Once the influence of each type of connectivity is determined, we characterize the regions of parameter space compatible with the EEG recordings of the populations under study. Our results show that the different types of connectivity must be fine-tuned to maintain the brain in a healthy functioning state independently of its age and brain condition.
Penrose inequalities and a positive mass theorem for charged black holes in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes de Lima, Levi; Girão, Frederico; Lozório, Weslley; Silva, Juscelino
2016-02-01
We use the inverse mean curvature flow to establish Penrose-type inequalities for time-symmetric Einstein-Maxwell initial data sets which can be suitably embedded as a hypersurface in Euclidean space {{{R}}}n+1, n≥slant 3. In particular, we prove a positive mass theorem for this class of charged black holes. As an application, we show that the conjectured upper bound for the area in terms of the mass and the charge, which in dimension n = 3 is relevant in connection with the cosmic censorship conjecture, always holds under the natural assumption that the horizon is stable as a minimal hypersurface. The first and second authors were partially supported by CNPq/Brazil grants. The first and last authors were partially supported by a CAPES/Brazil grant.
Symmetries and unitary interactions of mass dimension one fermionic dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Cheng-Yang
2016-12-01
The fermionic fields constructed from Elko have several unexpected properties. They satisfy the Klein-Gordon but not the Dirac equation and are of mass dimension one instead of three-half. Starting with the Klein-Gordon Lagrangian, we initiate a careful study of the symmetries and interactions of these fermions and their higher-spin generalizations. We find, although the fermions are of mass dimension one, the four-point fermionic self-interaction violates unitarity at high-energy so it cannot be a fundamental interaction of the theory. Using the optical theorem, we derive an explicit bound on energy for the fermion-scalar interaction. It follows that for the spin-half fermions, the demand of renormalizability and unitarity forbids four-point interactions and only allows for the Yukawa interaction. For fermions with spin j > 1 2, they have no renormalizable or unitary interactions. Since the theory is described by a Klein-Gordon Lagrangian, the interaction generated by the local U(1) gauge symmetry which contains a four-point interaction, is excluded by the demand of renormalizability. In the context of the Standard Model, these properties make the spin-half fermions natural dark matter candidates. Finally, we discuss the recent developments on the introduction of new adjoint and spinor duals which may allow us to circumvent the unitarity constraints on the interactions.
Automated detection of coronal mass ejections in three-dimensions using multi-viewpoint observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutton, J.; Morgan, H.
2017-03-01
A new, automated method of detecting coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in three dimensions for the LASCO C2 and STEREO COR2 coronagraphs is presented. By triangulating isolated CME signal from the three coronagraphs over a sliding window of five hours, the most likely region through which CMEs pass at 5 R⊙ is identified. The centre and size of the region gives the most likely direction of propagation and approximate angular extent. The Automated CME Triangulation (ACT) method is tested extensively using a series of synthetic CME images created using a wireframe flux rope density model, and on a sample of real coronagraph data; including halo CMEs. The accuracy of the angular difference (σ) between the detection and true input of the synthetic CMEs is σ = 7.14°, and remains acceptable for a broad range of CME positions relative to the observer, the relative separation of the three observers and even through the loss of one coronagraph. For real data, the method gives results that compare well with the distribution of low coronal sources and results from another instrument and technique made further from the Sun. The true three dimension (3D)-corrected kinematics and mass/density are discussed. The results of the new method will be incorporated into the CORIMP database in the near future, enabling improved space weather diagnostics and forecasting.
Search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton mass spectrum at the Large Hadron Collider
Chatrchyan, Serguei; Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; ErÃ¶, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; /Yerevan Phys. Inst. /Vienna, OAW /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /Antwerp U., WISINF /Vrije U., Brussels /Brussels U. /Gent U. /Louvain U. /UMH, Mons /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U.
2011-12-01
A search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton invariant-mass spectrum has been performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectation is observed using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1}. In the context of the large-extra-dimensions model, lower limits are set on the effective Planck scale in the range of 2.3-3.8 TeV at the 95% confidence level. These limits are the most restrictive bounds on virtual-graviton exchange to date. The most restrictive lower limits to date are also set on the mass of the first graviton excitation in the Randall-Sundrum model in the range of 0.86-1.84 TeV, for values of the associated coupling parameter between 0.01 and 0.10.
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2012-03-16
A search for signatures of extra spatial dimensions in the diphoton invariant-mass spectrum has been performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectation is observed using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at √s=7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb(-1). In the context of the large-extra-dimensions model, lower limits are set on the effective Planck scale in the range of 2.3-3.8 TeV at the 95% confidence level. These limits are the most restrictive bounds on virtual-graviton exchange to date. The most restrictive lower limits to date are also set on the mass of the first graviton excitation in the Randall-Sundrum model in the range of 0.86-1.84 TeV, for values of the associated coupling parameter between 0.01 and 0.10.
Effect of gender, facial dimensions, body mass index and type of functional occlusion on bite force
KOÇ, Duygu; DOĞAN, Arife; BEK, Bülent
2011-01-01
Objective Some factors such as gender, age, craniofacial morphology, body structure, occlusal contact patterns may affect the maximum bite force. Thus, the purposes of this study were to determine the mean maximum bite force in individuals with normal occlusion, and to examine the effect of gender, facial dimensions, body mass index (BMI), type of functional occlusion (canine guidance and group function occlusion) and balancing side interferences on it. Material and Methods Thirty-four individuals aged 19-20 years-old were selected for this study. Maximum bite force was measured with strain-gauge transducers at first molar region. Facial dimensions were defined by standardized frontal photographs as follows: anterior total facial height (ATFH), bizygomathic facial width (BFW) and intergonial width (IGW). BMI was calculated using the equation weight/height2. The type of functional occlusion and the balancing side interferences of the subjects were identified by clinical examination. Results Bite force was found to be significantly higher in men than women (p<0.05). While there was a negative correlation between the bite force and ATFH/BFW, ATFH/IGW ratios in men (p<0.05), women did not show any statistically significant correlation (p>0.05). BMI and bite force correlation was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The average bite force did not differ in subjects with canine guidance or group function occlusion and in the presence of balancing side interferences (p>0.05). Conclusions Data suggest that bite force is affected by gender. However, BMI, type of functional occlusion and the presence of balancing side interferences did not exert a meaningful influence on bite force. In addition, transverse facial dimensions showed correlation with bite force in only men. PMID:21625746
Pikin, S. A.
2013-03-15
The model of the pressure-induced first-order phase transition of a metal melt to the metallicglass state considers a thermodynamically nonequilibrium porous near-surface shell of the solid core of the Earth, which contacts cyclonic vortices in the liquid core. Anomalous flows of heat and light-material mass to the mantle from the solid core at these contact points are calculated. These anomalous flows are shown to be comparable with the observed ones under the assumption of a rapid increase in the melt viscosity at pressures of 1-10 Mbar, which is characteristic of a solid core. In this case, the porous layer permeability may be very low.
Automated Detection of coronal mass ejections in three-dimensions using multi-viewpoint observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutton, Joseph; Morgan, Huw
2016-10-01
A new, automated method of detecting Solar Wind transients such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) in three dimensions for the LASCO C2 and STEREO COR2 coronagraphs is presented. By triangulating isolated CME signal from the three coronagraphs over a sliding window of five hours, the most likely region through which CMEs pass at 5 solar radii is identified. The centre and size of the region gives the most likely direction of propagation and angular extent. The Automated CME Triangulation (ACT) method is tested extensively using a series of synthetic CME images created using a flux rope density model, and on a sample of real coronagraph data; including Halo CMEs. The accuracy of the detection remains acceptable regardless of CME position relative to the observer, the relative separation of the three observers, and even through the loss of one coronagraph. By comparing the detection results with the input parameters of the synthetic CMEs, and the low coronal sources of the real CMEs, it is found that the detection is on average accurate to within 7.14 degrees. All current CME catalogues (CDAW, CACTus, SEEDS, ARTEMIS and CORIMP) rely on plane-of-sky measurements for key parameters such as height and velocity. Estimating the true geometry using the new method gains considerable accuracy for kinematics and mass/density. The results of the new method will be incorporated into the CORIMP database in the near future, enabling improved space weather diagnostics and forecasting.
Anomalous low mass e/sup +/e/sup -/ pair production in 17 GeV/c. pi. /sup -/p collisions
Abshire, G; Adams, M; Brown, C
1980-01-01
An experiment was performed at the Multiparticle Spectrometer using 17 GeV/c ..pi../sup -/ from the BNL AGS, triggering upon inclusive e/sup +/e/sup -/ production. Electron identification was based on two transition radiator detectors and lead-scintillator shower detectors. Good acceptance for the e/sup +/e/sup -/ pair covered the region x/sub F/ > 0.3 for all p/sub T/ and pair masses. Charged particles and photons associated with the e/sup +/e/sup -/ pair are detected over a large solid angle. e/sup +/e/sup -/ pairs of mass up to 1.2 GeV/c/sup 2/ were produced. A clear peak due to rho, ..omega.. ..-->.. e/sup +/e/sup -/ is observed. For e/sup +/e/sup -/ masses below the rho, ..omega.., an excess of events is found over those expected from known sources such as eta ..-->.. e/sup +/e/sup -/..gamma.. and ..omega.. ..-->.. e/sup +/e/sup -/..pi../sup 0/. This anomalous excess is more strongly produced at small x/sub F/. The structure of events containing anomalous e/sup +/e/sup -/ pairs is reported in an attempt to elucidate their origin. In particular, effective mass distributions of e/sup +/e/sup -/..gamma.., e/sup +/e/sup -/..pi../sup 0/, e/sup +/e/sup -/ charged hadrons are presented.
Variation in spectral and mass dimension on 3D soil image processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez, M. E.; Tarquis, A. M.; Fabregat, J.; Andina, D.; Jimenez, J.; Crawford, J. W.
2009-04-01
Knowledge on three dimensional soil pore architecture is important for understanding soil processes as it controls biological, chemical and physical processes on various scales. Recent advances in non-destructive imaging, such as X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), provide several ways to analyze pore space features mainly concentrating on the visualization of soil structure. Fractal formalism has revealed as useful tool in these cases where highly complex and heterogeneous medium are studied. One of these quantifications is mass dimension (Dm) and spectral dimension (d) applied for water and gas diffusion coefficient in soil. At the same time that these techniques give a unique opportunity to quantify and describe pore space, they presents steps in their procedures on which the results depend. In this work, intact soil samples were collected from four horizons of a Brazilian soil and 3D images, of 45.1 micro-m resolution (256x256x256 voxels), were obtained. Four different threshold criteria were used to transform CT grey-scale imagery in binary imagery (pore/solid), based on the frequency of CT units. Then the threshold effect on the estimation of Dm and d, as well as their ratio was studied. Each threshold criteria had a direct influence on Dm as it has been previously reported [1], through the increase on porosity obtained. Meanwhile Dm showed a clear logarithmic relation with the apparent porosity in the image obtained for each threshold, d showed an almost linear one. In any case the increase of each one of them respect to porosity was different for each horizon. The Dm/d ratio was practically constant through all the porosity achieved in this study when Dm was estimated using all the scale range available. On the other hand, when Dm was estimated based on smaller scales this ratio depended on the threshold criteria applied to the image. This fact has a direct implication in diffusion parameters for a pore network modeling based on both fractal dimensions. [1] A
Fractal model of anomalous diffusion.
Gmachowski, Lech
2015-12-01
An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion.
Meza, James M; Elias, Matthew D; Wilder, Travis J; O'Brien, James E; Kim, Richard W; Mavroudis, Constantine; Williams, William G; Brothers, Julie; Cohen, Meryl S; McCrindle, Brian W
2017-10-01
Anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries is associated with exercise-induced ischaemia, leading some physicians to restrict exercise in patients with this condition. We sought to determine whether exercise restriction was associated with increasing body mass index over time. From 1998 to 2015, 440 patients ⩽30 years old were enrolled into an inception cohort. Exercise-restriction status was documented in 143 patients. Using linear mixed model repeated-measures regression, factors associated with increasing body mass index z-score over time, including exercise restriction and surgical intervention as time-varying covariates, were investigated. The 143 patients attended 558 clinic visits for which exercise-restriction status was recorded. The mean number of clinic visits per patient was 4, and the median duration of follow-up was 1.7 years (interquartile range (IQR) 0.5-4.4). The median age at first clinic visit was 10.3 years (IQR 7.1-13.9), and 71% (101/143) were males. All patients were alive at their most recent follow-up. At the first clinic visit, 54% (78/143) were exercise restricted, and restriction status changed in 34% (48/143) during follow-up. The median baseline body mass index z-score was 0.2 (IQR 0.3-0.9). In repeated-measures analysis, neither time-related exercise restriction nor its interaction with time was associated with increasing body mass index z-score. Surgical intervention and its interaction with time were associated with decreasing body mass index z-score. Although exercise restriction was not associated with increasing body mass index over time, surgical intervention was associated with decreasing body mass index z-score over time in patients with anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries.
Berkane, K.; Bencheikh, K.
2005-08-15
For first-principles density functional theory of a many fermion system, the determination of the kinetic energy functional is important. We consider N independent fermions with spatially varying effective mass in two dimensions, we derive the corresponding kinetic energy density using the ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) semiclassical approach. Our result reduces, as expected, to the one obtained in the literature for a constant effective mass. We examine the analytical expressions of the position dependent effective mass terms in the kinetic energy density functional with respect to the dimensionality d=1,2,3 of the space.
Blum, Thomas; Christ, Norman; Hayakawa, Masashi; ...
2017-01-11
We report a lattice QCD calculation of the hadronic light-by-light contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment at a physical pion mass. The calculation includes the connected diagrams and the leading, quark-line-disconnected diagrams. We incorporate algorithmic improvements developed in our previous work. The calculation was performed on the 483 × 96 ensemble generated with a physical pion mass and a 5.5 fm spatial extent by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations using the chiral, domain wall fermion formulation. We find aHLbLμ = 5.35(1.35) × 10–10, where the error is statistical only. The finite-volume and finite lattice-spacing errors could be quite largemore » and are the subject of ongoing research. Finally, the omitted disconnected graphs, while expected to give a correction of order 10%, also need to be computed.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blum, Thomas; Christ, Norman; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku; Jin, Luchang; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph
2017-01-01
We report a lattice QCD calculation of the hadronic light-by-light contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment at a physical pion mass. The calculation includes the connected diagrams and the leading, quark-line-disconnected diagrams. We incorporate algorithmic improvements developed in our previous work. The calculation was performed on the 4 83×96 ensemble generated with a physical pion mass and a 5.5 fm spatial extent by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations using the chiral, domain wall fermion formulation. We find aμHLbL=5.35 (1.35 )×10-10 , where the error is statistical only. The finite-volume and finite lattice-spacing errors could be quite large and are the subject of ongoing research. The omitted disconnected graphs, while expected to give a correction of order 10%, also need to be computed.
Blum, Thomas; Christ, Norman; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku; Jin, Luchang; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph
2017-01-13
We report a lattice QCD calculation of the hadronic light-by-light contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment at a physical pion mass. The calculation includes the connected diagrams and the leading, quark-line-disconnected diagrams. We incorporate algorithmic improvements developed in our previous work. The calculation was performed on the 48^{3}×96 ensemble generated with a physical pion mass and a 5.5 fm spatial extent by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations using the chiral, domain wall fermion formulation. We find a_{μ}^{HLbL}=5.35(1.35)×10^{-10}, where the error is statistical only. The finite-volume and finite lattice-spacing errors could be quite large and are the subject of ongoing research. The omitted disconnected graphs, while expected to give a correction of order 10%, also need to be computed.
Anomalous Oxidative Diffusion in Titanium Pyrotechnic Powders
Erikson, William W.; Coker, Eric N.
2016-11-10
It has long been observed that oxidation processes in metals tend to follow a parabolic rate law associated with the growth of a surface oxide layer. Here we observe that for certain titanium powders, the expected parabolic law (∝t1/2) is recovered, yet for others, the exponent differs significantly. One explanation for this non-parabolic, anomalous diffusion arises from fractal geometry. Theoretical considerations indicate that the time response of diffusion-limited processes in an object closely follow a power-law in time (tn) with n=(E–D)/2, where E is the object's Euclidean dimension and D is its boundary's Hausdorff dimension. Non-integer, (fractal) values of Dmore » will result in n≠1/2. Finite element simulations of several canonical fractal objects were performed to verify the application of this theory; the results matched the theory well. Two different types of titanium powder were tested in isothermal thermogravimetric tests under dilute oxygen. Time-dependent mass uptake data were fit with power-law forms and the associated exponents were used to determine an equivalent fractal dimension. One Ti powder type has an implied surface dimension of ca. 2.3 to 2.5, suggesting fractal geometry may be operative. Finally, the other has a dimension near 2.0, indicating it behaves like traditional material.« less
Anomalous Oxidative Diffusion in Titanium Pyrotechnic Powders
Erikson, William W.; Coker, Eric N.
2016-11-10
It has long been observed that oxidation processes in metals tend to follow a parabolic rate law associated with the growth of a surface oxide layer. Here we observe that for certain titanium powders, the expected parabolic law (∝t_{1/2}) is recovered, yet for others, the exponent differs significantly. One explanation for this non-parabolic, anomalous diffusion arises from fractal geometry. Theoretical considerations indicate that the time response of diffusion-limited processes in an object closely follow a power-law in time (t^{n}) with n=(E–D)/2, where E is the object's Euclidean dimension and D is its boundary's Hausdorff dimension. Non-integer, (fractal) values of D will result in n≠1/2. Finite element simulations of several canonical fractal objects were performed to verify the application of this theory; the results matched the theory well. Two different types of titanium powder were tested in isothermal thermogravimetric tests under dilute oxygen. Time-dependent mass uptake data were fit with power-law forms and the associated exponents were used to determine an equivalent fractal dimension. One Ti powder type has an implied surface dimension of ca. 2.3 to 2.5, suggesting fractal geometry may be operative. Finally, the other has a dimension near 2.0, indicating it behaves like traditional material.
Auxemery, Yann
2015-01-01
Multicide and other mass killings are sufficiently dramatic to excite great interest from clinicians, criminologists and behavioral scientists. This paper revisits the history of the mass murderer, an entity that has progressively distinguished itself from the serial killer. The functional difference between mass and serial homicide is quite obvious, particularly in setting, time, victim status and modus operandi. Classification of these acts requires a number of parameters. The causes of mass murders are multiple and complex: although they rarely seem to be related to psychotic mental pathologies, they are always an expression of suffering that manifests itself in a psychological crisis that is both homicidal and suicidal. Several research teams have studied the sociodemographic and etiopathogenic characteristics of mass murderers and, in particular, the perpetrators of school killings. In addition to prevalent personality traits, these actions often jointly include suicides and homicides, which are brought together in the same psychic crisis. In keeping with the theory of little identity support, previous crimes influenced some mass murderers. Suicides and mass-murders are likely to be imitated. The media appears to play a crucial role in preventing the occurrence of imitation or copycat tragedies. The WHO recommendation regarding how to transcribe suicide and by extension, homicide, in the media is necessary.
2012-01-01
Background Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights. Results Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial) limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa. Conclusions The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion) and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in extinct terrestrial
Erikson, William W.; Coker, Eric N.
2016-11-10
It has long been observed that oxidation processes in metals tend to follow a parabolic rate law associated with the growth of a surface oxide layer. Here we observe that for certain titanium powders, the expected parabolic law (∝t1/2) is recovered, yet for others, the exponent differs significantly. One explanation for this non-parabolic, anomalous diffusion arises from fractal geometry. Theoretical considerations indicate that the time response of diffusion-limited processes in an object closely follow a power-law in time (tn) with n=(E–D)/2, where E is the object's Euclidean dimension and D is its boundary's Hausdorff dimension. Non-integer, (fractal) values of Dmore » will result in n≠1/2. Finite element simulations of several canonical fractal objects were performed to verify the application of this theory; the results matched the theory well. Two different types of titanium powder were tested in isothermal thermogravimetric tests under dilute oxygen. Time-dependent mass uptake data were fit with power-law forms and the associated exponents were used to determine an equivalent fractal dimension. One Ti powder type has an implied surface dimension of ca. 2.3 to 2.5, suggesting fractal geometry may be operative. Finally, the other has a dimension near 2.0, indicating it behaves like traditional material.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malov, I. F.
Many astrophysicists believe that Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars (AXP), Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters (SGR), Rotational Radio Transients (RRAT), Compact Central Objects (CCO) and X-Ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars (XDINS) belong to different classes of anomalous objects with neutron stars as the central bodies inducing all their observable peculiarities. We have shown earlier [1] that AXPs and SGRs could be described by the drift model in the framework of the preposition on usual properties of the central neutron star (rotation periods P 0.01 - 1 sec and, surface magnetic fields B ~ 10^11-10^13 G). Here we shall try to show that some differences of the sources under consideration will be explained by their geometry (particularly, by the angle β between their rotation and magnetic axes). If β <~ 100 (the aligned rotator) the drift waves at the outer layers of the neutron star magnetosphere should play a key role in the observable periodicity. For large values of β (the case of the nearly orthogonal rotator) an accretion from the surrounding medium (for example, from the relic disk) can cause some modulation and transient events in received radiation. Recently Kramer et al. [2] and Camilo et al. [3] have shown that AXPs J1810-197 and 1E 1547.0 - 5408 have both small angles β, that is these sources are nearly aligned rotators, and the drift model should be used for their description. On the other hand, Wang et al. [4] detected IR radiation from the cold disk around the isolated young X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61. This was the first evidence of the disk-like matter around the neutron star. Probably there is the bimodality of anomalous pulsars. AXPs, SGRs and some radio transients belong to the population of aligned rotators with the angle between the rotation axis and the magnetic moment β < 200. These objects are described by the drift model, and their observed periods are connected with a periodicity of drift waves. Other sources have β ~ 900, and switching on's and switching off
Huang, H H; Sun, C T
2012-10-01
A mechanical model representing an acoustic metamaterial that exhibits simultaneously negative mass density and negative Young's modulus was proposed. Wave propagation was studied in the frequency range of double negativity. In view of positive energy flow, it was found that the phase velocity in this range is negative. This phenomenon was also observed using transient wave propagation finite-element analyses of a transient sinusoidal wave and a transient wave packet. In contrast to wave propagation in the region of positive mass and modulus, the peculiar backward wave motion in the region of double negativity was clearly displayed.
Left ventricular dimensions and mass using magnetic resonance imaging in female endurance athletes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riley-Hagan, M.; Peshock, R. M.; Stray-Gundersen, J.; Katz, J.; Ryschon, T. W.; Mitchell, J. H.
1992-01-01
Few published studies of left ventricular (LV) mass in female endurance athletes have been performed with M-mode echocardiography, which involves assumptions of LV geometry. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging, a 3-dimensional technique, was used to examine LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume and mean wall thickness in female long distance runners (n = 13; mean age 29 years), cyclists (n = 12; mean age 26 years) and cross-country skiers (n = 11; mean age 24 years), and the findings were compared with sedentary control subjects (n = 10; mean age 27 years) matched for height and body weight. The physical characteristics for all subjects included height (mean 166 cm, and body weight (mean 56 kg). The percent body fat (mean 11.7) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, mean 63 ml.kg-1.min-1) were similar (p greater than 0.05) among all athletic groups, but significantly different from the control group (body fat, mean 22.5%; VO2max, mean 35 ml.kg-1.min-1). LV mass (mean 159 kg), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 122 ml), and mean wall thickness (mean 11.5 mm) were also similar among the athletic groups and significantly larger than the following control values: LV mass (mean 115 g), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 93 ml) and mean wall thickness (mean 9.8 mm). Ratios of LV mass to lean body weight were similar among all athletic groups, although athletic groups had larger ratios (p less than 0.05) than the sedentary control subjects. LV mass/LV end-diastolic volume ratio was similar (p greater than 0.05) among all groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).
Left ventricular dimensions and mass using magnetic resonance imaging in female endurance athletes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riley-Hagan, M.; Peshock, R. M.; Stray-Gundersen, J.; Katz, J.; Ryschon, T. W.; Mitchell, J. H.
1992-01-01
Few published studies of left ventricular (LV) mass in female endurance athletes have been performed with M-mode echocardiography, which involves assumptions of LV geometry. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging, a 3-dimensional technique, was used to examine LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume and mean wall thickness in female long distance runners (n = 13; mean age 29 years), cyclists (n = 12; mean age 26 years) and cross-country skiers (n = 11; mean age 24 years), and the findings were compared with sedentary control subjects (n = 10; mean age 27 years) matched for height and body weight. The physical characteristics for all subjects included height (mean 166 cm, and body weight (mean 56 kg). The percent body fat (mean 11.7) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, mean 63 ml.kg-1.min-1) were similar (p greater than 0.05) among all athletic groups, but significantly different from the control group (body fat, mean 22.5%; VO2max, mean 35 ml.kg-1.min-1). LV mass (mean 159 kg), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 122 ml), and mean wall thickness (mean 11.5 mm) were also similar among the athletic groups and significantly larger than the following control values: LV mass (mean 115 g), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 93 ml) and mean wall thickness (mean 9.8 mm). Ratios of LV mass to lean body weight were similar among all athletic groups, although athletic groups had larger ratios (p less than 0.05) than the sedentary control subjects. LV mass/LV end-diastolic volume ratio was similar (p greater than 0.05) among all groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).
Mass Media Exposure as a Dimension of the Teen-Age Innovator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blake, Reed H.; Nelson, Orval
A study sought to determine whether female innovative teens have mass media behavior similar to that of adult innovators. Research indicates that adult innovators (adult who are the first to adopt new ideas and products and who comprise 16% of the population) are more ventursome, better educated, more socially integrated, and have greater contact…
Cheng, K H; Cheng, Y S; Yeh, H C; Swift, D L
1997-11-01
This paper presents measurements of the geometric shape, perimeter, and cross-sectional area of the human oral passage (from oral entrance to midtrachea) and relates them through dimensionless parameters to the depositional mass transfer of ultrafine particles. Studies were performed in two identical replicate oral passage models, one of which was cut orthogonal to the airflow direction into 3 mm elements for measurement, the other used intact for experimental measurements of ultrafine aerosol deposition. Dimensional data were combined with deposition measurements in two sections of the oral passage (the horizontal oral cavity and the vertical laryngeal-tracheal airway) to calculate the dimensionless mass transfer Sherwood number (Sh). Mass transfer theory suggests that Sh should be expressible as a function of the Reynolds number (Re) and the Schmidt number (Sc). For inhalation and exhalation through the oral cavity (O-C), an empirical relationship was obtained for flow rates from 7.5-30.0 1 min-1: Sh = 15.3 Re0.812 Sc-0.986 An empirical relationship was likewise obtained for the laryngeal-tracheal (L-T) region over the same range of flow rates: Sh = 25.9 Re0.861 Sc-1.37 These relationships were compared to heat transfer in the human upper airways through the well-known analogy between heat and mass transfer. The Reynolds number dependence for both the O-C and L-T relationships was in good agreement with that for heat transfer. The mass transfer coefficients were compared to extrathoracic uptake of gases and vapors and showed similar flow rate dependence. For gases and vapors that conform to the zero concentration boundary condition, the empirical relationships are applicable when diffusion coefficients are taken into consideration.
Nickel titanium T-loop wire dimensions for en masse retraction.
Almeida, Layene; Ribeiro, Alexandre; Parsekian Martins, Renato; Viecilli, Rodrigo; Parsekian Martins, Lídia
2016-09-01
To compare the force system produced by nickel-titanium T-loop springs made with wires of different dimensions. Thirty compound T-loop springs were divided into three groups according to the dimensions of the nickel-titanium wire used for its design: 0.016" × 0.022", 0.017" × 0.025", and 0.018" × 0.025". The loops were tested on the Orthodontic Force Tester machine at an interbracket distance of 23 mm and activated 9 mm. The force in the y-axis and the moment in the x-axis were registered while the calculated moment to force ratio was recorded at each .5 mm of deactivation. The data were analyzed by three analyses of variance of repeated measures to detect differences and interactions between deactivation and wire size on force, moment, and moment-force ratios (M/F). All groups had significantly different forces (P < .001). The 0.016" × 0.022" wire produced 1.78N of force while the 0.017" × 0.025" and the 0.018" × 0.025" produced 2.81 N and 3.25 N, respectively. The 0.016" × 0.022" wire produced lower moments (11.6 Nmm) than the 0.017" × 0.025" and 0.018" × 0.025" wires, which produced similar moments (13.9 Nmm and 14.4Nmm, respectively). The M/F produced was different for all groups; 0.016" × 0.022" T-loops produced 6.7 mm while the 0.017" × 0.025" and 0.018" × 0.025" T-loops produced 5.0 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively. An interaction was detected for all variables between deactivation and groups. The larger wires tested produced higher forces with slight increase on the moments, but the M/F produced by the 0.016" × 0.022" wire was the highest found.
Erfani, Ehsan; Mitchell, David L.
2016-04-07
Here, ice particle mass- and projected area-dimension (m-D and A-D) power laws are commonly used in the treatment of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties and the remote sensing of ice cloud properties. Although there has long been evidence that a single m-D or A-D power law is often not valid over all ice particle sizes, few studies have addressed this fact. This study develops self-consistent m-D and A-D expressions that are not power laws but can easily be reduced to power laws for the ice particle size (maximum dimension or D) range of interest, and they are valid overmore » a much larger D range than power laws. This was done by combining ground measurements of individual ice particle m and D formed at temperature T < –20 °C during a cloud seeding field campaign with 2-D stereo (2D-S) and cloud particle imager (CPI) probe measurements of D and A, and estimates of m, in synoptic and anvil ice clouds at similar temperatures. The resulting m-D and A-D expressions are functions of temperature and cloud type (synoptic vs. anvil), and are in good agreement with m-D power laws developed from recent field studies considering the same temperature range (–60 °C < T < –20 °C).« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erfani, Ehsan; Mitchell, David L.
2016-04-01
Ice particle mass- and projected area-dimension (m-D and A-D) power laws are commonly used in the treatment of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties and the remote sensing of ice cloud properties. Although there has long been evidence that a single m-D or A-D power law is often not valid over all ice particle sizes, few studies have addressed this fact. This study develops self-consistent m-D and A-D expressions that are not power laws but can easily be reduced to power laws for the ice particle size (maximum dimension or D) range of interest, and they are valid over a much larger D range than power laws. This was done by combining ground measurements of individual ice particle m and D formed at temperature T < -20 °C during a cloud seeding field campaign with 2-D stereo (2D-S) and cloud particle imager (CPI) probe measurements of D and A, and estimates of m, in synoptic and anvil ice clouds at similar temperatures. The resulting m-D and A-D expressions are functions of temperature and cloud type (synoptic vs. anvil), and are in good agreement with m-D power laws developed from recent field studies considering the same temperature range (-60 °C < T < -20 °C).
Propagation of an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byrne, Jason P.; Maloney, Shane A.; McAteer, R. T. James; Refojo, Jose M.; Gallagher, Peter T.
2010-09-01
Solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most significant drivers of adverse space weather on Earth, but the physics governing their propagation through the heliosphere is not well understood. Although stereoscopic imaging of CMEs with NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) has provided some insight into their three-dimensional (3D) propagation, the mechanisms governing their evolution remain unclear because of difficulties in reconstructing their true 3D structure. In this paper, we use a new elliptical tie-pointing technique to reconstruct a full CME front in 3D, enabling us to quantify its deflected trajectory from high latitudes along the ecliptic, and measure its increasing angular width and propagation from 2 to 46 (~0.2 AU). Beyond 7 , we show that its motion is determined by an aerodynamic drag in the solar wind and, using our reconstruction as input for a 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulation, we determine an accurate arrival time at the Lagrangian L1 point near Earth.
The fermion mass hierarchy in models with warped extra dimensions and a bulk Higgs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Archer, Paul R.
2012-09-01
The phenomenological implications of allowing the Higgs to propagate in both AdS5 and a class of asymptotically AdS spaces are considered. Without tuning, the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the Higgs is peaked towards the IR tip of the space and hence such a scenario still offers a potential resolution to the gauge-hierarchy problem. When the exponent of the Higgs VEV is approximately two and one assumes order one Yukawa couplings, then the fermion Dirac mass term is found to range from ~ 10-5 eV to ~ 200 GeV in approximate agreement with the observed fermion masses. However, this result is sensitive to the exponent of the Higgs VEV, which is a free parameter. This paper offers a number of phenomenological and theoretical motivations for considering an exponent of two to be the optimal value. In particular, the exponent is bounded from below by the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound and the requirement that the dual theory resolves the gauge hierarchy problem. While, in the model considered, if the exponent is too large, electroweak symmetry may not be broken. In addition, the holographic method is used to demonstrate, in generality, that the flatter the Higgs VEV, the smaller the contribution to the electroweak T parameter. In addition, the constraints from a large class of gauge mediated and scalar mediated flavour changing neutral currents, will be at minimal values for flatter Higgs VEVs. Some initial steps are taken to investigate the physical scalar degrees of freedom that arise from a mixing between the W 5 /Z 5 components and the Higgs components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M.-S.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethani, A.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Billoud, T. R. V.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bisanz, T.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blue, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, Bh; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelijn, R.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cueto, A.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Amen, G.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; da Cunha Sargedas de Sousa, M. J.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Benedetti, A.; de Castro, S.; de Cecco, S.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de la Torre, H.; de Lorenzi, F.; de Maria, A.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Demarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Clemente, W. K.; di Donato, C.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Díez Cornell, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudder, A. Chr.; Duffield, E. M.; Duflot, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edwards, N. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farina, C.; Farina, E. M.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fawcett, W. J.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Forcolin, G. T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Foster, A. G.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, L. G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gasnikova, K.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisen, M.; Geisler, M. P.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Geng, C.; Gentile, S.; Gentsos, C.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghneimat, M.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuli, F.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino da Costa, J.; Gonella, G.; Gonella, L.; Gongadze, A.; González de La Hoz, S.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goudet, C. R.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. O. J.; Grafström, P.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gravila, P. M.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Grefe, C.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grevtsov, K.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groh, S.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guan, W.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Gui, B.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Gupta, S.; Gustavino, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hadef, A.; Hageböck, S.; Hagihara, M.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hartmann, N. M.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hayakawa, D.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J. J.; Heinrich, L.; Heinz, C.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Henkelmann, S.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Herde, H.; Herget, V.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohn, D.; Holmes, T. R.; Homann, M.; Honda, T.; Hong, T. M.; Hooberman, B. H.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howarth, J.; Hoya, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, Q.; Hu, S.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Huo, P.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Ince, T.; Introzzi, G.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Ishijima, N.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Ito, F.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jabbar, S.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, P.; Jain, V.; Jakobi, K. B.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansky, R.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javå¯Rek, T.; Javurkova, M.; Jeanneau, F.; Jeanty, L.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, H.; Jiang, Y.; Jiggins, S.; Jimenez Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Jivan, H.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Johnson, W. J.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, S.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Juste Rozas, A.; Köhler, M. K.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kahn, S. J.; Kaji, T.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kaluza, A.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneti, S.; Kanjir, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kaplan, L. S.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karentzos, E.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kasahara, K.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Kato, C.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kawade, K.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazanin, V. F.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Keyes, R. A.; Khader, M.; Khalil-Zada, F.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Kharlamova, T.; Khoo, T. J.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kido, S.; Kilby, C. R.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O. M.; King, B. T.; King, M.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kiuchi, K.; Kivernyk, O.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M. H.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Knapik, J.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Kobayashi, A.; Kobayashi, D.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Köhler, N. 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B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, I. M.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Stark, S. H.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanioka, R.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Tornambe, P.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usui, J.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Deijl, P. C.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vasquez, G. A.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Weber, S. A.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration
2017-02-01
A search is presented for anomalous quartic gauge boson couplings in vector-boson scattering. The data for the analysis correspond to 20.2 fb-1 of √{s }=8 TeV p p collisions and were collected in 2012 by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The search looks for the production of W W or W Z boson pairs accompanied by a high-mass dijet system, with one W decaying leptonically and a W or Z decaying hadronically. The hadronically decaying W /Z is reconstructed as either two small-radius jets or one large-radius jet using jet substructure techniques. Constraints on the anomalous quartic gauge boson coupling parameters α4 and α5 are set by fitting the transverse mass of the diboson system, and the resulting 95% confidence intervals are -0.024 <α4<0.030 and -0.028 <α5<0.033 .
Magnetic bion condensation: A new mechanism of confinement and mass gap in four dimensions
Uensal, Mithat
2009-09-15
In recent work, we derived the long-distance confining dynamics of certain QCD-like gauge theories formulated on small S{sup 1}xR{sup 3} based on symmetries, an index theorem, and Abelian duality. Here, we give the microscopic derivation. The solution reveals a new mechanism of confinement in QCD(adj) in the regime where we have control over both perturbative and nonperturbative aspects. In particular, consider SU(2) QCD(adj) theory with 1{<=}n{sub f}{<=}4 Majorana fermions, a theory which undergoes gauge symmetry breaking at small S{sup 1}. If the magnetic charge of the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) monopole is normalized to unity, we show that confinement occurs due to condensation of objects with magnetic charge 2, not 1. Because of index theorems, we know that such an object cannot be a two identical monopole configuration. Its net topological charge must vanish, and hence it must be topologically indistinguishable from the perturbative vacuum. We construct such non-self-dual topological excitations, the magnetically charged, topologically null molecules of a BPS monopole and KK antimonopole, which we refer to as magnetic bions. An immediate puzzle with this proposal is the apparent Coulomb repulsion between the BPS-KK pair. An attraction which overcomes the Coulomb repulsion between the two is induced by 2n{sub f}-fermion exchange. Bion condensation is also the mechanism of confinement in N=1 SYM on the same four-manifold. The SU(N) generalization hints a possible hidden integrability behind nonsupersymmetric QCD of affine Toda type, and allows us to analytically compute the mass gap in the gauge sector. We currently do not know the extension to R{sup 4}.
On binary channels to anomalous Cepheids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gautschy, Alfred; Saio, Hideyuki
2017-07-01
Anomalous Cepheids are a rather rare family of pulsating variables preferably found in dwarf galaxies. Attempts to model these variable stars via single-star evolution scenarios still leave space for improvements to better grasp their origin. Focusing on the Large Magellanic Cloud with its rich population of anomalous Cepheids to compare against, we probe the role binary stars might play to understand the nature of anomalous Cepheids. The evolution of donors and accretors undergoing Case-B mass transfer along the first red giant branch as well as merger-like models was calculated. First results show that in binary scenarios, a larger range of star masses and metallicities up to Z ≲ 0.008, higher than deemed possible hitherto, enter and pass through the instability strip. If binary stars play a role in anomalous Cepheid populations, mass donors, mass accretors or even mergers are potential candidates to counteract constraints imposed by the single-star approach.
Erfani, Ehsan; Mitchell, David L.
2016-04-07
Here, ice particle mass- and projected area-dimension (m-D and A-D) power laws are commonly used in the treatment of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties and the remote sensing of ice cloud properties. Although there has long been evidence that a single m-D or A-D power law is often not valid over all ice particle sizes, few studies have addressed this fact. This study develops self-consistent m-D and A-D expressions that are not power laws but can easily be reduced to power laws for the ice particle size (maximum dimension or D) range of interest, and they are valid over a much larger D range than power laws. This was done by combining ground measurements of individual ice particle m and D formed at temperature T < –20 °C during a cloud seeding field campaign with 2-D stereo (2D-S) and cloud particle imager (CPI) probe measurements of D and A, and estimates of m, in synoptic and anvil ice clouds at similar temperatures. The resulting m-D and A-D expressions are functions of temperature and cloud type (synoptic vs. anvil), and are in good agreement with m-D power laws developed from recent field studies considering the same temperature range (–60 °C < T < –20 °C).
Kupfer, D.H. )
1990-09-01
Each zone contains several anomalous salt properties (anomalous features). Zones cannot be characterized by any single property Zones are highly variable, lenticular, and discontinuous in detail; however, once established, they commonly have a predictable trend. The individual anomalous features can occur alone (locally in pairs) over areas of various sizes and shapes. These alone occurrences are not anomalous zones. Anomalous zones may be of any origin, and origin is not part of the definition. Typical origins include: primary (sedimentary), external sheath zone, separating two spines of salt, or caused by toroidal flow. The major importance of an anomalous zone is that it consists of various anomalous features distributed discontinuously along the zone. Thus, if three or more anomalous properties are observed together, one should look for others. The anomalous zones observed in the Gulf Coast thus far are vertical, linear, and semicontinuous. Most are reasonably straight, but some bend sharply, end abruptly, or coalesce. Textures in salt involve grain size, color (white to dark gray), grain shape, or grain distribution of the salt. Typical anomalous textures are coarse-grain, poikiloblastic, and friability. A change in color is commonplace and seldom anomalous. Structural anomalous features, broadly defined, account for most of the rest of the anomalous features. Not uncommonly they cause mining problems. Among the structural anomalous features: INCLUSIONS: Sediments, hydrocarbons, brine, gases. Common gases are air (as N{sub 2}), CH-compounds, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S. STRUCTURES: Sheared salt, undue stabbing or jointing, voids (crystal-lined pockets), permeability, increased porosity COMPOSITION: High anhydrite content, visible anhydrite as grains or boudins, very black salt = disseminated impurities such as clay.
Effects of Culture Dimensions on Maintenance of Porcine Inner Cell Mass-Derived Cell Self-Renewal.
Baek, Song; Han, Na Rae; Yun, Jung Im; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Minseok; Park, Choon Keun; Lee, Eunsong; Lee, Seung Tae
2017-02-01
Despite the fact that porcine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a practical study tool, in vitro long-term maintenance of these cells is difficult in a two-dimensional (2D) microenvironment using cellular niche or extracellular matrix proteins. However, a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment, similar to that enclosing the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, may improve in vitro maintenance of self-renewal. Accordingly, as a first step toward constructing a 3D microenvironment optimized to maintain porcine ESC self-renewal, we investigated different culture dimensions for porcine ICM-derived cells to enhance the maintenance of self-renewal. Porcine ICM-derived cells were cultured in agarose-based 3D hydrogel with self-renewal-friendly mechanics and in 2D culture plates with or without feeder cells. Subsequently, the effects of the 3D microenvironment on maintenance of self-renewal were identified by analyzing colony formation and morphology, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, and transcriptional and translational regulation of self-renewal-related genes. The 3D microenvironment using a 1.5% (w/v) agarose-based 3D hydrogel resulted in significantly more colonies with stereoscopic morphology, significantly improved AP activity, and increased protein expression of self-renewal-related genes compared to those in the 2D microenvironment. These results demonstrate that self-renewal of porcine ICM-derived cells can be maintained more effectively in a 3D microenvironment than in a 2D microenvironment. These results will help develop novel culture systems for ICM-derived cells derived from diverse species, which will contribute to stimulating basic and applicable studies related to ESCs.
Effects of Culture Dimensions on Maintenance of Porcine Inner Cell Mass-Derived Cell Self-Renewal
Baek, Song; Han, Na Rae; Yun, Jung Im; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Minseok; Park, Choon Keun; Lee, Eunsong; Lee, Seung Tae
2017-01-01
Despite the fact that porcine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a practical study tool, in vitro long-term maintenance of these cells is difficult in a two-dimensional (2D) microenvironment using cellular niche or extracellular matrix proteins. However, a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment, similar to that enclosing the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, may improve in vitro maintenance of self-renewal. Accordingly, as a first step toward constructing a 3D microenvironment optimized to maintain porcine ESC self-renewal, we investigated different culture dimensions for porcine ICM-derived cells to enhance the maintenance of self-renewal. Porcine ICM-derived cells were cultured in agarose-based 3D hydrogel with self-renewal-friendly mechanics and in 2D culture plates with or without feeder cells. Subsequently, the effects of the 3D microenvironment on maintenance of self-renewal were identified by analyzing colony formation and morphology, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, and transcriptional and translational regulation of self-renewal-related genes. The 3D microenvironment using a 1.5% (w/v) agarose-based 3D hydrogel resulted in significantly more colonies with stereoscopic morphology, significantly improved AP activity, and increased protein expression of self-renewal-related genes compared to those in the 2D microenvironment. These results demonstrate that self-renewal of porcine ICM-derived cells can be maintained more effectively in a 3D microenvironment than in a 2D microenvironment. These results will help develop novel culture systems for ICM-derived cells derived from diverse species, which will contribute to stimulating basic and applicable studies related to ESCs. PMID:28196411
Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; ...
2017-02-08
Here, a search is presented for anomalous quartic gauge boson couplings in vector-boson scattering. The data for the analysis correspond to 20.2 fb–1 of √s = 8 TeV pp collisions and were collected in 2012 by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The search looks for the production of WW or WZ boson pairs accompanied by a high-mass dijet system, with one W decaying leptonically and a W or Z decaying hadronically. The hadronically decaying W/Z is reconstructed as either two small-radius jets or one large-radius jet using jet substructure techniques. Constraints on the anomalous quartic gauge bosonmore » coupling parameters α4 and α5 are set by fitting the transverse mass of the diboson system, and the resulting 95% confidence intervals are –0.024 < α4 < 0.030 and –0.028 < α5 < 0.033.« less
Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; ...
2017-02-08
Here, a search is presented for anomalous quartic gauge boson couplings in vector-boson scattering. The data for the analysis correspond to 20.2 fb–1 of √s = 8 TeV pp collisions and were collected in 2012 by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The search looks for the production of WW or WZ boson pairs accompanied by a high-mass dijet system, with one W decaying leptonically and a W or Z decaying hadronically. The hadronically decaying W/Z is reconstructed as either two small-radius jets or one large-radius jet using jet substructure techniques. Constraints on the anomalous quartic gauge bosonmore » coupling parameters α4 and α5 are set by fitting the transverse mass of the diboson system, and the resulting 95% confidence intervals are –0.024 < α4 < 0.030 and –0.028 < α5 < 0.033.« less
Universality of anomalous conductivities in theories with higher-derivative holographic duals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grozdanov, S.; Poovuttikul, N.
2016-09-01
Anomalous chiral conductivities in theories with global anomalies are independent of whether they are computed in a weakly coupled quantum (or thermal) field theory, hydrodynamics, or at infinite coupling from holography. While the presence of dynamical gauge fields and mixed, gauge-global anomalies can destroy this universality, in their absence, the non-renormalisation of anomalous Ward identities is expected to be obeyed at all intermediate coupling strengths. In holography, bulk theories with higher-derivative corrections incorporate coupling constant corrections to the boundary theory observables in an expansion around infinite coupling. In this work, we investigate the coupling constant dependence and universality of anomalous conductivities (and thus of the anomalous Ward identities) in general, four-dimensional systems that possess asymptotically anti-de Sitter holographic duals with a non-extremal black brane in five dimensions, and anomalous transport introduced into the boundary theory via the bulk Chern-Simons action. We show that in bulk theories with arbitrary gauge- and diffeomorphism-invariant higher-derivative actions, anomalous conductivities, which can incorporate an infinite series of (inverse) coupling constant corrections, remain universal. Owing to the existence of the membrane paradigm, the proof reduces to a construction of bulk effective theories at the horizon and the boundary. It only requires us to impose the condition of horizon regularity and correct boundary conditions on the fields. We also discuss ways to violate the universality by violating conditions for the validity of the membrane paradigm, in particular, by adding mass to the vector fields (a case with a mixed, gauge-global anomaly) and in bulk geometries with a naked singularity.
Unitarity constraints on dimension-six operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corbett, Tyler; Éboli, O. J. P.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.
2015-02-01
We obtain the partial-wave unitarity constraints on dimension-six operators stemming from the analyses of vector boson and Higgs scattering processes as well as the inelastic scattering of standard model fermions into electroweak gauge bosons. We take into account all coupled channels, all possible helicity amplitudes, and explore a six-dimensional parameter space of anomalous couplings. Our analysis shows that for those operators affecting the Higgs couplings, present 90% confidence level constraints from global data analysis of Higgs and electroweak data are such that unitarity is not violated if √{s }≤3.2 TeV . For the purely gauge-boson operator OW W W, the present bounds from triple-gauge-boson analysis indicate that within its presently allowed 90% confidence level range unitarity can be violated in f f¯'→V V' at center-of-mass energy √{s }≥2.4 TeV .
Anomalous diffraction approximation limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Videen, Gorden; Chýlek, Petr
It has been reported in a recent article [Liu, C., Jonas, P.R., Saunders, C.P.R., 1996. Accuracy of the anomalous diffraction approximation to light scattering by column-like ice crystals. Atmos. Res., 41, pp. 63-69] that the anomalous diffraction approximation (ADA) accuracy does not depend on particle refractive index, but instead is dependent on the particle size parameter. Since this is at odds with previous research, we thought these results warranted further discussion.
Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph
2011-09-15
Brownian motion is widely considered the quintessential model of diffusion processes-the most elemental random transport processes in Science and Engineering. Yet so, examples of diffusion processes displaying highly non-Brownian statistics-commonly termed 'Anomalous Diffusion' processes-are omnipresent both in the natural sciences and in engineered systems. The scientific interest in Anomalous Diffusion and its applications is growing exponentially in the recent years. In this Paper we review the key statistics of Anomalous Diffusion processes: sub-diffusion and super-diffusion, long-range dependence and the Joseph effect, Levy statistics and the Noah effect, and 1/f noise. We further present a theoretical model-generalizing the Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion model-which provides a unified explanation for the prevalence of Anomalous Diffusion statistics. Our model shows that what is commonly perceived as 'anomalous' is in effect ubiquitous. - Highlights: > The article provides an overview of Anomalous Diffusion (AD) statistics. > The Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion model is extended and generalized. > The generalized model universally generates AD statistics. > A unified 'universal macroscopic explanation' for AD statistics is established. > AD statistics are shown to be fundamentally connected to robustness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, Lindsey
A study of the properties of the Zγ diboson system is presented using 5.0 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data from the LHC using the CMS detector. The pp →
Anomalous diffraction in hyperbolic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alberucci, Alessandro; Jisha, Chandroth P.; Boardman, Allan D.; Assanto, Gaetano
2016-09-01
We demonstrate that light is subject to anomalous (i.e., negative) diffraction when propagating in the presence of hyperbolic dispersion. We show that light propagation in hyperbolic media resembles the dynamics of a quantum particle of negative mass moving in a two-dimensional potential. The negative effective mass implies time reversal if the medium is homogeneous. Such property paves the way to diffraction compensation, i.e., spatial analog of dispersion compensating fibers in the temporal domain. At variance with materials exhibiting standard elliptic dispersion, in inhomogeneous hyperbolic materials light waves are pulled towards regions with a lower refractive index. In the presence of a Kerr-like optical response, bright (dark) solitons are supported by a negative (positive) nonlinearity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; García, Guillermo; Guerrero Rojas, Jesús
2017-01-01
The gauge symmetry of the Standard Model is U(1) xSU(2)L xSU(3) for unknown reasons. One aspect that can be addressed is the low dimensionality of all its subgroups. Why not much larger groups like SU(7) or for that matter, SP(38) or E7? We observe that fermions charged under large groups acquire much bigger dynamical masses, all things being equal at a high e.g. GUT scale, than ordinary quarks. Should such multicharged fermions exist, they are too heavy to be observed today and have either decayed early on (if they couple to the rest of the Standard Model) or become reliquial dark matter (if they don't). The result follows easily from strong antiscreening of the running coupling for the larger group together with scaling properties of the Dyson-Schwinger equation for the fermion mass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García Fernández, Guillermo; Guerrero Rojas, Jesús; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.
2017-02-01
The gauge symmetry of the Standard Model is SU(3)c × SU(2)L × U(1)Y for unknown reasons. One aspect that can be addressed is the low dimensionality of all its subgroups. Why not much larger groups like SU (7), or for that matter, SP (38) or E7? We observe that fermions charged under large groups acquire much bigger dynamical masses, all things being equal at a high e.g. GUT scale, than ordinary quarks. Should such multicharged fermions exist, they are too heavy to be observed today and have either decayed early on (if they couple to the rest of the Standard Model) or become reliquial dark matter (if they don't). The result follows from strong antiscreening of the running coupling for those larger groups (with an appropriately small number of flavors) together with scaling properties of the Dyson-Schwinger equation for the fermion mass.
Classical Aspect of the Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the Electron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bordovitsyn, V. A.; Kulikova, A. V.; Savitskaya, Yu. N.
2017-03-01
Some integral effects of electromagnetic interactions, such as the electromagnetic mass and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, are discussed on the basis of covariant methods of classical electrodynamics.
On the mass of the world-sheet 'axion' in SU(N) gauge theories in 3 + 1 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Athenodorou, Andreas; Teper, Michael
2017-08-01
There is numerical evidence that the world sheet action of the confining flux tube in D = 3 + 1 SU (N) gauge theories contains a massive excitation with 0- quantum numbers whose mass shows some decrease as one goes from SU (3) to SU (5). Moreover it has been shown that the natural coupling of this pseudoscalar has a topological interpretation making it natural to call it the world-sheet 'axion'. Recently it has been pointed out that if the mass of this 'axion' vanishes as N → ∞ then it becomes possible for the world sheet theory to be integrable in the planar limit. In this paper we perform lattice calculations of this 'axion' mass from SU (2) to SU (12), which allows us to make a controlled extrapolation to N = ∞ and so test this interesting possibility. We find that the 'axion' does not in fact become massless as N → ∞. So if the theory is to possess planar integrability then it must be some other world sheet excitation that becomes massless in the planar limit.
Oh-Ishi, Masamichi; Maeda, Tadakazu
2007-04-15
Agarose gel is the preferred electrophoretic medium currently used for separating high molecular mass (HMM) proteins (MW>100 kDa). Agarose gels are widely used for both SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis and agarose isoelectric focusing (IEF). A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis method employing agarose gels in the first dimension (agarose 2-DE) that is sufficiently good at separating up to 1.5mg of HMM proteins with molecular masses as large as 500 kDa has been used to separate proteins from various diseased tissues and cells. Although resolution of the agarose 2-DE pattern always depends on the tissue being analyzed, sample preparation procedures including (i) protein extraction with an SDS sample buffer; (ii) ultracentrifugation of a tissue homogenate; and (iii) 1% SDS in both stacking and separation gels of the second-dimension SDS-PAGE gel, are generally effective for HMM protein detection. In a comprehensive prostate cancer proteome study using agarose 2-DE, the HMM region of the gel was rich in proteins of particular gene/protein expression groups (39.1% of the HMM proteins but only 28.4% of the LMM ones were classified as transcription/translation-related proteins). Examples include transcription factors, DNA or RNA binding proteins, and ribosomal proteins. To understand oxidative stress-induced cellular damage at the protein level, a novel proteomic method, in which protein carbonyls were derivatized with biotin hydrazide followed by agarose 2-DE, was useful for detecting HMM protein carbonyls in tissues of both a diabetes model Ostuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat and a control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rat. In this paper, we review the use of agarose gels for separation of HMM proteins and disease proteomics of HMM proteins in general, with particular attention paid to our proteome analyzes based on the use of agarose 2-DE for protein separation followed by the use of mass spectrometry for protein identification.
Searching for the fourth family quarks through anomalous decays
Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S.
2010-09-01
The flavor democracy hypothesis predicts the existence of the fourth standard model family. Because of the high masses of the fourth family quarks, their anomalous decays could be dominant if certain criteria are met. This will drastically change the search strategy at hadron colliders. We show that the fourth standard model family down quarks with masses up to 400-450 GeV can be observed (or excluded) via anomalous decays by Tevatron.
Characterizing cosmic inhomogeneity with anomalous diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraljic, D.
2015-08-01
Dark matter (DM) clustering at the present epoch is investigated from a fractal viewpoint in order to determine the scale where the self-similar scaling property of the DM halo distribution transits to homogeneity. Methods based on well-established `counts-in-cells' as well as new methods based on anomalous diffusion and random walks are investigated. Both are applied to DM haloes of the biggest N-body simulation in the `Dark Sky Simulations' (DS) catalogue and an equivalent randomly distributed catalogue. Results based on the smaller `Millennium Run' (MR) simulation are revisited and improved. It is found that the MR simulation volume is too small and prone to bias to reliably identify the onset of homogeneity. Transition to homogeneity is defined when the fractal dimension of the clustered and random distributions cannot be distinguished within the associated uncertainties. The `counts-in-cells' method applied to the DS then yields a homogeneity scale roughly consistent with previous work (˜150 h-1 Mpc). The characteristic length-scale for anomalous diffusion to behave homogeneously is found to be at about 250 h-1 Mpc. The behaviour of the fractal dimensions for a halo catalogue with the same two-point function as the original but with shuffled Fourier phases is investigated. The methods based on anomalous diffusion are shown to be sensitive to the phase information, whereas the `counts-in-cells' methods are not.
Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A
2015-03-14
We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.
2015-03-01
We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.
Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.
2015-03-14
We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.
Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Sutra, Thibault; Badiou, Stéphanie; Kuster, Nils; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Mourad, Georges; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Le Quintrec, Moglie; Cristol, Jean-Paul
2016-12-01
Many patients are maintained at the lower end of the tacrolimus (TAC) reference range (3-7 ng/mL), requiring the use of analytical methods displaying a very low limit of quantification for their follow-up. Therefore, the new Dimension TAC, based on affinity chrome-mediated immunoassay technology, was evaluated on the Dimension EXL Integrated Chemistry System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc). The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the analytical performances with special emphasis on sensibility at low levels of TAC, (2) to compare the results with an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method. Analytical performance (imprecision, linearity, limit of detection, and limit of quantification) was evaluated. Comparison to UPLC/MS/MS was performed on 106 whole blood samples from 88 transplant recipients using regression analysis and Bland-Altman plot analysis. Repeatability and within-laboratory coefficients of variation were <6% at mean TAC control levels of 3.7, 11.7, and 19.2 ng/mL. Linearity was confirmed between 1.0 and 22 ng/mL. Passing-Bablok regression analysis of Siemens TAC assay in comparison with UPLC/MS/MS values displayed a slope of 1.09 and an intercept of -0.42. Using Bland-Altman analysis, the mean bias was 0.27 ng/mL with 1.96 SD limits of -2.14 and 2.67 ng/mL. The new Dimension TAC immunoassay on the EXL analyzer demonstrated reliable and reproducible performances allowing routine monitoring in transplant patients, even at TAC concentrations at the lower end of the therapeutic range.
Theoretical interpretations of anomalous Cepheid pulsations
Cox, A.N.; Proffitt, C.R.
1988-01-01
Detailed pulsation studies have been made of five anomalous Cepheids in the Draco galaxy, one in the galactic globular cluster NGC 5466 and a possible anomalous Cepheid in M15. Observed quantities are periods, luminosities, and effective temperatures. Pulsation masses range from 1.0 to 1.8 solar masses, as found by others before. The variables with effective temperatures above 7000 K seem to be in the first overtone radial mode, while the others are fundamental pulsators. Investigations show that the masses and pulsation modes are independent of the assumed composition and details of the convection such as inclusion of the considerable turbulent pressure as part of the total pressure in the convection zone. 19 references.
Anomalous gauge interactions of the Higgs boson: precision constraints and weak boson scatterings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Hong-Jian; Kuang, Yu-Ping; Yuan, C.-P.; Zhang, Bin
2003-02-01
Interaction of Higgs scalar (H) with weak gauge bosons (V=W±,Z0) is the key to understand electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) mechanism. New physics effects in the HVV interactions, as predicted by models of compositeness, supersymmetry and extra dimensions, can be formulated as anomalous couplings via a generic effective Lagrangian. We first show that the existing electroweak precision data already impose nontrivial indirect constraints on the anomalous HVV couplings. Then, we systematically study VV→VV scatterings in the TeV region, via Gold-plated pure leptonic decay modes of the weak bosons. We demonstrate that, even for a light Higgs boson in the mass range 115 GeV≲mH≲300 GeV, this process can directly probe the anomalous HVV interactions at the LHC with an integrated luminosity of 300 fb-1, which further supports the “no-lose” theorem for the LHC to uncover the EWSB mechanism. Comparisons with the constraints from measuring the cross section of VH associate production and the Higgs boson decay width are also presented.
Anomalous Cepheids in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy
Smith, H.A.; Stryker, L.L.
1986-08-01
The Sculptor dwarf galaxy contains at least three Cepheids (V25, V26, and V119), each with a period near 1 day and B magnitudes about 1.4 mag brighter than those of the Sculptor RR Lyrae stars. Low-resolution spectra of these so-called anomalous Cepheids were obtained. Metal abundances of the Cepheids have been determined by the Delta-S method and are found to be: Fe/H = -1.9 + or - 0.2, -1.8 + or - 0.2, and -2.2 + or - 0.3 for V25, V26, and V119, respectively. These values are consistent with the metal abundances of Sculptor red giants estimated from the color of the giant branch. Pulsational masses have been estimated for V25 and V26, but there is a need for improved photometry of these stars to obtain accurate results. It cannot be unambiguously established whether the Sculptor anomalous Cepheids are evolved single stars, aged about 3 Gyr, or whether they are created by mass transfer in older binary systems. The occurrence of anomalous Cepheids in other systems is discussed. There is some evidence that most anomalous Cepheids in the Small Magellanic Cloud are evolved single stars. 89 references.
FRACTAL DIMENSION RESULTS FOR CONTINUOUS TIME RANDOM WALKS
Meerschaert, Mark M.; Nane, Erkan; Xiao, Yimin
2013-01-01
Continuous time random walks impose random waiting times between particle jumps. This paper computes the fractal dimensions of their process limits, which represent particle traces in anomalous diffusion. PMID:23482421
Hustoft, Hanne Kolsrud; Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Rogeberg, Magnus; Misaghian, Dorna; Torsetnes, Silje Bøen; Greibrokk, Tyge; Reubsaet, Léon; Wilson, Steven Ray; Lundanes, Elsa
2013-01-01
Reliable, sensitive and automatable analytical methodology is of great value in e.g. cancer diagnostics. In this context, an on-line system for enzymatic cleavage of proteins, subsequent peptide separation by liquid chromatography (LC) with mass spectrometric detection has been developed using “sub-chip” columns (10–20 μm inner diameter, ID). The system could detect attomole amounts of isolated cancer biomarker progastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP), in a more automatable fashion compared to previous methods. The workflow combines protein digestion using an 20 μm ID immobilized trypsin reactor with a polymeric layer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-vinyl azlactone (HEMA-VDM), desalting on a polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) monolithic trap column, and subsequent separation of resulting peptides on a 10 μm ID (PS-DVB) porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column. The high resolution of the PLOT columns was maintained in the on-line system, resulting in narrow chromatographic peaks of 3–5 seconds. The trypsin reactors provided repeatable performance and were compatible with long-term storage. PMID:24336509
Milavic, Boris; Miletic, Alen; Miletic, Durdica
2012-06-01
This investigation was conducted to test the reliability and validity of the Multidimensional Body Image Questionnaire (MBIQD) designed for dancers. The newly constructed MBIQD was administered to 393 female and male participants (average age 21.8 yrs) from three European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Serbia). The scale consisted of 43 items in a 5-point response scale. Factorial analysis yielded eight factors (attractiveness, strength, joy, bad health/weakness, flexibility, body efficacy, nervousness, and masculinity) and explained 56.6% of the total variance. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the items assigned to each of the eight MBIQD subscales was high and satisfactory (from 0.71 to 0.89). The second aim was to identify gender differences within the MBIQD subscales. According to independent-sample t-tests, female dancers showed significantly higher results on the MBIQD scales of joy and flexibility, while male dancers scored significantly higher on the masculinity scale. The third aim was to identify differences between the group of dancers defined by body mass index (BMI) and the eight MBIQD subscales separately by gender. According to the Wilks test, there was a significant multivariate effect for female subjects (F = 2.06, p<0.01) and for male subjects (F = 3.05, p<0.00). According to post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant differences in BMI groups among female dancers were found in attractiveness, strength, and masculinity MBIQD scales, while the male dancers, divided by BMI, showed significant differences in bad health/weakness, body efficacy, and flexibility MBIQD scales. This is the first research that has reported specific gender differences in body image self-perception among dancers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhuria, Mansi; Misra, Aalok
2012-02-01
We show that it is possible to realize a " μ-split SUSY" scenario (Cheng and Cheng, 2005) [1] in the context of large volume limit of type IIB compactifications on Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau orientifolds in the presence of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane and a (stack of) D7-brane(s) wrapping the "big" divisor. For this, we investigate the possibility of getting one Higgs to be light while other to be heavy in addition to a heavy higgsino mass parameter. Further, we examine the existence of long lived gluino that manifests one of the major consequences of μ-split SUSY scenario, by computing its decay width as well as lifetime corresponding to the three-body decays of the gluino into either a quark, a squark and a neutralino or a quark, squark and goldstino, as well as two-body decays of the gluino into either a neutralino and a gluon or a goldstino and a gluon. Guided by the geometric Kähler potential for Σ obtained in Misra and Shukla (2010) [2] based on GLSM techniques, and the Donaldson's algorithm (Barun et al., 2008) [3] for obtaining numerically a Ricci-flat metric, we give details of our calculation in Misra and Shukla (2011) [4] pertaining to our proposed metric for the full Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau (the geometric Kähler potential being needed to be included in the full moduli space Kähler potential in the presence of the mobile space-time filling D3-brane), but for simplicity of calculation, close to the big divisor, which is Ricci-flat in the large volume limit. Also, as an application of the one-loop RG flow solution for the higgsino mass parameter, we show that the contribution to the neutrino masses at the EW scale from dimension-six operators arising from the Kähler potential, is suppressed relative to the Weinberg-type dimension-five operators.
Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.
Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-04-01
The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.
Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-04-01
The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.
Anomalous solutions to the strong CP problem.
Hook, Anson
2015-04-10
We present a new mechanism for solving the strong CP problem using a Z_{2} discrete symmetry and an anomalous U(1) symmetry. A Z_{2} symmetry is used so that two gauge groups have the same theta angle. An anomalous U(1) symmetry makes the difference between the two theta angles physical and the sum unphysical. Two models are presented where the anomalous symmetry manifests itself in the IR in different ways. In the first model, there are massless bifundamental quarks, a solution reminiscent of the massless up quark solution. In the IR of this model, the η^{'} boson relaxes the QCD theta angle to the difference between the two theta angles-in this case zero. In the second model, the anomalous U(1) symmetry is realized in the IR as a dynamically generated mass term that has exactly the phase needed to cancel the theta angle. Both of these models make the extremely concrete prediction that there exist new colored particles at the TeV scale.
Two-Dimensional Pulse Propagation without Anomalous Dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Carl M.; Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J.; Sarkar, Sarben; Zayats, Anatoly V.
2017-09-01
Anomalous dispersion is a surprising phenomenon associated with wave propagation in an even number of space dimensions. In particular, wave pulses propagating in two-dimensional space change shape and develop a tail even in the absence of a dispersive medium. We show mathematically that this dispersion can be eliminated by considering a modified wave equation with two geometric spatial dimensions and, unconventionally, two timelike dimensions. Experimentally, such a wave equation describes pulse propagation in an optical or acoustic medium with hyperbolic dispersion, leading to a fundamental understanding and new approaches to ultrashort pulse shaping in nanostructured metamaterials.
Effective pion mass term and the trace anomaly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal
2017-01-01
Recently, we developed an effective theory of pions and a light dilatonic meson for gauge theories with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry that are close to the conformal window. The pion mass term in this effective theory depends on an exponent y . We derive the transformation properties under dilatations of the renormalized fermion mass and use this to rederive y =3 -γm* , where γm* is the fixed-point value of the mass anomalous dimension at the sill of the conformal window. This value for y is consistent with the trace anomaly of the underlying near-conformal gauge theory.
A search for anomalously heavy isotopes of low Z nuclei
Hemmick, T.K.
1989-01-01
Several recent theories suggest the possibility that undiscovered exotic forms of stable matter may exist in the universe. These would be hidden in nature as anomalous mass isotopes of ordinary nuclei. A search was performed for anomalous mass isotopes of hydrogen, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, oxygen and fluorine. No evidence for such isotopes was found for masses ranging from 100 to 10,000 amu. The sensitivity of our search was many orders of magnitude higher than theoretical calculations suggest should have been necessary. Although natural processes which lower concentrations of heavy isotopes do exist, we show that such processes cannot account for the dramatic differences between prediction and measurement. The implications of our results are discussed in the context of the recent theories to which it applies as well as any future theories which might predict anomalous stable forms of matter. Suggestions are made for ways to extend these results to other isotopes and higher masses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, Y. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. Y.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration
2016-07-01
Using 1.09 ×109 J /ψ events collected by the BESIII experiment in 2012, we study the J /ψ →γ η'π+π- process and observe a significant abrupt change in the slope of the η'π+π- invariant mass distribution at the proton-antiproton (p p ¯) mass threshold. We use two models to characterize the η'π+π- line shape around 1.85 GeV /c2: one that explicitly incorporates the opening of a decay threshold in the mass spectrum (Flatté formula), and another that is the coherent sum of two resonant amplitudes. Both fits show almost equally good agreement with data, and suggest the existence of either a broad state around 1.85 GeV /c2 with strong couplings to the p p ¯ final states or a narrow state just below the p p ¯ mass threshold. Although we cannot distinguish between the fits, either one supports the existence of a p p ¯ moleculelike state or bound state with greater than 7 σ significance.
Ablikim, M; Achasov, M N; Ahmed, S; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Baldini Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Berger, N; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, R P; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Heinsius, F H; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Holtmann, T; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, Y P; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, X Z; Huang, Y; Huang, Z L; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kupsc, A; Kühn, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leithoff, H; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, H J; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y B; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Y Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, M M; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Mezzadri, G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales Morales, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Musiol, P; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schnier, C; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, M; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X H; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, L J; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, J J; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H
2016-07-22
Using 1.09×10^{9} J/ψ events collected by the BESIII experiment in 2012, we study the J/ψ→γη^{'}π^{+}π^{-} process and observe a significant abrupt change in the slope of the η^{'}π^{+}π^{-} invariant mass distribution at the proton-antiproton (pp[over ¯]) mass threshold. We use two models to characterize the η^{'}π^{+}π^{-} line shape around 1.85 GeV/c^{2}: one that explicitly incorporates the opening of a decay threshold in the mass spectrum (Flatté formula), and another that is the coherent sum of two resonant amplitudes. Both fits show almost equally good agreement with data, and suggest the existence of either a broad state around 1.85 GeV/c^{2} with strong couplings to the pp[over ¯] final states or a narrow state just below the pp[over ¯] mass threshold. Although we cannot distinguish between the fits, either one supports the existence of a pp[over ¯] moleculelike state or bound state with greater than 7σ significance.
Anomalous spin Josephson effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Mei-Juan; Wang, Jun; Hao, Lei; Liu, Jun-Feng
2016-10-01
We report a theoretical study on the spin Josephson effect arising from the exchange coupling of the two ferromagnets (Fs), which are deposited on a two-dimensional (2D) time-reversal-invariant topological insulator. An anomalous spin supercurrent Js z˜sin(α +α0) is found to flow in between the two Fs and the ground state of the system is not limited to the magnetically collinear configuration (α =n π ,n is an integer) but determined by a controllable angle α0, where α is the crossed angle between the two F magnetizations. The angle α0 is the dynamic phase of the electrons traveling in between the two Fs and can be controlled electrically by a gate voltage. This anomalous spin Josephson effect, similar to the conventional φ0 superconductor junction, originates from the definite electron chirality of the helical edge states in the 2D topological insulator. These results indicate that the magnetic coupling in a topological system is different from the usual one in conventional materials.
Fickian dispersion is anomalous
Cushman, John H.; O’Malley, Dan
2015-06-22
The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion wemore » illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Finally, power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.« less
Fickian dispersion is anomalous
Cushman, John H.; O’Malley, Dan
2015-06-22
The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Finally, power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.
Fickian dispersion is anomalous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cushman, John H.; O'Malley, Dan
2015-12-01
The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.
Quigg, Chris
2007-12-05
In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.
Chris Quigg
2007-12-05
In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nartsev, I. V.; Stepanyantz, K. V.
2017-04-01
We consider the softly broken N = 1 supersymmetric electrodynamics, regularized by higher derivatives. For this theory we demonstrate that the renormalization of the photino mass is determined by integrals of double total derivatives in the momentum space in all orders. Consequently, it is possible to derive the NSVZ-like exact relation between the photino mass anomalous dimension and the anomalous dimension of the matter superfields in the rigid theory by direct summation of supergraphs. It is important that both these renormalization group functions are defined in terms of the bare coupling constant, so that the considered NSVZ-like relation is valid independently of the subtraction scheme in the case of using the higher derivative regularization. The factorization of integrals defining the photino mass renormalization into integrals of double total derivatives is verified by an explicit two-loop calculation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Havlin, Shlomo; Bunde, Armin; Stanley, H. Eugene
1986-07-01
We introduce a novel two-component random network. Unit resistors are placed at random along the bonds of a pure superconducting linear chain, with the distance l between successive resistors being chosen from the distribution P(l)~l-(α+1) where α>0 is a tunable parameter. We study the transport exponents dw and ζ~ defined by
Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.
2016-06-07
A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.
Hewett, J.
2004-10-05
The large separation between the weak scale {approx} 10{sup 3} GeV and the traditional scale of gravity--the Planck scale with M{sub PI} {approx} 10{sup 19} GeV--is one of the most puzzling aspects of nature. The origin of this large ratio, as well as its stability under radiative corrections, demands explanation. This is known as the hierarchy problem. One theoretical means of solving this problem is to introduce Supersymmetry. Alternatively one may hope to address the hierarchy by exploiting the geometry of space time. Specifically, recent theories involve the idea that the 3-spatial dimensions in which we live could be a 3-spatial-dimensional ''membrane'' embedded in a much larger extra dimensional space, and that the hierarchy is generated by the geometry of the additional dimensions. Such ideas have led to extra dimensional theories which have verifiable consequences at the TeV scale. Our knowledge of the weak and strong forces extends down to scales of {approx} (100 GeV){sup -1} (or of order 10{sup -15} mm). On the other hand, we have almost no knowledge of gravity at distances less than roughly a millimeter, as direct tests of the gravitational force at the smallest distances are based on torsion-balance experiments, which are mechanically limited. It is thus conceivable that gravity may behave quite differently from the 3-dimensional Newtonian theory at small distances. This leads to the possibility that matter and non-gravitational forces are confined to our 3-dimensional subspace, whereas gravity may propagate throughout a higher dimensional volume. In this case, the gauge forces are trapped within our 3-dimensional space, unaware of the extra dimensions, and maintain their usual behavior. Gravity, on the other hand, would no longer follow the inverse-square force law at distances smaller than the size of the extra dimensions, as the gravitational equivalent of Gauss' Law mandates that the gravitational field spreads out into the full spatial volume
Emergent dimensions and branes from large-N confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherman, Aleksey; Poppitz, Erich
2016-12-01
N =1 S U (N ) super-Yang-Mills theory on R3×S1 is believed to have a smooth dependence on the circle size L . Making L small leads to calculable nonperturbative color confinement, mass gap, and string tensions. For finite N , the small-L low-energy dynamics is described by a three-dimensional effective theory. The large-N limit, however, reveals surprises: the infrared dual description is in terms of a theory with an emergent fourth dimension, curiously reminiscent of T-duality in string theory. Here, however, the emergent dimension is a lattice, with momenta related to the S1-winding of the gauge field holonomy, which takes values in ZN. Furthermore, the low-energy description is given by a nontrivial gapless theory, with a space-like z =2 Lifshitz scale invariance and operators that pick up anomalous dimensions as L is increased. Supersymmetry-breaking deformations leave the long-distance theory scale-invariant, but change the Lifshitz scaling exponent to z =1 , and lead to an emergent Lorentz symmetry at small L . Adding a small number of fundamental fermion fields leads to matter localized on three-dimensional branes in the emergent four-dimensional theory.
Dolley, T.P.
2003-01-01
Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.
Theoretical interpretations of anomalous Cepheid pulsations
Cox, A.N.; Proffett, C.R.
1985-01-01
Anomalous Cepheids are variable stars found in metal poor systems, with a low mass main sequence turnoff, that are significantly brighter (0.4 to 1.0 magnitude) than the RR Lyrae variables in the same system. They do have similar periods and effective temperatures. In dwarf spheroidal systems such as Draco, Leo II, Sculptor and Ursae Major, they are quite common, but they are rare in globular clusters. Only one is well known in the globular cluster NGC 5466 (Zinn and Dahn, 1976), but there are other possible candidates in M15 and omega Cen. Similar objects are found in the SMC, but none are seen in the LMC.
Anomalous Magnetism in Hexaborides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ott, Hans Rudolf
2001-03-01
The compounds of the type M2+B (M=alkaline- or rare-earth element) reveal highly anomalous electronic and magnetic properties. Because of their peculiar electronic band structure they are close to a metal-insulator transition. In alkaline-earth hexaborides, ferromagnetic order among rather small moments but stable up to amazingly high temperatures between 600 and 900 K, is almost inevitably due to a novel type of partial polarization of the itinerant electron system. Various scenarios, ranging from the polarization of a low density electron gas to the formation of an exciton condensate and subsequent breaking of the time reversal symmetry upon doping and novel types of magnetism in doped semiconductors have been considered. In EuB6, the ferromagnetic order is among localized 4f-electron moments, but it occurs only below a Curie temperature of 15 K and is accompanied by a drastic enhancement of the conduction electron concentration in the ordered phase. A number of experiments, also probing microscopic features, indicate an intricate interplay between the magnetic and the electronic features of these, both chemically and structurally, seemingly simple materials.
Anomalous - viscosity current drive
Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki
1988-01-01
An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.
Anomalous Flavor U(1)_X for Everything
Dreiner, Herbi K.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc
2003-12-01
We present an ambitious model of flavor, based on an anomalous U(1)_X gauge symmetry with one flavon, only two right-handed neutrinos and only two mass scales: M_{grav} and m_{3/2}. In particular, there are no new scales introduced for right-handed neutrino masses. The X-charges of the matter fields are such that R-parity is conserved exactly, higher-dimensional operators are sufficiently suppressed to guarantee a proton lifetime in agreement with experiment, and the phenomenology is viable for quarks, charged leptons, as well as neutrinos. In our model one of the three light neutrinos automatically is massless. The price we have to pay for this very successful model are highly fractional X-charges which can likely be improved with less restrictive phenomenological ansatze for mass matrices.
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
... atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (passage between the left and right atria) must exist ... heart disease - TAPVR Images Heart, section through the middle Totally anomalous pulmonary venous return, x-ray Totally ...
Anomalous electrical conductivity of nanoscale colloidal suspensions.
Chakraborty, Suman; Padhy, Sourav
2008-10-28
The electrical conductivity of colloidal suspensions containing nanoscale conducting particles is nontrivially related to the particle volume fraction and the electrical double layer thickness. Classical electrochemical models, however, tend to grossly overpredict the pertinent effective electrical conductivity values, as compared to those obtained under experimental conditions. We attempt to address this discrepancy by appealing to the complex interconnection between the aggregation kinetics of the nanoscale particles and the electrodynamics within the double layer. In particular, we model the consequent alterations in the effective electrophoretic mobility values of the suspension by addressing the fundamentals of agglomeration-deagglomeration mechanisms through the pertinent variations in the effective particulate dimensions, solid fractions, as well as the equivalent suspension viscosity. The consequent alterations in the electrical conductivity values provide a substantially improved prediction of the corresponding experimental findings and explain the apparent anomalous behavior predicted by the classical theoretical postulates.
Anomalous free electron laser interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Einat, M.; Jerby, E.; Kesar, A.
2002-05-01
Free electron lasers (FELs) are considered, typically, as fast wave devices. The normal FEL interaction satisfies the tuning condition ω≅( kz+ kW) Vz , where ω and kz are the em-wave angular frequency and longitudinal wave number, respectively, Vz is the electron axial speed, and kW is the wiggler periodicity. This paper presents an anomalous FEL interaction, which may occur in slow-wave FELs (i.e. loaded by dielectric or periodic structures). The anomalous FEL effect presented here satisfies the tuning condition ω≅( kz- kW) Vz , and it resembles the anomalous effect in slow-wave cyclotron resonance masers. A necessary condition for the anomalous interaction is ω/ kz< Vz (i.e., the em-wave phase velocity should be slower than the electron beam). The paper presents a preliminary experimental result demonstrating the anomalous FEL effect in a stripline dielectric-loaded FEL experiment. A linear Pierce equation is applied to describe both the anomalous and normal FELs in the same framework. The paper is concluded with a conceptual discussion.
Chan, Kwok Ming
2006-01-01
Using the effective Lagrangian formulation with the requirements of Standard Model SU(3) x SU (2) x U(1) symmetries, the leading order effects of new physics at an energy scale Λ on the gt$\\bar{t}$ vertex can be shown to be determined by the strengths of three anomalous couplings C_{tG}, C_{qG} and C_{tGΦ}.
Petrology of Anomalous Eucrites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Ross, D. K.
2015-01-01
Most mafic achondrites can be broadly categorized as being "eucritic", that is, they are composed of a ferroan low-Ca clinopyroxene, high-Ca plagioclase and a silica phase. They are petrologically distinct from angritic basalts, which are composed of high-Ca, Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene, Carich olivine, nearly pure anorthite and kirschsteinite, or from what might be called brachinitic basalts, which are composed of ferroan orthopyroxene and high-Ca clinopyroxene, intermediate-Ca plagioclase and ferroan olivine. Because of their similar mineralogy and composition, eucrite-like mafic achondrites formed on compositionally similar asteroids under similar conditions of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. Some of them have distinctive isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics that demonstrate formation on asteroids different from the parent of the HED clan (e.g., Ibitira, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011). Others show smaller oxygen isotopic distinctions but are otherwise petrologically and compositionally indistinguishable from basaltic eucrites (e.g., Pasamonte, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91007). The degree of uniformity in delta O-17 of eucrites and diogenites is one piece of evidence considered to favor of a magma-ocean scenario for their petrogenesis. Given that the O isotopic differences separating Pasamonte and PCA 91007 from other eucrites are small, and that there is an absence of other distinguishing characteristics, a legitimate question is: Did the HED parent asteroid fail to homogenize via a magma-ocean stage, thus explaining outliers like Pasamonte? We are initiating a program of study of anomalous eucrite-like achondrites as one part of our effort to seek a resolution of this issue. Here we present preliminary petrologic information on Asuka (A-) 881394, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87520 and EET 87542. We will have studied several more by conference time.
Nonlocal anomalous Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shulei; Vignale, Giovanni
Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is a distinctive transport property of ferromagnetic metals arising from spin orbit coupling (SOC) in concert with spontaneous spin polarization. Nonetheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also appears in a nonmagnetic metal in contact with a magnetic insulator. The main puzzle lies in the apparent absence of spin polarized electrons in the non-magnetic metal. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that the scattering of electrons from a rough metal-insulator interface is generally spin-dependent, which results in mutual conversion between spin and charge currents flowing in the plane of the layer. It is the current-carrying spin polarized electrons and the spin Hall effect in the bulk of the metal layer that conspire to generate the AH current. This novel AHE differs from the conventional one only in the spatial separation of the SOC and the magnetization, so we name it as nonlocal AHE. In contrast to other previously proposed mechanisms (e.g., spin Hall AHE and magnetic proximity effect (MPE)), the nonlocal AHE appears on the first order of spin Hall angle and does not rely on the induced moments in the metal layer, which make it experimentally detectable by contrasting the AH current directions of two layered structures such as Pt/Cu/YIG and β -Ta/Cu/YIG (with a thin inserted Cu layer to eliminate the MPE). We predict that the directions of the AH currents in these two trilayers would be opposite since the spin Hall angles of Pt and β -Ta are of opposite signs. Work supported by NSF Grants DMR-1406568.
Anomalous heat conduction in a one-dimensional ideal gas.
Casati, Giulio; Prosen, Tomaz
2003-01-01
We provide firm convincing evidence that the energy transport in a one-dimensional gas of elastically colliding free particles of unequal masses is anomalous, i.e., the Fourier law does not hold. Our conclusions are confirmed by a theoretical and numerical analysis based on a Green-Kubo-type approach specialized to momentum-conserving lattices.
Is anomalous transport diffusive
Rewoldt, G.
1989-09-01
It has often been assumed that the anomalous transport from saturated plasma instabilities is diffusive'' in the sense that the particle flux, {Gamma}, the electron energy flux, q{sub e}, and the ion energy flux, q{sub i}, can be written in forms that are linear in the density gradient, dn/dr, the electron temperature gradient, dT{sub e}/dr, and the ion temperature gradient dT{sub i}/dr. In the simplest form, {Gamma} = {minus} D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr), q{sub e} = {minus} D{sub e}{sup e}n(dT{sub e}/dr), and q{sub i} = {minus}D{sub i}{sup i}n(dT{sub i}/dr). A possible generalization of this is to include so-called off-diagonal'' terms, with {Gamma} = nV{sub n} {minus} D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr) {minus} D{sub n}{sup e}(n/T{sub e})(dT{sub e}/dr) {minus} D{sub n}{sup i}(n/T{sub i})(dT{sub i}/dr), with corresponding forms for the energy fluxes. Here, general results for the quasilinear particle and energy fluxes, resulting from tokamak linear microinstabilities, are evaluated to assess the relative importance of the diagonal and the off-diagonal terms. A further possible generatlization is to include also contributions to the fluxes from higher powers of the gradients, specifically quadratic'' contributions proportional to (dn/dr){sup 2}, (dn/dr)(dT{sub e}/dr), and so on. A procedure is described for evaluating the corresponding coefficients, and results are presented for illustrative realistic tokamak cases. Qualitatively, it is found that the off-diagonal diffusion coefficients can be as big as the diagonal ones, and that the quadratic terms can be larger than the linear ones. The results thus strongly suggest that the commonly used diffusive'' approximation with only diagonal terms, {Gamma} = {minus}D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr), and correspondingly for the energy fluxes, is not adequate in practice. 9 refs., 1 tabs.
Wang, Caihong; Zhang, Jinlan; Wu, Caisheng; Wang, Zhe
2017-10-06
It is very important to rapidly discover and identify the multiple components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula. High performance liquid chromatography with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS) has been widely used to analyze TCM formula and contains multiple-dimension data including retention time (RT), high resolution mass (HRMS), multiple-stage mass spectrometric (MS(n)), and isotope intensity distribution (IID) data. So it is very necessary to exploit a useful strategy to utilize multiple-dimension data to rapidly probe structural information and identify chemical compounds. In this study, a new strategy to initiatively use the multiple-dimension LC-MS data has been developed to discover and identify unknown compounds of TCM in many styles. The strategy guarantees the fast discovery of candidate structural information and provides efficient structure clues for identification. The strategy contains four steps in sequence: (1) to discover potential compounds and obtain sub-structure information by the mass spectral tree similarity filter (MTSF) technique, based on HRMS and MS(n) data; (2) to classify potential compounds into known chemical classes by discriminant analysis (DA) on the basis of RT and HRMS data; (3) to hit the candidate structural information of compounds by intersection sub-structure between MTSF and DA (M,D-INSS); (4) to annotate and confirm candidate structures by IID data. This strategy allowed for the high exclusion efficiency (greater than 41%) of irrelevant ions in er-xian decoction (EXD) while providing accurate structural information of 553 potential compounds and identifying 66 candidates, therefore accelerating and simplifying the discovery and identification of unknown compounds in TCM formula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Constructing gravitational dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartz, Matthew
2003-07-01
It would be extremely useful to know whether a particular low energy effective theory might have come from a compactification of a higher dimensional space. Here, this problem is approached from the ground up by considering theories with multiple interacting massive gravitons. It is actually very difficult to construct discrete gravitational dimensions which have a local continuum limit. In fact, any model with only nearest neighbor interactions is doomed. If we could find a non-linear extension for the Fierz-Pauli Lagrangian for a graviton of mass mg, which does not break down until the scale Λ2=(mgMPl), this could be used to construct a large class of models whose continuum limit is local in the extra dimension. But this is shown to be impossible: a theory with a single graviton must break down by Λ3=(m2gMPl)1/3. Next, we look at how the discretization prescribed by the truncation of the Kaluza-Klein tower of an honest extra dimension raises the scale of strong coupling. It dictates an intricate set of interactions among various fields which conspire to soften the strongest scattering amplitudes and allow for a local continuum limit, at least at the tree level. A number of candidate symmetries associated with locality in the discretized dimension are also discussed.
Marston, Philip L
2014-03-01
The phase and group velocities of elastic guided waves are important in the physical interpretation of high frequency scattering by fluid-loaded elastic shells. Outside the context of scattering, those properties are also important for understanding the energy flow in acoustic metamaterials. In a recent investigation of acoustic metamaterials exhibiting anomalous wave propagation [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2887-2895 (2012)] criticism of negative group velocity terminology was generalized to elastic waves guided on ordinary materials. Some context and justification for retaining the identification of negative group velocities associated with a type of backscattering enhancement for shells are explained here. The phase evolution direction is determined by the boundary conditions.
Limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pease, Christopher; Fiolhais, Miguel; Onofre, Antonio
2017-01-01
Recent LHC results on the measurements of the W-boson helicity fractions and single top quark production cross section at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are combined in order to establish new limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex. The allowed regions for these limits are presented in three-dimensional graphics, for both real and imaginary components of the different anomalous couplings, allowing all the other anomalous couplings to vary at the same time. These results are combined with the prospected future measurement of the single top quark production cross section and W-boson helicity fractions at the LHC. When compared with the previous most precise limits, these results show a significant improvement, larger than 10%.
Compositions of Normal and Anomalous Eucrite-Type Mafic Achondrites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Mertzman, S. A.
2016-01-01
The most common asteroidal igneous meteorites are eucrite-type mafic achondrites - basalts and gabbros composed of ferroan pigeonite, ferroan augite, calcic plagioclase, silica, ilmenite, troilite, Ca-phosphate, chromite and Fe-metal. These rocks are thought to have formed on a single asteroid along with howardites and diogenites. However, high precision O-isotopic analyses have shown that some mafic achondrites have small, well-resolved, non-mass-dependent differences that have been interpreted as indicating derivation from different asteroids. Some of these O-anomalous mafic achondrites also have anomalous petrologic characteristics, strengthening the case that they hail from distinct parent asteroids. We present the results of bulk compositional studies of a suite of normal and anomalous eucrite-type basalts and cumulate gabbros.
Investigating perturbative unitarity in the presence of anomalous couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahiya, Mamta; Dutta, Sukanta; Islam, Rashidul
2016-03-01
We perform a model independent analysis of the helicity amplitudes at high energy for all the 2 →2 scattering processes involving gauge and Higgs bosons in the presence of anomalous W W V , W W V V , V V H , V V H H (V ≡Z , γ and W±), H H H H and H H H interactions. We obtain the perturbative unitarity constraints on anomalous couplings by demanding the vanishing of terms proportional to s2 and s3 /2 in the helicity amplitudes. Using these constraints, we also compute the upper bound on all the anomalous couplings from terms linear in s . Further, assuming all anomalous couplings to have arisen only from dimension six operators, we show that the perturbative unitarity violation can be evaded up to ˜9 TeV corresponding to the best fit values of fW W/Λ2 and fB B/Λ2 from the combined analysis of Tevatron and LHC data.
Anomalous Earth flybys of spacecraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.
2015-07-01
A small deviation from the potential is expected for the gravitational interaction of extended bodies. It is explained as a consequence of a recently proposed gravitational impact model (Wilhelm et al. in Astrophys. Space Sci. 343:135-144, 2013) and has been applied to anomalous perihelion advances by Wilhelm and Dwivedi (New Astron. 31:51-55, 2014). The effect—an offset of the effective gravitational centre from the geometric centre of a spherical symmetric body—might also be responsible for the observed anomalous orbital energy gains and speed increases during Earth flybys of several spacecraft. However, close flybys would require detailed considerations of the orbit geometry. In this study, an attempt is made to explain the anomalous Earth flybys of the Galileo, NEAR Shoemaker and Rosetta spacecraft.
A violation of universality in anomalous Fourier’s law
Hurtado, Pablo I.; Garrido, Pedro L.
2016-01-01
Since the discovery of long-time tails, it has been clear that Fourier’s law in low dimensions is typically anomalous, with a size-dependent heat conductivity, though the nature of the anomaly remains puzzling. The conventional wisdom, supported by renormalization-group arguments and mode-coupling approximations within fluctuating hydrodynamics, is that the anomaly is universal in 1d momentum-conserving systems and belongs in the Lévy/Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class. Here we challenge this picture by using a novel scaling method to show unambiguously that universality breaks down in the paradigmatic 1d diatomic hard-point fluid. Hydrodynamic profiles for a broad set of gradients, densities and sizes all collapse onto an universal master curve, showing that (anomalous) Fourier’s law holds even deep into the nonlinear regime. This allows to solve the macroscopic transport problem for this model, a solution which compares flawlessly with data and, interestingly, implies the existence of a bound on the heat current in terms of pressure. These results question the renormalization-group and mode-coupling universality predictions for anomalous Fourier’s law in 1d, offering a new perspective on transport in low dimensions. PMID:27958318
A violation of universality in anomalous Fourier's law.
Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L
2016-12-13
Since the discovery of long-time tails, it has been clear that Fourier's law in low dimensions is typically anomalous, with a size-dependent heat conductivity, though the nature of the anomaly remains puzzling. The conventional wisdom, supported by renormalization-group arguments and mode-coupling approximations within fluctuating hydrodynamics, is that the anomaly is universal in 1d momentum-conserving systems and belongs in the Lévy/Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class. Here we challenge this picture by using a novel scaling method to show unambiguously that universality breaks down in the paradigmatic 1d diatomic hard-point fluid. Hydrodynamic profiles for a broad set of gradients, densities and sizes all collapse onto an universal master curve, showing that (anomalous) Fourier's law holds even deep into the nonlinear regime. This allows to solve the macroscopic transport problem for this model, a solution which compares flawlessly with data and, interestingly, implies the existence of a bound on the heat current in terms of pressure. These results question the renormalization-group and mode-coupling universality predictions for anomalous Fourier's law in 1d, offering a new perspective on transport in low dimensions.
A violation of universality in anomalous Fourier’s law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurtado, Pablo I.; Garrido, Pedro L.
2016-12-01
Since the discovery of long-time tails, it has been clear that Fourier’s law in low dimensions is typically anomalous, with a size-dependent heat conductivity, though the nature of the anomaly remains puzzling. The conventional wisdom, supported by renormalization-group arguments and mode-coupling approximations within fluctuating hydrodynamics, is that the anomaly is universal in 1d momentum-conserving systems and belongs in the Lévy/Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class. Here we challenge this picture by using a novel scaling method to show unambiguously that universality breaks down in the paradigmatic 1d diatomic hard-point fluid. Hydrodynamic profiles for a broad set of gradients, densities and sizes all collapse onto an universal master curve, showing that (anomalous) Fourier’s law holds even deep into the nonlinear regime. This allows to solve the macroscopic transport problem for this model, a solution which compares flawlessly with data and, interestingly, implies the existence of a bound on the heat current in terms of pressure. These results question the renormalization-group and mode-coupling universality predictions for anomalous Fourier’s law in 1d, offering a new perspective on transport in low dimensions.
Catastrophic extraction of anomalous events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Ro, Sookwang; Kostrzewski, Andrew
2012-06-01
In this paper we discuss extraction of anomalous events based on the theory of catastrophes, a mathematical theory of continuous geometrical manifolds with discrete singularities called catastrophes. Intelligence exploitation systems and technologies include such novel data mining techniques as automatic extraction of discrete anomalous events by software algorithms based on the theory of catastrophes, that can reduce complex problems to a few essential so-called state variables. This paper discusses mostly corank-1 catastrophes with only one state variable, for simplicity. As an example we discuss mostly avionics platforms and catastrophic failures that can be recorded by flight instruments.
Phenomenology of universal extra dimensions
Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; /Florida U.
2006-10-01
In this proceeding, the phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED), in which all the Standard Model fields propagate, is explored. We focus on models with one universal extra dimension, compactified on an S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2} orbifold. We revisit calculations of Kaluza-Klein (KK) dark matter without an assumption of the KK mass degeneracy including all possible coannihilations. We then contrast the experimental signatures of low energy supersymmetry and UED.
Top quark amplitudes with an anomalous magnetic moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.
2011-02-01
The anomalous magnetic moment of the top quark may be measured during the first run of the LHC at 7 TeV. For these measurements, it will be useful to have available tree amplitudes with tt¯ and arbitrarily many photons and gluons, including both QED and color anomalous magnetic moments. In this paper, we present a method for computing these amplitudes using the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion formula. Because we deal with an effective theory with higher-dimension couplings, there are roadblocks to a direct computation with the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten method. We evade these by using an auxiliary scalar theory to compute a subset of the amplitudes.
Analytic solution of Hedin's equations in zero dimensions
Pavlyukh, Y.; Huebner, W.
2007-05-15
Feynman diagrams for the many-body perturbational theory are enumerated by solving the system of Hedin's equations in zero dimension. We extend the treatment of Molinari [Phys. Rev. B 71, 113102 (2005)] and give a complete solution of the enumeration problem in terms of Whittaker functions. An important relation between the generating function of the electron propagator and anomalous dimension in quantum field theory of massless fermions and mesons in four dimensions (Yukawa theory) is found. The Hopf algebra of undecorated rooted trees yields the anomalous field dimension in terms of the solution of the same differential equation. Its relation to the mathematical problem of combinatorics of chord diagrams is discussed; asymptotic expansions of the counting numbers are obtained.
Anomalous-viscosity current drive
Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.
1986-04-25
The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.
Two-dimensional envelope localized waves in the anomalous dispersion regime.
Malaguti, Stefania; Bellanca, Gaetano; Trillo, Stefano
2008-05-15
Narrowband localized wave packets that are nondispersing and nondiffracting in one transverse dimension are characterized in anomalously dispersive media by means of a Fourier approach. Depending on the group velocity, waves with a dispersion relationship characterized by real wavenumbers can be O or X waves, while we also find waves with evanescent wavenumbers.
Modeling Anomalous Crustal Accretion at Spreading Zones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmeling, H.; Marquart, G.
2003-12-01
The thermal and seismic structure of normal oceanic crust or anomalous crust such as Iceland depends on the mode of melt extraction from the mantle and its emplacement within or on top of the crust. We model crustal accretion by a two fold approach. In a 2D spreading model with anomalous mantle temperature beneath the ridge we solve the Navier-Stokes-, the heat tansport, the mass conservation and the melting equations to determine the enhanced melt production beneath the ridge. This melt is extracted and emplaced on top of the model to form the crust. Two cases are distinguished: a) Extruded crustal material is taken out of the model and is only advected according to the spreading of the plate, b) extruded material is fed back into the model from the top to mimic isostatic subsidence of extruded crust. We find that the feed back of case b) is only moderate. For example, if extruded crustal material as thick as 40 km is fed back into the model, the melting region is depressed downward only by as much as 10km, and the total amount of generated melt is reduced by about 20 %. On the other hand, the upper 30 km of the model is cooled considerably by several 100 degrees. A second set of models focuses on the details of crustal accretion without explicitly solving for the melting and extraction. Knowing the spreading rate, the rate of crustal production can be estimated, but the site of emplacement is not obvious. For an anomalous crust such as Iceland we define four source regions of crustal accretion: surface extrusion, intrusion in fissure swarms at shallow depth connected to volcanic centres, magma chambers at shallow to mid-crustal level, and a deep accretion zone, where crust is produced by widespread dyke and sill emplacement and underplating. We solve the Navier-Stokes-, the heat tansport and the mass conservation equations and prescribe different functions in space and time for crustal production in the four defined regions. The temperature of the imposed
Anomalous thermomechanical properties of a self-propelled colloidal fluid.
Mallory, S A; Šarić, A; Valeriani, C; Cacciuto, A
2014-05-01
We use numerical simulations to compute the equation of state of a suspension of spherical self-propelled nanoparticles in two and three dimensions. We study in detail the effect of excluded volume interactions and confinement as a function of the system's temperature, concentration, and strength of the propulsion. We find a striking nonmonotonic dependence of the pressure on the temperature and provide simple scaling arguments to predict and explain the occurrence of such anomalous behavior. We explicitly show how our results have important implications for the effective forces on passive components suspended in a bath of active particles.
Anomalous delays of teleseismic P waves in Yellowstone National Park
Iyer, H.M.
1975-01-01
TELESEISMIC P waves recorded by a short-period seismic network, comprising 12 stations, in Yellowstone National Park, show anomalous delays of 1-2 s in their travel times in the central region of the park relative to the surrounding area. To explain this phenomenon, I propose that a substantial body of low velocity material is present beneath the park, with horizontal dimensions of several tens of kilometres; it may be the magma chamber associated with the volcanism of Yellowstone (ref. 1, and G. P. Eaton et al., unpublished). ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.
Faraday anomalous dispersion optical tuners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanninger, P.; Valdez, E. C.; Shay, T. M.
1992-01-01
Common methods for frequency stabilizing diode lasers systems employ gratings, etalons, optical electric double feedback, atomic resonance, and a Faraday cell with low magnetic field. Our method, the Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Transmitter (FADOT) laser locking, is much simpler than other schemes. The FADOT uses commercial laser diodes with no antireflection coatings, an atomic Faraday cell with a single polarizer, and an output coupler to form a compound cavity. This method is vibration insensitive, thermal expansion effects are minimal, and the system has a frequency pull in range of 443.2 GHz (9A). Our technique is based on the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter. This method has potential applications in optical communication, remote sensing, and pumping laser excited optical filters. We present the first theoretical model for the FADOT and compare the calculations to our experimental results.
Faraday anomalous dispersion optical tuners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanninger, P.; Valdez, E. C.; Shay, T. M.
1992-01-01
Common methods for frequency stabilizing diode lasers systems employ gratings, etalons, optical electric double feedback, atomic resonance, and a Faraday cell with low magnetic field. Our method, the Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Transmitter (FADOT) laser locking, is much simpler than other schemes. The FADOT uses commercial laser diodes with no antireflection coatings, an atomic Faraday cell with a single polarizer, and an output coupler to form a compound cavity. This method is vibration insensitive, thermal expansion effects are minimal, and the system has a frequency pull in range of 443.2 GHz (9A). Our technique is based on the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter. This method has potential applications in optical communication, remote sensing, and pumping laser excited optical filters. We present the first theoretical model for the FADOT and compare the calculations to our experimental results.
Anomalous Thermalization in Ergodic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luitz, David J.; Bar Lev, Yevgeny
2016-10-01
It is commonly believed that quantum isolated systems satisfying the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) are diffusive. We show that this assumption is too restrictive since there are systems that are asymptotically in a thermal state yet exhibit anomalous, subdiffusive thermalization. We show that such systems satisfy a modified version of the ETH ansatz and derive a general connection between the scaling of the variance of the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators, written in the eigenbasis of the Hamiltonian, and the dynamical exponent. We find that for subdiffusively thermalizing systems the variance scales more slowly with system size than expected for diffusive systems. We corroborate our findings by numerically studying the distribution of the coefficients of the eigenfunctions and the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators of the random field Heisenberg chain, which has anomalous transport in its thermal phase. Surprisingly, this system also has non-Gaussian distributions of the eigenfunctions, thus, directly violating Berry's conjecture.
Anomalous Thermalization in Ergodic Systems.
Luitz, David J; Bar Lev, Yevgeny
2016-10-21
It is commonly believed that quantum isolated systems satisfying the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) are diffusive. We show that this assumption is too restrictive since there are systems that are asymptotically in a thermal state yet exhibit anomalous, subdiffusive thermalization. We show that such systems satisfy a modified version of the ETH ansatz and derive a general connection between the scaling of the variance of the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators, written in the eigenbasis of the Hamiltonian, and the dynamical exponent. We find that for subdiffusively thermalizing systems the variance scales more slowly with system size than expected for diffusive systems. We corroborate our findings by numerically studying the distribution of the coefficients of the eigenfunctions and the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators of the random field Heisenberg chain, which has anomalous transport in its thermal phase. Surprisingly, this system also has non-Gaussian distributions of the eigenfunctions, thus, directly violating Berry's conjecture.
Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.
1993-01-01
The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.
Colligative properties of anomalous water.
Everett, D H; Haynes, J M; McElroy, P J
1970-06-13
Investigations of the phase behaviour on freezing and subsequent melting and of other properties indicate that anomalous water is a solution containing a fixed amount of relatively involatile material in normal water. There seems to be no need to postulate the existence of a new polymer of water in such solutions. If only water and silica are present, the properties are consistent with those of a silicic acid gel.
Anomalous Transport Effects in Auroras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jasperse, J. R.; Basu, B.; Lund, E. J.; Grossbard, N.
2011-12-01
The physical processes that determine the fluid quantities and the self-consistent, electric field (Epar) parallel to the magnetic field have been an unresolved problem in magnetospheric physics for over forty years. Recently, we have published a new kinetic and multimoment fluid theory for inhomogeneous, nonuniformly magnetized plasma with temperature anisotropy and applied the theory to solve for the quasi steady state in the long-range potential region of a downward Birkeland current sheet when electrostatic ion cyclotron turbulence was dominant. See Jasperse et al. [2006a, 2006b, 2010a, 2010b, and 2011]. We find that the turbulence produces an enhancement in the magnitude of Epar by nearly a factor of forty compared to the case when it is absent. Anomalous momentum transfer (anomalous resistivity) by itself has a very small effect on Epar; however, the presence of the turbulence and the anomalous energy transfers (anomalous heating and cooling) that result have a very large effect on the entire solution. In the electron and ion momentum-balance equations for Epar, the turbulence enhances the magnitude of Epar by reducing the effect of the generalized parallel pressure gradients and thereby enhancing the effect of the mirror forces. A new, nonlinear formula for the current-voltage relation in downward current regions is also given which is different from the Knight relation for upward currents. Jasperse et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 072903 [2006a], Phys. Plasmas 13, 112902 [2006b], Phys. Plasmas 17, 062903 [2010a], Phys. Plasmas 17, 062904 [2010b], and J. Geophys. Res., in press [2011].
Hydrodynamic waves in an anomalous charged fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbasi, Navid; Davody, Ali; Hejazi, Kasra; Rezaei, Zahra
2016-11-01
We study the collective excitations in a relativistic fluid with an anomalous U (1) current. In 3 + 1 dimensions at zero chemical potential, in addition to ordinary sound modes we find two propagating modes in presence of an external magnetic field. The first one which is a transverse degenerate mode, propagates with a velocity proportional to the coefficient of gravitational anomaly; this is in fact the Chiral Alfvén wave recently found in [1]. Another one is a wave of density perturbation, namely a chiral magnetic wave (CMW). The velocity dependence of CMW on the chiral anomaly coefficient is well known. We compute the dependence of CMW's velocity on the coefficient of gravitational anomaly as well. We also show that the dissipation splits the degeneracy of CAW. At finite chiral charge density we show that in general there may exist five chiral hydrodynamic waves. Of these five waves, one is the CMW while the other four are mixed Modified Sound-Alfvén waves. It turns out that in propagation transverse to the magnetic field no anomaly effect appears while in parallel to the magnetic field we find sound waves become dispersive due to anomaly.
EAWE: Examination of Anomalous World Experience.
Sass, Louis; Pienkos, Elizabeth; Skodlar, Borut; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Fuchs, Thomas; Parnas, Josef; Jones, Nev
2017-01-01
The "EAWE: Examination of Anomalous World Experience" is a detailed semi-structured interview format whose aim is to elicit description and discussion of a person's experience of various aspects of their lived world. The instrument is grounded in the tradition of phenomenological psychopathology and aims to explore, in a qualitatively rich manner, six key dimensions of subjectivity - namely, a person's experience of: (1) Space and objects, (2) Time and events, (3) Other persons, (4) Language (whether spoken or written), (5) Atmosphere (overall sense of reality, familiarity, vitality, meaning, or relevance), and (6) Existential orientation (values, attitudes, and worldviews). The EAWE is based on and primarily directed toward experiences thought to be common in, and sometimes distinctive of, schizophrenia spectrum conditions. It can, however, also be used to investigate anomalies of world experience in other populations. After a theoretical and methodological introduction, the EAWE lists 75 specific items, often with subtypes, in its six domains, together with illustrative quotations from patients. The EAWE appears in a special issue of Psychopathology that also contains an orienting preface (where the difficulty as well as necessity of studying subjective life is acknowledged) and a brief reliability report. Also included are six ancillary or background articles, which survey phenomenologically oriented theory, research, and clinical lore relevant to the six experiential domains. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Quantization of Hořava gravity in 2+1 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffin, Tom; Grosvenor, Kevin T.; Melby-Thompson, Charles M.; Yan, Ziqi
2017-06-01
We study quantum corrections to projectable Hořava gravity with z = 2 scaling in 2 + 1 dimensions. Using the background field method, we utilize a non-singular gauge to compute the anomalous dimension of the cosmological constant at one loop, in a normalization adapted to the spatial curvature term.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estillore, A. D.; Wiegel, A. A.; Boering, K. A.
2013-12-01
A number of oxygen-containing atmospheric species are now known to have non-mass-dependent triple oxygen isotope compositions (i.e., non-mass-dependent relationships between 16O, 17O, and 18O), which in turn are now being broadly applied as probes of biogeochemical cycles and chemical reactivity or as climate proxies on a variety of timescales. For many species, their non-mass-dependent oxygen isotope compositions derive from chemical or O(1D)-mediated photochemical transfer from ozone, which is non-mass-dependently enriched in 17O and 18O due to large non-mass-dependent kinetic isotope effects in the ozone recombination reaction, O+O2+M. For other species, however, there may also be additional non-mass-dependent kinetic isotope effects involved beyond ozone formation. The distinction is important both with respect to the biogeochemical and climate applications and to obtaining a deeper fundamental understanding of non-mass-dependent isotope fractionation in general. In work to be presented here, we have used a photochemical kinetics model to understand the isotopic composition of CO2 formed by O+CO+M in a mixture of O2 and CO gases irradiated with UV light at several wavelengths. We compare our model results with experimental results from Bhattacharya and Thiemens [Z. Naturforsch. 44a, 435-444 (1989)] and Pandey and Bhattacharya [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 234301 (2006)] in order to evaluate the extent to which the non-mass-dependent isotopic composition of CO2 derives from photochemical transfer from ozone formed during the experiment versus possible non-mass-dependent isotope effects in the CO2 recombination reaction.
Galilean satellites - Anomalous temperatures disputed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, D.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Veeder, G. J.; Cutts, J. A.
1977-01-01
Anomalous averaged infrared brightness temperatures of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter reported by Gross (1975) are rejected as falsely conceived and lacking physical reality. It is argued that the calculations of equilibrium temperatures should be corrected, whereupon predictions would be in satisfactory agreement with observations, in conformity with the radiometric method of determining the diameters of asteroids and satellites. The IR irradiance and the related disk-averaged brightness temperature for the spectral band are recommended as more relevant. Attention is drawn to some interesting discrepancies between calculated and observed temperatures of the Jovian satellites which merit further investigation.
Spatial behavior of anomalous transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Margolin, Gennady; Berkowitz, Brian
2002-03-01
We present a general derivation of one-dimensional spatial concentration distributions for anomalous transport regimes. Such transport can be captured in the framework of a continuous time random walk with a broad transition time distribution. This general theory includes a Fokker-Planck equation as a particular limiting case. All of the concentration profiles, as well as the associated temporal first passage time distributions, can be written in terms of a single special function (that belongs to the class of Fox functions). In addition, we consider the first two moments of the spatial concentration distributions, and determine not only their scaling behavior with time but also the coefficients and correction terms.
Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.
1992-01-01
The present calculations of the performance of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters (FADOF) on IR transitions indicate that such filters may furnish high transmission, narrow-pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth under optimum operating conditions. A FADOF consists of an atomic vapor cell between crossed polarizers that are subject to a dc magnetic field along the optical path; when linearly polarized light travels along the direction of the magnetic field through the dispersive atomic vapor, a polarization rotation occurs. If FADOF conditions are suitably adjusted, a maximum transmission with very narrow bandwidth is obtained.
Minimal model for anomalous diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flekkøy, Eirik G.
2017-01-01
A random walk model with a local probability of removal is solved exactly and shown to exhibit subdiffusive behavior with a mean square displacement the evolves as
Collider Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions
Lillie, Benjamin Huntington; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2006-03-10
In recent years there has been much interest in the possibility that there exist more spacetime dimensions than the usual four. Models of particle physics beyond the Standard Model that incorporate these extra dimensions can solve the gauge hierarchy problem and explain why the fermion masses a spread over many orders of magnitude. In this thesis we explore several possibilities for models with extra dimensions. First we examine constraints on the proposal of Arkani-Hamed and Schmaltz that the Standard Model fermions are localized to different positions in an extra dimension, thereby generating the hierarchy in fermion masses. We find strong constraints on the compactification scale of such models arising from flavor-changing neutral currents. Next we investigate the phenomenology of the Randall-Sundrum model, where the hierarchy between the electroweak and Planck scales is generated by the warping in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In particular, we investigate the ''Higgsless'' model of electroweak symmetry breaking due to Csaki et. al., where the Higgs has been decoupled from the spectrum by taking its vacuum expectation value to infinity. We find that this model produces many distinctive features at the LHC. However, we also find that it is strongly constrained by precision electroweak observables and the requirement that gauge-boson scattering be perturbative. We then examine the model with a finite vacuum expectation value, and find that there are observable shifts to the Higgs scalar properties. Finally, in the original large extra dimension scenario of Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali, the hierarchy problem is solved by allowing gravity to propagate in a large extra dimensional volume, while the Standard Model fields are confined to 4 dimensions. We consider the case where there are a large number of extra dimensions (n {approx} 20). This model can solve the hierarchy problem without introducing a exponentially large radii for the extra
Geomagnetically trapped anomalous cosmic rays
Selesnick, R.S.; Cummings, A.C.; Cummings, J.R.
1995-06-01
Since its launch in July 1992, the polar-orbiting satellite SAMPEX has been collecting data on geomagnetically trapped heavy ions, predominantly O, N, and Ne, at energies {ge}15 MeV/nucleon and in a narrow L shell range L = 2. Their location, elemental composition, energy spectra, pitch angle distribution, and time variations all support the theory that these particles originated as singly ionized interplanetary anomalous cosmic rays that were stripped of electrons in the Earth`s upper atmosphere and subsequently trapped. The O are observed primarily at pitch angles outside the atmospheric loss cones, consistent with a trapped population, and their distribution there is nearly isotropic. The abundances relative to O of the N, possible Ne, and especially C are lower than the corresponding interplanetary values, which may be indicative of the trapping efficiencies. The distributions of trapped N, O, and Ne in energy and L shell suggest that most of the ions observed at the SAMPEX altitude of {approximately}600 km are not fully stripped when initially trapped. A comparison of the trapped intensity with the much lower interplanetary intensity of anomalous cosmic rays provides model-dependent estimates of the product of the trapping probability and the average trapped particle lifetime against ionization losses in the residual atmosphere for particles that mirror near the SAMPEX altitude. 36 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.
Studies of WW and WZ production and limits on anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Akimov, V.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M. K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Gobbi, B.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Tong; Ito, A. S.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Leflat, A.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, R. D.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Parashar, N.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Reay, N. W.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Stanton, N. R.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Toback, D.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Vaniev, V.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yasuda, T.
1999-10-01
Evidence of anomalous WW and WZ production was sought in pp¯ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of s=1.8 TeV. The final states WW(WZ)-->μν jet jet+X, WZ-->μνee+X and WZ-->eνee+X were studied using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 90 pb-1. No evidence of anomalous diboson production was found. Limits were set on anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings and were combined with our previous results. The combined 95% confidence level anomalous coupling limits for Λ=2 TeV are -0.25<=Δκ<=0.39 (λ=0) and -0.18<=λ<=0.19 (Δκ=0), assuming the WWγ couplings are equal to the WWZ couplings.
Anomalous U(1) and low-energy physics: The power of D-flatness and holomorphy
Binetruy, P. |; Irges, N.; Ramond, P.; Lavignac, S.
1997-03-01
In models with an anomalous abelian symmetry broken at a very large scale, we study which requirements to impose on the anomalous charges in order to prevent standard model fields from acquiring large vacuum expectation values. The use of holomorphic invariants to study D-flat directions for the anomalous symmetry, proves to be a very powerful tool. We find that in order to forbid unphysical vacuum configurations at that scale, the superpotential must contain many interaction terms, including the usual Yukawa terms. Our analysis suggests that the anomalous charge of the {mu}-term is zero. It is remarkable that, together with the seesaw mechanism, and mass hierarchies, this implies a natural conservation of R-parity.
Anomalous U(1) and low-energy physics: the power of D-flatness and holomorphy
Binetruy, P.; Irges, N.; Lavignac, S.; Ramond, P.
1996-12-01
In models with an anomalous abelian symmetry broken at a very large scale, we study which requirements to impose on the anomalous charges in order to prevent standard model fields from acquiring large vacuum expectation values. The use of holomorphic invariants to study D-flat directions for the anomalous symmetry, proves to be a very powerful tool. We find that in order to forbid unphysical configurations at that scale, the superpotential must contain many interaction terms, including the usual Yukawa terms. Our analysis suggests that the anomalous charge of the {mu}-term is zero. It is remarkable that, together with the seesaw mechanism, and mass hierarchies, this implies a natural conservation of R-parity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamberlin, K.; Clagett, C.; Correll, T.; Gruner, T.; Quinn, T.; Shiflett, L.; Schnurr, R.; Wennersten, M.; Frederick, M.; Fox, S. M.
1993-01-01
The attitude Control Electronics (ACE) Box is the center of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite. This unit is the single point interface for all of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) related sensors and actuators. Commands and telemetry between the SAMPEX flight computer and the ACE Box are routed via a MIL-STD-1773 bus interface, through the use of an 80C85 processor. The ACE Box consists of the flowing electronic elements: power supply, momentum wheel driver, electromagnet driver, coarse sun sensor interface, digital sun sensor interface, magnetometer interface, and satellite computer interface. In addition, the ACE Box also contains an independent Safehold electronics package capable of keeping the satellite pitch axis pointing towards the sun. The ACE Box has dimensions of 24 x 31 x 8 cm, a mass of 4.3 kg, and an average power consumption of 10.5 W. This set of electronics was completely designed, developed, integrated, and tested by personnel at NASA GSFC. SAMPEX was launched on July 3, 1992, and the initial attitude acquisition was successfully accomplished via the analog Safehold electronics in the ACE Box. This acquisition scenario removed the excess body rates via magnetic control and precessed the satellite pitch axis to within 10 deg of the sun line. The performance of the SAMPEX ACS in general and the ACE Box in particular has been quite satisfactory.
Tunneling delay times in one and two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinberg, Aephraim M.; Chiao, Raymond Y.
1994-05-01
We demonstrate that although the well-known analogy between the time-independent solutions for two-dimensional tunneling (e.g., frustrated total internal reflection) and tunneling through a one-dimensional potential barrier cannot, in general, be extended to the time domain, there are certain limits in which the delay times for the two problems obey a simple relationship. In particular, when an effective mass is chosen such that mc2=ħω, the ``classical'' traversal times for allowed transmission become identical for a photon of energy ħω traversing an air gap between regions of index n and for a particle of mass m traversing the analogous square barrier of height V0 in one dimension. The quantum-mechanical group delays are also identical, given this effective mass, both for E~=V0 (θ~=θc) and for E>>V0 (θ<<θc). (For a smoothly varying potential or index of refraction, the agreement persists for all values of E where the WKB approximation applies.) The same relation serves to equate the quantum-mechanical ``dwell'' times for any values of E and V0. On the other hand, in the ``deep tunneling'' limit, E<
Supersymmetric unification requires extra dimensions
Chen, Mu-Chun; Fallbacher, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael
2013-05-23
We discuss settings that predict precision gauge unification in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We show that, if one requires anomaly freedom and fermion masses while demanding that unification is not an accident, only R symmetries can forbid the supersymmetric Higgs mass term {mu}. We then review the proof that R symmetries are not available in conventional grand unified theories (GUTs) and argue that this prevents natural solutions to the doublet-triplet splitting problem in four dimensions. On the other hand, higher-dimensional GUTs do not suffer from this problem. We briefly comment on an explicit string-derived model in which the {mu} and dimension five proton decay problems are solved by an order four discrete R symmetry, and comment on the higher-dimensional origin of this symmetry.
Anomalous Growth of Aging Populations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grebenkov, Denis S.
2016-04-01
We consider a discrete-time population dynamics with age-dependent structure. At every time step, one of the alive individuals from the population is chosen randomly and removed with probability q_k depending on its age, whereas a new individual of age 1 is born with probability r. The model can also describe a single queue in which the service order is random while the service efficiency depends on a customer's "age" in the queue. We propose a mean field approximation to investigate the long-time asymptotic behavior of the mean population size. The age dependence is shown to lead to anomalous power-law growth of the population at the critical regime. The scaling exponent is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the probabilities q_k at large k. The mean field approximation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.
Persistently anomalous Pacific geomagnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Catherine L.; Constable, Catherine G.
A new average geomagnetic field model for the past 3kyr (ALS3K) helps bridge a large temporal sampling gap between historical models and more traditional paleomagnetic studies spanning the last 5 Myr. A quasi-static feature seen historically in the central Pacific has the opposite sign in ALS3K; its structure is similar to, but of larger amplitude than, that in the time-averaged geomagnetic field for the last 5 Myr. Anomalous geomagnetic fields exist beneath the Pacific over timescales ranging from 10²-106 years. It is unlikely that bias over such long time scales arises from electromagnetic screening, but conceivable that the Lorentz force is influenced by long wavelength thermal variations and/or localized regions of increased electrical conductivity (associated with compositional anomalies and possibly partial melt). This is consistent with recent seismic observations of the lower mantle.
Quantization of anomalous gauge theories
Wotzasek, C.J.
1990-01-01
The author discusses the quantization of Anomalous Gauge Theories (AGT) both in the context of functional integration and canonical Hamiltonian approach. The Wess-Zumino term (WZT), which repairs gauge symmetry in the AGT is discussed and its derivation is presented in the canonical approach as a consequence of the restoration of the first-class nature of the gauge constraints. He applied this technique in a few quantum field theories like the chiral Schwinger model, chiral bosons and massive electrodynamics. This construction of the WZT is intended to contrast with the one derived by functional methods with the use of the Faddeev-Popov trick. To shed some light into the physical significance of the WZ field he discusses a simple quantum mechanical model, the amputated planar rotor.' In the context the WZ field presents itself as a topological charge for the model. Possible generalizations are discussed.
Anomalous extracellular diffusion in rat cerebellum.
Xiao, Fanrong; Hrabe, Jan; Hrabetova, Sabina
2015-05-05
Extracellular space (ECS) is a major channel transporting biologically active molecules and drugs in the brain. Diffusion-mediated transport of these substances is hindered by the ECS structure but the microscopic basis of this hindrance is not fully understood. One hypothesis proposes that the hindrance originates in large part from the presence of dead-space (DS) microdomains that can transiently retain diffusing molecules. Because previous theoretical and modeling work reported an initial period of anomalous diffusion in similar environments, we expected that brain regions densely populated by DS microdomains would exhibit anomalous extracellular diffusion. Specifically, we targeted granular layers (GL) of rat and turtle cerebella that are populated with large and geometrically complex glomeruli. The integrative optical imaging (IOI) method was employed to evaluate diffusion of fluorophore-labeled dextran (MW 3000) in GL, and the IOI data analysis was adapted to quantify the anomalous diffusion exponent dw from the IOI records. Diffusion was significantly anomalous in rat GL, where dw reached 4.8. In the geometrically simpler turtle GL, dw was elevated but not robustly anomalous (dw = 2.6). The experimental work was complemented by numerical Monte Carlo simulations of anomalous ECS diffusion in several three-dimensional tissue models containing glomeruli-like structures. It demonstrated that both the duration of transiently anomalous diffusion and the anomalous exponent depend on the size of model glomeruli and the degree of their wrapping. In conclusion, we have found anomalous extracellular diffusion in the GL of rat cerebellum. This finding lends support to the DS microdomain hypothesis. Transiently anomalous diffusion also has a profound effect on the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules released into the ECS, especially at diffusion distances on the order of a few cell diameters, speeding up short-range diffusion-mediated signals in less permeable
Anomalous Extracellular Diffusion in Rat Cerebellum
Xiao, Fanrong; Hrabe, Jan; Hrabetova, Sabina
2015-01-01
Extracellular space (ECS) is a major channel transporting biologically active molecules and drugs in the brain. Diffusion-mediated transport of these substances is hindered by the ECS structure but the microscopic basis of this hindrance is not fully understood. One hypothesis proposes that the hindrance originates in large part from the presence of dead-space (DS) microdomains that can transiently retain diffusing molecules. Because previous theoretical and modeling work reported an initial period of anomalous diffusion in similar environments, we expected that brain regions densely populated by DS microdomains would exhibit anomalous extracellular diffusion. Specifically, we targeted granular layers (GL) of rat and turtle cerebella that are populated with large and geometrically complex glomeruli. The integrative optical imaging (IOI) method was employed to evaluate diffusion of fluorophore-labeled dextran (MW 3000) in GL, and the IOI data analysis was adapted to quantify the anomalous diffusion exponent dw from the IOI records. Diffusion was significantly anomalous in rat GL, where dw reached 4.8. In the geometrically simpler turtle GL, dw was elevated but not robustly anomalous (dw = 2.6). The experimental work was complemented by numerical Monte Carlo simulations of anomalous ECS diffusion in several three-dimensional tissue models containing glomeruli-like structures. It demonstrated that both the duration of transiently anomalous diffusion and the anomalous exponent depend on the size of model glomeruli and the degree of their wrapping. In conclusion, we have found anomalous extracellular diffusion in the GL of rat cerebellum. This finding lends support to the DS microdomain hypothesis. Transiently anomalous diffusion also has a profound effect on the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules released into the ECS, especially at diffusion distances on the order of a few cell diameters, speeding up short-range diffusion-mediated signals in less permeable
Anomalous Sediment Mixing by Bioturbation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roche, K. R.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Xie, M.; Packman, A. I.
2013-12-01
Bioturbation, the reworking of sediments by animals and plants, is the dominant mode of sediment mixing in low-energy environments, and plays an important role in sedimentary biogeochemical processes. Mixing resulting from bioturbation has historically been modeled as a diffusive process. However, diffusion models often do not provide a sufficient description of sediment mixing due to bioturbation. Stochastic models, such as the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model, provide more general descriptions of mixing behavior that are applicable even when regular diffusion assumptions are not met. Here we present results from an experimental investigation of anomalous sediment mixing by bioturbation in freshwater sediments. Clean and heavy-metal-contaminated sediments were collected from Lake DePue, a backwater lake of the Illinois River. The burrowing worm species Lumbriculus variegatus was introduced to homogenized Lake DePue sediments in aerated aquaria. We then introduced inert fine fluorescent particles to the sediment-water interface. Using time-lapse photography, we observed the mixing of the fluorescent particles into the sediment bed over a two-week period. We developed image analysis software to characterize the concentration distribution of the fluorescent particles as a function of sediment depth, and applied this to the time-series of images to evaluate sediment mixing. We fit a one-dimensional CTRW model to the depth profiles to evaluate the underlying statistical properties of the mixing behavior. This analysis suggests that the sediment mixing caused by L. variegatus burrowing is subdiffusive in time and superdiffusive in space. We also found that heavy metal contamination significantly reduces L. variegatus burrowing, causing increasingly anomalous sediment mixing. This result implies that there can be important feedbacks between sediment chemistry, organism behavior, and sediment mixing that are not considered in current environmental models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Hui; Tang, Gang; Han, Kui; Hao, Da-Peng; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Lei-Ming
To determine anomalous dynamic scaling of continuum growth equations, López12 proposed an analytical approach, which is based on the scaling analysis introduced by Hentschel and Family.15 In this work, we generalize this scaling analysis to the (d+1)-dimensional molecular-beam epitaxy equations to determine their anomalous dynamic scaling. The growth equations studied here include the linear molecular-beam epitaxy (LMBE) and Lai-Das Sarma-Villain (LDV). We find that both the LMBE and LDV equations, when the substrate dimension d>2, correspond to a standard Family-Vicsek scaling, however, when d<2, exhibit anomalous dynamic roughening of the local fluctuations of the growth height. When the growth equations exhibit anomalous dynamic scaling, we obtain the local roughness exponents by using scaling relation αloc=α-zκ, which are consistent with the corresponding numerical results.
Dimension of chaotic attractors
Farmer, J.D.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J.A.
1982-09-01
Dimension is perhaps the most basic property of an attractor. In this paper we discuss a variety of different definitions of dimension, compute their values for a typical example, and review previous work on the dimension of chaotic attractors. The relevant definitions of dimension are of two general types, those that depend only on metric properties, and those that depend on probabilistic properties (that is, they depend on the frequency with which a typical trajectory visits different regions of the attractor). Both our example and the previous work that we review support the conclusion that all of the probabilistic dimensions take on the same value, which we call the dimension of the natural measure, and all of the metric dimensions take on a common value, which we call the fractal dimension. Furthermore, the dimension of the natural measure is typically equal to the Lyapunov dimension, which is defined in terms of Lyapunov numbers, and thus is usually far easier to calculate than any other definition. Because it is computable and more physically relevant, we feel that the dimension of the natural measure is more important than the fractal dimension.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spurgin, C. B.
1986-03-01
The author discusses the concept of dimensions of a physical quantity, and the relationship between derived units (expressed in terms of their base units) and the dimensions of the derived quantities. He calls for the replacement of 'dimensions' by base units in the GCE A-level syllabus and provides some recommendations to GCE examining boards.
Zakhvalinskii, Vasilii S; Nikulicheva, Tatyana; Lähderanta, Erkki; Shakhov, Mikhail A; Nikitovskaya, Ekaterina; Taran, Sergey
2017-09-12
Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) effect and magnetoresistance measurements of single crystals of diluted II-V magnetic semiconductors (Cd<sub>1-x-y</sub>Zn<sub>x</sub>Mn<sub>y</sub>)<sub>3</sub>As<sub>2</sub> (x + y = 0.4, y = 0.04 and 0.08) are investigated in the temperature range T = 4.2 ÷ 300 K and in transverse magnetic field B = 0 ÷ 25 T. The values of the cyclotron mass m<sub>c</sub>, the effective g-factor g*, and the Dingle temperature T<sub>D</sub> are defined. In one of the samples (y = 0.04) a strong dependence of the cyclotron mass on the magnetic field m<sub>c</sub>(B) = m<sub>c</sub>(0)+αB is observed. The value of a phase shift close to β = 0.5 indicates the presence of Berry phase and 3D Dirac fermions in a single crystals of (Cd<sub>1-x-y</sub>Zn<sub>x</sub>Mn<sub>y</sub>)<sub>3</sub>As<sub>2</sub>in one of the samples (y = 0.08). © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Shock-wave studies of anomalous compressibility of glassy carbon
Molodets, A. M. Golyshev, A. A.; Savinykh, A. S.; Kim, V. V.
2016-02-15
The physico-mechanical properties of amorphous glassy carbon are investigated under shock compression up to 10 GPa. Experiments are carried out on the continuous recording of the mass velocity of compression pulses propagating in glassy carbon samples with initial densities of 1.502(5) g/cm{sup 3} and 1.55(2) g/cm{sup 3}. It is shown that, in both cases, a compression wave in glassy carbon contains a leading precursor with amplitude of 0.135(5) GPa. It is established that, in the range of pressures up to 2 GPa, a shock discontinuity in glassy carbon is transformed into a broadened compression wave, and shock waves are formed in the release wave, which generally means the anomalous compressibility of the material in both the compression and release waves. It is shown that, at pressure higher than 3 GPa, anomalous behavior turns into normal behavior, accompanied by the formation of a shock compression wave. In the investigated area of pressure, possible structural changes in glassy carbon under shock compression have a reversible character. A physico-mechanical model of glassy carbon is proposed that involves the equation of state and a constitutive relation for Poisson’s ratio and allows the numerical simulation of physico-mechanical and thermophysical properties of glassy carbon of different densities in the region of its anomalous compressibility.
Anomalous neuronal responses to fluctuated inputs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosaka, Ryosuke; Sakai, Yutaka
2015-10-01
The irregular firing of a cortical neuron is thought to result from a highly fluctuating drive that is generated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. A previous study reported anomalous responses of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron to the fluctuated inputs where an irregularity of spike trains is inversely proportional to an input irregularity. In the current study, we investigated the origin of these anomalous responses with the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model, map-based models, and a simple mixture of interspike interval distributions. First, we specified the parameter regions for the bifurcations in the Hindmarsh-Rose model, and we confirmed that the model reproduced the anomalous responses in the dynamics of the saddle-node and subcritical Hopf bifurcations. For both bifurcations, the Hindmarsh-Rose model shows bistability in the resting state and the repetitive firing state, which indicated that the bistability was the origin of the anomalous input-output relationship. Similarly, the map-based model that contained bistability reproduced the anomalous responses, while the model without bistability did not. These results were supported by additional findings that the anomalous responses were reproduced by mimicking the bistable firing with a mixture of two different interspike interval distributions. Decorrelation of spike trains is important for neural information processing. For such spike train decorrelation, irregular firing is key. Our results indicated that irregular firing can emerge from fluctuating drives, even weak ones, under conditions involving bistability. The anomalous responses, therefore, contribute to efficient processing in the brain.
Anomalous systemic arterial supply of pulmonary sequestration in adult patients
Hou, Xiaomeng; Li, Ji; Li, Jing; Cai, Baiqiang
2017-01-01
OBJECTIVES: This study described the characteristics of the systemic arterial supply of pulmonary sequestration (PS) in an attempt to better distinguish PS from other acquired lesions. METHODS: We identified 25 patients hospitalized at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital during January 2013 to December 2015 with the assistance of medical catalogers. Twenty-three patients with a definite diagnosis of “pulmonary sequestration” clinically or pathologically were included in the study. The medical records, imaging information, and pathological data were reviewed retrospectively. The general characteristics of the patients and the features of the anomalous arteries were summarized. RESULTS: Aberrant arterial supply of PS was found in all 23 (100%) cases. Among them, twenty patients received surgery, including 14 (70%) with aberrant arterial supply found before surgery, and the other 6 (30%) found during surgery. Nineteen (82.6%) patients had a single systematic arterial supply, with a median diameter of 8 mm. More than one arterial supplies were found in four (17.4%) cases. In 21 (91.3%) cases, the anomalous systemic artery originated from the descending thoracic aorta just adjacent to the sequestrated lung which it supplied, without the presence of accompanying bronchi. In twenty (87.0%) patients who received the surgical intervention, samples of 12 (85.7%) were proved to have elastic vessel walls, out of the 14 samples in which the anomalous systemic arteries were available for analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There are no certain pathology diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of PS. The detecting of the aberrant systematic artery and distinguishing it from the bronchial arteries corresponded to certain lung abnormalities are the keys to the accurate diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration in adult patients. We propose that the characteristic features of the anomalous arteries include: Originating from aorta and its main branches, adjacent to the sequestrated area
Experimental phasing using zinc anomalous scattering
Cha, Sun-Shin; An, Young Jun; Jeong, Chang-Sook; Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Oh, Byung-Ha
2012-09-01
The surface of proteins can be charged with zinc ions and the anomalous signals from these zinc ions can be used for structure determination of proteins. Zinc is a suitable metal for anomalous dispersion phasing methods in protein crystallography. Structure determination using zinc anomalous scattering has been almost exclusively limited to proteins with intrinsically bound zinc(s). Here, it is reported that multiple zinc ions can easily be charged onto the surface of proteins with no intrinsic zinc-binding site by using zinc-containing solutions. Zn derivatization of protein surfaces appears to be a largely unnoticed but promising method of protein structure determination.
Anomalous dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching
Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D.; Cahill, P.A.
1993-11-01
The authors report on a scheme for phase-matching second harmonic generation in polymer waveguides based on the use of anomalous dispersion to optimize Cerenkov phase matching. They have used the theoretical results of Hashizume et al. and Onda and Ito to design an optimum structure for phase-matched conversion. They have found that the use of anomalous dispersion in the design results in a 100-fold enhancement in the calculated conversion efficiency. This technique also overcomes the limitation of anomalous dispersion phase-matching which results from absorption at the second harmonic. Experiments are in progress to demonstrate these results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degtiarev, V. I.; Nadubovich, Iu. A.; Platonov, O. I.; Shumilova, N. A.; Mishurinskii, B. E.
1987-06-01
Photographic measurements obtained on Taimyr and in the Iakutsk region are used in a statistical correlation of the distributions of the relative occurrence probability of auroras along the auroral zone and the magnitude of the anomalous geomagnetic field (AGF). A negative correlation between the AGF and the geographic distribution of auroras is established. Using topside sounding data, the characteristic dimensions of ionospheric irregularities in the auroral zone are determined which coincide with the regional scale of aurora distribution.
Tau anomalous magnetic moment in γγ colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A.
2012-08-01
We investigate the possibility of setting model independent limits for a nonstandard anomalous magnetic moment aτNP of the tau lepton, in future γγ colliders based on Compton backscattering. For a hypothetical collider we find that, at various levels of confidence, the limits for aτNP could be improved, compared to previous studies based on LEP1, LEP2 and SLD data. We show the results for a realistic range of the center of mass energy of the e+e- collider. As a more direct application, we also present the results of the simulation for the photon collider at the TESLA project.
Constraints on anomalous top quark couplings at the LHC
Rizzo, T.G.
1996-09-01
Measurements of distributions associated with the pair production of top quarks at the LHC can be used to constrain (or observe) the anomalous chromomagnetic dipole moment(k) of the top. For example, using either the tt(bar) invariant mass or the Pt distribution of top we find that sensitivities to ; k; of order 0.05 are obtainable with 100 /fb of integrated luminosity. This is similar in magnitude to what can be obtained at a 500 GeV NLC with an integrated luminosity of 50 /fb through an examination of the e(+)e(-) right arrow tt(bar)g process.
Evidence for an anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry
Williams, M.R.J.; /Lancaster U.
2011-01-01
We present a measurement of the like-sign dimuon asymmetry in semileptonic b-hadron decays, performed using 6.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions recorded with the D0 detector at a center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This measured value is A{sub sl}{sup b} = [-0.957 {+-} 0.251 (stat) {+-} 0.146 (syst)] %, which disagrees with the Standard Model prediction at a statistical level of 3.2 {sigma}, and provides the first evidence of anomalous CP violation in the mixing of neutral B mesons.
Nonminimal universal extra dimensions
Flacke, Thomas; Menon, A.; Phalen, Daniel J.
2009-03-01
In this paper, we investigate the phenomenological implications of boundary localized terms (BLTs) in the model of universal extra dimensions (UED). In particular, we study the electroweak Kaluza-Klein mass spectrum resulting from BLTs and their effect on electroweak symmetry breaking via the five-dimensional Higgs mechanism. We find that the addition of BLTs to massive five-dimensional fields induces a nontrivial extra-dimensional profile for the zero and nonzero Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes. Hence BLTs generically lead to a modification of standard model parameters and are therefore experimentally constrained, even at tree level. We study standard model constraints on three representative nonminimal UED models in detail and find that the constraints on BLTs are weak. On the contrary, nonzero BLTs have a major impact on the spectrum and couplings of nonzero KK modes. For example, there are regions of parameter space where the lightest Kaluza-Klein particle is either the Kaluza-Klein Higgs boson or the first KK mode of the W{sup 3}.
Anomalous transport in heterogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horbach, Jürgen; Siboni, Nima H.; Schnyder, Simon K.
2017-08-01
The diffusion dynamics of particles in heterogeneous media is studied using particle-based simulation techniques. A special focus is placed on systems where the transport of particles at long times exhibits anomalies such as subdiffusive or superdiffusive behavior. First, a two-dimensional model system is considered containing gas particles (tracers) that diffuse through a random arrangement of pinned, disk-shaped particles. This system is similar to a classical Lorentz gas. However, different from the original Lorentz model, soft instead of hard interactions are considered and we also discuss the case where the tracer particles interact with each other. We show that the modification from hard to soft interactions strongly affects anomalous-diffusive transport at high obstacle densities. Second, non-linear active micro-rheology in a glass-forming binary Yukawa mixture is investigated, pulling single particles through a deeply supercooled state by applying a constant force. Here, we observe superdiffusion in force direction and analyze its origin. Finally, we consider the Brownian dynamics of a particle which is pulled through a two-dimensional random force field. We discuss the similarities of this model with the Lorentz gas as well as active micro-rheology in glass-forming systems.
Chiral anomaly and anomalous finite-size conductivity in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Shun-Qing; Li, Chang-An; Niu, Qian
2017-09-01
Graphene is a monolayer of carbon atoms packed into a hexagon lattice to host two spin degenerate pairs of massless two-dimensional Dirac fermions with different chirality. It is known that the existence of non-zero electric polarization in reduced momentum space which is associated with a hidden chiral symmetry will lead to the zero-energy flat band of a zigzag nanoribbon and some anomalous transport properties. Here it is proposed that the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly or non-conservation of chiral charges of Dirac fermions at different valleys can be realized in a confined ribbon of finite width, even in the absence of a magnetic field. In the laterally diffusive regime, the finite-size correction to conductivity is always positive and is inversely proportional to the square of the lateral dimension W, which is different from the finite-size correction inversely proportional to W from the boundary modes. This anomalous finite-size conductivity reveals the signature of the chiral anomaly in graphene, and it is measurable experimentally. This finding provides an alternative platform to explore the purely quantum mechanical effect in graphene.
Detecting anomalous phase synchronization from time series
Tokuda, Isao T.; Kumar Dana, Syamal; Kurths, Juergen
2008-06-15
Modeling approaches are presented for detecting an anomalous route to phase synchronization from time series of two interacting nonlinear oscillators. The anomalous transition is characterized by an enlargement of the mean frequency difference between the oscillators with an initial increase in the coupling strength. Although such a structure is common in a large class of coupled nonisochronous oscillators, prediction of the anomalous transition is nontrivial for experimental systems, whose dynamical properties are unknown. Two approaches are examined; one is a phase equational modeling of coupled limit cycle oscillators and the other is a nonlinear predictive modeling of coupled chaotic oscillators. Application to prototypical models such as two interacting predator-prey systems in both limit cycle and chaotic regimes demonstrates the capability of detecting the anomalous structure from only a few sets of time series. Experimental data from two coupled Chua circuits shows its applicability to real experimental system.
The charmonium dissociation in an ''anomalous wind''
Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi
2016-01-11
We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries "anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the "anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the "anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and it qualitative difference between anomalous effects on the charmoniummore » color screening length which are model-dependent and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. As a result, we speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by the chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.« less
The charmonium dissociation in an ''anomalous wind''
Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi
2016-01-11
We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries "anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the "anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the "anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and it qualitative difference between anomalous effects on the charmonium color screening length which are model-dependent and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. As a result, we speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by the chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.
A method of predicting anomalous flashovers
Shindo, Takatoshi; Suzuki, Toshio
1995-07-01
When a long air gap or an insulator string is tested with a switching impulse voltage, flashovers sometimes occur at a gap which is longer than the test specimen. This phenomenon has been called anomalous flashover and the results of several experiments have been already reported. Although the mechanism of this anomalous flashover phenomena is important in coordinating insulation of high voltage transmission systems, especially for a UHV transmission system, almost no studies have been conducted on it. The authors analyze anomalous flashover phenomena statistically and propose a calculation method to predict the probability of anomalous flashovers occurs. This calculation method is then used to estimate the safety clearance needed for a UHV substation.
Anomalous Diffraction in Crystallographic Phase Evaluation
Hendrickson, Wayne A.
2014-01-01
X-ray diffraction patterns from crystals of biological macromolecules contain sufficient information to define atomic structures, but atomic positions are inextricable without having electron-density images. Diffraction measurements provide amplitudes, but the computation of electron density also requires phases for the diffracted waves. The resonance phenomenon known as anomalous scattering offers a powerful solution to this phase problem. Exploiting scattering resonances from diverse elements, the methods of multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) now predominate for de novo determinations of atomic-level biological structures. This review describes the physical underpinnings of anomalous diffraction methods, the evolution of these methods to their current maturity, the elements, procedures and instrumentation used for effective implementation, and the realm of applications. PMID:24726017
ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2010-09-01
This proposal is designed to permit recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. Anomalous shutdowns can occur as a result of bright object violations which trigger the Bright Scene Detection or Software Global Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur as a result of SBC hardware problems. The recovery from anomalous shutdown procedure consists of four tests: a signal processing electronics check, a slow high voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the full operating voltage, and lastly, a Fold Test. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on proposal 11884, visits 1 to 4.
ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2012-10-01
This proposal is designed to permit recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. Anomalous shutdowns can occur as a result of bright object violations which trigger the Bright Scene Detection or Software Global Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur as a result of SBC hardware problems. The recovery from anomalous shutdown procedure consists of four tests: 1} a signal processing electronics check, 2} a slow high voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the full operating voltage, and 4} a Fold Test. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 12738 from Cycle 19.
Search for anomalous Wtb couplings in single top quark production.
Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalk, J M; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G
2008-11-28
In 0.9 fb(-1) of pp[over] collisions, the D0 Collaboration presented evidence for single top quark production in events with an isolated lepton, missing transverse momentum, and two to four jets. We examine these data to study the Lorentz structure of the Wtb coupling. The standard model predicts a left-handed vector coupling at the Wtb vertex. The most general lowest dimension, CP-conserving Lagrangian admits right-handed vector and left- or right-handed tensor couplings as well. We find that the data prefer the left-handed vector coupling and set upper limits on the anomalous couplings. These are the first direct constraints on a general Wtb interaction and the first direct limits on left- and right-handed tensor couplings.
A discussion on the existence of the anomalous high and the anomalous low
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, N.
2015-10-01
The air flow in a three-way balance between the Coriolis force, the centrifugal force and the pressure gradient force, i.e., the gradient wind, is discussed. The author studies formation mechanisms and possible existence of four types of gradient wind (the normal high, the normal low, the anomalous high and the anomalous low), and proposes reasonable explanation of the evolution of the gradient wind, especially for the anomalous high and the anomalous low, both of which are considered to be pure mathematical solutions and are overlooked in classic literature.
On polarization parameters of spin-1 particles and anomalous couplings in e^+e^-→ ZZ/Zγ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahaman, Rafiqul; Singh, Ritesh K.
2016-10-01
We study the anomalous trilinear gauge couplings of Z and γ using a complete set of polarization asymmetries for the Z boson in e^+e^-→ ZZ/Zγ processes with unpolarized initial beams. We use these polarization asymmetries, along with the cross section, to obtain a simultaneous limit on all the anomalous couplings using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. For an e^+e^- collider running at 500 GeV center-of-mass energy and 100 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity the simultaneous limits on the anomalous couplings are 1-3× 10^{-3}.
Critical gravity in four dimensions.
Lü, H; Pope, C N
2011-05-06
We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This "critical" theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical "new massive gravity" with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions.
Critical Gravity in Four Dimensions
Lue, H.; Pope, C. N.
2011-05-06
We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This ''critical'' theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical 'new massive gravity' with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions.
Anomalous magnetism in hydrogenated graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Martínez, N. A.; Lado, J. L.; Jacob, D.; Fernández-Rossier, J.
2017-07-01
We revisit the problem of local moment formation in graphene due to chemisorption of individual atomic hydrogen or other analogous sp 3 covalent functionalizations. We describe graphene with the single-orbital Hubbard model, so that the H chemisorption is equivalent to a vacancy in the honeycomb lattice. To circumvent artifacts related to periodic unit cells, we use either huge simulation cells of up to 8 ×105 sites, or an embedding scheme that allows the modeling of a single vacancy in an otherwise pristine infinite honeycomb lattice. We find three results that stress the anomalous nature of the magnetic moment (m ) in this system. First, in the noninteracting (U =0 ) zero-temperature (T =0 ) case, the m (B ) is a continuous smooth curve with divergent susceptibility, different from the stepwise constant function found for single unpaired spins in a gapped system. Second, for U =0 and T >0 , the linear susceptibility follows a power law ∝T-α with an exponent of α =0.77 different from the conventional Curie law. For U >0 , in the mean-field approximation, the integrated moment is smaller than m =1 μB , in contrast with results using periodic unit cells. These three results highlight the fact that the magnetic response of the local moment induced by sp 3 functionalizations in graphene is different from that of local moments in gapped systems, for which the magnetic moment is quantized and follows a Curie law, and from Pauli paramagnetism in conductors, for which linear susceptibility can be defined at T =0 .
Le Higgs avec de grandes dimensions supplementaires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benakli, Karim; Quirós, Mariano
2003-04-01
Transverse (submillimeter) and longitudinal (TeV) extra dimensions can help in dealing with the Higgs hierarchy problem. On the one hand large transverse dimensions can lower the fundamental scale of quantum gravity from the Planck scale to the TeV range. On the other hand longitudinal dimensions can provide genuine extra-dimensional symmetries (higher dimensional gauge symmetry and/or supersymmetry) to protect the Higgs mass against ultraviolet sensitivity. In this article we review recent developments along these directions. To cite this article: K. Benakli, M. Quirós, C. R. Physique 4 (2003).
The Anomalous Orbital Motion Of Mab Explained
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Kartik; de Pater, I.; Showalter, M. R.
2012-10-01
Showalter and Lissauer (2003) reported the discovery of two previously unknown inner satellites of Uranus (Mab and Cupid), using data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Subsequently, they announced the discovery of an outer ring system composed of the ν-ring and the μ-ring (Showalter and Lissauer, 2006). They showed that the orbit of Mab, embedded in the μ-ring, is not well understood, after comparing its orbital position derived from Voyager flyby data (1986) to HST data (2003-2006). The observed positions were compared with a Keplerian orbital model that included the gravitational flattening of Uranus. Although this model works well for nine other Uranian moons, for Mab the fitting errors are six times larger. Mab is relatively bright in the data and well isolated from the other moons, suggesting that the measurement errors should not be large. Hence, the magnitude of the orbit fit residual seems to indicate that we are currently overlooking an essential part of the dynamics that determines the orbit of Mab. It is clear from these discoveries that Mab and the μ-ring are intriguing, constituting "a densely packed, rapidly varying, and possibly unstable dynamical system." We investigated the nature of Mab's anomalous orbital motion, which has thus far remained unexplained. The dynamical effects we simulated result from the interaction of Mab with a hypothetical ring of undetected moonlets in its neighborhood. We explored the effects of varying the characteristics of such a ring (mass and orbital-element distribution) on Mab's orbital motion. From these results we are able to highlight a number of interesting dynamical regimes. In particular, our simulations reveal the important role that perturbers occupying horseshoe orbits might play in determining the perturbations experienced by Mab. Further studies will be conducted to investigate the long-term stability of a possible perturber ring.
Anomalous columnar order of charged colloidal platelets.
Morales-Anda, L; Wensink, H H; Galindo, A; Gil-Villegas, A
2012-01-21
Monte Carlo computer simulations are carried out for a model system of like-charged colloidal platelets in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble (NpT). The aim is to elucidate the role of electrostatic interactions on the structure of synthetic clay systems at high particle densities. Short-range repulsions between particles are described by a suitable hard-core model representing a discotic particle. This potential is supplemented with an electrostatic potential based on a Yukawa model for the screened Coulombic potential between infinitely thin disklike macro-ions. The particle aspect-ratio and electrostatic parameters were chosen to mimic an aqueous dispersion of thin, like-charged, rigid colloidal platelets at finite salt concentration. An examination of the fluid phase diagram reveals a marked shift in the isotropic-nematic transition compared to the hard cut-sphere reference system. Several statistical functions, such as the pair correlation function for the center-of-mass coordinates and structure factor, are obtained to characterize the structural organization of the platelets phases. At low salinity and high osmotic pressure we observe anomalous hexagonal columnar structures characterized by interpenetrating columns with a typical intercolumnar distance corresponding to about half of that of a regular columnar phase. Increasing the ionic strength leads to the formation of glassy, disordered structures consisting of compact clusters of platelets stacked into finite-sized columns. These so-called "nematic columnar" structures have been recently observed in systems of charge-stabilized gibbsite platelets. Our findings are corroborated by an analysis of the static structure factor from a simple density functional theory. © 2012 American Institute of Physics
Dimensions of Educational Need.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johns, Roe L., Ed.; And Others
Roe L. Johns and J. Alan Thomas survey the problem of educational need; and Kern Alexander considers the implications of the dimensions of educational need for school financing. Dimensions of need in the following areas are defined: early childhood and basic elementary and secondary education, by William P. McLure; educational programs for…
Navigating between the Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fleron, Julian F.; Ecke, Volker
2011-01-01
Generations have been inspired by Edwin A. Abbott's profound tour of the dimensions in his novella "Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions" (1884). This well-known satire is the story of a flat land inhabited by geometric shapes trying to navigate the subtleties of their geometric, social, and political positions. In this article, the authors…
Navigating between the Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fleron, Julian F.; Ecke, Volker
2011-01-01
Generations have been inspired by Edwin A. Abbott's profound tour of the dimensions in his novella "Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions" (1884). This well-known satire is the story of a flat land inhabited by geometric shapes trying to navigate the subtleties of their geometric, social, and political positions. In this article, the authors…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lodge-Peters, Dianne S.
The qualitative dimension of educational research methodology is explored, and the literature of qualitative methodology is reviewed so researchers may (1) understand more fully the qualitative dimension as it, in turn, fits within the parameters of educational research as a whole, and (2) have more informed access to the sometimes daunting array…
Massive gravity in three dimensions.
Bergshoeff, Eric A; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K
2009-05-22
A particular higher-derivative extension of the Einstein-Hilbert action in three spacetime dimensions is shown to be equivalent at the linearized level to the (unitary) Pauli-Fierz action for a massive spin-2 field. A more general model, which also includes "topologically-massive" gravity as a special case, propagates the two spin-2 helicity states with different masses. We discuss the extension to massive N-extended supergravity, and we present a "cosmological" extension that admits an anti-de Sitter vacuum.
Giant Arachnoid Granulation Associated with Anomalous Draining Vein: A Case Report
Oskouian, Rod J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R. Shane
2017-01-01
Giant arachnoid granulations (AG) can mimic intracranial lesions. Knowledge of these structures can help avoid misdiagnosis when interpreting imaging. Here, we report a child who presented with a mass within the superior sagittal sinus and an anomalous draining vein. Herein, the diagnosis of a giant AG was made. Clinicians who view or interpret imaging of the head should be aware of these anatomical variants and though when very large, apparently, do not necessarily result in pathology. Based on our case report, giant AG might also demonstrate anomalous draining veins. PMID:28409066
Anomalous orbital-energy changes observed during spacecraft flybys of earth.
Anderson, John D; Campbell, James K; Ekelund, John E; Ellis, Jordan; Jordan, James F
2008-03-07
We report and characterize anomalous orbital-energy changes observed during six Earth flybys by the Galileo, NEAR, Cassini, Rosetta, and MESSENGER spacecraft. These anomalous energy changes are consistent with an empirical prediction formula which is proportional to the total orbital energy per unit mass and which involves the incoming and outgoing geocentric latitudes of the asymptotic spacecraft velocity vectors. We use this formula to predict a potentially detectable flyby velocity increase of less than 1 mm/s for a second Rosetta flyby on November 13, 2007.
Anomalous resonant production of the fourth-family up-type quarks at the LHC
Cakir, I. T.; Yildiz, H. Duran; Cakir, O.; Uenel, G.
2009-11-01
Considering the present limits on their masses from the Tevatron experiments, the fourth-family quarks are expected to have masses larger than the top quark. Because of their expected large masses, they could have different dynamics than the third-family quarks of the standard model. The resonant production of the fourth-family up-type quark t{sup '} has been studied via the anomalous production subprocess gq{sub i}{yields}t{sup '} (where q{sub i}=u, c) at the LHC, with center-of-mass energies of 10 TeV and 14 TeV. The signatures of such a process are discussed within the standard model decay modes. The sensitivity to the anomalous coupling {kappa}/{lambda}=0.1 TeV{sup -1} can be reached at {radical}(s)=10 TeV and L{sub int}=100 pb{sup -1}.
ON THE SOURCE OF ASTROMETRIC ANOMALOUS REFRACTION
Taylor, M. Suzanne; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.; Pier, Jeffrey R.
2013-03-15
More than a century ago, astronomers using transit telescopes to determine precise stellar positions were hampered by an unexplained periodic shifting of the stars they were observing. With the advent of CCD transit telescopes in the past three decades, this unexplained motion, termed 'anomalous refraction' by these early astronomers, is again being observed. Anomalous refraction is described as a low-frequency, large angular scale ({approx}2 Degree-Sign ) motion of the entire image plane with respect to the celestial coordinate system as observed and defined by astrometric catalogs. These motions, of typically several tenths of an arcsecond amplitude with timescales on the order of 10 minutes, are ubiquitous to ground-based drift-scan astrometric measurements regardless of location or telescopes used and have been attributed to the effect of tilting of equal-density layers of the atmosphere. The cause of this tilting has often been attributed to atmospheric gravity waves, but this cause has never been confirmed. Although theoretical models of atmospheric refraction show that atmospheric gravity waves are a plausible cause of anomalous refraction, an observational campaign specifically directed at defining this relationship provides clear evidence that anomalous refraction is not consistent with the passage of atmospheric gravity waves. The source of anomalous refraction is found to be meter-scale, slowly evolving quasi-coherent dynamical structures in the boundary layer below 60 m above ground level.
Cassini observation of Jovian anomalous continuum radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Sheng-Yi; Gurnett, D. A.; Menietti, J. D.; Kurth, W. S.; Fischer, G.; Schippers, P.; Hospodarsky, G. B.
2012-04-01
Jovian anomalous continuum is a narrowband electromagnetic radiation near 10 kHz that can escape from Jupiter's magnetosphere to interplanetary space. One possible source mechanism is the magnetosheath re-radiation of the Jovian low frequency radio emissions such as the quasiperiodic (QP) radio emissions, broadband kilometric radiation (bKOM) and non-thermal continuum. Jovian anomalous continuum was consistently observed by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument from 2000 to 2004, right before the Saturn orbit insertion, which means the radiation can be detected as far as 8 AU away from Jupiter. An analysis of intensity versus radial distance shows that the Jovian anomalous continuum has a line source rather than a point source, consistent with the theory that the emission is radiated by the whole length of the magnetotail. The emissions are modulated at the system III period of Jupiter and are unpolarized. Since the lower cutoff frequency of the anomalous continuum is related to the plasma frequency in the magnetosheath of Jupiter, which is a function of solar wind density, the recurrent variations of the lower cutoff frequency can be used as a remote diagnostic of the solar wind condition at Jupiter. We propose that the frequency dispersion, a unique characteristic of the anomalous continuum, is likely a comprehensive effect of both the slow group velocity near the local plasma frequency and the refraction/scattering of the waves by density structures as they propagate in the magnetosheath.
Parametric probability distributions for anomalous change detection
Theiler, James P; Foy, Bernard R; Wohlberg, Brendt E; Scovel, James C
2010-01-01
The problem of anomalous change detection arises when two (or possibly more) images are taken of the same scene, but at different times. The aim is to discount the 'pervasive differences' that occur thoughout the imagery, due to the inevitably different conditions under which the images were taken (caused, for instance, by differences in illumination, atmospheric conditions, sensor calibration, or misregistration), and to focus instead on the 'anomalous changes' that actually take place in the scene. In general, anomalous change detection algorithms attempt to model these normal or pervasive differences, based on data taken directly from the imagery, and then identify as anomalous those pixels for which the model does not hold. For many algorithms, these models are expressed in terms of probability distributions, and there is a class of such algorithms that assume the distributions are Gaussian. By considering a broader class of distributions, however, a new class of anomalous change detection algorithms can be developed. We consider several parametric families of such distributions, derive the associated change detection algorithms, and compare the performance with standard algorithms that are based on Gaussian distributions. We find that it is often possible to significantly outperform these standard algorithms, even using relatively simple non-Gaussian models.
Antonov, N V; Gulitskiy, N M; Kostenko, M M; Lučivjanský, T
2017-03-01
We study a model of fully developed turbulence of a compressible fluid, based on the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation, by means of the field-theoretic renormalization group. In this approach, scaling properties are related to the fixed points of the renormalization group equations. Previous analysis of this model near the real-world space dimension 3 identified a scaling regime [N. V. Antonov et al., Theor. Math. Phys. 110, 305 (1997)TMPHAH0040-577910.1007/BF02630456]. The aim of the present paper is to explore the existence of additional regimes, which could not be found using the direct perturbative approach of the previous work, and to analyze the crossover between different regimes. It seems possible to determine them near the special value of space dimension 4 in the framework of double y and ɛ expansion, where y is the exponent associated with the random force and ɛ=4-d is the deviation from the space dimension 4. Our calculations show that there exists an additional fixed point that governs scaling behavior. Turbulent advection of a passive scalar (density) field by this velocity ensemble is considered as well. We demonstrate that various correlation functions of the scalar field exhibit anomalous scaling behavior in the inertial-convective range. The corresponding anomalous exponents, identified as scaling dimensions of certain composite fields, can be systematically calculated as a series in y and ɛ. All calculations are performed in the leading one-loop approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonov, N. V.; Gulitskiy, N. M.; Kostenko, M. M.; Lučivjanský, T.
2017-03-01
We study a model of fully developed turbulence of a compressible fluid, based on the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation, by means of the field-theoretic renormalization group. In this approach, scaling properties are related to the fixed points of the renormalization group equations. Previous analysis of this model near the real-world space dimension 3 identified a scaling regime [N. V. Antonov et al., Theor. Math. Phys. 110, 305 (1997), 10.1007/BF02630456]. The aim of the present paper is to explore the existence of additional regimes, which could not be found using the direct perturbative approach of the previous work, and to analyze the crossover between different regimes. It seems possible to determine them near the special value of space dimension 4 in the framework of double y and ɛ expansion, where y is the exponent associated with the random force and ɛ =4 -d is the deviation from the space dimension 4. Our calculations show that there exists an additional fixed point that governs scaling behavior. Turbulent advection of a passive scalar (density) field by this velocity ensemble is considered as well. We demonstrate that various correlation functions of the scalar field exhibit anomalous scaling behavior in the inertial-convective range. The corresponding anomalous exponents, identified as scaling dimensions of certain composite fields, can be systematically calculated as a series in y and ɛ . All calculations are performed in the leading one-loop approximation.
Anomalous resonance in a nanomechanical biosensor
Gupta, Amit K.; Nair, Pradeep R.; Akin, Demir; Ladisch, Michael R.; Broyles, Steve; Alam, Muhammad A.; Bashir, Rashid
2006-01-01
The decrease in resonant frequency (−Δωr) of a classical cantilever provides a sensitive measure of the mass of entities attached on its surface. This elementary phenomenon has been the basis of a new class of bio-nanomechanical devices as sensing components of integrated microsystems that can perform rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of biological and biochemical entities. Based on classical analysis, there is a widespread perception that smaller sensors are more sensitive (sensitivity ≈ −0.5ωr/mC, where mC is the mass of the cantilever), and this notion has motivated scaling of biosensors to nanoscale dimensions. In this work, we show that the response of a nanomechanical biosensor is far more complex than previously anticipated. Indeed, in contrast to classical microscale sensors, the resonant frequencies of the nanosensor may actually decrease or increase after attachment of protein molecules. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the direction of the frequency change arises from a size-specific modification of diffusion and attachment kinetics of biomolecules on the cantilevers. This work may have broad impact on microscale and nanoscale biosensor design, especially when predicting the characteristics of bio-nanoelectromechanical sensors functionalized with biological capture molecules. PMID:16938886
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators
Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng
2015-08-25
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Here, we give a theoretical introduction to the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect based on magnetic topological insulators in two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). In 2D topological insulators, magnetic order breaks the symmetry between the counter-propagating helical edge states, and as a result, the quantum spin Hall effect can evolve into the QAH effect. In 3D, magnetic order opens up a gap for the topological surface states, and chiral edge state has been predicted to exist on the magnetic domain walls. We present the phase diagram in thin films of a magnetic topological insulator and review the basic mechanism of ferromagnetic order in magnetically doped topological insulators. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QAH effect. Furthermore, we discuss more recent theoretical work on the coexistence of the helical and chiral edge states, multi-channel chiral edge states, the theory of the plateau transition, and the thickness dependence in the QAH effect.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators
Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng
2015-08-25
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Here, we give a theoretical introduction to the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect based on magnetic topological insulators in two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). In 2D topological insulators, magnetic order breaks the symmetry between the counter-propagating helical edge states, and as a result, the quantum spin Hall effect can evolve into the QAH effect. In 3D, magnetic order opens up a gap for the topological surface states, and chiral edge state has been predicted to exist on the magnetic domain walls. We presentmore » the phase diagram in thin films of a magnetic topological insulator and review the basic mechanism of ferromagnetic order in magnetically doped topological insulators. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QAH effect. Furthermore, we discuss more recent theoretical work on the coexistence of the helical and chiral edge states, multi-channel chiral edge states, the theory of the plateau transition, and the thickness dependence in the QAH effect.« less
Wilbur, W John; Kim, Won
2003-01-01
Indexing of documents is an important strategy intended to make the literature more readily available to the user. Here we describe several dimensions of indexing that are important if indexing is to be optimal. These dimensions are coverage, predictability, and transparency. MeSH terms and text words are compared in MEDLINE in regard to these dimensions. Part of our analysis consists in applying AdaBoost with decisions trees as the weak learners to estimate how reliably index terms are being assigned and how complex the criteria are by which they are being assigned. Our conclusions are that MeSH terms are more predictable and more transparent than text words.
On universal quantum dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mkrtchyan, R. L.
2017-08-01
We represent in the universal form restricted one-instanton partition function of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. It is based on the derivation of universal expressions for quantum dimensions (universal characters) of Cartan powers of adjoint and some other series of irreps of simple Lie algebras. These formulae also provide a proof of formulae for universal quantum dimensions for low-dimensional representations, needed in derivation of universal knot polynomials (i.e. colored Wilson averages of Chern-Simons theory on 3d sphere). As a check of the (complicated) formulae for universal quantum dimensions we prove numerically Deligne's hypothesis on universal characters for symmetric cube of adjoint representation.
Anomalous x-ray scattering from terbium-labeled parvalbumin in solution.
Miake-Lye, R C; Doniach, S; Hodgson, K O
1983-01-01
We have used anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering as a structural probe for solutions of rabbit parvalbumin labeled with terbium. This technique makes use of the large changes in the terbium scattering factor that occur when the x-ray energy is tuned around an L3 absorption edge of this heavy-atom label. These changes in scattering result in changes in the small-angle scattering curve of the labeled protein as a whole, which can then be analyzed to derive structural information concerning the distribution of labels in the protein. Based on a Gaussian model for the protein electron density, the mean distance from the terbiums to the protein center of mass is determined to be 13.2 A and is consistent with crystallographic results. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of terbium as an anomalous scattering label and provide criteria to help establish anomalous scattering as a reliable structural technique for proteins in solution. PMID:6838970
Anomalous versus Slowed-Down Brownian Diffusion in the Ligand-Binding Equilibrium
Soula, Hédi; Caré, Bertrand; Beslon, Guillaume; Berry, Hugues
2013-01-01
Measurements of protein motion in living cells and membranes consistently report transient anomalous diffusion (subdiffusion) that converges back to a Brownian motion with reduced diffusion coefficient at long times after the anomalous diffusion regime. Therefore, slowed-down Brownian motion could be considered the macroscopic limit of transient anomalous diffusion. On the other hand, membranes are also heterogeneous media in which Brownian motion may be locally slowed down due to variations in lipid composition. Here, we investigate whether both situations lead to a similar behavior for the reversible ligand-binding reaction in two dimensions. We compare the (long-time) equilibrium properties obtained with transient anomalous diffusion due to obstacle hindrance or power-law-distributed residence times (continuous-time random walks) to those obtained with space-dependent slowed-down Brownian motion. Using theoretical arguments and Monte Carlo simulations, we show that these three scenarios have distinctive effects on the apparent affinity of the reaction. Whereas continuous-time random walks decrease the apparent affinity of the reaction, locally slowed-down Brownian motion and local hindrance by obstacles both improve it. However, only in the case of slowed-down Brownian motion is the affinity maximal when the slowdown is restricted to a subregion of the available space. Hence, even at long times (equilibrium), these processes are different and exhibit irreconcilable behaviors when the area fraction of reduced mobility changes. PMID:24209851
Anomalous versus slowed-down Brownian diffusion in the ligand-binding equilibrium.
Soula, Hédi; Caré, Bertrand; Beslon, Guillaume; Berry, Hugues
2013-11-05
Measurements of protein motion in living cells and membranes consistently report transient anomalous diffusion (subdiffusion) that converges back to a Brownian motion with reduced diffusion coefficient at long times after the anomalous diffusion regime. Therefore, slowed-down Brownian motion could be considered the macroscopic limit of transient anomalous diffusion. On the other hand, membranes are also heterogeneous media in which Brownian motion may be locally slowed down due to variations in lipid composition. Here, we investigate whether both situations lead to a similar behavior for the reversible ligand-binding reaction in two dimensions. We compare the (long-time) equilibrium properties obtained with transient anomalous diffusion due to obstacle hindrance or power-law-distributed residence times (continuous-time random walks) to those obtained with space-dependent slowed-down Brownian motion. Using theoretical arguments and Monte Carlo simulations, we show that these three scenarios have distinctive effects on the apparent affinity of the reaction. Whereas continuous-time random walks decrease the apparent affinity of the reaction, locally slowed-down Brownian motion and local hindrance by obstacles both improve it. However, only in the case of slowed-down Brownian motion is the affinity maximal when the slowdown is restricted to a subregion of the available space. Hence, even at long times (equilibrium), these processes are different and exhibit irreconcilable behaviors when the area fraction of reduced mobility changes. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neoclassical Viscosities and Anomalous Flows in Stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ware, A. S.; Spong, D. A.; Breyfogle, M.; Marine, T.
2009-05-01
We present initial work to use neoclassical viscosities calculated with the PENTA code [1] in a transport model that includes Reynolds stress generation of flows [2]. The PENTA code uses a drift kinetic equation solver to calculate neoclassical viscosities and flows in general three-dimensional geometries over a range of collisionalities. The predicted neoclassical viscosities predicted by PENTA can be flux-surfaced average and applied in a 1-D transport model that includes anomalous flow generation. This combination of codes can be used to test the impact of stellarator geometry on anomalous flow generation. As a test case, we apply the code to modeling flows in the HSX stellarator. Due to variations in the neoclassical viscosities, HSX can have strong neoclassical flows in the core region. In turn, these neoclassical flows can provide a seed for anomalous flow generation. [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [2] D. E. Newman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 938 (1998).
Drag suppression in anomalous chiral media
Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi
2016-06-01
We study a heavy impurity moving longitudinal with the direction of an external magnetic field in an anomalous chiral medium. Such system would carry a non-dissipative current of chiral magnetic effect associated with the anomaly. We show, by generalizing Landau's criterion for super fluidity, that the "anomalous component" which gives rise to the anomalous transport will not contribute to the drag experienced by an impurity. We argue on a very general basis that those systems with a strong magnetic field would exhibit an interesting transport phenomenon$-$the motion of the heavy impurity is frictionless, in analogy to the case of a super fluid. Finally, we demonstrate and confirm our general results with two complementary examples: weakly coupled chiral fermion gases and strongly interacting chiral liquids.
Drag suppression in anomalous chiral media
Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi
2016-06-01
We study a heavy impurity moving longitudinal with the direction of an external magnetic field in an anomalous chiral medium. Such system would carry a non-dissipative current of chiral magnetic effect associated with the anomaly. We show, by generalizing Landau's criterion for super fluidity, that the "anomalous component" which gives rise to the anomalous transport will not contribute to the drag experienced by an impurity. We argue on a very general basis that those systems with a strong magnetic field would exhibit an interesting transport phenomenon$-$the motion of the heavy impurity is frictionless, in analogy to the case of amore » super fluid. Finally, we demonstrate and confirm our general results with two complementary examples: weakly coupled chiral fermion gases and strongly interacting chiral liquids.« less
Drag suppression in anomalous chiral media
Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi
2016-06-01
We study a heavy impurity moving longitudinal with the direction of an external magnetic field in an anomalous chiral medium. Such system would carry a non-dissipative current of chiral magnetic effect associated with the anomaly. We show, by generalizing Landau's criterion for super fluidity, that the "anomalous component" which gives rise to the anomalous transport will not contribute to the drag experienced by an impurity. We argue on a very general basis that those systems with a strong magnetic field would exhibit an interesting transport phenomenon$-$the motion of the heavy impurity is frictionless, in analogy to the case of a super fluid. Finally, we demonstrate and confirm our general results with two complementary examples: weakly coupled chiral fermion gases and strongly interacting chiral liquids.
Models of anomalous diffusion: the subdiffusive case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piryatinska, A.; Saichev, A. I.; Woyczynski, W. A.
2005-04-01
The paper discusses a model for anomalous diffusion processes. Their one-point probability density functions (p.d.f.) are exact solutions of fractional diffusion equations. The model reflects the asymptotic behavior of a jump (anomalous random walk) process with random jump sizes and random inter-jump time intervals with infinite means (and variances) which do not satisfy the Law of Large Numbers. In the case when these intervals have a fractional exponential p.d.f., the fractional Komogorov-Feller equation for the corresponding anomalous diffusion is provided and methods of finding its solutions are discussed. Finally, some statistical properties of solutions of the related Langevin equation are studied. The subdiffusive case is explored in detail. The emphasis is on a rigorous presentation which, however, would be accessible to the physical sciences audience.
Dimensions of Aesthetic Perception.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Biaggio, Mary Kay; Supplee, Katherine A.
1983-01-01
Examines the validity of three dimensions of aesthetic perception: hedonic value, arousal, and uncertainty. Hedonic interest and arousal factors were found to differ from factors previously reported, while the uncertainty factor paralleled that previously reported. (Author/RH)
Polyhedra and Higher Dimensions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Paul
1988-01-01
Describes the definition and characteristics of a regular polyhedron, tessellation, and pseudopolyhedra with diagrams. Discusses the nature of simplex, hypercube, and cross-polytope in the fourth dimension and beyond. (YP)
Dimensions of Aesthetic Perception.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Biaggio, Mary Kay; Supplee, Katherine A.
1983-01-01
Examines the validity of three dimensions of aesthetic perception: hedonic value, arousal, and uncertainty. Hedonic interest and arousal factors were found to differ from factors previously reported, while the uncertainty factor paralleled that previously reported. (Author/RH)
Dynamics of particles near black hole with higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Iftikhar, Sehrish
2016-07-01
This paper explores the dynamics of particles in higher dimensions. For this purpose, we discuss some interesting features related to the motion of particles near a Myers-Perry black hole with arbitrary extra dimensions as well as a single non-zero spin parameter. Assuming it as a supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy, we calculate red-blue shifts in the equatorial plane for the far away observer as well as the corresponding black hole parameters of the photons. Next, we study the Penrose process and find that the energy gain of the particle depends on the variation of the black hole dimensions. Finally, we discuss the center of mass energy for 11 dimensions, which indicates a similar behavior to that of four dimensions but it is higher in four dimensions than five or more dimensions. We conclude that higher dimensions have a great impact on the particle dynamics.
A potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yin, B.; Shay, T. M.
1992-01-01
The characteristics of a potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter operating on the blue and near infrared transitions are calculated. The results show that the filter can be designed to provide high transmission, very narrow pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth. The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) provides a narrow pass bandwidth (about GHz) optical filter for laser communications, remote sensing, and lidar. The general theoretical model for the FADOF has been established in our previous paper. In this paper, we have identified the optimum operational conditions for a potassium FADOF operating on the blue and infrared transitions. The signal transmission, bandwidth, and equivalent noise bandwidth (ENBW) are also calculated.
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of anomalous coronary arteries.
Varghese, Anitha; Keegan, Jennifer; Pennell, Dudley J
2005-09-01
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of anomalous coronary arteries is a class I indication. The term anomalous coronary artery encompasses those with an abnormal origin (from the incorrect sinus, too-high or too-low from the correct sinus, or from the pulmonary artery) and/or number of ostia. Their clinical significance results from the increased risk of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death associated with those traversing an interarterial course between the aorta and main pulmonary artery/right ventricular outflow tract. In this article, we review the role and practice of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in this field.
Anomalous Andreev bound state in noncentrosymmetric superconductors.
Tanaka, Yukio; Mizuno, Yoshihiro; Yokoyama, Takehito; Yada, Keiji; Sato, Masatoshi
2010-08-27
We study edge states of noncentrosymmetric superconductors where spin-singlet d-wave pairing mixes with spin-triplet p (or f)-wave one by spin-orbit coupling. For d(xy)-wave pairing, the obtained Andreev bound state has an anomalous dispersion as compared to conventional helical edge modes. A unique topologically protected time-reversal invariant Majorana bound state appears at the edge. The charge conductance in the noncentrosymmetric superconductor junctions reflects the anomalous structures of the dispersions, particularly the time-reversal invariant Majorana bound state is manifested as a zero bias conductance peak.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirshberg, Ilan; Szabó, Gábor; Winter, Wilhelm; Wu, Jianchao
2016-10-01
We introduce a notion of Rokhlin dimension for one parameter automorphism groups of {C^*} -algebras. This generalizes Kishimoto's Rokhlin property for flows, and is analogous to the notion of Rokhlin dimension for actions of the integers and other discrete groups introduced by the authors and Zacharias in previous papers. We show that finite nuclear dimension and absorption of a strongly self-absorbing {C^*} -algebra are preserved under forming crossed products by flows with finite Rokhlin dimension, and that these crossed products are stable. Furthermore, we show that a flow on a commutative {C^*} -algebra arising from a free topological flow has finite Rokhlin dimension, whenever the spectrum is a locally compact metrizable space with finite covering dimension. For flows that are both free and minimal, this has strong consequences for the associated crossed product {C^{*}} -algebras: Those containing a non-zero projection are classified by the Elliott invariant (for compact manifolds this consists of topological {K} -theory together with the space of invariant probability measures and a natural pairing given by the Ruelle-Sullivan map).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirshberg, Ilan; Szabó, Gábor; Winter, Wilhelm; Wu, Jianchao
2017-07-01
We introduce a notion of Rokhlin dimension for one parameter automorphism groups of {C^*}-algebras. This generalizes Kishimoto's Rokhlin property for flows, and is analogous to the notion of Rokhlin dimension for actions of the integers and other discrete groups introduced by the authors and Zacharias in previous papers. We show that finite nuclear dimension and absorption of a strongly self-absorbing {C^*}-algebra are preserved under forming crossed products by flows with finite Rokhlin dimension, and that these crossed products are stable. Furthermore, we show that a flow on a commutative {C^*}-algebra arising from a free topological flow has finite Rokhlin dimension, whenever the spectrum is a locally compact metrizable space with finite covering dimension. For flows that are both free and minimal, this has strong consequences for the associated crossed product {C^{*}}-algebras: Those containing a non-zero projection are classified by the Elliott invariant (for compact manifolds this consists of topological {K}-theory together with the space of invariant probability measures and a natural pairing given by the Ruelle-Sullivan map).
Anomalous magnetotransport behaviours in PtSe2 microflakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhaoguo; Zhang, Jicheng; Zeng, Yong; Meng, Lingbiao; Zhou, Minjie; Wu, Weidong
2017-06-01
Platinum diselenide (PtSe2) is a newly discovered 2D transition metal dichalcogenide, and is further theoretically identified as a candidate of type-II Dirac semimetals. The electrical transport study of PtSe2 microflakes may provide great potential not only in fundamental physics, but also for future electronic applications. We report the anomalous magnetotransport properties of PtSe2 microflakes. The anisotropic magnetoresistance of PtSe2 microflakes can be normalized by introducing a 3D scaling factor {{\\varepsilon}θ}={≤ft({{\\cos}2}θ +{{γ-2}{{\\sin}2}θ \\right)}1/2} , where θ is the magnetic field angle with respect to the c axis of the crystal and γ is the mass anisotropic constant of electrons. Additionally, the non-monotonic temperature-dependent magnetoresistance of PtSe2 microflakes is observed both in the perpendicular and in-plane magnetic field orientations. This anomalous magnetotransport behaviour may be ascribed to the novel features of type-II Dirac fermions; however, the exact physical mechanism deserves further investigation.
Effects of genuine dimension-six Higgs operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barger, Vernon; Han, Tao; Langacker, Paul; McElrath, Bob; Zerwas, Peter
2003-06-01
We systematically discuss the consequences of genuine dimension-six Higgs operators. These operators are not subject to stringent constraints from electroweak precision data. However, they can modify the couplings of the Higgs boson to electroweak gauge bosons and, in particular, the Higgs self-interactions. We study the sensitivity to which those couplings can be probed at future e+e- linear colliders in the sub-TeV and in the multi-TeV range. We find that for (s)=500 GeV with a luminosity of 1 ab-1 the anomalous WWH and ZZH couplings may be probed to about the 0.01 level, and the anomalous HHH coupling to about the 0.1 level.
Testing Anomalous Gauge Couplings of the Higgs Boson via Weak-Boson Scatterings at the Lhc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bin; Kuang, Yu-Ping; He, Hong-Jian; Yuan, C.-P.
2005-04-01
We propose a sensitive way to test the anomalous HVV couplings (V = W±, Z0) of the Higgs boson (H), which can arise from the dimension-6 effective operators in a linearly realized Higgs sector, via studying the VV scattering processes at the CERN LHC. The gold-plated pure leptonic decay modes of the final state weak bosons in the processes pp → VVjj are studied. We show that, with an integrated luminosity of 300 fb-1 and sufficient kinematical cuts for suppressing the backgrounds, studying the process pp → W+W+jj → l+νl+νjj can probe the anomalous HWW couplings at the level of 0.01 - 0.08TeV-1 for the linearly realized effective Lagrangian.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matin, Rastin; Hernandez, Anier; Misztal, Marek; Mathiesen, Joachim
2015-04-01
Many hydrodynamic phenomena ranging from flows at micron scale in porous media, large Reynolds numbers flows, non-Newtonian and multiphase flows have been simulated on computers using the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method. By solving the Lattice Boltzmann Equation on unstructured meshes in three dimensions, we have developed methods to efficiently model the fluid flow in real rock samples. We use this model to study the spatio-temporal statistics of the velocity field inside three-dimensional real geometries and investigate its relation to the, in general, anomalous transport of passive tracers for a wide range of Peclet and Reynolds numbers. We extend this model by free-energy based method, which allows us to simulate binary systems with large-density ratios in a thermodynamically consistent way and track the interface explicitly. In this presentation we will present our recent results on both anomalous transport and multiphase segregation.
STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2013-10-01
This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13150.
ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2013-10-01
This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage. The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, high-voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the nominal operating HV, and 4} fold analysis test. Each must be completed successfully before proceeding onto the next. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 13163 from Cycle 20. For additional MAMA recovery information, see STIS ISR 98-02R.
COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2013-10-01
This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage, and 4} fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13129. Adjustments were made the the Software Global Monitor {SGM} to account for an increase in the dark counts due to window glow and to align the SGM to previously obtained Fold Analysis event data.
Total least squares for anomalous change detection
Theiler, James P; Matsekh, Anna M
2010-01-01
A family of difference-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQ-based anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and furthermore it is shown to be equivalent to the optimized covariance equalization algorithm. What whitened TLSQ offers, in addition to connecting with a common language the derivations of two of the most popular anomalous change detection algorithms - chronochrome and covariance equalization - is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.
Anomalous absorption in H2CO molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandra, Suresh; Musrif, P. G.; Shinde, S. V.
2006-03-01
Snyder et al. (1969) detected H2 CO through its transition 110 - 111 at 4.829 GHz in absorption in the interstellar medium in a number of galactic and extragalactic sources (M17, W3, W3(OH position), W49, NGC 2024, DR 21, W43, W44, W51, Sgr A, Sgr B2, W33, NGC 6334, Cas A, and 3C 123). This transition of H2 CO was found in anomalous absorption by Palmer et al. (1969) in the direction of four dark nebulae. In some objects, this transition has however been detected in emission and even as a maser line (Forster et al. 1980; Whiteoak et al. 1983). Evans et al. (1970) reported detection of H2 CO molecule through its transition 211 - 212 at 14.488 GHz in absorption in some cosmic objects. This transition was also found in anomalous absorption by Evans et al. (1975). Since the transition 110 - 111 is considered as a unique probe of high density gas at low temperature, the study of H2 CO in cosmic objects is of great importance. Garrison et al. (1975) investigated the problem of anomalous absorption of 110 - 111 and 211 -212 transitions of H2 CO where they accounted for 8 energy levels connected by 10 radiative transitions and considered a kinetic temperature of 5 - 20 K. They found weak anomalous absorption of 110 - 111 and 211 - 212 transitions of H2 CO.
RSRM Nozzle Anomalous Throat Erosion Investigation Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Wendel, Gary M.
1998-01-01
In September, 1996, anomalous pocketing erosion was observed in the aft end of the throat ring of the nozzle of one of the reusable solid rocket motors (RSRM 56B) used on NASA's space transportation system (STS) mission 79. The RSRM throat ring is constructed of bias tape-wrapped carbon cloth/ phenolic (CCP) ablative material. A comprehensive investigation revealed necessary and sufficient conditions for occurrence of the pocketing event and provided rationale that the solid rocket motors for the subsequent mission, STS-80, were safe to fly. The nozzles of both of these motors also exhibited anomalous erosion similar to, but less extensive than that observed on STS-79. Subsequent to this flight, the investigation to identify both the specific causes and the corrective actions for elimination of the necessary and sufficient conditions for the pocketing erosion was intensified. A detailed fault tree approach was utilized to examine potential material and process contributors to the anomalous performance. The investigation involved extensive constituent and component material property testing, pedigree assessments, supplier audits, process audits, full scale processing test article fabrication and evaluation, thermal and thermostructural analyses, nondestructive evaluation, and material performance tests conducted using hot fire simulation in laboratory test beds and subscale and full scale solid rocket motor static test firings. This presentation will provide an over-view of the observed anomalous nozzle erosion and the comprehensive, fault-tree based investigation conducted to resolve this issue.
RSRM Nozzle Anomalous Throat Erosion Investigation Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Wendel, Gary M.
1998-01-01
In September, 1996, anomalous pocketing erosion was observed in the aft end of the throat ring of the nozzle of one of the reusable solid rocket motors (RSRM 56B) used on NASA's space transportation system (STS) mission 79. The RSRM throat ring is constructed of bias tape-wrapped carbon cloth/ phenolic (CCP) ablative material. A comprehensive investigation revealed necessary and sufficient conditions for occurrence of the pocketing event and provided rationale that the solid rocket motors for the subsequent mission, STS-80, were safe to fly. The nozzles of both of these motors also exhibited anomalous erosion similar to, but less extensive than that observed on STS-79. Subsequent to this flight, the investigation to identify both the specific causes and the corrective actions for elimination of the necessary and sufficient conditions for the pocketing erosion was intensified. A detailed fault tree approach was utilized to examine potential material and process contributors to the anomalous performance. The investigation involved extensive constituent and component material property testing, pedigree assessments, supplier audits, process audits, full scale processing test article fabrication and evaluation, thermal and thermostructural analyses, nondestructive evaluation, and material performance tests conducted using hot fire simulation in laboratory test beds and subscale and full scale solid rocket motor static test firings. This presentation will provide an over-view of the observed anomalous nozzle erosion and the comprehensive, fault-tree based investigation conducted to resolve this issue.
Is Autism Associated with Anomalous Dominance?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leboyer, Marion; And Others
1988-01-01
A theory of the development of anomalous dominance and its biological associations is explained and the literature is reviewed in an attempt to apply this theory to the study of autism. The review supported the increased incidence of left-handedness, learning disabilities, and immune disorders postulated by the theory. (Author/DB)
Anomalous adaptive conditions associated with strabismus.
Verma, Arun
2007-01-01
Anomalous adaptive conditions (AAC) associated with strabismus include: suppression, amblyopia, abnormal retinal correspondence, eccentric fixation, retinal rivalry, horror fusionis, and suspension. This article poses the hypothesis that AAC, in certain cases, may be the cause of strabismus rather than the result of strabismus.
Anomalous dark growth rings in black cherry
Robert P. Long; David W. Trimpey; Michael C. Wiemann; Susan L. Stout
2012-01-01
Anomalous dark growth rings have been observed in black cherry (Prunus serotina) sawlogs from northwestern Pennsylvania making the logs unsuitable for veneer products. Thirty-six cross sections with dark rings, each traceable to one of ten stands, were obtained from a local mill and sections were dated and annual ring widths were measured. One or...
COS NUV Detector Recovery After Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2011-10-01
This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ??s health after an anomalous shutdown: signal processing electronics check, slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, ramp-up to full operating voltage, and fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 18 proposal 12430.
STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2012-10-01
This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ_Ts health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 19 proposal 12779.
COS NUV Detector Recovery After Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2012-10-01
This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ_Ts health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage, and 4} fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes almost the same steps as Cycle 19 proposal 12723. Adjustments were made the the Software Global Monitor {SGM} to account for an increase in the dark counts due to window glow and to align the SGM to previously obtained Fold Analysis event data.
Anomalous transport in fracture networks: field scale experiments and modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, P. K.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.
2012-12-01
Anomalous transport is widely observed in different settings and scales of transport through porous and fractured geologic media. A common signature of anomalous transport is the late-time power law tailing in breakthrough curves (BTCs) during tracer tests. Various conceptual models of anomalous transport have been proposed, including multirate mass transfer, continuous time random walk, and stream tube models. Since different conceptual models can produce equally good fits to a single BTC, tracer test interpretation has been plagued with ambiguity. Here, we propose to resolve such ambiguity by analyzing BTCs obtained from both convergent and push-pull flow configurations at two different fracture planes. We conducted field tracer tests in a fractured granite formation close to Ploemeur, France. We observe that BTC tailing depends on the flow configuration and the injection fracture. Specifically the tailing disappears under push-pull geometry, and when we injected at a fracture with high flux (Figure 1). This indicates that for this fractured granite, BTC tailing is controlled by heterogeneous advection and not by matrix diffusion. To explain the change in tailing behavior for different flow configurations, we employ a simple lattice network model with heterogeneous conductivity distribution. The model assigns random conductivities to the fractures and solves the Darcy equation for an incompressible fluid, enforcing mass conservation at fracture intersections. The mass conservation constraint yields a correlated random flow through the fracture system. We investigate whether BTC tailing can be explained by the spatial distribution of preferential flow paths and stagnation zones, which is controlled by the conductivity variance and correlation length. By combining the results from the field tests and numerical modeling, we show that the reversibility of spreading is a key mechanism that needs to be captured. We also demonstrate the dominant role of the injection
Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M; Menkyna, M
2017-05-01
Using the field theoretic renormalization group technique and the operator product expansion, the systematic investigation of the influence of the spatial parity violation on the anomalous scaling behavior of correlation functions of the weak passive magnetic field in the framework of the compressible Kazantsev-Kraichnan model with the presence of a large-scale anisotropy is performed up to the second order of the perturbation theory (two-loop approximation). The renormalization group analysis of the model is done and the two-loop explicit expressions for the anomalous and critical dimensions of the leading composite operators are found as functions of the helicity and compressibility parameters and their anisotropic hierarchies are discussed. It is shown that for arbitrary values of the helicity parameter and for physically acceptable (small enough) values of the compressibility parameter, the main role is played by the composite operators near the isotropic shell in accordance with the Kolmogorov's local isotropy restoration hypothesis. The anomalous dimensions of the relevant composite operators are then compared with the anomalous dimensions of the corresponding leading composite operators in the Kraichnan model of passively advected scalar field. The significant difference between these two sets of anomalous dimensions is discussed. The two-loop inertial-range scaling exponents of the single-time two-point correlation functions of the magnetic field are found and their dependence on the helicity and compressibility parameters is studied in detail. It is shown that while the presence of the helicity leads to more pronounced anomalous scaling for correlation functions of arbitrary order, the compressibility, in general, makes the anomalous scaling more pronounced in comparison to the incompressible case only for low-order correlation functions. The persistence of the anisotropy deep inside the inertial interval is investigated using the appropriate odd ratios of
Anomalous transports in a time-delayed system subjected to anomalous diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ru-Yin; Tong, Lu-Mei; Nie, Lin-Ru; Wang, Chaojie; Pan, Wanli
2017-02-01
We investigate anomalous transports of an inertial Brownian particle in a time-delayed periodic potential subjected to an external time-periodic force, a constant bias force, and the Lévy noise. By means of numerical calculations, effect of the time delay and the Lévy noise on its mean velocity are discussed. The results indicate that: (i) The time delay can induce both multiple current reversals (CRs) and absolute negative mobility (ANM) phenomena in the system; (ii) The CRs and ANM phenomena only take place in the region of superdiffusion, while disappear in the regions of normal diffusion; (iii) The time delay can cause state transition of the system from anomalous →normal →anomalous →normal →anomalous →normal transport in the case of superdiffusion.
Perceptual dimensions differentiate emotions.
Cavanaugh, Lisa A; MacInnis, Deborah J; Weiss, Allen M
2015-08-26
Individuals often describe objects in their world in terms of perceptual dimensions that span a variety of modalities; the visual (e.g., brightness: dark-bright), the auditory (e.g., loudness: quiet-loud), the gustatory (e.g., taste: sour-sweet), the tactile (e.g., hardness: soft vs. hard) and the kinaesthetic (e.g., speed: slow-fast). We ask whether individuals use perceptual dimensions to differentiate emotions from one another. Participants in two studies (one where respondents reported on abstract emotion concepts and a second where they reported on specific emotion episodes) rated the extent to which features anchoring 29 perceptual dimensions (e.g., temperature, texture and taste) are associated with 8 emotions (anger, fear, sadness, guilt, contentment, gratitude, pride and excitement). Results revealed that in both studies perceptual dimensions differentiate positive from negative emotions and high arousal from low arousal emotions. They also differentiate among emotions that are similar in arousal and valence (e.g., high arousal negative emotions such as anger and fear). Specific features that anchor particular perceptual dimensions (e.g., hot vs. cold) are also differentially associated with emotions.
Grand unification in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori
2003-07-01
We have recently proposed an alternative picture for the physics at the scale of gauge coupling unification, where the unified symmetry is realized in higher dimensions but is broken locally by a symmetry breaking defect. Gauge coupling unification, the quantum numbers of quarks and leptons and the longevity of the proton arise as phenomena of the symmetrical bulk, while the lightness of the Higgs doublets and the masses of the light quarks and leptons probe the symmetry breaking defect. Moreover, the framework is extremely predictive if the effective higher dimensional theory is valid over a large energy interval up to the scale of strong coupling. Precise agreement with experiments is obtained in the simplest theory— SU(5) in five dimensions with two Higgs multiplets propagating in the bulk. The weak mixing angle is predicted to be sin 2θw=0.2313±0.0004, which fits the data with extraordinary accuracy. The compactification scale and the strong coupling scale are determined to be M c≃5×10 14 GeV and M s≃1×10 17 GeV, respectively. Proton decay with a lifetime of order 10 34 years is expected with a variety of final states such as e+π0, and several aspects of flavor, including large neutrino mixing angles, are understood by the geometrical locations of the matter fields. When combined with a particular supersymmetry breaking mechanism, the theory predicts large lepton flavor violating μ→ e and τ→ μ transitions, with all superpartner masses determined by only two free parameters. The predicted value of the bottom quark mass from Yukawa unification agrees well with the data. This paper is mainly a review of the work presented in hep-ph/0103125, hep-ph/0111068, and hep-ph/0205067 [1-3].
Towards a Better Understanding of the Anomalous Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Di; Jin, Xiaofeng
2017-01-01
Recent experimental efforts to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions in the anomalous Hall effect are reviewed. Benefited from the experimental control of artificial impurity density in single crystalline magnetic thin films, a comprehensive physical picture of the anomalous Hall effect involving multiple competing scattering processes has been established. Some new insights into the microscopic mechanisms of the anomalous Hall effect are discussed.
The Comprehension of Anomalous Sentences: Evidence from Structural Priming
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ivanova, Iva; Pickering, Martin J.; Branigan, Holly P.; McLean, Janet F.; Costa, Albert
2012-01-01
We report three experiments investigating how people process anomalous sentences, in particular those in which the anomaly is associated with the verb. We contrast two accounts for the processing of such anomalous sentences: a syntactic account, in which the representations constructed for anomalous sentences are similar in nature to the ones…
The Comprehension of Anomalous Sentences: Evidence from Structural Priming
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ivanova, Iva; Pickering, Martin J.; Branigan, Holly P.; McLean, Janet F.; Costa, Albert
2012-01-01
We report three experiments investigating how people process anomalous sentences, in particular those in which the anomaly is associated with the verb. We contrast two accounts for the processing of such anomalous sentences: a syntactic account, in which the representations constructed for anomalous sentences are similar in nature to the ones…
Wilbur, W. John; Kim, Won
2003-01-01
Indexing of documents is an important strategy intended to make the literature more readily available to the user. Here we describe several dimensions of indexing that are important if indexing is to be optimal. These dimensions are coverage, predictability, and transparency. MeSH® terms and text words are compared in MEDLINE® in regard to these dimensions. Part of our analysis consists in applying AdaBoost with decision trees as the weak learners to estimate how reliably index terms are being assigned and how complex the criteria are by which they are being assigned. Our conclusions are that MeSH terms are more predictable and more transparent than text words. PMID:14728266
Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi
2013-01-01
In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…
Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi
2013-01-01
In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…
Reversible island nucleation and growth with anomalous diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabbar, Ehsan H.; Amar, Jacques G.
2017-10-01
Motivated by recent experiments on submonolayer organic film growth with anomalous diffusion, a general rate-equation (RE) theory of submonolayer island nucleation and growth was developed (Amar and Semaan, 2016) [23], which takes into account the critical island-size i, island fractal dimension df, substrate dimension d, and diffusion exponent μ, and good agreement with simulations was found for the case of irreversible growth corresponding to a critical island-size i = 1 with d = 2 . However, since many experiments correspond to a critical island-size larger than 1, it is of interest to determine if the RE predictions also hold in the case of reversible island nucleation with anomalous diffusion. Here we present the results of simulations of submonolayer growth with i = 2 (d = 2) which were carried out for both the case of superdiffusion (μ > 1) and subdiffusion (μ < 1) as well as for both ramified islands (df ≃ 2) and point-islands (df = ∞) . In the case of superdiffusion, corresponding to 'hot' freshly deposited monomers, excellent agreement is obtained with the predictions of the generalized RE theory for the exponents χ(μ) and χ1(μ) which describe the dependence of the island and monomer densities at fixed coverage on deposition rate F. In addition, the exponents do not depend on whether or not monomers remain superdiffusive or are thermalized (e.g. undergo regular diffusion) after detaching from a dimer. However, we also find that, as was previously found in the case of irreversible growth, the exponent χ only approaches its asymptotic value logarithmically with increasing 1/F. This result has important implications for the interpretation of experiments. Good agreement with the RE theory is also found in the case of subdiffusion for point-islands. However, in the case of ramified islands with subdiffusion and i = 2 , the exponents are significantly higher than predicted due to the fact that monomer capture dominates in the nucleation regime. A
Background check for anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry
Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.
2010-10-01
The D0 Collaboration has reported an excess of roughly 1% of {mu}{sup -{mu}-} pairs over {mu}{sup +{mu}+} pairs in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy {radical}(s)=1.96 GeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, when known backgrounds are subtracted. This excess, if ascribed to CP violation in meson-antimeson mixing of nonstrange or strange neutral B mesons, is about 40 times that expected in the standard model. We propose a null test, based on a tight restriction on the muon impact parameter b, to confirm that this excess is indeed due to B mesons. If the asymmetry is due to anomalous CP violation in B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing, then a tight restriction on b would increase by a factor 2 the net asymmetry from neutral B mixing, while the sample of dimuons from neutral B decays will be reduced significantly relative to background events.
Anomalous diffusion of a polymer chain in an unentangled melt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farago, Jean; Meyer, Hendrik; Semenov, Alexander
2012-02-01
Contrary to common belief, the hydrodynamic interactions (HI) in polymer melts are not screened beyond the monomer length and are important in transient regimes. We show that the viscoelastic HI effects (VHI) lead to anomalous dynamics of a tagged chain in an unentangled melt at t < tN (tN, the Rouse time). The chain centre-of-mass (CM) mean-square displacement is enhanced (as compared to the Rouse diffusion) by a large factor increasing with chain length. We develop an analytical theory of VHI-controlled chain dynamics yielding negative CM velocity autocorrelation function which quantitatively agrees with our MD simulations without any fitting parameter. It is also shown that the Langevin friction force, when added in the model, strongly affects the short-t CM dynamics which, however, can remain strongly enhanced. The transient VHI effects thus provide the dominant contribution to the subdiffusive CM motion universally observed in simulations and experiments on polymer melts.
Viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions and anomalous CM diffusion in polymer melts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Hendrik
We have recently discovered that anomalous center-of-mass (CM) diffusion occurring on intermediate time scales in polymer melts can be explained by the interplay of viscoelastic and hydrodynamic interactions (VHI). The theory has been solved for unentangled melts in 3D and 2D and excellent agreement between theory and simulation is found, also for alkanes with a force field optimized from neutron scattering. The physical mechanism considers that hydrodynamic interactions are not screened: they are time dependent because of increasing viscosity before the terminal relaxation time. The VHI are generally active in melts of any topology. They are most important at early times well before the terminal relaxation time and thus affect the nanosecond time range typically observable in dynamic neutron scattering experiments. We illustrate the effects with recent molecular dynamics simulations of linear, ring and star polymers. Work performed with A.N. Semenov and J. Farago.
Anomalous Diffusion of a Polymer Chain in an Unentangled Melt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farago, J.; Meyer, H.; Semenov, A. N.
2011-10-01
Contrary to common belief, hydrodynamic interactions in polymer melts are not screened beyond the monomer length and are important in transient regimes. We show that viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions (VHIs) lead to anomalous dynamics of a tagged chain in an unentangled melt at t
Viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions and anomalous CM diffusion in polymer melts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Hendrik; Farago, Jean; Semenov, A. N.
2014-03-01
We have recently discovered that anomalous center-of-mass (CM) diffusion occurring on intermediate time scales in polymer melts can be explained by the interplay of viscoelastic and hydrodynamic interactions (VHI). The theory has been solved for unentangled melts in 3D and 2D and excellent agreement between theory and simulation is found. The physical mechanism considers that hydrodynamic interactions are time dependent because of increasing viscosity before the terminal relaxation time; it is generally active in melts of any topology. Surprisingly, the effects are relevant for both, momentum-conserving and Langevin dynamics and this presentation will focus on the differences: The commonly employed Langevin thermostat significantly changes the CM motion on short and intermediate time scales, but approaching the Rouse time, the melt behavior is close to momentum-conserving simulations. On the other hand, if momentum-conserving simulations are run in too small a simulation box, the result looks as if a Langevin thermostat was used.
Signals for top quark anomalous chromomagnetic moments at colliders
Rizzo, T.G.
1994-07-01
The Tevatron and the Next Linear Collider (NLC) will be excellent tools for probing the detailed nature of the top quark. We perform a preliminary examination of the influence of an anomalous chromomagnetic moment for the top, {kappa}, on the characteristics of t{bar t} production at the Tevatron and on the spectrum of gluon radiation associated with t{bar t} production at the NLC. In particular, we analyze the sensitivity of future data to non-zero values of {kappa} and estimate the limits that can be placed on this parameter at the Tevatron and at the NLC with center of mass of energies of {radical}s = 500 and 1000 GeV. Constraints on {kappa} from low energy processes, such as b {yields} s{gamma} are briefly discussed.
Lepton flavor violation in extra dimension models
Chang, W.-F.; Ng, John N.
2005-03-01
Models involving large extra spatial dimension(s) have interesting predictions on lepton flavor violating processes. We consider some five-dimensional (5D) models which are related to neutrino mass generation or address the fermion masses hierarchy problem. We study the signatures in low energy experiments that can discriminate the different models. The focus is on muon-electron conversion in nuclei {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {mu}{yields}3e processes and their {tau} counterparts. Their links with the active neutrino mass matrix are investigated. We show that in the models we discussed the branching ratio of {mu}{yields}e{gamma} like rare process is much smaller than the ones of {mu}{yields}3e like processes. This is in sharp contrast to most of the traditional wisdom based on four-dimensional (4D) gauge models. Moreover, some rare tau decays are more promising than the rare muon decays.
Bioclogging in Porous Media: Preferential Flow Paths and Anomalous Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holzner, M.; Carrel, M.; Morales, V.; Derlon, N.; Beltran, M. A.; Morgenroth, E.; Kaufmann, R.
2016-12-01
Biofilms are sessile communities of microorganisms held together by an extracellular polymeric substance that enables surface colonization. In porous media (e.g. soils, trickling filters etc.) biofilm growth has been shown to affect the hydrodynamics in a complex fashion at the pore-scale by clogging individual pores and enhancing preferential flow pathways and anomalous transport. These phenomena are a direct consequence of microbial growth and metabolism, mass transfer processes and complex flow velocity fields possibly exhibiting pronounced three-dimensional features. Despite considerable past work, however, it is not fully understood how bioclogging interacts with flow and mass transport processes in porous media. In this work we use imaging techniques to determine the flow velocities and the distribution of biofilm in a porous medium. Three-dimensional millimodels are packed with a transparent porous medium and a glucose solution to match the optical refractive index. The models are inoculated with planktonic wildtype bacteria and biofilm cultivated for 60 h under a constant flow and nutrient conditions. The pore flow velocities in the increasingly bioclogged medium are measured using 3D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV). The three-dimensional spatial distribution of the biofilm within the pore space is assessed by imaging the model with X-Ray microtomography. We find that biofilm growth increases the complexity of the pore space, leading to the formation of preferential flow pathways and "dead" pore zones. The probability of persistent high and low velocity regions (within preferential paths resp. stagnant flow regions) thus increases upon biofilm growth, leading to an enhancement of anomalous transport. The structural data seems to indicate that the largest pores are not getting clogged and carry the preferential flow, whereas intricated structures develop in the smallest pores, where the flow becomes almost stagnant. These findings may be relevant for
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Evertts, Eldonna L., Ed.
This collection of articles discusses social dialects, the problems that dialects cause the disadvantaged, and how these problems can be overcome in curriculum planning and classroom practice. Articles are (1) "English: New Dimensions and New Demands" by Muriel Crosby, (2) "A Checklist of Significant Features for Discriminating Social Dialects" by…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bertel, Erminald
2013-01-01
Due to progress in nanotechnology high-quality quantum wires can nowadays be fabricated. The behavior of particles in one dimension differs significantly from that in three-dimensional (3D) systems, yet the physics of such low-dimensional systems is generally not very well represented in standard undergraduate or graduate curricula. For instance,…
Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Overmier, Mary; And Others
After a brief description of the dimensions of nonverbal communication, this booklet presents 21 activities that deal with nonverbal communication. Activities in the booklet involve body movements (kinesics), facial expressions, eye movements, perception and use of space (proxemics), haptics (touch), paralinguistics (vocal elements that accompany…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stephenson, Paul
2012-01-01
The first word of this item is "imagine". This instruction has the potential to signal a journey through a world of geometry that might leave you spellbound. On the other hand, it could be the start of a roller-coaster ride through three dimensions that will tax both your imagination, and your powers of visualisation. It is likely that you will…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wunderlich, Richard A.
1985-01-01
In response to research questioning the utility of the Jesness Inventory in predicting and differentiating delinquency, this study isolated the personality dimensions of 422 adjudicated, noninstitutionalized adolescents by item level factor analysis. The resulting three factors--Mistrust, Social Pessimism, and Hypersensitivity--were compared with…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stephenson, Paul
2012-01-01
The first word of this item is "imagine". This instruction has the potential to signal a journey through a world of geometry that might leave you spellbound. On the other hand, it could be the start of a roller-coaster ride through three dimensions that will tax both your imagination, and your powers of visualisation. It is likely that you will…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lincoln, Don
2013-01-01
They say that there is no such thing as a stupid question. In a pedagogically pure sense, that's probably true. But some questions do seem to flirt dangerously close to being really quite ridiculous. One such question might well be, "How many dimensions of space are there?" I mean, it's pretty obvious that there are three:…
Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions
Lincoln, Don
2014-06-10
The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lincoln, Don
2013-01-01
They say that there is no such thing as a stupid question. In a pedagogically pure sense, that's probably true. But some questions do seem to flirt dangerously close to being really quite ridiculous. One such question might well be, "How many dimensions of space are there?" I mean, it's pretty obvious that there are three:…
Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions
Lincoln, Don
2016-07-12
The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.
Microscopic Primordial Black Holes and Extra Dimensions
Conley, John A.; Wizansky, Tommer
2006-11-15
We examine the production and evolution of microscopic black holes in the early universe in the large extra dimensions scenario. We demonstrate that, unlike in the standard four-dimensional cosmology, in large extra dimensions absorption of matter from the primordial plasma by the black holes is significant and can lead to rapid growth of the black hole mass density. This effect can be used to constrain the conditions present in the very early universe. We demonstrate that this constraint is applicable in regions of parameter space not excluded by existing bounds.
Microscopic primordial black holes and extra dimensions
Conley, John; Wizansky, Tommer
2007-02-15
We examine the production and evolution of microscopic black holes in the early universe in the large extra dimensions scenario. We demonstrate that, unlike in the standard four-dimensional cosmology, in large extra dimensions absorption of matter from the primordial plasma by the black holes is significant and can lead to rapid growth of the black hole mass density. This effect can be used to constrain the conditions present in the very early universe. We demonstrate that this constraint is applicable in regions of parameter space not excluded by existing bounds.
Constraints on extra dimensions from atomic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahia, F.; Lemos, A. S.
2016-10-01
We consider a hydrogen atom confined in a thick brane embedded in a higher-dimensional space. Due to effects of the extra dimensions, the gravitational potential is amplified in distances smaller than the size of the supplementary space, in comparison with the Newtonian potential. Studying the influence of the gravitational interaction modified by the extra dimensions on the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, we find independent constraints for the higher-dimensional Planck mass in terms of the thickness of the brane by using accurate measurements of atomic transition frequencies. The constraints are very stringent for narrow branes.
Electroweak symmetry breaking by extra dimensions
Hsin-Chia Cheng; Bogdan A. Dobrescu and Christopher T. Hill
2000-05-25
Electroweak symmetry breaking may be naturally induced by the observed quark and gauge fields in extra dimensions without a fundamental Higgs field. The authors show that a composite Higgs doublet can arise as a bound state of (t,b){sub L} and a linear combination of the Kaluza-Klein states of t{sub R}, due to QCD in extra dimensions. The top quark mass depends on the number of active t{sub R} Kaluza-Klein modes, and is consistent with the experimental value.
49 CFR 587.18 - Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. 587.18 Section 587.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Deformable Barrier § 587.18 Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. (a) The fixed rigid barrier has a mass of not...
49 CFR 587.18 - Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. 587.18 Section 587.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Deformable Barrier § 587.18 Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. (a) The fixed rigid barrier has a mass of not...
49 CFR 587.18 - Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. 587.18 Section 587.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Deformable Barrier § 587.18 Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. (a) The fixed rigid barrier has a mass of not...
Plasma torches dimensioning and optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muller, S.
A set of codes which enable dimensioning and optimization of non transferred plasma torches made up of two coaxial cylindrical electrodes cooled up in the 100 kW power range is described. These torches are used in ballistic, space and industrial fields. The sharp model of exchanges between the electric arc and the plasma producing gas requires a thorough knowledge of the physical properties of this plasma producing gas so a specific study was carried out on the air. Equations taken into account include mass conservation, Navier-Stokes and energy conservation equations. An experimental data bank gathers the plasma torches performances described. The modular structure of the package and its continuous feedback between theoretical and experimental data bank improves constantly with new experimentation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Çakır, O.; Çakır, I. T.; Senol, A.; Tasci, A. T.
2012-05-01
The fourth family quarks are expected to have mass larger than the top quark considering the results from recent studies on the allowed parameter space. They could also have different dynamics than the quarks of three families of the standard model. The single production of the fourth family up-type quark t‧ is studied via the anomalous production process pp → t‧VX (where V = g, Z, γ) at the LHC with the center of mass energy of 7 and 14 TeV. The signatures of such process are discussed within both the SM and the anomalous decay modes of t‧ quarks. The sensitivity to anomalous coupling κ/Λ = 0.004 TeV-1 can be reached at \\sqrt{s}=14 TeV and Lint = 100 pb-1.
Anomalous quartic and triple gauge couplings in {gamma}-induced processes at the LHC
Royon, Christophe; Chapon, Emilien
2011-07-15
We study the W/Z pair production via two-photon exchange at the LHC and give the sensitivities on trilinear and quartic gauge anomalous couplings between photons and W/Z bosons for an integrated luminosity of 30 and 200 fb{sup -1}. For simplicity and to obtain lower backgrounds, only the leptonic decays of the electroweak bosons are considered. The intact protons in the final states are detected in the ATLAS Forward Proton detectors. The high energy and luminosity of the LHC and the forward detectors allow to probe beyond standard model physics and to test the Higgsless and extra dimension models in an unprecedent way.
Neoclassical Viscosities and Anomalous Flows in Stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ware, A. S.; Spong, D. A.
2008-11-01
We discuss initial work to use neoclassical viscosities calculated with the PENTA code [1,2] in a transport model that includes Reynolds stress generation of flows [3]. The PENTA code uses a drift kinetic equation solver to calculate neoclassical viscosities and flows in general three-dimensional geometries over a range of collisionalities. The predicted neoclassical viscosities predicted by PENTA can be flux-surfaced average and applied in a 1-D transport model that includes anomalous flow generation. This combination of codes can be used to test the impact of stellarator geometry on anomalous flow generation. [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [2] D. A. Spong, Fusion Sci. Technology 50, 343 (2006). [3] D. E. Newman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 938 (1998).
Anomalous Cherenkov spin-orbit sound
Smirnov, Sergey
2011-02-15
The Cherenkov effect is a well-known phenomenon in the electrodynamics of fast charged particles passing through transparent media. If the particle is faster than the light in a given medium, the medium emits a forward light cone. This beautiful phenomenon has an acoustic counterpart where the role of photons is played by phonons and the role of the speed of light is played by the sound velocity. In this case the medium emits a forward sound cone. Here, we show that in a system with spin-orbit interactions in addition to this normal Cherenkov sound there appears an anomalous Cherenkov sound with forward and backward sound propagation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the transition from the normal to anomalous Cherenkov sound happens in a singular way at the Cherenkov cone angle. The detection of this acoustic singularity therefore represents an alternative experimental tool for the measurement of the spin-orbit coupling strength.
Remote sensing and characterization of anomalous debris
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sridharan, R.; Beavers, W.; Lambour, R.; Gaposchkin, E. M.; Kansky, J.; Stansbery, E.
1997-01-01
The analysis of orbital debris data shows a band of anomalously high debris concentration in the altitude range between 800 and 1000 km. Analysis indicates that the origin is the leaking coolant fluid from nuclear power sources that powered a now defunct Soviet space-based series of ocean surveillance satellites. A project carried out to detect, track and characterize a sample of the anomalous debris is reported. The nature of the size and shape of the sample set, and the possibility of inferring the composition of the droplets were assessed. The technique used to detect, track and characterize the sample set is described and the results of the characterization analysis are presented. It is concluded that the nature of the debris is consistent with leaked Na-K fluid, although this cannot be proved with the remote sensing techniques used.
Method for identifying anomalous terrestrial heat flows
Del Grande, Nancy Kerr
1977-01-25
A method for locating and mapping the magnitude and extent of terrestrial heat-flow anomalies from 5 to 50 times average with a tenfold improved sensitivity over orthodox applications of aerial temperature-sensing surveys as used for geothermal reconnaissance. The method remotely senses surface temperature anomalies such as occur from geothermal resources or oxidizing ore bodies by: measuring the spectral, spatial, statistical, thermal, and temporal features characterizing infrared radiation emitted by natural terrestrial surfaces; deriving from these measurements the true surface temperature with uncertainties as small as 0.05 to 0.5 K; removing effects related to natural temperature variations of topographic, hydrologic, or meteoric origin, the surface composition, detector noise, and atmospheric conditions; factoring out the ambient normal-surface temperature for non-thermally enhanced areas surveyed under otherwise identical environmental conditions; distinguishing significant residual temperature enhancements characteristic of anomalous heat flows and mapping the extent and magnitude of anomalous heat flows where they occur.
Anomalous superficial ulnar artery based flap
Ramani, C. V.; Kundagulwar, Girish K.; Prabha, Yadav S.; Dushyanth, Jaiswal
2014-01-01
Upper limb shows a large number of arterial variations. This case report describes the presence of additional superficial ulnar artery which was used to raise a pedicle flap to cover an arm defect thus avoided using the main vessel of the forearm - radial or ulnar artery. Vascular anomalies occurring in the arm and forearm tend to increase the likelihood of damaging the superficial anomalous arteries during surgery. Superficial ulnar or radial arteries have been described to originate from the upper third of the brachial artery; here we report the origin of the anomalous superficial ulnar artery originating from the brachial artery at the level of elbow with the concomitant presence of normal deep radial and ulnar arteries. PMID:24987217
Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Ran; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di
2016-11-01
Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α. The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine.
Anomalous magnetic viscosity in relativistic accretion disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Fujun; Liu, Sanqiu; Li, Xiaoqing
2013-07-01
It has been proved that the self-generated magnetic fields by transverse plasmons in the relativistic regime are modulationally unstable, leading to a self-similar collapse of the magnetic flux tubes and resulting in local magnetic structures; highly spatially intermittent flux is responsible for generating the anomalous viscosity. We derive the anomalous magnetic viscosity coefficient, in accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes, pulsars and quasars, where the plasmas are relativistic, in order to help clarify the nature of viscosity in the theory of accretion disks. The results indicate that, the magnetic viscosity is modified by the relativistic effects of plasmas, and its' strength would be 1015 stronger than the molecular viscosity, which may be helpful in explaining the observations.
Anomalous Structural Disorder in Supported Pt Nanoparticles
Vila, Fernando D.; Rehr, John J.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; ...
2017-07-02
Supported Pt nanocatalysts generally exhibit anomalous behavior, including negative thermal expansion and large structural disorder. Finite temperature DFT/MD simulations reproduce these properties, showing that they are largely explained by a combination of thermal vibrations and low-frequency disorder. We show in this paper that a full interpretation is more complex and that the DFT/MD mean-square relative displacements (MSRD) can be further separated into vibrational disorder, “dynamic structural disorder” (DSD), and long-time equilibrium fluctuations of the structure dubbed “anomalous structural disorder” (ASD). We find that the vibrational and DSD components behave normally, increasing linearly with temperature while the ASD decreases, reflecting themore » evolution of mean nanoparticle geometry. Finally, as a consequence the usual procedure of fitting the MSRD to normal vibrations plus temperature-independent static disorder results in unphysical bond strengths and Grüneisen parameters.« less
Anomalous gluon content of the proton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatsuda, T.
1990-01-01
The proton matrix element of the flavor singlet axial current is evaluated using the large Nc chiral dynamics satisfying the anomalous Ward-Takahashi identities. We relate the quark and gluon contributions ( Δq and Δg) of the matrix element to the nucleon-meson ( η, η', π0) pseudo-scalar coupling constants. It is shown that the weak η'-nucleon coupling is preferred to reproduce the recent EMC data. The origin of the anomalous value of Δg pointed out by Cheng and Li is clarified in the context of the large isospin violation due to the anomaly. A subtlety related to the matrix element of the gauge-variant topological current Kμ is also discussed.
Anomalous Josephson effect in noncentrosymmetric superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Huan; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jun-Feng
2016-03-01
We reveal the underlying physics of the anomalous Josephson effect in a magnetic Josephson junction between two noncentrosymmetric superconductors. The key point is that the two effective superconducting gaps provide two sets of Andreev bound states which carry two supercurrents with different amplitudes. When the magnetization direction of the ferromagnet is suitably chosen, the two supercurrents experience opposite phase shifts from the conventional sinusoidal current-phase relation. Then the total Josephson current results in a continuously tunable ground-state phase difference by adjusting the ferromagnet parameters and the triplet-singlet ratio of noncentrosymmetric superconductors. The emergence of anomalous Josephson current can definitely confirm the existence of triplet pairing and the ground-state phase difference serves as a tool to determine the triplet-singlet ratio of noncentrosymmetric superconductors.
Anomalous Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Semiconductors
Muniandy, S. V.; Woon, K. L.; Choo, K. Y.
2011-03-30
Anomalous charge carrier transport in disordered organic semiconductors is studied using fractional differential equations. The connection between index of fractional derivative and dispersion exponent is examined from the perspective of fractional Fokker-Planck equation and its link to the continuous time random walk formalism. The fractional model is used to describe the bi-scaling power-laws observed in the time-of flight photo-current transient data for two different types of organic semiconductors.
Anomalous Water and Other Polymeric Materials
could be called anomalous in some ways, no material that gives the exact spectrum of ’ polywater ’ could be found. An interesting and previously...unreported form of sodium carbonate is formed when this compound crystallizes from methanol. Yields of the polywater -like material seem to vary greatly from...laboratory to laboratory, even when simple procedures that are seen to work in one are tried in another. Polywater -like material can be formed from
Anomalous toroidal field penetration in Tormac V
Feinberg, B.; Vaucher, B. G.; Shaw, R. S.; Vella, M. C.
1981-07-01
We investigate magnetic field penetration into a cool, collisional, magnetized plasma in Tormac V. Magnetic probe and laser interferometer studies reveal anomalous penetration of the applied toroidal field into a plasma with an initial parallel bias toroidal field. The applied poloidal field, however, formed a well-defined magnetic front which was effective at sweeping up particles. Lastly, strong shear in the vacuum magnetic field does not inhibit the apparent decoupling of the applied toroidal field from the applied poloidal field.
Lysozyme crystallization rates controlled by anomalous fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pullara, F.; Emanuele, A.; Palma-Vittorelli, M. B.; Palma, M. U.
2005-02-01
Nucleation of protein aggregates and crystals is a process activated by statistical fluctuations of concentration. Nucleation rates may change by several orders of magnitude upon apparently minor changes in the multidimensional space of parameters (temperature, pH, protein concentration, salt type and concentrations, additives). We use available data on hen egg lysozyme crystal induction times in different solution conditions. We measure by static and dynamic light scattering the amplitudes and lifetimes of anomalously ample and long-lived fluctuations occurring in proximity of the liquid-liquid demixing region of the given lysozyme solutions. This allows determining the related spinodal temperatures TS and ɛ=(T-TS)/TS. Experimental induction times appear to depend solely upon ɛ over many orders of magnitude. This is quantitatively accounted for in terms of an extended two-stage nucleation model, which jointly takes into consideration amplitudes, lifetimes and scaling properties of anomalous fluctuations. One and the same relation describes quantitatively and equally well the present case of lysozyme crystallization (the best studied case of protein crystallization) and that of sickle hemoglobin fiber formation (the best studied case of protein fiber formation). Comparison with other recent models shows that taking into account lifetimes of anomalous fluctuations allows capturing the essence of the observed behavior.
Neoclassical and anomalous flows in stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ware, A. S.; Marine, T.; Spong, D. A.
2009-11-01
The impact of magnetic geometry and plasma profiles on flows and viscosities in stellarators is investigated. This work examines both neoclassical and anomalous flows for a number of configurations including a particular focus on the Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) and other quasi-symmetric configurations. Neoclassical flows and viscosities are calculated using the PENTA code [1]. For anomalous flows, the neoclassical viscosities from PENTA are used in a transport code that includes Reynolds stress flow generation [2]. This is done for the standard quasi-helically symmetric configuration of HSX, a symmetry-breaking mirror configuration and a hill configuration. The impact of these changes in the magnetic geometry on neoclassical viscosities and flows in HSX are discussed. Due to variations in neoclassical viscosities, HSX can have strong neoclassical flows in the core region. In turn, these neoclassical flows can provide a seed for anomalous flow generation. These effects are shown to vary as the ratio of electron to ion temperature varies. In particular, as the ion temperature increases relative to the electron flow shear is shown to increase. [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [2] D. E. Newman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 938 (1998).
Anomalous and resonance small angle scattering: Revision
Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.
1987-11-01
Significant changes in the small angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous dispersion terms for the scattering factor (x-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous dispersion terms is first discussed before considering how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with x-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same for the analogue experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small angle neutron scatterings are discussed. 54 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Anomalous and resonance small angle scattering
Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.
1987-11-01
Significant changes in the small angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous dispersion terms for the scattering factor (x-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous dispersion terms is first discussed before considering how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with x-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same or the analogue experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small-angle neutron scatterings are discussed. 8 figs.
Anomalous Circular Polarization Profiles in Sunspot Chromospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Socas-Navarro, H.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Ruiz Cobo, B.
2000-12-01
This paper presents a detailed description, analysis, and interpretation of the spectropolarimetric observations recently reported by Socas-Navarro, Trujillo Bueno, & Ruiz Cobo. These observations consist of time series of Stokes I and V profiles above a sunspot umbra. The spectral lines observed simultaneously are the Ca II chromospheric lines at 8498 and 8542 Å and the photospheric Fe I line at 8497 Å. These spectropolarimetric observations unveil an intriguing time-dependent behavior of the Stokes V profiles in the chromospheric lines. This behavior should be considered as an observational reference for future radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of sunspot chromospheres. The analysis of the observed time series shows that a ``normal,'' nearly antisymmetric V profile rapidly evolves toward an ``anomalous,'' completely asymmetric profile, returning later to the normal state. The occurrence of such anomalous circular polarization profiles repeats itself with a periodicity of ~150 s. After giving arguments to discard other scenarios, we are able to interpret the anomalous V profiles as a consequence of the development of a second unresolved atmospheric component. This unresolved component seems to be the same that produces the umbral flashes observed in other sunspots, where it is present with a larger filling factor. Based on observations obtained with the Gregory Coudé Telescope, operated on the island of Tenerife by the Observatory of Göttingen University, in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagarkar, Advait Neel
I present a measurement of the W ±Z production cross section in the leptonic final states in pp collisions at s = 7 TeV and limits on anomalous trilinear gauge couplings, using 4.64 fb-1 of data collected using the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The production cross section has been determined to be 19.0+1.4-1.3 (stat.)±0.9(syst.)±0.4(lumi.), in agreement with the Standard Model (SM) expectation of 17.6+1.1-1.0 pb. A search for anomalous tri-linear gauge couplings has been conducted and limits have been set at the 95% confidence level; the result is consistent with the SM couplings.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, D. S.; Cox, A. N.; Hodson, S. W.
1980-01-01
Unconventional composition structures are proposed to explain the periods of the triple mode Cepheid aC And. A strong Cepheid wind appears to enrich helium in the convection zones down to about 60,000 K or 70,000 K. Then some downward partial mixing occurs to the bottom of a layer with about 1-q = .0005 of the stellar mass. It was found that AC And was not unlike anomalous Cepheids. However, masses of betwen one and two solar masses are suggested and the population is more likely a type two.
Analysis of Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cross, Julie Olmsted
This thesis presents a systematic study of the application of DAFS to determine site-specific local structural and chemical information in complex materials, and the first application of state-of-the-art theoretical XAFS calculations using the computer program scFEFF to model DAFS data. In addition, the iterative dispersion analysis method, first suggested by Pickering, et al., has been generalized to accommodate the off-resonance anomalous scattering from heavy atoms in the unit cell. The generalized algorithm scKKFIT was applied to DAFS data from eight (00 l) reflections of the high-T _{c} superconductor YBa _2Cu_3O_ {6.8} to obtain the weighted complex resonant scattering amplitudes Delta f_{ rm w}(Q, E). The fine-structure functions chi_{rm w}(Q, E) isolated from the Delta f_{ rm w}(Q, E) are linear combinations of the individual site fine structure functions chi _{rm w}(Q, E) = Sigma_{i}W_{i,{ bf Q}}chi_{i}(E) from the two inequivalent Cu sites, added together according to the structure factor for the Cu sublattice. The chi_{rm w}(Q, E) were fit en masse using the XAFS analysis program scFEFFIT under a set of constraints on the coefficients W _{i,{bf Q}} based on the structure factor for kinematic scattering. The W_{i,{bf Q}} determined by scFEFFIT were used to obtain the fully separated complex resonant scattering amplitudes Delta f(E) for the two Cu sites. The theoretical connection between DAFS and XAFS is used to justify the application of state-of-the-art theoretical XAFS calculations to DAFS analysis. The polarization dependence of DAFS is described in terms of individual virtual photoelectron scattering paths in the Rehr-Albers separable curved-wave formalism. Polarization is shown to be an important factor in all DAFS experiments. Three experimental constraints are found necessary for obtaining site-separated Delta f(E) from DAFS data by linear inversion of the W_{i, {bf Q}} matrix and scKKFIT isolated Delta f_{rm w }(Q, E): (1) The diffraction must be
An anomalous interlayer exciton in MoS2
Azhikodan, Dilna; Nautiyal, Tashi; Shallcross, Sam; Sharma, Sangeeta
2016-01-01
The few layer transition metal dichalcogenides are two dimensional materials that have an intrinsic gap of the order of ≈2 eV. The reduced screening in two dimensions implies a rich excitonic physics and, as a consequence, many potential applications in the field of opto-electronics. Here we report that a layer perpendicular electric field, by which the gap size in these materials can be efficiently controlled, generates an anomalous inter-layer exciton whose binding energy is independent of the gap size. We show this originates from the rich gap control and screening physics of TMDCs in a bilayer geometry: gating the bilayer acts on one hand to increase intra-layer screening by reducing the gap and, on the other hand, to decrease the inter-layer screening by field induced charge depletion. This constancy of binding energy is both a striking exception to the universal reduction in binding energy with gap size that all materials are believed to follow, as well as evidence of a degree of control over inter-layer excitons not found in their well studied intra-layer counterparts. PMID:27841337
Cultural dimensions of learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyford, Glen A.
1990-06-01
How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.
Introduction to Extra Dimensions
Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC
2010-04-29
Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.
Introduction to Extra Dimensions
Rizzo, Thomas G.
2010-07-12
Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.
Studies of [ital WW] and [ital WZ] production and limits on anomalous [ital WW[gamma
Grinstein, S.; Mostafa, M.; Piegaia, R. ); Alves, G.A.; Carvalho, W.; da Motta, H.; Santoro, A. ); Lima, J.G.; Oguri, V. ); Mao, H.S. ); Gomez, B.; Mooney, P.; Negret, J.P. ); Hoeneisen, B. ); Parua, N. ); Ducros, Y. ); Beri, S.B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kohli, J.M.; Singh, J.B. ); Shivpuri, R.K. ); Acharya, B.S.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.R.; Gupta, A.; Krishnaswamy, M.R.; Mondal, N.K.; Narasimham, V.S.; Shankar, H.C. (Tata Inst.
1999-10-01
Evidence of anomalous WW and WZ production was sought in p[bar p] collisions at a center-of-mass energy of [radical] (s) =1.8 hthinsp;TeV. The final states WW(WZ)[r arrow][mu][nu] jet jet+X, WZ[r arrow][mu][nu]ee+X and WZ[r arrow]e[nu]ee+X were studied using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 90 hthinsp;pb[sup [minus]1]. No evidence of anomalous diboson production was found. Limits were set on anomalous WW[gamma] and WWZ couplings and were combined with our previous results. The combined 95[percent] confidence level anomalous coupling limits for [Lambda]=2 hthinsp;TeV are [minus]0.25[le][Delta][kappa][le]0.39 ([lambda]=0) and [minus]0.18[le][lambda][le]0.19 ([Delta][kappa]=0), assuming the WW[gamma] couplings are equal to the WWZ couplings. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society
Exploration of Anomalous Gravity Effects by rf-Pumped Magnetized High-T(c) Superconducting Oxides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, Tony; Litchford, Ron; Peters, Randall; Thompson, Byran; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A number of anomalous gravitational effects have been reported in the scientific literature during recent years, but there has been no independent confirmation with regard to any of these claims. Therefore, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in response to the propulsion challenges specified by NASA's Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (BPP) program, proposed to explore the possibility of observing anomalous gravitation behavior through the manipulation of Josephson junction effects in magnetized high-Tc superconducting oxides. The technical goal was to critically test this revolutionary physical claim and provide a rigorous, independent, empirical confirmation (or refutation) of anomalous effects related to the manipulation of gravity by radio frequency (rf)-pumped magnetized type-2 superconductors. Because the current empirical evidence for gravity modification is anecdotal, our objective was to design, construct, and meticulously implement a discriminating experiment, which would put these observations on a more firm footing within the scientific community. Our approach is unique in that we advocate the construction of an extremely sensitive torsion balance with which to measure gravity modification effects by rf-pumped type-2 superconductor test masses. This paper reviews the anecdotal evidence for anomalous gravity effects, describes the design and development of a simplified torsion balance experiment for empirically investigating these claims, and presents the results of preliminary experiments.
Infinitely Large New Dimensions
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia; Kaloper, Nemanja
1999-07-29
We construct intersecting brane configurations in Anti-de-Sitter space localizing gravity to the intersection region, with any number n of extra dimensions. This allows us to construct two kinds of theories with infinitely large new dimensions, TeV scale quantum gravity and sub-millimeter deviations from Newton's Law. The effective 4D Planck scale M{sub Pl} is determined in terms of the fundamental Planck scale M{sub *} and the AdS radius of curvature L via the familiar relation M{sub Pl}{sup 2} {approx} M{sub *}{sup 2+n} L{sup n}; L acts as an effective radius of compactification for gravity on the intersection. Taking M{sub *} {approx} TeV and L {approx} sub-mm reproduces the phenomenology of theories with large extra dimensions. Alternately, taking M{sub *} {approx} L{sup -1} {approx} M{sub Pl}, and placing our 3-brane a distance {approx} 100M{sub Pl}{sup -1} away from the intersection gives us a theory with an exponential determination of the Weak/Planck hierarchy.
Scaling of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect as an Indicator of Axion Electrodynamics.
Grauer, S; Fijalkowski, K M; Schreyeck, S; Winnerlein, M; Brunner, K; Thomale, R; Gould, C; Molenkamp, L W
2017-06-16
We report on the scaling behavior of V-doped (Bi,Sb)_{2}Te_{3} samples in the quantum anomalous Hall regime for samples of various thickness. While previous quantum anomalous Hall measurements showed the same scaling as expected from a two-dimensional integer quantum Hall state, we observe a dimensional crossover to three spatial dimensions as a function of layer thickness. In the limit of a sufficiently thick layer, we find scaling behavior matching the flow diagram of two parallel conducting topological surface states of a three-dimensional topological insulator each featuring a fractional shift of 1/2e^{2}/h in the flow diagram Hall conductivity, while we recover the expected integer quantum Hall behavior for thinner layers. This constitutes the observation of a distinct type of quantum anomalous Hall effect, resulting from 1/2e^{2}/h Hall conductance quantization of three-dimensional topological insulator surface states, in an experiment which does not require decomposition of the signal to separate the contribution of two surfaces. This provides a possible experimental link between quantum Hall physics and axion electrodynamics.
Scaling of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect as an Indicator of Axion Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grauer, S.; Fijalkowski, K. M.; Schreyeck, S.; Winnerlein, M.; Brunner, K.; Thomale, R.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.
2017-06-01
We report on the scaling behavior of V-doped (Bi ,Sb )2Te3 samples in the quantum anomalous Hall regime for samples of various thickness. While previous quantum anomalous Hall measurements showed the same scaling as expected from a two-dimensional integer quantum Hall state, we observe a dimensional crossover to three spatial dimensions as a function of layer thickness. In the limit of a sufficiently thick layer, we find scaling behavior matching the flow diagram of two parallel conducting topological surface states of a three-dimensional topological insulator each featuring a fractional shift of 1/2 e2/h in the flow diagram Hall conductivity, while we recover the expected integer quantum Hall behavior for thinner layers. This constitutes the observation of a distinct type of quantum anomalous Hall effect, resulting from 1/2 e2/h Hall conductance quantization of three-dimensional topological insulator surface states, in an experiment which does not require decomposition of the signal to separate the contribution of two surfaces. This provides a possible experimental link between quantum Hall physics and axion electrodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senyshyn, A.; Trots, D. M.; Engel, J. M.; Vasylechko, L.; Ehrenberg, H.; Hansen, T.; Berkowski, M.; Fuess, H.
2009-04-01
Crystal structures of rare-earth gallium perovskites LaGaO3, PrGaO3, NdGaO3 and Pr1-xNdxGaO3 (x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75) solid solutions were investigated in the temperature range 12-300 K by high-resolution powder diffraction using synchrotron or neutron radiation. The previously reported negative thermal expansion in the b direction of the PrGaO3 lattice has been found to be persistent in Pr1-xNdxGaO3 solid solutions and its magnitude has been revealed as proportional to the amount of praseodymium. Evaluation of the obtained temperature evolution of cell dimensions indicated a weak anomalous behaviour of the b lattice parameter in NdGaO3, and its origin is supposed to be the same as in PrGaO3, i.e. a coupling of the crystal electric field levels with phonon excitations of about 23-25 meV energy. The performed bond length analysis revealed an anomalous behaviour of both LnO12 (Ln—rare-earth) and GaO6 coordination polyhedra, which can be a structural manifestation of anomalous thermal expansion in the considered compounds.
A spectroscopic study of anomalous stellar populations in M67
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGahee, Courtney Elizabeth
A population of stars exists in the old, open cluster M67, whose photometry, color magnitude diagram locations and associated evolutionary states cannot be explained by current, standard single star evolution theory. These stars are often referred to as "yellow straggler" stars. Yellow stragglers have been identified in multiple star clusters suggesting that these stars constitute a real population. Additionally, according to independent studies, at least some of the yellow straggler stars in M67 are likely cluster members. Therefore, cluster non-membership is not a sufficient explanation for the observed anomalous photometry of these stars. It is possible that the yellow stragglers occupy their precarious color magnitude diagram positions as a result of the evolution of mass transfer blue straggler stars. These are stars which have been formed by Roche Lobe overflow mass transfer in close binary systems. If this the case for the yellow stragglers, it is hypothesized that they could potentially exhibit two spectroscopic characteristics that can be indicative of this type of mass transfer system. Specifically, variable radial velocities can be used to indicate that the yellow stragglers exist in binary systems and enhancements of s-process elements in yellow stragglers can indicate Roche Lobe overflow mass transfer from a once asymptotic giant branch star which has since evolved into a white dwarf. This dissertation details the radial velocity survey and the chemical abundance analysis that have been conducted to investigate the yellow stragglers with regard to this hypothesis. The radial velocity survey revealed that eight of the ten yellow stragglers studied exhibit variable radial velocities indicating that the yellow straggler population of M67 possess a high binary frequency. However, the chemical abundance analysis revealed that none of the yellow stragglers exhibited enhancements of the s-process elements Y and Ba. Therefore, a history which involves Roche
Constraints on large extra dimensions from MINOS and MINOS+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Rijck, Simon; Huang, Junting
2017-09-01
In a model where sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions, we derive limits on the size of the extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS and MINOS+ experiments. Using Fermilab’s NuMI beam exposure of 16.36 × 1020 protons-on-target we constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than 0.17 µm at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Even stronger limits are obtained for non-vanishing masses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filipovitch, N.; Hill, K. M.; Longjas, A.; Voller, V. R.
2016-07-01
Transport in systems containing heterogeneity distributed over multiple length scales can exhibit anomalous diffusion behaviors, where the time exponent, determining the spreading length scale of the transported scalar, differs from the expected value of n=
Resonances from two universal extra dimensions
Burdman, Gustavo; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Ponton, Eduardo
2006-10-01
Standard model gauge bosons propagating in two universal extra dimensions give rise to heavy spin-1 and spin-0 particles. The lightest of these, carrying Kaluza-Klein numbers (1,0), may be produced only in pairs at colliders, whereas the (1,1) modes, which are heavier by a factor of {radical}(2), may be singly produced. We show that the cascade decays of (1,1) particles generate a series of closely-spaced narrow resonances in the tt invariant mass distribution. At the Tevatron, s-channel production of (1,1) gluons and electroweak bosons will be sensitive to tt resonances up to masses in the 0.5-0.7 TeV range. Searches at the LHC for resonances originating from several higher-level modes will further test the existence of two universal extra dimensions.
Contemporary Use of Anomalous Diffraction in Biomolecular Structure Analysis
Liu Q.; Hendrickson, W.
2017-01-01
The normal elastic X-ray scattering that depends only on electron density can be modulated by an ?anomalous? component due to resonance between X-rays and electronic orbitals. Anomalous scattering thereby precisely identifies atomic species, since orbitals distinguish atomic elements, which enables the multi- and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD and SAD) methods. SAD now predominates in de novo structure determination of biological macromolecules, and we focus here on the prevailing SAD method. We describe the anomalous phasing theory and the periodic table of phasing elements that are available for SAD experiments, differentiating between those readily accessible for at-resonance experiments and those that can be effective away from an edge. We describe procedures for present-day SAD phasing experiments and we discuss optimization of anomalous signals for challenging applications. We also describe methods for using anomalous signals as molecular markers for tracing and element identification. Emerging developments and perspectives are discussed in brief.
Signals for Extra Dimensions at CLIC
Rizzo, Thomas G.
2001-08-28
A brief overview is presented of the signatures for several different models with extra dimensions at CLIC, an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with a center of mass energy of 3-5 TeV and an integrated luminosity of order 1 ab{sup -1}. In all cases the search reach for the resulting new physic signatures is found to be in the range of {approx} 15-80 TeV.
Jurcisinová, E; Jurcisin, M; Remecký, R
2009-10-01
The influence of weak uniaxial small-scale anisotropy on the stability of the scaling regime and on the anomalous scaling of the single-time structure functions of a passive scalar advected by the velocity field governed by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is investigated by the field theoretic renormalization group and operator-product expansion within one-loop approximation of a perturbation theory. The explicit analytical expressions for coordinates of the corresponding fixed point of the renormalization-group equations as functions of anisotropy parameters are found, the stability of the three-dimensional Kolmogorov-like scaling regime is demonstrated, and the dependence of the borderline dimension d(c) is an element of (2,3] between stable and unstable scaling regimes is found as a function of the anisotropy parameters. The dependence of the turbulent Prandtl number on the anisotropy parameters is also briefly discussed. The influence of weak small-scale anisotropy on the anomalous scaling of the structure functions of a passive scalar field is studied by the operator-product expansion and their explicit dependence on the anisotropy parameters is present. It is shown that the anomalous dimensions of the structure functions, which are the same (universal) for the Kraichnan model, for the model with finite time correlations of the velocity field, and for the model with the advection by the velocity field driven by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation in the isotropic case, can be distinguished by the assumption of the presence of the small-scale anisotropy in the systems even within one-loop approximation. The corresponding comparison of the anisotropic anomalous dimensions for the present model with that obtained within the Kraichnan rapid-change model is done.
Inhomogeneous compact extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bronnikov, K. A.; Budaev, R. I.; Grobov, A. V.; Dmitriev, A. E.; Rubin, Sergey G.
2017-10-01
We show that an inhomogeneous compact extra space possesses two necessary features— their existence does not contradict the observable value of the cosmological constant Λ4 in pure f(R) theory, and the extra dimensions are stable relative to the "radion mode" of perturbations, the only mode considered. For a two-dimensional extra space, both analytical and numerical solutions for the metric are found, able to provide a zero or arbitrarily small Λ4. A no-go theorem has also been proved, that maximally symmetric compact extra spaces are inconsistent with 4D Minkowski space in the framework of pure f(R) gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lincoln, Don
2013-09-01
They say that there is no such thing as a stupid question. In a pedagogically pure sense, that's probably true. But some questions do seem to flirt dangerously close to being really quite ridiculous. One such question might well be, "How many dimensions of space are there?" I mean, it's pretty obvious that there are three: left/right, up/down, and forward/backward. No matter how you express an object's coordinate, be it Cartesian, spherical, cylindrical, or something exotic, it's eminently clear that we live in a three-dimensional universe.
Realizing anomalous anyonic symmetries at the surfaces of three-dimensional gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fidkowski, Lukasz; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2017-07-01
The hallmark of a two-dimensional (2d) topologically ordered phase is the existence of deconfined "anyon" excitations that have exotic braiding and exchange statistics, different from those of ordinary bosons or fermions. As opposed to conventional Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson phases, which are classified on the basis of the spontaneous breaking of an underlying symmetry, topologically ordered phases, such as those occurring in the fractional quantum Hall effect, are absolutely stable, not requiring any such symmetry. Recently, though, it has been realized that symmetries, which may still be present in such systems, can give rise to a host of new, distinct, many-body phases, all of which share the same underlying topological order. These "symmetry enriched" topological (SET) phases are distinguished not on the basis of anyon braiding statistics alone, but also by the symmetry properties of the anyons, such as their fractional charges, or the way that different anyons are permuted by the symmetry. Thus a useful approach to classifying SETs is to determine all possible such symmetry actions on the anyons that are algebraically consistent with the anyon statistics. Remarkably, however, there exist symmetry actions that, despite being algebraically consistent, cannot be realized in any physical system, and hence do not lead to valid 2d SETs. One class of such "anomalous" SETs, characterized by certain disallowed symmetry fractionalization patterns, finds a physical interpretation as an allowed surface state of certain three-dimensional (3d) short-range entangled phases, but another, characterized by some seemingly valid but anomalous permutation actions of the symmetry on the anyons and encoded in an H3(G ,A ) group cohomology class, has so far eluded a physical interpretation. In this work, we find a way to physically realize these anomalously permuting SETs at the surfaces of certain 3d long-range entangled phases, expanding our understanding of general anomalous SETs in
Scaling theory for anomalous semiclassical quantum transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sena-Junior, M. I.; Macêdo, A. M. S.
2016-01-01
Quantum transport through devices coupled to electron reservoirs can be described in terms of the full counting statistics (FCS) of charge transfer. Transport observables, such as conductance and shot-noise power are just cumulants of FCS and can be obtained from the sample's average density of transmission eigenvalues, which in turn can be obtained from a finite element representation of the saddle-point equation of the Keldysh (or supersymmetric) nonlinear sigma model, known as quantum circuit theory. Normal universal metallic behavior in the semiclassical regime is controlled by the presence of a Fabry-Pérot singularity in the average density of transmission eigenvalues. We present general conditions for the suppression of Fabry-Pérot modes in the semiclassical regime in a sample of arbitrary shape, a disordered conductor or a network of ballistic quantum dots, which leads to an anomalous metallic phase. Through a double-scaling limit, we derive a scaling equation for anomalous metallic transport, in the form of a nonlinear differential equation, which generalizes the ballistic-diffusive scaling equation of a normal metal. The two-parameter stationary solution of our scaling equation generalizes Dorokhov's universal single-parameter distribution of transmission eigenvalues. We provide a simple interpretation of the stationary solution using a thermodynamic analogy with a spin-glass system. As an application, we consider a system formed by a diffusive wire coupled via a barrier to normal-superconductor reservoirs. We observe anomalous reflectionless tunneling, when all perfectly transmitting channels are suppressed, which cannot be explained by the usual mechanism of disorder-induced opening of tunneling channels.
Interpreting anomalous magnetic fabrics in ophiolite dikes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borradaile, G. J.; Gauthier, D.
2003-02-01
Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) may reveal mineral orientation-distributions defining magmatic flow-axes in igneous dikes. The mafic silicates are the best indication of magmatic flow but Fe-Ti accessories may contribute more to the bulk susceptibility. If the orientation-distributions of the two subfabrics are incongruent, anomalous fabrics will occur that do not reflect magma-flow axes. For ophiolite dikes, ocean-floor metamorphism changes the mineralogy producing new Fe-oxides by retrogression and exsolution from mafic silicates and by the oxidation of primary oxides. Incompatibly oriented 'ferro'-magnetic subfabrics may be isolated by anisotropy of anhysteretic remanence (AARM). Anomalous AMS fabrics in ophiolites elsewhere have been attributed to inverse-fabric contributions from single-domain magnetite in varying combinations. However, in ophiolite dikes from the Troodos ophiolite of Cyprus, anomalous fabrics arise from ocean-floor metamorphism extensively or completely replacing the original magnetite and titanomagnetite accessory phases with titanomagnetite (˜Fe 2.4Ti 0.6O 4=TM60) and its oxidised versions, titanomaghemite, to varying degrees according to depth beneath the ocean-floor, distance from spreading axis and proximity to transform-faults. At best, the oxide orientation-distribution defined by AARM could only be indirectly related to magma-flow if its nucleation-orientation controlled by a host-lattice. However, more commonly the topotactic lattice reorganization produces weaker ARM fabric anisotropies. Although 'recrystallized', oxidised TM60 dominates the bulk low-field susceptibility, its anisotropy is generally too feeble to compete with the flow-fabric defined by the AMS contribution from paramagnetic mafic silicates.
An "anomalous" triggered lightning flash in Florida
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J.; Ngin, T.; Jordan, D. M.; Mata, C. T.
2013-04-01
An "anomalous" rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flash, a flash whose leaders do not follow the triggering wire remnants to ground, is characterized via high-speed video images at 10 and 300 kilo-frames per second, still camera images, 66-72 MHz source locations from a Lightning Mapping Array, channel-base current, and electric field and electric field derivative (dE/dt) measurements. This is the first anomalous flash of about 410 classically triggered flashes in north-central Florida. The flash began with an upward positively charged leader (UPL) initiating from the tip of the upward-moving triggering wire about 280 m above ground level. All but the bottom 17 m of wire exploded (became luminous) 37.6 ms after UPL initiation. A stepped leader initiated, likely from the top of the wire remnants, 282 m above ground level about 1.3 ms after the wire explosion and propagated downward for 2.1 ms, attaching to the top of a grounded utility pole 117 m southwest of the launching facility. The line charge density on the stepped leader is estimated to be of the order of 10-3 C m-1. Contrary to previously reported "anomalous" flashes in France and New Mexico (roughly 16% and 31%, respectively, of their triggered flashes), in our event, there was not a tens of milliseconds current-zero period preceding the stepped leader, there was no observed downward dart leader in the UPL channel prior to the stepped leader to ground, and there was a failed attempt to reestablish current in the exploded-wire channel between the UPL and ground.
Bond percolation in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corwin, Eric I.; Stinchcombe, Robin; Thorpe, M. F.
2013-07-01
We collect results for bond percolation on various lattices from two to fourteen dimensions that, in the limit of large dimension d or number of neighbors z, smoothly approach a randomly diluted Erdős-Rényi graph. We include results on bond-diluted hypersphere packs in up to nine dimensions, which show the mean coordination, excess kurtosis, and skewness evolving smoothly with dimension towards the Erdős-Rényi limit.
Spectral analysis of the multiple-altitude anomalous geomagnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsvetkov, Yu. P.; Ivanov, V. V.; Petrov, V. G.; Filippov, S. V.; Brekhov, O. M.
2016-11-01
The spectra of the anomalous geomagnetic field measured at ground and balloon (30 km) altitudes were analyzed. The ground-based data were adapted from a map of the anomalous magnetic field of the Earth. A balloon surveys was carried out by the authors. It has been shown that the ground and balloon spectra of the anomalous magnetic field of the Earth substantially differ. Suppositions explaining the differences in the obtained spectra have been suggested.
The Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect: Theory and Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chao-Xing; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Qi, Xiao-Liang
2016-03-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect is defined as a quantized Hall effect realized in a system without an external magnetic field. The quantum anomalous Hall effect is a novel manifestation of topological structure in many-electron systems and may have potential applications in future electronic devices. In recent years, the quantum anomalous Hall effect was proposed theoretically and realized experimentally. In this review article, we provide a systematic overview of the theoretical and experimental developments in this field.
Anomalous Josephson Hall effect in magnet/triplet superconductor junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoyama, Takehito
2015-11-01
We investigate anomalous Hall effect in a magnet coupled to a triplet superconductor under phase gradient. It is found that the anomalous Hall supercurrent arises from the nontrivial structure of the magnetization. The magnetic structure manifested in the Hall supercurrent is characterized by even order terms of the exchange coupling, essentially different from that discussed in the context of anomalous Hall effect, reflecting the dissipationless nature of the supercurrent. We also discuss a possible candidate for magnetic structure to verify our prediction.
Tellurium - Should it be isotopically anomalous in the Allende meteorite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heymann, D.; Dziczkaniec, M.
1981-01-01
Isotopically anomalous Te is a by-product of the nuclear processes in zones of supernovae that have been proposed as sources for isotopically anomalous Xe. The calculated composition of the anomalous Te is roughly consistent with the disputed measurements made by Ballad et at. (1979) and Oliver et al. (1979) of samples of the Allende meteorite, with the exception that the large Te-123 overabundance reported by Oliver et al. (1979) is not predicted by the theory.
Anomalous transport modelling of tokamak plasmas
Kinsey, J.; Singer, C.; Malone, G.; Tiouririne, N.
1992-12-31
Theory based transport simulations of DIII-D, JET, ITER are compared to experimental data using a combination of anamolous transport models. The Multiple-mode Transport Model is calibrated to a give set of L-mode and H-mode discharges with an emphasis on testing the adequacy of anomalous flux contributions from drift/{eta}{sub i} and resistive ballooning mode theories. A survey of possible additions and/or alternatives to the model from recent theories on neoclassical MHD effects, hot ion modes, circulating electron modes, and high-m tearing modes is also included.
Anomalous transport modelling of tokamak plasmas
Kinsey, J.; Singer, C.; Malone, G.; Tiouririne, N.
1992-01-01
Theory based transport simulations of DIII-D, JET, ITER are compared to experimental data using a combination of anamolous transport models. The Multiple-mode Transport Model is calibrated to a give set of L-mode and H-mode discharges with an emphasis on testing the adequacy of anomalous flux contributions from drift/[eta][sub i] and resistive ballooning mode theories. A survey of possible additions and/or alternatives to the model from recent theories on neoclassical MHD effects, hot ion modes, circulating electron modes, and high-m tearing modes is also included.
Anomalous-scattering region on Triton
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Pascal; Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph; Mccarthy, Derek
1992-01-01
A photometric analysis of Voyager 2 images of a broad, 'anomalous scattering region' (ASR) on Triton shows its material to differ from the average Triton regolith in being only weakly backward scattering at all Voyager 2 camera wavelengths; the ASR also displays distinctive phase-dependent green/violet color ratios and clear-filter albedo. These characteristics are used to map the global distribution of the ASR areas for which photometric coverage is incomplete. The ASR may form an almost continuous band of material that runs parallel to the Triton equator, characterized by the presence of a transparent and optically thin, seasonally-controlled veneer of well-annealed solid N2.
Anomalous Dynamical Behavior of Freestanding Graphene Membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ackerman, M. L.; Kumar, P.; Neek-Amal, M.; Thibado, P. M.; Peeters, F. M.; Singh, Surendra
2016-09-01
We report subnanometer, high-bandwidth measurements of the out-of-plane (vertical) motion of atoms in freestanding graphene using scanning tunneling microscopy. By tracking the vertical position over a long time period, a 1000-fold increase in the ability to measure space-time dynamics of atomically thin membranes is achieved over the current state-of-the-art imaging technologies. We observe that the vertical motion of a graphene membrane exhibits rare long-scale excursions characterized by both anomalous mean-squared displacements and Cauchy-Lorentz power law jump distributions.
Quartz: Anomalous Weakness of Synthetic Crystals.
Griggs, D T; Blacic, J D
1965-01-15
The strength of a synthetic quartz crystal drops rapidly at 400 degrees C, and at 600 degrees C is a hundredfold lower than at 300 degrees C. Large plastic deformations can be produced without fracture. The predominant mechanism of deformation is translation gliding. The preferred explanation for this anomalous weakness is that this synthetic quartz contains water which has hydrolyzed the silicon-oxygen bonds. The silanol groups so formed are presumed to be rendered sufficiently mobile by elevating the temperature to 400 degrees C so that they align themselves in dislocation lines and move through the crystal with the dislocation under the small applied shear stress.
Enoki, Thais A; Henriques, Vera B; Lamy, M Teresa
2012-12-01
Highly charged vesicles of the saturated anionic lipid dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) in low ionic strength medium exhibit a very peculiar thermo-structural behavior. Along a wide gel-fluid transition region, DMPG dispersions display several anomalous characteristics, like low turbidity, high electrical conductivity and viscosity. Here, static and dynamic light scattering (SLS and DLS) were used to characterize DMPG vesicles at different temperatures. Similar experiments were performed with the largely studied zwitterionic lipid dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC). SLS and DLS data yielded similar dimensions for DMPC vesicles at all studied temperatures. However, for DMPG, along the gel-fluid transition region, SLS indicated a threefold increase in the vesicle radius of gyration, whereas the hydrodynamic radius, as obtained from DLS, increased 30% only. Despite the anomalous increase in the radius of gyration, DMPG lipid vesicles maintain isotropy, since no light depolarization was detected. Hence, SLS data are interpreted regarding the presence of isotropic vesicles within the DMPG anomalous transition, but highly perforated vesicles, with large holes. DLS/SLS discrepancy along the DMPG transition region is discussed in terms of the interpretation of the Einstein-Stokes relation for porous vesicles. Therefore, SLS data are shown to be much more appropriate for measuring porous vesicle dimensions than the vesicle diffusion coefficient. The underlying nanoscopic process which leads to the opening of pores in charged DMPG bilayer is very intriguing and deserves further investigation. One could envisage biotechnological applications, with vesicles being produced to enlarge and perforate in a chosen temperature and/or pH value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strange and charm quark spins from the anomalous Ward identity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Ming; Yang, Yi-Bo; Liang, Jian; Alexandru, Andrei; Draper, Terrence; Liu, Keh-Fei; χQCD Collaboration
2017-06-01
We present a calculation of the strange and charm quark contributions to the nucleon spin from the anomalous Ward identity (AWI). This is performed with overlap valence quarks on 2 +1 -flavor domain-wall fermion gauge configurations on a 2 43×64 lattice with lattice spacing a-1=1.73 GeV and the light sea mass at mπ=330 MeV . To satisfy the AWI, the overlap fermion for the pseudoscalar density and the overlap Dirac operator for the topological density, which do not have multiplicative renormalization, are used to normalize the form factor of the local axial-vector current at finite q2. For the charm quark, we find that the negative pseudoscalar term almost cancels the positive topological term. For the strange quark, the pseudoscalar term is less negative than that of the charm. By imposing the AWI, the strange gA(q2) at q2=0 is obtained by a global fit of the pseudoscalar and the topological form factors, together with gA(q2) and the induced pseudoscalar form factor hA(q2) at finite q2. The chiral extrapolation to the physical pion mass gives Δ s +Δ s ¯=-0.0403 (44 )(78 ).
Characterizing extragalactic anomalous microwave emission in NGC 6946 with CARMA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hensley, Brandon; Murphy, Eric; Staguhn, Johannes
2015-05-01
Using 1 cm and 3 mm observations from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and 2 mm observations from the Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer observations, we follow up the first extragalactic detection of anomalous microwave emission (AME) reported by Murphy et al. in an extranuclear region (Enuc. 4) of the nearby face-on spiral galaxy NGC 6946. We find the spectral shape and peak frequency of AME in this region to be consistent with models of spinning dust emission. However, the strength of the emission far exceeds the Galactic AME emissivity given the abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in that region. Using our galaxy-wide 1 cm map (21 arcsec resolution), we identify a total of eight 21 arcsec × 21 arcsec regions in NGC 6946 that harbour AME at >95 per cent significance at levels comparable to that observed in Enuc. 4. The remainder of the galaxy has 1 cm emission consistent with or below the observed Galactic AME emissivity per PAH surface density. We probe relationships between the detected AME and dust surface density, PAH emission, and radiation field, though no environmental property emerges to delineate regions with strong versus weak or non-existent AME. On the basis of these data and other AME observations in the literature, we determine that the AME emissivity per unit dust mass is highly variable. We argue that the spinning dust hypothesis, which predicts the AME power to be approximately proportional to the PAH mass, is therefore incomplete.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prakash, Manu; Bardon, Thibaut
2012-11-01
It has long been proposed that insect flight might have evolved on a fluid interface. Surface of a pond provides an ecological niche which is exploited by a large number of species capable of locomotion on a fluid interface. Here we describe the discovery of constrained flight in two dimensions as a novel mode of locomotion used by water lily beetles (genus Galerucella). Because water lily beetles are also capable of three-dimensional free flight, this novel two-dimensional locomotion provides us with a unique model system to explore both the transition between two and three dimensional flight and the associated energetics. Here we present a comparative analysis of this transition in terms of wing stroke angles associated with two and three dimensional flight, as well as modeling surface tension forces on both the horizontal and vertical axes. Special attention is paid to the dynamics and energetics of flight in two-dimensions, focusing on the interaction of the wing strokes with the fluid interface and the capillary-gravity wave drag associated with two-dimensional propulsion. Current Address: Ecole Polytechnique, France.
Blum, Thomas; Chowdhury, Saumitra; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku
2015-01-07
The form factor that yields the light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is computed in lattice QCD+QED and QED. A non-perturbative treatment of QED is used and is checked against perturbation theory. The hadronic contribution is calculated for unphysical quark and muon masses, and only the diagram with a single quark loop is computed. Statistically significant signals are obtained. Initial results appear promising, and the prospect for a complete calculation with physical masses and controlled errors is discussed.
Blum, Thomas; Chowdhury, Saumitra; Hayakawa, Masashi; ...
2015-01-07
The form factor that yields the light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is computed in lattice QCD+QED and QED. A non-perturbative treatment of QED is used and is checked against perturbation theory. The hadronic contribution is calculated for unphysical quark and muon masses, and only the diagram with a single quark loop is computed. Statistically significant signals are obtained. Initial results appear promising, and the prospect for a complete calculation with physical masses and controlled errors is discussed.
Blum, T; Boyle, P A; Izubuchi, T; Jin, L; Jüttner, A; Lehner, C; Maltman, K; Marinkovic, M; Portelli, A; Spraggs, M
2016-06-10
We report the first lattice QCD calculation of the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) disconnected contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment at physical pion mass. The calculation uses a refined noise-reduction technique that enables the control of statistical uncertainties at the desired level with modest computational effort. Measurements were performed on the 48^{3}×96 physical-pion-mass lattice generated by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations. We find the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization a_{μ}^{HVP(LO)disc}=-9.6(3.3)(2.3)×10^{-10}, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.
According to the strict solution of GR there is no the un-modeled anomalous acceleration of Pioneer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shao-Guang
According to the definition of force f = d (m v) /d t = m (d v / d t) + v (d m / d t ) and the change in masses ( the exchange of momentum-energy tensors bwtween two bodies Tµυ via the field tµν ) deduced by Bondi from Einstein equation ( H.Bondi, Proc. R. Soc. London A 427, 249, 1990 ), we get a new gravitational equation: f GR = f P + f C , f P = -G (m M /r 2 ) (r /r), f C = -G (m M / r 2 ) (v /c) (1). The deductive process is: First if mass is invariable, which implies that the mass may produce the gravitational field but the gravitational field should not lead to the change in mass, i.e., the mass should be an invariable parameter and the fourth dimension momentum i E/c should be entirely independent of three-dimension momentum P. In other words, the energy and the momentum should not compose the four-dimension momentum-energy vector and tensor. Thus, the gravitational equation is no longer a nonlinear but a linear one and Einstein equation should be reduced to Newtonian law: f GR = f P = -G (m M /r 2 ) (r /r). Second according to the mass-energy relation we get: dm /dt = dE /c2 dt, where E = EK + m0 c2 , then from the conservation of four dimension momentum-energy vector P 2 -(E/c) 2 = 0, we obtain: dE/dt = c dP/dt, dm/dt = dP/c dt = f P /c, f C = v (dm/dt) = v (f P /c) = -G (m M /r 2 ) (v /c). Then, we educe Eq.(1) from the special relativity when the mass is variable. In Eq.(1) the gravitational mass is just the inertial mass and the equivalent principle come absolutely into existence. Einstein equation can also be deduced from Eq.(1) and is equivalent to Eq.(1). Now the nonlinear gravitation problems can be solved with the one by one substitute method of masses solved by alone f P and alone f C in Eq.(1), e.g., from one loop Σf P • d s = 0, the energy loss of celestial body running one loop by f C is a typical dipole radiation and a gravitational wave of dipole radiation is predicted.When mass-point B nearing mass-point A, the masses MA and MB will
Emergent spacetime in stochastically evolving dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afshordi, Niayesh; Stojkovic, Dejan
2014-12-01
Changing the dimensionality of the space-time at the smallest and largest distances has manifold theoretical advantages. If the space is lower dimensional in the high energy regime, then there are no ultraviolet divergencies in field theories, it is possible to quantize gravity, and the theory of matter plus gravity is free of divergencies or renormalizable. If the space is higher dimensional at cosmological scales, then some cosmological problems (including the cosmological constant problem) can be attacked from a completely new perspective. In this paper, we construct an explicit model of "evolving dimensions" in which the dimensions open up as the temperature of the universe drops. We adopt the string theory framework in which the dimensions are fields that live on the string worldsheet, and add temperature dependent mass terms for them. At the Big Bang, all the dimensions are very heavy and are not excited. As the universe cools down, dimensions open up one by one. Thus, the dimensionality of the space we live in depends on the energy or temperature that we are probing. In particular, we provide a kinematic Brandenberger-Vafa argument for how a discrete causal set, and eventually a continuum (3 + 1)-dim spacetime along with Einstein gravity emerges in the Infrared from the worldsheet action. The (3 + 1)-dim Planck mass and the string scale become directly related, without any compactification. Amongst other predictions, we argue that LHC might be blind to new physics even if it comes at the TeV scale. In contrast, cosmic ray experiments, especially those that can register the very beginning of the shower, and collisions with high multiplicity and density of particles, might be sensitive to the dimensional cross-over.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yotsuhashi, Satoshi; Miyake, Kazumasa; Kusunose, Hiroaki
2016-03-01
It is shown by the Wilson numerical renormalization group method that a strongly correlated impurity with a crystalline-electric-field singlet ground state in the f2-configuration exhibits an anomalous local Fermi liquid state in which the static magnetic susceptibility remains an uncorrelated value while the NMR relaxation rate is enhanced in proportion to the square of the mass enhancement factor. Namely, the Korringa-Shiba relation is apparently broken. This feature closely matches the anomalous behaviors observed in UPt3, i.e., the coexistence of an unenhanced value of the Knight shift due to quasiparticles contribution (the decrease across the superconducting transition) and the enhanced relaxation rate of NMR. Such an anomalous Fermi liquid behavior suggests that the Fermi liquid corrections for the susceptibility are highly anisotropic.
Macromolecular structure phasing by neutron anomalous diffraction
Cuypers, Maxime G.; Mason, Sax A.; Mossou, Estelle; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Mitchell, Edward P.
2016-01-01
In this report we show for the first time that neutron anomalous dispersion can be used in a practical manner to determine experimental phases of a protein crystal structure, providing a new tool for structural biologists. The approach is demonstrated through the use of a state-of-the-art monochromatic neutron diffractometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in combination with crystals of perdeuterated protein that minimise the level of hydrogen incoherent scattering and enhance the visibility of the anomalous signal. The protein used was rubredoxin in which cadmium replaced the iron at the iron-sulphur site. While this study was carried out using a steady-state neutron beam source, the results will be of major interest for capabilities at existing and emerging spallation neutron sources where time-of-flight instruments provide inherent energy discrimination. In particular this capability may be expected to offer unique opportunities to a rapidly developing structural biology community where there is increasing interest in the identification of protonation states, protein/water interactions and protein-ligand interactions – all of which are of central importance to a wide range of fundamental and applied areas in the biosciences. PMID:27511806
"Anomalous" Galactic Cosmic Rays from Astrospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scherer, Klaus; Ferreira, Stefan; Becker, Julia; Bomans, Dominik; Weis, Kerstin
2012-07-01
One paradigm concerning galactic cosmic ray energy spectra is that they are created in violent events, like supernova explosions. Recently, we have demonstrated that Sun-like stars can contribute to the lower energy range of the cosmic ray proton spectrum, by creating so-called anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs). The seed population of the latter are the interstellar neutrals, which become ionized inside an astrosphere. The resulting `pick-up ions' are convcted across the astrospherical (stellar wind) termination shock and, because their velocity distribution differs from that of the shocked wind plasma, they will be accelerated to higher energies by shock and stochastic acceleration as well as adiabatic heating. All these acceleration processes depend strongly on the underlying plasma structure. We have developed and refined a selfconsistent hybrid code, i.e. a fluid description of the thermal species and a kinetic one for the energetic particles, and validated it using heliospheric in situ observations. Recently, we have applied our model to the astrospheres of hot stars ("interstellar bubbles"). Here, we will present first results of the production of "anomalous" cosmic rays in the vicinity of interstellar bubbles around hot stars.
Anomalous Micellization of Pluronic Block Copolymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonardi, Amanda; Ryu, Chang Y.
2014-03-01
Poly(ethylene oxide) - poly(propylene oxide) - poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers, commercially known as Pluronics, are a unique family of amphiphilic triblock polymers, which self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. These copolymers have shown promise in therapeutic, biomedical, cosmetic, and nanotech applications. As-received samples of Pluronics contain low molecular weight impurities (introduced during the manufacturing and processing), that are ignored in most applications. It has been observed, however, that in semi-dilute aqueous solutions, at concentrations above 1 wt%, the temperature dependent micellization behavior of the Pluronics is altered. Anomalous behavior includes a shift of the critical micellization temperature and formation of large aggregates at intermediate temperatures before stable sized micelles form. We attribute this behavior to the low molecular weight impurities that are inherent to the Pluronics which interfere with the micellization process. Through the use of Dynamic Light Scattering and HPLC, we compared the anomalous behavior of different Pluronics of different impurity levels to their purified counterparts.
Anomalous event diagnosis for environmental satellite systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramsay, Bruce H.
1993-01-01
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is responsible for the operation of the NOAA geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. NESDIS provides a wide array of operational meteorological and oceanographic products and services and operates various computer and communication systems on a 24-hour, seven days per week schedule. The Anomaly Reporting System contains a database of anomalous events regarding the operations of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), communication, or computer systems that have degraded or caused the loss of GOES imagery. Data is currently entered manually via an automated query user interface. There are 21 possible symptoms (e.g., No Data), and 73 possible causes (e.g., Sectorizer - World Weather Building) of an anomalous event. The determination of an event's cause(s) is made by the on-duty computer operator, who enters the event in a paper based daily log, and by the analyst entering the data into the reporting system. The determination of the event's cause(s) impacts both the operational status of these systems, and the performance evaluation of the on-site computer and communication operations contractor.
Anomalous Enthalpy Relaxation in Vitreous Silica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Yuanzheng
2015-08-01
It is a challenge to calorimetrically determine the glass transition temperature (Tg) of vitreous silica. Here we demonstrate that this challenge mainly arises from the extreme sensitivity of the Tg to the hydroxyl content in vitreous silica, but also from the irreversibility of its glass transition when repeating the calorimetric scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy relaxation compared to fragile oxide systems. The anomalous enthalpy relaxation of vitreous silica is discovered by performing the hperquenching-annealing-calorimetry experiments. We argue that the strong systems like vitreous silica and vitreous Germania relax in a structurally cooperative manner, whereas the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica.
Anomalous atmospheric hydrologic processes associated with ENSO
Lau, K.M.; Ho, C.H.
1997-11-01
In this paper, we study the structure of anomalous atmospheric hydrologic processes associated with El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) using re-analysis data obtained from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Data Assimilation Office (DAO) and outputs from GEOS climate model simulations. Our results show a very pronounced tropospheric warming over the equatorial central Pacific, with a double maxima located in 15{degrees}N and 15{degrees}/S, symmetric about the equator. This anomaly is in agreement with those found in earlier studies based on satellite estimates and is consistent with the predictions of Rossby wave dynamics. Most interestingly, we find a strong stratospheric temperature signal, which is tightly coupled to, but of opposite sign to the tropospheric anomaly. This temperature anomaly pattern is validated by the GCM simulations with respect to anomalous ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) forcing. The role of interaction between radiation and hydrologic cycle in producing and maintaining the ENSO anomalies is also investigated. 8 refs., 4 figs.
Discovering anomalous events from urban informatics data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jayarajah, Kasthuri; Subbaraju, Vigneshwaran; Weerakoon, Dulanga; Misra, Archan; Tam, La Thanh; Athaide, Noel
2017-05-01
Singapore's "smart city" agenda is driving the government to provide public access to a broader variety of urban informatics sources, such as images from traffic cameras and information about buses servicing different bus stops. Such informatics data serves as probes of evolving conditions at different spatiotemporal scales. This paper explores how such multi-modal informatics data can be used to establish the normal operating conditions at different city locations, and then apply appropriate outlier-based analysis techniques to identify anomalous events at these selected locations. We will introduce the overall architecture of sociophysical analytics, where such infrastructural data sources can be combined with social media analytics to not only detect such anomalous events, but also localize and explain them. Using the annual Formula-1 race as our candidate event, we demonstrate a key difference between the discriminative capabilities of different sensing modes: while social media streams provide discriminative signals during or prior to the occurrence of such an event, urban informatics data can often reveal patterns that have higher persistence, including before and after the event. In particular, we shall demonstrate how combining data from (i) publicly available Tweets, (ii) crowd levels aboard buses, and (iii) traffic cameras can help identify the Formula-1 driven anomalies, across different spatiotemporal boundaries.
Anomalous piezoresistance effect in ultrastrained silicon nanowires.
Lugstein, A; Steinmair, M; Steiger, A; Kosina, H; Bertagnolli, E
2010-08-11
In this paper we demonstrate that under ultrahigh strain conditions p-type single crystal silicon nanowires possess an anomalous piezoresistance effect. The measurements were performed on vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) grown Si nanowires, monolithically integrated in a microelectro-mechanical loading module. The special setup enables the application of pure uniaxial tensile strain along the <111> growth direction of individual, 100 nm thick Si nanowires while simultaneously measuring the resistance of the nanowires. For low strain levels (nanowire elongation less than 0.8%), our measurements revealed the expected positive piezoresistance effect, whereas for ultrahigh strain levels a transition to anomalous negative piezoresistance was observed. For the maximum tensile strain of 3.5%, the resistance of the Si nanowires decreased by a factor of 10. Even at these high strain amplitudes, no fatigue failures are observed for several hundred loading cycles. The ability to fabricate single-crystal nanowires that are widely free of structural defects will it make possible to apply high strain without fracturing to other materials as well, therefore in any application where crystallinity and strain are important, the idea of making nanowires should be of a high value.
Limits on anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Bartlett, J. F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M. K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oliveira, E.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.
1998-08-01
Limits on the anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings are presented from a simultaneous fit to the data samples of three gauge boson pair final states in pp¯ collisions at s=1.8 TeV: Wγ production with the W boson decaying to eν or μν, W boson pair production with both of the W bosons decaying to eν or μν, and WW or WZ production with one W boson decaying to eν and the other W boson or the Z boson decaying to two jets. Assuming identical WWγ and WWZ couplings, 95% C.L. limits on the anomalous couplings of -0.30<Δκ<0.43 (λ=0) and -0.20<λ<0.20 (Δκ=0) are obtained using a form factor scale Λ=2.0 TeV. Limits found under other assumptions on the relationship between the WWγ and WWZ couplings are also presented.
Adzhemyan, L Ts; Antonov, N V; Honkonen, J; Kim, T L
2005-01-01
The field theoretic renormalization group and operator-product expansion are applied to the model of a passive scalar quantity advected by a non-Gaussian velocity field with finite correlation time. The velocity is governed by the Navier-Stokes equation, subject to an external random stirring force with the correlation function proportional to delta(t- t')k(4-d-2epsilon). It is shown that the scalar field is intermittent already for small epsilon, its structure functions display anomalous scaling behavior, and the corresponding exponents can be systematically calculated as series in epsilon. The practical calculation is accomplished to order epsilon2 (two-loop approximation), including anisotropic sectors. As for the well-known Kraichnan rapid-change model, the anomalous scaling results from the existence in the model of composite fields (operators) with negative scaling dimensions, identified with the anomalous exponents. Thus the mechanism of the origin of anomalous scaling appears similar for the Gaussian model with zero correlation time and the non-Gaussian model with finite correlation time. It should be emphasized that, in contrast to Gaussian velocity ensembles with finite correlation time, the model and the perturbation theory discussed here are manifestly Galilean covariant. The relevance of these results for real passive advection and comparison with the Gaussian models and experiments are briefly discussed.
Correlation dimension of financial market
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nie, Chun-Xiao
2017-05-01
In this paper, correlation dimension is applied to financial data analysis. We calculate the correlation dimensions of some real market data and find that the dimensions are significantly smaller than those of the simulation data based on geometric Brownian motion. Based on the analysis of the Chinese and US stock market data, the main results are as follows. First, by calculating three data sets for the Chinese and US market, we find that large market volatility leads to a significant decrease in the dimensions. Second, based on 5-min stock price data, we find that the Chinese market dimension is significantly larger than the US market; this shows a significant difference between the two markets for high frequency data. Third, we randomly extract stocks from a stock set and calculate the correlation dimensions, and find that the average value of these dimensions is close to the dimension of the original set. In addition, we analyse the intuitional meaning of the relevant dimensions used in this paper, which are directly related to the average degree of the financial threshold network. The dimension measures the speed of the average degree that varies with the threshold value. A smaller dimension means that the rate of change is slower.
FRACTAL DIMENSION OF GALAXY ISOPHOTES
Thanki, Sandip; Rhee, George; Lepp, Stephen E-mail: grhee@physics.unlv.edu
2009-09-15
In this paper we investigate the use of the fractal dimension of galaxy isophotes in galaxy classification. We have applied two different methods for determining fractal dimensions to the isophotes of elliptical and spiral galaxies derived from CCD images. We conclude that fractal dimension alone is not a reliable tool but that combined with other parameters in a neural net algorithm the fractal dimension could be of use. In particular, we have used three parameters to segregate the ellipticals and lenticulars from the spiral galaxies in our sample. These three parameters are the correlation fractal dimension D {sub corr}, the difference between the correlation fractal dimension and the capacity fractal dimension D {sub corr} - D {sub cap}, and, thirdly, the B - V color of the galaxy.
Properties of Anomalous and Type II Cepheids in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurkovic, Monika I.; Groenewegen, Martin A. T.
2017-09-01
The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) give us the possibility to study individual variable star types in a new way. Literature data provide us with photometric information about objects from the ultraviolet to the infrared. Here we would like to show the results of our study of 335 Anomalous and Type II Cepheids in the SMC and LMC detected by OGLE. Using the code More of DUSTY (MoD), a modified version of the DUSTY radiative transfer code, and the assumption that our objects are at a known distance, luminosity and effective temperature were determined. From these data the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of these objects was compared with the theoretical models. The radius and masses of the examined stars was estimated, too. In the end, we have given the period-luminosity relations for the Anomalous and Type II Cepheids.
Action languages: Dimensions, effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon
1989-01-01
Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.
Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions
Hewett, J.L.; /SLAC
2006-11-07
If the structure of spacetime is different than that readily observed, gravitational physics, particle physics and cosmology are all immediately affected. The physics of extra dimensions offers new insights and solutions to fundamental questions arising in these fields. Novel ideas and frameworks are continuously born and evolved. They make use of string theoretical features and tools and they may reveal if and how the 11-dimensional string theory is relevant to our four-dimensional world. We have outlined some of the experimental observations in particle and gravitational physics as well as astrophysical and cosmological considerations that can constrain or confirm these scenarios. These developing ideas and the wide interdisciplinary experimental program that is charted out to investigate them mark a renewed effort to describe the dynamics behind spacetime. We look forward to the discovery of a higher dimensional spacetime.
Chiral magnetic and vortical effects in higher dimensions at weak coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Ho-Ung
2014-09-01
Chiral magnetic effect and chiral vortical effect are parity odd transport phenomena originating from chiral anomaly, and have generalizations to all even dimensional space-time higher than four dimensions. We attempt to compute the associated P-odd retarded response functions in the weak coupling limit of chiral fermion theory in all even dimensions, using the diagrammatic technique of real-time perturbation theory. We also clarify the necessary Kubo formula relating the computed P-odd retarded correlation functions and the associated anomalous transport coefficients. We speculate on the 8-fold classification of topological phases.
Statistical error in a chord estimator of correlation dimension: The rule of five''
Theiler, J. ); Lookman, T. . Dept. of Applied Mathematics)
1992-09-01
The statistical precision of a chord method for estimating dimension from a correlation integral is derived. The optimal chord length is determined, and a comparison is made to other estimators. The simple chord estimator is only 25% less precise than the optimal estimator which uses the full resolution and full range of the correlation integral. The analytic calculations are based on the hypothesis that all pairwise distances between the points in the embedding space are statistically independent. The adequacy of this approximation is assessed numerically, and a surprising result is observed in which dimension estimators can be anomalously precise for sets with reasonably uniform (nonfractal) distributions.
[Anomalous Properties of Water and Aqueous Solutions at Low Temperatures].
Matsumoto, Masakazu
2015-01-01
Water has many anomalous properties below the room temperature. The temperature range overlaps with that of the Earth's atmosphere and also with that natural life forms favor. We review the origin of the anomalous properties of water and aqueous solutions in association with the hypothetical second critical point and liquid-liquid phase separation of water hidden in the supercooled state of liquid water.
Anomalous cosmic ray studies using the geomagnetic field
Mewaldt, R. A.; Cummings, J. R.; Leske, R. A.; Selesnick, R. S.; Stone, E. C.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von
1996-07-20
We use instrumentation on SAMPEX and the Earth's field as a magnetic filter, to obtain a 'pure' sample of anomalous cosmic rays. The energy spectrum of anomalous oxygen is found to extend to {approx}100 MeV/nuc, which has implications for models of the acceleration of these nuclei.
Anomalous Evidence, Confidence Change, and Theory Change.
Hemmerich, Joshua A; Van Voorhis, Kellie; Wiley, Jennifer
2016-08-01
A novel experimental paradigm that measured theory change and confidence in participants' theories was used in three experiments to test the effects of anomalous evidence. Experiment 1 varied the amount of anomalous evidence to see if "dose size" made incremental changes in confidence toward theory change. Experiment 2 varied whether anomalous evidence was convergent (of multiple types) or replicating (similar finding repeated). Experiment 3 varied whether participants were provided with an alternative theory that explained the anomalous evidence. All experiments showed that participants' confidence changes were commensurate with the amount of anomalous evidence presented, and that larger decreases in confidence predicted theory changes. Convergent evidence and the presentation of an alternative theory led to larger confidence change. Convergent evidence also caused more theory changes. Even when people do not change theories, factors pertinent to the evidence and alternative theories decrease their confidence in their current theory and move them incrementally closer to theory change.
Contemporary Use of Anomalous Diffraction in Biomolecular Structure Analysis
Liu, Qun; Hendrickson, Wayne A.
2017-01-01
The normal elastic X-ray scattering that depends only on electron density can be modulated by an ‘anomalous’ component due to resonance between X-rays and electronic orbitals. Anomalous scattering thereby precisely identifies atomic species, since orbitals distinguish atomic elements, which enables the multi- and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD and SAD) methods. SAD now predominates in de novo structure determination of biological macromolecules, and we focus here on the prevailing SAD method. We describe the anomalous phasing theory and the periodic table of phasing elements that are available for SAD experiments, differentiating between those readily accessible for at-resonance experiments and those that can be effective away from an edge. We describe procedures for present-day SAD phasing experiments and we discuss optimization of anomalous signals for challenging applications. We also describe methods for using anomalous signals as molecular markers for tracing and element identification. Emerging developments and perspectives are discussed in brief. PMID:28573582
Probing anomalous Higgs couplings in H → ZV decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modak, Tanmoy; Srivastava, Rahul
2017-01-01
We analyze the possibility of probing anomalous Higgs couplings in the rare decays H → ZV, V being a vector quarkonium state. These rare decays involve both gauge as well as the Yukawa sectors and either of them can potentially be anomalous. We show that the branching fractions for H → ZV decays in Standard Model (SM) are small, making it a sensitive probe for anomalous Higgs couplings originating from physics beyond SM. Moreover, as both V and Z can decay into pair of charged leptons, they provide experimentally clean channels and future LHC runs should observe such decays. We perform a model independent analysis and show how angular asymmetries can be used to probe these anomalous Higgs couplings, taking further decays of V and Z to pair of charged leptons into account. The angular asymmetries can provide significant information about anomalous Higgs couplings in both gauge and Yukawa sectors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preuss, Lucien
2008-11-01
To implement Jaynes' vision [1] of applications of Shannon's ideas outside Communication Theory proper, the dimension of information must be clarified, mainly because general applications provide no ready-made set of discrete, mutually exclusive and exhaustive "events" which could play a rôle similar to that of the alphabet which communication theory implicitely supposes known from the outset. For instance, a doctor's "alphabet" may be said to consist of readily distinguishable bundles of symptoms, cures, etc., each of which he considers specific enough to describe an illness of interest. Setting up an appropriate alphabet requires learning, in the same way as a child painfully learns to read letters, and a quantitative assessment of this task depends crucially on the dimension of information. Information is an extensive property, as explicited by the standard equation I = N.H for the amount of information delivered by a succession of N events. All other things remaining equal, doubling the length of a message doubles the amount of information. But by definition, Shannon's uncertainty H on the right-hand side of the equation is a rate, i.e. an intensive property, as illustrated by the fact that the simultaneous throw of two true and identical dice removes less than twice the uncertainty removed by the throw of a single die, as is well-known to poker-players. If the above equation is to be dimensionally consistent, N can not be a pure number, but must have an extensive dimension of its own. The obvious question "which?" was swept under the rug by von Neumann's famous quip [3], which advised to call H an entropy, thereby suggesting improperly that H by itself-without the factor N-is an extensive property like physical entropy. But H only evaluates an amount of information when multiplied by N, which measures an amount of order akin to the chronological order without which any message becomes garbage. In analogy with the decomposition E S.T of energy E into the pair
Communication: Probing anomalous diffusion in frequency space
Stachura, Sławomir; Kneller, Gerald R.
2015-11-21
Anomalous diffusion processes are usually detected by analyzing the time-dependent mean square displacement of the diffusing particles. The latter evolves asymptotically as W(t) ∼ 2D{sub α}t{sup α}, where D{sub α} is the fractional diffusion constant and 0 < α < 2. In this article we show that both D{sub α} and α can also be extracted from the low-frequency Fourier spectrum of the corresponding velocity autocorrelation function. This offers a simple method for the interpretation of quasielastic neutron scattering spectra from complex (bio)molecular systems, in which subdiffusive transport is frequently encountered. The approach is illustrated and validated by analyzing molecular dynamics simulations of molecular diffusion in a lipid POPC bilayer.
Anomalous krypton in the Allende meteorite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frick, U.
1977-01-01
The reported investigation provides important new data for the heavy noble gases, especially Kr, in the Allende meteorite. The data are used to criticize the original model of Lewis et al. (1975) based on the noble gas data of these researchers. The conclusions reached in the investigation support alternative models which have been mainly based on Xe data by Lewis et al. (1975, 1977). Because of the relatively high noble gas abundances in the separates studied, disturbance from nuclear effects occurring in situ such as spallation and neutron capture is insignificant, offering an opportunity to study primordial Ar, Kr, and Xe. The isotopic and abundance data obtained from the samples largely confirm the noble gas results of Lewis et al. (1975, 1977) where isotopic correlations agree with the correlations of the considered samples. It is found that both Kr and Xe data are consistent with a two component mixture of 'ordinary' as well as 'anomalous' planetary gases.
Anomalous Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells.
Snaith, Henry J; Abate, Antonio; Ball, James M; Eperon, Giles E; Leijtens, Tomas; Noel, Nakita K; Stranks, Samuel D; Wang, Jacob Tse-Wei; Wojciechowski, Konrad; Zhang, Wei
2014-05-01
Perovskite solar cells have rapidly risen to the forefront of emerging photovoltaic technologies, exhibiting rapidly rising efficiencies. This is likely to continue to rise, but in the development of these solar cells there are unusual characteristics that have arisen, specifically an anomalous hysteresis in the current-voltage curves. We identify this phenomenon and show some examples of factors that make the hysteresis more or less extreme. We also demonstrate stabilized power output under working conditions and suggest that this is a useful parameter to present, alongside the current-voltage scan derived power conversion efficiency. We hypothesize three possible origins of the effect and discuss its implications on device efficiency and future research directions. Understanding and resolving the hysteresis is essential for further progress and is likely to lead to a further step improvement in performance.
Anomalous krypton in the Allende meteorite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frick, U.
1977-01-01
The reported investigation provides important new data for the heavy noble gases, especially Kr, in the Allende meteorite. The data are used to criticize the original model of Lewis et al. (1975) based on the noble gas data of these researchers. The conclusions reached in the investigation support alternative models which have been mainly based on Xe data by Lewis et al. (1975, 1977). Because of the relatively high noble gas abundances in the separates studied, disturbance from nuclear effects occurring in situ such as spallation and neutron capture is insignificant, offering an opportunity to study primordial Ar, Kr, and Xe. The isotopic and abundance data obtained from the samples largely confirm the noble gas results of Lewis et al. (1975, 1977) where isotopic correlations agree with the correlations of the considered samples. It is found that both Kr and Xe data are consistent with a two component mixture of 'ordinary' as well as 'anomalous' planetary gases.
Revisit to diffraction anomalous fine structure
Kawaguchi, T.; Fukuda, K.; Tokuda, K.; Shimada, K.; Ichitsubo, T.; Oishi, M.; Mizuki, J.; Matsubara, E.
2014-01-01
The diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) method that is a spectroscopic analysis combined with resonant X-ray diffraction enables the determination of the valence state and local structure of a selected element at a specific crystalline site and/or phase. This method has been improved by using a polycrystalline sample, channel-cut monochromator optics with an undulator synchrotron radiation source, an area detector and direct determination of resonant terms with a logarithmic dispersion relation. This study makes the DAFS method more convenient and saves a large amount of measurement time in comparison with the conventional DAFS method with a single crystal. The improved DAFS method has been applied to some model samples, Ni foil and Fe3O4 powder, to demonstrate the validity of the measurement and the analysis of the present DAFS method. PMID:25343791
44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference
Beg, Farhat
2014-03-03
Conference Grant Report July 14, 2015 Submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy Attn: Dr. Sean Finnegan By the University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093 On behalf of the 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference 8-13 June 2014, in Estes Park, Colorado Support Requested: $10,100 Amount expended: $3,216.14 Performance Period: 1 March 20 14 to 28 February 20 15 Principal Investigator Dr. Farhat Beg Center for Energy Research University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093-0417 858-822-1266 (telephone) 858-534-4543 (fax) fbeg@ucsd.edu Administrative Point of Contact: Brandi Pate, 858-534-0851, blpate®ucsd.edu I. Background The forty-fourth Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in Estes Park, Colorado from June 5-8, 2014 (aac2014.ucsd.edu). The first Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in 1971 to assemble experts in the poorly understood area of laser-plasma absorption. The goal of that conference was to address the anomalously large laser absorption seen in plasma experiments with respect to the laser absorption predicted by linear plasma theory. Great progress in this research area has been made in the decades since that first meeting, due in part to the scientific interactions that have occurred annually at this conference. Specifically, this includes the development of nonlinear laser-plasma theory and the simulation of laser interactions with plasmas. Each summer since that first meeting, this week-long conference has been held at unique locations in North America as a scientific forum for intense scientific exchanges relevant to the interaction of laser radiation with plasmas. Responsibility for organizing the conference has traditional rotated each year between the major Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) laboratories and universities including LANL, LLNL, LLE, UCLA UC Davis and NRL. As the conference has matured over the past four decades, its technical footprint has expanded
Anomalous Stress Response of Ultrahard WBn Compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Quan; Zhou, Dan; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Chen, Changfeng
2015-10-01
Boron-rich tungsten borides are premier prototypes of a new class of ultrahard compounds. Here, we show by first-principles calculations that their stress-strain relations display surprisingly diverse and anomalous behavior under a variety of loading conditions. Most remarkable is the dramatically changing bonding configurations and deformation modes with rising boron concentration in WBn (n =2 , 3, 4), resulting in significantly different stress responses and unexpected indentation strength variations. This novel phenomenon stems from the peculiar structural arrangements in tungsten borides driven by boron's ability to form unusually versatile bonding states. Our results elucidate the intriguing deformation mechanisms that define a distinct type of ultrahard material. These new insights underscore the need to explore unconventional structure-property relations in a broad range of transition-metal light-element compounds.
Cyclotron maser using the anomalous Doppler effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Didenko, A. N.; Borisov, A. R.; Fomenko, G. P.; Shlapakovskii, A. S.; Shtein, Iu. G.
1983-11-01
The operation of an anomalous-Doppler-effect cyclotron-resonance maser using a waveguide partially filled with dielectric as the slow-wave system is reported. The device investigated is similar to that of Didenko et al. (1983) and comprises a 300-mm-long 50-mm-o.d. 30-mm-i.d. waveguide with fabric-laminate dielectric, located 150 mm from the cathode in a 500-mm-long region of uniform 0-20-kG magnetic field, and a coaxial magnetic-insulation gun producing a 13-mm-i.d. 25-mm-o.d. hollow electron beam. Radiation at 12 + or - 1 mm wavelength and optimum power 20 MW is observed using hot-carrier detectors, with a clear peak in the power-versus-magnetic-field curve at about 6.4 kG.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Rui; Li, Xiangdong
2002-03-01
In the last few years it has been recognized that a group of X-ray pulsars have peculiar properties which set them apart from the majority of accreting pulars in X-ray binaries. They are called the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXP). These objects are characterized by very soft X-ray spectra with low and steady X-ray fluxes, narrow-distributed spin periods, steady spin-down, no optical/infrared counterparts. Some of them may associate with supernova remnants. The nature of AXP remains mysterious. It has been suggested that AXP are accreting neutron stars, or solitary "magnetars", neutron stars with super strong magnetic fields (≍1010-1011T). In this paper we review the recent progress in the studies of AXP, and discuss the possible implications from comparison of AXP with other neutron stars, such as radio pulsars, radio quiet X-ray pulsar candidates and soft γ-ray repeaters.
Anomalous Diffusion of Single Particles in Cytoplasm
Regner, Benjamin M.; Vučinić, Dejan; Domnisoru, Cristina; Bartol, Thomas M.; Hetzer, Martin W.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.
2013-01-01
The crowded intracellular environment poses a formidable challenge to experimental and theoretical analyses of intracellular transport mechanisms. Our measurements of single-particle trajectories in cytoplasm and their random-walk interpretations elucidate two of these mechanisms: molecular diffusion in crowded environments and cytoskeletal transport along microtubules. We employed acousto-optic deflector microscopy to map out the three-dimensional trajectories of microspheres migrating in the cytosolic fraction of a cellular extract. Classical Brownian motion (BM), continuous time random walk, and fractional BM were alternatively used to represent these trajectories. The comparison of the experimental and numerical data demonstrates that cytoskeletal transport along microtubules and diffusion in the cytosolic fraction exhibit anomalous (nonFickian) behavior and posses statistically distinct signatures. Among the three random-walk models used, continuous time random walk provides the best representation of diffusion, whereas microtubular transport is accurately modeled with fractional BM. PMID:23601312
Anomalous stress response of ultrahard WBn compounds
Li, Quan; Zhou, Dan; Zheng, Weitao; ...
2015-10-29
Boron-rich tungsten borides are premier prototypes of a new class of ultrahard compounds. Here, we show by first-principles calculations that their stress-strain relations display surprisingly diverse and anomalous behavior under a variety of loading conditions. Most remarkable is the dramatically changing bonding configurations and deformation modes with rising boron concentration in WBn (n=2, 3, 4), resulting in significantly different stress responses and unexpected indentation strength variations. This novel phenomenon stems from the peculiar structural arrangements in tungsten borides driven by boron’s ability to form unusually versatile bonding states. Our results elucidate the intriguing deformation mechanisms that define a distinct typemore » of ultrahard material. Here, these new insights underscore the need to explore unconventional structure-property relations in a broad range of transition-metal light-element compounds.« less
Anomalous radiation from a nonstationary plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gradov, O. M.; Larsson, J.; Lindgren, T.; Stenflo, L.; Tegeback, R.; Uddholm, P.
1980-01-01
This paper considers the anomalous growth of the radiation intensity, which is caused by an EM wave incident on an inhomogeneous nonstationary plasma. The amplitude of the reflected signal can thus during relatively short time intervals be larger than that of the incident wave. The reason is that the plasma parameters can pass through values, for which linear resonance of leaking surface waves exist. An analytical expression is obtained for the maximum value of the intensity of the reflected wave for two different plasma density profiles, interacting with waves of different polarization. It is shown that the effect can occur repeatedly in a nonstationary plasma with a nonmonotonous density profile, if the region, where the inhomogeneity gradient changes sign, increases.
Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities
Wang, H.; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E.
1997-04-01
Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.
Universal scaling of the anomalous Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Wei; Wang, Kejie; Niu, Wei; Lai, Bolin; Maltby, Nick; Yang, Mao; Gao, Ming; Liu, Wenqing; He, Liang; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Yongbing
2017-04-01
We have undertaken a detailed study of the magneto-transport properties of ultra-thin Fe films epitaxially grown on GaAs (1 0 0). A metal–semiconductor transition has been observed with a critical thickness of 1.25 nm, which was thought to be related to the thermally activated tunneling between metallic clusters. By fitting {ρ\\text{AH}} versus ρ xx2 with the TYJ equation (Tian et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 087206), we found that the magnetization is negligible for the scaling of the anomalous Hall effect in ultra-thin Fe films. Furthermore, the intrinsic term, which is acquired by the linear fitting of {ρ\\text{AH}} versus ρ xx2 , shows an obvious decrease when the film thickness drops below 1.25 nm, which was thought to be related to the fading of the Berry curvature in the ultra-thin film limit.
Chiral magnetic plasmons in anomalous relativistic matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Sukhachov, P. O.
2017-03-01
The chiral plasmon modes of relativistic matter in background magnetic and strain-induced pseudomagnetic fields are studied in detail using the consistent chiral kinetic theory. The results reveal a number of anomalous features of these chiral magnetic and pseudomagnetic plasmons that could be used to identify them in experiment. In a system with nonzero electric (chiral) chemical potential, the background magnetic (pseudomagnetic) fields not only modify the values of the plasmon frequencies in the long-wavelength limit, but also affect the qualitative dependence on the wave vector. Similar modifications can be also induced by the chiral shift parameter in Weyl materials. Interestingly, even in the absence of the chiral shift and external fields, the chiral chemical potential alone leads to a splitting of plasmon energies at linear order in the wave vector.
Observation of photonic anomalous Floquet topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maczewsky, Lukas J.; Zeuner, Julia M.; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander
2017-01-01
Topological insulators are a new class of materials that exhibit robust and scatter-free transport along their edges -- independently of the fine details of the system and of the edge -- due to topological protection. To classify the topological character of two-dimensional systems without additional symmetries, one commonly uses Chern numbers, as their sum computed from all bands below a specific bandgap is equal to the net number of chiral edge modes traversing this gap. However, this is strictly valid only in settings with static Hamiltonians. The Chern numbers do not give a full characterization of the topological properties of periodically driven systems. In our work, we implement a system where chiral edge modes exist although the Chern numbers of all bands are zero. We employ periodically driven photonic waveguide lattices and demonstrate topologically protected scatter-free edge transport in such anomalous Floquet topological insulators.
Precise Quantization of Anomalous Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bestwick, Andrew
In the quantum anomalous Hall effect, electron transport in a magnetically-doped topological insulator takes place through chiral, dissipationless edge channels. In this talk, we discuss the behavior of a nearly ideal implementations of the effect in which the Hall resistance is within a part per 10,000 of its quantized value and the longitudinal resistivity can reach below 1 Ω per square. Nearly all Cr-doped topological insulator samples demonstrate extreme temperature dependence that is well-modeled by a small effective gap, allowing control over quantization with an unexpected magnetocaloric effect. We also discuss measurements of new device geometries and non-local resistances that identify the sources of dissipation that limit the effect. (Now at Rigetti Computing).
Photonic versus electronic quantum anomalous Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleu, O.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.
2017-03-01
We derive the diagram of the topological phases accessible within a generic Hamiltonian describing quantum anomalous Hall effect for photons and electrons in honeycomb lattices in the presence of a Zeeman field and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The two cases differ crucially by the winding number of their SOC, which is 1 for the Rashba SOC of electrons, and 2 for the photon SOC induced by the energy splitting between the TE and TM modes. As a consequence, the two models exhibit opposite Chern numbers ±2 at low field. Moreover, the photonic system shows a topological transition absent in the electronic case. If the photonic states are mixed with excitonic resonances to form interacting exciton-polaritons, the effective Zeeman field can be induced and controlled by a circularly polarized pump. This new feature allows an all-optical control of the topological phase transitions.
Heterogeneous anomalous diffusion in view of superstatistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itto, Yuichi
2014-08-01
It is experimentally known that virus exhibits stochastic motion in cytoplasm of a living cell in the free form as well as the form being contained in the endosome and the exponent of anomalous diffusion of the virus fluctuates depending on localized areas of the cytoplasm. Here, a theory is developed for establishing a generalized fractional kinetics for the infection pathway of the virus in the cytoplasm in view of superstatistics, which offers a general framework for describing nonequilibrium complex systems with two largely separated time scales. In the present theory, the existence of a large time-scale separation in the infection pathway is explicitly taken into account. A comment is also made on scaling nature of the motion of the virus that is suggested by the theory.
Anomalous magnetoresistance in magnetized topological insulator cylinders
Siu, Zhuo Bin; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.
2015-05-07
The close coupling between the spin and momentum degrees of freedom in topological insulators (TIs) presents the opportunity for the control of one to manipulate the other. The momentum can, for example, be confined on a curved surface and the spin influenced by applying a magnetic field. In this work, we study the surface states of a cylindrical TI magnetized in the x direction perpendicular to the cylindrical axis lying along the z direction. We show that a large magnetization leads to an upwards bending of the energy bands at small |k{sub z}|. The bending leads to an anomalous magnetoresistance where the transmission between two cylinders magnetized in opposite directions is higher than when the cylinders are magnetized at intermediate angles with respect to each other.
Anomalous "mapping" between pionfull and pionless EFT's
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ji-Feng
2014-03-01
The pion contributions to the coupling C0 of pionless EFT are studied via both non-relativistic and relativistic forms of chiral effective field theory for nuclear forces. A definite item in the 2N-reducible component of the box diagram is shown to be dominant over the 2N-irreducible (potential) ones due to the pinching of low-lying nucleon poles, and this anomalous mapping between pionless and pionfull EFT's occurs right within the non-relativistic regime. A natural strategy for renormalization of the pionfull theory emerges as a byproduct through the interactive analysis of the box diagram. Such mapping perspective may shed some light on the efficient organization of the pionfull effective field theory for nuclear forces.
Anomalous Quantum Correlations of Squeezed Light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kühn, B.; Vogel, W.; Mraz, M.; Köhnke, S.; Hage, B.
2017-04-01
Three different noise moments of field strength, intensity, and their correlations are simultaneously measured. For this purpose a homodyne cross-correlation measurement [1] is implemented by superimposing the signal field and a weak local oscillator on an unbalanced beam splitter. The relevant information is obtained via the intensity noise correlation of the output modes. Detection details like quantum efficiencies or uncorrelated dark noise are meaningless for our technique. Yet unknown insight in the quantumness of a squeezed signal field is retrieved from the anomalous moment, correlating field strength with intensity noise. A classical inequality including this moment is violated for almost all signal phases. Precognition on quantum theory is superfluous, as our analysis is solely based on classical physics.
Anomalous Conductances in an Ultracold Quantum Wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanász-Nagy, M.; Glazman, L.; Esslinger, T.; Demler, E. A.
2016-12-01
We analyze the recently measured anomalous transport properties of an ultracold gas through a ballistic constriction [S. Krinner et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, 8144 (2016)]. The quantized conductance observed at weak interactions increases severalfold as the gas is made strongly interacting, which cannot be explained by the Landauer theory of single-channel transport. We show that this phenomenon is due to the multichannel Andreev reflections at the edges of the constriction, where the interaction and confinement result in a superconducting state. Andreev processes convert atoms of otherwise reflecting channels into the condensate propagating through the constriction, leading to a significant excess conductance. Furthermore, we find the spin conductance being suppressed by superconductivity; the agreement with experiment provides an additional support for our model.
Observation of photonic anomalous Floquet topological insulators
Maczewsky, Lukas J.; Zeuner, Julia M.; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander
2017-01-01
Topological insulators are a new class of materials that exhibit robust and scatter-free transport along their edges — independently of the fine details of the system and of the edge — due to topological protection. To classify the topological character of two-dimensional systems without additional symmetries, one commonly uses Chern numbers, as their sum computed from all bands below a specific bandgap is equal to the net number of chiral edge modes traversing this gap. However, this is strictly valid only in settings with static Hamiltonians. The Chern numbers do not give a full characterization of the topological properties of periodically driven systems. In our work, we implement a system where chiral edge modes exist although the Chern numbers of all bands are zero. We employ periodically driven photonic waveguide lattices and demonstrate topologically protected scatter-free edge transport in such anomalous Floquet topological insulators. PMID:28051080
Observation of photonic anomalous Floquet topological insulators.
Maczewsky, Lukas J; Zeuner, Julia M; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander
2017-01-04
Topological insulators are a new class of materials that exhibit robust and scatter-free transport along their edges - independently of the fine details of the system and of the edge - due to topological protection. To classify the topological character of two-dimensional systems without additional symmetries, one commonly uses Chern numbers, as their sum computed from all bands below a specific bandgap is equal to the net number of chiral edge modes traversing this gap. However, this is strictly valid only in settings with static Hamiltonians. The Chern numbers do not give a full characterization of the topological properties of periodically driven systems. In our work, we implement a system where chiral edge modes exist although the Chern numbers of all bands are zero. We employ periodically driven photonic waveguide lattices and demonstrate topologically protected scatter-free edge transport in such anomalous Floquet topological insulators.
Scientific Visualization of Extra Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Black, Don V.
2010-10-01
In the 21st Century, many theoretical physicists claim that higher dimensions may indeed exist. Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, & Dvali (ADD) and Randall-Sundrum (RS), in addition to Kaluza-Klein (KK) and M-string theorists, have introduced reasonable explanations for the existence of heretofore ``invisible'' higher dimensions. Whether or not these extra dimensions actually exist is irrelevant to their contributions to the visionary conceptualization associated with novel and improved mathematical and physical analysis. Envisioning extra dimensions beyond the three of common experience is a daunting challenge for three dimensional observers. Intuition relies on experience gained in a three dimensional environment. Gaining experience with virtual four dimensional objects and virtual three manifolds in four-space on a personal computer may provide the basis for an intuitive grasp of four dimensions. This presentation is a video ``outtake'' of the author's research into ``Visualizing Extra Spatial Dimensions'' at the University of California at Irvine.
Anomalous Cases of Astronaut Helmet Detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn
2015-01-01
An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.
Powder diffraction studies using anomalous dispersion
Cox, D.E. ); Wilkinson, A.P. . Dept. of Materials)
1993-01-01
With the increasing availability and accessibility of high resolution powder diffractometers at many synchrotron radiation sources throughout the world, there is rapidly-growing interest in the exploitation of anomalous dispersion techniques for structural studies of polycrystalline materials. In conjunction with the Rietveld profile method for structure refinement, such studies are especially useful for the determination of the site distributions of two or more atoms which are near neighbors in the periodic table, or atoms which are distributed among partially occupied sites. Additionally, it is possible to (1) determine the mean-square displacements associated with different kinds of atoms distributed over a single set of sites, (2) distinguish between different oxidation states and coordination geometries of a particular atom in a compound and (3) to determine f' for a wide range of atomic species as a function of energy in the vicinity of an absorption edge. Experimental methods for making anomalous dispersion measurements are described in some detail, including data collection strategies, data analysis and correlation problems, possible systematic errors, and the accuracy of the results. Recent work in the field is reviewed, including cation site-distribution studies (e.g. doped high [Tc] superconductors, ternary alloys, FeCo[sub 2](PO[sub 4])[sub 3], FeNi[sub 2]BO[sub 5]), oxidation-state contrast (e.g. YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6+x], Eu[sub 3]O[sub 4], GaCl[sub 2], Fe[sub 2]PO[sub 5]), and the effect of coordination geometry (e.g. Y[sub 3]Ga[sub 5]O[sub l2]).
Powder diffraction studies using anomalous dispersion
Cox, D.E.; Wilkinson, A.P.
1993-05-01
With the increasing availability and accessibility of high resolution powder diffractometers at many synchrotron radiation sources throughout the world, there is rapidly-growing interest in the exploitation of anomalous dispersion techniques for structural studies of polycrystalline materials. In conjunction with the Rietveld profile method for structure refinement, such studies are especially useful for the determination of the site distributions of two or more atoms which are near neighbors in the periodic table, or atoms which are distributed among partially occupied sites. Additionally, it is possible to (1) determine the mean-square displacements associated with different kinds of atoms distributed over a single set of sites, (2) distinguish between different oxidation states and coordination geometries of a particular atom in a compound and (3) to determine f` for a wide range of atomic species as a function of energy in the vicinity of an absorption edge. Experimental methods for making anomalous dispersion measurements are described in some detail, including data collection strategies, data analysis and correlation problems, possible systematic errors, and the accuracy of the results. Recent work in the field is reviewed, including cation site-distribution studies (e.g. doped high {Tc} superconductors, ternary alloys, FeCo{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, FeNi{sub 2}BO{sub 5}), oxidation-state contrast (e.g. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}, Eu{sub 3}O{sub 4}, GaCl{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}PO{sub 5}), and the effect of coordination geometry (e.g. Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub l2}).
Anomalous cases of astronaut helmet detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn
2015-05-01
An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.
Anomalous magnetoresponse and the Stückelberg axion in holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez-Alba, Amadeo; Landsteiner, Karl; Melgar, Luis
2014-12-01
We study the magnetoresponse with nonconserved currents in holography. Nonconserved currents are dual to massive vector fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS). We introduce the mass in a gauge invariant way via the Stückelberg mechanism. In particular we find generalizations of the chiral magnetic effect, the chiral separation effect and the chiral magnetic wave. Since the associated charge is not conserved we need to source it explicitly by a coupling, the generalization of the chemical potential. In this setup we find that in general the anomalous transport phenomena are still realized. The values we find for nonzero mass connect continuously to the values of the anomalous conductivities of the consistent currents, i.e. the proper chiral magnetic effect vanishes for all masses (as it does for the consistent current in the zero mass case) whereas the chiral separation effect is fully present. The generalization of the chiral magnetic wave shows that for small momenta there is no propagating wave but two purely absorptive modes (one of them diffusive). At higher momenta we recover the chiral magnetic wave as a combination of the two absorptive modes. We also study the negative magneto resistivity and find that it grows quadratically with the magnetic field. The chiral magnetic wave and the negative magneto resistivity are manifestations of the chiral magnetic effect that takes place when the (nonconserved) charge is allowed to fluctuate freely in contrast to the case where the charge is fixed by an explicit source. Since the (classical) U (1 )A symmetry of QCD is not at all a symmetry at the quantum level we also argue that using massive vectors in AdS to model the axial singlet current might result in a more realistic holographic model of QCD and should be a good starting point to investigate the dynamics of anomalous transport in the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma.
Johannes Kepler and Extra Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendry, Archibald W.
2004-02-01
How many dimensions are there? The answer used to be four — three spatial and one time dimension. Maybe it still is, though nowadays we hear that the answer may be more, perhaps many more. Many of our students have heard about this on television or read about it. They want to know more. Why do physicists think we need more than three spatial dimensions? What's the point of it all?
Four-flavour leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment
Burger, Florian; Feng, Xu; Hotzel, Grit; ...
2014-02-24
We present a four-flavour lattice calculation of the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarisation contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, aμhvp, arising from quark-connected Feynman graphs. It is based on ensembles featuring Nf=2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). Several light quark masses are used in order to yield a controlled extrapolation to the physical pion mass. We employ three lattice spacings to examine lattice artefacts and several different volumes to check for finite-size effects. Including the complete first two generations of quarks allows for a direct comparison with phenomenological determinations of amore » μhvp. The final result involving an estimate of the systematic uncertainty aμhvp=6.74 (21)(18) 10-8 shows a good overall agreement with these computations.« less
Four-flavour leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment
Burger, Florian; Feng, Xu; Hotzel, Grit; Jansen, Karl; Petschlies, Marcus; Renner, Dru B.
2014-02-24
We present a four-flavour lattice calculation of the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarisation contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, aμ^{hvp}, arising from quark-connected Feynman graphs. It is based on ensembles featuring N_{f}=2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). Several light quark masses are used in order to yield a controlled extrapolation to the physical pion mass. We employ three lattice spacings to examine lattice artefacts and several different volumes to check for finite-size effects. Including the complete first two generations of quarks allows for a direct comparison with phenomenological determinations of a μ^{hvp}. The final result involving an estimate of the systematic uncertainty a_{μ}^{hvp}=6.74 (21)(18) 10^{-8} shows a good overall agreement with these computations.
Effects of Ultramicroelectrode Dimensions on the Electropolymerization of Polypyrrole
Fletcher, Benjamin L; Fern, Jared T.; Rhodes, Kevin; McKnight, Timothy E; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Retterer, Scott T; Keffer, David J.; Simpson, Michael L; Doktycz, Mitchel John
2009-01-01
Anode geometry can significantly affect the electrochemical synthesis of conductive polymers. Here, the effects of anode dimensions on the electropolymerization of pyrrole are investigated. Band microelectrodes were prepared with widths ranging from 2 to 500 {micro}m. The anode dimension has a significant effect on the resulting thickness of polymer film. The electropolymerization process deviates significantly from that predicted by simple mass transfer considerations when electrode dimensions are less than {approx}20 {micro}m. Polymer film thickness is thinner than expected when electrode dimensions become less than {approx}10 {micro}m. A simple mathematical model was derived to explain the observed effects of anode dimensions on the polymerization process. Simulation results confirm that diffusive loss of reaction intermediates accounts for the observed experimental trends. The described simulation facilitates understanding of the electropolymerization processes and approaches to the controlled deposition of polypyrrole, particularly at the submicron scale, for microelectromechanical systems and biomedical applications.
Endogeneity in High Dimensions
Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan
2014-01-01
Most papers on high-dimensional statistics are based on the assumption that none of the regressors are correlated with the regression error, namely, they are exogenous. Yet, endogeneity can arise incidentally from a large pool of regressors in a high-dimensional regression. This causes the inconsistency of the penalized least-squares method and possible false scientific discoveries. A necessary condition for model selection consistency of a general class of penalized regression methods is given, which allows us to prove formally the inconsistency claim. To cope with the incidental endogeneity, we construct a novel penalized focused generalized method of moments (FGMM) criterion function. The FGMM effectively achieves the dimension reduction and applies the instrumental variable methods. We show that it possesses the oracle property even in the presence of endogenous predictors, and that the solution is also near global minimum under the over-identification assumption. Finally, we also show how the semi-parametric efficiency of estimation can be achieved via a two-step approach. PMID:25580040
Berggren, K.-F.; Pepper, M.
2010-01-01
In this article, we present a summary of the current status of the study of the transport of electrons confined to one dimension in very low disorder GaAs–AlGaAs heterostructures. By means of suitably located gates and application of a voltage to ‘electrostatically squeeze’ the electronic wave functions, it is possible to produce a controllable size quantization and a transition from two-dimensional transport. If the length of the electron channel is sufficiently short, then transport is ballistic and the quantized subbands each have a conductance equal to the fundamental quantum value 2e2/h, where the factor of 2 arises from the spin degeneracy. This mode of conduction is discussed, and it is shown that a number of many-body effects can be observed. These effects are discussed as in the spin-incoherent regime, which is entered when the separation of the electrons is increased and the exchange energy is less than kT. Finally, results are presented in the regime where the confinement potential is decreased and the electron configuration relaxes to minimize the electron–electron repulsion to move towards a two-dimensional array. It is shown that the ground state is no longer a line determined by the size quantization alone, but becomes two distinct rows arising from minimization of the electrostatic energy and is the precursor of a two-dimensional Wigner lattice. PMID:20123751
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Houselt, A.; Schäfer, J.; Zandvliet, H. J. W.; Claessen, R.
2013-01-01
With modern microelectronics moving towards smaller and smaller length scales on the (sub-) nm scale, quantum effects (apart from band structure and band gaps) have begun to play an increasingly important role. This especially concerns dimensional confinement to 2D (high electron mobility transistors and integer/fractional quantum Hall effect physics, graphene and topological insulators) and 1D (with electrical connections eventually reaching the quantum limit). Recent developments in the above-mentioned areas have revealed that the properties of electron systems become increasingly exotic as one progresses from the 3D case into lower dimensions. As compared to 2D electron systems, much less experimental progress has been achieved in the field of 1D electron systems. The main reason for the lack of experimental results in this field is related to the difficulty of realizing 1D electron systems. Atom chains created in quantum mechanical break junction set-ups are too short to exhibit the typically 1D signatures. As an alternative, atomic chains can be produced on crystal surfaces, either via assembling them one-by-one using a scanning tunnelling microscope or via self-assembly. The drawback of the latter systems is that the atomic chains are not truly 1D since they are coupled to the underlying crystal and sometimes even to the neighbouring chains. In retrospect, this coupling turns out to be an absolute necessity in the experiment since true 1D systems are disordered at any non-zero temperature [1]. The coupling to the crystal and/or neighbouring chains shifts the phase transition, for example, a Peierls instability, to a non-zero temperature and thus allows experiments to be performed in the ordered state. Here, we want to emphasize that the electronic properties of the 1D electron system are fundamentally different from its 2D and 3D counterparts. The Fermi liquid theory, which is applicable to 2D and 3D electron systems, breaks down spectacularly in the 1D case
Exterior dimension of fat fractals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.
1985-01-01
Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.
Thermal dimension of quantum spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Brighenti, Francesco; Gubitosi, Giulia; Santos, Grasiele
2017-04-01
Recent results suggest that a crucial crossroad for quantum gravity is the characterization of the effective dimension of spacetime at short distances, where quantum properties of spacetime become significant. This is relevant in particular for various scenarios of "dynamical dimensional reduction" which have been discussed in the literature. We are here concerned with the fact that the related research effort has been based mostly on analyses of the "spectral dimension", which involves an unphysical Euclideanization of spacetime and is highly sensitive to the off-shell properties of a theory. As here shown, different formulations of the same physical theory can have wildly different spectral dimension. We propose that dynamical dimensional reduction should be described in terms of the "thermal dimension" which we here introduce, a notion that only depends on the physical content of the theory. We analyze a few models with dynamical reduction both of the spectral dimension and of our thermal dimension, finding in particular some cases where thermal and spectral dimension agree, but also some cases where the spectral dimension has puzzling properties while the thermal dimension gives a different and meaningful picture.
No need to replace an "anomalous" primate (Primates) with an "anomalous" bear (Carnivora, Ursidae).
Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Pine, Ronald H
2015-01-01
By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative "yeti", "bigfoot", and other "anomalous primate" hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an "anomalous primate", but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursusmaritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursusarctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropodamelanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics.
Deconstructing Dimensions: Adventures in Theory Space (Large Extra Dimension)
Arkani-Hamed, Nima
2009-11-28
Theories of gravity and gauge forces in more than four dimensions offer a new paradigm for physics beyond the standard model. We present some of the most interesting recent ideas, and explain how signals for extra dimensions could appear in experiments at a linear e+e- collider.
Grandes nouvelles dimensions et gravité quantique au coin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia
2003-04-01
The electroweak unification mass may be the only fundamental scale in nature. If so, the visible universe may lie on a membrane floating within a higher dimensional space; new dimensions, black holes, quantum gravity, and string theory may become experimentally accessible in this decade. The dark matter could reside on parallel universes inside the extra dimensions. To cite this article: N. Arkani-Hamed et al., C. R. Physique 4 (2003).
49 CFR 587.18 - Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. 587.18 Section... Deformable Barrier § 587.18 Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. (a) The fixed rigid barrier has a mass of not less than 7 × 104 kg (154,324 lb). (b) The height of the fixed rigid barrier is at least as high as the...
49 CFR 587.18 - Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. 587.18 Section... Deformable Barrier § 587.18 Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. (a) The fixed rigid barrier has a mass of not less than 7 × 104 kg (154,324 lb). (b) The height of the fixed rigid barrier is at least as high as the...