Anomalous mass dimension in multiflavor QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doff, A.; Natale, A. A.
2016-10-01
Models of strongly interacting theories with a large mass anomalous dimension (γm) provide an interesting possibility for the dynamical origin of the electroweak symmetry breaking. A laboratory for these models is QCD with many flavors, which may present a nontrivial fixed point associated to a conformal region. Studies based on conformal field theories and on Schwinger-Dyson equations have suggested the existence of bounds on the mass anomalous dimension at the fixed points of these models. In this note we discuss γm values of multiflavor QCD exhibiting a nontrivial fixed point and affected by relevant four-fermion interactions.
The resurgence of the cusp anomalous dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aniceto, Inês
2016-02-01
This work addresses the resurgent properties of the cusp anomalous dimension’s strong coupling expansion, obtained from the integral Beisert-Eden-Staudacher (BES) equation. This expansion is factorially divergent, and its first non-perturbative corrections are related to the mass gap of the O(6)σ -model. The factorial divergence can also be analyzed from a resurgence perspective. Building on the work of Basso and Korchemsky, a transseries ansatz for the cusp anomalous dimension is proposed and the corresponding expected large-order behaviour studied. One finds non-perturbative phenomena in both the positive and negative real coupling directions, which need to be included to address the analyticity conditions coming from the BES equation. After checking the resurgence structure of the proposed transseries, it is shown that it naturally leads to an unambiguous resummation procedure, furthermore allowing for a strong/weak coupling interpolation.
Correspondence between Soft and Rapidity Anomalous Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vladimirov, Alexey A.
2017-02-01
We establish a correspondence between ultraviolet singularities of soft factors for multiparticle production and rapidity singularities of soft factors for multiparton scattering. This correspondence is a consequence of the conformal mapping between scattering geometries. The correspondence is valid to all orders of perturbation theory and in this way, provides one with a proof of rapidity renormalization procedure for multiparton scattering [including the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization as a special case]. As a by-product, we obtain an exact relation between the rapidity anomalous dimension and the well-known soft anomalous dimension. The three-loop expressions for TMD and a general multiparton scattering rapidity anomalous dimension are derived.
Three loop cusp anomalous dimension in QCD.
Grozin, Andrey; Henn, Johannes M; Korchemsky, Gregory P; Marquard, Peter
2015-02-13
We present the full analytic result for the three loop angle-dependent cusp anomalous dimension in QCD. With this result, infrared divergences of planar scattering processes with massive particles can be predicted to that order. Moreover, we define a closely related quantity in terms of an effective coupling defined by the lightlike cusp anomalous dimension. We find evidence that this quantity is universal for any gauge theory and use this observation to predict the nonplanar n(f)-dependent terms of the four loop cusp anomalous dimension.
Correspondence between Soft and Rapidity Anomalous Dimensions.
Vladimirov, Alexey A
2017-02-10
We establish a correspondence between ultraviolet singularities of soft factors for multiparticle production and rapidity singularities of soft factors for multiparton scattering. This correspondence is a consequence of the conformal mapping between scattering geometries. The correspondence is valid to all orders of perturbation theory and in this way, provides one with a proof of rapidity renormalization procedure for multiparton scattering [including the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization as a special case]. As a by-product, we obtain an exact relation between the rapidity anomalous dimension and the well-known soft anomalous dimension. The three-loop expressions for TMD and a general multiparton scattering rapidity anomalous dimension are derived.
Sturm, C.; Almeida, L.
2010-04-26
Light quark masses can be determined through lattice simulations in regularization invariant momentum-subtraction (RI/MOM) schemes. Subsequently, matching factors, computed in continuum perturbation theory, are used in order to convert these quark masses from a RI/MOM scheme to the {ovr MS} scheme. We calculate the two-loop corrections in QCD to these matching factors as well as the three-loop mass anomalous dimensions for the RI/SMOM and RI/SMOM{sub {gamma}{mu}} schemes. These two schemes are characterized by a symmetric subtraction point. Providing the conversion factors in the two different schemes allows for a better understanding of the systematic uncertainties. The two-loop expansion coefficients of the matching factors for both schemes turn out to be small compared to the traditional RI/MOM schemes. For n{sub f} = 3 quark flavors they are about 0.6%-0.7% and 2%, respectively, of the leading order result at scales of about 2 GeV. Therefore, they will allow for a significant reduction of the systematic uncertainty of light quark mass determinations obtained through this approach. The determination of these matching factors requires the computation of amputated Green's functions with the insertions of quark bilinear operators. As a by-product of our calculation we also provide the corresponding results for the tensor operator.
Almeida, Leandro G.; Sturm, Christian
2010-09-01
Light quark masses can be determined through lattice simulations in regularization invariant momentum-subtraction (RI/MOM) schemes. Subsequently, matching factors, computed in continuum perturbation theory, are used in order to convert these quark masses from a RI/MOM scheme to the MS scheme. We calculate the two-loop corrections in QCD to these matching factors as well as the three-loop mass anomalous dimensions for the RI/SMOM and RI/SMOM{sub {gamma}{sub {mu}} }schemes. These two schemes are characterized by a symmetric subtraction point. Providing the conversion factors in the two different schemes allows for a better understanding of the systematic uncertainties. The two-loop expansion coefficients of the matching factors for both schemes turn out to be small compared to the traditional RI/MOM schemes. For n{sub f}=3 quark flavors they are about 0.6%-0.7% and 2%, respectively, of the leading order result at scales of about 2 GeV. Therefore, they will allow for a significant reduction of the systematic uncertainty of light quark mass determinations obtained through this approach. The determination of these matching factors requires the computation of amputated Green's functions with the insertions of quark bilinear operators. As a by-product of our calculation we also provide the corresponding results for the tensor operator.
Bootstrapping Rapidity Anomalous Dimensions for Transverse-Momentum Resummation
Li, Ye; Zhu, Hua Xing
2017-01-01
Soft function relevant for transverse-momentum resummation for Drell-Yan or Higgs production at hadron colliders are computed through to three loops in the expansion of strong coupling, with the help of bootstrap technique and supersymmetric decomposition. The corresponding rapidity anomalous dimension is extracted. An intriguing relation between anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation and threshold resummation is found.
Bootstrapping Rapidity Anomalous Dimensions for Transverse-Momentum Resummation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ye; Zhu, Hua Xing
2017-01-01
A soft function relevant for transverse-momentum resummation for Drell-Yan or Higgs production at hadron colliders is computed through to three loops in the expansion of strong coupling, with the help of the bootstrap technique and supersymmetric decomposition. The corresponding rapidity anomalous dimension is extracted. An intriguing relation between anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation and threshold resummation is found.
Anomalous dimensions and non-gaussianity
Green, Daniel; Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2013-10-01
We analyze the signatures of inflationary models that are coupled to interacting field theories, a basic class of multifield models also motivated by their role in providing dynamically small scales. Near the squeezed limit of the bispectrum, we find a simple scaling behavior determined by operator dimensions, which are constrained by the appropriate unitarity bounds. Specifically, we analyze two simple and calculable classes of examples: conformal field theories (CFTs), and large-N CFTs deformed by relevant time-dependent double-trace operators. Together these two classes of examples exhibit a wide range of scalings and shapes of the bispectrum, including nearly equilateral, orthogonal and local non-Gaussianity in different regimes. Along the way, we compare and contrast the shape and amplitude with previous results on weakly coupled fields coupled to inflation. This signature provides a precision test for strongly coupled sectors coupled to inflation via irrelevant operators suppressed by a high mass scale up to ~ 103 times the inflationary Hubble scale.
Broken current anomalous dimensions, conformal manifolds, and renormalization group flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bashmakov, Vladimir; Bertolini, Matteo; Raj, Himanshu
2017-03-01
We consider deformations of a conformal field theory that explicitly break some global symmetries of the theory. If the deformed theory is still a conformal field theory, one can exploit the constraints put by conformal symmetry to compute broken currents anomalous dimensions. We consider several instances of this scenario, using field theory techniques and also holographic ones, where necessary. Field theoretical methods suffice to discuss examples of symmetry-breaking deformations of the O (N ) model in d =4 -ɛ dimensions. Holography is instrumental, instead, for computing current anomalous dimensions in β -deformed superconformal field theories and in a class of supersymmetric renormalization group flows at large N .
Broken Scale Invariance and Anomalous Dimensions
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Wilson, K. G.
1970-05-01
Mack and Kastrup have proposed that broken scale invariance is a symmetry of strong interactions. There is evidence from the Thirring model and perturbation theory that the dimensions of fields defined by scale transformations will be changed by the interaction from their canonical values. We review these ideas and their consequences for strong interactions.
Cusp Anomalous Dimension in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotanski, J.
2008-12-01
The main features of the cusp anomalous dimension in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are reviewed. Moreover, the strong coupling expansion of the cusp derived in B. Basso, G.P. Korchemsky, J. Kotanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091601 (2008) is presented.
Chiral kinetic theory and anomalous hydrodynamics in even spacetime dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwivedi, Vatsal; Stone, Michael
2017-04-01
We apply chiral kinetic theory to a gas of weakly interacting Weyl fermions coupled to electromagnetism in (2N + 1) + 1 spacetime dimensions to obtain the ‘Gibbs free energy current’ from which all equilibrium finite temperature anomalous contributions, such as the chiral magnetic and vortical currents, can be derived. Our results agree with those derived previously using thermodynamic constraints.
Three-loop cusp anomalous dimension and a conjecture for n loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kidonakis, Nikolaos
2016-05-01
I present analytical expressions for the massive cusp anomalous dimension in QCD through three loops, first calculated in 2014, in terms of elementary functions and ordinary polylogarithms. I observe interesting relations between the results at different loops and provide a conjecture for the n-loop cusp anomalous dimension in terms of the lower-loop results. I also present numerical results and simple approximate formulas for the cusp anomalous dimension relevant to top-quark production.
Cusp Anomalous Dimension in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory at Strong Coupling
Basso, B.; Korchemsky, G. P.; Kotanski, J.
2008-03-07
We construct an analytical solution to the integral equation which is believed to describe logarithmic growth of the anomalous dimensions of high-spin operators in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and use it to determine the strong coupling expansion of the cusp anomalous dimension.
Anomalous discrete symmetries in three dimensions and group cohomology.
Kapustin, Anton; Thorngren, Ryan
2014-06-13
We study 't Hooft anomalies for a global discrete internal symmetry G. We construct examples of bosonic field theories in three dimensions with a nonvanishing 't Hooft anomaly for a discrete global symmetry. We also construct field theories in three dimensions with a global discrete internal symmetry G(1) × G(2) such that gauging G(1) necessarily breaks G(2) and vice versa. This is analogous to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw axial anomaly in four dimensions and parity anomaly in three dimensions.
Anomalous dimension, chiral phase transition and inverse magnetic catalysis in soft-wall AdS/QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Zhen
2016-07-01
A modified soft-wall AdS/QCD model with a z-dependent bulk scalar mass is proposed. We argue for the necessity of a modified bulk scalar mass from the quark mass anomalous dimension and carefully constrain the form of bulk mass by the corresponding UV and IR asymptotics. After fixing the form of bulk scalar mass, we calculate the mass spectra of (axial-)vector and pseudoscalar mesons, which have a good agreement with the experimental data. The behavior of chiral phase transition is also investigated, and the results are consistent with the standard scenario and lattice simulations. Finally, the issue of chiral magnetic effects is addressed. We find that the inverse magnetic catalysis emerges naturally from the modified soft-wall model, which is consistent with the recent lattice simulations.
Anomalous center of mass shift: gravitational dipole moment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Eue Jin
1997-02-01
The anomalous, energy dependent shift of the center of mass of an idealized, perfectly rigid, uniformly rotating hemispherical shell which is caused by the relativistic mass increase effect is investigated in detail. It is shown that a classical object on impact which has the harmonic binding force between the adjacent constituent particles has the similar effect of the energy dependent, anomalous shift of the center of mass. From these observations, the general mode of the linear acceleration is suggested to be caused by the anomalous center of mass shift whether it's due to classical or relativistic origin. The effect of the energy dependent center of mass shift perpendicular to the plane of rotation of a rotating hemisphere appears as the non zero gravitational dipole moment in general relativity. Controlled experiment for the measurement of the gravitational dipole field and its possible links to the cylindrical type line formation of a worm hole in the extreme case are suggested. The jets from the black hole accretion disc and the observed anomalous red shift from far away galaxies are considered to be the consequences of the two different aspects of the dipole gravity.
AN ANOMALOUS QUIESCENT STELLAR MASS BLACK HOLE
Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.
2011-06-10
We present the results of a 40 ks Chandra observation of the quiescent stellar mass black hole GS 1354-64. A total of 266 net counts are detected at the position of this system. The resulting spectrum is found to be consistent with the spectra of previously observed quiescent black holes, i.e., a power law with a photon index of {Gamma} {approx} 2. The inferred luminosity in the 0.5-10 keV band is found to lie in the range 0.5-6.5 x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}, where the uncertainty in the distance is the dominant source of this large luminosity range. Nonetheless, this luminosity is over an order of magnitude greater than that expected from the known distribution of quiescent stellar mass black hole luminosities and makes GS 1354-64 the only known stellar mass black hole to disagree with this relation. This observation suggests the possibility of significant accretion persisting in the quiescent state.
Beyond cusp anomalous dimension from integrability in SYM{sub 4}
Fioravanti, Davide; Grinza, Paolo; Rossi, Marco
2011-07-15
We study the first sub-leading correction O((ln s){sup 0}) to the cusp anomalous dimension in the high spin expansion of finite twist operators in N = 4 SYM theory. This term is still governed by a linear integral equation which we study in the weak and strong coupling regimes. In the strong coupling regime we find agreement with the string theory computations.
Anomalous coupling, top-mass and parton-shower effects in W + W - production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellm, J.; Gieseke, S.; Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.; Plätzer, S.; Reuschle, C.; von Soden-Fraunhofen, J. F.
2016-05-01
We calculate the process ppto {W}+{W}-to {e}+{ν}_e{μ}-{overline{ν}}_{μ } at NLO QCD, including also effective field theory (EFT) operators mediating the ggW + W - interaction, which first occur at dimension eight. We further combine the NLO and EFT matrix elements produced by G oS am with the H erwig7/M atchbox framework, which offers the possibility to study the impact of a parton shower. We assess the effects of the anomalous couplings by comparing them to top-mass effects as well as uncertainties related to variations of the renormalisation, factorisation and hard shower scales.
Matter Dependence of the Three-Loop Soft Anomalous Dimension Matrix
Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC
2009-01-23
The resummation of soft gluon exchange for QCD hard scattering requires a matrix of anomalous dimensions, which has been computed through two loops. The two-loop matrix is proportional to the one-loop matrix. Recently there have been proposals that this proportionality extends to higher loops. One can test such proposals by computing the dependence of this matrix on the matter content in a generic gauge theory. It is shown that for the matter-dependent part the proportionality extends to three loops for arbitrary massless processes.
Geometric Explanation of Anomalous Finite-Size Scaling in High Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimm, Jens; Elçi, Eren Metin; Zhou, Zongzheng; Garoni, Timothy M.; Deng, Youjin
2017-03-01
We give an intuitive geometric explanation for the apparent breakdown of standard finite-size scaling in systems with periodic boundaries above the upper critical dimension. The Ising model and self-avoiding walk are simulated on five-dimensional hypercubic lattices with free and periodic boundary conditions, by using geometric representations and recently introduced Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithms. We show that previously observed anomalous behavior for correlation functions, measured on the standard Euclidean scale, can be removed by defining correlation functions on a scale which correctly accounts for windings.
Island nucleation and growth with anomalous diffusion in one-dimension.
Sabbar, Ehsan H; Amar, Jacques G
2017-02-21
Recently a general rate-equation (RE) theory of submonolayer island nucleation and growth was developed [J. G. Amar and M. Semaan, Phys. Rev. E 93, 062805 (2016)] which takes into account the critical island-size i, island fractal dimension df, substrate dimension d, and diffusion exponent μ, and good agreement with simulations was found for the case of irreversible growth corresponding to a critical island-size i=1 with d = 2. Here we present the results of simulations carried out in 1D (corresponding to d = 1) of island nucleation and growth with anomalous diffusion which were carried out for both the case of superdiffusion (μ>1) and subdiffusion (μ<1). Excellent agreement is found with the general RE theory for both irreversible growth (i=1) and reversible growth with i=2 for all 0≤μ≤2.
Island nucleation and growth with anomalous diffusion in one-dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabbar, Ehsan H.; Amar, Jacques G.
2017-02-01
Recently a general rate-equation (RE) theory of submonolayer island nucleation and growth was developed [J. G. Amar and M. Semaan, Phys. Rev. E 93, 062805 (2016)] which takes into account the critical island-size i, island fractal dimension df, substrate dimension d, and diffusion exponent μ, and good agreement with simulations was found for the case of irreversible growth corresponding to a critical island-size i=1 with d = 2. Here we present the results of simulations carried out in 1D (corresponding to d = 1) of island nucleation and growth with anomalous diffusion which were carried out for both the case of superdiffusion (μ >1 ) and subdiffusion (μ <1 ). Excellent agreement is found with the general RE theory for both irreversible growth (i=1) and reversible growth with i=2 for all 0 ≤μ ≤2 .
Three-Loop Corrections to the Soft Anomalous Dimension in Multileg Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almelid, Øyvind; Duhr, Claude; Gardi, Einan
2016-10-01
We present the three-loop result for the soft anomalous dimension governing long-distance singularities of multileg gauge-theory scattering amplitudes of massless partons. We compute all contributing webs involving semi-infinite Wilson lines at three loops and obtain the complete three-loop correction to the dipole formula. We find that nondipole corrections appear already for three colored partons, where the correction is a constant without kinematic dependence. Kinematic dependence appears only through conformally invariant cross ratios for four colored partons or more, and the result can be expressed in terms of single-valued harmonic polylogarithms of weight five. While the nondipole three-loop term does not vanish in two-particle collinear limits, its contribution to the splitting amplitude anomalous dimension reduces to a constant, and it depends only on the color charges of the collinear pair, thereby preserving strict collinear factorization properties. Finally, we verify that our result is consistent with expectations from the Regge limit.
Exact Spectrum of Anomalous Dimensions of Planar N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
Gromov, Nikolay; Kazakov, Vladimir; Vieira, Pedro
2009-09-25
We present a set of functional equations defining the anomalous dimensions of arbitrary local single trace operators in planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. It takes the form of a Y system based on the integrability of the dual superstring sigma model on the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}) background. This Y system passes some very important tests: it incorporates the full asymptotic Bethe ansatz at large length of operator L, including the dressing factor, and it confirms all recently found wrapping corrections. The recently proposed AdS{sub 4}/three-dimensional conformal field theory duality is also treated in a similar fashion.
Life Style Patterns: A New Dimension for Mass Communication Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Plummer, Joseph T.
In measuring the characteristics of mass-communication audiences, three dimensions are frequently used: demographics, social class, and psychological characteristics. The author proposes a fourth, "life style," which offers reliable data, is more colorful than demographics and more useful than psychological characteristics. This dimension is…
From normal to anomalous diffusion in comb-like structures in three dimensions.
Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Dagdug, Leonardo; Bezrukov, Sergey M
2014-08-07
Diffusion in a comb-like structure, formed by a main cylindrical tube with identical periodic dead ends of cylindrical shape, occurs slower than that in the same system without dead ends. The reason is that the particle, entering a dead end, interrupts its propagation along the tube axis. The slowdown becomes stronger and stronger as the dead end length increases, since the particle spends more and more time in the dead ends. In the limiting case of infinitely long dead ends, diffusion becomes anomalous with the exponent equal to 1/2. We develop a formalism which allows us to study the mean square displacement of the particle along the tube axis in such systems. The formalism is applicable for an arbitrary dead end length, including the case of anomalous diffusion in a tube with infinitely long dead ends. In particular, we demonstrate how intermediate anomalous diffusion arises when the dead ends are long enough.
The Two-loop Soft Anomalous Dimension Matrix and Resummation at Next-to-next-to Leading Pole
Mert Aybat, S.; Dixon, Lance J.; Sterman, George; /SUNY, Stony Brook
2006-09-08
We extend the resummation of dimensionally-regulated amplitudes to next-to-next-to-leading poles. This requires the calculation of two-loop anomalous dimension matrices for color mixing through soft gluon exchange. Remarkably, we find that they are proportional to the corresponding one-loop matrices. Using the color generator notation, we reproduce the two-loop single-pole quantities H{sup (2)} introduced by Catani for quark and gluon elastic scattering. Our results also make possible threshold and a variety of other resummations at next-to-next-to leading logarithm. All of these considerations apply to 2 {yields} n processes with massless external lines.
Massive gravity with mass term in three dimensions
Nakasone, Masashi; Oda, Ichiro
2009-05-15
We analyze the effect of the Pauli-Fierz mass term on a recently established, new massive gravity theory in three space-time dimensions. We show that the Pauli-Fierz mass term makes the new massive gravity theory nonunitary. Moreover, although we add the gravitational Chern-Simons term to this model, the situation remains unchanged and the theory stays nonunitary despite that the structure of the graviton propagator is greatly changed. Thus, the Pauli-Fierz mass term is not allowed to coexist with mass-generating higher-derivative terms in the new massive gravity.
Liu, Kuan-Hsien; Chou, Wu-Ching E-mail: wuchingchou@mail.nctu.edu.tw; Chang, Ting-Chang E-mail: wuchingchou@mail.nctu.edu.tw; Chen, Hua-Mao; Tai, Ya-Hsiang; Tsai, Ming-Yen; Hung, Pei-Hua; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Wu, Ming-Siou; Hung, Yi-Syuan; Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Yeh, Bo-Liang
2014-10-21
This paper investigates abnormal dimension-dependent thermal instability in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. Device dimension should theoretically have no effects on threshold voltage, except for in short channel devices. Unlike short channel drain-induced source barrier lowering effect, threshold voltage increases with increasing drain voltage. Furthermore, for devices with either a relatively large channel width or a short channel length, the output drain current decreases instead of saturating with an increase in drain voltage. Moreover, the wider the channel and the shorter the channel length, the larger the threshold voltage and output on-state current degradation that is observed. Because of the surrounding oxide and other thermal insulating material and the low thermal conductivity of the IGZO layer, the self-heating effect will be pronounced in wider/shorter channel length devices and those with a larger operating drain bias. To further clarify the physical mechanism, fast I{sub D}-V{sub G} and modulated peak/base pulse time I{sub D}-V{sub D} measurements are utilized to demonstrate the self-heating induced anomalous dimension-dependent threshold voltage variation and on-state current degradation.
Fermion masses without symmetry breaking in two spacetime dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
BenTov, Yoni
2015-07-01
I study the prospect of generating mass for symmetry-protected fermions without breaking the symmetry that forbids quadratic mass terms in the Lagrangian. I focus on 1+1 spacetime dimensions in the hope that this can provide guidance for interacting fermions in 3+1 dimensions. I first review the SO(8) Gross-Neveu model and emphasize a subtlety in the triality transformation. Then I focus on the " m = 0" manifold of the SO(7) Kitaev-Fidkowski model. I argue that this theory exhibits a phenomenon similar to "parity doubling" in hadronic physics, and this leads to the conclusion that the fermion propagator vanishes when p μ = 0. I also briefly explore a connection between this model and the two-channel, single-impurity Kondo effect. This paper may serve as an introduction to topological superconductors for high energy theorists, and perhaps as a taste of elementary particle physics for condensed matter theorists.
Anomalous quantum glass of bosons in a random potential in two dimensions.
Wang, Yancheng; Guo, Wenan; Sandvik, Anders W
2015-03-13
We present a quantum Monte Carlo study of the "quantum glass" phase of the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model with random potentials at filling ρ=1. In the narrow region between the Mott and superfluid phases, the compressibility has the form κ∼exp(-b/T^{α})+c with α<1 and c vanishing or very small. Thus, at T=0 the system is either incompressible (a Mott glass) or nearly incompressible (a Mott-glass-like anomalous Bose glass). At stronger disorder, where a glass reappears from the superfluid, we find a conventional highly compressible Bose glass. On a path connecting these states, away from the superfluid at larger Hubbard repulsion, a change of the disorder strength by only 10% changes the low-temperature compressibility by more than 4 orders of magnitude, lending support to two types of glass states separated by a phase transition or a sharp crossover.
Anthropometric dimensions of male powerlifters of varying body mass.
Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter
2007-10-01
In this study, we examined the anthropometric dimensions of powerlifters across various body mass (competitive bodyweight) categories. Fifty-four male Oceania competitive powerlifters (9 lightweight, 30 middleweight, and 15 heavyweight) were recruited from one international and two national powerlifting competitions held in New Zealand. Powerlifters were assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. The powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and had large girths and bony breadths, both in absolute units and when expressed as Z(p)-scores compared through the Phantom (Ross & Wilson, 1974). These anthropometric characteristics were more pronounced in heavyweights, who were significantly heavier, had greater muscle and fat mass, were more endo-mesomorphic, and had larger girths and bony breadths than the lighter lifters. Although middleweight and heavyweight lifters typically had longer segment lengths than the lightweights, all three groups had similar Zp-scores for the segment lengths, indicating similar segment length proportions. While population comparisons would be required to identify any connection between specific anthropometric dimensions that confer a competitive advantage to the expression of maximal strength, anthropometric profiling may prove useful for talent identification and for the assessment of training progression in powerlifting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seki, Kazuhiko; Bagchi, Kaushik; Bagchi, Biman
2016-05-01
Diffusion in one dimensional rugged energy landscape (REL) is predicted to be pathologically different (from any higher dimension) with a much larger chance of encountering broken ergodicity [D. L. Stein and C. M. Newman, AIP Conf. Proc. 1479, 620 (2012)]. However, no quantitative study of this difference has been reported, despite the prevalence of multidimensional physical models in the literature (like a high dimensional funnel guiding protein folding/unfolding). Paradoxically, some theoretical studies of these phenomena still employ a one dimensional diffusion description for analytical tractability. We explore the dimensionality dependent diffusion on REL by carrying out an effective medium approximation based analytical calculations and compare them with the available computer simulation results. We find that at an intermediate level of ruggedness (assumed to have a Gaussian distribution), where diffusion is well-defined, the value of the effective diffusion coefficient depends on dimensionality and changes (increases) by several factors (˜5-10) in going from 1d to 2d. In contrast, the changes in subsequent transitions (like 2d to 3d and 3d to 4d and so on) are far more modest, of the order of 10-20% only. When ruggedness is given by random traps with an exponential distribution of barrier heights, the mean square displacement (MSD) is sub-diffusive (a well-known result), but the growth of MSD is described by different exponents in one and higher dimensions. The reason for such strong ruggedness induced retardation in the case of one dimensional REL is discussed. We also discuss the special limiting case of infinite dimension (d = ∞) where the effective medium approximation becomes exact and where theoretical results become simple. We discuss, for the first time, the role of spatial correlation in the landscape on diffusion of a random walker.
Seki, Kazuhiko; Bagchi, Kaushik; Bagchi, Biman
2016-05-21
Diffusion in one dimensional rugged energy landscape (REL) is predicted to be pathologically different (from any higher dimension) with a much larger chance of encountering broken ergodicity [D. L. Stein and C. M. Newman, AIP Conf. Proc. 1479, 620 (2012)]. However, no quantitative study of this difference has been reported, despite the prevalence of multidimensional physical models in the literature (like a high dimensional funnel guiding protein folding/unfolding). Paradoxically, some theoretical studies of these phenomena still employ a one dimensional diffusion description for analytical tractability. We explore the dimensionality dependent diffusion on REL by carrying out an effective medium approximation based analytical calculations and compare them with the available computer simulation results. We find that at an intermediate level of ruggedness (assumed to have a Gaussian distribution), where diffusion is well-defined, the value of the effective diffusion coefficient depends on dimensionality and changes (increases) by several factors (∼5-10) in going from 1d to 2d. In contrast, the changes in subsequent transitions (like 2d to 3d and 3d to 4d and so on) are far more modest, of the order of 10-20% only. When ruggedness is given by random traps with an exponential distribution of barrier heights, the mean square displacement (MSD) is sub-diffusive (a well-known result), but the growth of MSD is described by different exponents in one and higher dimensions. The reason for such strong ruggedness induced retardation in the case of one dimensional REL is discussed. We also discuss the special limiting case of infinite dimension (d = ∞) where the effective medium approximation becomes exact and where theoretical results become simple. We discuss, for the first time, the role of spatial correlation in the landscape on diffusion of a random walker.
Anomalous dimensions determine the power counting: Wilsonian RG analysis of nuclear EFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harada, Koji; Kubo, Hirofumi
2006-12-01
The Legendre flow equation, a version of exact Wilsonian renormalization group (WRG) equation, is employed to consider the power counting issues in nuclear effective field theory. A WRG approach is an ideal framework because it is nonperturbative and does not require any prescribed power counting rule. The power counting is determined systematically from the scaling dimensions of the operators at the nontrivial fixed point. The phase structure is emphasized and the inverse of the scattering length, which is identified as a relevant coupling, is shown to play a role of the order parameter. The relations to the work done by Birse, McGovern, and Richardson and to the Kaplan-Savage-Wise scheme are explained.
Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.; Carrete, Jesús; Mingo, Natalio; Reinecke, T. L.
2015-03-01
The lattice thermal conductivities (κ) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure P using a first-principles approach. Compounds with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in κ with P , consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios that create significant frequency gaps between acoustic and optic phonons (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing κ with increasing P , a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of κ. This anomalous P dependence of κ arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with small mass ratios. This work demonstrates the power of first-principles methods for thermal properties and advances a broad paradigm for understanding thermal transport in nonmetals.
Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds
Lindsay, Lucas R; Broido, David A.; Carrete, Jesus; ...
2015-03-27
The lattice thermal conductivities (k) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure P using a first-principles approach. Compound materials with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in k with P, consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing with increasing P, a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of k. This anomalous P dependence of k arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with smallmore » mass ratios. We find this work demonstrates the power of first principles methods for thermal properties and advances the understanding of thermal transport in non-metals.« less
Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds
Lindsay, Lucas R; Broido, David A.; Carrete, Jesus; Mingo, Natalio; Reinecke, Tom L.
2015-03-27
The lattice thermal conductivities (k) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure P using a first-principles approach. Compound materials with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in k with P, consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing with increasing P, a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of k. This anomalous P dependence of k arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with small mass ratios. We find this work demonstrates the power of first principles methods for thermal properties and advances the understanding of thermal transport in non-metals.
The influence of body mass on foot dimensions during pregnancy.
Chiou, Wen-Ko; Chiu, Hsin-Tzu; Chao, An-Shine; Wang, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Yi-Lang
2015-01-01
In this study, a time-series approach was used to measure women's feet to accurately analyze changes in foot size and body mass during pregnancy. One-hundred women who were pregnant for the first time were asked to respond to questions on subjective complaints of foot discomfort listed in a questionnaire. Among these 100 women, a sample of 30 was obtained and used to measure the women's feet from the twentieth week of the gestation period until labor. The data (from 5 of the 30 women) were used to establish a prediction model for the influence of body mass on changes in foot size during pregnancy. The results indicate that the women subjectively complained that their shoes were too tight, resulting in foot discomfort. From the twentieth to the thirty-eighth week of pregnancy, the average increase in foot length, width, and back foot surface was 0.86 cm (3.6%), 0.25 cm (2.6%), and 18.36 cm(2) (11.9%), respectively. The height of the arch decreased by an average of 0.52 cm (-24.2%). Body mass accounted for more than 90% of the variation (R(2)) in foot dimensions during pregnancy and, thus indicated satisfactory predictive ability. The prediction model developed in this study can serve as a reference for clinical applications and shoe design to prevent women from experiencing extreme discomfort in their feet during pregnancy.
Constraining the Location and Dimensions of Mass Anomalies on Mercury from Mariner 10 Doppler Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, J. D.; Palguta, J.; Schubert, G.
2011-12-01
Analysis of radio Doppler data generated by the Deep Space Network with Mariner 10 during its first and third encounters with Mercury yielded a quadrupole gravitational field with J2 equal to 6.0 ± 2.0 and C22 equal to 1.0 ± 0.5 in units of 10-5 (Anderson et al., Icarus 71, 337, 1987) . However, this underlying global field leaves systematic Doppler residuals for the third encounter (Esposito et al., COSPAR: Space Res. 17, 639, 1978), residuals that are most likely caused by a large gravity anomaly in the region of closest approach to Mercury at latitude 67.96° and east longitude 53.09°. We report here a detailed characterization of the likely sources producing the putative gravity anomaly. The recovered Doppler residuals and ground track from Esposito et al. (1978) are fit by a model that includes the spacecraft's six trajectory initial conditions along with Mercury's mass GM = 22,032.09 ± 0.91 km3 s-2 (Anderson et al., 1987) and the two quadrupole coefficients. After convergence to the best-fit trajectory, any remaining residuals represent an unmodeled signal that is assumed to arise from anomalous mass concentrations on Mercury plus noise. In order to reduce the noise evident in the Doppler residuals, we smooth them with a variable-width Gaussian filter (Palguta et al., Icarus 180, 428, 2006). The filter width in the time domain increases with the spacecraft altitude, reducing the noise before and after closest approach. Accelerations along the line of sight (LOS) are calculated by sampling the differentiated Doppler smoothing curve at a 10-second time interval, the sample interval for the Doppler frequency data. Multiple spherical-cap disk models are then used to fit the LOS acceleration data. The spherical-cap disk models not only provide the locations and magnitudes of anomalous mass concentrations on Mercury, but also their vertical and horizontal dimensions. We find that a minimum of four mass anomalies on or near Mercury's surface is required to
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gopalswamy, Nat; Akiyama, Sachiko; Yashiro, Seiji; Xie, Hong; Makela, Pertti; Michalek, Grzegorz
2014-01-01
The familiar correlation between the speed and angular width of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is also found in solar cycle 24, but the regression line has a larger slope: for a given CME speed, cycle 24 CMEs are significantly wider than those in cycle 23. The slope change indicates a significant change in the physical state of the heliosphere, due to the weak solar activity. The total pressure in the heliosphere (magnetic + plasma) is reduced by approximately 40%, which leads to the anomalous expansion of CMEs explaining the increased slope. The excess CME expansion contributes to the diminished effectiveness of CMEs in producing magnetic storms during cycle 24, both because the magnetic content of the CMEs is diluted and also because of the weaker ambient fields. The reduced magnetic field in the heliosphere may contribute to the lack of solar energetic particles accelerated to very high energies during this cycle.
The origin of compact galaxies with anomalously high black hole masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barber, Christopher; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom
2016-07-01
Observations of local galaxies harbouring supermassive black holes (BH) of anomalously high mass, MBH, relative to their stellar mass, M*, appear to be at odds with simple models of the co-evolution between galaxies and their central BHs. We study the origin of such outliers in a Λ cold dark matter context using the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. We find 15 `MBH(M*)-outlier' galaxies, defined as having MBH more than 1.5 dex above the median MBH(M*) relation in the simulation, MBH, med(M*). All MBH(M*)-outliers are satellite galaxies, typically with M* ˜ 1010 M⊙ and MBH ˜ 108 M⊙. They have all become outliers due to a combination of tidal stripping of their outer stellar component acting over several Gyr and early formation times leading to rapid BH growth at high redshift, with the former mechanism being most important for 67 per cent of these outliers. The same mechanisms also cause the MBH(M*)-outlier satellites to be amongst the most compact galaxies in the simulation, making them ideal candidates for ultracompact dwarf galaxy progenitors. The 10 most extreme central galaxies found at z = 0 (with log10(MBH/MBH, med(M*)) ∈ [1.2, 1.5]) grow rapidly in MBH to lie well above the present-day MBH - M* relation at early times (z ≳ 2), and either continue to evolve parallel to the z = 0 relation or remain unchanged until the present day, making them `relics' of the high-redshift universe. This high-z formation mechanism may help to explain the origin of observed MBH(M*)-outliers with extended dark matter haloes and undisturbed morphologies.
Hambye, Thomas; Kannike, Kristjan; Raidal, Martti; Ma, Ernest
2007-05-01
The evidence for dark matter signals a new class of particles at the TeV scale, which may manifest themselves indirectly through loop effects. In a simple model we show that these loop effects may be responsible for the enhanced muon anomalous magnetic moment, for the neutrino mass, as well as for leptogenesis in a novel way. This scenario can be verified at LHC and/or ILC experiments.
Exploring dynamical gluon mass generation in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornwall, John M.
2016-01-01
We reexamine the d =3 dynamical gluon mass problem in pure-glue non-Abelian S U (N ) gauge theories, paying particular attention to the observed (in Landau gauge) violation of positivity for the spectral function of the gluon propagator. This is expressed as a large bulge in the propagator at small momentum, due to the d =3 avatar of asymptotic freedom. Mass is defined through m-2=Δ (p =0 ) , where Δ (p ) is the scalar function for the gluon propagator in some chosen gauge; it is not a pole mass and is generally gauge dependent, except in the gauge-invariant pinch technique (PT). We truncate the PT equations with a recently proposed method called the vertex paradigm that automatically satisfies the QED-like Ward identity relating the three-gluon PT vertex function with the PT propagator. The mass is determined by a homogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation involving this vertex and propagator. This gap equation also encapsulates the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the massless scalar excitations, essentially Nambu-Goldstone fields, that necessarily accompany gauge-invariant gluon mass. The problem is to find a good approximate value for m and at the same time explain the bulge, which by itself leads, in the gap equation for the gluon mass, to excessively large values for the mass. Our point is not to give a high-accuracy determination of m but to clarify the way in which the propagator bulge and a fairly accurate estimate of m can coexist, and we use various approximations that illustrate the underlying mechanisms. The most critical point is to satisfy the Ward identity. In the PT we estimate a gauge-invariant dynamical gluon mass of m ≈N g2/(2.48 π ) . We translate these results to the Landau gauge using a background-quantum identity involving a dynamical quantity κ such that m =κ mL , where mL-2≡ΔL(p =0 ) . Given our estimates for m , κ , the relation is fortuitously well satisfied for S U (2 ) lattice data.
Molecular secondary ion mass spectrometry: New dimensions in chemical characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colton, Richard J.; Campana, Joseph E.; Kidwell, David A.; Ross, Mark M.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.
1985-04-01
Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has become a diverse tool for the study of many substances other than metals and semiconductors. This paper discusses the emission of polyatomic and molecular ions from surfaces that contain various inorganic and organic compounds including polymers and biomolecules. The mass and abundance distribution of cluster ions emitted from various solids — Van der Waals, metallic, ionic and covalent — are compared. Trends in the emission patterns are discussed in terms of a recombination or direct emission mechanism. The emission of molecular ions is also discussed with respect to the method of ionization and the various sample preparation and matrix-assisted procedures used. The matrices include various solid-state and liquid matrices such as ammonium chloride, charcoal, glycerol and gallium. Various chemical derivatization procedures have been developed to enhance the sensitivity of molecular SIMS and to detect selectively components in mixtures. The procedures are demonstrated for the low-level detection of airborne contaminants from paints, for the analysis of drugs in biological fluids, and for the sequencing of biomolecules such as peptides and sugars. The emission of characteristic fragment ions from the surfaces of polymers is also described for thick, insulating films.
Belief Structure and Foreign Policy: Comparing Dimensions of Elite and Mass Opinion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oldendick, Robert, And Others
1981-01-01
This study compares the dimensions of elite (political leaders) and mass (general public) opinions towards foreign policy. A factor analysis revealed the elite's five major concerns (internationalism, international organization, Americanism, defense spending, and interventionism) and an overall preference for structured approaches. The masses also…
Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.
2016-01-01
Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.
A study of correlation of hand and foot dimensions for personal identification in mass disasters.
Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal; Sharma, Abhilasha; Menezes, Ritesh G
2010-06-15
The identification of isolated extremities is an issue of great significance in the investigation of the identity of victims of mass disasters and fatal assaults. In forensic investigations, the dimensions of the hand and foot have been used for determination of sex, age and stature of an individual. However, the data on correlation within and between hand and foot dimensions are very limited. The present research aims at analysing the anthropometrical relationships within and between hand and foot dimensions. The study was conducted on 240 Rajputs (120 males and 120 females) from North India. The results showed a significant correlation between and within the dimensions of hands and feet. Multiplication factors, linear and multiple regression models are derived to reconstruct the hand and foot even when a single dimension is available from the extremities. Besides medico-legal implications, the study may have significance in plastic and reconstructive surgery.
MASS2, Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions, User Guide and Reference
Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2007-07-01
The Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions (MASS2) is a two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamics and transport model. The model simulates time varying distributions of depth-averaged velocities, water surface elevations, and water quality constituents. This manual documents the use of MASS2. It is the second of two reports on MASS2. The first report documents the theory and numerical methods used in MASS2, and is often referred to herein as the Theory Manual. MASS2 is applicable to a wide variety of environmental analyses of rivers and estuaries where vertical variations in the water column are negligible or unimportant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inclan, Rosa Maria
2016-04-01
Knowledge on three dimensional soil pore architecture is important to improve our understanding of the factors that control a number of critical soil processes as it controls biological, chemical and physical processes at various scales. Computed Tomography (CT) images provide increasingly reliable information about the geometry of pores and solids in soils at very small scale with the benefit that is a non-invasive technique. Fractal formalism has revealed as a useful tool in these cases where highly complex and heterogeneous meda are studied. One of these quantifications is mass dimension (Dm) and spectral dimension (d) applied to describe the water and gas diffusion coefficients in soils (Tarquis et al., 2012). In this work, intact soil samples were collected from the first three horizons of La Herreria soil. This station is located in the lowland mountain area of Sierra de Guadarrama (Santolaria et al., 2015) and it represents a highly degraded type of site as a result of the livestock keeping. The 3D images, of 45.1 micro-m resolution (256x256x256 voxels), were obtained and then binarized following the singularity-CA method (Martín-Sotoca et al. 2016). Based on these images Dm and d were estimated. The results showed an statistical difference in porosity, Dm and d for each horizon. This fact has a direct implication in diffusion parameters for a pore network modeling based on both fractal dimensions. These soil parameters will constitute a basis for site characterization for further studies regarding soil degradation; determining the interaction between soil, plant and atmosphere with respect to human induced activities as well as the basis for several nitrogen and carbon cycles modeling. References Martin Sotoca; J.J. Ana M. Tarquis, Antonio Saa Requejo, and Juan B. Grau (2016). Pore detection in Computed Tomography (CT) soil 3D images using singularity map analysis. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 18, EGU2016-829. Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo and the Gu
Mass extinction in a dynamical system of evolution with variable dimension.
Tokita, K; Yasutomi, A
1999-07-01
Introducing the effect of extinction into the so-called replicator equations in mathematical biology, we construct a general model where the diversity of species, i.e., the dimension of the equation, is a time-dependent variable. The system shows very different behavior from the original replicator equation, and leads to mass extinction when the system initially has high diversity. The present theory can serve as a mathematical foundation for the paleontologic theory for mass extinction. This extinction dynamics is a prototype of dynamical systems where the variable dimension is inevitable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, Walter R.; Cummings, Alan C.; Cummings, Jay R.; Garrard, Thomas L.; Kecman, Branislav; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Selesnick, Richard S.; Stone, Edward C.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.
1993-01-01
The Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST) on SAMPEX is designed to provide high resolution measurements of the isotopic composition of energetic nuclei from He to Ni (Z = 2 to 28) over the energy range from about 10 to several hundred MeV/nuc. During large solar flares MAST will measure the isotopic abundances of solar energetic particles to determine directly the composition of the solar corona, while during solar quiet times MAST will study the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic rays. In addition, MAST will measure the isotopic composition of both interplanetary and trapped fluxes of anomalous cosmic rays, believed to be a sample of the nearby interstellar medium.
Progress toward a search for anomalous spin-mass couplings with a dual-isotope rubidium magnetometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valdez, Julian; Lacey, Ian; Peregrinaramirez, Rodrigo; Delcheva, Delyana; Jacome, L. R.; Kimball, Derek
2010-10-01
A coupling between spin and mass can arise from new spin-0 or spin-1 force-mediating particles or in non-standard gravity with scalar or vector components in addition to the usual tensor interaction. We report on progress toward a search for anomalous couplings between the mass of the earth and Rb spins. In the experiment, a natural isotopic mixture of Rb atoms is contained in an antirelaxation-coated cell. The atomic spins are polarized via laser optical pumping and spin precession is measured in both isotopes using optical rotation. The experiment is particularly sensitive to spin-mass interactions of the proton. We discuss the sensitivity of our experimental scheme and strategies for control of several important systematic effects such as differential light shifts, collisional frequency shifts, and frequency shifts due to the rotation of the earth.
A physical meaning of mixed gluon-ghost condensate of mass dimension two
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2003-10-01
We demonstrate that a clear physical content and relevance can be attributed to the on-shell BRST-invariant mixed gluon-ghost condensate of mass dimension two which was recently proposed by the author. We argue that a gauge invariant observable is associated with the mixed condensate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kubitschek, Daniel G.; Born, George H.
2000-01-01
Shortly after launch of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) spacecraft (s/c), the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) Team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Center for Space Research at the University of Texas, discovered residual along-track accelerations, which were unexpected. Here, we describe the analysis of radiation pressure forces acting on the T/P s/c for the purpose of understanding and providing an explanation for the anomalous accelerations. The radiation forces acting on the T/P solar army, which experiences warping due to temperature gradients between the front and back surfaces, are analyzed and the resulting along-track accelerations are determined. Characteristics similar to those of the anomalous acceleration are seen. This analysis led to the development of a new radiation form model, which includes solar array warping and a solar array deployment deflection of as large as 2 deg. As a result of this new model estimates of the empirical along-track acceleration are reduced in magnitude when compared to the GSFC tuned macromodel and are less dependent upon beta(prime), the location of the Sun relative to the orbit plane. If these results we believed to reflect the actual orientation of the T/P solar array then motion of the solar array must influence the location of the s/c center of mass. Preliminary estimates indicate that the center of mass can vary by as much as 3 cm in the radial component of the s/c's position due to rotation of the deflected, warped solar array panel .The altimeter measurements rely upon accurate knowledge of the center of mass location relative to the s/c frame of reference. Any radial motion of the center of mass directly affects the altimeter measurements.
Lévy dusts, Mittag-Leffler statistics, mass fractal lacunarity, and perceived dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blumenfeld, Raphael; Mandelbrot, Benoit B.
1997-07-01
We study the Lévy dusts on the line on two accounts: the fluctuations around the average power law that characterizes the mass-radius relation for self-similar fractals, and the statistics of the intervals between strides along the logarithmic axis (their tail distribution is related to the dust's fractal dimension). The Lévy dusts are suggested as a yardstick of neutral lacunarity, against which non-neutral lacunarity can be measured objectively. A notion of perceived dimension is introduced. We conclude with an application of the Mittag-Leffler statistics to a nonlinear electrical network.
The area-to-mass ratio and fractal dimension of marine flocs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowers, D. G.; McKee, D.; Jago, C. F.; Nimmo-Smith, W. A. M.
2017-04-01
Optical instruments have proved invaluable in the study of suspended matter in the sea but the measurements they provide are more closely related to the cross-sectional area of the particles in suspension than the mass measured by filtration or predicted by theory. In this paper, we examine the factors controlling the relationship between particle area and mass, using the fractal model of particle structure as a theoretical framework. Both theory and observation agree that the area-to-mass ratio of particles (symbol A*) decreases with increasing fractal dimension (symbol Nf) as particles hide behind each other in compact flocs. The equation A* = 0.253-0.081Nf, in which A* is in m2 g-1 explains 81% of the variance in the area:mass ratio at 151 stations in coastal waters. In contrast, the effect of floc size on A* is small. Three optical parameters - beam attenuation, diffuse attenuation and remote sensing reflectance, expressed per unit mass of suspended material, all decrease with increasing Nf. As our understanding of the flocculation process grows and it becomes possible to predict the fractal dimension of particles as a function of the environmental conditions in which the flocs form, these results will lead to improved calibration of optical instruments in terms of the mass concentration of suspended materials and to better models of sediment suspension and transport.
Fermionic Fields with Mass Dimension One as Supersymmetric Extension of the O'Raifeartaigh Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wunderle, Kai E.
The objective of this thesis is to derive a supersymmetric Lagrangian for fermionic fields with mass dimension one and to discuss their coupling to the O'Raifeartaigh model which is the simplest model permitting supersymmetry breaking. In addition it will be shown that eigenspinors of the charge conjugation operator (ELKO) exhibit a different transformation behaviour under discrete symmetries than previously assumed. The calculations confirm that ELKO spinors are not eigenspinors of the parity operator and satisfy (CPT)2 = -- I which identifies them as representation of a nonstandard Wigner class. However, it is found that ELKO spinors transform symmetrically under parity instead of the previously assumed asymmetry. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that ELKO spinors transform asymmetrically under time reversal which is opposite to the previously reported symmetric behaviour. These changes affect the (anti)commutation relations that are satisfied by the operators acting on ELKO spinors. Therefore, ELKO spinors satisfy the same (anti)commutation relations as Dirac spinors, even though they belong to two different representations of the Lorentz group. Afterwards, a supersymmetric model for fermionic fields with mass dimension one based on a general superfield with one spinor index is formulated. It includes the systematic derivation of all associated chiral and anti-chiral superfields up to third order in covariant derivatives. Starting from these fundamental superfields a supersymmetric on-shell Lagrangian that contains a kinetic term for the fermionic fields with mass dimension one is constructed. This on-shell Lagrangian is subsequently used to derive the on-shell super-current and to successfully formulate a consistent second quantisation for the component fields. In addition, the Hamiltonian in position space that corresponds to the supersymmetric Lagrangian is calculated. As the Lagrangian is by construction supersymmetric and the second quantisation of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubinin, M. N.; Petrova, E. Yu.
2017-03-01
In the framework of the effective field theory approach to heavy supersymmetry radiative corrections in the Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) for the effective potential decomposition up to the dimension-six operators are calculated. Symbolic expressions for the threshold corrections induced by F - and D -soft supersymmetry breaking terms are derived, and the Higgs boson mass spectrum respecting the condition mh=125 GeV for the lightest C P -even scalar is evaluated.
Critical mass renormalization in renormalized ϕ4 theories in two and three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore
2015-12-01
We consider the O (N)-symmetric ϕ4 theory in two and three dimensions and determine the nonperturbative mass renormalization needed to obtain the ϕ4 continuum theory. The required nonperturbative information is obtained by resumming high-order perturbative series in the massive renormalization scheme, taking into account their Borel summability and the known large-order behavior of the coefficients. The results are in good agreement with those obtained in lattice calculations.
Gluon-ghost condensate of mass dimension 2 in the Curci-Ferrari gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dudal, D.; Verschelde, H.; Lemes, V. E. R.; Sarandy, M. S.; Sorella, S. P.; Picariello, M.
2003-11-01
The effective potential for an on-shell BRST invariant gluon-ghost condensate of mass dimension 2 in the Curci-Ferrari gauge in SU( N) Yang-Mills is analysed by combining the local composite operator technique with the algebraic renormalization. We pay attention to the gauge parameter independence of the vacuum energy obtained in the considered framework and discuss the Landau gauge as an interesting special case.
Radiatively induced Lorentz-violating operator of mass dimension five in QED
Mariz, T.
2011-02-15
The first higher derivative term of the photon sector of Lorentz-violating QED, with an operator of mass dimension d=5, is radiatively induced from the fermion sector, which contains a derivative term with the dimensionless coefficient g{sup {lambda}{mu}{nu}}. The calculation is performed perturbatively in the coefficient for Lorentz violation, and, due to the fact that the contributions are quadratically divergent, we adopt dimensional regularization.
MASS2, Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions, Theory and Numerical Methods
Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2007-07-01
The Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions (MASS2) is a two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamics and transport model. The model simulates time varying distributions of depth-averaged velocities, water surface elevations, and water quality constituents. MASS2 uses a structured, multi-block, boundary-fitted, curvilinear computational mesh, which allows the simulation of very complex riverine or estuarine networks. The blocks may be of varying resolution, which allows high resolution to be used only where needed. MASS2 can simulate a wide variety of hydrodynamic conditions, including supercritical flow and hydraulic jumps. It can also simulate a wide variety of water quality conditions, including sediment, conservative or decaying contaminants, sediment-sorbed contaminants, water temperature, and total dissolved gas. Any number of these constituents may be simulated simultaneously. In addition, transport simulations may be performed using pre-calculated hydrodynamic conditions, allowing long-term transport simulations unencumbered by the more intensive hydrodynamic calculations, or repeated transport simulations without re-simulating hydrodynamics. This report documents the theory and numerical methods used in MASS2. In addition, the results are presented from several of hydrodynamic and transport validation tests to which MASS2 was subjected. The companion user manual documents the application of MASS2.
Elko and mass dimension one field of spin one-half: Causality and Fermi statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahluwalia, Dharam Vir; Nayak, Alekha Chandra
2014-03-01
We review how Elko arise as an extension of complex-valued four-component Majorana spinors. This is followed by a discussion that constrains certain elements of phase freedom. A proof is reviewed that unambiguously establishes that Elko, and for that matter the indicated Majorana spinors, cannot satisfy Dirac equation. They, however do, as they must, satisfy spinorial Klein-Gordon equation. We then introduce a quantum field with Elko as its expansion coefficients and show that it is causal, satisfies Fermi statistics, and then refer to the existing literature to remind that its mass dimension is one. We conclude by providing an up-to-date bibliography on the subject.
Burger, Florian; Feng, Xu; Hotzel, Grit; Jansen, Karl; Petschlies, Marcus; Renner, Dru B.
2013-11-01
We present results for the leading order QCD correction to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon including the first two generations of quarks as dynamical degrees of freedom. Several light quark masses are examined in order to yield a controlled extrapolation to the physical pion mass. We analyse ensembles for three different lattice spacings and several volumes in order to investigate lattice artefacts and finite-size effects, respectively. We also provide preliminary results for this quantity for two flavours of mass-degenerate quarks at the physical value of the pion mass.
Glacier mass balance in high-arctic areas with anomalous gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharov, A.; Rieser, D.; Nikolskiy, D.
2012-04-01
All known glaciological models describing the evolution of Arctic land- and sea-ice masses in changing climate treat the Earth's gravity as horizontally constant, but it isn't. In the High Arctic, the strength of the gravitational field varies considerably across even short distances under the influence of a density gradient, and the magnitude of free air gravity anomalies attains 100 mGal and more. On long-term base, instantaneous deviations of gravity can have a noticeable effect on the regime and mass budget of glaciological objects. At best, the gravity-induced component of ice mass variations can be determined on topographically smooth, open and steady surfaces, like those of arctic planes, regular ice caps and landfast sea ice. The present research is devoted to studying gravity-driven impacts on glacier mass balance in the outer periphery of four Eurasian shelf seas with a very cold, dry climate and rather episodic character of winter precipitation. As main study objects we had chosen a dozen Russia's northernmost insular ice caps, tens to hundreds of square kilometres in extent, situated in a close vicinity of strong gravity anomalies and surrounded with extensive fields of fast and/or drift ice for most of the year. The supposition about gravitational forcing on glacioclimatic settings in the study region is based on the results of quantitative comparison and joint interpretation of existing glacier change maps and available data on the Arctic gravity field and solid precipitation. The overall mapping of medium-term (from decadal to half-centennial) changes in glacier volumes and quantification of mass balance characteristics in the study region was performed by comparing reference elevation models of study glaciers derived from Russian topographic maps 1:200,000 (CI = 20 or 40 m) representing the glacier state as in the 1950s-1980s with modern elevation data obtained from satellite radar interferometry and lidar altimetry. Free-air gravity anomalies were
Penrose inequalities and a positive mass theorem for charged black holes in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes de Lima, Levi; Girão, Frederico; Lozório, Weslley; Silva, Juscelino
2016-02-01
We use the inverse mean curvature flow to establish Penrose-type inequalities for time-symmetric Einstein-Maxwell initial data sets which can be suitably embedded as a hypersurface in Euclidean space {{{R}}}n+1, n≥slant 3. In particular, we prove a positive mass theorem for this class of charged black holes. As an application, we show that the conjectured upper bound for the area in terms of the mass and the charge, which in dimension n = 3 is relevant in connection with the cosmic censorship conjecture, always holds under the natural assumption that the horizon is stable as a minimal hypersurface. The first and second authors were partially supported by CNPq/Brazil grants. The first and last authors were partially supported by a CAPES/Brazil grant.
Symmetries and unitary interactions of mass dimension one fermionic dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Cheng-Yang
2016-12-01
The fermionic fields constructed from Elko have several unexpected properties. They satisfy the Klein-Gordon but not the Dirac equation and are of mass dimension one instead of three-half. Starting with the Klein-Gordon Lagrangian, we initiate a careful study of the symmetries and interactions of these fermions and their higher-spin generalizations. We find, although the fermions are of mass dimension one, the four-point fermionic self-interaction violates unitarity at high-energy so it cannot be a fundamental interaction of the theory. Using the optical theorem, we derive an explicit bound on energy for the fermion-scalar interaction. It follows that for the spin-half fermions, the demand of renormalizability and unitarity forbids four-point interactions and only allows for the Yukawa interaction. For fermions with spin j > 1 2, they have no renormalizable or unitary interactions. Since the theory is described by a Klein-Gordon Lagrangian, the interaction generated by the local U(1) gauge symmetry which contains a four-point interaction, is excluded by the demand of renormalizability. In the context of the Standard Model, these properties make the spin-half fermions natural dark matter candidates. Finally, we discuss the recent developments on the introduction of new adjoint and spinor duals which may allow us to circumvent the unitarity constraints on the interactions.
Automated detection of coronal mass ejections in three-dimensions using multi-viewpoint observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutton, J.; Morgan, H.
2017-03-01
A new, automated method of detecting coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in three dimensions for the LASCO C2 and STEREO COR2 coronagraphs is presented. By triangulating isolated CME signal from the three coronagraphs over a sliding window of five hours, the most likely region through which CMEs pass at 5 R⊙ is identified. The centre and size of the region gives the most likely direction of propagation and approximate angular extent. The Automated CME Triangulation (ACT) method is tested extensively using a series of synthetic CME images created using a wireframe flux rope density model, and on a sample of real coronagraph data; including halo CMEs. The accuracy of the angular difference (σ) between the detection and true input of the synthetic CMEs is σ = 7.14°, and remains acceptable for a broad range of CME positions relative to the observer, the relative separation of the three observers and even through the loss of one coronagraph. For real data, the method gives results that compare well with the distribution of low coronal sources and results from another instrument and technique made further from the Sun. The true three dimension (3D)-corrected kinematics and mass/density are discussed. The results of the new method will be incorporated into the CORIMP database in the near future, enabling improved space weather diagnostics and forecasting.
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2012-03-16
A search for signatures of extra spatial dimensions in the diphoton invariant-mass spectrum has been performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectation is observed using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at √s=7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb(-1). In the context of the large-extra-dimensions model, lower limits are set on the effective Planck scale in the range of 2.3-3.8 TeV at the 95% confidence level. These limits are the most restrictive bounds on virtual-graviton exchange to date. The most restrictive lower limits to date are also set on the mass of the first graviton excitation in the Randall-Sundrum model in the range of 0.86-1.84 TeV, for values of the associated coupling parameter between 0.01 and 0.10.
Search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton mass spectrum at the Large Hadron Collider
Chatrchyan, Serguei; Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; ErÃ¶, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; /Yerevan Phys. Inst. /Vienna, OAW /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /Antwerp U., WISINF /Vrije U., Brussels /Brussels U. /Gent U. /Louvain U. /UMH, Mons /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U.
2011-12-01
A search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton invariant-mass spectrum has been performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectation is observed using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1}. In the context of the large-extra-dimensions model, lower limits are set on the effective Planck scale in the range of 2.3-3.8 TeV at the 95% confidence level. These limits are the most restrictive bounds on virtual-graviton exchange to date. The most restrictive lower limits to date are also set on the mass of the first graviton excitation in the Randall-Sundrum model in the range of 0.86-1.84 TeV, for values of the associated coupling parameter between 0.01 and 0.10.
Pons, A J; Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi
2010-09-01
The structural changes that arise as the brain ages influence its functionality. In many cases, the anatomical degradation simply leads to normal aging. In others, the neurodegeneration is large enough to cause neurological disorders (e.g. Alzheimer's disease). Structure and function can be both currently measured using noninvasive techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) respectively. However, a full theoretical scheme linking structural and functional degradation is still lacking. Here we present a neural mass model that aims to bridge both levels of description and that reproduces experimentally observed multichannel EEG recordings of alpha rhythm in young subjects, healthy elderly subjects, and patients with mild cognitive impairment. We focus our attention in the dominant frequency of the signals at different electrodes and in the correlation between specific electrode pairs, measured via the phase-lag index. Our model allows us to study the influence of different structural connectivity pathways, independently of each other, on the normal and aberrantly aging brain. In particular, we study in detail the effect of the thalamic input on specific cortical regions, the long-range connectivity between cortical regions, and the short-range coupling within the same cortical area. Once the influence of each type of connectivity is determined, we characterize the regions of parameter space compatible with the EEG recordings of the populations under study. Our results show that the different types of connectivity must be fine-tuned to maintain the brain in a healthy functioning state independently of its age and brain condition.
Effect of gender, facial dimensions, body mass index and type of functional occlusion on bite force
KOÇ, Duygu; DOĞAN, Arife; BEK, Bülent
2011-01-01
Objective Some factors such as gender, age, craniofacial morphology, body structure, occlusal contact patterns may affect the maximum bite force. Thus, the purposes of this study were to determine the mean maximum bite force in individuals with normal occlusion, and to examine the effect of gender, facial dimensions, body mass index (BMI), type of functional occlusion (canine guidance and group function occlusion) and balancing side interferences on it. Material and Methods Thirty-four individuals aged 19-20 years-old were selected for this study. Maximum bite force was measured with strain-gauge transducers at first molar region. Facial dimensions were defined by standardized frontal photographs as follows: anterior total facial height (ATFH), bizygomathic facial width (BFW) and intergonial width (IGW). BMI was calculated using the equation weight/height2. The type of functional occlusion and the balancing side interferences of the subjects were identified by clinical examination. Results Bite force was found to be significantly higher in men than women (p<0.05). While there was a negative correlation between the bite force and ATFH/BFW, ATFH/IGW ratios in men (p<0.05), women did not show any statistically significant correlation (p>0.05). BMI and bite force correlation was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The average bite force did not differ in subjects with canine guidance or group function occlusion and in the presence of balancing side interferences (p>0.05). Conclusions Data suggest that bite force is affected by gender. However, BMI, type of functional occlusion and the presence of balancing side interferences did not exert a meaningful influence on bite force. In addition, transverse facial dimensions showed correlation with bite force in only men. PMID:21625746
Automated Detection of coronal mass ejections in three-dimensions using multi-viewpoint observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutton, Joseph; Morgan, Huw
2016-10-01
A new, automated method of detecting Solar Wind transients such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) in three dimensions for the LASCO C2 and STEREO COR2 coronagraphs is presented. By triangulating isolated CME signal from the three coronagraphs over a sliding window of five hours, the most likely region through which CMEs pass at 5 solar radii is identified. The centre and size of the region gives the most likely direction of propagation and angular extent. The Automated CME Triangulation (ACT) method is tested extensively using a series of synthetic CME images created using a flux rope density model, and on a sample of real coronagraph data; including Halo CMEs. The accuracy of the detection remains acceptable regardless of CME position relative to the observer, the relative separation of the three observers, and even through the loss of one coronagraph. By comparing the detection results with the input parameters of the synthetic CMEs, and the low coronal sources of the real CMEs, it is found that the detection is on average accurate to within 7.14 degrees. All current CME catalogues (CDAW, CACTus, SEEDS, ARTEMIS and CORIMP) rely on plane-of-sky measurements for key parameters such as height and velocity. Estimating the true geometry using the new method gains considerable accuracy for kinematics and mass/density. The results of the new method will be incorporated into the CORIMP database in the near future, enabling improved space weather diagnostics and forecasting.
Pikin, S. A.
2013-03-15
The model of the pressure-induced first-order phase transition of a metal melt to the metallicglass state considers a thermodynamically nonequilibrium porous near-surface shell of the solid core of the Earth, which contacts cyclonic vortices in the liquid core. Anomalous flows of heat and light-material mass to the mantle from the solid core at these contact points are calculated. These anomalous flows are shown to be comparable with the observed ones under the assumption of a rapid increase in the melt viscosity at pressures of 1-10 Mbar, which is characteristic of a solid core. In this case, the porous layer permeability may be very low.
Variation in spectral and mass dimension on 3D soil image processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez, M. E.; Tarquis, A. M.; Fabregat, J.; Andina, D.; Jimenez, J.; Crawford, J. W.
2009-04-01
Knowledge on three dimensional soil pore architecture is important for understanding soil processes as it controls biological, chemical and physical processes on various scales. Recent advances in non-destructive imaging, such as X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), provide several ways to analyze pore space features mainly concentrating on the visualization of soil structure. Fractal formalism has revealed as useful tool in these cases where highly complex and heterogeneous medium are studied. One of these quantifications is mass dimension (Dm) and spectral dimension (d) applied for water and gas diffusion coefficient in soil. At the same time that these techniques give a unique opportunity to quantify and describe pore space, they presents steps in their procedures on which the results depend. In this work, intact soil samples were collected from four horizons of a Brazilian soil and 3D images, of 45.1 micro-m resolution (256x256x256 voxels), were obtained. Four different threshold criteria were used to transform CT grey-scale imagery in binary imagery (pore/solid), based on the frequency of CT units. Then the threshold effect on the estimation of Dm and d, as well as their ratio was studied. Each threshold criteria had a direct influence on Dm as it has been previously reported [1], through the increase on porosity obtained. Meanwhile Dm showed a clear logarithmic relation with the apparent porosity in the image obtained for each threshold, d showed an almost linear one. In any case the increase of each one of them respect to porosity was different for each horizon. The Dm/d ratio was practically constant through all the porosity achieved in this study when Dm was estimated using all the scale range available. On the other hand, when Dm was estimated based on smaller scales this ratio depended on the threshold criteria applied to the image. This fact has a direct implication in diffusion parameters for a pore network modeling based on both fractal dimensions. [1] A
Fractal model of anomalous diffusion.
Gmachowski, Lech
2015-12-01
An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion.
Berkane, K.; Bencheikh, K.
2005-08-15
For first-principles density functional theory of a many fermion system, the determination of the kinetic energy functional is important. We consider N independent fermions with spatially varying effective mass in two dimensions, we derive the corresponding kinetic energy density using the ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) semiclassical approach. Our result reduces, as expected, to the one obtained in the literature for a constant effective mass. We examine the analytical expressions of the position dependent effective mass terms in the kinetic energy density functional with respect to the dimensionality d=1,2,3 of the space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blum, Thomas; Christ, Norman; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku; Jin, Luchang; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph
2017-01-01
We report a lattice QCD calculation of the hadronic light-by-light contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment at a physical pion mass. The calculation includes the connected diagrams and the leading, quark-line-disconnected diagrams. We incorporate algorithmic improvements developed in our previous work. The calculation was performed on the 4 83×96 ensemble generated with a physical pion mass and a 5.5 fm spatial extent by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations using the chiral, domain wall fermion formulation. We find aμHLbL=5.35 (1.35 )×10-10 , where the error is statistical only. The finite-volume and finite lattice-spacing errors could be quite large and are the subject of ongoing research. The omitted disconnected graphs, while expected to give a correction of order 10%, also need to be computed.
Blum, Thomas; Christ, Norman; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku; Jin, Luchang; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph
2017-01-13
We report a lattice QCD calculation of the hadronic light-by-light contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment at a physical pion mass. The calculation includes the connected diagrams and the leading, quark-line-disconnected diagrams. We incorporate algorithmic improvements developed in our previous work. The calculation was performed on the 48^{3}×96 ensemble generated with a physical pion mass and a 5.5 fm spatial extent by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations using the chiral, domain wall fermion formulation. We find a_{μ}^{HLbL}=5.35(1.35)×10^{-10}, where the error is statistical only. The finite-volume and finite lattice-spacing errors could be quite large and are the subject of ongoing research. The omitted disconnected graphs, while expected to give a correction of order 10%, also need to be computed.
Anomalous Oxidative Diffusion in Titanium Pyrotechnic Powders
Erikson, William W.; Coker, Eric N.
2016-11-10
It has long been observed that oxidation processes in metals tend to follow a parabolic rate law associated with the growth of a surface oxide layer. Here we observe that for certain titanium powders, the expected parabolic law (∝t_{1/2}) is recovered, yet for others, the exponent differs significantly. One explanation for this non-parabolic, anomalous diffusion arises from fractal geometry. Theoretical considerations indicate that the time response of diffusion-limited processes in an object closely follow a power-law in time (t^{n}) with n=(E–D)/2, where E is the object's Euclidean dimension and D is its boundary's Hausdorff dimension. Non-integer, (fractal) values of D will result in n≠1/2. Finite element simulations of several canonical fractal objects were performed to verify the application of this theory; the results matched the theory well. Two different types of titanium powder were tested in isothermal thermogravimetric tests under dilute oxygen. Time-dependent mass uptake data were fit with power-law forms and the associated exponents were used to determine an equivalent fractal dimension. One Ti powder type has an implied surface dimension of ca. 2.3 to 2.5, suggesting fractal geometry may be operative. Finally, the other has a dimension near 2.0, indicating it behaves like traditional material.
Anomalous Oxidative Diffusion in Titanium Pyrotechnic Powders
Erikson, William W.; Coker, Eric N.
2016-11-10
It has long been observed that oxidation processes in metals tend to follow a parabolic rate law associated with the growth of a surface oxide layer. Here we observe that for certain titanium powders, the expected parabolic law (∝t1/2) is recovered, yet for others, the exponent differs significantly. One explanation for this non-parabolic, anomalous diffusion arises from fractal geometry. Theoretical considerations indicate that the time response of diffusion-limited processes in an object closely follow a power-law in time (tn) with n=(E–D)/2, where E is the object's Euclidean dimension and D is its boundary's Hausdorff dimension. Non-integer, (fractal) values of Dmore » will result in n≠1/2. Finite element simulations of several canonical fractal objects were performed to verify the application of this theory; the results matched the theory well. Two different types of titanium powder were tested in isothermal thermogravimetric tests under dilute oxygen. Time-dependent mass uptake data were fit with power-law forms and the associated exponents were used to determine an equivalent fractal dimension. One Ti powder type has an implied surface dimension of ca. 2.3 to 2.5, suggesting fractal geometry may be operative. Finally, the other has a dimension near 2.0, indicating it behaves like traditional material.« less
Auxemery, Yann
2015-01-01
Multicide and other mass killings are sufficiently dramatic to excite great interest from clinicians, criminologists and behavioral scientists. This paper revisits the history of the mass murderer, an entity that has progressively distinguished itself from the serial killer. The functional difference between mass and serial homicide is quite obvious, particularly in setting, time, victim status and modus operandi. Classification of these acts requires a number of parameters. The causes of mass murders are multiple and complex: although they rarely seem to be related to psychotic mental pathologies, they are always an expression of suffering that manifests itself in a psychological crisis that is both homicidal and suicidal. Several research teams have studied the sociodemographic and etiopathogenic characteristics of mass murderers and, in particular, the perpetrators of school killings. In addition to prevalent personality traits, these actions often jointly include suicides and homicides, which are brought together in the same psychic crisis. In keeping with the theory of little identity support, previous crimes influenced some mass murderers. Suicides and mass-murders are likely to be imitated. The media appears to play a crucial role in preventing the occurrence of imitation or copycat tragedies. The WHO recommendation regarding how to transcribe suicide and by extension, homicide, in the media is necessary.
2012-01-01
Background Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights. Results Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial) limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa. Conclusions The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion) and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in extinct terrestrial
Erikson, William W.; Coker, Eric N.
2016-11-10
It has long been observed that oxidation processes in metals tend to follow a parabolic rate law associated with the growth of a surface oxide layer. Here we observe that for certain titanium powders, the expected parabolic law (∝t1/2) is recovered, yet for others, the exponent differs significantly. One explanation for this non-parabolic, anomalous diffusion arises from fractal geometry. Theoretical considerations indicate that the time response of diffusion-limited processes in an object closely follow a power-law in time (tn) with n=(E–D)/2, where E is the object's Euclidean dimension and D is its boundary's Hausdorff dimension. Non-integer, (fractal) values of Dmore » will result in n≠1/2. Finite element simulations of several canonical fractal objects were performed to verify the application of this theory; the results matched the theory well. Two different types of titanium powder were tested in isothermal thermogravimetric tests under dilute oxygen. Time-dependent mass uptake data were fit with power-law forms and the associated exponents were used to determine an equivalent fractal dimension. One Ti powder type has an implied surface dimension of ca. 2.3 to 2.5, suggesting fractal geometry may be operative. Finally, the other has a dimension near 2.0, indicating it behaves like traditional material.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malov, I. F.
Many astrophysicists believe that Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars (AXP), Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters (SGR), Rotational Radio Transients (RRAT), Compact Central Objects (CCO) and X-Ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars (XDINS) belong to different classes of anomalous objects with neutron stars as the central bodies inducing all their observable peculiarities. We have shown earlier [1] that AXPs and SGRs could be described by the drift model in the framework of the preposition on usual properties of the central neutron star (rotation periods P 0.01 - 1 sec and, surface magnetic fields B ~ 10^11-10^13 G). Here we shall try to show that some differences of the sources under consideration will be explained by their geometry (particularly, by the angle β between their rotation and magnetic axes). If β <~ 100 (the aligned rotator) the drift waves at the outer layers of the neutron star magnetosphere should play a key role in the observable periodicity. For large values of β (the case of the nearly orthogonal rotator) an accretion from the surrounding medium (for example, from the relic disk) can cause some modulation and transient events in received radiation. Recently Kramer et al. [2] and Camilo et al. [3] have shown that AXPs J1810-197 and 1E 1547.0 - 5408 have both small angles β, that is these sources are nearly aligned rotators, and the drift model should be used for their description. On the other hand, Wang et al. [4] detected IR radiation from the cold disk around the isolated young X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61. This was the first evidence of the disk-like matter around the neutron star. Probably there is the bimodality of anomalous pulsars. AXPs, SGRs and some radio transients belong to the population of aligned rotators with the angle between the rotation axis and the magnetic moment β < 200. These objects are described by the drift model, and their observed periods are connected with a periodicity of drift waves. Other sources have β ~ 900, and switching on's and switching off
Huang, H H; Sun, C T
2012-10-01
A mechanical model representing an acoustic metamaterial that exhibits simultaneously negative mass density and negative Young's modulus was proposed. Wave propagation was studied in the frequency range of double negativity. In view of positive energy flow, it was found that the phase velocity in this range is negative. This phenomenon was also observed using transient wave propagation finite-element analyses of a transient sinusoidal wave and a transient wave packet. In contrast to wave propagation in the region of positive mass and modulus, the peculiar backward wave motion in the region of double negativity was clearly displayed.
Left ventricular dimensions and mass using magnetic resonance imaging in female endurance athletes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riley-Hagan, M.; Peshock, R. M.; Stray-Gundersen, J.; Katz, J.; Ryschon, T. W.; Mitchell, J. H.
1992-01-01
Few published studies of left ventricular (LV) mass in female endurance athletes have been performed with M-mode echocardiography, which involves assumptions of LV geometry. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging, a 3-dimensional technique, was used to examine LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume and mean wall thickness in female long distance runners (n = 13; mean age 29 years), cyclists (n = 12; mean age 26 years) and cross-country skiers (n = 11; mean age 24 years), and the findings were compared with sedentary control subjects (n = 10; mean age 27 years) matched for height and body weight. The physical characteristics for all subjects included height (mean 166 cm, and body weight (mean 56 kg). The percent body fat (mean 11.7) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, mean 63 ml.kg-1.min-1) were similar (p greater than 0.05) among all athletic groups, but significantly different from the control group (body fat, mean 22.5%; VO2max, mean 35 ml.kg-1.min-1). LV mass (mean 159 kg), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 122 ml), and mean wall thickness (mean 11.5 mm) were also similar among the athletic groups and significantly larger than the following control values: LV mass (mean 115 g), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 93 ml) and mean wall thickness (mean 9.8 mm). Ratios of LV mass to lean body weight were similar among all athletic groups, although athletic groups had larger ratios (p less than 0.05) than the sedentary control subjects. LV mass/LV end-diastolic volume ratio was similar (p greater than 0.05) among all groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).
Mass Media Exposure as a Dimension of the Teen-Age Innovator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blake, Reed H.; Nelson, Orval
A study sought to determine whether female innovative teens have mass media behavior similar to that of adult innovators. Research indicates that adult innovators (adult who are the first to adopt new ideas and products and who comprise 16% of the population) are more ventursome, better educated, more socially integrated, and have greater contact…
Erfani, Ehsan; Mitchell, David L.
2016-04-07
Here, ice particle mass- and projected area-dimension (m-D and A-D) power laws are commonly used in the treatment of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties and the remote sensing of ice cloud properties. Although there has long been evidence that a single m-D or A-D power law is often not valid over all ice particle sizes, few studies have addressed this fact. This study develops self-consistent m-D and A-D expressions that are not power laws but can easily be reduced to power laws for the ice particle size (maximum dimension or D) range of interest, and they are valid overmore » a much larger D range than power laws. This was done by combining ground measurements of individual ice particle m and D formed at temperature T < –20 °C during a cloud seeding field campaign with 2-D stereo (2D-S) and cloud particle imager (CPI) probe measurements of D and A, and estimates of m, in synoptic and anvil ice clouds at similar temperatures. The resulting m-D and A-D expressions are functions of temperature and cloud type (synoptic vs. anvil), and are in good agreement with m-D power laws developed from recent field studies considering the same temperature range (–60 °C < T < –20 °C).« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erfani, Ehsan; Mitchell, David L.
2016-04-01
Ice particle mass- and projected area-dimension (m-D and A-D) power laws are commonly used in the treatment of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties and the remote sensing of ice cloud properties. Although there has long been evidence that a single m-D or A-D power law is often not valid over all ice particle sizes, few studies have addressed this fact. This study develops self-consistent m-D and A-D expressions that are not power laws but can easily be reduced to power laws for the ice particle size (maximum dimension or D) range of interest, and they are valid over a much larger D range than power laws. This was done by combining ground measurements of individual ice particle m and D formed at temperature T < -20 °C during a cloud seeding field campaign with 2-D stereo (2D-S) and cloud particle imager (CPI) probe measurements of D and A, and estimates of m, in synoptic and anvil ice clouds at similar temperatures. The resulting m-D and A-D expressions are functions of temperature and cloud type (synoptic vs. anvil), and are in good agreement with m-D power laws developed from recent field studies considering the same temperature range (-60 °C < T < -20 °C).
Propagation of an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byrne, Jason P.; Maloney, Shane A.; McAteer, R. T. James; Refojo, Jose M.; Gallagher, Peter T.
2010-09-01
Solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most significant drivers of adverse space weather on Earth, but the physics governing their propagation through the heliosphere is not well understood. Although stereoscopic imaging of CMEs with NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) has provided some insight into their three-dimensional (3D) propagation, the mechanisms governing their evolution remain unclear because of difficulties in reconstructing their true 3D structure. In this paper, we use a new elliptical tie-pointing technique to reconstruct a full CME front in 3D, enabling us to quantify its deflected trajectory from high latitudes along the ecliptic, and measure its increasing angular width and propagation from 2 to 46 (~0.2 AU). Beyond 7 , we show that its motion is determined by an aerodynamic drag in the solar wind and, using our reconstruction as input for a 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulation, we determine an accurate arrival time at the Lagrangian L1 point near Earth.
The fermion mass hierarchy in models with warped extra dimensions and a bulk Higgs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Archer, Paul R.
2012-09-01
The phenomenological implications of allowing the Higgs to propagate in both AdS5 and a class of asymptotically AdS spaces are considered. Without tuning, the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the Higgs is peaked towards the IR tip of the space and hence such a scenario still offers a potential resolution to the gauge-hierarchy problem. When the exponent of the Higgs VEV is approximately two and one assumes order one Yukawa couplings, then the fermion Dirac mass term is found to range from ~ 10-5 eV to ~ 200 GeV in approximate agreement with the observed fermion masses. However, this result is sensitive to the exponent of the Higgs VEV, which is a free parameter. This paper offers a number of phenomenological and theoretical motivations for considering an exponent of two to be the optimal value. In particular, the exponent is bounded from below by the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound and the requirement that the dual theory resolves the gauge hierarchy problem. While, in the model considered, if the exponent is too large, electroweak symmetry may not be broken. In addition, the holographic method is used to demonstrate, in generality, that the flatter the Higgs VEV, the smaller the contribution to the electroweak T parameter. In addition, the constraints from a large class of gauge mediated and scalar mediated flavour changing neutral currents, will be at minimal values for flatter Higgs VEVs. Some initial steps are taken to investigate the physical scalar degrees of freedom that arise from a mixing between the W 5 /Z 5 components and the Higgs components.
Magnetic bion condensation: A new mechanism of confinement and mass gap in four dimensions
Uensal, Mithat
2009-09-15
In recent work, we derived the long-distance confining dynamics of certain QCD-like gauge theories formulated on small S{sup 1}xR{sup 3} based on symmetries, an index theorem, and Abelian duality. Here, we give the microscopic derivation. The solution reveals a new mechanism of confinement in QCD(adj) in the regime where we have control over both perturbative and nonperturbative aspects. In particular, consider SU(2) QCD(adj) theory with 1{<=}n{sub f}{<=}4 Majorana fermions, a theory which undergoes gauge symmetry breaking at small S{sup 1}. If the magnetic charge of the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) monopole is normalized to unity, we show that confinement occurs due to condensation of objects with magnetic charge 2, not 1. Because of index theorems, we know that such an object cannot be a two identical monopole configuration. Its net topological charge must vanish, and hence it must be topologically indistinguishable from the perturbative vacuum. We construct such non-self-dual topological excitations, the magnetically charged, topologically null molecules of a BPS monopole and KK antimonopole, which we refer to as magnetic bions. An immediate puzzle with this proposal is the apparent Coulomb repulsion between the BPS-KK pair. An attraction which overcomes the Coulomb repulsion between the two is induced by 2n{sub f}-fermion exchange. Bion condensation is also the mechanism of confinement in N=1 SYM on the same four-manifold. The SU(N) generalization hints a possible hidden integrability behind nonsupersymmetric QCD of affine Toda type, and allows us to analytically compute the mass gap in the gauge sector. We currently do not know the extension to R{sup 4}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M.-S.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. 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A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Stark, S. H.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanioka, R.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Tornambe, P.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usui, J.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Deijl, P. C.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vasquez, G. A.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Weber, S. A.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration
2017-02-01
A search is presented for anomalous quartic gauge boson couplings in vector-boson scattering. The data for the analysis correspond to 20.2 fb-1 of √{s }=8 TeV p p collisions and were collected in 2012 by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The search looks for the production of W W or W Z boson pairs accompanied by a high-mass dijet system, with one W decaying leptonically and a W or Z decaying hadronically. The hadronically decaying W /Z is reconstructed as either two small-radius jets or one large-radius jet using jet substructure techniques. Constraints on the anomalous quartic gauge boson coupling parameters α4 and α5 are set by fitting the transverse mass of the diboson system, and the resulting 95% confidence intervals are -0.024 <α4<0.030 and -0.028 <α5<0.033 .
Erfani, Ehsan; Mitchell, David L.
2016-04-07
Here, ice particle mass- and projected area-dimension (m-D and A-D) power laws are commonly used in the treatment of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties and the remote sensing of ice cloud properties. Although there has long been evidence that a single m-D or A-D power law is often not valid over all ice particle sizes, few studies have addressed this fact. This study develops self-consistent m-D and A-D expressions that are not power laws but can easily be reduced to power laws for the ice particle size (maximum dimension or D) range of interest, and they are valid over a much larger D range than power laws. This was done by combining ground measurements of individual ice particle m and D formed at temperature T < –20 °C during a cloud seeding field campaign with 2-D stereo (2D-S) and cloud particle imager (CPI) probe measurements of D and A, and estimates of m, in synoptic and anvil ice clouds at similar temperatures. The resulting m-D and A-D expressions are functions of temperature and cloud type (synoptic vs. anvil), and are in good agreement with m-D power laws developed from recent field studies considering the same temperature range (–60 °C < T < –20 °C).
Effects of Culture Dimensions on Maintenance of Porcine Inner Cell Mass-Derived Cell Self-Renewal
Baek, Song; Han, Na Rae; Yun, Jung Im; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Minseok; Park, Choon Keun; Lee, Eunsong; Lee, Seung Tae
2017-01-01
Despite the fact that porcine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a practical study tool, in vitro long-term maintenance of these cells is difficult in a two-dimensional (2D) microenvironment using cellular niche or extracellular matrix proteins. However, a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment, similar to that enclosing the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, may improve in vitro maintenance of self-renewal. Accordingly, as a first step toward constructing a 3D microenvironment optimized to maintain porcine ESC self-renewal, we investigated different culture dimensions for porcine ICM-derived cells to enhance the maintenance of self-renewal. Porcine ICM-derived cells were cultured in agarose-based 3D hydrogel with self-renewal-friendly mechanics and in 2D culture plates with or without feeder cells. Subsequently, the effects of the 3D microenvironment on maintenance of self-renewal were identified by analyzing colony formation and morphology, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, and transcriptional and translational regulation of self-renewal-related genes. The 3D microenvironment using a 1.5% (w/v) agarose-based 3D hydrogel resulted in significantly more colonies with stereoscopic morphology, significantly improved AP activity, and increased protein expression of self-renewal-related genes compared to those in the 2D microenvironment. These results demonstrate that self-renewal of porcine ICM-derived cells can be maintained more effectively in a 3D microenvironment than in a 2D microenvironment. These results will help develop novel culture systems for ICM-derived cells derived from diverse species, which will contribute to stimulating basic and applicable studies related to ESCs. PMID:28196411
Kupfer, D.H. )
1990-09-01
Each zone contains several anomalous salt properties (anomalous features). Zones cannot be characterized by any single property Zones are highly variable, lenticular, and discontinuous in detail; however, once established, they commonly have a predictable trend. The individual anomalous features can occur alone (locally in pairs) over areas of various sizes and shapes. These alone occurrences are not anomalous zones. Anomalous zones may be of any origin, and origin is not part of the definition. Typical origins include: primary (sedimentary), external sheath zone, separating two spines of salt, or caused by toroidal flow. The major importance of an anomalous zone is that it consists of various anomalous features distributed discontinuously along the zone. Thus, if three or more anomalous properties are observed together, one should look for others. The anomalous zones observed in the Gulf Coast thus far are vertical, linear, and semicontinuous. Most are reasonably straight, but some bend sharply, end abruptly, or coalesce. Textures in salt involve grain size, color (white to dark gray), grain shape, or grain distribution of the salt. Typical anomalous textures are coarse-grain, poikiloblastic, and friability. A change in color is commonplace and seldom anomalous. Structural anomalous features, broadly defined, account for most of the rest of the anomalous features. Not uncommonly they cause mining problems. Among the structural anomalous features: INCLUSIONS: Sediments, hydrocarbons, brine, gases. Common gases are air (as N{sub 2}), CH-compounds, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S. STRUCTURES: Sheared salt, undue stabbing or jointing, voids (crystal-lined pockets), permeability, increased porosity COMPOSITION: High anhydrite content, visible anhydrite as grains or boudins, very black salt = disseminated impurities such as clay.
Universality of anomalous conductivities in theories with higher-derivative holographic duals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grozdanov, S.; Poovuttikul, N.
2016-09-01
Anomalous chiral conductivities in theories with global anomalies are independent of whether they are computed in a weakly coupled quantum (or thermal) field theory, hydrodynamics, or at infinite coupling from holography. While the presence of dynamical gauge fields and mixed, gauge-global anomalies can destroy this universality, in their absence, the non-renormalisation of anomalous Ward identities is expected to be obeyed at all intermediate coupling strengths. In holography, bulk theories with higher-derivative corrections incorporate coupling constant corrections to the boundary theory observables in an expansion around infinite coupling. In this work, we investigate the coupling constant dependence and universality of anomalous conductivities (and thus of the anomalous Ward identities) in general, four-dimensional systems that possess asymptotically anti-de Sitter holographic duals with a non-extremal black brane in five dimensions, and anomalous transport introduced into the boundary theory via the bulk Chern-Simons action. We show that in bulk theories with arbitrary gauge- and diffeomorphism-invariant higher-derivative actions, anomalous conductivities, which can incorporate an infinite series of (inverse) coupling constant corrections, remain universal. Owing to the existence of the membrane paradigm, the proof reduces to a construction of bulk effective theories at the horizon and the boundary. It only requires us to impose the condition of horizon regularity and correct boundary conditions on the fields. We also discuss ways to violate the universality by violating conditions for the validity of the membrane paradigm, in particular, by adding mass to the vector fields (a case with a mixed, gauge-global anomaly) and in bulk geometries with a naked singularity.
Unitarity constraints on dimension-six operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corbett, Tyler; Éboli, O. J. P.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.
2015-02-01
We obtain the partial-wave unitarity constraints on dimension-six operators stemming from the analyses of vector boson and Higgs scattering processes as well as the inelastic scattering of standard model fermions into electroweak gauge bosons. We take into account all coupled channels, all possible helicity amplitudes, and explore a six-dimensional parameter space of anomalous couplings. Our analysis shows that for those operators affecting the Higgs couplings, present 90% confidence level constraints from global data analysis of Higgs and electroweak data are such that unitarity is not violated if √{s }≤3.2 TeV . For the purely gauge-boson operator OW W W, the present bounds from triple-gauge-boson analysis indicate that within its presently allowed 90% confidence level range unitarity can be violated in f f¯'→V V' at center-of-mass energy √{s }≥2.4 TeV .
Anomalous diffraction approximation limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Videen, Gorden; Chýlek, Petr
It has been reported in a recent article [Liu, C., Jonas, P.R., Saunders, C.P.R., 1996. Accuracy of the anomalous diffraction approximation to light scattering by column-like ice crystals. Atmos. Res., 41, pp. 63-69] that the anomalous diffraction approximation (ADA) accuracy does not depend on particle refractive index, but instead is dependent on the particle size parameter. Since this is at odds with previous research, we thought these results warranted further discussion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, Lindsey
A study of the properties of the Zγ diboson system is presented using 5.0 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data from the LHC using the CMS detector. The pp →
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; García, Guillermo; Guerrero Rojas, Jesús
2017-01-01
The gauge symmetry of the Standard Model is U(1) xSU(2)L xSU(3) for unknown reasons. One aspect that can be addressed is the low dimensionality of all its subgroups. Why not much larger groups like SU(7) or for that matter, SP(38) or E7? We observe that fermions charged under large groups acquire much bigger dynamical masses, all things being equal at a high e.g. GUT scale, than ordinary quarks. Should such multicharged fermions exist, they are too heavy to be observed today and have either decayed early on (if they couple to the rest of the Standard Model) or become reliquial dark matter (if they don't). The result follows easily from strong antiscreening of the running coupling for the larger group together with scaling properties of the Dyson-Schwinger equation for the fermion mass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García Fernández, Guillermo; Guerrero Rojas, Jesús; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.
2017-02-01
The gauge symmetry of the Standard Model is SU(3)c × SU(2)L × U(1)Y for unknown reasons. One aspect that can be addressed is the low dimensionality of all its subgroups. Why not much larger groups like SU (7), or for that matter, SP (38) or E7? We observe that fermions charged under large groups acquire much bigger dynamical masses, all things being equal at a high e.g. GUT scale, than ordinary quarks. Should such multicharged fermions exist, they are too heavy to be observed today and have either decayed early on (if they couple to the rest of the Standard Model) or become reliquial dark matter (if they don't). The result follows from strong antiscreening of the running coupling for those larger groups (with an appropriately small number of flavors) together with scaling properties of the Dyson-Schwinger equation for the fermion mass.
Oh-Ishi, Masamichi; Maeda, Tadakazu
2007-04-15
Agarose gel is the preferred electrophoretic medium currently used for separating high molecular mass (HMM) proteins (MW>100 kDa). Agarose gels are widely used for both SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis and agarose isoelectric focusing (IEF). A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis method employing agarose gels in the first dimension (agarose 2-DE) that is sufficiently good at separating up to 1.5mg of HMM proteins with molecular masses as large as 500 kDa has been used to separate proteins from various diseased tissues and cells. Although resolution of the agarose 2-DE pattern always depends on the tissue being analyzed, sample preparation procedures including (i) protein extraction with an SDS sample buffer; (ii) ultracentrifugation of a tissue homogenate; and (iii) 1% SDS in both stacking and separation gels of the second-dimension SDS-PAGE gel, are generally effective for HMM protein detection. In a comprehensive prostate cancer proteome study using agarose 2-DE, the HMM region of the gel was rich in proteins of particular gene/protein expression groups (39.1% of the HMM proteins but only 28.4% of the LMM ones were classified as transcription/translation-related proteins). Examples include transcription factors, DNA or RNA binding proteins, and ribosomal proteins. To understand oxidative stress-induced cellular damage at the protein level, a novel proteomic method, in which protein carbonyls were derivatized with biotin hydrazide followed by agarose 2-DE, was useful for detecting HMM protein carbonyls in tissues of both a diabetes model Ostuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat and a control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rat. In this paper, we review the use of agarose gels for separation of HMM proteins and disease proteomics of HMM proteins in general, with particular attention paid to our proteome analyzes based on the use of agarose 2-DE for protein separation followed by the use of mass spectrometry for protein identification.
Anomalous diffraction in hyperbolic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alberucci, Alessandro; Jisha, Chandroth P.; Boardman, Allan D.; Assanto, Gaetano
2016-09-01
We demonstrate that light is subject to anomalous (i.e., negative) diffraction when propagating in the presence of hyperbolic dispersion. We show that light propagation in hyperbolic media resembles the dynamics of a quantum particle of negative mass moving in a two-dimensional potential. The negative effective mass implies time reversal if the medium is homogeneous. Such property paves the way to diffraction compensation, i.e., spatial analog of dispersion compensating fibers in the temporal domain. At variance with materials exhibiting standard elliptic dispersion, in inhomogeneous hyperbolic materials light waves are pulled towards regions with a lower refractive index. In the presence of a Kerr-like optical response, bright (dark) solitons are supported by a negative (positive) nonlinearity.
Classical Aspect of the Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the Electron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bordovitsyn, V. A.; Kulikova, A. V.; Savitskaya, Yu. N.
2017-03-01
Some integral effects of electromagnetic interactions, such as the electromagnetic mass and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, are discussed on the basis of covariant methods of classical electrodynamics.
Searching for the fourth family quarks through anomalous decays
Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S.
2010-09-01
The flavor democracy hypothesis predicts the existence of the fourth standard model family. Because of the high masses of the fourth family quarks, their anomalous decays could be dominant if certain criteria are met. This will drastically change the search strategy at hadron colliders. We show that the fourth standard model family down quarks with masses up to 400-450 GeV can be observed (or excluded) via anomalous decays by Tevatron.
Characterizing cosmic inhomogeneity with anomalous diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraljic, D.
2015-08-01
Dark matter (DM) clustering at the present epoch is investigated from a fractal viewpoint in order to determine the scale where the self-similar scaling property of the DM halo distribution transits to homogeneity. Methods based on well-established `counts-in-cells' as well as new methods based on anomalous diffusion and random walks are investigated. Both are applied to DM haloes of the biggest N-body simulation in the `Dark Sky Simulations' (DS) catalogue and an equivalent randomly distributed catalogue. Results based on the smaller `Millennium Run' (MR) simulation are revisited and improved. It is found that the MR simulation volume is too small and prone to bias to reliably identify the onset of homogeneity. Transition to homogeneity is defined when the fractal dimension of the clustered and random distributions cannot be distinguished within the associated uncertainties. The `counts-in-cells' method applied to the DS then yields a homogeneity scale roughly consistent with previous work (˜150 h-1 Mpc). The characteristic length-scale for anomalous diffusion to behave homogeneously is found to be at about 250 h-1 Mpc. The behaviour of the fractal dimensions for a halo catalogue with the same two-point function as the original but with shuffled Fourier phases is investigated. The methods based on anomalous diffusion are shown to be sensitive to the phase information, whereas the `counts-in-cells' methods are not.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.
2015-03-01
We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.
Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A
2015-03-14
We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.
Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.
2015-03-14
We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.
Hustoft, Hanne Kolsrud; Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Rogeberg, Magnus; Misaghian, Dorna; Torsetnes, Silje Bøen; Greibrokk, Tyge; Reubsaet, Léon; Wilson, Steven Ray; Lundanes, Elsa
2013-01-01
Reliable, sensitive and automatable analytical methodology is of great value in e.g. cancer diagnostics. In this context, an on-line system for enzymatic cleavage of proteins, subsequent peptide separation by liquid chromatography (LC) with mass spectrometric detection has been developed using “sub-chip” columns (10–20 μm inner diameter, ID). The system could detect attomole amounts of isolated cancer biomarker progastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP), in a more automatable fashion compared to previous methods. The workflow combines protein digestion using an 20 μm ID immobilized trypsin reactor with a polymeric layer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-vinyl azlactone (HEMA-VDM), desalting on a polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) monolithic trap column, and subsequent separation of resulting peptides on a 10 μm ID (PS-DVB) porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column. The high resolution of the PLOT columns was maintained in the on-line system, resulting in narrow chromatographic peaks of 3–5 seconds. The trypsin reactors provided repeatable performance and were compatible with long-term storage. PMID:24336509
FRACTAL DIMENSION RESULTS FOR CONTINUOUS TIME RANDOM WALKS
Meerschaert, Mark M.; Nane, Erkan; Xiao, Yimin
2013-01-01
Continuous time random walks impose random waiting times between particle jumps. This paper computes the fractal dimensions of their process limits, which represent particle traces in anomalous diffusion. PMID:23482421
Anomalous Cepheids in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy
Smith, H.A.; Stryker, L.L.
1986-08-01
The Sculptor dwarf galaxy contains at least three Cepheids (V25, V26, and V119), each with a period near 1 day and B magnitudes about 1.4 mag brighter than those of the Sculptor RR Lyrae stars. Low-resolution spectra of these so-called anomalous Cepheids were obtained. Metal abundances of the Cepheids have been determined by the Delta-S method and are found to be: Fe/H = -1.9 + or - 0.2, -1.8 + or - 0.2, and -2.2 + or - 0.3 for V25, V26, and V119, respectively. These values are consistent with the metal abundances of Sculptor red giants estimated from the color of the giant branch. Pulsational masses have been estimated for V25 and V26, but there is a need for improved photometry of these stars to obtain accurate results. It cannot be unambiguously established whether the Sculptor anomalous Cepheids are evolved single stars, aged about 3 Gyr, or whether they are created by mass transfer in older binary systems. The occurrence of anomalous Cepheids in other systems is discussed. There is some evidence that most anomalous Cepheids in the Small Magellanic Cloud are evolved single stars. 89 references.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhuria, Mansi; Misra, Aalok
2012-02-01
We show that it is possible to realize a " μ-split SUSY" scenario (Cheng and Cheng, 2005) [1] in the context of large volume limit of type IIB compactifications on Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau orientifolds in the presence of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane and a (stack of) D7-brane(s) wrapping the "big" divisor. For this, we investigate the possibility of getting one Higgs to be light while other to be heavy in addition to a heavy higgsino mass parameter. Further, we examine the existence of long lived gluino that manifests one of the major consequences of μ-split SUSY scenario, by computing its decay width as well as lifetime corresponding to the three-body decays of the gluino into either a quark, a squark and a neutralino or a quark, squark and goldstino, as well as two-body decays of the gluino into either a neutralino and a gluon or a goldstino and a gluon. Guided by the geometric Kähler potential for Σ obtained in Misra and Shukla (2010) [2] based on GLSM techniques, and the Donaldson's algorithm (Barun et al., 2008) [3] for obtaining numerically a Ricci-flat metric, we give details of our calculation in Misra and Shukla (2011) [4] pertaining to our proposed metric for the full Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau (the geometric Kähler potential being needed to be included in the full moduli space Kähler potential in the presence of the mobile space-time filling D3-brane), but for simplicity of calculation, close to the big divisor, which is Ricci-flat in the large volume limit. Also, as an application of the one-loop RG flow solution for the higgsino mass parameter, we show that the contribution to the neutrino masses at the EW scale from dimension-six operators arising from the Kähler potential, is suppressed relative to the Weinberg-type dimension-five operators.
Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.
Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-04-01
The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.
Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-04-01
The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.
Melchior, Katja; Tholey, Andreas; Heisel, Sabrina; Keller, Andreas; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Meese, Eckart; Huber, Christian G
2010-10-01
The availability of robust and highly efficient separation methods represents a major requirement for proteome analysis. This study investigated the characteristics of two different gel-free proteomic approaches to the fractionation of proteolytic peptides and intact proteins, respectively, in a first separation dimension. Separation and mass spectrometric detection by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS) were performed at the peptide level in both methods. Bottom-up analysis (BU) was carried out employing well established peptide fractionation in the first separation dimension by strong cation-exchange chromatography (SCX), followed by ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography (IP-RPC) in the second dimension. In the semi-top-down approach (STD), which involved intact protein fractionation in the first dimension, the separation mode in both dimensions was IP-RPC utilizing monolithic columns. Application of the two approaches to the proteome analysis of proteins extracted from a tumor tissue revealed that the BU method identified more proteins (1245 in BU versus 920 in STD) while STD analysis offered higher sequence coverage (14.8% in BU versus 17.5% in STD on average). The identification of more basic and larger proteins was slightly favored in the BU approach, most probably due to higher losses of these proteins during intact protein handling and separation in the STD method. A significant degree of complementarity was revealed by an approximately 33% overlap between one BU and STD replicate, while 33% each of the protein identifications were unique to both methods. In the STD method, peptides obtained upon digestion of the proteins contained in fractions of the first separation dimension covered a broad elution window in the second-dimension separation, which demonstrates a high degree of "pseudo-orthogonality" of protein and peptide separation by IP-RPC in both separation dimensions.
Effective pion mass term and the trace anomaly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal
2017-01-01
Recently, we developed an effective theory of pions and a light dilatonic meson for gauge theories with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry that are close to the conformal window. The pion mass term in this effective theory depends on an exponent y . We derive the transformation properties under dilatations of the renormalized fermion mass and use this to rederive y =3 -γm* , where γm* is the fixed-point value of the mass anomalous dimension at the sill of the conformal window. This value for y is consistent with the trace anomaly of the underlying near-conformal gauge theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, Y. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. Y.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration
2016-07-01
Using 1.09 ×109 J /ψ events collected by the BESIII experiment in 2012, we study the J /ψ →γ η'π+π- process and observe a significant abrupt change in the slope of the η'π+π- invariant mass distribution at the proton-antiproton (p p ¯) mass threshold. We use two models to characterize the η'π+π- line shape around 1.85 GeV /c2: one that explicitly incorporates the opening of a decay threshold in the mass spectrum (Flatté formula), and another that is the coherent sum of two resonant amplitudes. Both fits show almost equally good agreement with data, and suggest the existence of either a broad state around 1.85 GeV /c2 with strong couplings to the p p ¯ final states or a narrow state just below the p p ¯ mass threshold. Although we cannot distinguish between the fits, either one supports the existence of a p p ¯ moleculelike state or bound state with greater than 7 σ significance.
Ablikim, M; Achasov, M N; Ahmed, S; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Baldini Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Berger, N; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, R P; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Heinsius, F H; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Holtmann, T; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, Y P; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, X Z; Huang, Y; Huang, Z L; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kupsc, A; Kühn, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leithoff, H; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, H J; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y B; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Y Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, M M; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Mezzadri, G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales Morales, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Musiol, P; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schnier, C; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, M; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X H; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, L J; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, J J; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H
2016-07-22
Using 1.09×10^{9} J/ψ events collected by the BESIII experiment in 2012, we study the J/ψ→γη^{'}π^{+}π^{-} process and observe a significant abrupt change in the slope of the η^{'}π^{+}π^{-} invariant mass distribution at the proton-antiproton (pp[over ¯]) mass threshold. We use two models to characterize the η^{'}π^{+}π^{-} line shape around 1.85 GeV/c^{2}: one that explicitly incorporates the opening of a decay threshold in the mass spectrum (Flatté formula), and another that is the coherent sum of two resonant amplitudes. Both fits show almost equally good agreement with data, and suggest the existence of either a broad state around 1.85 GeV/c^{2} with strong couplings to the pp[over ¯] final states or a narrow state just below the pp[over ¯] mass threshold. Although we cannot distinguish between the fits, either one supports the existence of a pp[over ¯] moleculelike state or bound state with greater than 7σ significance.
Fickian dispersion is anomalous
Cushman, John H.; O’Malley, Dan
2015-06-22
The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion wemore » illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Finally, power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.« less
Fickian dispersion is anomalous
Cushman, John H.; O’Malley, Dan
2015-06-22
The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Finally, power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.
Fickian dispersion is anomalous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cushman, John H.; O'Malley, Dan
2015-12-01
The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.
Anomalous spin Josephson effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Mei-Juan; Wang, Jun; Hao, Lei; Liu, Jun-Feng
2016-10-01
We report a theoretical study on the spin Josephson effect arising from the exchange coupling of the two ferromagnets (Fs), which are deposited on a two-dimensional (2D) time-reversal-invariant topological insulator. An anomalous spin supercurrent Js z˜sin(α +α0) is found to flow in between the two Fs and the ground state of the system is not limited to the magnetically collinear configuration (α =n π ,n is an integer) but determined by a controllable angle α0, where α is the crossed angle between the two F magnetizations. The angle α0 is the dynamic phase of the electrons traveling in between the two Fs and can be controlled electrically by a gate voltage. This anomalous spin Josephson effect, similar to the conventional φ0 superconductor junction, originates from the definite electron chirality of the helical edge states in the 2D topological insulator. These results indicate that the magnetic coupling in a topological system is different from the usual one in conventional materials.
Quigg, Chris
2007-12-05
In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.
Hewett, J.
2004-10-05
The large separation between the weak scale {approx} 10{sup 3} GeV and the traditional scale of gravity--the Planck scale with M{sub PI} {approx} 10{sup 19} GeV--is one of the most puzzling aspects of nature. The origin of this large ratio, as well as its stability under radiative corrections, demands explanation. This is known as the hierarchy problem. One theoretical means of solving this problem is to introduce Supersymmetry. Alternatively one may hope to address the hierarchy by exploiting the geometry of space time. Specifically, recent theories involve the idea that the 3-spatial dimensions in which we live could be a 3-spatial-dimensional ''membrane'' embedded in a much larger extra dimensional space, and that the hierarchy is generated by the geometry of the additional dimensions. Such ideas have led to extra dimensional theories which have verifiable consequences at the TeV scale. Our knowledge of the weak and strong forces extends down to scales of {approx} (100 GeV){sup -1} (or of order 10{sup -15} mm). On the other hand, we have almost no knowledge of gravity at distances less than roughly a millimeter, as direct tests of the gravitational force at the smallest distances are based on torsion-balance experiments, which are mechanically limited. It is thus conceivable that gravity may behave quite differently from the 3-dimensional Newtonian theory at small distances. This leads to the possibility that matter and non-gravitational forces are confined to our 3-dimensional subspace, whereas gravity may propagate throughout a higher dimensional volume. In this case, the gauge forces are trapped within our 3-dimensional space, unaware of the extra dimensions, and maintain their usual behavior. Gravity, on the other hand, would no longer follow the inverse-square force law at distances smaller than the size of the extra dimensions, as the gravitational equivalent of Gauss' Law mandates that the gravitational field spreads out into the full spatial volume
Emergent dimensions and branes from large-N confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherman, Aleksey; Poppitz, Erich
2016-12-01
N =1 S U (N ) super-Yang-Mills theory on R3×S1 is believed to have a smooth dependence on the circle size L . Making L small leads to calculable nonperturbative color confinement, mass gap, and string tensions. For finite N , the small-L low-energy dynamics is described by a three-dimensional effective theory. The large-N limit, however, reveals surprises: the infrared dual description is in terms of a theory with an emergent fourth dimension, curiously reminiscent of T-duality in string theory. Here, however, the emergent dimension is a lattice, with momenta related to the S1-winding of the gauge field holonomy, which takes values in ZN. Furthermore, the low-energy description is given by a nontrivial gapless theory, with a space-like z =2 Lifshitz scale invariance and operators that pick up anomalous dimensions as L is increased. Supersymmetry-breaking deformations leave the long-distance theory scale-invariant, but change the Lifshitz scaling exponent to z =1 , and lead to an emergent Lorentz symmetry at small L . Adding a small number of fundamental fermion fields leads to matter localized on three-dimensional branes in the emergent four-dimensional theory.
Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.
2016-06-07
A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.
Dolley, T.P.
2003-01-01
Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.
Radiation reaction in various dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gal'Tsov, Dmitri V.
2002-07-01
We discuss the radiation reaction problem for an electric charge moving in flat space-time of arbitrary dimensions. It is shown that four is the unique dimension where a local differential equation exists accounting for the radiation reaction and admitting a consistent mass renormalization (the Lorentz-Dirac equation). In odd dimensions Huygens's principle does not hold, and, as a result, the radiation reaction force depends on the whole past history of a charge (radiative tail). We show that the divergence in the tail integral can be removed by the mass renormalization only in the 2+1 theory. In even dimensions higher than four, divergences cannot be removed by the mass renormalization.
Anomalous Flavor U(1)_X for Everything
Dreiner, Herbi K.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc
2003-12-01
We present an ambitious model of flavor, based on an anomalous U(1)_X gauge symmetry with one flavon, only two right-handed neutrinos and only two mass scales: M_{grav} and m_{3/2}. In particular, there are no new scales introduced for right-handed neutrino masses. The X-charges of the matter fields are such that R-parity is conserved exactly, higher-dimensional operators are sufficiently suppressed to guarantee a proton lifetime in agreement with experiment, and the phenomenology is viable for quarks, charged leptons, as well as neutrinos. In our model one of the three light neutrinos automatically is massless. The price we have to pay for this very successful model are highly fractional X-charges which can likely be improved with less restrictive phenomenological ansatze for mass matrices.
Anomalous - viscosity current drive
Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki
1988-01-01
An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.
Anomalous electrical conductivity of nanoscale colloidal suspensions.
Chakraborty, Suman; Padhy, Sourav
2008-10-28
The electrical conductivity of colloidal suspensions containing nanoscale conducting particles is nontrivially related to the particle volume fraction and the electrical double layer thickness. Classical electrochemical models, however, tend to grossly overpredict the pertinent effective electrical conductivity values, as compared to those obtained under experimental conditions. We attempt to address this discrepancy by appealing to the complex interconnection between the aggregation kinetics of the nanoscale particles and the electrodynamics within the double layer. In particular, we model the consequent alterations in the effective electrophoretic mobility values of the suspension by addressing the fundamentals of agglomeration-deagglomeration mechanisms through the pertinent variations in the effective particulate dimensions, solid fractions, as well as the equivalent suspension viscosity. The consequent alterations in the electrical conductivity values provide a substantially improved prediction of the corresponding experimental findings and explain the apparent anomalous behavior predicted by the classical theoretical postulates.
Petrology of Anomalous Eucrites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Ross, D. K.
2015-01-01
Most mafic achondrites can be broadly categorized as being "eucritic", that is, they are composed of a ferroan low-Ca clinopyroxene, high-Ca plagioclase and a silica phase. They are petrologically distinct from angritic basalts, which are composed of high-Ca, Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene, Carich olivine, nearly pure anorthite and kirschsteinite, or from what might be called brachinitic basalts, which are composed of ferroan orthopyroxene and high-Ca clinopyroxene, intermediate-Ca plagioclase and ferroan olivine. Because of their similar mineralogy and composition, eucrite-like mafic achondrites formed on compositionally similar asteroids under similar conditions of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. Some of them have distinctive isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics that demonstrate formation on asteroids different from the parent of the HED clan (e.g., Ibitira, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011). Others show smaller oxygen isotopic distinctions but are otherwise petrologically and compositionally indistinguishable from basaltic eucrites (e.g., Pasamonte, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91007). The degree of uniformity in delta O-17 of eucrites and diogenites is one piece of evidence considered to favor of a magma-ocean scenario for their petrogenesis. Given that the O isotopic differences separating Pasamonte and PCA 91007 from other eucrites are small, and that there is an absence of other distinguishing characteristics, a legitimate question is: Did the HED parent asteroid fail to homogenize via a magma-ocean stage, thus explaining outliers like Pasamonte? We are initiating a program of study of anomalous eucrite-like achondrites as one part of our effort to seek a resolution of this issue. Here we present preliminary petrologic information on Asuka (A-) 881394, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87520 and EET 87542. We will have studied several more by conference time.
Nonlocal anomalous Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shulei; Vignale, Giovanni
Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is a distinctive transport property of ferromagnetic metals arising from spin orbit coupling (SOC) in concert with spontaneous spin polarization. Nonetheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also appears in a nonmagnetic metal in contact with a magnetic insulator. The main puzzle lies in the apparent absence of spin polarized electrons in the non-magnetic metal. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that the scattering of electrons from a rough metal-insulator interface is generally spin-dependent, which results in mutual conversion between spin and charge currents flowing in the plane of the layer. It is the current-carrying spin polarized electrons and the spin Hall effect in the bulk of the metal layer that conspire to generate the AH current. This novel AHE differs from the conventional one only in the spatial separation of the SOC and the magnetization, so we name it as nonlocal AHE. In contrast to other previously proposed mechanisms (e.g., spin Hall AHE and magnetic proximity effect (MPE)), the nonlocal AHE appears on the first order of spin Hall angle and does not rely on the induced moments in the metal layer, which make it experimentally detectable by contrasting the AH current directions of two layered structures such as Pt/Cu/YIG and β -Ta/Cu/YIG (with a thin inserted Cu layer to eliminate the MPE). We predict that the directions of the AH currents in these two trilayers would be opposite since the spin Hall angles of Pt and β -Ta are of opposite signs. Work supported by NSF Grants DMR-1406568.
Constructing gravitational dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartz, Matthew
2003-07-01
It would be extremely useful to know whether a particular low energy effective theory might have come from a compactification of a higher dimensional space. Here, this problem is approached from the ground up by considering theories with multiple interacting massive gravitons. It is actually very difficult to construct discrete gravitational dimensions which have a local continuum limit. In fact, any model with only nearest neighbor interactions is doomed. If we could find a non-linear extension for the Fierz-Pauli Lagrangian for a graviton of mass mg, which does not break down until the scale Λ2=(mgMPl), this could be used to construct a large class of models whose continuum limit is local in the extra dimension. But this is shown to be impossible: a theory with a single graviton must break down by Λ3=(m2gMPl)1/3. Next, we look at how the discretization prescribed by the truncation of the Kaluza-Klein tower of an honest extra dimension raises the scale of strong coupling. It dictates an intricate set of interactions among various fields which conspire to soften the strongest scattering amplitudes and allow for a local continuum limit, at least at the tree level. A number of candidate symmetries associated with locality in the discretized dimension are also discussed.
Phenomenology of universal extra dimensions
Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; /Florida U.
2006-10-01
In this proceeding, the phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED), in which all the Standard Model fields propagate, is explored. We focus on models with one universal extra dimension, compactified on an S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2} orbifold. We revisit calculations of Kaluza-Klein (KK) dark matter without an assumption of the KK mass degeneracy including all possible coannihilations. We then contrast the experimental signatures of low energy supersymmetry and UED.
Marston, Philip L
2014-03-01
The phase and group velocities of elastic guided waves are important in the physical interpretation of high frequency scattering by fluid-loaded elastic shells. Outside the context of scattering, those properties are also important for understanding the energy flow in acoustic metamaterials. In a recent investigation of acoustic metamaterials exhibiting anomalous wave propagation [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2887-2895 (2012)] criticism of negative group velocity terminology was generalized to elastic waves guided on ordinary materials. Some context and justification for retaining the identification of negative group velocities associated with a type of backscattering enhancement for shells are explained here. The phase evolution direction is determined by the boundary conditions.
Investigating perturbative unitarity in the presence of anomalous couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahiya, Mamta; Dutta, Sukanta; Islam, Rashidul
2016-03-01
We perform a model independent analysis of the helicity amplitudes at high energy for all the 2 →2 scattering processes involving gauge and Higgs bosons in the presence of anomalous W W V , W W V V , V V H , V V H H (V ≡Z , γ and W±), H H H H and H H H interactions. We obtain the perturbative unitarity constraints on anomalous couplings by demanding the vanishing of terms proportional to s2 and s3 /2 in the helicity amplitudes. Using these constraints, we also compute the upper bound on all the anomalous couplings from terms linear in s . Further, assuming all anomalous couplings to have arisen only from dimension six operators, we show that the perturbative unitarity violation can be evaded up to ˜9 TeV corresponding to the best fit values of fW W/Λ2 and fB B/Λ2 from the combined analysis of Tevatron and LHC data.
Compositions of Normal and Anomalous Eucrite-Type Mafic Achondrites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Mertzman, S. A.
2016-01-01
The most common asteroidal igneous meteorites are eucrite-type mafic achondrites - basalts and gabbros composed of ferroan pigeonite, ferroan augite, calcic plagioclase, silica, ilmenite, troilite, Ca-phosphate, chromite and Fe-metal. These rocks are thought to have formed on a single asteroid along with howardites and diogenites. However, high precision O-isotopic analyses have shown that some mafic achondrites have small, well-resolved, non-mass-dependent differences that have been interpreted as indicating derivation from different asteroids. Some of these O-anomalous mafic achondrites also have anomalous petrologic characteristics, strengthening the case that they hail from distinct parent asteroids. We present the results of bulk compositional studies of a suite of normal and anomalous eucrite-type basalts and cumulate gabbros.
Limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pease, Christopher; Fiolhais, Miguel; Onofre, Antonio
2017-01-01
Recent LHC results on the measurements of the W-boson helicity fractions and single top quark production cross section at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are combined in order to establish new limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex. The allowed regions for these limits are presented in three-dimensional graphics, for both real and imaginary components of the different anomalous couplings, allowing all the other anomalous couplings to vary at the same time. These results are combined with the prospected future measurement of the single top quark production cross section and W-boson helicity fractions at the LHC. When compared with the previous most precise limits, these results show a significant improvement, larger than 10%.
Anomalous Earth flybys of spacecraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.
2015-07-01
A small deviation from the potential is expected for the gravitational interaction of extended bodies. It is explained as a consequence of a recently proposed gravitational impact model (Wilhelm et al. in Astrophys. Space Sci. 343:135-144, 2013) and has been applied to anomalous perihelion advances by Wilhelm and Dwivedi (New Astron. 31:51-55, 2014). The effect—an offset of the effective gravitational centre from the geometric centre of a spherical symmetric body—might also be responsible for the observed anomalous orbital energy gains and speed increases during Earth flybys of several spacecraft. However, close flybys would require detailed considerations of the orbit geometry. In this study, an attempt is made to explain the anomalous Earth flybys of the Galileo, NEAR Shoemaker and Rosetta spacecraft.
A violation of universality in anomalous Fourier's law.
Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L
2016-12-13
Since the discovery of long-time tails, it has been clear that Fourier's law in low dimensions is typically anomalous, with a size-dependent heat conductivity, though the nature of the anomaly remains puzzling. The conventional wisdom, supported by renormalization-group arguments and mode-coupling approximations within fluctuating hydrodynamics, is that the anomaly is universal in 1d momentum-conserving systems and belongs in the Lévy/Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class. Here we challenge this picture by using a novel scaling method to show unambiguously that universality breaks down in the paradigmatic 1d diatomic hard-point fluid. Hydrodynamic profiles for a broad set of gradients, densities and sizes all collapse onto an universal master curve, showing that (anomalous) Fourier's law holds even deep into the nonlinear regime. This allows to solve the macroscopic transport problem for this model, a solution which compares flawlessly with data and, interestingly, implies the existence of a bound on the heat current in terms of pressure. These results question the renormalization-group and mode-coupling universality predictions for anomalous Fourier's law in 1d, offering a new perspective on transport in low dimensions.
A violation of universality in anomalous Fourier’s law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurtado, Pablo I.; Garrido, Pedro L.
2016-12-01
Since the discovery of long-time tails, it has been clear that Fourier’s law in low dimensions is typically anomalous, with a size-dependent heat conductivity, though the nature of the anomaly remains puzzling. The conventional wisdom, supported by renormalization-group arguments and mode-coupling approximations within fluctuating hydrodynamics, is that the anomaly is universal in 1d momentum-conserving systems and belongs in the Lévy/Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class. Here we challenge this picture by using a novel scaling method to show unambiguously that universality breaks down in the paradigmatic 1d diatomic hard-point fluid. Hydrodynamic profiles for a broad set of gradients, densities and sizes all collapse onto an universal master curve, showing that (anomalous) Fourier’s law holds even deep into the nonlinear regime. This allows to solve the macroscopic transport problem for this model, a solution which compares flawlessly with data and, interestingly, implies the existence of a bound on the heat current in terms of pressure. These results question the renormalization-group and mode-coupling universality predictions for anomalous Fourier’s law in 1d, offering a new perspective on transport in low dimensions.
A violation of universality in anomalous Fourier’s law
Hurtado, Pablo I.; Garrido, Pedro L.
2016-01-01
Since the discovery of long-time tails, it has been clear that Fourier’s law in low dimensions is typically anomalous, with a size-dependent heat conductivity, though the nature of the anomaly remains puzzling. The conventional wisdom, supported by renormalization-group arguments and mode-coupling approximations within fluctuating hydrodynamics, is that the anomaly is universal in 1d momentum-conserving systems and belongs in the Lévy/Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class. Here we challenge this picture by using a novel scaling method to show unambiguously that universality breaks down in the paradigmatic 1d diatomic hard-point fluid. Hydrodynamic profiles for a broad set of gradients, densities and sizes all collapse onto an universal master curve, showing that (anomalous) Fourier’s law holds even deep into the nonlinear regime. This allows to solve the macroscopic transport problem for this model, a solution which compares flawlessly with data and, interestingly, implies the existence of a bound on the heat current in terms of pressure. These results question the renormalization-group and mode-coupling universality predictions for anomalous Fourier’s law in 1d, offering a new perspective on transport in low dimensions. PMID:27958318
Analytic solution of Hedin's equations in zero dimensions
Pavlyukh, Y.; Huebner, W.
2007-05-15
Feynman diagrams for the many-body perturbational theory are enumerated by solving the system of Hedin's equations in zero dimension. We extend the treatment of Molinari [Phys. Rev. B 71, 113102 (2005)] and give a complete solution of the enumeration problem in terms of Whittaker functions. An important relation between the generating function of the electron propagator and anomalous dimension in quantum field theory of massless fermions and mesons in four dimensions (Yukawa theory) is found. The Hopf algebra of undecorated rooted trees yields the anomalous field dimension in terms of the solution of the same differential equation. Its relation to the mathematical problem of combinatorics of chord diagrams is discussed; asymptotic expansions of the counting numbers are obtained.
Catastrophic extraction of anomalous events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Ro, Sookwang; Kostrzewski, Andrew
2012-06-01
In this paper we discuss extraction of anomalous events based on the theory of catastrophes, a mathematical theory of continuous geometrical manifolds with discrete singularities called catastrophes. Intelligence exploitation systems and technologies include such novel data mining techniques as automatic extraction of discrete anomalous events by software algorithms based on the theory of catastrophes, that can reduce complex problems to a few essential so-called state variables. This paper discusses mostly corank-1 catastrophes with only one state variable, for simplicity. As an example we discuss mostly avionics platforms and catastrophic failures that can be recorded by flight instruments.
Anomalous-viscosity current drive
Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.
1986-04-25
The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.
Two-dimensional envelope localized waves in the anomalous dispersion regime.
Malaguti, Stefania; Bellanca, Gaetano; Trillo, Stefano
2008-05-15
Narrowband localized wave packets that are nondispersing and nondiffracting in one transverse dimension are characterized in anomalously dispersive media by means of a Fourier approach. Depending on the group velocity, waves with a dispersion relationship characterized by real wavenumbers can be O or X waves, while we also find waves with evanescent wavenumbers.
Modeling Anomalous Crustal Accretion at Spreading Zones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmeling, H.; Marquart, G.
2003-12-01
The thermal and seismic structure of normal oceanic crust or anomalous crust such as Iceland depends on the mode of melt extraction from the mantle and its emplacement within or on top of the crust. We model crustal accretion by a two fold approach. In a 2D spreading model with anomalous mantle temperature beneath the ridge we solve the Navier-Stokes-, the heat tansport, the mass conservation and the melting equations to determine the enhanced melt production beneath the ridge. This melt is extracted and emplaced on top of the model to form the crust. Two cases are distinguished: a) Extruded crustal material is taken out of the model and is only advected according to the spreading of the plate, b) extruded material is fed back into the model from the top to mimic isostatic subsidence of extruded crust. We find that the feed back of case b) is only moderate. For example, if extruded crustal material as thick as 40 km is fed back into the model, the melting region is depressed downward only by as much as 10km, and the total amount of generated melt is reduced by about 20 %. On the other hand, the upper 30 km of the model is cooled considerably by several 100 degrees. A second set of models focuses on the details of crustal accretion without explicitly solving for the melting and extraction. Knowing the spreading rate, the rate of crustal production can be estimated, but the site of emplacement is not obvious. For an anomalous crust such as Iceland we define four source regions of crustal accretion: surface extrusion, intrusion in fissure swarms at shallow depth connected to volcanic centres, magma chambers at shallow to mid-crustal level, and a deep accretion zone, where crust is produced by widespread dyke and sill emplacement and underplating. We solve the Navier-Stokes-, the heat tansport and the mass conservation equations and prescribe different functions in space and time for crustal production in the four defined regions. The temperature of the imposed
Faraday anomalous dispersion optical tuners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanninger, P.; Valdez, E. C.; Shay, T. M.
1992-01-01
Common methods for frequency stabilizing diode lasers systems employ gratings, etalons, optical electric double feedback, atomic resonance, and a Faraday cell with low magnetic field. Our method, the Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Transmitter (FADOT) laser locking, is much simpler than other schemes. The FADOT uses commercial laser diodes with no antireflection coatings, an atomic Faraday cell with a single polarizer, and an output coupler to form a compound cavity. This method is vibration insensitive, thermal expansion effects are minimal, and the system has a frequency pull in range of 443.2 GHz (9A). Our technique is based on the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter. This method has potential applications in optical communication, remote sensing, and pumping laser excited optical filters. We present the first theoretical model for the FADOT and compare the calculations to our experimental results.
Anomalous Thermalization in Ergodic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luitz, David J.; Bar Lev, Yevgeny
2016-10-01
It is commonly believed that quantum isolated systems satisfying the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) are diffusive. We show that this assumption is too restrictive since there are systems that are asymptotically in a thermal state yet exhibit anomalous, subdiffusive thermalization. We show that such systems satisfy a modified version of the ETH ansatz and derive a general connection between the scaling of the variance of the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators, written in the eigenbasis of the Hamiltonian, and the dynamical exponent. We find that for subdiffusively thermalizing systems the variance scales more slowly with system size than expected for diffusive systems. We corroborate our findings by numerically studying the distribution of the coefficients of the eigenfunctions and the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators of the random field Heisenberg chain, which has anomalous transport in its thermal phase. Surprisingly, this system also has non-Gaussian distributions of the eigenfunctions, thus, directly violating Berry's conjecture.
Anomalous Thermalization in Ergodic Systems.
Luitz, David J; Bar Lev, Yevgeny
2016-10-21
It is commonly believed that quantum isolated systems satisfying the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) are diffusive. We show that this assumption is too restrictive since there are systems that are asymptotically in a thermal state yet exhibit anomalous, subdiffusive thermalization. We show that such systems satisfy a modified version of the ETH ansatz and derive a general connection between the scaling of the variance of the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators, written in the eigenbasis of the Hamiltonian, and the dynamical exponent. We find that for subdiffusively thermalizing systems the variance scales more slowly with system size than expected for diffusive systems. We corroborate our findings by numerically studying the distribution of the coefficients of the eigenfunctions and the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators of the random field Heisenberg chain, which has anomalous transport in its thermal phase. Surprisingly, this system also has non-Gaussian distributions of the eigenfunctions, thus, directly violating Berry's conjecture.
Colligative properties of anomalous water.
Everett, D H; Haynes, J M; McElroy, P J
1970-06-13
Investigations of the phase behaviour on freezing and subsequent melting and of other properties indicate that anomalous water is a solution containing a fixed amount of relatively involatile material in normal water. There seems to be no need to postulate the existence of a new polymer of water in such solutions. If only water and silica are present, the properties are consistent with those of a silicic acid gel.
Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.
1993-01-01
The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.
EAWE: Examination of Anomalous World Experience.
Sass, Louis; Pienkos, Elizabeth; Skodlar, Borut; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Fuchs, Thomas; Parnas, Josef; Jones, Nev
2017-01-01
The "EAWE: Examination of Anomalous World Experience" is a detailed semi-structured interview format whose aim is to elicit description and discussion of a person's experience of various aspects of their lived world. The instrument is grounded in the tradition of phenomenological psychopathology and aims to explore, in a qualitatively rich manner, six key dimensions of subjectivity - namely, a person's experience of: (1) Space and objects, (2) Time and events, (3) Other persons, (4) Language (whether spoken or written), (5) Atmosphere (overall sense of reality, familiarity, vitality, meaning, or relevance), and (6) Existential orientation (values, attitudes, and worldviews). The EAWE is based on and primarily directed toward experiences thought to be common in, and sometimes distinctive of, schizophrenia spectrum conditions. It can, however, also be used to investigate anomalies of world experience in other populations. After a theoretical and methodological introduction, the EAWE lists 75 specific items, often with subtypes, in its six domains, together with illustrative quotations from patients. The EAWE appears in a special issue of Psychopathology that also contains an orienting preface (where the difficulty as well as necessity of studying subjective life is acknowledged) and a brief reliability report. Also included are six ancillary or background articles, which survey phenomenologically oriented theory, research, and clinical lore relevant to the six experiential domains.
Hydrodynamic waves in an anomalous charged fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbasi, Navid; Davody, Ali; Hejazi, Kasra; Rezaei, Zahra
2016-11-01
We study the collective excitations in a relativistic fluid with an anomalous U (1) current. In 3 + 1 dimensions at zero chemical potential, in addition to ordinary sound modes we find two propagating modes in presence of an external magnetic field. The first one which is a transverse degenerate mode, propagates with a velocity proportional to the coefficient of gravitational anomaly; this is in fact the Chiral Alfvén wave recently found in [1]. Another one is a wave of density perturbation, namely a chiral magnetic wave (CMW). The velocity dependence of CMW on the chiral anomaly coefficient is well known. We compute the dependence of CMW's velocity on the coefficient of gravitational anomaly as well. We also show that the dissipation splits the degeneracy of CAW. At finite chiral charge density we show that in general there may exist five chiral hydrodynamic waves. Of these five waves, one is the CMW while the other four are mixed Modified Sound-Alfvén waves. It turns out that in propagation transverse to the magnetic field no anomaly effect appears while in parallel to the magnetic field we find sound waves become dispersive due to anomaly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estillore, A. D.; Wiegel, A. A.; Boering, K. A.
2013-12-01
A number of oxygen-containing atmospheric species are now known to have non-mass-dependent triple oxygen isotope compositions (i.e., non-mass-dependent relationships between 16O, 17O, and 18O), which in turn are now being broadly applied as probes of biogeochemical cycles and chemical reactivity or as climate proxies on a variety of timescales. For many species, their non-mass-dependent oxygen isotope compositions derive from chemical or O(1D)-mediated photochemical transfer from ozone, which is non-mass-dependently enriched in 17O and 18O due to large non-mass-dependent kinetic isotope effects in the ozone recombination reaction, O+O2+M. For other species, however, there may also be additional non-mass-dependent kinetic isotope effects involved beyond ozone formation. The distinction is important both with respect to the biogeochemical and climate applications and to obtaining a deeper fundamental understanding of non-mass-dependent isotope fractionation in general. In work to be presented here, we have used a photochemical kinetics model to understand the isotopic composition of CO2 formed by O+CO+M in a mixture of O2 and CO gases irradiated with UV light at several wavelengths. We compare our model results with experimental results from Bhattacharya and Thiemens [Z. Naturforsch. 44a, 435-444 (1989)] and Pandey and Bhattacharya [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 234301 (2006)] in order to evaluate the extent to which the non-mass-dependent isotopic composition of CO2 derives from photochemical transfer from ozone formed during the experiment versus possible non-mass-dependent isotope effects in the CO2 recombination reaction.
Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.
1992-01-01
The present calculations of the performance of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters (FADOF) on IR transitions indicate that such filters may furnish high transmission, narrow-pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth under optimum operating conditions. A FADOF consists of an atomic vapor cell between crossed polarizers that are subject to a dc magnetic field along the optical path; when linearly polarized light travels along the direction of the magnetic field through the dispersive atomic vapor, a polarization rotation occurs. If FADOF conditions are suitably adjusted, a maximum transmission with very narrow bandwidth is obtained.
Galilean satellites - Anomalous temperatures disputed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, D.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Veeder, G. J.; Cutts, J. A.
1977-01-01
Anomalous averaged infrared brightness temperatures of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter reported by Gross (1975) are rejected as falsely conceived and lacking physical reality. It is argued that the calculations of equilibrium temperatures should be corrected, whereupon predictions would be in satisfactory agreement with observations, in conformity with the radiometric method of determining the diameters of asteroids and satellites. The IR irradiance and the related disk-averaged brightness temperature for the spectral band are recommended as more relevant. Attention is drawn to some interesting discrepancies between calculated and observed temperatures of the Jovian satellites which merit further investigation.
Minimal model for anomalous diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flekkøy, Eirik G.
2017-01-01
A random walk model with a local probability of removal is solved exactly and shown to exhibit subdiffusive behavior with a mean square displacement the evolves as
Supersymmetric unification requires extra dimensions
Chen, Mu-Chun; Fallbacher, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael
2013-05-23
We discuss settings that predict precision gauge unification in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We show that, if one requires anomaly freedom and fermion masses while demanding that unification is not an accident, only R symmetries can forbid the supersymmetric Higgs mass term {mu}. We then review the proof that R symmetries are not available in conventional grand unified theories (GUTs) and argue that this prevents natural solutions to the doublet-triplet splitting problem in four dimensions. On the other hand, higher-dimensional GUTs do not suffer from this problem. We briefly comment on an explicit string-derived model in which the {mu} and dimension five proton decay problems are solved by an order four discrete R symmetry, and comment on the higher-dimensional origin of this symmetry.
Geomagnetically trapped anomalous cosmic rays
Selesnick, R.S.; Cummings, A.C.; Cummings, J.R.
1995-06-01
Since its launch in July 1992, the polar-orbiting satellite SAMPEX has been collecting data on geomagnetically trapped heavy ions, predominantly O, N, and Ne, at energies {ge}15 MeV/nucleon and in a narrow L shell range L = 2. Their location, elemental composition, energy spectra, pitch angle distribution, and time variations all support the theory that these particles originated as singly ionized interplanetary anomalous cosmic rays that were stripped of electrons in the Earth`s upper atmosphere and subsequently trapped. The O are observed primarily at pitch angles outside the atmospheric loss cones, consistent with a trapped population, and their distribution there is nearly isotropic. The abundances relative to O of the N, possible Ne, and especially C are lower than the corresponding interplanetary values, which may be indicative of the trapping efficiencies. The distributions of trapped N, O, and Ne in energy and L shell suggest that most of the ions observed at the SAMPEX altitude of {approximately}600 km are not fully stripped when initially trapped. A comparison of the trapped intensity with the much lower interplanetary intensity of anomalous cosmic rays provides model-dependent estimates of the product of the trapping probability and the average trapped particle lifetime against ionization losses in the residual atmosphere for particles that mirror near the SAMPEX altitude. 36 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamberlin, K.; Clagett, C.; Correll, T.; Gruner, T.; Quinn, T.; Shiflett, L.; Schnurr, R.; Wennersten, M.; Frederick, M.; Fox, S. M.
1993-01-01
The attitude Control Electronics (ACE) Box is the center of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite. This unit is the single point interface for all of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) related sensors and actuators. Commands and telemetry between the SAMPEX flight computer and the ACE Box are routed via a MIL-STD-1773 bus interface, through the use of an 80C85 processor. The ACE Box consists of the flowing electronic elements: power supply, momentum wheel driver, electromagnet driver, coarse sun sensor interface, digital sun sensor interface, magnetometer interface, and satellite computer interface. In addition, the ACE Box also contains an independent Safehold electronics package capable of keeping the satellite pitch axis pointing towards the sun. The ACE Box has dimensions of 24 x 31 x 8 cm, a mass of 4.3 kg, and an average power consumption of 10.5 W. This set of electronics was completely designed, developed, integrated, and tested by personnel at NASA GSFC. SAMPEX was launched on July 3, 1992, and the initial attitude acquisition was successfully accomplished via the analog Safehold electronics in the ACE Box. This acquisition scenario removed the excess body rates via magnetic control and precessed the satellite pitch axis to within 10 deg of the sun line. The performance of the SAMPEX ACS in general and the ACE Box in particular has been quite satisfactory.
Studies of WW and WZ production and limits on anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Akimov, V.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M. K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Gobbi, B.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Tong; Ito, A. S.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Leflat, A.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, R. D.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Parashar, N.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Reay, N. W.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Stanton, N. R.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Toback, D.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Vaniev, V.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yasuda, T.
1999-10-01
Evidence of anomalous WW and WZ production was sought in pp¯ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of s=1.8 TeV. The final states WW(WZ)-->μν jet jet+X, WZ-->μνee+X and WZ-->eνee+X were studied using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 90 pb-1. No evidence of anomalous diboson production was found. Limits were set on anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings and were combined with our previous results. The combined 95% confidence level anomalous coupling limits for Λ=2 TeV are -0.25<=Δκ<=0.39 (λ=0) and -0.18<=λ<=0.19 (Δκ=0), assuming the WWγ couplings are equal to the WWZ couplings.
Anomalous U(1) and low-energy physics: The power of D-flatness and holomorphy
Binetruy, P. |; Irges, N.; Ramond, P.; Lavignac, S.
1997-03-01
In models with an anomalous abelian symmetry broken at a very large scale, we study which requirements to impose on the anomalous charges in order to prevent standard model fields from acquiring large vacuum expectation values. The use of holomorphic invariants to study D-flat directions for the anomalous symmetry, proves to be a very powerful tool. We find that in order to forbid unphysical vacuum configurations at that scale, the superpotential must contain many interaction terms, including the usual Yukawa terms. Our analysis suggests that the anomalous charge of the {mu}-term is zero. It is remarkable that, together with the seesaw mechanism, and mass hierarchies, this implies a natural conservation of R-parity.
Anomalous U(1) and low-energy physics: the power of D-flatness and holomorphy
Binetruy, P.; Irges, N.; Lavignac, S.; Ramond, P.
1996-12-01
In models with an anomalous abelian symmetry broken at a very large scale, we study which requirements to impose on the anomalous charges in order to prevent standard model fields from acquiring large vacuum expectation values. The use of holomorphic invariants to study D-flat directions for the anomalous symmetry, proves to be a very powerful tool. We find that in order to forbid unphysical configurations at that scale, the superpotential must contain many interaction terms, including the usual Yukawa terms. Our analysis suggests that the anomalous charge of the {mu}-term is zero. It is remarkable that, together with the seesaw mechanism, and mass hierarchies, this implies a natural conservation of R-parity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spurgin, C. B.
1986-03-01
The author discusses the concept of dimensions of a physical quantity, and the relationship between derived units (expressed in terms of their base units) and the dimensions of the derived quantities. He calls for the replacement of 'dimensions' by base units in the GCE A-level syllabus and provides some recommendations to GCE examining boards.
Dimension of chaotic attractors
Farmer, J.D.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J.A.
1982-09-01
Dimension is perhaps the most basic property of an attractor. In this paper we discuss a variety of different definitions of dimension, compute their values for a typical example, and review previous work on the dimension of chaotic attractors. The relevant definitions of dimension are of two general types, those that depend only on metric properties, and those that depend on probabilistic properties (that is, they depend on the frequency with which a typical trajectory visits different regions of the attractor). Both our example and the previous work that we review support the conclusion that all of the probabilistic dimensions take on the same value, which we call the dimension of the natural measure, and all of the metric dimensions take on a common value, which we call the fractal dimension. Furthermore, the dimension of the natural measure is typically equal to the Lyapunov dimension, which is defined in terms of Lyapunov numbers, and thus is usually far easier to calculate than any other definition. Because it is computable and more physically relevant, we feel that the dimension of the natural measure is more important than the fractal dimension.
Anomalous extracellular diffusion in rat cerebellum.
Xiao, Fanrong; Hrabe, Jan; Hrabetova, Sabina
2015-05-05
Extracellular space (ECS) is a major channel transporting biologically active molecules and drugs in the brain. Diffusion-mediated transport of these substances is hindered by the ECS structure but the microscopic basis of this hindrance is not fully understood. One hypothesis proposes that the hindrance originates in large part from the presence of dead-space (DS) microdomains that can transiently retain diffusing molecules. Because previous theoretical and modeling work reported an initial period of anomalous diffusion in similar environments, we expected that brain regions densely populated by DS microdomains would exhibit anomalous extracellular diffusion. Specifically, we targeted granular layers (GL) of rat and turtle cerebella that are populated with large and geometrically complex glomeruli. The integrative optical imaging (IOI) method was employed to evaluate diffusion of fluorophore-labeled dextran (MW 3000) in GL, and the IOI data analysis was adapted to quantify the anomalous diffusion exponent dw from the IOI records. Diffusion was significantly anomalous in rat GL, where dw reached 4.8. In the geometrically simpler turtle GL, dw was elevated but not robustly anomalous (dw = 2.6). The experimental work was complemented by numerical Monte Carlo simulations of anomalous ECS diffusion in several three-dimensional tissue models containing glomeruli-like structures. It demonstrated that both the duration of transiently anomalous diffusion and the anomalous exponent depend on the size of model glomeruli and the degree of their wrapping. In conclusion, we have found anomalous extracellular diffusion in the GL of rat cerebellum. This finding lends support to the DS microdomain hypothesis. Transiently anomalous diffusion also has a profound effect on the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules released into the ECS, especially at diffusion distances on the order of a few cell diameters, speeding up short-range diffusion-mediated signals in less permeable
Anomalous Extracellular Diffusion in Rat Cerebellum
Xiao, Fanrong; Hrabe, Jan; Hrabetova, Sabina
2015-01-01
Extracellular space (ECS) is a major channel transporting biologically active molecules and drugs in the brain. Diffusion-mediated transport of these substances is hindered by the ECS structure but the microscopic basis of this hindrance is not fully understood. One hypothesis proposes that the hindrance originates in large part from the presence of dead-space (DS) microdomains that can transiently retain diffusing molecules. Because previous theoretical and modeling work reported an initial period of anomalous diffusion in similar environments, we expected that brain regions densely populated by DS microdomains would exhibit anomalous extracellular diffusion. Specifically, we targeted granular layers (GL) of rat and turtle cerebella that are populated with large and geometrically complex glomeruli. The integrative optical imaging (IOI) method was employed to evaluate diffusion of fluorophore-labeled dextran (MW 3000) in GL, and the IOI data analysis was adapted to quantify the anomalous diffusion exponent dw from the IOI records. Diffusion was significantly anomalous in rat GL, where dw reached 4.8. In the geometrically simpler turtle GL, dw was elevated but not robustly anomalous (dw = 2.6). The experimental work was complemented by numerical Monte Carlo simulations of anomalous ECS diffusion in several three-dimensional tissue models containing glomeruli-like structures. It demonstrated that both the duration of transiently anomalous diffusion and the anomalous exponent depend on the size of model glomeruli and the degree of their wrapping. In conclusion, we have found anomalous extracellular diffusion in the GL of rat cerebellum. This finding lends support to the DS microdomain hypothesis. Transiently anomalous diffusion also has a profound effect on the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules released into the ECS, especially at diffusion distances on the order of a few cell diameters, speeding up short-range diffusion-mediated signals in less permeable
Persistently anomalous Pacific geomagnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Catherine L.; Constable, Catherine G.
A new average geomagnetic field model for the past 3kyr (ALS3K) helps bridge a large temporal sampling gap between historical models and more traditional paleomagnetic studies spanning the last 5 Myr. A quasi-static feature seen historically in the central Pacific has the opposite sign in ALS3K; its structure is similar to, but of larger amplitude than, that in the time-averaged geomagnetic field for the last 5 Myr. Anomalous geomagnetic fields exist beneath the Pacific over timescales ranging from 10²-106 years. It is unlikely that bias over such long time scales arises from electromagnetic screening, but conceivable that the Lorentz force is influenced by long wavelength thermal variations and/or localized regions of increased electrical conductivity (associated with compositional anomalies and possibly partial melt). This is consistent with recent seismic observations of the lower mantle.
Anomalous Growth of Aging Populations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grebenkov, Denis S.
2016-04-01
We consider a discrete-time population dynamics with age-dependent structure. At every time step, one of the alive individuals from the population is chosen randomly and removed with probability q_k depending on its age, whereas a new individual of age 1 is born with probability r. The model can also describe a single queue in which the service order is random while the service efficiency depends on a customer's "age" in the queue. We propose a mean field approximation to investigate the long-time asymptotic behavior of the mean population size. The age dependence is shown to lead to anomalous power-law growth of the population at the critical regime. The scaling exponent is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the probabilities q_k at large k. The mean field approximation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.
Anomalous Sediment Mixing by Bioturbation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roche, K. R.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Xie, M.; Packman, A. I.
2013-12-01
Bioturbation, the reworking of sediments by animals and plants, is the dominant mode of sediment mixing in low-energy environments, and plays an important role in sedimentary biogeochemical processes. Mixing resulting from bioturbation has historically been modeled as a diffusive process. However, diffusion models often do not provide a sufficient description of sediment mixing due to bioturbation. Stochastic models, such as the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model, provide more general descriptions of mixing behavior that are applicable even when regular diffusion assumptions are not met. Here we present results from an experimental investigation of anomalous sediment mixing by bioturbation in freshwater sediments. Clean and heavy-metal-contaminated sediments were collected from Lake DePue, a backwater lake of the Illinois River. The burrowing worm species Lumbriculus variegatus was introduced to homogenized Lake DePue sediments in aerated aquaria. We then introduced inert fine fluorescent particles to the sediment-water interface. Using time-lapse photography, we observed the mixing of the fluorescent particles into the sediment bed over a two-week period. We developed image analysis software to characterize the concentration distribution of the fluorescent particles as a function of sediment depth, and applied this to the time-series of images to evaluate sediment mixing. We fit a one-dimensional CTRW model to the depth profiles to evaluate the underlying statistical properties of the mixing behavior. This analysis suggests that the sediment mixing caused by L. variegatus burrowing is subdiffusive in time and superdiffusive in space. We also found that heavy metal contamination significantly reduces L. variegatus burrowing, causing increasingly anomalous sediment mixing. This result implies that there can be important feedbacks between sediment chemistry, organism behavior, and sediment mixing that are not considered in current environmental models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Hui; Tang, Gang; Han, Kui; Hao, Da-Peng; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Lei-Ming
To determine anomalous dynamic scaling of continuum growth equations, López12 proposed an analytical approach, which is based on the scaling analysis introduced by Hentschel and Family.15 In this work, we generalize this scaling analysis to the (d+1)-dimensional molecular-beam epitaxy equations to determine their anomalous dynamic scaling. The growth equations studied here include the linear molecular-beam epitaxy (LMBE) and Lai-Das Sarma-Villain (LDV). We find that both the LMBE and LDV equations, when the substrate dimension d>2, correspond to a standard Family-Vicsek scaling, however, when d<2, exhibit anomalous dynamic roughening of the local fluctuations of the growth height. When the growth equations exhibit anomalous dynamic scaling, we obtain the local roughness exponents by using scaling relation αloc=α-zκ, which are consistent with the corresponding numerical results.
Zhu, Xiaolan; Chen, Bo; Ma, Ming; Luo, Xubiao; Zhang, Fei; Yao, Shouzhuo; Wan, Zutian; Yang, Dajin; Hang, Hongwei
2004-02-18
A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) separation coupled with photo diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection was established for the analyzing of multiple bioactive compounds in tea and tea extracts. Theanine, chlorogenic acid, purine alkaloids and catechins were identified with authentic standard compounds and with MS-spectra. The content of theanine and catechins was measured by employing DAD and caffeine, chlorogenic acid, theobromine and theopylline by protonated molecular ion on selective ion recording (SIR) mode. The unity of LC/ESI-MS provides more qualitative and quantitative information comparing with general HPLC in the analysis of multi-components in tea, and complex extraction or sample pretreatment is unnecessary. The chromatogram acquired by using this method can be used as a bioactive components fingerprint for the quality control of tea and its extracts. With the help of multi-dimension information of HPLC-DAD-ESIMS, the compounds owning different chemical structure such as amino acid, catechins, etc. in tea and its extracts could be identified and determined in one run successfully.
Nonminimal universal extra dimensions
Flacke, Thomas; Menon, A.; Phalen, Daniel J.
2009-03-01
In this paper, we investigate the phenomenological implications of boundary localized terms (BLTs) in the model of universal extra dimensions (UED). In particular, we study the electroweak Kaluza-Klein mass spectrum resulting from BLTs and their effect on electroweak symmetry breaking via the five-dimensional Higgs mechanism. We find that the addition of BLTs to massive five-dimensional fields induces a nontrivial extra-dimensional profile for the zero and nonzero Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes. Hence BLTs generically lead to a modification of standard model parameters and are therefore experimentally constrained, even at tree level. We study standard model constraints on three representative nonminimal UED models in detail and find that the constraints on BLTs are weak. On the contrary, nonzero BLTs have a major impact on the spectrum and couplings of nonzero KK modes. For example, there are regions of parameter space where the lightest Kaluza-Klein particle is either the Kaluza-Klein Higgs boson or the first KK mode of the W{sup 3}.
Anomalous systemic arterial supply of pulmonary sequestration in adult patients
Hou, Xiaomeng; Li, Ji; Li, Jing; Cai, Baiqiang
2017-01-01
OBJECTIVES: This study described the characteristics of the systemic arterial supply of pulmonary sequestration (PS) in an attempt to better distinguish PS from other acquired lesions. METHODS: We identified 25 patients hospitalized at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital during January 2013 to December 2015 with the assistance of medical catalogers. Twenty-three patients with a definite diagnosis of “pulmonary sequestration” clinically or pathologically were included in the study. The medical records, imaging information, and pathological data were reviewed retrospectively. The general characteristics of the patients and the features of the anomalous arteries were summarized. RESULTS: Aberrant arterial supply of PS was found in all 23 (100%) cases. Among them, twenty patients received surgery, including 14 (70%) with aberrant arterial supply found before surgery, and the other 6 (30%) found during surgery. Nineteen (82.6%) patients had a single systematic arterial supply, with a median diameter of 8 mm. More than one arterial supplies were found in four (17.4%) cases. In 21 (91.3%) cases, the anomalous systemic artery originated from the descending thoracic aorta just adjacent to the sequestrated lung which it supplied, without the presence of accompanying bronchi. In twenty (87.0%) patients who received the surgical intervention, samples of 12 (85.7%) were proved to have elastic vessel walls, out of the 14 samples in which the anomalous systemic arteries were available for analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There are no certain pathology diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of PS. The detecting of the aberrant systematic artery and distinguishing it from the bronchial arteries corresponded to certain lung abnormalities are the keys to the accurate diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration in adult patients. We propose that the characteristic features of the anomalous arteries include: Originating from aorta and its main branches, adjacent to the sequestrated area
Experimental phasing using zinc anomalous scattering
Cha, Sun-Shin; An, Young Jun; Jeong, Chang-Sook; Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Oh, Byung-Ha
2012-09-01
The surface of proteins can be charged with zinc ions and the anomalous signals from these zinc ions can be used for structure determination of proteins. Zinc is a suitable metal for anomalous dispersion phasing methods in protein crystallography. Structure determination using zinc anomalous scattering has been almost exclusively limited to proteins with intrinsically bound zinc(s). Here, it is reported that multiple zinc ions can easily be charged onto the surface of proteins with no intrinsic zinc-binding site by using zinc-containing solutions. Zn derivatization of protein surfaces appears to be a largely unnoticed but promising method of protein structure determination.
Anomalous dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching
Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D.; Cahill, P.A.
1993-11-01
The authors report on a scheme for phase-matching second harmonic generation in polymer waveguides based on the use of anomalous dispersion to optimize Cerenkov phase matching. They have used the theoretical results of Hashizume et al. and Onda and Ito to design an optimum structure for phase-matched conversion. They have found that the use of anomalous dispersion in the design results in a 100-fold enhancement in the calculated conversion efficiency. This technique also overcomes the limitation of anomalous dispersion phase-matching which results from absorption at the second harmonic. Experiments are in progress to demonstrate these results.
Critical gravity in four dimensions.
Lü, H; Pope, C N
2011-05-06
We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This "critical" theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical "new massive gravity" with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions.
Critical Gravity in Four Dimensions
Lue, H.; Pope, C. N.
2011-05-06
We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This ''critical'' theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical 'new massive gravity' with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions.
Constraints on anomalous top quark couplings at the LHC
Rizzo, T.G.
1996-09-01
Measurements of distributions associated with the pair production of top quarks at the LHC can be used to constrain (or observe) the anomalous chromomagnetic dipole moment(k) of the top. For example, using either the tt(bar) invariant mass or the Pt distribution of top we find that sensitivities to ; k; of order 0.05 are obtainable with 100 /fb of integrated luminosity. This is similar in magnitude to what can be obtained at a 500 GeV NLC with an integrated luminosity of 50 /fb through an examination of the e(+)e(-) right arrow tt(bar)g process.
Search for anomalous Wtb couplings in single top quark production.
Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalk, J M; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G
2008-11-28
In 0.9 fb(-1) of pp[over] collisions, the D0 Collaboration presented evidence for single top quark production in events with an isolated lepton, missing transverse momentum, and two to four jets. We examine these data to study the Lorentz structure of the Wtb coupling. The standard model predicts a left-handed vector coupling at the Wtb vertex. The most general lowest dimension, CP-conserving Lagrangian admits right-handed vector and left- or right-handed tensor couplings as well. We find that the data prefer the left-handed vector coupling and set upper limits on the anomalous couplings. These are the first direct constraints on a general Wtb interaction and the first direct limits on left- and right-handed tensor couplings.
Anomalous Diffraction in Crystallographic Phase Evaluation
Hendrickson, Wayne A.
2014-01-01
X-ray diffraction patterns from crystals of biological macromolecules contain sufficient information to define atomic structures, but atomic positions are inextricable without having electron-density images. Diffraction measurements provide amplitudes, but the computation of electron density also requires phases for the diffracted waves. The resonance phenomenon known as anomalous scattering offers a powerful solution to this phase problem. Exploiting scattering resonances from diverse elements, the methods of multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) now predominate for de novo determinations of atomic-level biological structures. This review describes the physical underpinnings of anomalous diffraction methods, the evolution of these methods to their current maturity, the elements, procedures and instrumentation used for effective implementation, and the realm of applications. PMID:24726017
Detecting anomalous phase synchronization from time series
Tokuda, Isao T.; Kumar Dana, Syamal; Kurths, Juergen
2008-06-15
Modeling approaches are presented for detecting an anomalous route to phase synchronization from time series of two interacting nonlinear oscillators. The anomalous transition is characterized by an enlargement of the mean frequency difference between the oscillators with an initial increase in the coupling strength. Although such a structure is common in a large class of coupled nonisochronous oscillators, prediction of the anomalous transition is nontrivial for experimental systems, whose dynamical properties are unknown. Two approaches are examined; one is a phase equational modeling of coupled limit cycle oscillators and the other is a nonlinear predictive modeling of coupled chaotic oscillators. Application to prototypical models such as two interacting predator-prey systems in both limit cycle and chaotic regimes demonstrates the capability of detecting the anomalous structure from only a few sets of time series. Experimental data from two coupled Chua circuits shows its applicability to real experimental system.
The charmonium dissociation in an ''anomalous wind''
Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi
2016-01-11
We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries "anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the "anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the "anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and it qualitative difference between anomalous effects on the charmonium color screening length which are model-dependent and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. As a result, we speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by the chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.
The charmonium dissociation in an ''anomalous wind''
Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi
2016-01-11
We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries "anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the "anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the "anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and it qualitative difference between anomalous effects on the charmoniummore » color screening length which are model-dependent and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. As a result, we speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by the chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.« less
On polarization parameters of spin-1 particles and anomalous couplings in e^+e^-→ ZZ/Zγ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahaman, Rafiqul; Singh, Ritesh K.
2016-10-01
We study the anomalous trilinear gauge couplings of Z and γ using a complete set of polarization asymmetries for the Z boson in e^+e^-→ ZZ/Zγ processes with unpolarized initial beams. We use these polarization asymmetries, along with the cross section, to obtain a simultaneous limit on all the anomalous couplings using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. For an e^+e^- collider running at 500 GeV center-of-mass energy and 100 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity the simultaneous limits on the anomalous couplings are 1-3× 10^{-3}.
Dimensions of Educational Need.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johns, Roe L., Ed.; And Others
Roe L. Johns and J. Alan Thomas survey the problem of educational need; and Kern Alexander considers the implications of the dimensions of educational need for school financing. Dimensions of need in the following areas are defined: early childhood and basic elementary and secondary education, by William P. McLure; educational programs for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lodge-Peters, Dianne S.
The qualitative dimension of educational research methodology is explored, and the literature of qualitative methodology is reviewed so researchers may (1) understand more fully the qualitative dimension as it, in turn, fits within the parameters of educational research as a whole, and (2) have more informed access to the sometimes daunting array…
Navigating between the Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fleron, Julian F.; Ecke, Volker
2011-01-01
Generations have been inspired by Edwin A. Abbott's profound tour of the dimensions in his novella "Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions" (1884). This well-known satire is the story of a flat land inhabited by geometric shapes trying to navigate the subtleties of their geometric, social, and political positions. In this article, the authors…
The Anomalous Orbital Motion Of Mab Explained
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Kartik; de Pater, I.; Showalter, M. R.
2012-10-01
Showalter and Lissauer (2003) reported the discovery of two previously unknown inner satellites of Uranus (Mab and Cupid), using data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Subsequently, they announced the discovery of an outer ring system composed of the ν-ring and the μ-ring (Showalter and Lissauer, 2006). They showed that the orbit of Mab, embedded in the μ-ring, is not well understood, after comparing its orbital position derived from Voyager flyby data (1986) to HST data (2003-2006). The observed positions were compared with a Keplerian orbital model that included the gravitational flattening of Uranus. Although this model works well for nine other Uranian moons, for Mab the fitting errors are six times larger. Mab is relatively bright in the data and well isolated from the other moons, suggesting that the measurement errors should not be large. Hence, the magnitude of the orbit fit residual seems to indicate that we are currently overlooking an essential part of the dynamics that determines the orbit of Mab. It is clear from these discoveries that Mab and the μ-ring are intriguing, constituting "a densely packed, rapidly varying, and possibly unstable dynamical system." We investigated the nature of Mab's anomalous orbital motion, which has thus far remained unexplained. The dynamical effects we simulated result from the interaction of Mab with a hypothetical ring of undetected moonlets in its neighborhood. We explored the effects of varying the characteristics of such a ring (mass and orbital-element distribution) on Mab's orbital motion. From these results we are able to highlight a number of interesting dynamical regimes. In particular, our simulations reveal the important role that perturbers occupying horseshoe orbits might play in determining the perturbations experienced by Mab. Further studies will be conducted to investigate the long-term stability of a possible perturber ring.
Anomalous columnar order of charged colloidal platelets.
Morales-Anda, L; Wensink, H H; Galindo, A; Gil-Villegas, A
2012-01-21
Monte Carlo computer simulations are carried out for a model system of like-charged colloidal platelets in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble (NpT). The aim is to elucidate the role of electrostatic interactions on the structure of synthetic clay systems at high particle densities. Short-range repulsions between particles are described by a suitable hard-core model representing a discotic particle. This potential is supplemented with an electrostatic potential based on a Yukawa model for the screened Coulombic potential between infinitely thin disklike macro-ions. The particle aspect-ratio and electrostatic parameters were chosen to mimic an aqueous dispersion of thin, like-charged, rigid colloidal platelets at finite salt concentration. An examination of the fluid phase diagram reveals a marked shift in the isotropic-nematic transition compared to the hard cut-sphere reference system. Several statistical functions, such as the pair correlation function for the center-of-mass coordinates and structure factor, are obtained to characterize the structural organization of the platelets phases. At low salinity and high osmotic pressure we observe anomalous hexagonal columnar structures characterized by interpenetrating columns with a typical intercolumnar distance corresponding to about half of that of a regular columnar phase. Increasing the ionic strength leads to the formation of glassy, disordered structures consisting of compact clusters of platelets stacked into finite-sized columns. These so-called "nematic columnar" structures have been recently observed in systems of charge-stabilized gibbsite platelets. Our findings are corroborated by an analysis of the static structure factor from a simple density functional theory.
Wilbur, W John; Kim, Won
2003-01-01
Indexing of documents is an important strategy intended to make the literature more readily available to the user. Here we describe several dimensions of indexing that are important if indexing is to be optimal. These dimensions are coverage, predictability, and transparency. MeSH terms and text words are compared in MEDLINE in regard to these dimensions. Part of our analysis consists in applying AdaBoost with decisions trees as the weak learners to estimate how reliably index terms are being assigned and how complex the criteria are by which they are being assigned. Our conclusions are that MeSH terms are more predictable and more transparent than text words.
Anomalous resonant production of the fourth-family up-type quarks at the LHC
Cakir, I. T.; Yildiz, H. Duran; Cakir, O.; Uenel, G.
2009-11-01
Considering the present limits on their masses from the Tevatron experiments, the fourth-family quarks are expected to have masses larger than the top quark. Because of their expected large masses, they could have different dynamics than the third-family quarks of the standard model. The resonant production of the fourth-family up-type quark t{sup '} has been studied via the anomalous production subprocess gq{sub i}{yields}t{sup '} (where q{sub i}=u, c) at the LHC, with center-of-mass energies of 10 TeV and 14 TeV. The signatures of such a process are discussed within the standard model decay modes. The sensitivity to the anomalous coupling {kappa}/{lambda}=0.1 TeV{sup -1} can be reached at {radical}(s)=10 TeV and L{sub int}=100 pb{sup -1}.
Giant Arachnoid Granulation Associated with Anomalous Draining Vein: A Case Report
Oskouian, Rod J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R. Shane
2017-01-01
Giant arachnoid granulations (AG) can mimic intracranial lesions. Knowledge of these structures can help avoid misdiagnosis when interpreting imaging. Here, we report a child who presented with a mass within the superior sagittal sinus and an anomalous draining vein. Herein, the diagnosis of a giant AG was made. Clinicians who view or interpret imaging of the head should be aware of these anatomical variants and though when very large, apparently, do not necessarily result in pathology. Based on our case report, giant AG might also demonstrate anomalous draining veins.
Polyhedra and Higher Dimensions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Paul
1988-01-01
Describes the definition and characteristics of a regular polyhedron, tessellation, and pseudopolyhedra with diagrams. Discusses the nature of simplex, hypercube, and cross-polytope in the fourth dimension and beyond. (YP)
Dimensions of Aesthetic Perception.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Biaggio, Mary Kay; Supplee, Katherine A.
1983-01-01
Examines the validity of three dimensions of aesthetic perception: hedonic value, arousal, and uncertainty. Hedonic interest and arousal factors were found to differ from factors previously reported, while the uncertainty factor paralleled that previously reported. (Author/RH)
Dynamics of particles near black hole with higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Iftikhar, Sehrish
2016-07-01
This paper explores the dynamics of particles in higher dimensions. For this purpose, we discuss some interesting features related to the motion of particles near a Myers-Perry black hole with arbitrary extra dimensions as well as a single non-zero spin parameter. Assuming it as a supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy, we calculate red-blue shifts in the equatorial plane for the far away observer as well as the corresponding black hole parameters of the photons. Next, we study the Penrose process and find that the energy gain of the particle depends on the variation of the black hole dimensions. Finally, we discuss the center of mass energy for 11 dimensions, which indicates a similar behavior to that of four dimensions but it is higher in four dimensions than five or more dimensions. We conclude that higher dimensions have a great impact on the particle dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirshberg, Ilan; Szabó, Gábor; Winter, Wilhelm; Wu, Jianchao
2016-10-01
We introduce a notion of Rokhlin dimension for one parameter automorphism groups of {C^*} -algebras. This generalizes Kishimoto's Rokhlin property for flows, and is analogous to the notion of Rokhlin dimension for actions of the integers and other discrete groups introduced by the authors and Zacharias in previous papers. We show that finite nuclear dimension and absorption of a strongly self-absorbing {C^*} -algebra are preserved under forming crossed products by flows with finite Rokhlin dimension, and that these crossed products are stable. Furthermore, we show that a flow on a commutative {C^*} -algebra arising from a free topological flow has finite Rokhlin dimension, whenever the spectrum is a locally compact metrizable space with finite covering dimension. For flows that are both free and minimal, this has strong consequences for the associated crossed product {C^{*}} -algebras: Those containing a non-zero projection are classified by the Elliott invariant (for compact manifolds this consists of topological {K} -theory together with the space of invariant probability measures and a natural pairing given by the Ruelle-Sullivan map).
ON THE SOURCE OF ASTROMETRIC ANOMALOUS REFRACTION
Taylor, M. Suzanne; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.; Pier, Jeffrey R.
2013-03-15
More than a century ago, astronomers using transit telescopes to determine precise stellar positions were hampered by an unexplained periodic shifting of the stars they were observing. With the advent of CCD transit telescopes in the past three decades, this unexplained motion, termed 'anomalous refraction' by these early astronomers, is again being observed. Anomalous refraction is described as a low-frequency, large angular scale ({approx}2 Degree-Sign ) motion of the entire image plane with respect to the celestial coordinate system as observed and defined by astrometric catalogs. These motions, of typically several tenths of an arcsecond amplitude with timescales on the order of 10 minutes, are ubiquitous to ground-based drift-scan astrometric measurements regardless of location or telescopes used and have been attributed to the effect of tilting of equal-density layers of the atmosphere. The cause of this tilting has often been attributed to atmospheric gravity waves, but this cause has never been confirmed. Although theoretical models of atmospheric refraction show that atmospheric gravity waves are a plausible cause of anomalous refraction, an observational campaign specifically directed at defining this relationship provides clear evidence that anomalous refraction is not consistent with the passage of atmospheric gravity waves. The source of anomalous refraction is found to be meter-scale, slowly evolving quasi-coherent dynamical structures in the boundary layer below 60 m above ground level.
Parametric probability distributions for anomalous change detection
Theiler, James P; Foy, Bernard R; Wohlberg, Brendt E; Scovel, James C
2010-01-01
The problem of anomalous change detection arises when two (or possibly more) images are taken of the same scene, but at different times. The aim is to discount the 'pervasive differences' that occur thoughout the imagery, due to the inevitably different conditions under which the images were taken (caused, for instance, by differences in illumination, atmospheric conditions, sensor calibration, or misregistration), and to focus instead on the 'anomalous changes' that actually take place in the scene. In general, anomalous change detection algorithms attempt to model these normal or pervasive differences, based on data taken directly from the imagery, and then identify as anomalous those pixels for which the model does not hold. For many algorithms, these models are expressed in terms of probability distributions, and there is a class of such algorithms that assume the distributions are Gaussian. By considering a broader class of distributions, however, a new class of anomalous change detection algorithms can be developed. We consider several parametric families of such distributions, derive the associated change detection algorithms, and compare the performance with standard algorithms that are based on Gaussian distributions. We find that it is often possible to significantly outperform these standard algorithms, even using relatively simple non-Gaussian models.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators
Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng
2015-08-25
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Here, we give a theoretical introduction to the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect based on magnetic topological insulators in two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). In 2D topological insulators, magnetic order breaks the symmetry between the counter-propagating helical edge states, and as a result, the quantum spin Hall effect can evolve into the QAH effect. In 3D, magnetic order opens up a gap for the topological surface states, and chiral edge state has been predicted to exist on the magnetic domain walls. We present the phase diagram in thin films of a magnetic topological insulator and review the basic mechanism of ferromagnetic order in magnetically doped topological insulators. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QAH effect. Furthermore, we discuss more recent theoretical work on the coexistence of the helical and chiral edge states, multi-channel chiral edge states, the theory of the plateau transition, and the thickness dependence in the QAH effect.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators
Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng
2015-08-25
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Here, we give a theoretical introduction to the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect based on magnetic topological insulators in two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). In 2D topological insulators, magnetic order breaks the symmetry between the counter-propagating helical edge states, and as a result, the quantum spin Hall effect can evolve into the QAH effect. In 3D, magnetic order opens up a gap for the topological surface states, and chiral edge state has been predicted to exist on the magnetic domain walls. We presentmore » the phase diagram in thin films of a magnetic topological insulator and review the basic mechanism of ferromagnetic order in magnetically doped topological insulators. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QAH effect. Furthermore, we discuss more recent theoretical work on the coexistence of the helical and chiral edge states, multi-channel chiral edge states, the theory of the plateau transition, and the thickness dependence in the QAH effect.« less
Anomalous versus Slowed-Down Brownian Diffusion in the Ligand-Binding Equilibrium
Soula, Hédi; Caré, Bertrand; Beslon, Guillaume; Berry, Hugues
2013-01-01
Measurements of protein motion in living cells and membranes consistently report transient anomalous diffusion (subdiffusion) that converges back to a Brownian motion with reduced diffusion coefficient at long times after the anomalous diffusion regime. Therefore, slowed-down Brownian motion could be considered the macroscopic limit of transient anomalous diffusion. On the other hand, membranes are also heterogeneous media in which Brownian motion may be locally slowed down due to variations in lipid composition. Here, we investigate whether both situations lead to a similar behavior for the reversible ligand-binding reaction in two dimensions. We compare the (long-time) equilibrium properties obtained with transient anomalous diffusion due to obstacle hindrance or power-law-distributed residence times (continuous-time random walks) to those obtained with space-dependent slowed-down Brownian motion. Using theoretical arguments and Monte Carlo simulations, we show that these three scenarios have distinctive effects on the apparent affinity of the reaction. Whereas continuous-time random walks decrease the apparent affinity of the reaction, locally slowed-down Brownian motion and local hindrance by obstacles both improve it. However, only in the case of slowed-down Brownian motion is the affinity maximal when the slowdown is restricted to a subregion of the available space. Hence, even at long times (equilibrium), these processes are different and exhibit irreconcilable behaviors when the area fraction of reduced mobility changes. PMID:24209851
Neoclassical Viscosities and Anomalous Flows in Stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ware, A. S.; Spong, D. A.; Breyfogle, M.; Marine, T.
2009-05-01
We present initial work to use neoclassical viscosities calculated with the PENTA code [1] in a transport model that includes Reynolds stress generation of flows [2]. The PENTA code uses a drift kinetic equation solver to calculate neoclassical viscosities and flows in general three-dimensional geometries over a range of collisionalities. The predicted neoclassical viscosities predicted by PENTA can be flux-surfaced average and applied in a 1-D transport model that includes anomalous flow generation. This combination of codes can be used to test the impact of stellarator geometry on anomalous flow generation. As a test case, we apply the code to modeling flows in the HSX stellarator. Due to variations in the neoclassical viscosities, HSX can have strong neoclassical flows in the core region. In turn, these neoclassical flows can provide a seed for anomalous flow generation. [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [2] D. E. Newman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 938 (1998).
Drag suppression in anomalous chiral media
Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi
2016-06-01
We study a heavy impurity moving longitudinal with the direction of an external magnetic field in an anomalous chiral medium. Such system would carry a non-dissipative current of chiral magnetic effect associated with the anomaly. We show, by generalizing Landau's criterion for super fluidity, that the "anomalous component" which gives rise to the anomalous transport will not contribute to the drag experienced by an impurity. We argue on a very general basis that those systems with a strong magnetic field would exhibit an interesting transport phenomenon$-$the motion of the heavy impurity is frictionless, in analogy to the case of amore » super fluid. Finally, we demonstrate and confirm our general results with two complementary examples: weakly coupled chiral fermion gases and strongly interacting chiral liquids.« less
Drag suppression in anomalous chiral media
Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi
2016-06-01
We study a heavy impurity moving longitudinal with the direction of an external magnetic field in an anomalous chiral medium. Such system would carry a non-dissipative current of chiral magnetic effect associated with the anomaly. We show, by generalizing Landau's criterion for super fluidity, that the "anomalous component" which gives rise to the anomalous transport will not contribute to the drag experienced by an impurity. We argue on a very general basis that those systems with a strong magnetic field would exhibit an interesting transport phenomenon$-$the motion of the heavy impurity is frictionless, in analogy to the case of a super fluid. Finally, we demonstrate and confirm our general results with two complementary examples: weakly coupled chiral fermion gases and strongly interacting chiral liquids.
Models of anomalous diffusion: the subdiffusive case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piryatinska, A.; Saichev, A. I.; Woyczynski, W. A.
2005-04-01
The paper discusses a model for anomalous diffusion processes. Their one-point probability density functions (p.d.f.) are exact solutions of fractional diffusion equations. The model reflects the asymptotic behavior of a jump (anomalous random walk) process with random jump sizes and random inter-jump time intervals with infinite means (and variances) which do not satisfy the Law of Large Numbers. In the case when these intervals have a fractional exponential p.d.f., the fractional Komogorov-Feller equation for the corresponding anomalous diffusion is provided and methods of finding its solutions are discussed. Finally, some statistical properties of solutions of the related Langevin equation are studied. The subdiffusive case is explored in detail. The emphasis is on a rigorous presentation which, however, would be accessible to the physical sciences audience.
A potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yin, B.; Shay, T. M.
1992-01-01
The characteristics of a potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter operating on the blue and near infrared transitions are calculated. The results show that the filter can be designed to provide high transmission, very narrow pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth. The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) provides a narrow pass bandwidth (about GHz) optical filter for laser communications, remote sensing, and lidar. The general theoretical model for the FADOF has been established in our previous paper. In this paper, we have identified the optimum operational conditions for a potassium FADOF operating on the blue and infrared transitions. The signal transmission, bandwidth, and equivalent noise bandwidth (ENBW) are also calculated.
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of anomalous coronary arteries.
Varghese, Anitha; Keegan, Jennifer; Pennell, Dudley J
2005-09-01
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of anomalous coronary arteries is a class I indication. The term anomalous coronary artery encompasses those with an abnormal origin (from the incorrect sinus, too-high or too-low from the correct sinus, or from the pulmonary artery) and/or number of ostia. Their clinical significance results from the increased risk of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death associated with those traversing an interarterial course between the aorta and main pulmonary artery/right ventricular outflow tract. In this article, we review the role and practice of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in this field.
Effects of genuine dimension-six Higgs operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barger, Vernon; Han, Tao; Langacker, Paul; McElrath, Bob; Zerwas, Peter
2003-06-01
We systematically discuss the consequences of genuine dimension-six Higgs operators. These operators are not subject to stringent constraints from electroweak precision data. However, they can modify the couplings of the Higgs boson to electroweak gauge bosons and, in particular, the Higgs self-interactions. We study the sensitivity to which those couplings can be probed at future e+e- linear colliders in the sub-TeV and in the multi-TeV range. We find that for (s)=500 GeV with a luminosity of 1 ab-1 the anomalous WWH and ZZH couplings may be probed to about the 0.01 level, and the anomalous HHH coupling to about the 0.1 level.
Perceptual dimensions differentiate emotions.
Cavanaugh, Lisa A; MacInnis, Deborah J; Weiss, Allen M
2015-08-26
Individuals often describe objects in their world in terms of perceptual dimensions that span a variety of modalities; the visual (e.g., brightness: dark-bright), the auditory (e.g., loudness: quiet-loud), the gustatory (e.g., taste: sour-sweet), the tactile (e.g., hardness: soft vs. hard) and the kinaesthetic (e.g., speed: slow-fast). We ask whether individuals use perceptual dimensions to differentiate emotions from one another. Participants in two studies (one where respondents reported on abstract emotion concepts and a second where they reported on specific emotion episodes) rated the extent to which features anchoring 29 perceptual dimensions (e.g., temperature, texture and taste) are associated with 8 emotions (anger, fear, sadness, guilt, contentment, gratitude, pride and excitement). Results revealed that in both studies perceptual dimensions differentiate positive from negative emotions and high arousal from low arousal emotions. They also differentiate among emotions that are similar in arousal and valence (e.g., high arousal negative emotions such as anger and fear). Specific features that anchor particular perceptual dimensions (e.g., hot vs. cold) are also differentially associated with emotions.
Grand unification in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori
2003-07-01
We have recently proposed an alternative picture for the physics at the scale of gauge coupling unification, where the unified symmetry is realized in higher dimensions but is broken locally by a symmetry breaking defect. Gauge coupling unification, the quantum numbers of quarks and leptons and the longevity of the proton arise as phenomena of the symmetrical bulk, while the lightness of the Higgs doublets and the masses of the light quarks and leptons probe the symmetry breaking defect. Moreover, the framework is extremely predictive if the effective higher dimensional theory is valid over a large energy interval up to the scale of strong coupling. Precise agreement with experiments is obtained in the simplest theory— SU(5) in five dimensions with two Higgs multiplets propagating in the bulk. The weak mixing angle is predicted to be sin 2θw=0.2313±0.0004, which fits the data with extraordinary accuracy. The compactification scale and the strong coupling scale are determined to be M c≃5×10 14 GeV and M s≃1×10 17 GeV, respectively. Proton decay with a lifetime of order 10 34 years is expected with a variety of final states such as e+π0, and several aspects of flavor, including large neutrino mixing angles, are understood by the geometrical locations of the matter fields. When combined with a particular supersymmetry breaking mechanism, the theory predicts large lepton flavor violating μ→ e and τ→ μ transitions, with all superpartner masses determined by only two free parameters. The predicted value of the bottom quark mass from Yukawa unification agrees well with the data. This paper is mainly a review of the work presented in hep-ph/0103125, hep-ph/0111068, and hep-ph/0205067 [1-3].
Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi
2013-01-01
In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…
Constraints on mixed dark matter from anomalous strong lens systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamada, Ayuki; Inoue, Kaiki Taro; Takahashi, Tomo
2016-07-01
Recently it has been claimed that the warm dark matter (WDM) model cannot at the same time reproduce the observed Lyman-α forests in distant quasar spectra and solve the small-scale issues in the cold dark matter (CDM) model. As an alternative candidate, it was shown that the mixed dark matter (MDM) model that consists of WDM and CDM can satisfy the constraint from Lyman-α forests and account for the "missing satellite problem" as well as the reported 3.5 keV anomalous x-ray line. We investigate observational constraints on the MDM model using strong gravitational lenses. We first develop a fitting formula for the nonlinear power spectra in the MDM model by performing N -body simulations and estimate the expected perturbations caused by line-of-sight structures in four quadruply lensed quasars that show anomaly in the flux ratios. Our analysis indicates that the MDM model is compatible with the observed anomaly if the mass fraction of the warm component is smaller than 0.47 at the 95% confidence level. The MDM explanation to the anomalous x-ray line and the small-scale issues is still viable even after this constraint is taken into account.
Anomalous transport in fracture networks: field scale experiments and modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, P. K.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.
2012-12-01
Anomalous transport is widely observed in different settings and scales of transport through porous and fractured geologic media. A common signature of anomalous transport is the late-time power law tailing in breakthrough curves (BTCs) during tracer tests. Various conceptual models of anomalous transport have been proposed, including multirate mass transfer, continuous time random walk, and stream tube models. Since different conceptual models can produce equally good fits to a single BTC, tracer test interpretation has been plagued with ambiguity. Here, we propose to resolve such ambiguity by analyzing BTCs obtained from both convergent and push-pull flow configurations at two different fracture planes. We conducted field tracer tests in a fractured granite formation close to Ploemeur, France. We observe that BTC tailing depends on the flow configuration and the injection fracture. Specifically the tailing disappears under push-pull geometry, and when we injected at a fracture with high flux (Figure 1). This indicates that for this fractured granite, BTC tailing is controlled by heterogeneous advection and not by matrix diffusion. To explain the change in tailing behavior for different flow configurations, we employ a simple lattice network model with heterogeneous conductivity distribution. The model assigns random conductivities to the fractures and solves the Darcy equation for an incompressible fluid, enforcing mass conservation at fracture intersections. The mass conservation constraint yields a correlated random flow through the fracture system. We investigate whether BTC tailing can be explained by the spatial distribution of preferential flow paths and stagnation zones, which is controlled by the conductivity variance and correlation length. By combining the results from the field tests and numerical modeling, we show that the reversibility of spreading is a key mechanism that needs to be captured. We also demonstrate the dominant role of the injection
RSRM Nozzle Anomalous Throat Erosion Investigation Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Wendel, Gary M.
1998-01-01
In September, 1996, anomalous pocketing erosion was observed in the aft end of the throat ring of the nozzle of one of the reusable solid rocket motors (RSRM 56B) used on NASA's space transportation system (STS) mission 79. The RSRM throat ring is constructed of bias tape-wrapped carbon cloth/ phenolic (CCP) ablative material. A comprehensive investigation revealed necessary and sufficient conditions for occurrence of the pocketing event and provided rationale that the solid rocket motors for the subsequent mission, STS-80, were safe to fly. The nozzles of both of these motors also exhibited anomalous erosion similar to, but less extensive than that observed on STS-79. Subsequent to this flight, the investigation to identify both the specific causes and the corrective actions for elimination of the necessary and sufficient conditions for the pocketing erosion was intensified. A detailed fault tree approach was utilized to examine potential material and process contributors to the anomalous performance. The investigation involved extensive constituent and component material property testing, pedigree assessments, supplier audits, process audits, full scale processing test article fabrication and evaluation, thermal and thermostructural analyses, nondestructive evaluation, and material performance tests conducted using hot fire simulation in laboratory test beds and subscale and full scale solid rocket motor static test firings. This presentation will provide an over-view of the observed anomalous nozzle erosion and the comprehensive, fault-tree based investigation conducted to resolve this issue.
Total least squares for anomalous change detection
Theiler, James P; Matsekh, Anna M
2010-01-01
A family of difference-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQ-based anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and furthermore it is shown to be equivalent to the optimized covariance equalization algorithm. What whitened TLSQ offers, in addition to connecting with a common language the derivations of two of the most popular anomalous change detection algorithms - chronochrome and covariance equalization - is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.
COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2013-10-01
This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage, and 4} fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13129. Adjustments were made the the Software Global Monitor {SGM} to account for an increase in the dark counts due to window glow and to align the SGM to previously obtained Fold Analysis event data.
ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2013-10-01
This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage. The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, high-voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the nominal operating HV, and 4} fold analysis test. Each must be completed successfully before proceeding onto the next. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 13163 from Cycle 20. For additional MAMA recovery information, see STIS ISR 98-02R.
STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2012-10-01
This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ_Ts health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 19 proposal 12779.
COS NUV Detector Recovery After Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2012-10-01
This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ_Ts health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage, and 4} fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes almost the same steps as Cycle 19 proposal 12723. Adjustments were made the the Software Global Monitor {SGM} to account for an increase in the dark counts due to window glow and to align the SGM to previously obtained Fold Analysis event data.
STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2013-10-01
This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13150.
Lepton flavor violation in extra dimension models
Chang, W.-F.; Ng, John N.
2005-03-01
Models involving large extra spatial dimension(s) have interesting predictions on lepton flavor violating processes. We consider some five-dimensional (5D) models which are related to neutrino mass generation or address the fermion masses hierarchy problem. We study the signatures in low energy experiments that can discriminate the different models. The focus is on muon-electron conversion in nuclei {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {mu}{yields}3e processes and their {tau} counterparts. Their links with the active neutrino mass matrix are investigated. We show that in the models we discussed the branching ratio of {mu}{yields}e{gamma} like rare process is much smaller than the ones of {mu}{yields}3e like processes. This is in sharp contrast to most of the traditional wisdom based on four-dimensional (4D) gauge models. Moreover, some rare tau decays are more promising than the rare muon decays.
Anomalous transports in a time-delayed system subjected to anomalous diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ru-Yin; Tong, Lu-Mei; Nie, Lin-Ru; Wang, Chaojie; Pan, Wanli
2017-02-01
We investigate anomalous transports of an inertial Brownian particle in a time-delayed periodic potential subjected to an external time-periodic force, a constant bias force, and the Lévy noise. By means of numerical calculations, effect of the time delay and the Lévy noise on its mean velocity are discussed. The results indicate that: (i) The time delay can induce both multiple current reversals (CRs) and absolute negative mobility (ANM) phenomena in the system; (ii) The CRs and ANM phenomena only take place in the region of superdiffusion, while disappear in the regions of normal diffusion; (iii) The time delay can cause state transition of the system from anomalous →normal →anomalous →normal →anomalous →normal transport in the case of superdiffusion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stephenson, Paul
2012-01-01
The first word of this item is "imagine". This instruction has the potential to signal a journey through a world of geometry that might leave you spellbound. On the other hand, it could be the start of a roller-coaster ride through three dimensions that will tax both your imagination, and your powers of visualisation. It is likely that you will…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bertel, Erminald
2013-01-01
Due to progress in nanotechnology high-quality quantum wires can nowadays be fabricated. The behavior of particles in one dimension differs significantly from that in three-dimensional (3D) systems, yet the physics of such low-dimensional systems is generally not very well represented in standard undergraduate or graduate curricula. For instance,…
Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions
Lincoln, Don
2014-06-10
The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.
Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Overmier, Mary; And Others
After a brief description of the dimensions of nonverbal communication, this booklet presents 21 activities that deal with nonverbal communication. Activities in the booklet involve body movements (kinesics), facial expressions, eye movements, perception and use of space (proxemics), haptics (touch), paralinguistics (vocal elements that accompany…
Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions
Lincoln, Don
2016-07-12
The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lincoln, Don
2013-01-01
They say that there is no such thing as a stupid question. In a pedagogically pure sense, that's probably true. But some questions do seem to flirt dangerously close to being really quite ridiculous. One such question might well be, "How many dimensions of space are there?" I mean, it's pretty obvious that there are three:…
Towards a Better Understanding of the Anomalous Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Di; Jin, Xiaofeng
2017-01-01
Recent experimental efforts to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions in the anomalous Hall effect are reviewed. Benefited from the experimental control of artificial impurity density in single crystalline magnetic thin films, a comprehensive physical picture of the anomalous Hall effect involving multiple competing scattering processes has been established. Some new insights into the microscopic mechanisms of the anomalous Hall effect are discussed.
The Comprehension of Anomalous Sentences: Evidence from Structural Priming
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ivanova, Iva; Pickering, Martin J.; Branigan, Holly P.; McLean, Janet F.; Costa, Albert
2012-01-01
We report three experiments investigating how people process anomalous sentences, in particular those in which the anomaly is associated with the verb. We contrast two accounts for the processing of such anomalous sentences: a syntactic account, in which the representations constructed for anomalous sentences are similar in nature to the ones…
Electroweak symmetry breaking by extra dimensions
Hsin-Chia Cheng; Bogdan A. Dobrescu and Christopher T. Hill
2000-05-25
Electroweak symmetry breaking may be naturally induced by the observed quark and gauge fields in extra dimensions without a fundamental Higgs field. The authors show that a composite Higgs doublet can arise as a bound state of (t,b){sub L} and a linear combination of the Kaluza-Klein states of t{sub R}, due to QCD in extra dimensions. The top quark mass depends on the number of active t{sub R} Kaluza-Klein modes, and is consistent with the experimental value.
Microscopic Primordial Black Holes and Extra Dimensions
Conley, John A.; Wizansky, Tommer
2006-11-15
We examine the production and evolution of microscopic black holes in the early universe in the large extra dimensions scenario. We demonstrate that, unlike in the standard four-dimensional cosmology, in large extra dimensions absorption of matter from the primordial plasma by the black holes is significant and can lead to rapid growth of the black hole mass density. This effect can be used to constrain the conditions present in the very early universe. We demonstrate that this constraint is applicable in regions of parameter space not excluded by existing bounds.
Constraints on extra dimensions from atomic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahia, F.; Lemos, A. S.
2016-10-01
We consider a hydrogen atom confined in a thick brane embedded in a higher-dimensional space. Due to effects of the extra dimensions, the gravitational potential is amplified in distances smaller than the size of the supplementary space, in comparison with the Newtonian potential. Studying the influence of the gravitational interaction modified by the extra dimensions on the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, we find independent constraints for the higher-dimensional Planck mass in terms of the thickness of the brane by using accurate measurements of atomic transition frequencies. The constraints are very stringent for narrow branes.
Plasma torches dimensioning and optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muller, S.
A set of codes which enable dimensioning and optimization of non transferred plasma torches made up of two coaxial cylindrical electrodes cooled up in the 100 kW power range is described. These torches are used in ballistic, space and industrial fields. The sharp model of exchanges between the electric arc and the plasma producing gas requires a thorough knowledge of the physical properties of this plasma producing gas so a specific study was carried out on the air. Equations taken into account include mass conservation, Navier-Stokes and energy conservation equations. An experimental data bank gathers the plasma torches performances described. The modular structure of the package and its continuous feedback between theoretical and experimental data bank improves constantly with new experimentation.
Anomalous diffusion of a polymer chain in an unentangled melt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farago, Jean; Meyer, Hendrik; Semenov, Alexander
2012-02-01
Contrary to common belief, the hydrodynamic interactions (HI) in polymer melts are not screened beyond the monomer length and are important in transient regimes. We show that the viscoelastic HI effects (VHI) lead to anomalous dynamics of a tagged chain in an unentangled melt at t < tN (tN, the Rouse time). The chain centre-of-mass (CM) mean-square displacement is enhanced (as compared to the Rouse diffusion) by a large factor increasing with chain length. We develop an analytical theory of VHI-controlled chain dynamics yielding negative CM velocity autocorrelation function which quantitatively agrees with our MD simulations without any fitting parameter. It is also shown that the Langevin friction force, when added in the model, strongly affects the short-t CM dynamics which, however, can remain strongly enhanced. The transient VHI effects thus provide the dominant contribution to the subdiffusive CM motion universally observed in simulations and experiments on polymer melts.
Viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions and anomalous CM diffusion in polymer melts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Hendrik
We have recently discovered that anomalous center-of-mass (CM) diffusion occurring on intermediate time scales in polymer melts can be explained by the interplay of viscoelastic and hydrodynamic interactions (VHI). The theory has been solved for unentangled melts in 3D and 2D and excellent agreement between theory and simulation is found, also for alkanes with a force field optimized from neutron scattering. The physical mechanism considers that hydrodynamic interactions are not screened: they are time dependent because of increasing viscosity before the terminal relaxation time. The VHI are generally active in melts of any topology. They are most important at early times well before the terminal relaxation time and thus affect the nanosecond time range typically observable in dynamic neutron scattering experiments. We illustrate the effects with recent molecular dynamics simulations of linear, ring and star polymers. Work performed with A.N. Semenov and J. Farago.
Anomalous Diffusion of a Polymer Chain in an Unentangled Melt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farago, J.; Meyer, H.; Semenov, A. N.
2011-10-01
Contrary to common belief, hydrodynamic interactions in polymer melts are not screened beyond the monomer length and are important in transient regimes. We show that viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions (VHIs) lead to anomalous dynamics of a tagged chain in an unentangled melt at t
Viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions and anomalous CM diffusion in polymer melts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Hendrik; Farago, Jean; Semenov, A. N.
2014-03-01
We have recently discovered that anomalous center-of-mass (CM) diffusion occurring on intermediate time scales in polymer melts can be explained by the interplay of viscoelastic and hydrodynamic interactions (VHI). The theory has been solved for unentangled melts in 3D and 2D and excellent agreement between theory and simulation is found. The physical mechanism considers that hydrodynamic interactions are time dependent because of increasing viscosity before the terminal relaxation time; it is generally active in melts of any topology. Surprisingly, the effects are relevant for both, momentum-conserving and Langevin dynamics and this presentation will focus on the differences: The commonly employed Langevin thermostat significantly changes the CM motion on short and intermediate time scales, but approaching the Rouse time, the melt behavior is close to momentum-conserving simulations. On the other hand, if momentum-conserving simulations are run in too small a simulation box, the result looks as if a Langevin thermostat was used.
Signals for top quark anomalous chromomagnetic moments at colliders
Rizzo, T.G.
1994-07-01
The Tevatron and the Next Linear Collider (NLC) will be excellent tools for probing the detailed nature of the top quark. We perform a preliminary examination of the influence of an anomalous chromomagnetic moment for the top, {kappa}, on the characteristics of t{bar t} production at the Tevatron and on the spectrum of gluon radiation associated with t{bar t} production at the NLC. In particular, we analyze the sensitivity of future data to non-zero values of {kappa} and estimate the limits that can be placed on this parameter at the Tevatron and at the NLC with center of mass of energies of {radical}s = 500 and 1000 GeV. Constraints on {kappa} from low energy processes, such as b {yields} s{gamma} are briefly discussed.
Cultural dimensions of learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyford, Glen A.
1990-06-01
How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.
Dimensions of Intelligent Systems
2002-08-01
strategies - the intelligent parts of a cognitive model. This was necessary to achieve effective time performance - conventional AI techniques were too slow...Dimensions of Intelligent Systems Dr. Gary Berg-Cross Knowledge Strategies Division, SLAG, Inc. Potomac, Maryland 20854, USA 1. Abstract As...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) SLAG, Inc,Knowledge Strategies Division,Potomac,MD,20854 8
Introduction to Extra Dimensions
Rizzo, Thomas G.
2010-07-12
Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.
Introduction to Extra Dimensions
Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC
2010-04-29
Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.
Anomalous quartic and triple gauge couplings in {gamma}-induced processes at the LHC
Royon, Christophe; Chapon, Emilien
2011-07-15
We study the W/Z pair production via two-photon exchange at the LHC and give the sensitivities on trilinear and quartic gauge anomalous couplings between photons and W/Z bosons for an integrated luminosity of 30 and 200 fb{sup -1}. For simplicity and to obtain lower backgrounds, only the leptonic decays of the electroweak bosons are considered. The intact protons in the final states are detected in the ATLAS Forward Proton detectors. The high energy and luminosity of the LHC and the forward detectors allow to probe beyond standard model physics and to test the Higgsless and extra dimension models in an unprecedent way.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Çakır, O.; Çakır, I. T.; Senol, A.; Tasci, A. T.
2012-05-01
The fourth family quarks are expected to have mass larger than the top quark considering the results from recent studies on the allowed parameter space. They could also have different dynamics than the quarks of three families of the standard model. The single production of the fourth family up-type quark t‧ is studied via the anomalous production process pp → t‧VX (where V = g, Z, γ) at the LHC with the center of mass energy of 7 and 14 TeV. The signatures of such process are discussed within both the SM and the anomalous decay modes of t‧ quarks. The sensitivity to anomalous coupling κ/Λ = 0.004 TeV-1 can be reached at \\sqrt{s}=14 TeV and Lint = 100 pb-1.
Infinitely Large New Dimensions
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia; Kaloper, Nemanja
1999-07-29
We construct intersecting brane configurations in Anti-de-Sitter space localizing gravity to the intersection region, with any number n of extra dimensions. This allows us to construct two kinds of theories with infinitely large new dimensions, TeV scale quantum gravity and sub-millimeter deviations from Newton's Law. The effective 4D Planck scale M{sub Pl} is determined in terms of the fundamental Planck scale M{sub *} and the AdS radius of curvature L via the familiar relation M{sub Pl}{sup 2} {approx} M{sub *}{sup 2+n} L{sup n}; L acts as an effective radius of compactification for gravity on the intersection. Taking M{sub *} {approx} TeV and L {approx} sub-mm reproduces the phenomenology of theories with large extra dimensions. Alternately, taking M{sub *} {approx} L{sup -1} {approx} M{sub Pl}, and placing our 3-brane a distance {approx} 100M{sub Pl}{sup -1} away from the intersection gives us a theory with an exponential determination of the Weak/Planck hierarchy.
Remote sensing and characterization of anomalous debris
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sridharan, R.; Beavers, W.; Lambour, R.; Gaposchkin, E. M.; Kansky, J.; Stansbery, E.
1997-01-01
The analysis of orbital debris data shows a band of anomalously high debris concentration in the altitude range between 800 and 1000 km. Analysis indicates that the origin is the leaking coolant fluid from nuclear power sources that powered a now defunct Soviet space-based series of ocean surveillance satellites. A project carried out to detect, track and characterize a sample of the anomalous debris is reported. The nature of the size and shape of the sample set, and the possibility of inferring the composition of the droplets were assessed. The technique used to detect, track and characterize the sample set is described and the results of the characterization analysis are presented. It is concluded that the nature of the debris is consistent with leaked Na-K fluid, although this cannot be proved with the remote sensing techniques used.
Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Ran; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di
2016-11-01
Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α. The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine.
Anomalous Cherenkov spin-orbit sound
Smirnov, Sergey
2011-02-15
The Cherenkov effect is a well-known phenomenon in the electrodynamics of fast charged particles passing through transparent media. If the particle is faster than the light in a given medium, the medium emits a forward light cone. This beautiful phenomenon has an acoustic counterpart where the role of photons is played by phonons and the role of the speed of light is played by the sound velocity. In this case the medium emits a forward sound cone. Here, we show that in a system with spin-orbit interactions in addition to this normal Cherenkov sound there appears an anomalous Cherenkov sound with forward and backward sound propagation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the transition from the normal to anomalous Cherenkov sound happens in a singular way at the Cherenkov cone angle. The detection of this acoustic singularity therefore represents an alternative experimental tool for the measurement of the spin-orbit coupling strength.
Anomalous magnetic viscosity in relativistic accretion disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Fujun; Liu, Sanqiu; Li, Xiaoqing
2013-07-01
It has been proved that the self-generated magnetic fields by transverse plasmons in the relativistic regime are modulationally unstable, leading to a self-similar collapse of the magnetic flux tubes and resulting in local magnetic structures; highly spatially intermittent flux is responsible for generating the anomalous viscosity. We derive the anomalous magnetic viscosity coefficient, in accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes, pulsars and quasars, where the plasmas are relativistic, in order to help clarify the nature of viscosity in the theory of accretion disks. The results indicate that, the magnetic viscosity is modified by the relativistic effects of plasmas, and its' strength would be 1015 stronger than the molecular viscosity, which may be helpful in explaining the observations.
Neoclassical Viscosities and Anomalous Flows in Stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ware, A. S.; Spong, D. A.
2008-11-01
We discuss initial work to use neoclassical viscosities calculated with the PENTA code [1,2] in a transport model that includes Reynolds stress generation of flows [3]. The PENTA code uses a drift kinetic equation solver to calculate neoclassical viscosities and flows in general three-dimensional geometries over a range of collisionalities. The predicted neoclassical viscosities predicted by PENTA can be flux-surfaced average and applied in a 1-D transport model that includes anomalous flow generation. This combination of codes can be used to test the impact of stellarator geometry on anomalous flow generation. [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [2] D. A. Spong, Fusion Sci. Technology 50, 343 (2006). [3] D. E. Newman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 938 (1998).
Anomalous superficial ulnar artery based flap
Ramani, C. V.; Kundagulwar, Girish K.; Prabha, Yadav S.; Dushyanth, Jaiswal
2014-01-01
Upper limb shows a large number of arterial variations. This case report describes the presence of additional superficial ulnar artery which was used to raise a pedicle flap to cover an arm defect thus avoided using the main vessel of the forearm - radial or ulnar artery. Vascular anomalies occurring in the arm and forearm tend to increase the likelihood of damaging the superficial anomalous arteries during surgery. Superficial ulnar or radial arteries have been described to originate from the upper third of the brachial artery; here we report the origin of the anomalous superficial ulnar artery originating from the brachial artery at the level of elbow with the concomitant presence of normal deep radial and ulnar arteries. PMID:24987217
Method for identifying anomalous terrestrial heat flows
Del Grande, Nancy Kerr
1977-01-25
A method for locating and mapping the magnitude and extent of terrestrial heat-flow anomalies from 5 to 50 times average with a tenfold improved sensitivity over orthodox applications of aerial temperature-sensing surveys as used for geothermal reconnaissance. The method remotely senses surface temperature anomalies such as occur from geothermal resources or oxidizing ore bodies by: measuring the spectral, spatial, statistical, thermal, and temporal features characterizing infrared radiation emitted by natural terrestrial surfaces; deriving from these measurements the true surface temperature with uncertainties as small as 0.05 to 0.5 K; removing effects related to natural temperature variations of topographic, hydrologic, or meteoric origin, the surface composition, detector noise, and atmospheric conditions; factoring out the ambient normal-surface temperature for non-thermally enhanced areas surveyed under otherwise identical environmental conditions; distinguishing significant residual temperature enhancements characteristic of anomalous heat flows and mapping the extent and magnitude of anomalous heat flows where they occur.
Anomalous gluon content of the proton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatsuda, T.
1990-01-01
The proton matrix element of the flavor singlet axial current is evaluated using the large Nc chiral dynamics satisfying the anomalous Ward-Takahashi identities. We relate the quark and gluon contributions ( Δq and Δg) of the matrix element to the nucleon-meson ( η, η', π0) pseudo-scalar coupling constants. It is shown that the weak η'-nucleon coupling is preferred to reproduce the recent EMC data. The origin of the anomalous value of Δg pointed out by Cheng and Li is clarified in the context of the large isospin violation due to the anomaly. A subtlety related to the matrix element of the gauge-variant topological current Kμ is also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, D. S.; Cox, A. N.; Hodson, S. W.
1980-01-01
Unconventional composition structures are proposed to explain the periods of the triple mode Cepheid aC And. A strong Cepheid wind appears to enrich helium in the convection zones down to about 60,000 K or 70,000 K. Then some downward partial mixing occurs to the bottom of a layer with about 1-q = .0005 of the stellar mass. It was found that AC And was not unlike anomalous Cepheids. However, masses of betwen one and two solar masses are suggested and the population is more likely a type two.
Anomalous toroidal field penetration in Tormac V
Feinberg, B.; Vaucher, B. G.; Shaw, R. S.; Vella, M. C.
1981-07-01
We investigate magnetic field penetration into a cool, collisional, magnetized plasma in Tormac V. Magnetic probe and laser interferometer studies reveal anomalous penetration of the applied toroidal field into a plasma with an initial parallel bias toroidal field. The applied poloidal field, however, formed a well-defined magnetic front which was effective at sweeping up particles. Lastly, strong shear in the vacuum magnetic field does not inhibit the apparent decoupling of the applied toroidal field from the applied poloidal field.
Anomalous Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Semiconductors
Muniandy, S. V.; Woon, K. L.; Choo, K. Y.
2011-03-30
Anomalous charge carrier transport in disordered organic semiconductors is studied using fractional differential equations. The connection between index of fractional derivative and dispersion exponent is examined from the perspective of fractional Fokker-Planck equation and its link to the continuous time random walk formalism. The fractional model is used to describe the bi-scaling power-laws observed in the time-of flight photo-current transient data for two different types of organic semiconductors.
Anomalous Water and Other Polymeric Materials
could be called anomalous in some ways, no material that gives the exact spectrum of ’ polywater ’ could be found. An interesting and previously...unreported form of sodium carbonate is formed when this compound crystallizes from methanol. Yields of the polywater -like material seem to vary greatly from...laboratory to laboratory, even when simple procedures that are seen to work in one are tried in another. Polywater -like material can be formed from
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagarkar, Advait Neel
I present a measurement of the W ±Z production cross section in the leptonic final states in pp collisions at s = 7 TeV and limits on anomalous trilinear gauge couplings, using 4.64 fb-1 of data collected using the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The production cross section has been determined to be 19.0+1.4-1.3 (stat.)±0.9(syst.)±0.4(lumi.), in agreement with the Standard Model (SM) expectation of 17.6+1.1-1.0 pb. A search for anomalous tri-linear gauge couplings has been conducted and limits have been set at the 95% confidence level; the result is consistent with the SM couplings.
Anomalous and resonance small angle scattering: Revision
Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.
1987-11-01
Significant changes in the small angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous dispersion terms for the scattering factor (x-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous dispersion terms is first discussed before considering how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with x-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same for the analogue experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small angle neutron scatterings are discussed. 54 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Anomalous and resonance small angle scattering
Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.
1987-11-01
Significant changes in the small angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous dispersion terms for the scattering factor (x-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous dispersion terms is first discussed before considering how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with x-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same or the analogue experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small-angle neutron scatterings are discussed. 8 figs.
Neoclassical and anomalous flows in stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ware, A. S.; Marine, T.; Spong, D. A.
2009-11-01
The impact of magnetic geometry and plasma profiles on flows and viscosities in stellarators is investigated. This work examines both neoclassical and anomalous flows for a number of configurations including a particular focus on the Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) and other quasi-symmetric configurations. Neoclassical flows and viscosities are calculated using the PENTA code [1]. For anomalous flows, the neoclassical viscosities from PENTA are used in a transport code that includes Reynolds stress flow generation [2]. This is done for the standard quasi-helically symmetric configuration of HSX, a symmetry-breaking mirror configuration and a hill configuration. The impact of these changes in the magnetic geometry on neoclassical viscosities and flows in HSX are discussed. Due to variations in neoclassical viscosities, HSX can have strong neoclassical flows in the core region. In turn, these neoclassical flows can provide a seed for anomalous flow generation. These effects are shown to vary as the ratio of electron to ion temperature varies. In particular, as the ion temperature increases relative to the electron flow shear is shown to increase. [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [2] D. E. Newman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 938 (1998).
An anomalous interlayer exciton in MoS2
Azhikodan, Dilna; Nautiyal, Tashi; Shallcross, Sam; Sharma, Sangeeta
2016-01-01
The few layer transition metal dichalcogenides are two dimensional materials that have an intrinsic gap of the order of ≈2 eV. The reduced screening in two dimensions implies a rich excitonic physics and, as a consequence, many potential applications in the field of opto-electronics. Here we report that a layer perpendicular electric field, by which the gap size in these materials can be efficiently controlled, generates an anomalous inter-layer exciton whose binding energy is independent of the gap size. We show this originates from the rich gap control and screening physics of TMDCs in a bilayer geometry: gating the bilayer acts on one hand to increase intra-layer screening by reducing the gap and, on the other hand, to decrease the inter-layer screening by field induced charge depletion. This constancy of binding energy is both a striking exception to the universal reduction in binding energy with gap size that all materials are believed to follow, as well as evidence of a degree of control over inter-layer excitons not found in their well studied intra-layer counterparts. PMID:27841337
Resonances from two universal extra dimensions
Burdman, Gustavo; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Ponton, Eduardo
2006-10-01
Standard model gauge bosons propagating in two universal extra dimensions give rise to heavy spin-1 and spin-0 particles. The lightest of these, carrying Kaluza-Klein numbers (1,0), may be produced only in pairs at colliders, whereas the (1,1) modes, which are heavier by a factor of {radical}(2), may be singly produced. We show that the cascade decays of (1,1) particles generate a series of closely-spaced narrow resonances in the tt invariant mass distribution. At the Tevatron, s-channel production of (1,1) gluons and electroweak bosons will be sensitive to tt resonances up to masses in the 0.5-0.7 TeV range. Searches at the LHC for resonances originating from several higher-level modes will further test the existence of two universal extra dimensions.
Analysis of Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cross, Julie Olmsted
This thesis presents a systematic study of the application of DAFS to determine site-specific local structural and chemical information in complex materials, and the first application of state-of-the-art theoretical XAFS calculations using the computer program scFEFF to model DAFS data. In addition, the iterative dispersion analysis method, first suggested by Pickering, et al., has been generalized to accommodate the off-resonance anomalous scattering from heavy atoms in the unit cell. The generalized algorithm scKKFIT was applied to DAFS data from eight (00 l) reflections of the high-T _{c} superconductor YBa _2Cu_3O_ {6.8} to obtain the weighted complex resonant scattering amplitudes Delta f_{ rm w}(Q, E). The fine-structure functions chi_{rm w}(Q, E) isolated from the Delta f_{ rm w}(Q, E) are linear combinations of the individual site fine structure functions chi _{rm w}(Q, E) = Sigma_{i}W_{i,{ bf Q}}chi_{i}(E) from the two inequivalent Cu sites, added together according to the structure factor for the Cu sublattice. The chi_{rm w}(Q, E) were fit en masse using the XAFS analysis program scFEFFIT under a set of constraints on the coefficients W _{i,{bf Q}} based on the structure factor for kinematic scattering. The W_{i,{bf Q}} determined by scFEFFIT were used to obtain the fully separated complex resonant scattering amplitudes Delta f(E) for the two Cu sites. The theoretical connection between DAFS and XAFS is used to justify the application of state-of-the-art theoretical XAFS calculations to DAFS analysis. The polarization dependence of DAFS is described in terms of individual virtual photoelectron scattering paths in the Rehr-Albers separable curved-wave formalism. Polarization is shown to be an important factor in all DAFS experiments. Three experimental constraints are found necessary for obtaining site-separated Delta f(E) from DAFS data by linear inversion of the W_{i, {bf Q}} matrix and scKKFIT isolated Delta f_{rm w }(Q, E): (1) The diffraction must be
Exploration of Anomalous Gravity Effects by rf-Pumped Magnetized High-T(c) Superconducting Oxides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, Tony; Litchford, Ron; Peters, Randall; Thompson, Byran; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A number of anomalous gravitational effects have been reported in the scientific literature during recent years, but there has been no independent confirmation with regard to any of these claims. Therefore, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in response to the propulsion challenges specified by NASA's Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (BPP) program, proposed to explore the possibility of observing anomalous gravitation behavior through the manipulation of Josephson junction effects in magnetized high-Tc superconducting oxides. The technical goal was to critically test this revolutionary physical claim and provide a rigorous, independent, empirical confirmation (or refutation) of anomalous effects related to the manipulation of gravity by radio frequency (rf)-pumped magnetized type-2 superconductors. Because the current empirical evidence for gravity modification is anecdotal, our objective was to design, construct, and meticulously implement a discriminating experiment, which would put these observations on a more firm footing within the scientific community. Our approach is unique in that we advocate the construction of an extremely sensitive torsion balance with which to measure gravity modification effects by rf-pumped type-2 superconductor test masses. This paper reviews the anecdotal evidence for anomalous gravity effects, describes the design and development of a simplified torsion balance experiment for empirically investigating these claims, and presents the results of preliminary experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senyshyn, A.; Trots, D. M.; Engel, J. M.; Vasylechko, L.; Ehrenberg, H.; Hansen, T.; Berkowski, M.; Fuess, H.
2009-04-01
Crystal structures of rare-earth gallium perovskites LaGaO3, PrGaO3, NdGaO3 and Pr1-xNdxGaO3 (x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75) solid solutions were investigated in the temperature range 12-300 K by high-resolution powder diffraction using synchrotron or neutron radiation. The previously reported negative thermal expansion in the b direction of the PrGaO3 lattice has been found to be persistent in Pr1-xNdxGaO3 solid solutions and its magnitude has been revealed as proportional to the amount of praseodymium. Evaluation of the obtained temperature evolution of cell dimensions indicated a weak anomalous behaviour of the b lattice parameter in NdGaO3, and its origin is supposed to be the same as in PrGaO3, i.e. a coupling of the crystal electric field levels with phonon excitations of about 23-25 meV energy. The performed bond length analysis revealed an anomalous behaviour of both LnO12 (Ln—rare-earth) and GaO6 coordination polyhedra, which can be a structural manifestation of anomalous thermal expansion in the considered compounds.
Bond percolation in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corwin, Eric I.; Stinchcombe, Robin; Thorpe, M. F.
2013-07-01
We collect results for bond percolation on various lattices from two to fourteen dimensions that, in the limit of large dimension d or number of neighbors z, smoothly approach a randomly diluted Erdős-Rényi graph. We include results on bond-diluted hypersphere packs in up to nine dimensions, which show the mean coordination, excess kurtosis, and skewness evolving smoothly with dimension towards the Erdős-Rényi limit.
A spectroscopic study of anomalous stellar populations in M67
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGahee, Courtney Elizabeth
A population of stars exists in the old, open cluster M67, whose photometry, color magnitude diagram locations and associated evolutionary states cannot be explained by current, standard single star evolution theory. These stars are often referred to as "yellow straggler" stars. Yellow stragglers have been identified in multiple star clusters suggesting that these stars constitute a real population. Additionally, according to independent studies, at least some of the yellow straggler stars in M67 are likely cluster members. Therefore, cluster non-membership is not a sufficient explanation for the observed anomalous photometry of these stars. It is possible that the yellow stragglers occupy their precarious color magnitude diagram positions as a result of the evolution of mass transfer blue straggler stars. These are stars which have been formed by Roche Lobe overflow mass transfer in close binary systems. If this the case for the yellow stragglers, it is hypothesized that they could potentially exhibit two spectroscopic characteristics that can be indicative of this type of mass transfer system. Specifically, variable radial velocities can be used to indicate that the yellow stragglers exist in binary systems and enhancements of s-process elements in yellow stragglers can indicate Roche Lobe overflow mass transfer from a once asymptotic giant branch star which has since evolved into a white dwarf. This dissertation details the radial velocity survey and the chemical abundance analysis that have been conducted to investigate the yellow stragglers with regard to this hypothesis. The radial velocity survey revealed that eight of the ten yellow stragglers studied exhibit variable radial velocities indicating that the yellow straggler population of M67 possess a high binary frequency. However, the chemical abundance analysis revealed that none of the yellow stragglers exhibited enhancements of the s-process elements Y and Ba. Therefore, a history which involves Roche
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prakash, Manu; Bardon, Thibaut
2012-11-01
It has long been proposed that insect flight might have evolved on a fluid interface. Surface of a pond provides an ecological niche which is exploited by a large number of species capable of locomotion on a fluid interface. Here we describe the discovery of constrained flight in two dimensions as a novel mode of locomotion used by water lily beetles (genus Galerucella). Because water lily beetles are also capable of three-dimensional free flight, this novel two-dimensional locomotion provides us with a unique model system to explore both the transition between two and three dimensional flight and the associated energetics. Here we present a comparative analysis of this transition in terms of wing stroke angles associated with two and three dimensional flight, as well as modeling surface tension forces on both the horizontal and vertical axes. Special attention is paid to the dynamics and energetics of flight in two-dimensions, focusing on the interaction of the wing strokes with the fluid interface and the capillary-gravity wave drag associated with two-dimensional propulsion. Current Address: Ecole Polytechnique, France.
Emergent spacetime in stochastically evolving dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afshordi, Niayesh; Stojkovic, Dejan
2014-12-01
Changing the dimensionality of the space-time at the smallest and largest distances has manifold theoretical advantages. If the space is lower dimensional in the high energy regime, then there are no ultraviolet divergencies in field theories, it is possible to quantize gravity, and the theory of matter plus gravity is free of divergencies or renormalizable. If the space is higher dimensional at cosmological scales, then some cosmological problems (including the cosmological constant problem) can be attacked from a completely new perspective. In this paper, we construct an explicit model of "evolving dimensions" in which the dimensions open up as the temperature of the universe drops. We adopt the string theory framework in which the dimensions are fields that live on the string worldsheet, and add temperature dependent mass terms for them. At the Big Bang, all the dimensions are very heavy and are not excited. As the universe cools down, dimensions open up one by one. Thus, the dimensionality of the space we live in depends on the energy or temperature that we are probing. In particular, we provide a kinematic Brandenberger-Vafa argument for how a discrete causal set, and eventually a continuum (3 + 1)-dim spacetime along with Einstein gravity emerges in the Infrared from the worldsheet action. The (3 + 1)-dim Planck mass and the string scale become directly related, without any compactification. Amongst other predictions, we argue that LHC might be blind to new physics even if it comes at the TeV scale. In contrast, cosmic ray experiments, especially those that can register the very beginning of the shower, and collisions with high multiplicity and density of particles, might be sensitive to the dimensional cross-over.
FRACTAL DIMENSION OF GALAXY ISOPHOTES
Thanki, Sandip; Rhee, George; Lepp, Stephen E-mail: grhee@physics.unlv.edu
2009-09-15
In this paper we investigate the use of the fractal dimension of galaxy isophotes in galaxy classification. We have applied two different methods for determining fractal dimensions to the isophotes of elliptical and spiral galaxies derived from CCD images. We conclude that fractal dimension alone is not a reliable tool but that combined with other parameters in a neural net algorithm the fractal dimension could be of use. In particular, we have used three parameters to segregate the ellipticals and lenticulars from the spiral galaxies in our sample. These three parameters are the correlation fractal dimension D {sub corr}, the difference between the correlation fractal dimension and the capacity fractal dimension D {sub corr} - D {sub cap}, and, thirdly, the B - V color of the galaxy.
Anomalous Josephson Hall effect in magnet/triplet superconductor junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoyama, Takehito
2015-11-01
We investigate anomalous Hall effect in a magnet coupled to a triplet superconductor under phase gradient. It is found that the anomalous Hall supercurrent arises from the nontrivial structure of the magnetization. The magnetic structure manifested in the Hall supercurrent is characterized by even order terms of the exchange coupling, essentially different from that discussed in the context of anomalous Hall effect, reflecting the dissipationless nature of the supercurrent. We also discuss a possible candidate for magnetic structure to verify our prediction.
Tellurium - Should it be isotopically anomalous in the Allende meteorite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heymann, D.; Dziczkaniec, M.
1981-01-01
Isotopically anomalous Te is a by-product of the nuclear processes in zones of supernovae that have been proposed as sources for isotopically anomalous Xe. The calculated composition of the anomalous Te is roughly consistent with the disputed measurements made by Ballad et at. (1979) and Oliver et al. (1979) of samples of the Allende meteorite, with the exception that the large Te-123 overabundance reported by Oliver et al. (1979) is not predicted by the theory.
Spectral analysis of the multiple-altitude anomalous geomagnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsvetkov, Yu. P.; Ivanov, V. V.; Petrov, V. G.; Filippov, S. V.; Brekhov, O. M.
2016-11-01
The spectra of the anomalous geomagnetic field measured at ground and balloon (30 km) altitudes were analyzed. The ground-based data were adapted from a map of the anomalous magnetic field of the Earth. A balloon surveys was carried out by the authors. It has been shown that the ground and balloon spectra of the anomalous magnetic field of the Earth substantially differ. Suppositions explaining the differences in the obtained spectra have been suggested.
Scaling theory for anomalous semiclassical quantum transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sena-Junior, M. I.; Macêdo, A. M. S.
2016-01-01
Quantum transport through devices coupled to electron reservoirs can be described in terms of the full counting statistics (FCS) of charge transfer. Transport observables, such as conductance and shot-noise power are just cumulants of FCS and can be obtained from the sample's average density of transmission eigenvalues, which in turn can be obtained from a finite element representation of the saddle-point equation of the Keldysh (or supersymmetric) nonlinear sigma model, known as quantum circuit theory. Normal universal metallic behavior in the semiclassical regime is controlled by the presence of a Fabry-Pérot singularity in the average density of transmission eigenvalues. We present general conditions for the suppression of Fabry-Pérot modes in the semiclassical regime in a sample of arbitrary shape, a disordered conductor or a network of ballistic quantum dots, which leads to an anomalous metallic phase. Through a double-scaling limit, we derive a scaling equation for anomalous metallic transport, in the form of a nonlinear differential equation, which generalizes the ballistic-diffusive scaling equation of a normal metal. The two-parameter stationary solution of our scaling equation generalizes Dorokhov's universal single-parameter distribution of transmission eigenvalues. We provide a simple interpretation of the stationary solution using a thermodynamic analogy with a spin-glass system. As an application, we consider a system formed by a diffusive wire coupled via a barrier to normal-superconductor reservoirs. We observe anomalous reflectionless tunneling, when all perfectly transmitting channels are suppressed, which cannot be explained by the usual mechanism of disorder-induced opening of tunneling channels.
An "anomalous" triggered lightning flash in Florida
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J.; Ngin, T.; Jordan, D. M.; Mata, C. T.
2013-04-01
An "anomalous" rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flash, a flash whose leaders do not follow the triggering wire remnants to ground, is characterized via high-speed video images at 10 and 300 kilo-frames per second, still camera images, 66-72 MHz source locations from a Lightning Mapping Array, channel-base current, and electric field and electric field derivative (dE/dt) measurements. This is the first anomalous flash of about 410 classically triggered flashes in north-central Florida. The flash began with an upward positively charged leader (UPL) initiating from the tip of the upward-moving triggering wire about 280 m above ground level. All but the bottom 17 m of wire exploded (became luminous) 37.6 ms after UPL initiation. A stepped leader initiated, likely from the top of the wire remnants, 282 m above ground level about 1.3 ms after the wire explosion and propagated downward for 2.1 ms, attaching to the top of a grounded utility pole 117 m southwest of the launching facility. The line charge density on the stepped leader is estimated to be of the order of 10-3 C m-1. Contrary to previously reported "anomalous" flashes in France and New Mexico (roughly 16% and 31%, respectively, of their triggered flashes), in our event, there was not a tens of milliseconds current-zero period preceding the stepped leader, there was no observed downward dart leader in the UPL channel prior to the stepped leader to ground, and there was a failed attempt to reestablish current in the exploded-wire channel between the UPL and ground.
Interpreting anomalous magnetic fabrics in ophiolite dikes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borradaile, G. J.; Gauthier, D.
2003-02-01
Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) may reveal mineral orientation-distributions defining magmatic flow-axes in igneous dikes. The mafic silicates are the best indication of magmatic flow but Fe-Ti accessories may contribute more to the bulk susceptibility. If the orientation-distributions of the two subfabrics are incongruent, anomalous fabrics will occur that do not reflect magma-flow axes. For ophiolite dikes, ocean-floor metamorphism changes the mineralogy producing new Fe-oxides by retrogression and exsolution from mafic silicates and by the oxidation of primary oxides. Incompatibly oriented 'ferro'-magnetic subfabrics may be isolated by anisotropy of anhysteretic remanence (AARM). Anomalous AMS fabrics in ophiolites elsewhere have been attributed to inverse-fabric contributions from single-domain magnetite in varying combinations. However, in ophiolite dikes from the Troodos ophiolite of Cyprus, anomalous fabrics arise from ocean-floor metamorphism extensively or completely replacing the original magnetite and titanomagnetite accessory phases with titanomagnetite (˜Fe 2.4Ti 0.6O 4=TM60) and its oxidised versions, titanomaghemite, to varying degrees according to depth beneath the ocean-floor, distance from spreading axis and proximity to transform-faults. At best, the oxide orientation-distribution defined by AARM could only be indirectly related to magma-flow if its nucleation-orientation controlled by a host-lattice. However, more commonly the topotactic lattice reorganization produces weaker ARM fabric anisotropies. Although 'recrystallized', oxidised TM60 dominates the bulk low-field susceptibility, its anisotropy is generally too feeble to compete with the flow-fabric defined by the AMS contribution from paramagnetic mafic silicates.
Action languages: Dimensions, effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon
1989-01-01
Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.
Quartz: Anomalous Weakness of Synthetic Crystals.
Griggs, D T; Blacic, J D
1965-01-15
The strength of a synthetic quartz crystal drops rapidly at 400 degrees C, and at 600 degrees C is a hundredfold lower than at 300 degrees C. Large plastic deformations can be produced without fracture. The predominant mechanism of deformation is translation gliding. The preferred explanation for this anomalous weakness is that this synthetic quartz contains water which has hydrolyzed the silicon-oxygen bonds. The silanol groups so formed are presumed to be rendered sufficiently mobile by elevating the temperature to 400 degrees C so that they align themselves in dislocation lines and move through the crystal with the dislocation under the small applied shear stress.
Anomalous-scattering region on Triton
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Pascal; Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph; Mccarthy, Derek
1992-01-01
A photometric analysis of Voyager 2 images of a broad, 'anomalous scattering region' (ASR) on Triton shows its material to differ from the average Triton regolith in being only weakly backward scattering at all Voyager 2 camera wavelengths; the ASR also displays distinctive phase-dependent green/violet color ratios and clear-filter albedo. These characteristics are used to map the global distribution of the ASR areas for which photometric coverage is incomplete. The ASR may form an almost continuous band of material that runs parallel to the Triton equator, characterized by the presence of a transparent and optically thin, seasonally-controlled veneer of well-annealed solid N2.
Anomalous transport modelling of tokamak plasmas
Kinsey, J.; Singer, C.; Malone, G.; Tiouririne, N.
1992-12-31
Theory based transport simulations of DIII-D, JET, ITER are compared to experimental data using a combination of anamolous transport models. The Multiple-mode Transport Model is calibrated to a give set of L-mode and H-mode discharges with an emphasis on testing the adequacy of anomalous flux contributions from drift/{eta}{sub i} and resistive ballooning mode theories. A survey of possible additions and/or alternatives to the model from recent theories on neoclassical MHD effects, hot ion modes, circulating electron modes, and high-m tearing modes is also included.
Anomalous transport modelling of tokamak plasmas
Kinsey, J.; Singer, C.; Malone, G.; Tiouririne, N.
1992-01-01
Theory based transport simulations of DIII-D, JET, ITER are compared to experimental data using a combination of anamolous transport models. The Multiple-mode Transport Model is calibrated to a give set of L-mode and H-mode discharges with an emphasis on testing the adequacy of anomalous flux contributions from drift/[eta][sub i] and resistive ballooning mode theories. A survey of possible additions and/or alternatives to the model from recent theories on neoclassical MHD effects, hot ion modes, circulating electron modes, and high-m tearing modes is also included.
Anomalous Dynamical Behavior of Freestanding Graphene Membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ackerman, M. L.; Kumar, P.; Neek-Amal, M.; Thibado, P. M.; Peeters, F. M.; Singh, Surendra
2016-09-01
We report subnanometer, high-bandwidth measurements of the out-of-plane (vertical) motion of atoms in freestanding graphene using scanning tunneling microscopy. By tracking the vertical position over a long time period, a 1000-fold increase in the ability to measure space-time dynamics of atomically thin membranes is achieved over the current state-of-the-art imaging technologies. We observe that the vertical motion of a graphene membrane exhibits rare long-scale excursions characterized by both anomalous mean-squared displacements and Cauchy-Lorentz power law jump distributions.
According to the strict solution of GR there is no the un-modeled anomalous acceleration of Pioneer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shao-Guang
According to the definition of force f = d (m v) /d t = m (d v / d t) + v (d m / d t ) and the change in masses ( the exchange of momentum-energy tensors bwtween two bodies Tµυ via the field tµν ) deduced by Bondi from Einstein equation ( H.Bondi, Proc. R. Soc. London A 427, 249, 1990 ), we get a new gravitational equation: f GR = f P + f C , f P = -G (m M /r 2 ) (r /r), f C = -G (m M / r 2 ) (v /c) (1). The deductive process is: First if mass is invariable, which implies that the mass may produce the gravitational field but the gravitational field should not lead to the change in mass, i.e., the mass should be an invariable parameter and the fourth dimension momentum i E/c should be entirely independent of three-dimension momentum P. In other words, the energy and the momentum should not compose the four-dimension momentum-energy vector and tensor. Thus, the gravitational equation is no longer a nonlinear but a linear one and Einstein equation should be reduced to Newtonian law: f GR = f P = -G (m M /r 2 ) (r /r). Second according to the mass-energy relation we get: dm /dt = dE /c2 dt, where E = EK + m0 c2 , then from the conservation of four dimension momentum-energy vector P 2 -(E/c) 2 = 0, we obtain: dE/dt = c dP/dt, dm/dt = dP/c dt = f P /c, f C = v (dm/dt) = v (f P /c) = -G (m M /r 2 ) (v /c). Then, we educe Eq.(1) from the special relativity when the mass is variable. In Eq.(1) the gravitational mass is just the inertial mass and the equivalent principle come absolutely into existence. Einstein equation can also be deduced from Eq.(1) and is equivalent to Eq.(1). Now the nonlinear gravitation problems can be solved with the one by one substitute method of masses solved by alone f P and alone f C in Eq.(1), e.g., from one loop Σf P • d s = 0, the energy loss of celestial body running one loop by f C is a typical dipole radiation and a gravitational wave of dipole radiation is predicted.When mass-point B nearing mass-point A, the masses MA and MB will
Blum, Thomas; Chowdhury, Saumitra; Hayakawa, Masashi; ...
2015-01-07
The form factor that yields the light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is computed in lattice QCD+QED and QED. A non-perturbative treatment of QED is used and is checked against perturbation theory. The hadronic contribution is calculated for unphysical quark and muon masses, and only the diagram with a single quark loop is computed. Statistically significant signals are obtained. Initial results appear promising, and the prospect for a complete calculation with physical masses and controlled errors is discussed.
Blum, T; Boyle, P A; Izubuchi, T; Jin, L; Jüttner, A; Lehner, C; Maltman, K; Marinkovic, M; Portelli, A; Spraggs, M
2016-06-10
We report the first lattice QCD calculation of the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) disconnected contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment at physical pion mass. The calculation uses a refined noise-reduction technique that enables the control of statistical uncertainties at the desired level with modest computational effort. Measurements were performed on the 48^{3}×96 physical-pion-mass lattice generated by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations. We find the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization a_{μ}^{HVP(LO)disc}=-9.6(3.3)(2.3)×10^{-10}, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yotsuhashi, Satoshi; Miyake, Kazumasa; Kusunose, Hiroaki
2016-03-01
It is shown by the Wilson numerical renormalization group method that a strongly correlated impurity with a crystalline-electric-field singlet ground state in the f2-configuration exhibits an anomalous local Fermi liquid state in which the static magnetic susceptibility remains an uncorrelated value while the NMR relaxation rate is enhanced in proportion to the square of the mass enhancement factor. Namely, the Korringa-Shiba relation is apparently broken. This feature closely matches the anomalous behaviors observed in UPt3, i.e., the coexistence of an unenhanced value of the Knight shift due to quasiparticles contribution (the decrease across the superconducting transition) and the enhanced relaxation rate of NMR. Such an anomalous Fermi liquid behavior suggests that the Fermi liquid corrections for the susceptibility are highly anisotropic.
Chiral magnetic and vortical effects in higher dimensions at weak coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Ho-Ung
2014-09-01
Chiral magnetic effect and chiral vortical effect are parity odd transport phenomena originating from chiral anomaly, and have generalizations to all even dimensional space-time higher than four dimensions. We attempt to compute the associated P-odd retarded response functions in the weak coupling limit of chiral fermion theory in all even dimensions, using the diagrammatic technique of real-time perturbation theory. We also clarify the necessary Kubo formula relating the computed P-odd retarded correlation functions and the associated anomalous transport coefficients. We speculate on the 8-fold classification of topological phases.
Anomalous Micellization of Pluronic Block Copolymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonardi, Amanda; Ryu, Chang Y.
2014-03-01
Poly(ethylene oxide) - poly(propylene oxide) - poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers, commercially known as Pluronics, are a unique family of amphiphilic triblock polymers, which self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. These copolymers have shown promise in therapeutic, biomedical, cosmetic, and nanotech applications. As-received samples of Pluronics contain low molecular weight impurities (introduced during the manufacturing and processing), that are ignored in most applications. It has been observed, however, that in semi-dilute aqueous solutions, at concentrations above 1 wt%, the temperature dependent micellization behavior of the Pluronics is altered. Anomalous behavior includes a shift of the critical micellization temperature and formation of large aggregates at intermediate temperatures before stable sized micelles form. We attribute this behavior to the low molecular weight impurities that are inherent to the Pluronics which interfere with the micellization process. Through the use of Dynamic Light Scattering and HPLC, we compared the anomalous behavior of different Pluronics of different impurity levels to their purified counterparts.
Macromolecular structure phasing by neutron anomalous diffraction
Cuypers, Maxime G.; Mason, Sax A.; Mossou, Estelle; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Mitchell, Edward P.
2016-01-01
In this report we show for the first time that neutron anomalous dispersion can be used in a practical manner to determine experimental phases of a protein crystal structure, providing a new tool for structural biologists. The approach is demonstrated through the use of a state-of-the-art monochromatic neutron diffractometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in combination with crystals of perdeuterated protein that minimise the level of hydrogen incoherent scattering and enhance the visibility of the anomalous signal. The protein used was rubredoxin in which cadmium replaced the iron at the iron-sulphur site. While this study was carried out using a steady-state neutron beam source, the results will be of major interest for capabilities at existing and emerging spallation neutron sources where time-of-flight instruments provide inherent energy discrimination. In particular this capability may be expected to offer unique opportunities to a rapidly developing structural biology community where there is increasing interest in the identification of protonation states, protein/water interactions and protein-ligand interactions – all of which are of central importance to a wide range of fundamental and applied areas in the biosciences. PMID:27511806
Anomalous Enthalpy Relaxation in Vitreous Silica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Yuanzheng
2015-08-01
It is a challenge to calorimetrically determine the glass transition temperature (Tg) of vitreous silica. Here we demonstrate that this challenge mainly arises from the extreme sensitivity of the Tg to the hydroxyl content in vitreous silica, but also from the irreversibility of its glass transition when repeating the calorimetric scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy relaxation compared to fragile oxide systems. The anomalous enthalpy relaxation of vitreous silica is discovered by performing the hperquenching-annealing-calorimetry experiments. We argue that the strong systems like vitreous silica and vitreous Germania relax in a structurally cooperative manner, whereas the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica.
Anomalous event diagnosis for environmental satellite systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramsay, Bruce H.
1993-01-01
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is responsible for the operation of the NOAA geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. NESDIS provides a wide array of operational meteorological and oceanographic products and services and operates various computer and communication systems on a 24-hour, seven days per week schedule. The Anomaly Reporting System contains a database of anomalous events regarding the operations of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), communication, or computer systems that have degraded or caused the loss of GOES imagery. Data is currently entered manually via an automated query user interface. There are 21 possible symptoms (e.g., No Data), and 73 possible causes (e.g., Sectorizer - World Weather Building) of an anomalous event. The determination of an event's cause(s) is made by the on-duty computer operator, who enters the event in a paper based daily log, and by the analyst entering the data into the reporting system. The determination of the event's cause(s) impacts both the operational status of these systems, and the performance evaluation of the on-site computer and communication operations contractor.
Anomalous piezoresistance effect in ultrastrained silicon nanowires.
Lugstein, A; Steinmair, M; Steiger, A; Kosina, H; Bertagnolli, E
2010-08-11
In this paper we demonstrate that under ultrahigh strain conditions p-type single crystal silicon nanowires possess an anomalous piezoresistance effect. The measurements were performed on vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) grown Si nanowires, monolithically integrated in a microelectro-mechanical loading module. The special setup enables the application of pure uniaxial tensile strain along the <111> growth direction of individual, 100 nm thick Si nanowires while simultaneously measuring the resistance of the nanowires. For low strain levels (nanowire elongation less than 0.8%), our measurements revealed the expected positive piezoresistance effect, whereas for ultrahigh strain levels a transition to anomalous negative piezoresistance was observed. For the maximum tensile strain of 3.5%, the resistance of the Si nanowires decreased by a factor of 10. Even at these high strain amplitudes, no fatigue failures are observed for several hundred loading cycles. The ability to fabricate single-crystal nanowires that are widely free of structural defects will it make possible to apply high strain without fracturing to other materials as well, therefore in any application where crystallinity and strain are important, the idea of making nanowires should be of a high value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preuss, Lucien
2008-11-01
To implement Jaynes' vision [1] of applications of Shannon's ideas outside Communication Theory proper, the dimension of information must be clarified, mainly because general applications provide no ready-made set of discrete, mutually exclusive and exhaustive "events" which could play a rôle similar to that of the alphabet which communication theory implicitely supposes known from the outset. For instance, a doctor's "alphabet" may be said to consist of readily distinguishable bundles of symptoms, cures, etc., each of which he considers specific enough to describe an illness of interest. Setting up an appropriate alphabet requires learning, in the same way as a child painfully learns to read letters, and a quantitative assessment of this task depends crucially on the dimension of information. Information is an extensive property, as explicited by the standard equation I = N.H for the amount of information delivered by a succession of N events. All other things remaining equal, doubling the length of a message doubles the amount of information. But by definition, Shannon's uncertainty H on the right-hand side of the equation is a rate, i.e. an intensive property, as illustrated by the fact that the simultaneous throw of two true and identical dice removes less than twice the uncertainty removed by the throw of a single die, as is well-known to poker-players. If the above equation is to be dimensionally consistent, N can not be a pure number, but must have an extensive dimension of its own. The obvious question "which?" was swept under the rug by von Neumann's famous quip [3], which advised to call H an entropy, thereby suggesting improperly that H by itself-without the factor N-is an extensive property like physical entropy. But H only evaluates an amount of information when multiplied by N, which measures an amount of order akin to the chronological order without which any message becomes garbage. In analogy with the decomposition E S.T of energy E into the pair
Scientific Visualization of Extra Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Black, Don V.
2010-10-01
In the 21st Century, many theoretical physicists claim that higher dimensions may indeed exist. Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, & Dvali (ADD) and Randall-Sundrum (RS), in addition to Kaluza-Klein (KK) and M-string theorists, have introduced reasonable explanations for the existence of heretofore ``invisible'' higher dimensions. Whether or not these extra dimensions actually exist is irrelevant to their contributions to the visionary conceptualization associated with novel and improved mathematical and physical analysis. Envisioning extra dimensions beyond the three of common experience is a daunting challenge for three dimensional observers. Intuition relies on experience gained in a three dimensional environment. Gaining experience with virtual four dimensional objects and virtual three manifolds in four-space on a personal computer may provide the basis for an intuitive grasp of four dimensions. This presentation is a video ``outtake'' of the author's research into ``Visualizing Extra Spatial Dimensions'' at the University of California at Irvine.
Johannes Kepler and Extra Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendry, Archibald W.
2004-02-01
How many dimensions are there? The answer used to be four — three spatial and one time dimension. Maybe it still is, though nowadays we hear that the answer may be more, perhaps many more. Many of our students have heard about this on television or read about it. They want to know more. Why do physicists think we need more than three spatial dimensions? What's the point of it all?
Effects of Ultramicroelectrode Dimensions on the Electropolymerization of Polypyrrole
Fletcher, Benjamin L; Fern, Jared T.; Rhodes, Kevin; McKnight, Timothy E; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Retterer, Scott T; Keffer, David J.; Simpson, Michael L; Doktycz, Mitchel John
2009-01-01
Anode geometry can significantly affect the electrochemical synthesis of conductive polymers. Here, the effects of anode dimensions on the electropolymerization of pyrrole are investigated. Band microelectrodes were prepared with widths ranging from 2 to 500 {micro}m. The anode dimension has a significant effect on the resulting thickness of polymer film. The electropolymerization process deviates significantly from that predicted by simple mass transfer considerations when electrode dimensions are less than {approx}20 {micro}m. Polymer film thickness is thinner than expected when electrode dimensions become less than {approx}10 {micro}m. A simple mathematical model was derived to explain the observed effects of anode dimensions on the polymerization process. Simulation results confirm that diffusive loss of reaction intermediates accounts for the observed experimental trends. The described simulation facilitates understanding of the electropolymerization processes and approaches to the controlled deposition of polypyrrole, particularly at the submicron scale, for microelectromechanical systems and biomedical applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Houselt, A.; Schäfer, J.; Zandvliet, H. J. W.; Claessen, R.
2013-01-01
With modern microelectronics moving towards smaller and smaller length scales on the (sub-) nm scale, quantum effects (apart from band structure and band gaps) have begun to play an increasingly important role. This especially concerns dimensional confinement to 2D (high electron mobility transistors and integer/fractional quantum Hall effect physics, graphene and topological insulators) and 1D (with electrical connections eventually reaching the quantum limit). Recent developments in the above-mentioned areas have revealed that the properties of electron systems become increasingly exotic as one progresses from the 3D case into lower dimensions. As compared to 2D electron systems, much less experimental progress has been achieved in the field of 1D electron systems. The main reason for the lack of experimental results in this field is related to the difficulty of realizing 1D electron systems. Atom chains created in quantum mechanical break junction set-ups are too short to exhibit the typically 1D signatures. As an alternative, atomic chains can be produced on crystal surfaces, either via assembling them one-by-one using a scanning tunnelling microscope or via self-assembly. The drawback of the latter systems is that the atomic chains are not truly 1D since they are coupled to the underlying crystal and sometimes even to the neighbouring chains. In retrospect, this coupling turns out to be an absolute necessity in the experiment since true 1D systems are disordered at any non-zero temperature [1]. The coupling to the crystal and/or neighbouring chains shifts the phase transition, for example, a Peierls instability, to a non-zero temperature and thus allows experiments to be performed in the ordered state. Here, we want to emphasize that the electronic properties of the 1D electron system are fundamentally different from its 2D and 3D counterparts. The Fermi liquid theory, which is applicable to 2D and 3D electron systems, breaks down spectacularly in the 1D case
Thermal dimension of quantum spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Brighenti, Francesco; Gubitosi, Giulia; Santos, Grasiele
2017-04-01
Recent results suggest that a crucial crossroad for quantum gravity is the characterization of the effective dimension of spacetime at short distances, where quantum properties of spacetime become significant. This is relevant in particular for various scenarios of "dynamical dimensional reduction" which have been discussed in the literature. We are here concerned with the fact that the related research effort has been based mostly on analyses of the "spectral dimension", which involves an unphysical Euclideanization of spacetime and is highly sensitive to the off-shell properties of a theory. As here shown, different formulations of the same physical theory can have wildly different spectral dimension. We propose that dynamical dimensional reduction should be described in terms of the "thermal dimension" which we here introduce, a notion that only depends on the physical content of the theory. We analyze a few models with dynamical reduction both of the spectral dimension and of our thermal dimension, finding in particular some cases where thermal and spectral dimension agree, but also some cases where the spectral dimension has puzzling properties while the thermal dimension gives a different and meaningful picture.
Exterior dimension of fat fractals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.
1985-01-01
Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.
Grandes nouvelles dimensions et gravité quantique au coin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia
2003-04-01
The electroweak unification mass may be the only fundamental scale in nature. If so, the visible universe may lie on a membrane floating within a higher dimensional space; new dimensions, black holes, quantum gravity, and string theory may become experimentally accessible in this decade. The dark matter could reside on parallel universes inside the extra dimensions. To cite this article: N. Arkani-Hamed et al., C. R. Physique 4 (2003).
Anomalous cosmic ray studies using the geomagnetic field
Mewaldt, R. A.; Cummings, J. R.; Leske, R. A.; Selesnick, R. S.; Stone, E. C.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von
1996-07-20
We use instrumentation on SAMPEX and the Earth's field as a magnetic filter, to obtain a 'pure' sample of anomalous cosmic rays. The energy spectrum of anomalous oxygen is found to extend to {approx}100 MeV/nuc, which has implications for models of the acceleration of these nuclei.
Search for Large Extra Dimensions in Dielectron and Diphoton Production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bean, A.; Begel, M.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bertram, I.; Besson, A.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Doulas, S.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Duensing, S.; Dugad, S. R.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Gilmartin, R.; Ginther, G.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Groer, L.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hou, S.; Huang, Y.; Ito, A. S.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Juste, A.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kunori, S.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Landsberg, G.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lundstedt, C.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Manankov, V.; Mao, H. S.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, R. D.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Meng, X. C.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mihalcea, D.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Moore, R. W.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Nagy, E.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Negroni, S.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Olivier, B.; Oshima, N.; Padley, P.; Pan, L. J.; Para, A.; Parashar, N.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Patwa, A.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Peters, O.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pope, B. G.; Popkov, E.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramberg, E.; Rapidis, P. A.; Reay, N. W.; Reucroft, S.; Rha, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Schwartzman, A.; Sculli, J.; Sen, N.; Shabalina, E.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Simak, V.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Slattery, P.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sorín, V.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Soustruznik, K.; Souza, M.; Stanton, N. R.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Stutte, L.; Sznajder, A.; Taylor, W.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Thompson, J.; Toback, D.; Tripathi, S. M.; Trippe, T. G.; Turcot, A. S.; Tuts, P. M.; van Gemmeren, P.; Vaniev, V.; van Kooten, R.; Varelas, N.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.-M.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Whiteson, D.; Wightman, J. A.; Wijngaarden, D. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yasuda, T.; Yip, K.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Z.; Zanabria, M.; Zheng, H.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zutshi, V.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.
2001-02-01
We report a search for effects of large extra spatial dimensions in pp¯ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV with the D0 detector, using events containing a pair of electrons or photons. The data are in good agreement with the expected background and do not exhibit evidence for large extra dimensions. We set the most restrictive lower limits to date, at the 95% C.L. on the effective Planck scale between 1.0 and 1.4 TeV for several formalisms and numbers of extra dimensions.
Transmission Probability for Charged Dilatonic Black Holes in Various Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngampitipan, Tritos; Boonserm, Petarpa
A dilaton is a theoretical particle, which results from the Plank mass raised to a dynamical field. In this paper, the rigorous bounds on the transmission probabilities for charged black holes, coupled to a dilaton field in various dimensions, are calculated. The results show that in the absence of the cosmological constant, the black holes in (2 + 1) dimensions have only one event horizon. Moreover, the charges of the black holes can increase the transmission probabilities. However, for the black holes in (3 + 1) dimensions, the charges of the black holes can filter Hawking radiation.
Emergent fuzzy geometry and fuzzy physics in four dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ydri, Badis; Rouag, Ahlam; Ramda, Khaled
2017-03-01
A detailed Monte Carlo calculation of the phase diagram of bosonic mass-deformed IKKT Yang-Mills matrix models in three and six dimensions with quartic mass deformations is given. Background emergent fuzzy geometries in two and four dimensions are observed with a fluctuation given by a noncommutative U (1) gauge theory very weakly coupled to normal scalar fields. The geometry, which is determined dynamically, is given by the fuzzy spheres SN2 and SN2 × SN2 respectively. The three and six matrix models are effectively in the same universality class. For example, in two dimensions the geometry is completely stable, whereas in four dimensions the geometry is stable only in the limit M ⟶ ∞, where M is the mass of the normal fluctuations. The behaviors of the eigenvalue distribution in the two theories are also different. We also sketch how we can obtain a stable fuzzy four-sphere SN2 × SN2 in the large N limit for all values of M as well as models of topology change in which the transition between spheres of different dimensions is observed. The stable fuzzy spheres in two and four dimensions act precisely as regulators which is the original goal of fuzzy geometry and fuzzy physics. Fuzzy physics and fuzzy field theory on these spaces are briefly discussed.
Probing anomalous Higgs couplings in H → ZV decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modak, Tanmoy; Srivastava, Rahul
2017-01-01
We analyze the possibility of probing anomalous Higgs couplings in the rare decays H → ZV, V being a vector quarkonium state. These rare decays involve both gauge as well as the Yukawa sectors and either of them can potentially be anomalous. We show that the branching fractions for H → ZV decays in Standard Model (SM) are small, making it a sensitive probe for anomalous Higgs couplings originating from physics beyond SM. Moreover, as both V and Z can decay into pair of charged leptons, they provide experimentally clean channels and future LHC runs should observe such decays. We perform a model independent analysis and show how angular asymmetries can be used to probe these anomalous Higgs couplings, taking further decays of V and Z to pair of charged leptons into account. The angular asymmetries can provide significant information about anomalous Higgs couplings in both gauge and Yukawa sectors.
Anomalous Evidence, Confidence Change, and Theory Change.
Hemmerich, Joshua A; Van Voorhis, Kellie; Wiley, Jennifer
2016-08-01
A novel experimental paradigm that measured theory change and confidence in participants' theories was used in three experiments to test the effects of anomalous evidence. Experiment 1 varied the amount of anomalous evidence to see if "dose size" made incremental changes in confidence toward theory change. Experiment 2 varied whether anomalous evidence was convergent (of multiple types) or replicating (similar finding repeated). Experiment 3 varied whether participants were provided with an alternative theory that explained the anomalous evidence. All experiments showed that participants' confidence changes were commensurate with the amount of anomalous evidence presented, and that larger decreases in confidence predicted theory changes. Convergent evidence and the presentation of an alternative theory led to larger confidence change. Convergent evidence also caused more theory changes. Even when people do not change theories, factors pertinent to the evidence and alternative theories decrease their confidence in their current theory and move them incrementally closer to theory change.
Four-flavour leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment
Burger, Florian; Feng, Xu; Hotzel, Grit; Jansen, Karl; Petschlies, Marcus; Renner, Dru B.
2014-02-24
We present a four-flavour lattice calculation of the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarisation contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, aμ^{hvp}, arising from quark-connected Feynman graphs. It is based on ensembles featuring N_{f}=2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). Several light quark masses are used in order to yield a controlled extrapolation to the physical pion mass. We employ three lattice spacings to examine lattice artefacts and several different volumes to check for finite-size effects. Including the complete first two generations of quarks allows for a direct comparison with phenomenological determinations of a μ^{hvp}. The final result involving an estimate of the systematic uncertainty a_{μ}^{hvp}=6.74 (21)(18) 10^{-8} shows a good overall agreement with these computations.
Four-flavour leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment
Burger, Florian; Feng, Xu; Hotzel, Grit; ...
2014-02-24
We present a four-flavour lattice calculation of the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarisation contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, aμhvp, arising from quark-connected Feynman graphs. It is based on ensembles featuring Nf=2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). Several light quark masses are used in order to yield a controlled extrapolation to the physical pion mass. We employ three lattice spacings to examine lattice artefacts and several different volumes to check for finite-size effects. Including the complete first two generations of quarks allows for a direct comparison with phenomenological determinations of amore » μhvp. The final result involving an estimate of the systematic uncertainty aμhvp=6.74 (21)(18) 10-8 shows a good overall agreement with these computations.« less
Anomalous Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells.
Snaith, Henry J; Abate, Antonio; Ball, James M; Eperon, Giles E; Leijtens, Tomas; Noel, Nakita K; Stranks, Samuel D; Wang, Jacob Tse-Wei; Wojciechowski, Konrad; Zhang, Wei
2014-05-01
Perovskite solar cells have rapidly risen to the forefront of emerging photovoltaic technologies, exhibiting rapidly rising efficiencies. This is likely to continue to rise, but in the development of these solar cells there are unusual characteristics that have arisen, specifically an anomalous hysteresis in the current-voltage curves. We identify this phenomenon and show some examples of factors that make the hysteresis more or less extreme. We also demonstrate stabilized power output under working conditions and suggest that this is a useful parameter to present, alongside the current-voltage scan derived power conversion efficiency. We hypothesize three possible origins of the effect and discuss its implications on device efficiency and future research directions. Understanding and resolving the hysteresis is essential for further progress and is likely to lead to a further step improvement in performance.
Precise Quantization of Anomalous Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bestwick, Andrew
In the quantum anomalous Hall effect, electron transport in a magnetically-doped topological insulator takes place through chiral, dissipationless edge channels. In this talk, we discuss the behavior of a nearly ideal implementations of the effect in which the Hall resistance is within a part per 10,000 of its quantized value and the longitudinal resistivity can reach below 1 Ω per square. Nearly all Cr-doped topological insulator samples demonstrate extreme temperature dependence that is well-modeled by a small effective gap, allowing control over quantization with an unexpected magnetocaloric effect. We also discuss measurements of new device geometries and non-local resistances that identify the sources of dissipation that limit the effect. (Now at Rigetti Computing).
Observation of photonic anomalous Floquet topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maczewsky, Lukas J.; Zeuner, Julia M.; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander
2017-01-01
Topological insulators are a new class of materials that exhibit robust and scatter-free transport along their edges -- independently of the fine details of the system and of the edge -- due to topological protection. To classify the topological character of two-dimensional systems without additional symmetries, one commonly uses Chern numbers, as their sum computed from all bands below a specific bandgap is equal to the net number of chiral edge modes traversing this gap. However, this is strictly valid only in settings with static Hamiltonians. The Chern numbers do not give a full characterization of the topological properties of periodically driven systems. In our work, we implement a system where chiral edge modes exist although the Chern numbers of all bands are zero. We employ periodically driven photonic waveguide lattices and demonstrate topologically protected scatter-free edge transport in such anomalous Floquet topological insulators.
Observation of photonic anomalous Floquet topological insulators
Maczewsky, Lukas J.; Zeuner, Julia M.; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander
2017-01-01
Topological insulators are a new class of materials that exhibit robust and scatter-free transport along their edges — independently of the fine details of the system and of the edge — due to topological protection. To classify the topological character of two-dimensional systems without additional symmetries, one commonly uses Chern numbers, as their sum computed from all bands below a specific bandgap is equal to the net number of chiral edge modes traversing this gap. However, this is strictly valid only in settings with static Hamiltonians. The Chern numbers do not give a full characterization of the topological properties of periodically driven systems. In our work, we implement a system where chiral edge modes exist although the Chern numbers of all bands are zero. We employ periodically driven photonic waveguide lattices and demonstrate topologically protected scatter-free edge transport in such anomalous Floquet topological insulators. PMID:28051080
Anomalous Diffusion of Single Particles in Cytoplasm
Regner, Benjamin M.; Vučinić, Dejan; Domnisoru, Cristina; Bartol, Thomas M.; Hetzer, Martin W.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.
2013-01-01
The crowded intracellular environment poses a formidable challenge to experimental and theoretical analyses of intracellular transport mechanisms. Our measurements of single-particle trajectories in cytoplasm and their random-walk interpretations elucidate two of these mechanisms: molecular diffusion in crowded environments and cytoskeletal transport along microtubules. We employed acousto-optic deflector microscopy to map out the three-dimensional trajectories of microspheres migrating in the cytosolic fraction of a cellular extract. Classical Brownian motion (BM), continuous time random walk, and fractional BM were alternatively used to represent these trajectories. The comparison of the experimental and numerical data demonstrates that cytoskeletal transport along microtubules and diffusion in the cytosolic fraction exhibit anomalous (nonFickian) behavior and posses statistically distinct signatures. Among the three random-walk models used, continuous time random walk provides the best representation of diffusion, whereas microtubular transport is accurately modeled with fractional BM. PMID:23601312
Photonic versus electronic quantum anomalous Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleu, O.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.
2017-03-01
We derive the diagram of the topological phases accessible within a generic Hamiltonian describing quantum anomalous Hall effect for photons and electrons in honeycomb lattices in the presence of a Zeeman field and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The two cases differ crucially by the winding number of their SOC, which is 1 for the Rashba SOC of electrons, and 2 for the photon SOC induced by the energy splitting between the TE and TM modes. As a consequence, the two models exhibit opposite Chern numbers ±2 at low field. Moreover, the photonic system shows a topological transition absent in the electronic case. If the photonic states are mixed with excitonic resonances to form interacting exciton-polaritons, the effective Zeeman field can be induced and controlled by a circularly polarized pump. This new feature allows an all-optical control of the topological phase transitions.
44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference
Beg, Farhat
2014-03-03
Conference Grant Report July 14, 2015 Submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy Attn: Dr. Sean Finnegan By the University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093 On behalf of the 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference 8-13 June 2014, in Estes Park, Colorado Support Requested: $10,100 Amount expended: $3,216.14 Performance Period: 1 March 20 14 to 28 February 20 15 Principal Investigator Dr. Farhat Beg Center for Energy Research University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093-0417 858-822-1266 (telephone) 858-534-4543 (fax) fbeg@ucsd.edu Administrative Point of Contact: Brandi Pate, 858-534-0851, blpate®ucsd.edu I. Background The forty-fourth Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in Estes Park, Colorado from June 5-8, 2014 (aac2014.ucsd.edu). The first Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in 1971 to assemble experts in the poorly understood area of laser-plasma absorption. The goal of that conference was to address the anomalously large laser absorption seen in plasma experiments with respect to the laser absorption predicted by linear plasma theory. Great progress in this research area has been made in the decades since that first meeting, due in part to the scientific interactions that have occurred annually at this conference. Specifically, this includes the development of nonlinear laser-plasma theory and the simulation of laser interactions with plasmas. Each summer since that first meeting, this week-long conference has been held at unique locations in North America as a scientific forum for intense scientific exchanges relevant to the interaction of laser radiation with plasmas. Responsibility for organizing the conference has traditional rotated each year between the major Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) laboratories and universities including LANL, LLNL, LLE, UCLA UC Davis and NRL. As the conference has matured over the past four decades, its technical footprint has expanded
Communication: Probing anomalous diffusion in frequency space
Stachura, Sławomir; Kneller, Gerald R.
2015-11-21
Anomalous diffusion processes are usually detected by analyzing the time-dependent mean square displacement of the diffusing particles. The latter evolves asymptotically as W(t) ∼ 2D{sub α}t{sup α}, where D{sub α} is the fractional diffusion constant and 0 < α < 2. In this article we show that both D{sub α} and α can also be extracted from the low-frequency Fourier spectrum of the corresponding velocity autocorrelation function. This offers a simple method for the interpretation of quasielastic neutron scattering spectra from complex (bio)molecular systems, in which subdiffusive transport is frequently encountered. The approach is illustrated and validated by analyzing molecular dynamics simulations of molecular diffusion in a lipid POPC bilayer.
Anomalous Stress Response of Ultrahard WBn Compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Quan; Zhou, Dan; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Chen, Changfeng
2015-10-01
Boron-rich tungsten borides are premier prototypes of a new class of ultrahard compounds. Here, we show by first-principles calculations that their stress-strain relations display surprisingly diverse and anomalous behavior under a variety of loading conditions. Most remarkable is the dramatically changing bonding configurations and deformation modes with rising boron concentration in WBn (n =2 , 3, 4), resulting in significantly different stress responses and unexpected indentation strength variations. This novel phenomenon stems from the peculiar structural arrangements in tungsten borides driven by boron's ability to form unusually versatile bonding states. Our results elucidate the intriguing deformation mechanisms that define a distinct type of ultrahard material. These new insights underscore the need to explore unconventional structure-property relations in a broad range of transition-metal light-element compounds.
Universal scaling of the anomalous Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Wei; Wang, Kejie; Niu, Wei; Lai, Bolin; Maltby, Nick; Yang, Mao; Gao, Ming; Liu, Wenqing; He, Liang; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Yongbing
2017-04-01
We have undertaken a detailed study of the magneto-transport properties of ultra-thin Fe films epitaxially grown on GaAs (1 0 0). A metal–semiconductor transition has been observed with a critical thickness of 1.25 nm, which was thought to be related to the thermally activated tunneling between metallic clusters. By fitting {ρ\\text{AH}} versus ρ xx2 with the TYJ equation (Tian et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 087206), we found that the magnetization is negligible for the scaling of the anomalous Hall effect in ultra-thin Fe films. Furthermore, the intrinsic term, which is acquired by the linear fitting of {ρ\\text{AH}} versus ρ xx2 , shows an obvious decrease when the film thickness drops below 1.25 nm, which was thought to be related to the fading of the Berry curvature in the ultra-thin film limit.
Chiral magnetic plasmons in anomalous relativistic matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Sukhachov, P. O.
2017-03-01
The chiral plasmon modes of relativistic matter in background magnetic and strain-induced pseudomagnetic fields are studied in detail using the consistent chiral kinetic theory. The results reveal a number of anomalous features of these chiral magnetic and pseudomagnetic plasmons that could be used to identify them in experiment. In a system with nonzero electric (chiral) chemical potential, the background magnetic (pseudomagnetic) fields not only modify the values of the plasmon frequencies in the long-wavelength limit, but also affect the qualitative dependence on the wave vector. Similar modifications can be also induced by the chiral shift parameter in Weyl materials. Interestingly, even in the absence of the chiral shift and external fields, the chiral chemical potential alone leads to a splitting of plasmon energies at linear order in the wave vector.
Anomalous radiation from a nonstationary plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gradov, O. M.; Larsson, J.; Lindgren, T.; Stenflo, L.; Tegeback, R.; Uddholm, P.
1980-01-01
This paper considers the anomalous growth of the radiation intensity, which is caused by an EM wave incident on an inhomogeneous nonstationary plasma. The amplitude of the reflected signal can thus during relatively short time intervals be larger than that of the incident wave. The reason is that the plasma parameters can pass through values, for which linear resonance of leaking surface waves exist. An analytical expression is obtained for the maximum value of the intensity of the reflected wave for two different plasma density profiles, interacting with waves of different polarization. It is shown that the effect can occur repeatedly in a nonstationary plasma with a nonmonotonous density profile, if the region, where the inhomogeneity gradient changes sign, increases.
Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities
Wang, H.; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E.
1997-04-01
Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.
Anomalous stress response of ultrahard WBn compounds
Li, Quan; Zhou, Dan; Zheng, Weitao; ...
2015-10-29
Boron-rich tungsten borides are premier prototypes of a new class of ultrahard compounds. Here, we show by first-principles calculations that their stress-strain relations display surprisingly diverse and anomalous behavior under a variety of loading conditions. Most remarkable is the dramatically changing bonding configurations and deformation modes with rising boron concentration in WBn (n=2, 3, 4), resulting in significantly different stress responses and unexpected indentation strength variations. This novel phenomenon stems from the peculiar structural arrangements in tungsten borides driven by boron’s ability to form unusually versatile bonding states. Our results elucidate the intriguing deformation mechanisms that define a distinct typemore » of ultrahard material. Here, these new insights underscore the need to explore unconventional structure-property relations in a broad range of transition-metal light-element compounds.« less
Anomalous krypton in the Allende meteorite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frick, U.
1977-01-01
The reported investigation provides important new data for the heavy noble gases, especially Kr, in the Allende meteorite. The data are used to criticize the original model of Lewis et al. (1975) based on the noble gas data of these researchers. The conclusions reached in the investigation support alternative models which have been mainly based on Xe data by Lewis et al. (1975, 1977). Because of the relatively high noble gas abundances in the separates studied, disturbance from nuclear effects occurring in situ such as spallation and neutron capture is insignificant, offering an opportunity to study primordial Ar, Kr, and Xe. The isotopic and abundance data obtained from the samples largely confirm the noble gas results of Lewis et al. (1975, 1977) where isotopic correlations agree with the correlations of the considered samples. It is found that both Kr and Xe data are consistent with a two component mixture of 'ordinary' as well as 'anomalous' planetary gases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Rui; Li, Xiangdong
2002-03-01
In the last few years it has been recognized that a group of X-ray pulsars have peculiar properties which set them apart from the majority of accreting pulars in X-ray binaries. They are called the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXP). These objects are characterized by very soft X-ray spectra with low and steady X-ray fluxes, narrow-distributed spin periods, steady spin-down, no optical/infrared counterparts. Some of them may associate with supernova remnants. The nature of AXP remains mysterious. It has been suggested that AXP are accreting neutron stars, or solitary "magnetars", neutron stars with super strong magnetic fields (≍1010-1011T). In this paper we review the recent progress in the studies of AXP, and discuss the possible implications from comparison of AXP with other neutron stars, such as radio pulsars, radio quiet X-ray pulsar candidates and soft γ-ray repeaters.
Cyclotron maser using the anomalous Doppler effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Didenko, A. N.; Borisov, A. R.; Fomenko, G. P.; Shlapakovskii, A. S.; Shtein, Iu. G.
1983-11-01
The operation of an anomalous-Doppler-effect cyclotron-resonance maser using a waveguide partially filled with dielectric as the slow-wave system is reported. The device investigated is similar to that of Didenko et al. (1983) and comprises a 300-mm-long 50-mm-o.d. 30-mm-i.d. waveguide with fabric-laminate dielectric, located 150 mm from the cathode in a 500-mm-long region of uniform 0-20-kG magnetic field, and a coaxial magnetic-insulation gun producing a 13-mm-i.d. 25-mm-o.d. hollow electron beam. Radiation at 12 + or - 1 mm wavelength and optimum power 20 MW is observed using hot-carrier detectors, with a clear peak in the power-versus-magnetic-field curve at about 6.4 kG.
Revisit to diffraction anomalous fine structure
Kawaguchi, T.; Fukuda, K.; Tokuda, K.; Shimada, K.; Ichitsubo, T.; Oishi, M.; Mizuki, J.; Matsubara, E.
2014-01-01
The diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) method that is a spectroscopic analysis combined with resonant X-ray diffraction enables the determination of the valence state and local structure of a selected element at a specific crystalline site and/or phase. This method has been improved by using a polycrystalline sample, channel-cut monochromator optics with an undulator synchrotron radiation source, an area detector and direct determination of resonant terms with a logarithmic dispersion relation. This study makes the DAFS method more convenient and saves a large amount of measurement time in comparison with the conventional DAFS method with a single crystal. The improved DAFS method has been applied to some model samples, Ni foil and Fe3O4 powder, to demonstrate the validity of the measurement and the analysis of the present DAFS method. PMID:25343791
Anomalous "mapping" between pionfull and pionless EFT's
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ji-Feng
2014-03-01
The pion contributions to the coupling C0 of pionless EFT are studied via both non-relativistic and relativistic forms of chiral effective field theory for nuclear forces. A definite item in the 2N-reducible component of the box diagram is shown to be dominant over the 2N-irreducible (potential) ones due to the pinching of low-lying nucleon poles, and this anomalous mapping between pionless and pionfull EFT's occurs right within the non-relativistic regime. A natural strategy for renormalization of the pionfull theory emerges as a byproduct through the interactive analysis of the box diagram. Such mapping perspective may shed some light on the efficient organization of the pionfull effective field theory for nuclear forces.
Anomalous magnetoresistance in magnetized topological insulator cylinders
Siu, Zhuo Bin; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.
2015-05-07
The close coupling between the spin and momentum degrees of freedom in topological insulators (TIs) presents the opportunity for the control of one to manipulate the other. The momentum can, for example, be confined on a curved surface and the spin influenced by applying a magnetic field. In this work, we study the surface states of a cylindrical TI magnetized in the x direction perpendicular to the cylindrical axis lying along the z direction. We show that a large magnetization leads to an upwards bending of the energy bands at small |k{sub z}|. The bending leads to an anomalous magnetoresistance where the transmission between two cylinders magnetized in opposite directions is higher than when the cylinders are magnetized at intermediate angles with respect to each other.
Heterogeneous anomalous diffusion in view of superstatistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itto, Yuichi
2014-08-01
It is experimentally known that virus exhibits stochastic motion in cytoplasm of a living cell in the free form as well as the form being contained in the endosome and the exponent of anomalous diffusion of the virus fluctuates depending on localized areas of the cytoplasm. Here, a theory is developed for establishing a generalized fractional kinetics for the infection pathway of the virus in the cytoplasm in view of superstatistics, which offers a general framework for describing nonequilibrium complex systems with two largely separated time scales. In the present theory, the existence of a large time-scale separation in the infection pathway is explicitly taken into account. A comment is also made on scaling nature of the motion of the virus that is suggested by the theory.
Anomalous Conductances in an Ultracold Quantum Wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanász-Nagy, M.; Glazman, L.; Esslinger, T.; Demler, E. A.
2016-12-01
We analyze the recently measured anomalous transport properties of an ultracold gas through a ballistic constriction [S. Krinner et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, 8144 (2016)]. The quantized conductance observed at weak interactions increases severalfold as the gas is made strongly interacting, which cannot be explained by the Landauer theory of single-channel transport. We show that this phenomenon is due to the multichannel Andreev reflections at the edges of the constriction, where the interaction and confinement result in a superconducting state. Andreev processes convert atoms of otherwise reflecting channels into the condensate propagating through the constriction, leading to a significant excess conductance. Furthermore, we find the spin conductance being suppressed by superconductivity; the agreement with experiment provides an additional support for our model.
Anomalous magnetoresponse and the Stückelberg axion in holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez-Alba, Amadeo; Landsteiner, Karl; Melgar, Luis
2014-12-01
We study the magnetoresponse with nonconserved currents in holography. Nonconserved currents are dual to massive vector fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS). We introduce the mass in a gauge invariant way via the Stückelberg mechanism. In particular we find generalizations of the chiral magnetic effect, the chiral separation effect and the chiral magnetic wave. Since the associated charge is not conserved we need to source it explicitly by a coupling, the generalization of the chemical potential. In this setup we find that in general the anomalous transport phenomena are still realized. The values we find for nonzero mass connect continuously to the values of the anomalous conductivities of the consistent currents, i.e. the proper chiral magnetic effect vanishes for all masses (as it does for the consistent current in the zero mass case) whereas the chiral separation effect is fully present. The generalization of the chiral magnetic wave shows that for small momenta there is no propagating wave but two purely absorptive modes (one of them diffusive). At higher momenta we recover the chiral magnetic wave as a combination of the two absorptive modes. We also study the negative magneto resistivity and find that it grows quadratically with the magnetic field. The chiral magnetic wave and the negative magneto resistivity are manifestations of the chiral magnetic effect that takes place when the (nonconserved) charge is allowed to fluctuate freely in contrast to the case where the charge is fixed by an explicit source. Since the (classical) U (1 )A symmetry of QCD is not at all a symmetry at the quantum level we also argue that using massive vectors in AdS to model the axial singlet current might result in a more realistic holographic model of QCD and should be a good starting point to investigate the dynamics of anomalous transport in the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma.
Büttler, Rahel M; Martens, Frans; Kushnir, Mark M; Ackermans, Mariette T; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Heijboer, Annemieke C
2015-01-01
The adrenal and gonadal androgens, testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) play an important role in sexual development as well as in other processes. We developed a method for simultaneous quantitative analysis of serum and plasma testosterone, androstenedione and DHEA levels using Isotope-Dilution Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS). Samples underwent liquid-liquid extraction and were analyzed on an Acquity 2D-UPLC-System and a Xevo TQ-S tandem mass spectrometer (Waters). The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were <4.0%, <6.3% and <7.0% and <6.0%, <8.1% and <7.7% for testosterone, androstenedione and DHEA, respectively. Inter-assay CVs at the lower limit were 10.6%, 16.9% and 9.0% for testosterone (0.10nmol/L), androstenedione (0.10nmol/L) and DHEA (1.0nmol/L), respectively. Recoveries of spiked analytes were 93-107%. The present testosterone method compared well (y=1.00x-0.04; r=0.998) to a published ID-LC-MS/MS method for testosterone in our lab. The latter method being concordant with a published reference method (Bui et al., 2013). The present method compared well to a published ID-LC-MS/MS method (Kushnir et al., 2010) (y=1.06x-0.06; r=0.996 for testosterone; y=1.04x-0.04; r=0.995 for androstenedione and y=1.03x+0.01; r=0.991 for DHEA). In conclusion, we developed a sensitive and accurate ID-LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously measure serum testosterone, androstenedione and DHEA in serum and plasma.
Dimensions of temperament: an analysis.
Lorr, M; Stefic, E C
1976-01-01
The TDOT recast into a single stimulus format was administered to 150 college Ss. A factor analysis of the items followed by an analysis of item clusters that define each factor indicated the presence of 14 dimensions. Of the 10 bipolar scales of the TDOT, 3 were confirmed as independent dimensions, and 5 were confirmed in part or split into unipolar factors.
Mathematics Teachers' Criteria of Dimension
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ural, Alattin
2014-01-01
The aim of the study is to determine mathematics teachers' decisions about dimensions of the geometric figures, criteria of dimension and consistency of decision-criteria. The research is a qualitative research and the model applied in the study is descriptive method on the basis of general scanning model. 15 mathematics teachers attended the…
Dimensioning, Tolerancing, and Machine Finishes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adams, George C.
Intended for use with the vocational education student interested in technical drawing, this guide provides answers to questions relating to dimensioning and tolerancing machine drawings. It also gives examples of standard dimensioning practices, tolerancing applications, and finish applications. The problems and examples presented are based on…
String universality in ten dimensions.
Adams, Allan; Taylor, Washington; Dewolfe, Oliver
2010-08-13
We show that the N=1 supergravity theories in ten dimensions with gauge groups U(1){496} and E{8}×U(1){248} are not consistent quantum theories. Cancellation of anomalies cannot be made compatible with supersymmetry and Abelian gauge invariance. Thus, in ten dimensions all supersymmetric theories of gravity without known inconsistencies are realized in string theory.
The Dimensions of Maltreatment: Introduction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
English, Diana J.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Runyan, Desmond K.
2005-01-01
This special issue includes an introduction and seven papers exploring dimensions of maltreatment including type, severity, chronicity, and substantiation status of referrals to CPS, utilizing a subsample of the LONGSCAN studies. Each paper examines one of the dimensions of maltreatment from various perspectives to determine if different…
Anomalous cases of astronaut helmet detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn
2015-05-01
An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.
Powder diffraction studies using anomalous dispersion
Cox, D.E. ); Wilkinson, A.P. . Dept. of Materials)
1993-01-01
With the increasing availability and accessibility of high resolution powder diffractometers at many synchrotron radiation sources throughout the world, there is rapidly-growing interest in the exploitation of anomalous dispersion techniques for structural studies of polycrystalline materials. In conjunction with the Rietveld profile method for structure refinement, such studies are especially useful for the determination of the site distributions of two or more atoms which are near neighbors in the periodic table, or atoms which are distributed among partially occupied sites. Additionally, it is possible to (1) determine the mean-square displacements associated with different kinds of atoms distributed over a single set of sites, (2) distinguish between different oxidation states and coordination geometries of a particular atom in a compound and (3) to determine f' for a wide range of atomic species as a function of energy in the vicinity of an absorption edge. Experimental methods for making anomalous dispersion measurements are described in some detail, including data collection strategies, data analysis and correlation problems, possible systematic errors, and the accuracy of the results. Recent work in the field is reviewed, including cation site-distribution studies (e.g. doped high [Tc] superconductors, ternary alloys, FeCo[sub 2](PO[sub 4])[sub 3], FeNi[sub 2]BO[sub 5]), oxidation-state contrast (e.g. YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6+x], Eu[sub 3]O[sub 4], GaCl[sub 2], Fe[sub 2]PO[sub 5]), and the effect of coordination geometry (e.g. Y[sub 3]Ga[sub 5]O[sub l2]).
Powder diffraction studies using anomalous dispersion
Cox, D.E.; Wilkinson, A.P.
1993-05-01
With the increasing availability and accessibility of high resolution powder diffractometers at many synchrotron radiation sources throughout the world, there is rapidly-growing interest in the exploitation of anomalous dispersion techniques for structural studies of polycrystalline materials. In conjunction with the Rietveld profile method for structure refinement, such studies are especially useful for the determination of the site distributions of two or more atoms which are near neighbors in the periodic table, or atoms which are distributed among partially occupied sites. Additionally, it is possible to (1) determine the mean-square displacements associated with different kinds of atoms distributed over a single set of sites, (2) distinguish between different oxidation states and coordination geometries of a particular atom in a compound and (3) to determine f` for a wide range of atomic species as a function of energy in the vicinity of an absorption edge. Experimental methods for making anomalous dispersion measurements are described in some detail, including data collection strategies, data analysis and correlation problems, possible systematic errors, and the accuracy of the results. Recent work in the field is reviewed, including cation site-distribution studies (e.g. doped high {Tc} superconductors, ternary alloys, FeCo{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, FeNi{sub 2}BO{sub 5}), oxidation-state contrast (e.g. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}, Eu{sub 3}O{sub 4}, GaCl{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}PO{sub 5}), and the effect of coordination geometry (e.g. Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub l2}).
Anomalous Cases of Astronaut Helmet Detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn
2015-01-01
An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.
No need to replace an "anomalous" primate (Primates) with an "anomalous" bear (Carnivora, Ursidae).
Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Pine, Ronald H
2015-01-01
By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative "yeti", "bigfoot", and other "anomalous primate" hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an "anomalous primate", but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursusmaritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursusarctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropodamelanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics.
ANOMALOUS COSMIC RAYS AS PROBES OF MAGNETIC CLOUDS
Reames, D. V.; Kahler, S. W.; Tylka, A. J.
2009-08-01
We report, for the first time, the observation near the Earth of anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) particles throughout the interiors of interplanetary magnetic clouds (MCs) at the same intensity as outside the MCs. ACRs, accelerated in the outer heliosphere, have unique elemental abundances making their identity unambiguous as they probe these clouds from the outside. Thus, MCs, carried out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), are seen to contain no structures that are magnetically closed to the penetration of ions with energies above a few MeV amu{sup -1}. As the MCs expand outward, they must fill their increasing volume with ACRs dynamically, to the same degree as neighboring 'open' field lines. These observations cast doubt on conventional ideas about the closed field topologies of MCs and the cross-field transport of energetic particles. The ACR observations conflict with some reports of significant exclusion from MCs of solar energetic particles (SEPs) of comparable energy and rigidity. A process that allows cross-field transport of ACRs may also allow similar transport of SEPs late in events, causing the large spatial extent and uniformity of SEPs in 'invariant spectral regions' extending far behind CME-driven shock waves.
Anomalous Transport in Carbonate Rock - Predictions and Quantitative Measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijeljic, B.; Blunt, M. J.
2014-12-01
Solute transport in rock subsurface is important in a number of applications such as contaminant hydrology, carbon storage and enhanced oil recovery. Carbonate rock contain most of the world's oil reserves and potentially hold a storage capacity for carbon dioxide. Pore structure in carbonate rock introduces an additional complexity in the form of bimodal pore size distributions, which leads to complex anomalous transport behavior and poses a significant challenge for accurate predictions. We present a new modeling concept that simulates flow and transport on micro-CT images containing the information on inter- and intra-grain pore space of carbonate rock. Navier-Stokes equations are solved for flow in the image voxels comprising the pore space, streamline-based simulation is used to account for advection, and diffusion is superimposed by random walk. Firstly, the model is validated against the experimental NMR measurements in the dual porosity beadpack. Furthermore, the model predictions are made for a number of carbonate rock images which are then classified in terms of heterogeneity of the inter- and intra-grain pore space, heterogeneity in the flow field, and the mass transfer characteristics of the porous media. Finally, we demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the model through an analysis that includes a number of probability density functions (PDFs) measures of non-Fickian transport on the micro-CT images.
Anomalously Fast Diffusion of Targeted Carbon Nanotubes in Cellular Spheroids.
Wang, Yichun; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Che, Quantong; Han, Jishu; Kotov, Nicholas A
2015-08-25
Understanding transport of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other nanocarriers within tissues is essential for biomedical imaging and drug delivery using these carriers. Compared to traditional cell cultures in animal studies, three-dimensional tissue replicas approach the complexity of the actual organs and enable high temporal and spatial resolution of the carrier permeation. We investigated diffusional transport of CNTs in highly uniform spheroids of hepatocellular carcinoma and found that apparent diffusion coefficients of CNTs in these tissue replicas are anomalously high and comparable to diffusion rates of similarly charged molecules with molecular weights 10000× lower. Moreover, diffusivity of CNTs in tissues is enhanced after functionalization with transforming growth factor β1. This unexpected trend contradicts predictions of the Stokes-Einstein equation and previously obtained empirical dependences of diffusivity on molecular mass for permeants in gas, liquid, solid or gel. It is attributed to the planar diffusion (gliding) of CNTs along cellular membranes reducing effective dimensionality of diffusional space. These findings indicate that nanotubes and potentially similar nanostructures are capable of fast and deep permeation into the tissue, which is often difficult to realize with anticancer agents.
Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.; Tick, Geoffrey R.
2015-01-01
This study evaluates the role of the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion in transient anomalous transport, which is one of the major knowledge gaps in anomalous transport, by combining Monte Carlo simulations and stochastic model analysis. Two alluvial settings containing either short- or long-connected hydrofacies are generated and used as media for flow and transport modeling. Numerical experiments show that 1) the Peclet number affects both the duration of the power-law segment of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) and the transition rate from anomalous to Fickian transport by determining the solute residence time for a given low-permeability layer, 2) mechanical dispersion has a limited contribution to the anomalous characteristics of late-time transport as compared to molecular diffusion due to an almost negligible velocity in floodplain deposits, and 3) the initial source dimensions only enhance the power-law tail of the BTCs at short travel distances. A tempered stable stochastic (TSS) model is then applied to analyze the modeled transport. Applications show that the time-nonlocal parameters in the TSS model relate to the Peclet number, Pe. In particular, the truncation parameter in the TSS model increases nonlinearly with a decrease in Pe due to the decrease of the mean residence time, and the capacity coefficient increases with an increase in molecular diffusion which is probably due to the increase in the number of immobile particles. The above numerical experiments and stochastic analysis therefore reveal that the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer–aquitard complexes.
Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T; Tick, Geoffrey R
2015-01-01
This study evaluates the role of the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion in transient anomalous transport, which is one of the major knowledge gaps in anomalous transport, by combining Monte Carlo simulations and stochastic model analysis. Two alluvial settings containing either short- or long-connected hydrofacies are generated and used as media for flow and transport modeling. Numerical experiments show that 1) the Peclet number affects both the duration of the power-law segment of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) and the transition rate from anomalous to Fickian transport by determining the solute residence time for a given low-permeability layer, 2) mechanical dispersion has a limited contribution to the anomalous characteristics of late-time transport as compared to molecular diffusion due to an almost negligible velocity in floodplain deposits, and 3) the initial source dimensions only enhance the power-law tail of the BTCs at short travel distances. A tempered stable stochastic (TSS) model is then applied to analyze the modeled transport. Applications show that the time-nonlocal parameters in the TSS model relate to the Peclet number, Pe. In particular, the truncation parameter in the TSS model increases nonlinearly with a decrease in Pe due to the decrease of the mean residence time, and the capacity coefficient increases with an increase in molecular diffusion which is probably due to the increase in the number of immobile particles. The above numerical experiments and stochastic analysis therefore reveal that the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer-aquitard complexes.
Split universal extra dimension and dark matter
Park, Seong Chan; Shu Jing
2009-05-01
Motivated by the recent observation of the high energy electron and positron excesses in cosmic ray by PAMELA and ATIC/PPB-BETS, we suggest an anomaly-free scenario for the universal extra dimension that localizes the standard model quarks and splits the spectrum of Kaluza-Klein (KK) quarks from KK leptons. When the SM quarks are 'well localized' at the boundaries, the most stringent bound of the model (1/R>510 GeV) comes from the resonance search for the Tevatron dijet channels. Even at the early stage of LHC, one can discover the second KK gluon for masses up to 4 TeV.
Universal Extra Dimension models with right-handed neutrinos
Matsumoto, Shigeki; Sato, Joe; Yamanaka, Masato; Senami, Masato
2008-04-21
Relic abundance of dark matter is investigated in the framework of universal extra dimension (UED) models with right-handed neutrinos. These models are free from the KK graviton problem in the minimal UED model. The first KK particle of the right-handed neutrino is a dark matter candidate in this framework. When ordinary neutrino masses are large enough such as the degenerate mass spectrum case, the dark matter relic abundance can increase significantly. The scale of the extra dimension consistent with cosmological observations can be 500 GeV in the minimal setup of UED models with right-handed neutrinos.
Fingerprints of anomalous primordial Universe on the abundance of large scale structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baghram, Shant; Akbar Abolhasani, Ali; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein
2014-12-01
We study the predictions of anomalous inflationary models on the abundance of structures in large scale structure observations. The anomalous features encoded in primordial curvature perturbation power spectrum are (a): localized feature in momentum space, (b): hemispherical asymmetry and (c): statistical anisotropies. We present a model-independent expression relating the number density of structures to the changes in the matter density variance. Models with localized feature can alleviate the tension between observations and numerical simulations of cold dark matter structures on galactic scales as a possible solution to the missing satellite problem. In models with hemispherical asymmetry we show that the abundance of structures becomes asymmetric depending on the direction of observation to sky. In addition, we study the effects of scale-dependent dipole amplitude on the abundance of structures. Using the quasars data and adopting the power-law scaling knA-1 for the amplitude of dipole we find the upper bound nA < 0.6 for the spectral index of the dipole asymmetry. In all cases there is a critical mass scale Mc in which for M
Disorder Effect on Chiral Edge Modes and Anomalous Hall Conductance in Weyl Semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takane, Yositake
2016-12-01
Typical Weyl semimetals host chiral surface states and hence show an anomalous Hall response. Although a Weyl semimetal phase is known to be robust against weak disorder, the effect of disorder on chiral states has not been fully clarified so far. We study the behavior of such chiral states in the presence of disorder and its consequences on an anomalous Hall response, focusing on a thin slab of Weyl semimetal with chiral surface states along its edge. It is shown that weak disorder does not disrupt chiral edge states but crucially affects them owing to the renormalization of a mass parameter: the number of chiral edge states changes depending on the strength of disorder. It is also shown that the Hall conductance is quantized when the Fermi level is located near Weyl nodes within a finite-size gap. This quantization of the Hall conductance collapses once the strength of disorder exceeds a critical value, suggesting that it serves as a probe to distinguish a Weyl semimetal phase from a diffusive anomalous Hall metal phase.
Fingerprints of anomalous primordial Universe on the abundance of large scale structures
Baghram, Shant; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: abolhasani@ipm.ir E-mail: MohammadHossein.Namjoo@utdallas.edu
2014-12-01
We study the predictions of anomalous inflationary models on the abundance of structures in large scale structure observations. The anomalous features encoded in primordial curvature perturbation power spectrum are (a): localized feature in momentum space, (b): hemispherical asymmetry and (c): statistical anisotropies. We present a model-independent expression relating the number density of structures to the changes in the matter density variance. Models with localized feature can alleviate the tension between observations and numerical simulations of cold dark matter structures on galactic scales as a possible solution to the missing satellite problem. In models with hemispherical asymmetry we show that the abundance of structures becomes asymmetric depending on the direction of observation to sky. In addition, we study the effects of scale-dependent dipole amplitude on the abundance of structures. Using the quasars data and adopting the power-law scaling k{sup n{sub A}-1} for the amplitude of dipole we find the upper bound n{sub A} < 0.6 for the spectral index of the dipole asymmetry. In all cases there is a critical mass scale M{sub c} in which for M
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jiayu
A recently improved version of the COLA GCM, which simulates the Indian monsoon circulation and precipitation pattern closely, together with snow data derived from SMMR observations, were used to investigate the effect of anomalous spring Eurasian snow cover on the interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon. We have successfully simulated the observed evidence that excessive winter/spring Eurasian snow cover is associated with a delay in monsoon onset, weak monsoon circulation, and an extended monsoon withdrawal period. JJAS simulated precipitation shows a reduction of about one standard deviation of model natural variation over the Indian region as well as a significant increase over the eastern portion of China. A study of the physical mechanisms involved reveals: (1) Energy used in melting excessive snow reduces the surface temperature over a broad region centered on the Tibetan Plateau. Reduced surface sensible heat flux reduces the mid-tropospheric temperature gradient between Tibet and equatorial Indian Ocean, resulting in a weakening of the Indian summer monsoon circulation. (2) North of Tibet, an anomalous low induced by the excessive springtime Mongolian snow cover is superimposed on the summertime central Asian trough, resulting in the deepening of the trough and the creation of a stronger-than-normal east Asian westerly jet. South of this jet, an upper-tropospheric anomalous anticyclonic circulation provides favorable conditions for convective precipitation over the southeastern part of China. Due to heating anomalies, weaker secondary circulation is accompanied by mass readjustment. Abnormal stationary wave propagation induced by an anomalous divergence field has an abnormal impact on remote regions. The use of the Plumb flux is extended to indicate the propagation of the stationary wave anomaly. Results clearly demonstrate that North America can be influenced by Tibetan anomalous snow cover via atmospheric teleconnection during the spring and
On the Anomalous Radii of the Transiting Extrasolar Planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laughlin, Gregory; Crismani, Matteo; Adams, Fred C.
2011-03-01
We present a systematic evaluation of the agreement between the observed radii of 90 well-characterized transiting extrasolar giant planets and their corresponding model radii. Our model radii are drawn from previously published calculations of coreless giant planets that have attained their asymptotic radii, and which have been tabulated for a range of planet masses and equilibrium temperatures. (We report a two-dimensional polynomial fitting function that accurately represents the models.) As expected, the model radii provide a statistically significant improvement over a null hypothesis that the sizes of giant planets are completely independent of mass and effective temperature. As is well known, however, fiducial models provide an insufficient explanation; the planetary radius anomalies, R ≡ R_obs-R_pred, are strongly correlated with planetary equilibrium temperature. We find that the radius anomalies have a best-fit dependence, R∝ T_eff^{α}, with α = 1.4 ± 0.6. Incorporating this relation into the model radii leads to substantially less scatter in the radius correlation. The extra temperature dependence represents an important constraint on theoretical models for hot Jupiters. Using simple scaling arguments, we find support for the hypothesis of Batygin & Stevenson that this correlation can be attributed to a planetary heating mechanism that is mediated by magnetohydrodynamic coupling between the planetary magnetic field and near-surface flow that is accompanied by ohmic dissipation at adiabatic depth. Additionally, we find that the temperature dependence is likely too strong to admit kinetic heating as the primary source of anomalous energy generation within the majority of the observed transiting planets.
ON THE ANOMALOUS RADII OF THE TRANSITING EXTRASOLAR PLANETS
Laughlin, Gregory; Crismani, Matteo
2011-03-01
We present a systematic evaluation of the agreement between the observed radii of 90 well-characterized transiting extrasolar giant planets and their corresponding model radii. Our model radii are drawn from previously published calculations of coreless giant planets that have attained their asymptotic radii, and which have been tabulated for a range of planet masses and equilibrium temperatures. (We report a two-dimensional polynomial fitting function that accurately represents the models.) As expected, the model radii provide a statistically significant improvement over a null hypothesis that the sizes of giant planets are completely independent of mass and effective temperature. As is well known, however, fiducial models provide an insufficient explanation; the planetary radius anomalies, R{identical_to}R{sub obs}-R{sub pred}, are strongly correlated with planetary equilibrium temperature. We find that the radius anomalies have a best-fit dependence, R{proportional_to}T{sub eff}{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} = 1.4 {+-} 0.6. Incorporating this relation into the model radii leads to substantially less scatter in the radius correlation. The extra temperature dependence represents an important constraint on theoretical models for hot Jupiters. Using simple scaling arguments, we find support for the hypothesis of Batygin and Stevenson that this correlation can be attributed to a planetary heating mechanism that is mediated by magnetohydrodynamic coupling between the planetary magnetic field and near-surface flow that is accompanied by ohmic dissipation at adiabatic depth. Additionally, we find that the temperature dependence is likely too strong to admit kinetic heating as the primary source of anomalous energy generation within the majority of the observed transiting planets.
Anomalous diffusion process applied to magnetic resonance image enhancement.
Senra Filho, A C da S; Salmon, C E Garrido; Murta Junior, L O
2015-03-21
Diffusion process is widely applied to digital image enhancement both directly introducing diffusion equation as in anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, and indirectly by convolution as in Gaussian filter. Anomalous diffusion process (ADP), given by a nonlinear relationship in diffusion equation and characterized by an anomalous parameters q, is supposed to be consistent with inhomogeneous media. Although classic diffusion process is widely studied and effective in various image settings, the effectiveness of ADP as an image enhancement is still unknown. In this paper we proposed the anomalous diffusion filters in both isotropic (IAD) and anisotropic (AAD) forms for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement. Filters based on discrete implementation of anomalous diffusion were applied to noisy MRI T2w images (brain, chest and abdominal) in order to quantify SNR gains estimating the performance for the proposed anomalous filter when realistic noise is added to those images. Results show that for images containing complex structures, e.g. brain structures, anomalous diffusion presents the highest enhancements when compared to classical diffusion approach. Furthermore, ADP presented a more effective enhancement for images containing Rayleigh and Gaussian noise. Anomalous filters showed an ability to preserve anatomic edges and a SNR improvement of 26% for brain images, compared to classical filter. In addition, AAD and IAD filters showed optimum results for noise distributions that appear on extreme situations on MRI, i.e. in low SNR images with approximate Rayleigh noise distribution, and for high SNR images with Gaussian or non central χ noise distributions. AAD and IAD filter showed the best results for the parametric range 1.2 < q < 1.6, suggesting that the anomalous diffusion regime is more suitable for MRI. This study indicates the proposed anomalous filters as promising approaches in qualitative and quantitative MRI enhancement.
Spitzer characterization of dust in an anomalous emission region: the Perseus cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tibbs, C. T.; Flagey, N.; Paladini, R.; Compiègne, M.; Shenoy, S.; Carey, S.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Dickinson, C.; Ali-Haïmoud, Y.; Casassus, S.; Cleary, K.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Hirata, C. M.; Watson, R. A.
2011-12-01
Anomalous microwave emission is known to exist in the Perseus cloud. One of the most promising candidates to explain this excess of emission is electric dipole radiation from rapidly rotating very small dust grains, commonly referred to as spinning dust. Photometric data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope have been reprocessed and used in conjunction with the dust emission model DUSTEM to characterize the properties of the dust within the cloud. This analysis has allowed us to constrain spatial variations in the strength of the interstellar radiation field (χISRF), the mass abundances of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the very small grains (VSGs) relative to the big grains (YPAH and YVSG), the column density of hydrogen (NH) and the equilibrium dust temperature (Tdust). The parameter maps of YPAH, YVSG and χISRF are the first of their kind to be produced for the Perseus cloud, and we used these maps to investigate the physical conditions in which anomalous emission is observed. We find that in regions of anomalous emission the strength of the ISRF, and consequently the equilibrium temperature of the dust, is enhanced while there is no significant variation in the abundances of the PAHs and the VSGs or the column density of hydrogen. We interpret these results as an indication that the enhancement in χISRF might be affecting the properties of the small stochastically heated dust grains resulting in an increase in the spinning dust emission observed at 33 GHz. This is the first time that such an investigation has been performed, and we believe that this type of analysis creates a new perspective in the field of anomalous emission studies, and represents a powerful new tool for constraining spinning dust models.
Anomalous self-assembly of gelatin in ethanol-water marginal solvent.
Bohidar, H B; Mohanty, B
2004-02-01
Light scattering, rheology, and atomic force microscope (AFM) studies have been performed on solutions of a polyampholyte (gelatin) prepared in water-ethanol marginal solvent. At ethanol concentration approximately 45+/-2% v/v anomalous aggregation led to formation of fractal (on hydrophilic substrates; glass, quartz and silicon) aggregate of polypeptide molecules having fractal dimension d(f) in 2D=1.60+/-0.08. The time evolution morphology of these self-assembled and self-organized structures formed on hydrophilic substrates was driven by selective ethanol evaporation and was observed by an AFM. These fractal aggregates eventually transformed into near-spherical clusters with fractal corona having same fractal dimension (d(f)=1.58+/-0.05) and finally, the corona separated and regular aggregates were formed. The kinetics of aggregation on substrates could be modeled through random sequential adsorption of particles with continuum power-law size distribution. The temporal growth of aggregate hydrodynamic radius R(h)(t) and scattered intensity I(s)(t) measured in the bulk were observed to exhibit; R(h)-t(z) and I(s)-t(z)-with z=1/d(f), giving a fractal dimension d(f) in 3D approximately equal to 2.6+/-0.2, which is discussed within the framework of Smoluchowski aggregation kinetics. This growth in R(h) is accompanied by narrowing down of the particle size distribution. Solution rheology at this ethanol concentration revealed minimum thixotropy and maximum infinite shear viscosity features.
Anomalous astronomical time-latitude residuals: a potential earthquake precursor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Hui; Su, You-Jin; Gao, Yi-Fei; Wang, Rui
2016-09-01
The geophysical mechanism behind astronomical time-latitude residuals (ATLR) are discussed. The photoelectric astrolabe at Yunnan Observatory (YO) observed apparent synchronous anomalous ATLR before the Wenchuan M8.0 earthquake (EQ) in May 12, 2008 and the Lushan M7.0 EQ n April 20, 2013. We compared the ATLR from the YO photoelectric astrolabe and EQ data since 1976. Anomalous ATLR was observed before several strong EQs in the Yunnan Province. We believe the photoelectric astrolabe can be used to predict strong EQs and the anomalous ATLR are a potential EQ precursor.
No-Drag Frame for Anomalous Chiral Fluid
Stephanov, Mikhail A.; Yee, Ho-Ung
2016-03-24
For an anomalous fluid carrying dissipationless chiral magnetic and/or vortical currents we show that there is a frame in which a stationary obstacle experiences no drag, but energy and charge currents do not vanish, resembling superfluidity. Unlike ordinary superfluid flow, the anomalous chiral currents can transport entropy in this frame. Moreover, we show that the second law of thermodynamics completely determines the amounts of these anomalous nondissipative currents in the “no-drag frame” as polynomials in temperature and chemical potential with known anomaly coefficients. These general results are illustrated and confirmed by a calculation in the chiral kinetic theory and in the quark-gluon plasma at high temperature.
Island nucleation and growth with anomalous diffusion.
Amar, Jacques G; Semaan, Mikhael
2016-06-01
While most studies of submonolayer island nucleation and growth have been based on the assumption of ordinary monomer diffusion corresponding to diffusion exponent μ=1, in some cases either subdiffusive (μ<1) or superdiffusive (μ>1) behavior may occur. Here we present general expressions for the exponents describing the flux dependence of the island and monomer densities as a function of the critical island size i, substrate dimension d, island fractal dimension d_{f}, and diffusion exponent μ, where 0≤μ≤2. Our results are compared with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations for the case of irreversible island growth (i=1) with 0≤μ≤2 and d=2 as well as simulation results for d=1, 3, and 4, and excellent agreement is found.
The Dimensions of Creative Prose
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Melvin H.
1975-01-01
The thesis in this paper centered around the meaning of "effective" speaking and "effective" writing. The dimensions of effective prose are analyzed as one method of determining what is involved. (Author/RK)
Fourier dimension of random images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekström, Fredrik
2016-10-01
Given a compact set of real numbers, a random C^{m + α}-diffeomorphism is constructed such that the image of any measure concentrated on the set and satisfying a certain condition involving a real number s, almost surely has Fourier dimension greater than or equal to s / (m + α). This is used to show that every Borel subset of the real numbers of Hausdorff dimension s is C^{m + α}-equivalent to a set of Fourier dimension greater than or equal to s / (m + α ). In particular every Borel set is diffeomorphic to a Salem set, and the Fourier dimension is not invariant under Cm-diffeomorphisms for any m.
Electron Anomalous Magnetic Moment in Basis Light-Front Quantization Approach
Zhao, Xingbo; Honkanen, Heli; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC
2012-02-17
We apply the Basis Light-Front Quantization (BLFQ) approach to the Hamiltonian field theory of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) in free space. We solve for the mass eigenstates corresponding to an electron interacting with a single photon in light-front gauge. Based on the resulting non-perturbative ground state light-front amplitude we evaluate the electron anomalous magnetic moment. The numerical results from extrapolating to the infinite basis limit reproduce the perturbative Schwinger result with relative deviation less than 1.2%. We report significant improvements over previous works including the development of analytic methods for evaluating the vertex matrix elements of QED.
Lattice calculation of hadronic light-by-light contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment
Blum, Thomas; Christ, Norman; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku; Jin, Luchang; Lehner, Christoph
2016-01-12
The quark-connected part of the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon’s anomalous magnetic moment is computed using lattice QCD with chiral fermions. Here we report several significant algorithmic improvements and demonstrate their effectiveness through specific calculations which show a reduction in statistical errors by more than an order of magnitude. The most realistic of these calculations is performed with a near-physical 171 MeV pion mass on a (4.6 fm)^{3} spatial volume using the 32^{3}×64 Iwasaki+DSDR gauge ensemble of the RBC/UKQCD Collaboration.
Lattice calculation of hadronic light-by-light contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment
Blum, Thomas; Christ, Norman; Hayakawa, Masashi; ...
2016-01-12
The quark-connected part of the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon’s anomalous magnetic moment is computed using lattice QCD with chiral fermions. Here we report several significant algorithmic improvements and demonstrate their effectiveness through specific calculations which show a reduction in statistical errors by more than an order of magnitude. The most realistic of these calculations is performed with a near-physical 171 MeV pion mass on a (4.6 fm)3 spatial volume using the 323×64 Iwasaki+DSDR gauge ensemble of the RBC/UKQCD Collaboration.
Anomalous Metal Phase Emergent on the Verge of an Exciton Mott Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekiguchi, Fumiya; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.; Shimano, Ryo
2017-02-01
We investigate the exciton Mott transition (EMT) by using optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy on GaAs, with realizing the condition of Mott's gedanken experiment by the resonant excitation of 1 s excitons. We show that an anomalous metallic phase emerges on the verge of the EMT as manifested by a peculiar enhancement of the quasiparticle mass and scattering rate. From the temperature and density dependence, the observed anomaly is shown to originate from the electron-hole (e -h ) correlation which becomes prominent at low temperatures, possibly suggesting a precursor of e -h Cooper pairing.
Timbre Dimensions for Musical Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giese, Gregory Roy
This dissertation addresses the folowing question: Given the technologies to develop and implement any kind of sound generating and controlling device, what will the instrument designer, the composer, and the performer need to know in order to more fully utilize the dimensions of timbre in music and musical performance? This question is approached from the standpoint of music theory. Definitions of timbre and a few examples of related physical and perceptual research are reviewed. Included is a discussion of the essential elements of musical control and of intelligent organization of sound in music. This discussion raises more questions than can be answered simply. It is an attempt to unravel the nature of sound clues and sound qualities as they convey sound identities and musical gesture. A theoretical simplification of sound dimensions for musical use is proposed. Sounds which can be sustained indefinitely consist of steady-state acoustical dimensions. These dimensions rely upon the perceptual phenomenon of simultaneous fusion (synance). Sounds which can not be sustained indefinitely consist of transitions. Transitions may cause successive fusion (sonance). The discussion of steady-state and transition dimensions includes a review of a few informal experiments. This work reveals problems that will influence the musical use of timbre dimensions. It also leads to a theory for the organization and control of timbre dimensions in music. Among the timbre dimensions discussed are: spectral envelope, harmonic content, brightness, phase, inharmonicity, aperiodicity, and temporal transitions. Questions are raised regarding the perception of harmonic content. The effect of register on perception of tones consisting of from two to nine partials is explored and discussed. The size of interval between partials determines a unique quality. This is most apparent with tones consisting of only two or three partials (dions or trions).
The Sirens of Eleven Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramond, Pierre
While most theorists are tied to the mast of four dimensions, some have found it irresistible to speculate about eleven dimensions, the domain of M-theory. We outline a program which starts from the light-cone description of supergravity, and tracks its divergences to suggest the existence of an infinite component theory which in the lightcone relies on the coset F4/SO(9), long known to be linked to the Exceptional Jordan Algebra
KK parity in warped extra dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agashe, Kaustubh; Falkowski, Adam; Low, Ian; Servant, Géraldine
2008-04-01
We construct models with a Kaluza-Klein (KK) parity in a five-dimensional warped geometry, in an attempt to address the little hierarchy problem present in setups with bulk Standard Model fields. The lightest KK particle (LKP) is stable and can play the role of dark matter. We consider the possibilities of gluing two identical slices of AdS5 in either the UV (IR-UV-IR model) or the IR region (UV-IR-UV model) and discuss the model-building issues as well as phenomenological properties in both cases. In particular, we find that the UV-IR-UV model is not gravitationally stable and that additional mechanisms might be required in the IR-UV-IR model to address flavor issues. Collider signals of the warped KK parity are different from either the conventional warped extra dimension without KK parity, in which the new particles are not necessarily pair-produced, or the KK parity in flat universal extra dimensions, where each KK level is nearly degenerate in mass. Dark matter and collider properties of a TeV mass KK Z gauge boson as the LKP are discussed.
Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking from Extra Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Michio; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamawaki, Koichi
2003-08-01
We study the dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking (DEWSB) in the D(= 6, 8, ⋯)-dimensional bulk with compactified extra dimensions. We identify the critical binding strength for triggering the DEWSB, based on the ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation. In the top mode standard model with extra dimensions, where the standard model gauge bosons and the third generation of quarks and leptons are put in the bulk, we analyze the most attractive channel (MAC) by using renormalization group equations (RGEs) of (dimensionless) bulk gauge couplings and determine the effective cutoff where the MAC coupling exceeds the critical value. We then find that the top-condensation can take place for D = 8. Combining RGEs of top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic couplings with compositeness conditions, we predict the top mass, mt = 173 - 180 GeV, and the Higgs mass, mH = 181 - 211 GeV, for D = 8, where we took the universal compactification scale 1/R = 1 - 100 TeV.
Anomalous long-range correlations at a non-equilibrium phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerschenfeld, A.; Derrida, B.
2012-02-01
Non-equilibrium diffusive systems are known to exhibit long-range correlations, which decay like the inverse 1/L of the system size L in one dimension. Here, taking the example of the ABC model, we show that this size dependence becomes anomalous (the decay becomes a non-integer power of L) when the diffusive system approaches a second-order phase transition. This power-law decay as well as the L-dependence of the time-time correlations can be understood in terms of the dynamics of the amplitude of the first Fourier mode of the particle densities. This amplitude evolves according to a Langevin equation in a quartic potential, which was introduced in a previous work to explain the anomalous behavior of the cumulants of the current near this second-order phase transition. Here we also compute some of these cumulants away from the transition and show that they become singular as the transition is approached, matching with what we already knew in the critical regime.
Quest for the Dynamical Origin of Mass ---An LHC Perspective from Sakata, Nambu and Maskawa---
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamawaki, Koichi
I review the dynamical symmetry breaking (DSB) approach to the Origin of Mass, which is traced back to the original (2008 Nobel Prize) work of Nambu based on the BCS analogue of superconductor where mass of nucleon (then elementary particle) arises due to Cooper paring and pions are provided as massless Nambu-Goldstone (NG) bosons, being composite as in Fermi-Yang/Sakata model. In this talk I will focus on the modern version of DSB or composite Higgs models: Walking/Conformal Technicolor, Hidden Local Symmetry (HLS) or Moose, and Top Quark Condensate, with the their extra dimension versions closely related with HLS. Particular emphasis will be placed on the large anomalous dimension and conformal symmetry at the conformal fixed points, developed along the line of the pioneering work of Maskawa and Nakajima. Due to (approximate) conformal symmetry these models do have composite Higgs particle (``Techni-dilaton'', ``Top-sigma'', etc.). Weakly coupled composite gauge boson is realized at ``Vector Manifestation'' formulated at conformal fixed point, which may be applied to the composite W/Z boson models. They will be tested in the upcoming LHC experiments.
Relic abundance of dark matter in universal extra dimension models with right-handed neutrinos
Matsumoto, Shigeki; Sato, Joe; Yamanaka, Masato; Senami, Masato
2009-04-17
Relic abundance of dark matter is investigated in the framework of universal extra dimension models with right-handed neutrinos. These models are free from the serious Kaluza-Klein (KK) graviton problem that the original universal extra dimension model possesses. The first KK particle of the right-handed neutrino is a candidate for dark matter in this framework. When ordinary neutrino masses are large enough such as the degenerate mass spectrum case, the dark matter relic abundance can change significantly. The scale of the extra dimension consistent with cosmological observations can be 500 GeV in the minimal setup of universal extra dimension models with right-handed neutrinos.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in real materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiayong; Zhao, Bao; Zhou, Tong; Yang, Zhongqin
2016-11-01
Under a strong magnetic field, the quantum Hall (QH) effect can be observed in two-dimensional electronic gas systems. If the quantized Hall conductivity is acquired in a system without the need of an external magnetic field, then it will give rise to a new quantum state, the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state. The QAH state is a novel quantum state that is insulating in the bulk but exhibits unique conducting edge states topologically protected from backscattering and holds great potential for applications in low-power-consumption electronics. The realization of the QAH effect in real materials is of great significance. In this paper, we systematically review the theoretical proposals that have been brought forward to realize the QAH effect in various real material systems or structures, including magnetically doped topological insulators, graphene-based systems, silicene-based systems, two-dimensional organometallic frameworks, quantum wells, and functionalized Sb(111) monolayers, etc. Our paper can help our readers to quickly grasp the recent developments in this field. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574051), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 14ZR1403400), and Fudan High-end Computing Center, China.
Anomalous Magnetoresistance Phenomena in Organic Semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeson, Jeremy D.; Lincoln, Derek M.; Shima Edelstein, Ruth; Prigodin, Vladimir N.; Epstein, Arthur J.
2006-03-01
We report magnetoresistance (MR) phenomena with temperature and bias dependence in organic semiconductor thin films with either nonmagnetic or magnetic contacts through high field reaching 9T. For nonmagnetic organic thin films such as Alq3 we find a low field MR up to 15%. A similar magnetic field effect has been reported earlier^1 but, as noted, the mechanism remains unclear. We propose a model of the anomalous MR where charge transport is space-charge limited. The current is determined by the e-h recombination rate. The recombination rate is field dependent, analogous to the chemical yield for radical pairs^2. Using an organic- based magnetic semiconductor^3, V[TCNE]x, and Co as magnetic contacts, with a nonmagnetic organic semiconductor (α-6T) leads to an order-of-magnitude broader zero-centered MR peak superimposed on a spin-valve effect. Possible origins of this broader MR will be discussed. 1. Francis, et al., New J. Phys. 6 185 (2004); Frankevich, et al., Phys. Rev. B 53 4498 (1996) 2. Steiner and Ulrich, Chem. Rev. 89 51 (1989) 3. Pokhodnya, et al., Adv. Mater. 12 410 (2000); Prigodin, et al., Adv. Mater. 14 1230 (2002); Shima Edelstein, et al., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 871E I7.3 (2005)
Anomalous Anticipatory Responses in Networked Random Data
Nelson, Roger D.; Bancel, Peter A.
2006-10-16
We examine an 8-year archive of synchronized, parallel time series of random data from a world spanning network of physical random event generators (REGs). The archive is a publicly accessible matrix of normally distributed 200-bit sums recorded at 1 Hz which extends from August 1998 to the present. The primary question is whether these data show non-random structure associated with major events such as natural or man-made disasters, terrible accidents, or grand celebrations. Secondarily, we examine the time course of apparently correlated responses. Statistical analyses of the data reveal consistent evidence that events which strongly affect people engender small but significant effects. These include suggestions of anticipatory responses in some cases, leading to a series of specialized analyses to assess possible non-random structure preceding precisely timed events. A focused examination of data collected around the time of earthquakes with Richter magnitude 6 and greater reveals non-random structure with a number of intriguing, potentially important features. Anomalous effects in the REG data are seen only when the corresponding earthquakes occur in populated areas. No structure is found if they occur in the oceans. We infer that an important contributor to the effect is the relevance of the earthquake to humans. Epoch averaging reveals evidence for changes in the data some hours prior to the main temblor, suggestive of reverse causation.
Hadron collider limits on anomalous WWγ couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barger, Kevin R.; Reno, M. H.
1995-01-01
A next-to-leading log calculation of the reactions pp and pp¯-->W+/-γX is presented including a triboson gauge coupling from non-standard-model contributions. The additional term arises by considering the standard model as a low energy effective theory. Two approaches are made for comparison. The first approach considers the triboson WWγ coupling as being uniquely fixed by tree level unitarity at high energies to its standard model form and, consequently, suppresses the non-standard-model contributions with form factors. The second approach is to ignore such considerations and calculate the contributions to non-standard-model triboson gauge couplings without such suppressions, using the first term in the momentum expansion of an effective chiral Lagrangian. It is found that at Fermilab Tevatron energies the two approaches do not differ much in quantitative results, while at large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies the two approaches give significantly different predictions for production rates. At the Tevatron and LHC, however, the sensitivity limits on the anomalous coupling of WWγ are too weak to usefully constrain parameters in the chiral Lagrangian.
Diagnosing Anomalous Network Performance with Confidence
Settlemyer, Bradley W; Hodson, Stephen W; Kuehn, Jeffery A; Poole, Stephen W
2011-04-01
Variability in network performance is a major obstacle in effectively analyzing the throughput of modern high performance computer systems. High performance interconnec- tion networks offer excellent best-case network latencies; how- ever, highly parallel applications running on parallel machines typically require consistently high levels of performance to adequately leverage the massive amounts of available computing power. Performance analysts have usually quantified network performance using traditional summary statistics that assume the observational data is sampled from a normal distribution. In our examinations of network performance, we have found this method of analysis often provides too little data to under- stand anomalous network performance. Our tool, Confidence, instead uses an empirically derived probability distribution to characterize network performance. In this paper we describe several instances where the Confidence toolkit allowed us to understand and diagnose network performance anomalies that we could not adequately explore with the simple summary statis- tics provided by traditional measurement tools. In particular, we examine a multi-modal performance scenario encountered with an Infiniband interconnection network and we explore the performance repeatability on the custom Cray SeaStar2 interconnection network after a set of software and driver updates.
Anomalous human behavior detection: an adaptive approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Leeuwen, Coen; Halma, Arvid; Schutte, Klamer
2013-05-01
Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous behavior in videos from DARPA's Mind's Eye program, containing a variety of human activities. In this semi-unsupervised task a set of normal instances is provided for training, after which unknown abnormal behavior has to be detected in a test set. The features extracted from the video data have high dimensionality, are sparse and inhomogeneously distributed in the feature space making it a challenging task. Given these characteristics a distance-based method is preferred, but choosing a threshold to classify instances as (ab)normal is non-trivial. Our novel aproach, the Adaptive Outlier Distance (AOD) is able to detect outliers in these conditions based on local distance ratios. The underlying assumption is that the local maximum distance between labeled examples is a good indicator of the variation in that neighborhood, and therefore a local threshold will result in more robust outlier detection. We compare our method to existing state-of-art methods such as the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and the Local Distance-based Outlier Factor (LDOF). The results of the experiments show that our novel approach improves the quality of the anomaly detection.
Dissipation of anomalous pressures in the subsurface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muggeridge, Ann; Abacioglu, Yafes; England, William; Smalley, Craig
2004-11-01
Zones of anomalous pressure, higher and lower than hydrostatic pressure, have been observed in many sedimentary basins around the world. These normally consist of groups of pressure compartments: volumes of higher-permeability rock surrounded on all sides by lower-permeability barriers. Knowledge of the timescales over which these abnormal pressures are maintained and the mechanisms by which they dissipate is critical for understanding how fluids, such as oil and gas, move in the subsurface. Existing analytic solutions investigate pressure dissipation through low-permeability barriers on top of or underneath an isolated pressure compartment. There are no analytic solutions describing pressure dissipation through lateral barriers, such as faults, or investigating the impact of groups of pressure compartments on the rate of pressure dissipation. This paper presents simple analytic models to investigate pressure dissipation through barriers, such as faults, forming the sides of pressure compartments. The timescales are compared with a solution for pressure dissipation through barriers on top of and underneath the compartment. It also investigates analytically the rate of pressure dissipation from groups of pressure compartments. Lateral seal permeabilities of 10-19 m2 may delay pressure equilibration for millions of years provided the compartment has a sufficiently high fluid storage capacity. Factors contributing toward a high fluid storage capacity include a high fluid compressibility (as is the case in hydrocarbon reservoirs) and a high porosity. The grouping of abnormally pressured compartments into "megacompartment complexes" may delay pressure dissipation for hundreds of millions of years.
Anomalous water diffusion in salt solutions
Ding, Yun; Hassanali, Ali A.; Parrinello, Michele
2014-01-01
The dynamics of water exhibits anomalous behavior in the presence of different electrolytes. Recent experiments [Kim JS, Wu Z, Morrow AR, Yethiraj A, Yethiraj A (2012) J Phys Chem B 116(39):12007–12013] have found that the self-diffusion of water can either be enhanced or suppressed around CsI and NaCl, respectively, relative to that of neat water. Here we show that unlike classical empirical potentials, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations successfully reproduce the qualitative trends observed experimentally. These types of phenomena have often been rationalized in terms of the “structure-making” or “structure-breaking” effects of different ions on the solvent, although the microscopic origins of these features have remained elusive. Rather than disrupting the network in a significant manner, the electrolytes studied here cause rather subtle changes in both structural and dynamical properties of water. In particular, we show that water in the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations is characterized by dynamic heterogeneity, which turns out to be critical in reproducing the experimental trends. PMID:24522111
Anomalous diffusion on the Hanoi networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boettcher, S.; Gonçalves, B.
2008-11-01
Diffusion is modeled on the recently proposed Hanoi networks by studying the mean-square displacement of random walks with time, langr2rang~t2/dw. It is found that diffusion —the quintessential mode of transport throughout Nature— proceeds faster than ordinary, in one case with an exact, anomalous exponent dw=2- log2(phi)=1.30576... . It is an instance of a physical exponent containing the "golden ratio"\\phi=(1+\\sqrt{5})/2 that is intimately related to Fibonacci sequences and since Euclid's time has been found to be fundamental throughout geometry, architecture, art, and Nature itself. It originates from a singular renormalization group fixed point with a subtle boundary layer, for whose resolution phi is the main protagonist. The origin of this rare singularity is easily understood in terms of the physics of the process. Yet, the connection between network geometry and the emergence of phi in this context remains elusive. These results provide an accurate test of recently proposed universal scaling forms for first passage times.
Anomalous Light Phenomena vs. Bioelectric Brain Activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.
We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.
Quantum anomalous Hall state in bilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandkishore, Rahul; Levitov, Leonid
2010-09-01
We present a symmetry-based analysis of competition between different gapped states that have been proposed in bilayer graphene (BLG), which are all degenerate on a mean-field level. We classify the states in terms of a hidden SU(4) symmetry, and distinguish symmetry-protected degeneracies from accidental degeneracies. One of the states, which spontaneously breaks discrete time-reversal symmetry but no continuous symmetry, is identified as a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state, which exhibits quantum Hall effect at zero magnetic field. We investigate the lifting of the accidental degeneracies by thermal and zero-point fluctuations, taking account of the modes softened under renormalization group (RG). Working in a “saddle point plus quadratic fluctuations” approximation, we identify two types of RG-soft modes which have competing effects. Zero-point fluctuations, dominated by “transverse” modes which are unique to BLG, favor the QAH state. Thermal fluctuations, dominated by “longitudinal” modes, favor a SU(4) symmetry-breaking multiplet of states. We discuss the phenomenology and experimental signatures of the QAH state in BLG, and also propose a way to induce the QAH state using weak external magnetic fields.
Anomalous diffusion in rotating stratified turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, Yoshi; Herring, Jackson
2006-11-01
Diffusion in rotating and stratified fluids is one of the central subjects in geophysical and astrophysical dynamics. In this paper, we report features of the dispersion of Lagrangian fluid particles in rotating stratified flows using the Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations. And for calculation of particle dispersion, we use the cubic spline interpolation method by Yeung and Pope. Our main concern is the picture different from the Taylor dispersion theory, i.e.
Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio
Hsu, Wei-Lun; Wu, Pin Chieh; Chen, Jia-Wern; Chen, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Bo Han; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping
2015-01-01
Metasurfaces created artificially with metal nanostructures that are patterned on surfaces of different media have shown to possess “unusual” abilities to manipulate light. Limited by nanofabrication difficulties, so far most reported works have been based on 2D metal structures. We have recently developed an advanced e-beam process that allowed for the deposition of 3D nanostructures, namely vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs), which opens up another degree of freedom in the metasurface design. Here we explore the functionality of beam steering with phase modulation by tuning only the vertical dimension of the VSRRs and show that anomalous steering reflection of a wide range of angles can be accomplished with high extinction ratio using the finite-difference-time-domain simulation. We also demonstrate that metasurfaces made of 3D VSRRs can be made with roughly half of the footprint compared to that of 2D nano-rods, enabling high density integration of metal nanostructures. PMID:26054048
Geometric Effect on Quantum Anomalous Hall State in Magnetic Topological Insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Yanxia
An intriguing observation on the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in a magnetic topological insulator (MTI) is the dissipative edge states. With the aid of non-equilibrium Green's functions,the QAH effect in an MTI with a three dimensional effective tight-binding model is studied.We predict that due to geometric structure in the third dimension z,the unideal contact between terminal leads and central scattering region induces the backscattering in the central Hall bar,as the function of split gates. Such backscattering leads to a nonzero longitudinal resistance and quantized Hall resistance, which would explain the dissipative edge states in experiments.A further numerical simulation prove above prediction as well.These results are rewarding on future experimental observations and transport calculations based on first principe.
Quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin-Hall phases in flattened Bi and Sb bilayers
Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Jhi, Seung-Hoon
2015-01-01
Discovery of two-dimensional topological insulator such as Bi bilayer initiates challenges in exploring exotic quantum states in low dimensions. We demonstrate a promising way to realize the Kane-Mele-type quantum spin Hall (QSH) phase and the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) phase in chemically-modified Bi and Sb bilayers using first-principles calculations. We show that single Bi and Sb bilayers exhibit topological phase transitions from the band-inverted QSH phase or the normal insulator phase to Kane-Mele-type QSH phase upon chemical functionalization. We also predict that the QAH effect can be induced in Bi or Sb bilayers upon nitrogen deposition as checked from calculated Berry curvature and the Chern number. We explicitly demonstrate the spin-chiral edge states to appear in nitrogenated Bi-bilayer nanoribbons. PMID:25672932
Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio.
Hsu, Wei-Lun; Wu, Pin Chieh; Chen, Jia-Wern; Chen, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Bo Han; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping
2015-06-08
Metasurfaces created artificially with metal nanostructures that are patterned on surfaces of different media have shown to possess "unusual" abilities to manipulate light. Limited by nanofabrication difficulties, so far most reported works have been based on 2D metal structures. We have recently developed an advanced e-beam process that allowed for the deposition of 3D nanostructures, namely vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs), which opens up another degree of freedom in the metasurface design. Here we explore the functionality of beam steering with phase modulation by tuning only the vertical dimension of the VSRRs and show that anomalous steering reflection of a wide range of angles can be accomplished with high extinction ratio using the finite-difference-time-domain simulation. We also demonstrate that metasurfaces made of 3D VSRRs can be made with roughly half of the footprint compared to that of 2D nano-rods, enabling high density integration of metal nanostructures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lumpkin, A. H.; Johnson, A. S.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R. M.; Yao, C.-Y.; Evtushenko, P.
2013-10-01
Investigations of the effects of optical transition radiation (OTR) polarization components on beam profiles are presented. The transverse profiles are examined using the OTR perpendicular and parallel polarization components with respect to the dimension of interest. We observed ˜15% projected profile size reductions with the perpendicularly polarized components on a 65-μm beam image size case at 14 MeV, a 150-μm beam image size at 4.5 GeV, and a 1100-μm beam image size at 7 GeV. These effects are all several times larger than expected (and anomalous in this sense) when compared to the standard OTR point-spread function calculations. We propose the time-averaged induced-current distribution which generates the OTR represents the actual beam size more faithfully with the perpendicular polarization component and recommend its routine use and subsequent deconvolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Tuan, Dinh; Roche, Stephan
2016-01-01
We report anomalous quantum transport features in bilayer graphene in the presence of a random distribution of structural vacancies. By using an efficient real-space Kubo-Greenwood transport methodology, the impact of a varying density of dimer versus nondimer vacancies is investigated in very large scale disordered models. While nondimer vacancies are shown to induce localization regimes, dimer vacancies result in an unexpected ballistic regime whose energy window surprisingly enlarges with increasing impurity density. Such counterintuitive phenomenon is explained by the formation of an effective linear dispersion in the bilayer band structure, which roots in the symmetry breaking effects driven by dimer vacancies, and provides a realization of Dirac semimetals in high dimension.
In-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect.
Liu, Xin; Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Chao-Xing
2013-08-23
The quantum Hall effect can only be induced by an out-of-plane magnetic field for two-dimensional electron gases, and similarly, the quantum anomalous Hall effect has also usually been considered for systems with only out-of-plane magnetization. In the present work, we predict that the quantum anomalous Hall effect can be induced by in-plane magnetization that is not accompanied by any out-of-plane magnetic field. Two realistic two-dimensional systems, Bi2Te3 thin film with magnetic doping and HgMnTe quantum wells with shear strains, are presented and the general condition for the in-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect is discussed based on the symmetry analysis. Nonetheless, an experimental setup is proposed to confirm this effect, the observation of which will pave the way to search for the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a wider range of materials.
Linear Magnetization Dependence of the Intrinsic Anomalous Hall Effect
Zeng, C.; Yao, Y.; Niu, Q.; Weitering, Harm H
2006-01-01
The anomalous Hall effect is investigated experimentally and theoretically for ferromagnetic thin films of Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}. We have separated the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the experimental anomalous Hall effect and calculated the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity from the Berry curvature of the Bloch states using first-principles methods. The intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity depends linearly on the magnetization, which can be understood from the long-wavelength fluctuations of the spin orientation at finite temperatures. The quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is remarkably good, not only near 0 K but also at finite temperatures, up to about -240 K (0.8T{sub c}).
Sampling and Characterization of 618-2 Anomalous Material
A.E. Zacharias
2006-04-27
Excavation of the 618-2 Burial Ground has produced many items of anomalous waste. Prior to temporary packaging and/or storage, these items have been characterized in the field to identify radiological and industrial safety conditions.
Anomalous scaling of a scalar field advected by turbulence
Kraichnan, R.H.
1995-12-31
Recent work leading to deduction of anomalous scaling exponents for the inertial range of an advected passive field from the equations of motion is reviewed. Implications for other turbulence problems are discussed.
The Chelyabinsk Meteorite Hits an Anomalous Zone in the Urals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochemasov, G. G.
2013-09-01
The Chelyabinsk meteorite is "strange" because it hits an area in the Urals where anomalous events are observed: shining skies, light balls, UFOs, electrphonic bolids. The area tectonically occurs at the intersection of two fold belts: Urals and Timan.
Apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure
Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Wilde, Tyson; Barlow, Jonathan S.
2010-04-13
A method of responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a bore hole comprises detecting the anomalous change in downhole pressure, sending a signal along the segmented electromagnetic transmission path, receiving the signal, and performing a automated response. The anomalous change in downhole pressure is detected at a first location along a segmented electromagnetic transmission path, and the segmented electromagnetic transmission path is integrated into the tool string. The signal is received by at least one receiver in communication with the segmented electromagnetic transmission path. The automated response is performed along the tool string. Disclosed is an apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a downhole tool string, comprising a segmented electromagnetic transmission path connecting one or more receivers and at least one pressure sensor.
Constraints on large extra dimensions from the MINOS Experiment
Adamson, P.
2016-12-16
We report new constraints on the size of large extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS experiment between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis employs a model in which sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions and thus modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities due to mixing between active and sterile neutrino states. Using Fermilab’s Neutrinos at the Main Injector beam exposure of 10.56 ×10^{20} protons on target, we combine muon neutrino charged current and neutral current data sets from the Near and Far Detectors and observe no evidence for deviations from standard three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The ratios of reconstructed energy spectra in the two detectors constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than 0.45 μm at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Finally, stronger limits are obtained for nonvanishing masses.
Constraints on large extra dimensions from the MINOS experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Carroll, T. J.; Castromonte, C. M.; Chen, R.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.; de Rijck, S.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Flanagan, W.; Frohne, M. V.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Germani, S.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mayer, N.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mualem, L.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O'Connor, J.; Orchanian, M.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Pfützner, M. M.; Phan, D. D.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rebel, B.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sail, P.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schneps, J.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Sharma, R.; Sousa, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Todd, J.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Zwaska, R.; Minos Collaboration
2016-12-01
We report new constraints on the size of large extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS experiment between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis employs a model in which sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions and thus modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities due to mixing between active and sterile neutrino states. Using Fermilab's Neutrinos at the Main Injector beam exposure of 10.56 ×1 020 protons on target, we combine muon neutrino charged current and neutral current data sets from the Near and Far Detectors and observe no evidence for deviations from standard three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The ratios of reconstructed energy spectra in the two detectors constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than 0.45 μ m at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Stronger limits are obtained for nonvanishing masses.
Constraints on large extra dimensions from the MINOS experiment
Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Carroll, T. J.; Castromonte, C. M.; Chen, R.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.; De Rijck, S.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Flanagan, W.; Frohne, M. V.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Germani, S.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mayer, N.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mualem, L.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O’Connor, J.; Orchanian, M.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Pfützner, M. M.; Phan, D. D.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rebel, B.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sail, P.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schneps, J.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Sharma, R.; Sousa, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Todd, J.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Zwaska, R.
2016-12-16
Here, we report new constraints on the size of large extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS experiment between 2005 and 2012. This analysis employs a model in which sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions and thus modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities due to mixing between active and sterile neutrino states. Using Fermilab’s Neutrinos at the Main Injector beam exposure of 10.56 × 10^{20} protons on target, we combine muon neutrino charged current and neutral current data sets from the Near and Far Detectors and observe no evidence for deviations from standard three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The ratios of reconstructed energy spectra in the two detectors constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than 0.45 μ m at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Furthermore, we obtained stronger limits for nonvanishing masses.
Constraints on Large Extra Dimensions from the MINOS Experiment
Adamson, P.; et al.
2016-12-16
We report new constraints on the size of large extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS experiment between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis employs a model in which sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions and thus modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities due to mixing between active and sterile neutrino states. Using Fermilab’s Neutrinos at the Main Injector beam exposure of 10.56×10^{20} protons on target, we combine muon neutrino charged current and neutral current data sets from the Near and Far Detectors and observe no evidence for deviations from standard three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The ratios of reconstructed energy spectra in the two detectors constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than 0.45 μm at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Stronger limits are obtained for nonvanishing masses.
Method for processing seismic data to identify anomalous absorption zones
Taner, M. Turhan
2006-01-03
A method is disclosed for identifying zones anomalously absorptive of seismic energy. The method includes jointly time-frequency decomposing seismic traces, low frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine a general trend of mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces, and high frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine local variations in the mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces. Anomalous zones are determined where there is difference between the general trend and the local variations.
Anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with mitral stenosis.
Das, Mrinalendu; Mahindrakar, Pallavi; Das, Debasis; Behera, Sukanta Kumar; Chowdhury, Saibal Roy; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit
2011-08-01
The usual presentation of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery is severe left-sided heart failure and mitral valve insufficiency presenting during the first months of life. The manifestations of left heart failure may be masked if pulmonary artery pressure remains high. We believe this is a rarest of rare case of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with severe mitral stenosis and pulmonary hypertension in which pulmonary hypertension, along with good collateral circulation helped to preserve left ventricular function.
Large anomalous Nernst effect in a skyrmion crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizuta, Yo Pierre; Ishii, Fumiyuki
2016-06-01
Thermoelectric properties of a model skyrmion crystal were theoretically investigated, and it was found that its large anomalous Hall conductivity, corresponding to large Chern numbers induced by its peculiar spin structure leads to a large transverse thermoelectric voltage through the anomalous Nernst effect. This implies the possibility of finding good thermoelectric materials among skyrmion systems, and thus motivates our quests for them by means of the first-principles calculations as were employed in this study.
Large anomalous Nernst effect in a skyrmion crystal
Mizuta, Yo Pierre; Ishii, Fumiyuki
2016-01-01
Thermoelectric properties of a model skyrmion crystal were theoretically investigated, and it was found that its large anomalous Hall conductivity, corresponding to large Chern numbers induced by its peculiar spin structure leads to a large transverse thermoelectric voltage through the anomalous Nernst effect. This implies the possibility of finding good thermoelectric materials among skyrmion systems, and thus motivates our quests for them by means of the first-principles calculations as were employed in this study. PMID:27306142
Self-similar Turing patterns: An anomalous diffusion consequence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández, D.; Herrera-Hernández, E. C.; Núñez-López, M.; Hernández-Coronado, H.
2017-02-01
In this work, we show that under specific anomalous diffusion conditions, chemical systems can produce well-ordered self-similar concentration patterns through diffusion-driven instability. We also find spiral patterns and patterns with mixtures of rotational symmetries. The type of anomalous diffusion discussed in this work, either subdiffusion or superdiffusion, is a consequence of the medium heterogeneity, and it is modeled through a space-dependent diffusion coefficient with a power-law functional form.
Self-similar Turing patterns: An anomalous diffusion consequence.
Hernández, D; Herrera-Hernández, E C; Núñez-López, M; Hernández-Coronado, H
2017-02-01
In this work, we show that under specific anomalous diffusion conditions, chemical systems can produce well-ordered self-similar concentration patterns through diffusion-driven instability. We also find spiral patterns and patterns with mixtures of rotational symmetries. The type of anomalous diffusion discussed in this work, either subdiffusion or superdiffusion, is a consequence of the medium heterogeneity, and it is modeled through a space-dependent diffusion coefficient with a power-law functional form.
Symmetrized local co-registration optimization for anomalous change detection
Wohlberg, Brendt E; Theiler, James P
2009-01-01
The goal of anomalous change detection (ACD) is to identify what unusual changes have occurred in a scene, based on two images of the scene taken at different times and under different conditions. The actual anomalous changes need to be distinguished from the incidental differences that occur throughout the imagery, and one of the most common and confounding of these incidental differences is due to the misregistration of the images, due to limitations of the registration pre-processing applied to the image pair. We propose a general method to compensate for residual misregistration in any ACD algorithm which constructs an estimate of the degree of 'anomalousness' for every pixel in the image pair. The method computes a modified misregistration-insensitive anomalousness by making local re-registration adjustments to minimize the local anomalousness. In this paper we describe a symmetrized version of our initial algorithm, and find significant performance improvements in the anomalous change detection ROC curves for a number of real and synthetic data sets.
Anomalous contours and illusion of angularity: phenomenal and theoretical comparisons.
Pinna, B
1991-01-01
Many experimental comparisons between real and anomalous contours have proven the functional equivalence of the two conditions; however, there are some contradictory findings. One of these is obtained by analyzing the anomalous contours in the light of a new illusion, called the 'illusion of angularity'. A circle becomes a polygon when it covers the centre of a radial arrangement of black stripes, and a polygon changes its perceptual shape depending on its orientation with respect to the same radial arrangement. Phenomenally, it appears like a very pointed polygon, in which every side is concave or, alternatively, a shape that looks like a circle with angles added in the spaces between the radial stripes, or a polygonal shape in which every side is convex. The reciprocal anomalous counterparts of these conditions, obtained by removing the geometrical/polygonal contours, reveal different results. In the first case, one sees a perfect circle; in the second case, a polygon with blunted vertices, or a circular shape with angular protrusions; in the third case, a deformed circle. These results are inconsistent with some theoretical models proposed to explain the emergence of anomalous contours, namely, all the top-down models expressed in terms of cognitive constructions and perceptual hypotheses, or in terms of global figural organizations. Rather, these comparisons suggest a different interpretation for the two phenomena (the illusion of angularity and anomalous contours). This interpretation is based on dynamic interactions or on network computations that synthesize both real and anomalous contours.
B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} constraints on the top quark anomalous t{yields}c{gamma} coupling
Yuan Xingbo; Hao Yang; Yang Yadng
2011-01-01
Observation of the top quark flavor changing neutral process t{yields}c+{gamma} at the LHC would be the signal of physics beyond the standard model. If anomalous t{yields}c{gamma} coupling exists, it will affect the precisely measured B(B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma}). In this paper, we study the effects of a dimension 5 anomalous tc{gamma} operator in B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} decay to derive constraints on its possible strength. It is found that, for real anomalous t{yields}c{gamma} coupling {kappa}{sub tcR}{sup {gamma}}, the constraints correspond to the upper bounds B(t{yields}c+{gamma})<6.54x10{sup -5} (for {kappa}{sub tcR}{sup {gamma}}>0) and B(t{yields}c+{gamma})<8.52x10{sup -5} (for {kappa}{sub tcR}{sup {gamma}}<0), respectively, which are about the same order as the 5{sigma} discovery potential of ATLAS (9.4x10{sup -5}) and slightly lower than that of CMS (4.1x10{sup -4}) with 10 fb{sup -1} integrated luminosity operating at {radical}(s)=14 TeV.
Fractal dimension of alumina aggregates grown in two dimensions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larosa, Judith L.; Cawley, James D.
1992-01-01
The concepts of fractal geometry are applied to the analysis of 0.4-micron alumina constrained to agglomerate in two dimensions. Particles were trapped at the bottom surface of a drop of a dilute suspension, and the agglomeration process was directly observed, using an inverted optical microscope. Photographs were digitized and analyzed, using three distinct approaches. The results indicate that the agglomerates are fractal, having a dimension of approximately 1.5, which agrees well with the predictions of the diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation model.
Anomalous double-mode RR Lyrae stars in the Magellanic Clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soszyński, I.; Smolec, R.; Dziembowski, W. A.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Skowron, D.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.
2016-12-01
We report the discovery of a new subclass of double-mode RR Lyrae stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The sample of 22 pulsating stars has been extracted from the latest edition of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment collection of RR Lyrae variables in the Magellanic System. The stars pulsating simultaneously in the fundamental (F) and first-overtone (1O) modes have distinctly different properties than regular double-mode RR Lyrae variables (RRd stars). The P1O/PF period ratios of our anomalous RRd stars are within a range of 0.725-0.738, while `classical' double-mode RR Lyrae variables have period ratios in the range of 0.742-0.748. In contrast to the typical RRd stars, in the majority of the anomalous pulsators, the F-mode amplitudes are higher than the 1O-mode amplitudes. The light curves associated with the F-mode in the anomalous RRd stars show different morphology than the light curves of, both, regular RRd stars and single-mode RRab stars. Most of the anomalous double-mode stars show long-term modulations of the amplitudes (Blazhko-like effect). Translating the period ratios into the abundance parameter, Z, we find for our stars Z ∈ (0.002, 0.005) - an order of magnitude higher values than typical for RR Lyrae stars. The mass range of the RRd stars inferred from the WI versus PF diagram is (0.55-0.75) M⊙. These parameters cannot be accounted for with single star evolution assuming a Reimers-like mass-loss. Much greater mass-loss caused by interaction with other stars is postulated. We blame the peculiar pulsation properties of our stars to the parametric resonance instability of the 1O-mode to excitation of the F- and 2O-modes as with the inferred parameters of the stars 2ω1O ≈ ωF + ω2O.
Sen, Supratim; Rao, Suresh G; Kulkarni, Snehal
2016-06-01
We describe the cases of two patients with tetralogy of Fallot, aged 4 years and 8 months, who were incidentally detected to have concomitant anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery and total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, respectively, on preoperative imaging. They underwent surgical correction with good mid-term outcomes. In this study, we discuss the embryological basis, physiological effects, and review the literature of these two unusual associations. Awareness of these rare associations will avoid missed diagnoses and consequent surgical surprises.
Badaud, Frederique
2008-11-23
With the first evidence for single top quark production in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp-bar collider, the single top quark cross section is measured, limits on the masses of heavy W' boson resonances are set and anomalous Wtb couplings are studied.
Dimension of fractal basin boundaries
Park, B.S.
1988-01-01
In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.
Quantifying the Magnitude of Anomalous Solar Absorption
Ackerman, Thomas P.; Flynn, Donna M.; Marchand, Roger T.
2003-05-16
The data set from ARESE II, sponsored by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, provides a unique opportunity to understand solar absorption in the atmosphere because of the combination of three sets of broadband solar radiometers mounted on the Twin Otter aircraft and the ground based instruments at the ARM Southern Great Plains facility. In this study, we analyze the measurements taken on two clear sky days and three cloudy days and model the solar radiative transfer in each case with two different models. On the two clear days, the calculated and measured column absorptions agree to better than 10 Wm-2, which is about 10% of the total column absorption. Because both the model fluxes and the individual radiometer measurements are accurate to no better than 10 Wm-2, we conclude that the models and measurements are essentially in agreement. For the three cloudy days, the model calculations agree very well with each other and on two of the three days agree with the measurements to 20 Wm-2 or less out of a total column absorption of more than 200 Wm-2, which is again agreement at better than 10%. On the third day, the model and measurements agree to either 8% or 14% depending on which value of surface albedo is used. Differences exceeding 10% represent a significant absorption difference between model and observations. In addition to the uncertainty in absorption due to surface albedo, we show that including aerosol with an optical depth similar to that found on clear days can reduce the difference between model and measurement by 5% or more. Thus, we conclude that the ARESE II results are incompatible with previous studies reporting extreme anomalous absorption and can be modeled with our current understanding of radiative transfer.
Anomalous thermal conductivity of monolayer boron nitride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tabarraei, Alireza; Wang, Xiaonan
2016-05-01
In this paper, we use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics modeling to investigate the thermal properties of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbons under uniaxial strain along their longitudinal axis. Our simulations predict that hexagonal boron nitride shows an anomalous thermal response to the applied uniaxial strain. Contrary to three dimensional materials, under uniaxial stretching, the thermal conductivity of boron nitride nanoribbons first increases rather than decreasing until it reaches its peak value and then starts decreasing. Under compressive strain, the thermal conductivity of monolayer boron nitride ribbons monolithically reduces rather than increasing. We use phonon spectrum and dispersion curves to investigate the mechanism responsible for the unexpected behavior. Our molecular dynamics modeling and density functional theory results show that application of longitudinal tensile strain leads to the reduction of the group velocities of longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes. Such a phonon softening mechanism acts to reduce the thermal conductivity of the nanoribbons. On the other hand, a significant increase in the group velocity (stiffening) of the flexural acoustic modes is observed, which counteracts the phonon softening effects of the longitudinal and transverse modes. The total thermal conductivity of the ribbons is a result of competition between these two mechanisms. At low tensile strain, the stiffening mechanism overcomes the softening mechanism which leads to an increase in the thermal conductivity. At higher tensile strain, the softening mechanism supersedes the stiffening and the thermal conductivity slightly reduces. Our simulations show that the decrease in the thermal conductivity under compressive strain is attributed to the formation of buckling defects which reduces the phonon mean free path.
Anomalous baryogenesis at the weak scale
Singleton, R.L. Jr.
1991-06-01
One of the fundamental constants of nature is the baryon asymmetry of the universe -- the ratio of the number of baryons to the entropy. This constant is about 10{sup {minus}11}. In baryon- number conserving theories, this was just an initial condition. With the advent of the grand unified theories (GUTs), baryon number is no longer conserved, and this asymmetry can be generated dynamically. Unfortunately, however, there are reasons for preferring another mechanism. For example, GUTs predict proton decay which, after extensive searches, has not been found. An alternative place to look for baryogenesis is the electroweak phase transition, described by the standard model, which posses all the necessary ingredients for baryogenesis. Anomalous baryon-number violation in weak interactions becomes large at high temperatures, which offers the prospect of creating the asymmetry with the standard model or minimal extensions. This can just barely be done if certain conditions are fulfilled. CP violation must be large, which rules out the minimal standard model as the source of the asymmetry, but which is easily arranged with an extended Higgs sector. The baryon-number violating rates themselves are not exactly known, and they must be pushed to their theoretical limits. A more exact determination of these rates is needed before a definitive answer can be given. Finally, the phase transition must be at least weakly first order. Such phase transitions are accompanied by the formation and expansion of bubbles of true vacuum within the false vacuum, much like the boiling of water. As the bubbles expand, they provide a departure from thermal equilibrium, otherwise the dynamics will adjust the net baryon number to zero. The bubble expansion also provides a biasing that creates an asymmetry on the bubbles surface. Under optimal conditions, the observed asymmetry can just be produced. 31 refs., 10 figs.
COS FUV Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2012-10-01
This proposal consists of the steps for turning on and ramping up the COS FUV high voltage in a conservative manner after a HV anomalous shutdown by executing a "reduced set" of visits from Cycle 19 Proposal 12810. The nature of the shutdown, i.e., over-light, HV current transient {"crackle"}, ion feedback {induced by a high energy particle}, or field emission {possibly caused by dust or other particulate on the QE grid or other close-by structure or hardware}, and the value of the commanded HV at the time of the shutdown will determine what visits are executed. Because of gain sag, commanded HV settings updates may be required. First, prior to execution of this proposal or selected visits from this proposal, all preliminary steps should be exercised to gather the necessary diagnostic data, e.g., science data evaluation {if a science exposure was in progress and the science data is available}, memory dumps {DCE, EXEC RAM, and possibly the CS BUFFER}, engineering telemetry, or other information that might provide insight as to the nature of the shutdown and estimated count rate. The complete step-by-step procedure is detailed in the Observing Description, but in summary, the following is done:Day 01 activities, visits 01-07, contain both QE grid off and on HV ramping to HVLow {100/100} with diagnostics {DCE dumps} and darks to exclude QE grid involvement in the shutdown. Subsequent to day 01, all HV ramping will be with the QE grid on with the same diagnostics and exposures. All days end with the setting of COS event flag 3 to prevent any FUV HV commanding.Time is allotted for cognizant detector and COS instrument scientist and engineers to examine data dumps, science exposures, and engineering telemetry. If all is well, the go-ahead will be given to clear flag 3 for the next day's visits.This proposal is modeled after the Cycle 19 Proposal 12718.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Özarslan, Evren; Basser, Peter J.; Shepherd, Timothy M.; Thelwall, Peter E.; Vemuri, Baba C.; Blackband, Stephen J.
2006-12-01
This report introduces a novel method to characterize the diffusion-time dependence of the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) signal in biological tissues. The approach utilizes the theory of diffusion in disordered media where two parameters, the random walk dimension and the spectral dimension, describe the evolution of the average propagators obtained from q-space MR experiments. These parameters were estimated, using several schemes, on diffusion MR spectroscopy data obtained from human red blood cell ghosts and nervous tissue autopsy samples. The experiments demonstrated that water diffusion in human tissue is anomalous, where the mean-square displacements vary slower than linearly with diffusion time. These observations are consistent with a fractal microstructure for human tissues. Differences observed between healthy human nervous tissue and glioblastoma samples suggest that the proposed methodology may provide a novel, clinically useful form of diffusion MR contrast.
Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Anomalous signal in SAD phasing
Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; Zwart, Peter H.; Smith, Janet L.; Akey, David L.; Adams, Paul D.
2016-01-01
A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. A simple theoretical framework for describing measurements of anomalous differences and the resulting useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD experiment is presented. Here, the useful anomalous correlation is defined as the correlation of anomalous differences with ideal anomalous differences from the anomalous substructure. The useful anomalous correlation reflects the accuracy of the data and the absence of minor sites. The useful anomalous correlation also reflects the information available for estimating crystallographic phases once the substructure has been determined. In contrast, the anomalous signal (the peak height in a model-phased anomalous difference Fourier at the coordinates of atoms in the anomalous substructure) reflects the information available about each site in the substructure and is related to the ability to find the substructure. A theoretical analysis shows that the expected value of the anomalous signal is the product of the useful anomalous correlation, the square root of the ratio of the number of unique reflections in the data set to the number of sites in the substructure, and a function that decreases with increasing values of the atomic displacement factor for the atoms in the substructure. This means that the ability to find the substructure in a SAD experiment is increased by high data quality and by a high ratio of reflections to sites in the substructure, and is decreased by high atomic displacement factors for the substructure. PMID:26960122
Collider searches for extra dimensions
Landsberg, Greg; /Brown U.
2004-12-01
Searches for extra spatial dimensions remain among the most popular new directions in our quest for physics beyond the Standard Model. High-energy collider experiments of the current decade should be able to find an ultimate answer to the question of their existence in a variety of models. Until the start of the LHC in a few years, the Tevatron will remain the key player in this quest. In this paper, we review the most recent results from the Tevatron on searches for large, TeV{sup -1}-size, and Randall-Sundrum extra spatial dimensions, which have reached a new level of sensitivity and currently probe the parameter space beyond the existing constraints. While no evidence for the existence of extra dimensions has been found so far, an exciting discovery might be just steps away.
Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions
Bonesteel, Nicholas E
2015-01-31
This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.
Entropy product of rotating black holes in three-dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahdavian Yekta, Davood
2017-03-01
It has been shown that the product of the entropies of the inner Cauchy and outer event horizon of the charged axisymmetric and stationary black holes is a universal formula, which is independent of the black hole's mass. In this paper, we investigate this universality for the two kinds of rotating black holes in the three-dimensional gravity models. In fact, we study the spacelike warped anti-de Sitter black hole in the new massive gravity and the Bañados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli black hole in the minimal massive gravity. We show that this rule is held in the first theory. By contrast, in the latter case which includes a holographic gravitational anomalous term, we obtain that the universality does not work and the product depends on the mass. As a complement to the above verification, we also study the thermodynamic properties of these black holes.
Image Segmentation via Fractal Dimension
1987-12-01
statistical expectation K = a proportionality constant H = the Hurst exponent , in interval [0,1] (14:249) Eq (4) is a mathematical generalization of...ease, negatively correlated (24:16). The Hurst exponent is directly related to the fractal diment.ion of the process being modelled by the relation (24...24) DzE.I -H (5) where D = the fractal dimension E m the Euclidean dimension H = the Hurst exponent The effect of N1 on a typical trace can be seen
Blum, Thomas; Chowdhury, Saumitra; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku
2015-01-09
The most compelling possibility for a new law of nature beyond the four fundamental forces comprising the standard model of high-energy physics is the discrepancy between measurements and calculations of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Until now a key part of the calculation, the hadronic light-by-light contribution, has only been accessible from models of QCD, the quantum description of the strong force, whose accuracy at the required level may be questioned. A first principles calculation with systematically improvable errors is needed, along with the upcoming experiments, to decisively settle the matter. For the first time, the form factor that yields the light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is computed in such a framework, lattice QCD+QED and QED. A nonperturbative treatment of QED is used and checked against perturbation theory. The hadronic contribution is calculated for unphysical quark and muon masses, and only the diagram with a single quark loop is computed for which statistically significant signals are obtained. Initial results are promising, and the prospect for a complete calculation with physical masses and controlled errors is discussed.
HILT - A heavy ion large area proportional counter telescope for solar and anomalous cosmic rays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klecker, Berndt; Hovestadt, Dietrich; Scholer, M.; Arbinger, H.; Ertl, M.; Kaestle, H.; Kuenneth, E.; Laeverenz, P.; Seidenschwang, E.; Blake, J. B.
1993-01-01
The HILT sensor has been designed to measure heavy ion elemental abundances, energy spectra, and direction of incidence in the mass range from He to Fe and in the energy range 4 to 250 MeV/nucleon. With its large geometric factor of 60 sq cm sr the sensor is optimized to provide compositional and spectral measurements for low intensity cosmic rays (i.e. for small solar energetic particle events and for the anomalous component of cosmic rays). The instrument combines a large area ion drift chamber-proportional counter system with two arrays of 16 Li-drift solid state detectors and 16 CsI crystals. The multi dE/dx-E technique provides a low background mass and energy determination. The sensor also measures particle direction. Combining these measurements with the information on the spacecraft position and attitude in the low-altitude polar orbit, it will be possible to infer the ionic charge of the ions from the local cutoff of the Earth's magnetic field. The ionic charge in this energy range is of particular interest because it provides unique clues to the origin of these particles and has not been investigated systematically so far. Together with the other instruments on board SAMPEX (LEICA, MAST, and PET), a comprehensive measurement of the entire solar and anomalous particle population will be achieved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blum, Thomas; Chowdhury, Saumitra; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku
2015-01-01
The most compelling possibility for a new law of nature beyond the four fundamental forces comprising the standard model of high-energy physics is the discrepancy between measurements and calculations of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Until now a key part of the calculation, the hadronic light-by-light contribution, has only been accessible from models of QCD, the quantum description of the strong force, whose accuracy at the required level may be questioned. A first principles calculation with systematically improvable errors is needed, along with the upcoming experiments, to decisively settle the matter. For the first time, the form factor that yields the light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is computed in such a framework, lattice QCD +QED and QED. A nonperturbative treatment of QED is used and checked against perturbation theory. The hadronic contribution is calculated for unphysical quark and muon masses, and only the diagram with a single quark loop is computed for which statistically significant signals are obtained. Initial results are promising, and the prospect for a complete calculation with physical masses and controlled errors is discussed.
Anomalous isotopic composition of cosmic rays
Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.
1980-06-20
Recent measurements of nonsolar isotopic patterns for the elements neon and (perhaps) magnesium in cosmic rays are interpreted within current models of stellar nucleosynthesis. One possible explanation is that the stars currently responsible for cosmic-ray synthesis in the Galaxy are typically super-metal-rich by a factor of two to three. Other possibilities include the selective acceleration of certain zones or masses of supernovas or the enhancement of /sup 22/Ne in the interstellar medium by mass loss from red giant stars and planetary nebulas. Measurements of critical isotopic ratios are suggested to aid in distinguishing among the various possibilities. Some of these explanations place significant constraints on the fraction of cosmic ray nuclei that must be fresh supernova debris and the masses of the supernovas involved. 1 figure, 3 tables.
Caramana, E.J.; Shashkov, M.J.
1997-12-31
The bane of Lagrangian hydrodynamics calculations is premature breakdown of the grid topology that results in severe degradation of accuracy and run termination often long before the assumption of Lagrangian zonal mass ceased to be valid. At short spatial grid scales this is usually referred to by the terms hourglass mode or keystone motion associated in particular with underconstrained grids such as quadrilaterals and hexahedrons in two and three dimensions, respectively. At longer spatial scales relative to the grid spacing there is what is referred to ubiquitously as spurious vorticity, or the long-thin zone problem. In both cases the result is anomalous grid distortion and tangling that has nothing to do with the actual solution, as would be the case for turbulent flow. In this work the authors show how such motions can be eliminated by the proper use of subzonal Lagrangian masses, and associated densities and pressures. These subzonal masses arise in a natural way from the fact that they require the mass associated with the nodal grid point to be constant in time. This is addition to the usual assumption of constant, Lagrangian zonal mass in staggered grid hydrodynamics scheme. The authors show that with proper discretization of subzonal forces resulting from subzonal pressures, hourglass motion and spurious vorticity can be eliminated for a very large range of problems. Finally the authors are presenting results of calculations of many test problems.
COS FUV Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Thomas
2013-10-01
This proposal consists of the steps for turning on and ramping up the COS FUV high voltage in a safe and conservative manner after a HV anomalous shutdown by executing a "reduced set" of visits from Cycle 19 Proposal 12810. The nature of the shutdown, i.e., over-light, HV current transient {"crackle"}, ion feedback {induced by a high energy particle}, or field emission {possibly caused by dust or other particulate on the QE grid or other close-by structure or hardware}, and the value of the commanded HV at the time of the shutdown will determine what visits are executed. Because of gain sag, commanded HV settings updates may be required. First, prior to execution of this proposal or selected visits from this proposal, all preliminary steps should be exercised to gather the necessary diagnostic data, e.g., science data evaluation {if a science exposure was in progress and the science data is available}, memory dumps {DCE, EXEC RAM, and possibly the CS BUFFER}, engineering telemetry, or other information that might provide insight as to the nature of the shutdown and estimated count rate. The complete step-by-step procedure is detailed in the Observing Description, but in summary, the following is done:Day 01 activities, visits 01-07, contain both QE grid off and on HV ramping to HVLow {100/100} with diagnostics {DCE dumps} and darks to exclude QE grid involvement in the shutdown. Subsequent to day 01, all HV ramping will be with the QE grid on with the same diagnostics and exposures. All days end with the setting of COS event flag 3 to prevent any FUV HV commanding.Time is allotted for cognizant detector and COS instrument scientist and engineers to examine data dumps, science exposures, and engineering telemetry. If all is well, the go-ahead will be given to clear flag 3 for the next day's visits.This proposal is modeled after the Cycle 20 Proposal 13129.
Anomalous Moessbauer Fraction in Superparamagnetic Systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohie-Eldin, Mohie-Eldin Yehia
The biological molecule ferritin and its proven synthetic counterpart polysaccharide iron complex (P.I.C.) have been shown to contain small (<100 ^circ in diameter) antiferromagnetic cores at their centers. Mossbauer studies of these molecules have revealed an anomalous drop in the Mossbauer fraction (f-factor) as the temperature rises above 30^ circK for mammalian ferritin and 60 ^circK for P.I.C. Above the blocking temperature, superparamagnetic relaxation results in the disappearance of hyperfine splitting. This thesis investigates and attempts to resolve this Lamb-Mossbauer f-Factor anomaly in these superparamagnetically relaxing systems. Chapter I deals with a basic review of theories of Mossbauer spectroscopy and superparamagnetism. The analogies in the composition of the two molecules is examined in Chapter II. The long range order technique of magnetization measurements is used in Chapter III to compare magnetic properties of both molecules and to verify the suggestion that the P.I.C. molecule is a good "biomimic" to ferritin based on the identification of ferrihydrite as the major mineral in both, by short range probing techniques such as X-ray diffraction. The anomaly is confirmed in P.I.C.'s Mossbauer spectra in Chapter IV. Different absorbers are used to experimentally investigate the absorber thickness effect on the Mossbauer spectra. The anomaly persists for thin absorbers. Also in Chapter V, data that is treated with FFT procedures to eliminate the thickness effect still exhibit this anomaly. We then investigated the effect of superparamagnetic relaxation on the f-factor. In Chapter VI, spin-lattice relaxation was excluded based upon a calculation of the rate of energy transfer from the spin system to the lattice. We introduce a theory in Chapter VII based on the following process as a plausible explanation of the anomaly: Superparamagnetic relaxation brings about a dynamical displacement of the Mossbauer nucleus through magnetostriction. These
The Visuospatial Dimension of Writing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olive, Thierry; Passerault, Jean-Michel
2012-01-01
The authors suggest that writing should be conceived of not only as a verbal activity but also as a visuospatial activity, in which writers process and construct visuospatial mental representations. After briefly describing research on visuospatial cognition, they look at how cognitive researchers have investigated the visuospatial dimension of…
The Feeling Dimension in Reading.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ediger, Marlow
The feeling dimension of students cannot be ignored in teaching and learning situations. Feelings are there and must not be ignored. Reading stresses word recognition, comprehension of subject matter at diverse levels of complexity, and application of what has been learned. A major ingredient so frequently left out is student appreciation of the…
Heat conduction in three dimensions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danza, T. M.; Fesler, L. W.; Mongan, R. D.
1980-01-01
Multidimensional heat conduction program computes transient temperature history and steady state temperatures of complex body geometries in three dimensions. Emphasis is placed on type of problems associated with Space Shuttle thermal protection system, but program could be used in thermal analysis of most three dimensional systems.
The European Dimension in Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.
This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the…
Warping the universal extra dimensions
McDonald, Kristian L.
2009-07-15
We develop the necessary ingredients for the construction of realistic models with warped universal extra dimensions. Our investigations are based on the seven-dimensional (7D) spacetime AdS{sub 5}xT{sup 2}/Z{sub 2} and we derive the Kaluza-Klein (KK) spectra for gravitons, bulk vectors, and the TeV brane localized Higgs boson. We show that, starting with a massive 7D fermion, one may obtain a single chiral massless mode whose profile is readily localized towards the Planck or TeV brane. This allows one to place the standard model fermions in the bulk and construct models of flavor as in Randall-Sundrum models. Our solution also admits the familiar KK parity of models with universal extra dimensions so that the lightest odd KK state is stable and may be a dark matter candidate. As an additional feature the AdS{sub 5} warping ensures that the excited modes on the torus, including the dark matter candidate, appear at TeV energies (as is usually assumed in models with universal extra dimensions) even though the Planck scale sets the dimensions for the torus.
Interpretation and the Aesthetic Dimension
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mortensen, Charles O.
1976-01-01
The author, utilizing a synthesis of philosophic comments on aesthetics, provides a discourse on the aesthetic dimension and offers examples of how interpreters can nurture the innate sense of beauty in man. Poetic forms, such as haiku, are used to relate the aesthetic relationship between man and the environment. (BT)
Anomalous Transmission of Infrasound Through Air-Water and Air-Ground Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godin, O. A.
2009-05-01
Speed of compressional waves in air is smaller than in water and in the ground, while mass density of air is much smaller than mass densities of water and the ground. This results in a very strong acoustic impedance contrast at air-water and air-ground interfaces. Sound transmission through a boundary with a strong impedance contrast is normally very weak. This paper reports theoretical studies of the power output of localized sound sources and acoustic power fluxes through plane gas-liquid and gas-solid interfaces in a layered medium. It is found that the transparency of the interfaces increases dramatically at low frequencies. For low-frequency sound, a phenomenon of anomalous transparency can occur where most of the acoustic power generated by a source in water is radiated into the atmosphere. Contrary to the conventional wisdom based on ray-theoretical predictions and observations at higher frequencies, infrasonic energy from localized waterborne sources can be effectively transmitted into air. The main physical mechanism responsible for the anomalous transparency of air-water interface is found to be an acoustic power transfer by inhomogeneous (evanescent) waves in the plane-wave decomposition of the acoustic field in water. The effects of ocean and atmosphere stratification and of guided sound propagation in water or in air on the anomalous transparency of the air-water interface are considered. In the case of air-ground interface, the increase of the acoustic power flux into atmosphere, when a compact source approaches the interface from below, proves to be even larger than for an underwater source. The physics behind the increase of the power flux into the atmosphere, when the source depth decreases, is shown to be rather different for the air-ground and air-water interfaces. Depending on attenuation of compressional and shear waves in the ground, a leaky interface wave supported by the air-ground interface can be responsible for the bulk of acoustic power
Cosmology with dynamical extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erickson, Joel K.
Nearly every attempt to unify the fundamental forces incorporates the idea of compact extra dimensions. The notion was introduced by Kaluza and Klein in the 1920s and is an essential part of contemporary string theory and M-theory. In most treatments the extra dimensions are static. We consider the consequences of extra dimensions with time-varying radii. The radii are modeled by light scalar fields. These may have unusual properties which produce observable effects, such as non-canonical kinetic energies, couplings to matter and radiation, and non-minimal coupling to gravity. Extra dimensions may be responsible for dark energy in the late universe. The simplest model of dark energy is characterized by its equation of state. We show that constraints placed on realistic models by the universality of free fall, variation of fundamental constants and metric tests of gravity are often stricter than bounds on the equation of state. Testing the equivalence principle maybe an effective way of distinguishing some quintessence models from a cosmological constant. In certain dark energy models the speed of sound is much less than the speed of light. We calculate how this affects the cosmic microwave background and show that the speed of sound may be measurable, provided dark energy is sufficiently dense at decoupling. This is another possible signature of quintessence. Dynamical extra dimensions may have consequences for the early universe. In the cyclic model, the universe is described in terms of a series of contractions and expansions of an extra dimension. The big bang is preceded by a big crunch and quantum fluctuations of the scalar field produce structure in universe. We consider how the fluctuations evolve and build over many cycles and show that there are no observable instabilities or adverse effects. In the cyclic model extra dimensions act as both dark energy and as an agent to cause contraction and a big crunch. Previous theorems suggested that contraction
Compactified Vacuum in Ten Dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wurmser, Daniel
1987-09-01
Since the 1920's, theories which unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have called for more than the four observed dimensions of space-time. According to such a theory, the vacuum consists of flat four-dimensional space-time described by the Minkowski metric M ^4 and a "compactified" space B. The dimensions of B are small, and the space can only be observed at distance scales smaller than the present experimental limit. These theories have had serious difficulties. The equations of gravity severely restrict the possible choices for the space B. The allowed spaces are complicated and difficult to study. The vacuum is furthermore unstable in the sense that a small perturbation causes the compactified dimensions to expand indefinitely. There is an addition a semi-classical argument which implies that the compactified vacuum be annihilated by virtual black holes. It follows that a universe with compactified extra dimensions could not have survived to the present. These results were derived by applying the equations of general relativity to spaces of more than four dimensions. The form of these equations was assumed to be unchanged by an increase in the number of dimensions. Recently, it has been proposed that gravity in more than four dimensions may involve terms of higher order in the curvature as well as the linear terms present in ordinary general relativity. I illustrate the effect of such terms by considering the example B = S^6 where S ^6 is the six-dimensional sphere. Only when the extra terms are included is this choice of the compactified space allowed. I explore the effect of a small perturbation on such a vacuum. The ten-dimensional spherically symmetric potential is examined, and I determine conditions under which the formation of virtual black holes is forbidden. The example M^4 times S^6 is still plagued by the semi -classical instability, but this result does not hold in general. The requirement that virtual black holes be forbidden provides a
Intraductal papillary neoplasm originating from an anomalous bile duct.
Maki, Harufumi; Aoki, Taku; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tanaka, Mariko; Sakatani, Takashi; Beck, Yoshifumi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kokudo, Norihiro
2017-02-17
An 82-year-old woman who had been suffering from repeated obstructive jaundice for 7 years was referred to our hospital. Although endoscopic aspiration of the mucin in the common bile duct had been temporally effective, origin of the mucin production had not been detectable. The patient thus had been forced to be on long-term follow-up without curative resection. Endoscopic retrograde cholangioscopy on admission revealed massive mucin in the common bile duct. In addition, an anomalous bile duct located proximal to the gallbladder was identified. Since the lumen of the anomalous duct was irregular and the rest of biliary tree was completely free of suspicious lesions, the anomalous duct was judged to be the primary site. Surgical resection of the segment 4 and 5 of the liver combined with the extrahepatic biliary tract was performed. Pathological diagnosis was compatible to intraductal papillary neoplasm with high-grade intraepithelial dysplasia of the anomalous bile duct. The patient has been free from the disease for 6.5 years after resection. This is the first case of intraductal papillary neoplasm derived from an anomalous bile duct, which was resected after long-term conservative treatment. The present case suggested the slow growing character of natural history of the neoplasm.
ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION IN H ii REGIONS: IS IT REALLY ANOMALOUS? THE CASE OF RCW 49
Paladini, Roberta; Ingallinera, Adriano; Agliozzo, Claudia; Umana, Grazia; Trigilio, Corrado; Tibbs, Christopher T.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Dickinson, Clive
2015-11-01
The detection of an excess of emission at microwave frequencies with respect to the predicted free–free emission has been reported for several Galactic H ii regions. Here, we investigate the case of RCW 49, for which the Cosmic Background Imager tentatively (∼3σ) detected Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) at 31 GHz on angular scales of 7′. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we carried out a multi-frequency (5, 19, and 34 GHz) continuum study of the region, complemented by observations of the H109α radio recombination line. The analysis shows that: (1) the spatial correlation between the microwave and IR emission persists on angular scales from 3.′4 to 0.″4, although the degree of the correlation slightly decreases at higher frequencies and on smaller angular scales; (2) the spectral indices between 1.4 and 5 GHz are globally in agreement with optically thin free–free emission, however, ∼30% of these are positive and much greater than −0.1, consistent with a stellar wind scenario; and (3) no major evidence for inverted free–free radiation is found, indicating that this is likely not the cause of the Anomalous Emission in RCW 49. Although our results cannot rule out the spinning dust hypothesis to explain the tentative detection of AME in RCW 49, they emphasize the complexity of astronomical sources that are very well known and studied, such as H ii regions, and suggest that, at least in these objects, the reported excess of emission might be ascribed to alternative mechanisms such as stellar winds and shocks.
Minimum length, extra dimensions, modified gravity and black hole remnants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maziashvili, Michael
2013-03-01
We construct a Hilbert space representation of minimum-length deformed uncertainty relation in presence of extra dimensions. Following this construction, we study corrections to the gravitational potential (back reaction on gravity) with the use of correspondingly modified propagator in presence of two (spatial) extra dimensions. Interestingly enough, for r→0 the gravitational force approaches zero and the horizon for modified Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time disappears when the mass approaches quantum-gravity energy scale. This result points out to the existence of zero-temperature black hole remnants in ADD brane-world model.
Probes of Universal Extra Dimensions at Colliders
Rizzo, Thomas G.
2001-06-28
In the Universal Extra Dimensions model of Appelquist, Cheng and Dobrescu, all of the Standard Model fields are placed in the bulk and thus have Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations. These KK states can only be pair produced at colliders due to the tree-level conservation of KK number, with the lightest of them being stable and possibly having a mass as low as {approx_equal} 350 400 GeV. After calculating the contribution to g-2 in this model we investigate the production cross sections and signatures for these particles at both hadron and lepton colliders. We demonstrate that these signatures critically depend upon whether the lightest KK states remain stable or are allowed to decay by any of a number of new physics mechanisms. These mechanisms which induce KK decays are studied in detail.
Investigations of Standard Model and Exotic Monophoton Signatures at Center of Mass Energy = 7 TeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miceli, Tia Marie
This dissertation describes the search for large extra dimensions. Such extra dimensions could solve the hierarchy problem, one of the greatest puzzles in the field of particle physics. The hierarchy problem is the mystery of why gravity is significantly weaker than the electromagnetic, strong, and weak forces. A solution would unify the strength of gravity with the strength of the other forces. There are many possible tests for extra dimensions. Presented is the analysis of proton-proton collisions with final states in which a single photon recoils from an invisible particle. These data were collected with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector during the 2011 Large Hadron Collider run at CERN, in Geneva, Switzerland, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. Backgrounds are estimated using data driven techniques for those due to W → nue, hadronic jets, and non-collision backgrounds such as beam remnants faking a photon, and anomalous energy deposits in the electromagnetic calorimeter. The less significant backgrounds are estimated using Monte Carlo simulation, Wgamma, dijet, and jet + gamma. The irreducible Z(nunu)+ gamma background was estimated in Monte Carlo for the extra dimension search, but in later studies this component should be estimated by using a ratio of the measured Zgamma → mumugamma cross section. The results are consistent with the predicted Standard Model cross section of Z bosons decaying to neutrino pairs. Subsequently, the worlds best limits are placed on the monophoton topology of large extra dimensions. The same analysis provides a measurement of the Z(nunu)+gamma cross section consistent with next to leading order predictions.
Beta Functions in Chirally Deformed Supersymmetric Sigma Models in Two Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vainshtein, Arkady
We study two-dimensional sigma models where the chiral deformation diminished the original 𝒩 =(2, 2) supersymmetry to the chiral one, 𝒩 =(0, 2). Such heterotic models were discovered previously on the world sheet of non-Abelian stringy solitons supported by certain four-dimensional 𝒩 = 1 theories. We study geometric aspects and holomorphic properties of these models, and derive a number of exact expressions for the β functions in terms of the anomalous dimensions analogous to the NSVZ β function in four-dimensional Yang-Mills. Instanton calculus provides a straightforward method for the derivation.
Beta functions in Chirally deformed supersymmetric sigma models in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vainshtein, Arkady
2016-10-01
We study two-dimensional sigma models where the chiral deformation diminished the original 𝒩 = (2, 2) supersymmetry to the chiral one, 𝒩 = (0, 2). Such heterotic models were discovered previously on the world sheet of non-Abelian stringy solitons supported by certain four-dimensional 𝒩 = 1 theories. We study geometric aspects and holomorphic properties of these models, and derive a number of exact expressions for the β functions in terms of the anomalous dimensions analogous to the NSVZ β function in four-dimensional Yang-Mills. Instanton calculus provides a straightforward method for the derivation.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic insulator heterostructure.
Xu, Gang; Wang, Jing; Felser, Claudia; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2015-03-11
On the basis of ab initio calculations, we predict that a monolayer of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 and GdI2 heterostructure is a quantum anomalous Hall insulator with a nontrivial band gap up to 38 meV. The principle behind our prediction is that the band inversion between two topologically trivial ferromagnetic insulators can result in a nonzero Chern number, which offers a better way to realize the quantum anomalous Hall state without random magnetic doping. In addition, a simple effective model is presented to describe the basic mechanism of spin polarized band inversion in this system. Moreover, we predict that 3D quantum anomalous Hall insulator could be realized in (Bi2/3Cr1/3)2Te3 /GdI2 superlattice.
Observations of Anomalous Refraction with Co-housed Telescopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Malinda S.; McGraw, J. T.; Zimmer, P. C.
2013-01-01
Anomalous refraction is described as a low frequency, large angular scale motion of the entire image plane with respect to the celestial coordinate system as observed and defined by previous astrometric catalogs. These motions of typically several tenths of an arcsecond with timescales on the order of ten minutes are ubiquitous to drift-scan ground-based astrometric measurements regardless of location or telescopes used and have been attributed to meter scale slowly evolving coherent dynamical structures in the boundary-layer below 60 meters. The localized nature of the effect and general inconsistency of the motions seen by even closely spaced telescopes in individual domes has led to the hypothesis that the dome or other type of telescope housing may be responsible. This hypothesis is tested by observing anomalous refraction using two telescopes housed in a single roll-off roof observatory building with the expected outcome that the two telescopes will see correlated anomalous refraction induced motions.
Searching for anomalous top quark production at the early LHC.
Gao, Jun; Li, Chong Sheng; Yang, Li Lin; Zhang, Hao
2011-08-26
We present a detailed study of the anomalous top quark production with subsequent decay at the LHC induced by model-independent flavor-changing neutral-current couplings, incorporating the complete next-to-leading order QCD effects. Our results show that, taking into account the current limits from the Tevatron, the LHC with √s=7 TeV may discover the anomalous coupling at 5σ level for a very low integrated luminosity of 61 pb⁻¹. The discovery potentials for the anomalous couplings at the LHC are examined in detail. We also discuss the possibility of using the charge ratio to distinguish the tug and tcg couplings.
Validity of anomalous diffraction approximation in m- χ domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chun-Lei
In a recent paper, Liu et al. [Liu, C., Jonas, P.R., Saunders, C.P.R., 1996. Accuracy of the anomalous diffraction approximation to the light scattering by column-like ice crystals. Atmos. Res. 41, 63-69] reported that the anomalous diffraction approximation (ADA) accuracy is not sensitive to van de Hulst's condition | m-1|≪1, but is dependent on the size parameter χ. Videen and Chýlek [Videen, G., Chýlek, P., 1998. Anomalous diffraction approximation limits. Atmos. Res., this issue] pointed out that this result is at odds with previous research, and their results indicated that the accuracy of ADA is much dependent on the condition of | m-1|≪1. Some calculated results are presented here to provide further discussion of the ADA validity in the calculation of particle extinction and absorption efficiencies.
Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (including scimitar syndrome).
van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Verberkmoes, Niels; Bogers, Ad J J C
2013-01-01
Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) is defined to exist when some but not all venous drainage enters the left atrium, while the remaining veins connect to the right-sided circulation. Scimitar syndrome is a specialized example, in which an anomalous pulmonary vein descends from the right lung and drains into the inferior caval vein. PAPVC is associated with sinus venosus-type atrial septal defect (ASD). Diagnosis was, in the past, based on echocardiographic imaging and could be difficult. Multislice spiral computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging improved the imaging quality. The surgical correction is dependent on the type of anomalous connection and the presence of an ASD. Outcome is good but obstructed venous return is an important issue.
Isotropic anomalous filtering in Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
da S Senra Filho, Antonio Carlos; Jinzenji Duque, Juliano; Murta Junior, Luiz Otávio
2013-01-01
Noise is inherent to Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DWI) and noise reduction methods are necessary. Although process based on classical diffusion is one of the most used approaches for digital image, anomalous diffusion has the potential for image enhancement and it has not been tested for DWI noise reduction. This study evaluates Anomalous Diffusion (AD) filter as DWI enhancement method. The proposed method was applied to magnetic resonance diffusion weighted images (DW-MRI) with different noise levels. Results show better performance for anomalous diffusion when compared to classical diffusion approach. The proposed method has shown potential in DWI enhancement and can be an important process to improve quality in DWI for neuroimage-based diagnosis.
Unique continuation property for the anomalous diffusion and its application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Jin; Lin, Ching-Lung; Nakamura, Gen
The unique continuation for anomalous diffusion operators with fractional time derivative of order 1/2 is proved by deriving Carleman estimates for the operators. By applying operators which have a negative sign in front of the diffusion terms of anomalous diffusion operators, the anomalous diffusion operators are transformed to parabolic operators of order 4 in the space variables. The Carleman estimates are derived for these transformed operators considered as semi-elliptic operators. The usual Calderón uniqueness argument for semi-elliptic operators does not work due to the singularities in factors of the factorization of their principal parts. In order to have smooth factorizations of the operators, we took into account the lower order terms of the operators.
No-Drag Frame for Anomalous Chiral Fluid
Stephanov, Mikhail A.; Yee, Ho-Ung
2016-03-24
For an anomalous fluid carrying dissipationless chiral magnetic and/or vortical currents we show that there is a frame in which a stationary obstacle experiences no drag, but energy and charge currents do not vanish, resembling superfluidity. Unlike ordinary superfluid flow, the anomalous chiral currents can transport entropy in this frame. Moreover, we show that the second law of thermodynamics completely determines the amounts of these anomalous nondissipative currents in the “no-drag frame” as polynomials in temperature and chemical potential with known anomaly coefficients. These general results are illustrated and confirmed by a calculation in the chiral kinetic theory and inmore » the quark-gluon plasma at high temperature.« less
[Anomalous absorption and a qualified far infrared spectrum].
Hu, Yan-qin; Chen, Yu-jing; Li, Hui-hua; Wang, Hai-shui
2012-02-01
The ideal 100% line could not be obtained when the content of water vapor in the spectrometer is constant but high during the whole procedure of a far-infrared spectrum collection. This result indicates that anomalous absorption phenomenon takes place in high relative humidity atmosphere. In the present paper, the influences of the relative humidity of ambient air and spectral resolution on anomalous absorption were studied. It was found that both decreasing the water vapor content in the spectrometer and adopting low spectral resolution are effective methods to avoid anomalous absorption. Furthermore, the water vapor bands can be eliminated by "dry air and wet air titration" in the fluctuant humidity. This provides us a quick and economic method to obtain a qualified far infrared spectrum conveniently. It should be noticed that the working condition for "dry air and wet air titration" is low relative humidity to prevent water vapor abnormal absorption.
Phenomenological Spin Transport Theory Driven by Anomalous Nernst Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taniguchi, Tomohiro
2016-07-01
Several experimental efforts such as material investigation and structure improvement have been made recently to find a large anomalous Nernst effect in ferromagnetic metals. Here, we develop a theory of spin transport driven by the anomalous Nernst effect in a diffusive ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic multilayer. Starting from a phenomenological formula of a spin-dependent electric current, the theoretical formulas of electric voltage and spin torque generated by the anomalous Nernst effect are derived. The magnitude of the electric voltage generated from the spin current via the inverse spin Hall effect is on the order of 0.1 µV for currently available experimental parameter values. The temperature gradient necessary to switch the magnetization is quite larger than the typical experimental value. The separation of the contributions of the Seebeck and transverse spin Seebeck effects is also discussed.
Anomalous Hall effect in YIG|Pt bilayers
Meyer, Sibylle Schlitz, Richard; Geprägs, Stephan; Opel, Matthias; Huebl, Hans; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Gross, Rudolf
2015-03-30
We measure the ordinary and the anomalous Hall effect in a set of yttrium iron garnet|platinum (YIG|Pt) bilayers via magnetization orientation dependent magnetoresistance experiments. Our data show that the presence of the ferrimagnetic insulator YIG leads to an anomalous Hall effect like voltage in Pt, which is sensitive to both Pt thickness and temperature. Interpretation of the experimental findings in terms of the spin Hall anomalous Hall effect indicates that the imaginary part of the spin mixing conductance G{sub i} plays a crucial role in YIG|Pt bilayers. In particular, our data suggest a sign change in G{sub i} between 10 K and 300 K. Additionally, we report a higher order Hall effect contribution, which appears in thin Pt films on YIG at low temperatures.
Emergence of anomalous transport in stressed rough fractures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Peter K.; Brown, Stephen; Juanes, Ruben
2016-11-01
We report the emergence of anomalous (non-Fickian) transport through a rough-walled fracture as a result of increasing normal stress on the fracture. We show that the origin of this anomalous transport behavior can be traced to the emergence of a heterogeneous flow field dominated by preferential channels and stagnation zones, as a result of the larger number of contacts in a highly stressed fracture. We show that the velocity distribution determines the late-time scaling of particle spreading, and velocity correlation determines the magnitude of spreading and the transition time from the initial ballistic regime to the asymptotic anomalous behavior. We also propose a spatial Markov model that reproduces the transport behavior at the scale of the entire fracture with only three physical parameters. Our results point to a heretofore unrecognized link between geomechanics and particle transport in fractured media.
Anomalous absorption of laser light on ion acoustic fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozmus, Wojciech; Bychenkov, Valery Yu.
2016-10-01
Theory of laser light absorption due to ion acoustic turbulence (IAT) is discussed in high Z plasmas where ion acoustic waves are weakly damped. Our theory applies to the whole density range from underdense to critical density plasmas. It includes an absorption rate for the resonance anomalous absorption due to linear conversion of electromagnetic waves into electron plasma oscillations by the IAT near the critical density in addition to the absorption coefficient due to enhanced effective electron collisionality. IAT is driven by large electron heat flux through the return current instability. Stationary spectra of IAT are given by weak plasma turbulence theory and applied in description of the anomalous absorption in the inertial confinement fusion plasmas at the gold walls of a hohlraum. This absorption is anisotropic in nature due to IAT angular anisotropy and differs for p- and s-polarization of the laser radiation. Possible experiments which could identify the resonance anomalous absorption in a laser heated plasma are discussed.
A mass term for three-dimensional gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schonfeld, Jonathan F.
1981-07-01
We propose the interaction Lξ≡ {1}/{2}ξɛ μνλTrA μ[∂ νA λ- {2}/{3}igA νA λ] as a mass term for gauge fields in three-dimensional spacetime. The Aμ belong to a Lie algebra (represented here in terms of matrices), ɛ μνλ is the completely antisymmetric symbol, the coupling g has units [ mass] {1}/{2}, and the parameter ξ has units [mass]. Lξ, related to the instanton current of four dimensions, is gauge invariant up to a total divergence and a topological density. (There is a supersymmetric extension with the same property.) When technical complications can be ignored, Lξ provides gauge particles with mass without breaking local symmetry and without introducing auxiliary fields. Perturbative analysis of models involving Lξ (collectively called "ξ theories") is complicated by gauge-non-invariant infrared singularities in gauge-field propagators. Nevertheless, quantized abelian ξ-theories (collectively called "ξ QED") do define gauge-invariant and infrared-finite scattering in perturbation theory. The consistency of non-abelian ξ theories is not yet established. The physics of non-relativistic charges ξ QED is, in its gross features, the same as that of the Aharanov-Bohm effect - the static field of a point charge is a non-trivial pure gauge at large distances. (We argue that in spite of the long-range fields, propagation of charges at large times is free; so that in ξ QED there should be no unexpected subtleties in the axiomatic definition of scattering amplitudes.) Compatibility of gauge invariance and mass in three dimensions is related to the existence of massive spinning representations of the Poincaré algebra with only one polarization per momentum. The massive spin-one photon of ξ QED is such a particle. (There is in fact a massive unitary representation of the three-dimensional Poincaré algebra with only one polarization for spin equal to any real number, integral multiple of one-half or otherwise. It is possible that particles
Constraints on anomalous HVV couplings of the Higgs boson in proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Christopher; CMS Collaboration
2015-04-01
Under the hypothesis that the resonance is a spin-zero boson, the tensor structure of the interactions of the recently discovered Higgs boson is performed using the H --> ZZ , Zγ* ,γ*γ* --> 4 l and H --> WW --> lνlν decay modes. The full dataset recorded by the CMS experiment during the LHC Run 1 is used, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 5 . 1fb-1 at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and up to 19 . 7fb-1 at 8 TeV . Limits on eleven anomalous contributions are set. Tighter constraints on anomalous HVV interactions are obtained by combining the HZZ and HWW measurements. All observations are consistent with the expectations for the standard model Higgs boson with the quantum numbers JPC =0++ .
Measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry with 9 fb⁻¹ of pp̄ collisions
Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; ...
2011-09-16
We present an updated measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry Absl for semileptonic b-hadron decays in 9.0 fb⁻¹ of pp̄ collisions recorded with the D0 detector at a center-of-mass energy of √s=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We obtain Absl=(-0.787±0.172(stat)±0.093(syst))%. This result differs by 3.9 standard deviations from the prediction of the standard model and provides evidence for anomalously large CP violation in semileptonic neutral B decay. The dependence of the asymmetry on the muon impact parameter is consistent with the hypothesis that it originates from semileptonic b-hadron decays.
Measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry with 9 fb⁻¹ of pp̄ collisions
Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Aoki, M.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Atramentov, O.; Avila, C.; BackusMayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Calpas, B.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chen, G.; Chevalier-Théry, S.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Croc, A.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; De, K.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dorland, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hubacek, Z.; Huske, N.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jamin, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnston, D.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirby, M. H.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kulikov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kvita, J.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lellouch, J.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; Obrant, G.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Otero y Garzón, G. J.; Padilla, M.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Parsons, J.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, K.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Piegaia, R.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Polozov, P.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Renkel, P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Safronov, G.; Sajot, G.; Salcido, P.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Sanghi, B.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schliephake, T.; Schlobohm, S.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K. J.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Strom, D.; Stutte, L.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Takahashi, M.; Tanasijczuk, A.; Taylor, W.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verdier, P.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weber, M.; Welty-Rieger, L.; White, A.; Wicke, D.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, R.; Yang, W.-C.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J.; Zelitch, S.; Zhao, T.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.
2011-09-16
We present an updated measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry A^{b}_{sl} for semileptonic b-hadron decays in 9.0 fb⁻¹ of pp̄ collisions recorded with the D0 detector at a center-of-mass energy of √s=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We obtain A^{b}_{sl}=(-0.787±0.172(stat)±0.093(syst))%. This result differs by 3.9 standard deviations from the prediction of the standard model and provides evidence for anomalously large CP violation in semileptonic neutral B decay. The dependence of the asymmetry on the muon impact parameter is consistent with the hypothesis that it originates from semileptonic b-hadron decays.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dominguez, Gerardo; Christensen, Elizabeth; Boyer, Charisa; Park, Manesseh; Benitez, Ezra; Nunn, Morgan; Thiemens, Mark H.; Jackson, Terri
2016-06-01
Decades of careful laboratory analysis of primitive meteorites have revealed an intriguing and unexplained pattern in the distribution of oxygen isotopes in the solar system. With the recent analysis of solar wind oxygen by NASA’s Genesis mission, it appears that the Sun has a distinct oxygen isotopic composition from the terrestrial planets, asteroids, and comets. These differences cannot be explained by mass-dependent diffusion and require a physical-chemical mechanism or mechanisms that separate oxygen isotopes in a non-mass dependent manner.Several hypothesis have been proposed to explain the anomalous distribution. Photochemical self-shielding of CO may explain the anomalous distribution, however, this mechanism has key weaknesses including the requirement of a very fine tuned timescale to explain the isotopic differences between the Sun and bulk of the terrestrial planets. Recently, attention has been directed at understanding specific chemical reactions that occur on interstellar dust grains due to their similarities with non-equilibrium photochemical reactions believed to be responsible for the mass-independent isotopic fractionation patterns observed in Earth’s atmosphere. A specific focus has been directed towards understanding the formation of H2O because some of its precursor (HO2, and O3) are well-known to acquire mass-independent isotopic signatures when formed in the gas-phase.In this presentation, I describe a series of laboratory astrophysical experiments whose goal is to understand the distribution of oxygen isotopes in the solar system and perhaps, by extension, the distribution in other planetary systems. Preliminary results for the isotopic composition of O3 formed at 5K will be presented as well as the first, to our knowledge, measurements of the isotopic composition of H2O (18O/16O, 17O/16O, D/H) formed at 32K. We find that H2O formed in the astrophysical conditions we simulated acquired an anomalous isotopic composition with a triple
Microlensing of the Broad Line Region in the Most Anomalous Lensed Quasar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keeton, Charles
2009-07-01
The gravitationally lensed quasar SDSS J0924+0219 has highly anomalous flux ratios: image D is more than a factor of 10 fainter than expected if the lens galaxy has a smooth mass distribution. From previous HST spectra {Keeton et al. 2006} and photometric variability {Morgan et al. 2006} we know the anomalous continuum flux ratios are caused by microlensing by stars in the lens galaxy. However, with existing data we do not know whether the anomalous emission line flux ratios are caused by microlensing by stars or millilensing by dark matter clumps. With just four orbits we can measure spectra at two more epochs and determine unambiguously whether the quasar's broad line region {BLR} is microlensed. If the emission line flux ratios vary, that would prove the BLR is microlensed and make SDSS0924 only the second known quasar with microlensing of an optical broad emission line. In this case we would be able to constrain the BLR size and and relative densities of stars and dark matter in the lens galaxy. Conversely, if the emission line flux ratios do not vary, that would prove the BLR is millilensed rather than microlensed, and make SDSS0924 the first lens known to have both microlensing {of the continuum} and millilensing {of the BLR}. This would usher in a new and rich field of multiscale lensing. The conclusions about small-scale structure in galaxies and quasars will be exciting in either case. This experiment is infeasible with ground-based telescopes, but with HST it is easy and fast to make this powerful test of small-scale structure in SDSS0924.
Rotating Charged Hairy Black Hole in (2+1) Dimensions and Particle Acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, J.; Pourhassan, B.; Farahani, H.
2014-09-01
In this paper, we construct rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions for infinitesimal black hole charge and rotation parameters. Then we consider this black hole as particle accelerator and calculate the center-of-mass energy of two colliding test particles near the rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions. As we expected, the center-of-mass energy has infinite value.
A proposal for the origin of the anomalous magnetic moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novello, M.; Bittencourt, E.
2014-05-01
We investigate a new form of contribution for the anomalous magnetic moment of all particles. This common origin is displayed in the framework of a recent treatment of electrodynamics that is based on the introduction of an electromagnetic metric which has no gravitational character. This effective metric constitutes a universal pure electromagnetic process perceived by all bodies, charged or not charged. As a consequence, it yields a complementary explanation for the existence of anomalous magnetic moment for charged particles and even for noncharged ones like neutrinos.
Algebraic isomorphism in two-dimensional anomalous gauge theories
Carvalhaes, C.G.; Natividade, C.P.
1997-08-01
The operator solution of the anomalous chiral Schwinger model is discussed on the basis of the general principles of Wightman field theory. Some basic structural properties of the model are analyzed taking a careful control on the Hilbert space associated with the Wightman functions. The isomorphism between gauge noninvariant and gauge invariant descriptions of the anomalous theory is established in terms of the corresponding field algebras. We show that (i) the {Theta}-vacuum representation and (ii) the suggested equivalence of vector Schwinger model and chiral Schwinger model cannot be established in terms of the intrinsic field algebra. {copyright} 1997 Academic Press, Inc.
Anomalous temperature dependence of the IR spectrum of polyalanine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helenius, V.; Korppi-Tommola, J.; Kotila, S.; Nieminen, J.; Lohikoski, R.; Timonen, J.
1997-12-01
We have studied the temperature dependence of the infrared spectra of acetanilide (ACN), tryptophan-(alanine) 15, and tyrosine-(alanine) 15. No sidebands of the amide-I vibration were observed in the polypeptides, but two anomalous sidebands of the NH stretch with a similar temperature dependence as that of the anomalous amide-I vibrational mode at 1650 cm -1 of crystalline ACN were detected. Fermi resonance combined with the appearance of a red-shifted sideband of NH stretch through coupling to lattice modes seems to explain this band structure. Observations are indicative of excitons that may occur in polypeptides as well as in single crystals of ACN.
Onset of anomalous diffusion in colloids confined to quasimonolayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleibel, J.; Domínguez, Alvaro; Oettel, M.
2017-03-01
It has been recently shown that a colloidal monolayer, e.g., formed at a fluid interface or by means of a suitable confining potential, exhibits anomalous collective diffusion. This is a consequence of the hydrodynamic interactions mediated by the three-dimensional (3D) ambient fluid when the particles are confined to reside on a two-dimensional (2D) manifold. We study theoretically and with numerical simulations the crossover from normal to anomalous diffusion as the particles are, in real systems, confined by a 3D external potential and thus have the possibility to fluctuate out of the 2D manifold, thus forming a quasimonolayer.
The magnetic field in the anomalous arms in NGC 4258
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hummel, E.; Krause, M.; Beck, R.
The linearly polarized emission and total emission of NGC 4258 at 4.9 and 1.5 GHz were observed with the VLA in its D and C arrays respectively. The results strongly suggest that the anomalous arms are in the plane of NGC 4258, hence excluding models that require them to be out of the plane. The observed magnetic field structure is in essence bisymmetric (dynamo mode m = 1) and the magnetic field strength is highest in the ridges of the anomalous arms. The present structure may be the result of compression of a preexisting (not necessarily primordial) bisymmetric field. The KOM expulsion model could give an explanation for this compression.
Anomalous excitation facilitation in inhomogeneously broadened Rydberg gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letscher, F.; Thomas, O.; Niederprüm, T.; Ott, H.; Fleischhauer, M.
2017-02-01
When atomic gases are laser driven to Rydberg states in an off-resonant way, a single Rydberg atom may enhance the excitation rate of surrounding atoms. This leads to a facilitated excitation referred to as Rydberg antiblockade. In the usual facilitation scenario, the detuning of the laser from resonance compensates the interaction shift. Here, we discuss a different excitation mechanism, which we call anomalous facilitation. This occurs on the "wrong side" of the resonance and originates from inhomogeneous broadening. The anomalous facilitation may be seen in experiments of attractively interacting atoms on the blue detuned side, where facilitation is not expected to appear.
Anomalous tensoelectric effects in gallium arsenide tunnel diodes
Alekseeva, Z.M.; Vyatkin, A.P.; Krivorotov, N.P.; Shchegol', A.A.
1988-02-01
Anomalous tensoelectric phenomena induced in a tunnel p-n junction by a concentrated load and by hydrostatic compression were studied. The anomalous tensoelectric effects are caused by the action of concentrators of mechanical stresses in the vicinity of the p-n junction, giving rise to local microplastic strain. Under the conditions of hydrostatic compression prolate inclusions approx.100-200 A long play the role of concentrators. Analysis of irreversible changes in the current-voltage characteristics of tunnel p-n junctions made it possible to separate the energy levels of the defects produced with plastic strain of gallium arsenide.
Anomalous flow behavior in nanochannels: A molecular dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murad, Sohail; Luo, Lin; Chu, Liang-Yin
2010-06-01
We report molecular dynamics simulations of flow of water in nanochannels with a range of surface wettability characteristics (hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic) and driving forces (pressures). Our results show apparently anomalous behavior. At low pressures, the rate is higher in nanochannels with hydrophilic surfaces than that with hydrophobic surfaces; however, with high pressure driven flow we observe opposite trends. This apparently anomalous behavior can be explained on the basis of molecular thermodynamics and fluid mechanics considerations. Understanding such behavior is important in many nanofluidic devices such as nanoreactors, nanosensors, and nanochips that are increasingly being designed and used.
Anomalous right coronary artery in a middle-aged patient
Rosseel, Liesbeth; Bonnier, Hans; Sonck, Jeroen
2016-01-01
Abstract Background: An anomalous right coronary artery originating from the left sinus of Valsalva is a rare, but often incidental, finding in middle-aged to elderly people. Prevalence is difficult to define, as well as determining potential harmful hemodynamic consequences. Moreover, the optimal treatment remains debatable. Case summary: The authors present a case of a middle-aged patient diagnosed with an anomalous right coronary artery causing ischemia, who was treated surgically. Conclusion: By reviewing literature, the authors conclude that choice of treatment depends on age, symptoms, and certain anatomic features of this anomaly. However, there are no randomized trials available in this field. PMID:27930539
Regular and anomalous quantum diffusion in the Fibonacci kicked rotator
Casati, G.; Mantica, G.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2001-06-01
We study the dynamics of a quantum rotator, impulsively kicked according to the almost-periodic Fibonacci sequence. A special numerical technique allows us to carry on this investigation for as many as 10{sup 12} kicks. It is shown that above a critical kick strength, the excitation of the system is well described by regular diffusion, while below this border it becomes anomalous and subdiffusive. A law for the dependence of the exponent of anomalous subdiffusion on the kick strength is established numerically. The analogy between these results and quantum diffusion in models of quasicrystals and in the kicked Harper system is discussed.
Regular and anomalous quantum diffusion in the Fibonacci kicked rotator.
Casati, G; Mantica, G; Shepelyansky, D L
2001-06-01
We study the dynamics of a quantum rotator, impulsively kicked according to the almost-periodic Fibonacci sequence. A special numerical technique allows us to carry on this investigation for as many as 10(12) kicks. It is shown that above a critical kick strength, the excitation of the system is well described by regular diffusion, while below this border it becomes anomalous and subdiffusive. A law for the dependence of the exponent of anomalous subdiffusion on the kick strength is established numerically. The analogy between these results and quantum diffusion in models of quasicrystals and in the kicked Harper system is discussed.
Fluctuation-stabilized marginal networks and anomalous entropic elasticity.
Dennison, M; Sheinman, M; Storm, C; MacKintosh, F C
2013-08-30
We study the elastic properties of thermal networks of Hookean springs. In the purely mechanical limit, such systems are known to have a vanishing rigidity when their connectivity falls below a critical, isostatic value. In this work, we show that thermal networks exhibit a nonzero shear modulus G well below the isostatic point and that this modulus exhibits an anomalous, sublinear dependence on temperature T. At the isostatic point, G increases as the square root of T, while we find G∝Tα below the isostatic point, where α≃0.8. We show that this anomalous T dependence is entropic in origin.
Observation of Anomalous Phonons in Orthorhombic Rare-earth Manganites
P Gao; H Chen; T Tyson; Z Liu; J Bai; L Wang; Y Chio; S Cheong
2011-12-31
We observe the appearance of a phonon near the lock-in temperature in orthorhombic REMnO{sub 3} (RE denotes rare earth) (RE: Lu and Ho) and anomalous phonon hardening in orthorhombic LuMnO{sub 3}. The anomalous phonon occurs at the onset of spontaneous polarization. No such changes were found in incommensurate orthorhombic DyMnO{sub 3}. These observations directly reveal different electric polarization mechanisms in the E-type and incommensurate-type orthorhombic REMnO{sub 3}.
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection to the Portal Vein
Wyttenbach, Marina; Carrel, Thierry; Schuepbach, Peter; Tschaeppeler, Heinz; Triller, Juergen
1996-03-15
Anomalous pulmonary venous return represents a rare congenital anomaly with wide anatomic and physiologic variability. We report a case of a newborn with a rare form of total infracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). The pulmonary veins draining both lungs formed two vertical veins, which joined to a common pulmonary trunk below the diaphragm. This venous channel connected to the portal vein through the esophageal hiatus. The diagnosis was suggested by color Doppler sonography and confirmed by intravenous digital subtraction angiography, which allowed definition of the anatomy.
New evidence for geomagnetically trapped anomalous cosmic rays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cummings, J. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Selesnick, R. S.; Stone, E. C.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.
1993-01-01
We report new observations of 15 MeV/nuc or greater trapped heavy ions with Z equal to or greater than 2, made on the polar-orbiting SAMPEX spacecraft in late 1992 and early 1993. A trapped population that includes He, N, O, and Ne is found to be located at L = 2. We conclude that the observed N, O, and Ne ions are 'anomalous' cosmic rays, trapped by the mechanism proposed by Blake and Friesen (1977). While it is not expected that this mechanism would also trap anomalous He, the characteristics of the trapped He population are generally consistent with those of N, O, and Ne.
Modified closed chamber sutureless technique for anomalous pulmonary venous connection
Menon, Sabarinath; Mathew, Thomas; Karunakaran, Jayakumar; Dharan, Baiju Sashidhar
2017-01-01
Visibility continues to be a major problem during repair of obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) resulting in frequent use of deep hypothermia and low flow bypass. Sutureless technique for primary repair of anomalous pulmonary venous connection is fast becoming popular. In this described modification of sutureless technique through the lateral approach, the left atrium is marsupialized around the common pulmonary venous chamber, except on the right lateral aspect, providing a bloodless field with minimal retraction of heart facilitating the surgery at mild hypothermia. This technique can be particularly useful in small confluence obstructed TAPVC and in mixed TAPVC. PMID:28163429
Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horowitz, Gary T.
2012-04-01
List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.
Dimension Reduction for Object Ranking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamishima, Toshihiro; Akaho, Shotaro
Ordered lists of objects are widely used as representational forms. Such ordered objects include Web search results and bestseller lists. Techniques for processing such ordinal data are being developed, particularly methods for an object ranking task: i.e., learning functions used to sort objects from sample orders. In this article, we propose two dimension reduction methods specifically designed to improve prediction performance in an object ranking task.