Science.gov

Sample records for mass balances examining

  1. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  2. Meta-Analysis of Mass Balances Examining Chemical Fate during Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Mass balances are an instructive means for investigating the fate of chemicals during wastewater treatment. In addition to the aqueous-phase removal efficiency (Φ), they can inform on chemical partitioning, transformation, and persistence, as well as on the chemical loading to streams and soils receiving, respectively, treated effluent and digested sewage sludge (biosolids). Release rates computed on a per-capita basis can serve to extrapolate findings to a larger scale. This review examines over a dozen mass balances conducted for various organic wastewater contaminants, including prescription drugs, estrogens, fragrances, antimicrobials, and surfactants of differing sorption potential (hydrophobicity), here expressed as the 1-octanol−water partition coefficient (KOW) and the organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (KOC). Major challenges to mass balances are the collection of representative samples and accurate quantification of chemicals in sludge. A meta-analysis of peer-reviewed data identified sorption potential as the principal determinant governing chemical persistence in biosolids. Occurrence data for organic wastewater compounds detected in digested sludge followed a simple nonlinear model that required only KOW or KOC as the input and yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.9 in both instances. The model predicted persistence in biosolids for the majority (>50%) of the input load of organic wastewater compounds featuring a log10KOW value of greater than 5.2 (log10KOC > 4.4). In contrast, hydrophobicity had no or only limited value for estimating, respectively, Φ and the overall persistence of a chemical during conventional wastewater treatment. PMID:18800497

  3. Genetic examination and mass balance analysis of pyruvate/amino acid oxidation pathways in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Kenta; Orita, Izumi; Nakamura, Satoshi; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Fukui, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated the simultaneous oxidation of pyruvate and amino acids during H2-evolving growth of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The comparison of mass balance between a cytosolic hydrogenase (HYH)-deficient strain (the ΔhyhBGSL strain) and the parent strain indicated that NADPH generated via H2 uptake by HYH was consumed by reductive amination of 2-oxoglutarate catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase. Further examinations were done to elucidate functions of three enzymes potentially involved in pyruvate oxidation: pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL), pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), and 2-oxoisovalerate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (VOR) under the HYH-deficient background in T. kodakarensis. No significant change was observed by deletion of pflDA, suggesting that PFL had no critical role in pyruvate oxidation. The growth properties and mass balances of ΔporDAB and ΔvorDAB strains indicated that POR and VOR specifically functioned in oxidation of pyruvate and branched-chain amino acids, respectively, and the lack of POR or VOR was compensated for by promoting the oxidation of another substrate driven by the remaining oxidoreductase. The H2 yields from the consumed pyruvate and amino acids were increased from 31% by the parent strain to 67% and 82% by the deletion of hyhBGSL and double deletion of hyhBGSL and vorDAB, respectively. Significant discrepancies in the mass balances were observed in excess formation of acetate and NH3, suggesting the presence of unknown metabolisms in T. kodakarensis grown in the rich medium containing pyruvate.

  4. Micromechanical Oscillating Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, David A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A micromechanical oscillating mass balance and method adapted for measuring minute quantities of material deposited at a selected location, such as during a vapor deposition process. The invention comprises a vibratory composite beam which includes a dielectric layer sandwiched between two conductive layers. The beam is positioned in a magnetic field. An alternating current passes through one conductive layers, the beam oscillates, inducing an output current in the second conductive layer, which is analyzed to determine the resonant frequency of the beam. As material is deposited on the beam, the mass of the beam increases and the resonant frequency of the beam shifts, and the mass added is determined.

  5. Improving Mass Balance Modeling of Benchmark Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beusekom, A. E.; March, R. S.; O'Neel, S.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS monitors long-term glacier mass balance at three benchmark glaciers in different climate regimes. The coastal and continental glaciers are represented by Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers in Alaska, respectively. Field measurements began in 1966 and continue. We have reanalyzed the published balance time series with more modern methods and recomputed reference surface and conventional balances. Addition of the most recent data shows a continuing trend of mass loss. We compare the updated balances to the previously accepted balances and discuss differences. Not all balance quantities can be determined from the field measurements. For surface processes, we model missing information with an improved degree-day model. Degree-day models predict ablation from the sum of daily mean temperatures and an empirical degree-day factor. We modernize the traditional degree-day model as well as derive new degree-day factors in an effort to closer match the balance time series and thus better predict the future state of the benchmark glaciers. For subsurface processes, we model the refreezing of meltwater for internal accumulation. We examine the sensitivity of the balance time series to the subsurface process of internal accumulation, with the goal of determining the best way to include internal accumulation into balance estimates.

  6. Mass balance of Potanin glacier, Mongolia Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konya, K.; Kadota, T.; Ohata, T.

    2008-12-01

    Field observation has conducted at Potanin glacier, Mongolia Altai. There are many glaciers in Altai Mountains which range around border of Mongolia, Russia and China. Although some glaciers in Russian Altay are monitored for several decades, those in Mongolia are not well surveyed. Potanin glacier ranges from 2800 to 4000 m a.s.l. and its length is about 11km. We conducted meteorological observation in ablation area of the glacier. We installed automatic weather station and ablation stakes. Although the accumulation rate data was not obtained in winter, small amount of snowpack was seen at the beginning of ablation season in ablation area. Thus, we assumed mass balance with assuming that accumulation rate is very small in winter. For estimating specific net balance, net balance in each altitude has examined. Our stakes data showed linear trend toward altitude. ELA was roughly estimated as 3600 m.a.s.l.. Accounting for the area allocation, mass balance of Potanin glacier is negative. And it is probable that mass balance of Potanin glacier is in negative trend. This characteristic of mass balance of Potanin glacier is likely to be similar to that of a glacier in Russia Altay.

  7. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  8. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  9. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  10. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass balance...

  11. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass balance...

  12. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  13. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  14. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass balance...

  15. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  16. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  17. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass balance...

  18. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  19. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  20. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass balance...

  1. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  2. Mass balance assessment using GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulbe, Christina L.

    1993-01-01

    Mass balance is an integral part of any comprehensive glaciological investigation. Unfortunately, it is hard to determine at remote locations where there is no fixed reference. The Global Positioning System (GPS) offers a solution. Simultaneous GPS observations at a known location and the remote field site, processed differentially, will accurately position the camp site. From there, a monument planted in the firn atop the ice can also be accurately positioned. Change in the monument's vertical position is a direct indicator of ice thickness change. Because the monument is not connected to the ice, its motion is due to both mass balance change and to the settling of firn as it densifies into ice. Observations of relative position change between the monument and anchors at various depths within the firn are used to remove the settling effect. An experiment to test this method has begun at Byrd Station on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the first epoch of observations was made. Analysis indicates that positioning errors will be very small. It appears likely that the largest errors involved with this technique will arise from ancillary data needed to determine firn settling.

  3. Examining Fund Balance in Michigan School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidin, Zainin

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the financial profiles of 550 public school districts in Michigan and highlights the association between school district fund balance and the following eleven indicators: enrollment, percent enrollment change, percent of students receive free and reduced lunch (FRL), percent of special education students, percent of English…

  4. Surface melt dominates Alaska glacier mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen Chris F,; Burgess, E; Arendt, A.A.; O'Neel, Shad; Johnson, A.J.; Kienholz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers comprise a small and widely distributed fraction of the world's terrestrial ice, yet their rapid losses presently drive a large percentage of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Regional mass balance assessments are challenging over large glacier populations due to remote and rugged geography, variable response of individual glaciers to climate change, and episodic calving losses from tidewater glaciers. In Alaska, we use airborne altimetry from 116 glaciers to estimate a regional mass balance of −75 ± 11 Gt yr−1 (1994–2013). Our glacier sample is spatially well distributed, yet pervasive variability in mass balances obscures geospatial and climatic relationships. However, for the first time, these data allow the partitioning of regional mass balance by glacier type. We find that tidewater glaciers are losing mass at substantially slower rates than other glaciers in Alaska and collectively contribute to only 6% of the regional mass loss.

  5. Surface melt dominates Alaska glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C. F.; Burgess, E.; Arendt, A. A.; O'Neel, S.; Johnson, A. J.; Kienholz, C.

    2015-07-01

    Mountain glaciers comprise a small and widely distributed fraction of the world's terrestrial ice, yet their rapid losses presently drive a large percentage of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Regional mass balance assessments are challenging over large glacier populations due to remote and rugged geography, variable response of individual glaciers to climate change, and episodic calving losses from tidewater glaciers. In Alaska, we use airborne altimetry from 116 glaciers to estimate a regional mass balance of -75 ± 11 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013). Our glacier sample is spatially well distributed, yet pervasive variability in mass balances obscures geospatial and climatic relationships. However, for the first time, these data allow the partitioning of regional mass balance by glacier type. We find that tidewater glaciers are losing mass at substantially slower rates than other glaciers in Alaska and collectively contribute to only 6% of the regional mass loss.

  6. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  7. Assessing streamflow sensitivity to variations in glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneel, S.; Hood, E. W.; Arendt, A. A.; Sass, L. C.; March, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    We examine long-term streamflow and mass balance data from two Alaskan glaciers located in climatically distinct basins: Gulkana Glacier, a continental glacier located in the Alaska Range, and Wolverine Glacier, a maritime glacier located in the Kenai Mountains. Both glaciers lost mass, primarily as a result of summer warming, and both basins exhibit increasing streamflow over the 1966-2011 study interval. We estimated total glacier runoff via summer mass balance, and separated the fraction related to annual mass imbalances. In both climates, the fraction of streamflow related to annual mass balance averages less than 20%, substantially smaller than the fraction related to total summer mass loss (>50%), which occurs even in years of glacier growth. The streamflow fraction related to changes in annual mass balance has increased only in the continental environment. In the maritime climate, where deep winter snowpacks and frequent rain events drive consistently high runoff, the magnitude of this streamflow fraction is small and highly variable, precluding detection of any existing trend. Changes in streamflow related to annual balance are often masked by interannual variability of maritime glacier mass balance, such that predicted scenarios of continued glacier recession are more likely to impact the quality and timing of runoff than the total basin water yield.

  8. Student understanding of balancing, mass distribution and center of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between balancing, mass distribution and the center of mass is challenging for students. In particular there is a widespread tendency to attribute a balanced state to equal amounts of mass to both sides of the fulcrum if the mass distribution is continuous. A number of explanations have been proposed, including a recent suggestion that perceptual difficulties in locating the center of mass are, at least in part, to blame. Recent experiments suggest that it is unlikely that perceptual difficulties play a significant role. The results have implications for the interpretation of common student errors more broadly. Supported in part by the NSF through DUE 1022449 and DUE 1432765.

  9. Mass-balance characteristics of arctic glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, Roger J.

    A survey of available mass-balance data shows that glaciers on arctic islands, i.e. mountain glaciers and ice caps in northern Canada, Greenland, Svalbard and the Eurasian islands, share mass-balance characteristics of low annual amplitude and small interannual variability. By contrast, glaciers around the Arctic (e.g. in Alaska, Iceland, mainland Scandinavia and northern Eurasia) can have exceptionally large annual amplitude and interannual variability but otherwise share characteristics with glaciers in lower latitudes. The arctic island glaciers occur in areas with low annual precipitation and high annual temperature variability, i.e. in dry-cold or continental regions. Most glaciers surrounding the Arctic (Alaska, Iceland and Scandinavia) occur in areas with high annual precipitation and low annual temperature variability, i.e. in wet-warm or maritime regions. Earlier mass-balance modelling showed that arctic island glaciers have low sensitivity to temperature changes consistent with their low mass-balance amplitude. However, very large changes in mass balance could occur on arctic island glaciers if the sea ice surrounding the arctic islands were reduced so that the climate of the arctic islands becomes more maritime.

  10. Spatial variability of Antarctic Peninsula net surface mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J.; Lachlan-Cope, T. A.; Marshall, G. J.; Morris, E. M.; Mulvaney, R.; Winter, W.

    2002-07-01

    Measurements from ice cores and snow pits collected over the last 50 years are used to examine how net surface mass balance varies across the Antarctic Peninsula to give the first detailed map of mass balance for the region. A total of 211 reliable mass balance measurements were available for the preparation of the map, but some areas were found to be very data sparse. The analysis suggests that the largest values of mass balance are found along the spine of the northern part of the peninsula, where over 2.5 m yr-1 water equivalent (WE) has been measured. A secondary peak of more than 2.0 m yr-1 WE is determined along the mountains of eastern Alexander Island. Precipitation minus evaporation (P-E) fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis project are compared with our analysis of in situ data. The model fields are found to have peak values of P-E of only half the amounts found from the measurements; the greatest model values are located on the western side of the peninsula. Areas where a high density of in situ data is available, including King George VI Sound and the high south central plateau part of the peninsula, show a high spatial variability of net surface mass balance, suggesting that local orographic features play a major part in dictating the mass balance.

  11. When Equal Masses Don't Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald; Peidle, Joseph; Rueckner, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    We treat a modified Atwood's machine in which equal masses do not balance because of being in an accelerated frame of reference. Analysis of the problem illuminates the meaning of inertial forces, d'Alembert's principle, the use of free-body diagrams and the selection of appropriate systems for the diagrams. In spite of the range of these…

  12. Automated balance for determining true mass

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.E.

    1982-08-08

    An automated weighing system utilizing a precision electronic balance and a small desktop computer is described. An example of a computer program demonstrating some of the capabilities attainable with this system is included. The program demonstrates a substitution weighing technique with true mass determination for the object being weighed.

  13. Mass balance of polar ice sheets.

    PubMed

    Rignot, Eric; Thomas, Robert H

    2002-08-30

    Recent advances in the determination of the mass balance of polar ice sheets show that the Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass by near-coastal thinning, and that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, with thickening in the west and thinning in the north, is probably thinning overall. The mass imbalance of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is likely to be small, but even its sign cannot yet be determined. Large sectors of ice in southeast Greenland, the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula are changing quite rapidly as a result of processes not yet understood.

  14. Antarctic mass balance changes from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenberg, B.; Tregoning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet contains ~30 million km3 of ice and constitutes a significant component of the global water balance with enough freshwater to raise global sea level by ~60 m. Altimetry measurements and climate models suggest variable behaviour across the Antarctic ice sheet, with thickening occurring in a vast area of East Antarctica and substantial thinning in West Antarctica caused by increased temperature gradients in the surrounding ocean. However, the rate at which the polar ice cap is melting is still poorly constrained. To calculate the mass loss of an ice sheet it is necessary to separate present day mass balance changes from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), the response of the Earth's crust to mass loss, wherefore it is essential to undertake sufficient geological and geomorphological sampling. As there is only a limited possibility for this in Antarctica, all models (i.e. geological, hydrological as well as atmospheric) are very poorly constrained. Therefore, space-geodetic observations play an important role in detecting changes in mass and spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field. The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) observed spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field over the past ten years. The satellite detects mass variations in the Earth system including geophysical, hydrological and atmospheric shifts. GRACE itself is not able to separate the GIA from mass balance changes and, due to the insufficient geological and geomorphological database, it is not possible to model the GIA effect accurately for Antarctica. However, the results from GRACE can be compared with other scientific results, coming from other geodetic observations such as satellite altimetry and GPS or by the use of geological observations. In our contribution we compare the GRACE data with recorded precipitation patterns and mass anomalies over East Antarctica to separate the observed GRACE signal into its two components: GIA as a result of mass

  15. THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE STUDY: PCB MASS BALANCE AND FORECAST MODELLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on PCBs and the primary findings of mathematical modeling including the mass balance of PCBs in Lake Michigan and forecasts of future concentrations of PCBs in lake trout.

  16. Energy and mass balance calculations for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Calculation of energy and mass balance within an incinerator is a very important part of designing and/or evaluating the incineration process. This article describes a simple computer model used to calculate an energy and mass balance for a rotary kiln incinerator. The main purpose of the model is to assist US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) permit writers in evaluating the adequacy of the data submitted by applicants seeking incinerator permits. The calculation is based on the assumption that a thermodynamic equilibrium condition exits within the combustion chamber. Key parameters that the model can calculate include theoretical combustion air, excess air needed for actual combustion cases, flue gas flow rate, and exit temperature.

  17. Ice-sheet mass balance and climate change.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Edward; Navarro, Francisco J; Pattyn, Frank; Domingues, Catia M; Fettweis, Xavier; Ivins, Erik R; Nicholls, Robert J; Ritz, Catherine; Smith, Ben; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Whitehouse, Pippa L; Zwally, H Jay

    2013-06-06

    Since the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, new observations of ice-sheet mass balance and improved computer simulations of ice-sheet response to continuing climate change have been published. Whereas Greenland is losing ice mass at an increasing pace, current Antarctic ice loss is likely to be less than some recently published estimates. It remains unclear whether East Antarctica has been gaining or losing ice mass over the past 20 years, and uncertainties in ice-mass change for West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula remain large. We discuss the past six years of progress and examine the key problems that remain.

  18. When equal masses don't balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburgh, Ronald; Peidle, Joseph; Rueckner, Wolfgang

    2004-05-01

    We treat a modified Atwood's machine in which equal masses do not balance because of being in an accelerated frame of reference. Analysis of the problem illuminates the meaning of inertial forces, d'Alembert's principle, the use of free-body diagrams and the selection of appropriate systems for the diagrams. In spite of the range of these applications the analysis does not require calculus, so the ideas are accessible even to first-year students.

  19. Mass Balance Analysis of Contaminated Heparin Product

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenling; Xiao, Zhongping; Masuko, Sayaka; Zhao, Wenjing; Sterner, Eric; Bansal, Vinod; Fareed, Jawed; Dordick, Jonathan; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of a recalled contaminated lot of heparin (HP) sodium injection United States Pharmacopeial (USP) was undertaken in response to the controversy regarding the exact nature of the contaminant involved in the HP crisis. A mass balance analysis of the formulated drug product was performed. After freeze-drying, a 1 ml vial for injection afforded 54.8 ± 0.3 mg of dry solids. The excipients, sodium chloride and residual benzyl alcohol, accounted for 11.4 ± 0.5 mg and 0.9 ± 0.5 mg, respectively. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) represented 41.5 ± 1.0 mg, corresponding to 75.7 wt% of dry mass. Exhaustive treatment of API with specific enzymes, heparin lyases and/or chondroitin lyases was used to close mass balance. HP represented 30.5 ± 0.5 mg, corresponding to 73.5 wt% of the API. Dermatan sulfate (DS) impurity represented 1.7 ± 0.3 mg, corresponding to 4.1 wt% of the API. Contaminant, 9.3 ± 0.1 mg corresponding to 22.4 wt% of API, was found in the contaminated formulated drug product. The recovery of contaminant was close to quantitative (95.6-100 wt%). A single contaminant was unambiguously identified as oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS). PMID:20850409

  20. MBA, mass balance area user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-09-22

    This document presents the Mass BAlance (MBA) database system user instructions which explain how to record the encapsulation activity from the K Basin as it is being performed on the computer, activity associated with keeping the work area safe from going critical, and administrative functions associated with the system. This document includes the user instructions, which also serve as the software requirements specification for the system implemented on the microcomputer. This includes suggested user keystrokes, examples of screens displayed by the system, and reports generated by the system. It shows how the system is organized, via menus and screens. It does not explain system design nor provide programmer instructions. MBA was written to equip the personnel performing K-Basin encapsulation tasks with a conservative estimate of accumulated mass during the processing of canisters into and out of the chute, primarily in the K-East basin.

  1. Mass balances for underground coal gasification in steeply dipping beds

    SciTech Connect

    Lindeman, R.; Ahner, P.; Davis, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    Two different mass balances were used during the recent underground coal gasification tests conducted in steeply dipping coal beds at Rawlins, Wyoming. The combination of both mass balances proved extremely useful in interpreting the test results. One mass balance which assumed char could be formed underground required the solution of 3 simultaneous equations. The assumption of no char decouples the 3 equations in the other mass balance. Both mass balance results are compared to the test data to provide an interpretation of the underground process.

  2. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shfaqat A; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A; Wahr, John; Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Kjær, Kurt H

    2015-04-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance and to ice discharge, which are forced by internal or external (atmospheric/oceanic/basal) fluctuations. Regardless of the measurement method, observations over the last two decades show an increase in ice loss rate, associated with speeding up of glaciers and enhanced melting. However, both ice discharge and melt-induced mass losses exhibit rapid short-term fluctuations that, when extrapolated into the future, could yield erroneous long-term trends. In this paper we review the GrIS mass loss over more than a century by combining satellite altimetry, airborne altimetry, interferometry, aerial photographs and gravimetry data sets together with modelling studies. We revisit the mass loss of different sectors and show that they manifest quite different sensitivities to atmospheric and oceanic forcing. In addition, we discuss recent progress in constructing coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere models required to project realistic future sea-level changes.

  3. Balancing The Books - A Statistical Theory of Mass Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kane, J. P.

    Mass budgets, without a theory, are an empirical "method of choice" in the environ- mental sciences. There is however a difficulty. Budgets are usually presented as perfect balances with no closing error, justified by the law of mass conservation. Neverthe- less, there is always a closing error! Declaring the error, e, simply raises the question of the acceptability of the budget. To answer this we need a reference quantity against which to compare e. This quantity can only be provided by theory and must also be a mathematical function of all the budget data. Two statistical techniques provide the theory and the function: (1) Probability sampling for estimating the terms of the bud- get, the closing error and their sampling precision, and (2) Hypothesis testing that any particular value of e is due to chance alone. Both techniques must satisfy R.A. Fisher's "vital requirement that the actual and physical conduct of experiments should govern the statistical procedure of their interpretation". Probability sampling is any sampling procedure governed by sets of random numbers. Applying the calculus of probability to the chosen procedure, delivers the theoretical probability distribution of the terms of the budget, and the closing error e', on the assumption that there are no systematic errors of measurement or missing fluxes. In the simplest case, we may use simple or stratified random sampling, defined on a spatio- temporal sampling frame, which covers the duration of the budget on the space-filling object. When the number of independent measurements (samples) is statistically large, the central limit theorem implies that e' is normally distributed. The assumption that there are no systematic errors of measurement, sampling bias, or missing fluxes, and the law of mass conservation, together imply that E(e') = 0. Unbiased, independent sampling of the terms of the budget makes the variance Var(e') equal to the sum of the sampling variances of the individual terms in the

  4. Reduction of Uncertainty in Water Mass Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trask, J. C.; Fogg, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    Two novel approaches that reduce uncertainty in lake, watershed, and basin water balances are presented and applied in the Lake Tahoe basin. A novel residual redistribution technique reduces random error in water balance component estimates. This technique is well-grounded in standard statistical methods, and is simple, robust, and of broad general applicability. Reduction of random error in areal precipitation and streamflow estimates is validated using independent data. Remaining random error variance in areal precipitation estimates is markedly small. Reduction of random error in annual areal precipitation estimates resolves watershed 'memory' of precipitation from prior water-years (WY). The signal of precipitation from prior WY is often obscured in random error noise associated with established methods for estimating inter-annual variations in total annual areal precipitation. It is shown that the relationship of eastern Tahoe sub-basin annual streamflow to precipitation from prior WY can be inferred in the absence of gage data, using noise-filtered precipitation data and whole basin water yield data. Limited stream gage records from eastern Tahoe sub-basins confirm the inferred dependence on precipitation from prior WY, and thus that watershed moisture storage changes are significant to the water mass balance over time scales of several years. Such long time scales for storage change effects on streamflow are typically not accurately accounted for in watershed hydrology models. Inter-annual changes in watershed moisture storage are readily distinguishable from inter-annual variations in watershed ET. Application of a novel precipitation-decorrelation technique yields an estimate of Lake Tahoe mean annual evaporation with associated rigorously quantified uncertainty. This novel estimate agrees closely with several independent standard measurement-based evaporation estimates; and has uncertainty comparable to that of a high-quality energy balance approach. The

  5. Positive mass balance of the Ross Ice Streams, West Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Joughin, Ian; Tulaczyk, Slawek

    2002-01-18

    We have used ice-flow velocity measurements from synthetic aperture radar to reassess the mass balance of the Ross Ice Streams, West Antarctica. We find strong evidence for ice-sheet growth (+26.8 gigatons per year), in contrast to earlier estimates indicating a mass deficit (-20.9 gigatons per year). Average thickening is equal to approximately 25% of the accumulation rate, with most of this growth occurring on Ice Stream C. Whillans Ice Stream, which was thought to have a significantly negative mass balance, is close to balance, reflecting its continuing slowdown. The overall positive mass balance may signal an end to the Holocene retreat of these ice streams.

  6. A nitrogen mass balance for California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liptzin, D.; Dahlgren, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Human activities have greatly altered the global nitrogen cycle and these changes are apparent in water quality, air quality, ecosystem and human health. However, the relative magnitude of the sources of new reactive nitrogen and the fate of this nitrogen is not well established. Further, the biogeochemical aspects of the nitrogen cycle are often studied in isolation from the economic and social implications of all the transformations of nitrogen. The California Nitrogen Assessment is an interdisciplinary project whose aim is evaluating the current state of nitrogen science, practice, and policy in the state of California. Because of the close proximity of large population centers, highly productive and diverse agricultural lands and significant acreage of undeveloped land, California is a particularly interesting place for this analysis. One component of this assessment is developing a mass balance of nitrogen as well as identifying gaps in knowledge and quantifying uncertainty. The main inputs of new reactive nitrogen to the state are 1) synthetic nitrogen fertilizer, 2) biological nitrogen fixation, and 3) atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Permanent losses of nitrogen include 1) gaseous losses (N2, N2O, NHx, NOy), 2) riverine discharge, 3) wastewater discharge to the ocean, and 4) net groundwater recharge. A final term is the balance of food, feed, and fiber to support the human and animal populations. The largest input of new reactive nitrogen to California is nitrogen fertilizer, but both nitrogen fixation and atmospheric deposition contribute significantly. Non-fertilizer uses, such as the production of nylon and polyurethane, constitutes about 5% of the synthetic N synthesized production. The total nitrogen fixation in California is roughly equivalent on the 400,000 ha of alfalfa and the approximately 40 million ha of natural lands. In addition, even with highly productive agricultural lands, the large population of livestock, in particular dairy cows

  7. Calcium mass balances in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Dialysate calcium (Ca) concentration should be viewed as part of the integrated therapeutic regimen to control renal osteodystrophy and maintain normal mineral metabolism. The goals of this integrated approach are to keep the patient in a mild positive Ca mass balance (CaMB), to maintain normal serum Ca levels, to control plasma parathyroid hormone values to two to three times above normal levels, and to avoid soft-tissue calcifications. Thus, a correct net CaMB during hemodialysis (HD) is crucial in the treatment of renal osteodystrophy. Very few studies have been published which measured CaMBs in bicarbonate HD. This is mainly due to the technical difficulties in achieving an accurate measurement of CaMBs owing to the need for the collection of the total spent dialysate or of a proportional aliquot of it. Whereas no doubt exists about the fact that an inlet dialysate Ca concentration (CaD) of 1.75 mmol/L leads to a positive CaMB, more controversial is this issue, when dealing with a CaD of 1.50 mmol/L and, even more, when dealing with a CaD of 1.25 mmol/L. Another important issue is the appropriate CaD in long-hour slow-flow nocturnal HD. Finally, which CaMB should we study: ionized CaMB or total CaMB? This issue is largely discussed in the review.

  8. Calcium Mass Balances in Bicarbonate Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Dialysate calcium (Ca) concentration should be viewed as part of the integrated therapeutic regimen to control renal osteodystrophy and maintain normal mineral metabolism. The goals of this integrated approach are to keep the patient in a mild positive Ca mass balance (CaMB), to maintain normal serum Ca levels, to control plasma parathyroid hormone values to two to three times above normal levels, and to avoid soft-tissue calcifications. Thus, a correct net CaMB during hemodialysis (HD) is crucial in the treatment of renal osteodystrophy. Very few studies have been published which measured CaMBs in bicarbonate HD. This is mainly due to the technical difficulties in achieving an accurate measurement of CaMBs owing to the need for the collection of the total spent dialysate or of a proportional aliquot of it. Whereas no doubt exists about the fact that an inlet dialysate Ca concentration (CaD) of 1.75 mmol/L leads to a positive CaMB, more controversial is this issue, when dealing with a CaD of 1.50 mmol/L and, even more, when dealing with a CaD of 1.25 mmol/L. Another important issue is the appropriate CaD in long-hour slow-flow nocturnal HD. Finally, which CaMB should we study: ionized CaMB or total CaMB? This issue is largely discussed in the review. PMID:21603102

  9. Estimates of Regional Equilibrium Line Altitudes and Net Mass Balance from MODIS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, J. M.; Menounos, B.; Moore, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Glacier mass balance is a key variable used to assess the health of glaciers and ice sheets. Estimates of glacier mass balance are required to model the dynamic response of glaciers and ice sheets to climate change, estimate sea-level contribution from surface melt, and document the response of glaciers to climate forcing. Annually resolved estimates of regional mass balance for mountain ranges is often inferred from a sparse network of ground-based measurements of mass balance for individual glaciers. Given that net mass balance is highly correlated with the annual equilibrium line altitude (ELA), we develop an automated approach to estimate the ELA, and by inference net mass balance, on large glaciers and icefields using MODIS 250 m imagery (MOD02QKM). We discriminate areas of bare ice and snow/firn using the product of MODIS' red (0.620 - 0.670 μ m) and near infrared (0.841 - 0.876 μ m) bands. To assess the skill in estimating glacier ELAs, we compare ELAs derived from (1) manual delineation and (2) unsupervised classification of the band product to ground-based observations of ELA and net mass balance at seven long term mass-balance monitoring sites in western North America (Gulkana, Wolverine, Lemon Creek, Taku, Place, Peyto, and South Cascade). Spatial and temporal variations in MODIS-derived ELAs provide an opportunity to validate regional mass-balance models, estimate surface melt contributions to sea-level rise, and examine the cryospheric response to climate change.

  10. Mass balance and exergy analysis of a fast pyrolysis system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mass balance closure and exergetic efficiency is evaluated for a bench scale fast pyrolysis system. The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has developed this system for processing energy crops and agricultural residues for bio-oil (pyrolysis oil or pyrolysis liquids) production. Mass balance c...

  11. Evapotranspiration: Mass balance measurements compared with flux estimation methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evapotranspiration (ET) may be measured by mass balance methods and estimated by flux sensing methods. The mass balance methods are typically restricted in terms of the area that can be represented (e.g., surface area of weighing lysimeter (LYS) or equivalent representative area of neutron probe (NP...

  12. Surface Mass Balance of the Columbia Glacier, Alaska, 1978 and 2010 Balance Years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neel, Shad

    2012-01-01

    Although Columbia Glacier is one of the largest sources of glacier mass loss in Alaska, surface mass balance measurements are sparse, with only a single data set available from 1978. The dearth of surface mass-balance data prohibits partitioning of the total mass losses between dynamics and surface forcing; however, the accurate inclusion of calving glaciers into predictive models requires both dynamic and climatic forcing of total mass balance. During 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey collected surface balance data at several locations distributed over the surface of Columbia Glacier to estimate the glacier-wide annual balance for balance year 2010 using the 2007 area-altitude distribution. This report also summarizes data collected in 1978, calculates the 1978 annual surface balance, and uses these observations to constrain the 2010 values, particularly the shape of the balance profile. Both years exhibit balances indicative of near-equilibrium surface mass-balance conditions, and demonstrate the importance of dynamic processes during the rapid retreat.

  13. Assessing streamflow sensitivity to variations in glacier mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neel, Shad; Hood, Eran; Arendt, Anthony; Sass, Louis

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate relationships among seasonal and annual glacier mass balances, glacier runoff and streamflow in two glacierized basins in different climate settings. We use long-term glacier mass balance and streamflow datasets from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Benchmark Glacier Program to compare and contrast glacier-streamflow interactions in a maritime climate (Wolverine Glacier) with those in a continental climate (Gulkana Glacier). Our overall goal is to improve our understanding of how glacier mass balance processes impact streamflow, ultimately improving our conceptual understanding of the future evolution of glacier runoff in continental and maritime climates.

  14. How many stakes are required to measure the mass balance of a glacier?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fountain, A.G.; Vecchia, A.

    1999-01-01

    Glacier mass balance is estimated for South Cascade Glacier and Maclure Glacier using a one-dimensional regression of mass balance with altitude as an alternative to the traditional approach of contouring mass balance values. One attractive feature of regression is that it can be applied to sparse data sets where contouring is not possible and can provide an objective error of the resulting estimate. Regression methods yielded mass balance values equivalent to contouring methods. The effect of the number of mass balance measurements on the final value for the glacier showed that sample sizes as small as five stakes provided reasonable estimates, although the error estimates were greater than for larger sample sizes. Different spatial patterns of measurement locations showed no appreciable influence on the final value as long as different surface altitudes were intermittently sampled over the altitude range of the glacier. Two different regression equations were examined, a quadratic, and a piecewise linear spline, and comparison of results showed little sensitivity to the type of equation. These results point to the dominant effect of the gradient of mass balance with altitude of alpine glaciers compared to transverse variations. The number of mass balance measurements required to determine the glacier balance appears to be scale invariant for small glaciers and five to ten stakes are sufficient.

  15. Juneau Icefield Mass Balance Program 1946-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelto, M.; Kavanaugh, J.; McNeil, C.

    2013-05-01

    The mass balance records of the Lemon Creek Glacier and Taku Glacier observed by the Juneau Icefield Research Program are the longest continuous glacier mass balance data sets in North America. On Taku Glacier annual mass balance averaged +0.40 m a-1 from 1946-1985 and -0.08 m a-1 from 1986-2011. The recent mass balance decline has resulted in the cessation of the long term thickening of the glacier. Mean annual mass balance on Lemon Creek Glacier has declined from -0.30 m a-1 for the 1953-1985 period to -0.60 m a-1 during the 1986-2011 period. The overall mass balance change is -26.6 m water equivalent, a 29 m of ice thinning over the 55 yr. Probing transects above the transient snow line (TSL) indicate a consistent balance gradient from year to year. Observations of the rate of summer TSL rise on Lemon Creek and Taku Glacier indicate a comparatively consistent rate of 3.8 to 4.1 m d-1. The relationship between TSL on Lemon Creek and Taku Glacier to other Juneau Icefield glaciers, Norris, Mendenhall, Herbert, and Eagle, is strong with correlations exceeding 0.82 in all cases. doi:10.5065/D6NZ85N3

  16. Identifying Dynamically Induced Variability in Glacier Mass-Balance Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, J. E.; Siler, N.; Koutnik, M. R.; Roe, G.

    2015-12-01

    Glacier mass-balance (i.e., accumulation vs. ablation) provides a direct indicator of a glacier's relationship with climate. However, mass-balance records contain noise due to internal climate variability (i.e., from stochastic fluctuations in large-scale atmospheric circulation), which can obscure or bias trends in these relatively short timeseries. This presents a challenge in correctly identifying the signature of anthropogenic change. "Dynamical adjustment" is a technique that identifies patterns of variance shared between a climate timeseries of interest (e.g., mass-balance) and independent "predictor" variables associated with large-scale circulation (e.g., Sea Level Pressure, SLP, or Sea Surface Temperature, SST). Extracting the component of variance due to internal variability leaves a residual timeseries for which trends can more confidently be attributed to external forcing. We apply dynamical adjustments based on Partial Least Squares Regression to mass-balance records from South Cascade Glacier in Washington State and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers in Alaska, independently analyzing seasonal balance records to assess the dynamical influences on winter accumulation and summer ablation. Seasonally averaged North Pacific SLP and SST fields perform comparably as predictor variables, explaining 50-60% of the variance in winter balance and 30-40% of variance in summer balance for South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers. Gulkana glacier, located further inland than the other two glaciers, is less closely linked to North Pacific climate variability, with the predictors explaining roughly one-third of variance in its winter and summer balance. We analyze the significance of linear trends in the raw and adjusted mass-balance records, and find that for all three glaciers, a) summer balance shows a statistically significant downward trend that is not substantially altered when dynamically induced variability is removed, and b) winter balance shows no statistically

  17. Comparative glacio-climatological analysis of mass balance variability along the geographical margin of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehoczky, Annamária; Kern, Zoltán; Pongrácz, Rita

    2014-05-01

    Glacio-climatological studies recognise glacier mass balance changes as high-confident climate indicators. The climatic sensitivity of a glacier does not simply depend on regional climate variability but also influenced via large- and mesoscale atmospheric circulation patterns. This study focuses on recent changes in the mass balance using records from three border regions of Europe, and investigates the relationships between the seasonal mass balance components, regional climatic conditions, and distant atmospheric forcing. Since glaciers in different macro-climatological conditions (i.e., mid-latitudes or high-latitudes, dry-continental or maritime regions) may present strongly diverse mass balance characteristics, the three analysed regions were selected from different glacierised macroregions (using the database of the World Glacier Monitoring Service). These regions belong to the Caucasus Mountains (Central Europe macroregion), the Polar Ural (Northern Asia macroregion), and Svalbard (Arctic Islands macroregion). The analysis focuses on winter, summer, and annual mass balance series of eight glaciers. The climatic variables (atmospheric pressure, air temperature, precipitation) and indices of teleconnection patterns (e.g., North Atlantic Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation) are used from the gridded databases of the University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Center for Environmental Prediction. However, the period and length of available mass balance data in the selected regions vary greatly (the first full record is in 1958, Polar Ural; the last is in 2010, Caucasus Mountains), a comparative analysis can be carried out for the period of 1968-1981. Since glaciers from different regions respond to large- and mesoscale climatic forcings differently, and because the mass balance of glaciers within a region often co-vary, our specific objectives are (i) to examine the variability and the

  18. Munition Mass Properties Measurement Procedures Using a Spin Balance Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-09

    determines the mass properties, balance configurations, and balance specification(s) of live or inert munitions; namely, the Center of Gravity (CG...the Moment of Inertia (MOI), and the Product of Inertia (POI). 15. SUBJECT TERMS Center of Gravity Product of Inertia Moment of Inertia Spin...B-1 C. CENTER OF GRAVITY ...................................................... C-1 D

  19. Mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Wingham, D J; Shepherd, A; Muir, A; Marshall, G J

    2006-07-15

    The Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise has long been uncertain. While regional variability in ice dynamics has been revealed, a picture of mass changes throughout the continental ice sheet is lacking. Here, we use satellite radar altimetry to measure the elevation change of 72% of the grounded ice sheet during the period 1992-2003. Depending on the density of the snow giving rise to the observed elevation fluctuations, the ice sheet mass trend falls in the range -5-+85Gtyr-1. We find that data from climate model reanalyses are not able to characterise the contemporary snowfall fluctuation with useful accuracy and our best estimate of the overall mass trend-growth of 27+/-29Gtyr-1-is based on an assessment of the expected snowfall variability. Mass gains from accumulating snow, particularly on the Antarctic Peninsula and within East Antarctica, exceed the ice dynamic mass loss from West Antarctica. The result exacerbates the difficulty of explaining twentieth century sea-level rise.

  20. Variability of glacier mass balances in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Roy A.; Meier, Mark F.

    The mass balance of glaciers depends on precipitation and temperature in winter and on temperature and insolation in summer. For glaciers in western North America these meteorological variables are influenced by the large-scale atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific Ocean. This study addresses the relation between mass balance at six glaciers in western North America and large-scale atmospheric effects at interannual time scales, and longer-term cumulative changes in glacier volume. Mass balance data for these glaciers spans 20 years (1966-1985). Similarities and differences between the mass balances are brought out by using empirical orthogonal function analysis. Almost 80 percent of the variance is contained in the first 2 empirical modes (61%, 17%). The first mode shows a negative correlation between the balances for the Alaska glaciers and for the other glaciers. This relation is due to the steering effect of the Aleutian/Gulf of Alaska Low; when it is dry in Washington it is usually wet in Alaska and vice versa. The first mode also shows that dry conditions in Washington and wet conditions in Alaska are associated with a positive Pacific North America (PNA) index and usually with El Niño/Southern Oscillation events. In addition, there was a several-year bias introduced after the 1977 ENSO event such that the mass balances in Washington were more negative, and those in Alaska were more positive than before. Over decade time scales the cumulative mass balances show an inverse relation between balance at the coastal Alaska glacier and at the southern glaciers. However, the overall trends display a different relation with negative trends at all glaciers except two in the coastal region of British Columbia and Alaska.

  1. Teaching Mass and Energy Balances by Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbey, Nese; De Jesús Vega, Marisel; Zalluhoglu, Fulya Sudur

    2017-01-01

    A general tank-draining problem was used as an experimental project in two undergraduate-level chemical engineering courses. The project aimed to illustrate the critical nature of experimentation in addition to use of mass and energy conservation principles in developing mathematical models that correctly describes a system. The students designed…

  2. A Simple Watt Balance for the Absolute Determination of Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Terry; Quinn, Lucas; Davis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A watt balance is an electromechanical device that allows a mass to be determined in terms of measurable electrical and mechanical quantities, themselves traceable to the fundamental constants of physics. International plans are well advanced to redefine the unit of mass, the kilogram, in terms of a fixed numerical value for the Planck constant. A…

  3. A Simple Watt Balance for the Absolute Determination of Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Terry; Quinn, Lucas; Davis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A watt balance is an electromechanical device that allows a mass to be determined in terms of measurable electrical and mechanical quantities, themselves traceable to the fundamental constants of physics. International plans are well advanced to redefine the unit of mass, the kilogram, in terms of a fixed numerical value for the Planck constant. A…

  4. Regional scale modelling of Svalbard glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, I. C.; Rye, C.; Arnold, N. S.; Kohler, J.

    2011-12-01

    Spatially distributed mass balance models are valuable tools for exploring the detailed spatial and temporal responses of mountain glaciers to climate forcing. The last two decades have seen their application become increasingly widespread. However, up to now, spatially distributed models have mainly been applied to individual "benchmark" glaciers that are easily accessible and have a wealth of observational data available. Meanwhile, the full potential for large-area distributed applications has remained under-exploited. As a result, very little is currently known about the intricacies of glacier-climate interactions over entire mountain ranges. This work aims to address this gap in the literature by developing, calibrating and validating a high resolution (200 m) spatially distributed surface mass balance model for Northwest Spitsbergen, Svalbard. In order to achieve this aim, two key advances have been required. First, the application of mass balance models to large regions has previously been inhibited by the inadequate spatial coverage of in situ meteorological observations. In order to overcome this problem, the spatially distributed surface mass balance model is forced using the ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis (1958- 2002). The ERA-40 data are validated against in situ meteorological records from Northwest Spitsbergen and corrected for systematic bias. Second, while progress has been made in the development of increasingly sophisticated glacier mass balance models, little attention has been given to their predictive uncertainty. The present study will address this limitation through the novel application of a calibration technique previously not employed in glacial modelling - multi-objective optimisation - designed to identify multiple optimal parameter sets that fit different characteristics of the real-world observations, thereby enabling an assessment of the uncertainty associated with predictions. The modelling approach is validated against geodetic mass

  5. Seasonal Mass Balance and Balance Gradients from Airborne Laser Altimetry, Columbia River Basin, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelto, B. M.; Menounos, B.

    2016-12-01

    Reliable estimates of glacier mass balance allow insight into the meteorological drivers of glacier change, but financial and logistical limitations restrict field-based measurements to only a small number of the world's glaciers. In southwestern Canada, frequent cloud cover and small glacier size also preclude the measurement of seasonal mass change from space. Here, we describe our ongoing research program employing airborne laser altimetry to estimate surface mass balance for six alpine glaciers in the Columbia Basin. Our surveyed glaciers define a north-south transect through the basin and collectively represent 188 km2 of glaciated terrain (about 10% of the basin's glacierized area). Our LiDAR surveys acquire altimetry with a typical sampling density of 2-3 returns per m2 and with a vertical accuracy of 0.15-0.20 m. Since 2014, we have aligned these airborne surveys to coincide with our field-based, mass balance program that collects measurements at the end of the accumulation and ablation seasons. Geodetic and field-based estimates of seasonal to annual mass balance show remarkable agreement, to within 0.1-0.2 m water equivalent (< 10%). The agreement is greatest for glaciers where we have the densest field-based measurements, implying that our traditional mass balance program could be error prone since it may not capture the spatial variability of surface accumulation and melt at a suitably high sampling density. Our repeated LiDAR surveys, in conjunction with measurements of surface ice velocity and thickness, have also allowed us develop a method to estimate surface mass balance gradients. This method can improve regional estimates of mass change and, ultimately, lead to superior forecasts of glacier loss for the twenty-first century.

  6. 50 years of mass balance observations at Vernagtferner, Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Ludwig; Mayer, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The determination and monitoring of the seasonal and annual glacier mass balances of Vernagtferner, Austria, started in 1964 by the Commission of Glaciology, Bavarian Academy of Sciences. Detailed and continuous climate- and runoff measurements complement this mass balance series since 1974. Vernagtferner attracted the attention of scientists since the beginning of the 17th century due to its rapid advances and the resulting glacier lake outburst floods in the Ötztal valley. This is one reason for the first photogrammetric survey in 1889, which was followed by frequent topographic surveys, adding up to more than ten digital elevation models of the glacier until today. By including the known maximum glacier extent at the end of the Little Ice Age in 1845, the geodetic glacier volume balances cover a time span of almost 170 years. The 50 years of glacier mass balance and 40 years of water balance in the drainage basin are therefore embedded in a considerably longer period of glacier evolution, allowing an interpretation within an extended frame of climatology and ice dynamics. The direct mass balance observations cover not only the period of alpine-wide strong glacier mass loss since the beginning of the 1990s. The data also contain the last period of glacier advances between 1970 and 1990. The combination of the observed surface mass exchange and the determined periodic volumetric changes allows a detailed analysis of the dynamic reaction of the glacier over the period of half a century. The accompanying meteorological observations are the basis for relating these reactions to the climatic changes during this period. Vernagtferner is therefore one of the few glaciers in the world, where a very detailed glacier-climate reaction was observed for many decades and can be realistically reconstructed back to the end of the Little Ice Age.

  7. Juneau Icefield Mass Balance Program 1946-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelto, M.; Kavanaugh, J.; McNeil, C.

    2013-11-01

    The annual surface mass balance records of the Lemon Creek Glacier and Taku Glacier observed by the Juneau Icefield Research Program are the longest continuous glacier annual mass balance data sets in North America. Annual surface mass balance (Ba) measured on Taku Glacier averaged +0.40 m a-1 from 1946-1985, and -0.08 m a-1 from 1986-2011. The recent annual mass balance decline has resulted in the cessation of the long-term thickening of the glacier. Mean Ba on Lemon Creek Glacier has declined from -0.30 m a-1 for the 1953-1985 period to -0.60 m a-1 during the 1986-2011 period. The cumulative change in annual surface mass balance is -26.6 m water equivalent, a 29 m of ice thinning over the 55 yr. Snow-pit measurements spanning the accumulation zone, and probing transects above the transient snow line (TSL) on Taku Glacier, indicate a consistent surface mass balance gradient from year to year. Observations of the rate of TSL rise on Lemon Creek Glacier and Taku Glacier indicate a comparatively consistent migration rate of 3.8 to 4.1 m d-1. The relationship between TSL on Lemon Creek Glacier and Taku Glacier to other Juneau Icefield glaciers (Norris, Mendenhall, Herbert, and Eagle) is strong, with correlations exceeding 0.82 in all cases. doi:10.5065/D6NZ85N3

  8. Radionuclide mass balance for the TMI-2 accident: data-base system and preliminary mass balance. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M I; Davis, R J; Strahl, J F; Arcieri, W C; Tonkay, D W

    1983-04-01

    After the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2), on March 28, 1979, GEND stated its intention to support an effort to determine, as accurately as possible, the current mass balances of significant radiological toxic species. GEND gave two primary reasons for support this effort: (1) such exercises guarantee completeness of the studies, and (2) mass balance determinations ensure that all important sinks and attentuation mechanisms have been identified. The primary objective of the studies conducted by NUS Corporation was to support the goals of the GEND planners and to continue the mass balance effort by generating a preliminary accounting of key radioactive species following the TMI-2 accident. As a result of these studies, secondary objectives, namely a computerized data base and recommendations, have been achieved to support future work in this area.

  9. Greenland ice mass balance estimation from GRACE: a reexamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, L.; Eicker, A.; Kusche, J.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years there have been several studies using GRACE satellite data to investigate the melting of the Greenland ice sheet. The results of the different investigations vary considerably. In this study, monthly GRACE solutions calculated by the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation of the University Bonn (ITG-GRACE2010 solutions) are evaluated to obtain a new estimate for the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet including the corresponding error estimate. One of the major issues when dealing with the mass variations in Greenland is the leakage problem. In the contribution at hand, leakage-in effects caused by external mass variations are adressed by estimating a regional adjustment of the applied ocean model. The approach assumes time-invariant spatial patterns of ocean mass variations to be correctly reproduced in the circulation model but their time-variable amplitudes to be improvable. New amplitudes are determined by comparison to the GRACE observations in a least-squares estimation process. Leakage-out can be compensated for by rescaling the ice mass changes with a constant factor. In addition to a simple technique, a more complex approach developed by Baur et al. (2009) is applied in this investigation to obtain the rescaling factor. Besides mass variations in the area of Greenland also mass variations in an extended area around Greenland are taken into account in this procedure. A further important aspect is the problem of signal separation, especially separating the ice mass variations from mass trends caused by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). A comparison of different GIA models shows why this is one of the major sources of uncertainty when trying to determine the Greenland ice mass balance. The possibility to improve GIA modelling using geodetic data is therefore another aspect which will be discussed on the poster. The results of the new ice mass balance estimate from GRACE will be compared to the results obtained from alternative

  10. Divergent Surface Mass Balances of Neighboring glaciers: Reanalysis of Taku and Lemon Creek glaciers, Alaska: 1946-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, C.; O'Neel, S.; Loso, M.; Pelto, M. S.; Sass, L.; Candela, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Despite high mass loss rates of Alaskan glaciers, altimetric observations suggest strong glacier-to-glacier variability of cumulative surface mass balance, which prevents the detection of climate-forced spatial patterns of glacier change. This observation motivated us to reanalyze surface mass balance records from the neighboring Taku and Lemon Creek glaciers. Our reanalysis spans 1946—present and synthesizes all known field and remotely sensed data. Our results include end-of season temperature-index model corrections forced with regional radiosonde data and geodetic calibration using digital elevation models derived from historic stereo imagery and synthetic aperture radar. The results allowed us to examine the role climate and basin hypsometry play in surface mass balance. They suggest no significant differences from previous glaciological estimates and that the 63-year average, annual mass balance is +0.24 m w.e. a-1 at Taku Glacier and -0.56 m w.e. a-1 for Lemon Creek Glacier. Despite the divergence between the long-term trends, the annual mass balance anomaly time series demonstrate coherent inter-annual variability and are not statistically different. Their similarities suggest that climate forcing is unlikely driving the different trends. To explore the role that glacier hypsometry plays in the time-series, we applied the steeper mass balance profile from Lemon Creek Glacier to the Taku hypsometry and vice-versa. Surface mass balances exhibit high sensitivities to the mass balance profile perturbation, but the divergent nature of the cumulative mass balance series was preserved. This simple experiment suggests that hypsometry and the mass balance profile are both important drivers for systematic differences that accumulate in cumulative surface mass balance rates. Thus, accounting for glacier-to-glacier variability of mass balance profiles, as well as hypsometry, would improve our understanding of climate-forced Alaskan glacier change.

  11. Effects of body mass index on plantar pressure and balance.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Se-Won; Park, Woong-Sik; Lee, Jeong-Woo

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] To suggest physiotherapy programs and to determine foot stability based on the results of plantar pressure and spontaneity balance in the normal group and in the obesity group according to the body mass index (BMI). [Subjects and Methods] The plantar pressure and balance of 20 females college students in their 20s were measured according to their BMI. BMI was measured by using BMS 330. The peak plantar pressure was measured in a static position in the forefoot and hind-foot areas. To study balance, the spontaneity balance of each foot was measured on both stable and unstable surfaces. [Results] In terms of plantar pressure, no significant change was observed in the forefoot and hind-foot peak pressure. In terms of spontaneity balance, no significant difference in foot position interaction was observed on both stable and unstable surfaces, while a significant difference was observed in the foot position between the groups. [Conclusion] The index of hind-foot spontaneity balance was low, particularly in the obesity group. This meant significant hind-foot swaying. The forefoot body weight support percentage increased to reinforce the reduced spontaneity balance index.

  12. Effects of body mass index on plantar pressure and balance

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Se-Won; Park, Woong-Sik; Lee, Jeong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To suggest physiotherapy programs and to determine foot stability based on the results of plantar pressure and spontaneity balance in the normal group and in the obesity group according to the body mass index (BMI). [Subjects and Methods] The plantar pressure and balance of 20 females college students in their 20s were measured according to their BMI. BMI was measured by using BMS 330. The peak plantar pressure was measured in a static position in the forefoot and hind-foot areas. To study balance, the spontaneity balance of each foot was measured on both stable and unstable surfaces. [Results] In terms of plantar pressure, no significant change was observed in the forefoot and hind-foot peak pressure. In terms of spontaneity balance, no significant difference in foot position interaction was observed on both stable and unstable surfaces, while a significant difference was observed in the foot position between the groups. [Conclusion] The index of hind-foot spontaneity balance was low, particularly in the obesity group. This meant significant hind-foot swaying. The forefoot body weight support percentage increased to reinforce the reduced spontaneity balance index. PMID:27942127

  13. CHEMICAL MASS BALANCE MODEL: EPA-CMB8.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) method has been a popular approach for receptor modeling of ambient air pollutants for over two decades. For the past few years the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) and Office of Air Quality Plannin...

  14. Mass balance approaches to understanding evolution of dripwater chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, I. J.; Baker, A.; Andersen, M. S.; Treble, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Forward and inverse modelling of dripwater chemistry is a fast-developing area in speleothem science. Such approaches can incorporate theoretical, parameterized or observed relationships between forcing factors and water composition, but at the heart is mass balance: a fundamental principle that provides important constraints. Mass balance has been used in speleothem studies to trace the evolution of dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon isotopes from soil to cave, and to characterize the existence and quantification of prior calcite precipitation (PCP) based on ratios of Mg and Sr to Ca. PCP effects can dominate slow drips, whereas fast drips are more likely to show a residual variability linked to soil-biomass processes. A possible configuration of a more complete mass balance model is illustrated in the figure. Even in humid temperate climates, evapotranspiration can be 50% of total atmospheric precipitation leading to substantially raised salt contents and there can be significant exchange with biomass. In more arid settings, at least seasonal soil storage of salts is likely. Golgotha Cave in SW Australia is in a Mediterranean climate with a strong summer soil moisture deficit. The land surface is forested leading to large ion fluxes related to vegetation. There are also periodic disturbances related to fire. Mass balance approaches have been applied to an 8-year monitoring record. Inter-annual trends of elements coprecipitated in speleothems from fast drips are predicted to be dominated by biomass effects.

  15. OVERVIEW AND STATUS OF LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE MODELLING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    With most of the data available from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project field program, the modeling efforts have begun in earnest. The tributary and atmospheric load estimates are or will be completed soon, so realistic simulations for calibration are beginning. A Quality Ass...

  16. CHEMICAL MASS BALANCE MODEL: EPA-CMB8.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) method has been a popular approach for receptor modeling of ambient air pollutants for over two decades. For the past few years the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) and Office of Air Quality Plannin...

  17. Balance of dark and luminous mass in rotating galaxies.

    PubMed

    McGaugh, Stacy S

    2005-10-21

    A fine balance between dark and baryonic mass is observed in spiral galaxies. As the contribution of the baryons to the total rotation velocity increases, the contribution of the dark matter decreases by a compensating amount. This poses a fine-tuning problem for galaxy formation models, and may point to new physics for dark matter particles or even a modification of gravity.

  18. LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE STUDY: PROGNOSIS FOR PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model nutrients, atrazine, PCBs, trans-nonachlor, and mercury to gain a better understanding of the transport and fate of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the environmental decision-making ...

  19. MODELLING SEDIMENT TRANSPORT FOR THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sediment transport model is one component of the overall ensemble of models being developed for the Lake Michigan Mass Balance. The SEDZL model is being applied to simulate the fine-grained sediment transport in Lake Michigan for the 1982-1983 and 1994-1995 periods. Model perf...

  20. The climatic mass balance of Svalbard glaciers: a 10-year simulation with a coupled atmosphere-glacier mass balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aas, Kjetil S.; Dunse, Thorben; Collier, Emily; Schuler, Thomas V.; Berntsen, Terje K.; Kohler, Jack; Luks, Bartłomiej

    2016-05-01

    In this study we simulate the climatic mass balance of Svalbard glaciers with a coupled atmosphere-glacier model with 3 km grid spacing, from September 2003 to September 2013. We find a mean specific net mass balance of -257 mm w.e. yr-1, corresponding to a mean annual mass loss of about 8.7 Gt, with large interannual variability. Our results are compared with a comprehensive set of mass balance, meteorological, and satellite measurements. Model temperature biases of 0.19 and -1.9 °C are found at two glacier automatic weather station sites. Simulated climatic mass balance is mostly within about 100 mm w.e. yr-1 of stake measurements, and simulated winter accumulation at the Austfonna ice cap shows mean absolute errors of 47 and 67 mm w.e. yr-1 when compared to radar-derived values for the selected years 2004 and 2006. Comparison of modeled surface height changes from 2003 to 2008, and satellite altimetry reveals good agreement in both mean values and regional differences. The largest deviations from observations are found for winter accumulation at Hansbreen (up to around 1000 mm w.e. yr-1), a site where sub-grid topography and wind redistribution of snow are important factors. Comparison with simulations using 9 km grid spacing reveal considerable differences on regional and local scales. In addition, 3 km grid spacing allows for a much more detailed comparison with observations than what is possible with 9 km grid spacing. Further decreasing the grid spacing to 1 km appears to be less significant, although in general precipitation amounts increase with resolution. Altogether, the model compares well with observations and offers possibilities for studying glacier climatic mass balance on Svalbard both historically as well as based on climate projections.

  1. Method of Manufacturing a Micromechanical Oscillating Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, David A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A micromechanical oscillating mass balance and method adapted for measuring minute quantities of material deposited at a selected location, such as during a vapor deposition process. The invention comprises a vibratory composite beam which includes a dielectric layer sandwiched between two conductive layers.The beam is positioned in a magnetic field. An alternating current passes through one conductive layers, the beam oscillates, inducing an output current in the second conductive layer, which is analyzed to determine the resonant frequency of the beam. As material is deposited on the beam, the mass of the beam increases and the resonant frequency of the beam shifts, and the mass added is determined.

  2. A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R; A, Geruo; Barletta, Valentina R; Bentley, Mike J; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Briggs, Kate H; Bromwich, David H; Forsberg, René; Galin, Natalia; Horwath, Martin; Jacobs, Stan; Joughin, Ian; King, Matt A; Lenaerts, Jan T M; Li, Jilu; Ligtenberg, Stefan R M; Luckman, Adrian; Luthcke, Scott B; McMillan, Malcolm; Meister, Rakia; Milne, Glenn; Mouginot, Jeremie; Muir, Alan; Nicolas, Julien P; Paden, John; Payne, Antony J; Pritchard, Hamish; Rignot, Eric; Rott, Helmut; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Scambos, Ted A; Scheuchl, Bernd; Schrama, Ernst J O; Smith, Ben; Sundal, Aud V; van Angelen, Jan H; van de Berg, Willem J; van den Broeke, Michiel R; Vaughan, David G; Velicogna, Isabella; Wahr, John; Whitehouse, Pippa L; Wingham, Duncan J; Yi, Donghui; Young, Duncan; Zwally, H Jay

    2012-11-30

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods--especially in Greenland and West Antarctica--and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 ± 49, +14 ± 43, -65 ± 26, and -20 ± 14 gigatonnes year(-1), respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 ± 0.20 millimeter year(-1) to the rate of global sea-level rise.

  3. A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R.; A, Geruo; Barletta, Valentina R.; Bentley, Mike J.; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Briggs, Kate H.; Bromwich, David H.; Forsberg, René; Galin, Natalia; Horwath, Martin; Jacobs, Stan; Joughin, Ian; King, Matt A.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Li, Jilu; Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.; Luckman, Adrian; Luthcke, Scott B.; McMillan, Malcolm; Meister, Rakia; Milne, Glenn; Mouginot, Jeremie; Muir, Alan; Nicolas, Julien P.; Paden, John; Payne, Antony J.; Pritchard, Hamish; Rignot, Eric; Rott, Helmut; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Scambos, Ted A.; Scheuchl, Bernd; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; Smith, Ben; Sundal, Aud V.; van Angelen, Jan H.; van de Berg, Willem J.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Vaughan, David G.; Velicogna, Isabella; Wahr, John; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Wingham, Duncan J.; Yi, Donghui; Young, Duncan; Zwally, H. Jay

    2012-11-01

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth’s polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods—especially in Greenland and West Antarctica—and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 ± 49, +14 ± 43, -65 ± 26, and -20 ± 14 gigatonnes year-1, respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 ± 0.20 millimeter year-1 to the rate of global sea-level rise.

  4. A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R.; Geruo, A.; Barletta, Valentia R.; Bentley, Mike J.; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Briggs, Kate H.; Bromwich, David H.; Forsberg, Rene; Galin, Natalia; hide

    2012-01-01

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods-especially in Greenland and West Antarctica-and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 plus or minus 49, +14 plus or minus 43, -65 plus or minus 26, and -20 plus or minus 14 gigatonnes year(sup -1), respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 plus or minus 0.20 millimeter year(sup -1) to the rate of global sea-level rise.

  5. Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite and Airborne Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, K.; Shepherd, A.; McMillan, M.; Gilbert, L.; Muir, A.; Flament, T.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial environmental changes are occurring over the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), including rapid climate warming, ice shelf collapse, and accelerated glacier thinning and flow. These changes have major implications for the regional ice sheet mass balance and for global sea level rise. Geodetic estimates of the AP Ice Sheet (APIS) mass balance indicate that it lost mass at an average rate of 20 ± 14 Gt/yr over the period 1992-2011 (Shepherd et al., 2012); this equates to approximately 25% of all Antarctic ice sheet mass losses, despite occupying only 4% of the continental area. Past estimates of mass change have either been at a low resolution (gravimetry) or have had sparse spatial sampling (the mass budget method and altimetry). As a consequence, regional patterns of mass change are not well captured which makes understanding the causes difficult. Through the combination of ERS-2, EnviSat, ICESat, ATM and CryoSat-2 altimetry datasets we have succeeded in generating a mass change time series for the APIS with sufficient resolution and spatial sampling to capture regional signals. Here we will present our methods for the optimisation, combination and interpolation of the elevation change measurements, and their conversion to mass change. Furthermore, the observed spatial and temporal trends in APIS mass balance will be examined and the possible causes explored.

  6. Mass balance investigation of alpine glaciers through LANDSAT TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayr, Klaus J.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees in the Austrian Alps was undertaken and compared with meteorological data of nearby weather stations. Alpine or valley glaciers can be used to study regional and worldwide climate changes. Alpine glaciers respond relatively fast to a warming or cooling trend in temperature through an advance or a retreat of the terminus. In addition, the mass balance of the glacier is being affected. Last year two TM scenes of the Pasterze Glacier of Aug. 1984 and Aug. 1986 were used to study the difference in reflectance. This year, in addition to the scenes from last year, one MSS scene of Aug. 1976 and a TM scene from 1988 were examined for both the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees. During the overpass of the LANDSAT on 6 Aug. 1988 ground truthing on the Pasterze Glacier was undertaken. The results indicate that there was considerable more reflectance in 1976 and 1984 than in 1986 and 1988. The climatological data of the weather stations Sonnblick and Rudolfshuette were examined and compared with the results found through the LANDSAT data. There were relations between the meteorological and LANDSAT data: the average temperature over the last 100 years showed an increase of .4 C, the snowfall was declining during the same time period but the overall precipitation did not reveal any significant change over the same period. With the use of an interactive image analysis computer, the LANDSAT scenes were studied. The terminus of the Pasterze Glacier retreated 348 m and the terminus of the Kleines Fleisskees 121 m since 1965. This approach using LANDSAT MSS and TM digital data in conjunction with meteorological data can be effectively used to monitor regional and worldwide climate changes.

  7. Mass balance investigation of alpine glaciers through LANDSAT TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayr, Klaus J.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees in the Austrian Alps was undertaken and compared with meteorological data of nearby weather stations. Alpine or valley glaciers can be used to study regional and worldwide climate changes. Alpine glaciers respond relatively fast to a warming or cooling trend in temperature through an advance or a retreat of the terminus. In addition, the mass balance of the glacier is being affected. Last year two TM scenes of the Pasterze Glacier of Aug. 1984 and Aug. 1986 were used to study the difference in reflectance. This year, in addition to the scenes from last year, one MSS scene of Aug. 1976 and a TM scene from 1988 were examined for both the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees. During the overpass of the LANDSAT on 6 Aug. 1988 ground truthing on the Pasterze Glacier was undertaken. The results indicate that there was considerable more reflectance in 1976 and 1984 than in 1986 and 1988. The climatological data of the weather stations Sonnblick and Rudolfshuette were examined and compared with the results found through the LANDSAT data. There were relations between the meteorological and LANDSAT data: the average temperature over the last 100 years showed an increase of .4 C, the snowfall was declining during the same time period but the overall precipitation did not reveal any significant change over the same period. With the use of an interactive image analysis computer, the LANDSAT scenes were studied. The terminus of the Pasterze Glacier retreated 348 m and the terminus of the Kleines Fleisskees 121 m since 1965. This approach using LANDSAT MSS and TM digital data in conjunction with meteorological data can be effectively used to monitor regional and worldwide climate changes.

  8. Glacier and Ice Sheet Crevasses: Lifecycles and Mass Balance Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, W. T.

    2015-12-01

    Glacier and ice sheet mass balance is determined by climatic surface balance, which is the difference between snowfall and runoff, and ice dynamics, which governs iceberg discharge. Crevasses can influence both the climatic surface balance and ice dynamic components of glacier and ice sheet mass balance. We review the observational evidence for the notion of mutually exclusive "low" and "high" advection crevasse lifecycles. In the low advection lifecycle, crevasses are interpreted to be in highly transient equilibrium with their local stress fields at all times. In the high advection lifecycle, crevasses are interpreted to be out of equilibrium with their local stress fields during advection between upstream opening and downstream closing areas. We suggest that the notion of a high advection lifecycle, typically inferred for transverse crevasses in apparent non-equilibrium with their local stress field, generally results from failure to account for the rotation in crevasse geometry introduced by appreciable local tearing (mode III fracture). We therefore favor the notion that crevasses are always in equilibrium with their local stress field. We also review the observational evidence and theoretical support for ten distinct crevasse-related processes that influence surface mass balance and ice dynamics (see Figure). One of these processes is a crevasse-rheology-deformation feedback, whereby an increase in crevasse extent contributes to enhanced cryo-hydrologic warming and hydraulic weakening, which in turn contributes to an increase in deformational velocity and further increase in crevasse extent. We discuss this potential feedback in the context of recent observations at Jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland, as well as in the content of the end-member scenario of thermal-viscous collapse of the Greenland ice sheet.

  9. Increased snow contribution to Arctic sea ice mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granskog, M. A.; Rösel, A.; Provost, C.; Sennechael, N.; Dodd, P. A.; Martma, T.; Leng, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally snow on Arctic sea ice has not been considered as a significant component of the mass balance of the (solid) ice cover, due to the low snow to ice thickness ratio. In contrast, snow contributes significantly to the mass balance of Antarctic sea ice due to thinner seasonal ice and thicker snow cover, similar to Arctic marginal seas, such as the Baltic and Okhotsk seas. Recent observations from the N-ICE2015 campaign, conducted in January-June 2015 in the rather thin ice pack north of Svalbard, imply that with a thinning of the Arctic ice pack, snow turned into ice, either as refrozen snow meltwater at the ice surface (superimposed ice) or snow-ice formed due to flooding of the bottom of the snow pack by seawater, can contribute significantly to Arctic sea ice mass balance. We provide evidence from both sea ice cores (from textural and isotope data) and ice mass balance buoys (IMB) with thermistor chains using a heating cycle to detect different media (air/snow/ice/water). Observations indicate that snow-ice or superimposed ice has formed in fall/winter likely when the ice was thin due to summer melt and heavy snow fall early in the freezing season. IMB records from winter/spring showcase the rapid formation of snow-ice due to flooding by seawater after re-adjustment of isostacy in response to: i) deformation events (likely related to changes in floe size) and ii) bottom ice melt over warmer Atlantic waters north of Svalbard. In summary the new data indicate that snow-ice or superimposed can contribute up to about 30% of total sea ice thickness, unprecedented from any earlier records in the high-Arctic.

  10. Hypsometric control on glacier mass balance sensitivity in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, D.; Sass, L.; Arendt, A. A.; O'Neel, S.; Kienholz, C.; Larsen, C.; Burgess, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    Mass loss from glaciers in Alaska is dominated by strongly negative surface balances, particularly on small, continental glaciers but can be highly variable from glacier to glacier. Glacier hypsometry can exert significant control on mass balance sensitivity, particularly if the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is in a broad area of low surface slope. In this study, we explore the spatial variability in glacier response to future climate forcings on the basis of hypsometry. We first derive mass balance sensitivities (30-70 m ELA / 1° C and 40-90 m ELA / 50% decrease in snow accumulation) from the ~50-year USGS Benchmark glaciers mass balance record. We subsequently assess mean climate fields in 2090-2100 derived from the IPCC AR5/CMIP5 RCP 6.0 5-model mean. Over glaciers in Alaska, we find 2-4° C warming and 10-20% increase in precipitation relative to 2006-2015, but a corresponding 0-50% decrease in snow accumulation due to rising temperatures. We assess changes in accumulation area ratios (AAR) to a rising ELA using binned individual glacier hypsometries. For an ELA increase of 150 m, the mean statewide AAR drops by 0.45, representing a 70% reduction in accumulation area on an individual glacier basis. Small, interior glaciers are the primary drivers of this reduction and for nearly 25% of all glaciers, the new ELA exceeds the glacier's maximum elevation, portending eventual loss. The loss of small glaciers, particularly in the drier interior of Alaska will significantly modify streamflow properties (flashy hydrographs, earlier and reduced peak flows, increased interannual variability, warmer temperatures) with poorly understood downstream ecosystem and oceanographic impacts.

  11. Milligram mass metrology using an electrostatic force balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Gordon A.; Stirling, Julian; Kramar, John A.; Moses, Alexander; Abbott, Patrick; Steiner, Richard; Koffman, Andrew; Pratt, Jon R.; Kubarych, Zeina J.

    2016-10-01

    Although mass is typically defined within the International System of Units (SI) at the kilogram level, the pending SI redefinition provides an opportunity to realize mass at any scale using electrical metrology. We propose the use of an electromechanical balance to realize mass at the milligram level using SI electrical units. An integrated concentric-cylinder vacuum gap capacitor allows us to leverage the highly precise references available for capacitance, voltage and length to generate an electrostatic reference force. Weighing experiments performed on 1 mg and 20 mg artifacts show the same or lower uncertainty than similar experiments performed by subdividing the kilogram. The measurement is currently limited by the stability of the materials that compose the mass artifacts and the changes in adsorbed layers on the artifact surfaces as they are transferred from vacuum to air.

  12. Glaciological measurements and mass balances from Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA, years 2005-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Adam M.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Peitzsch, Erich H.; Reardon, Blase A.; Harper, Joel T.

    2017-01-01

    Glacier mass balance measurements help to provide an understanding of the behavior of glaciers and their response to local and regional climate. In 2005 the United States Geological Survey established a surface mass balance monitoring program on Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA. This project is the first quantitative study of mass changes of a glacier in the US northern Rocky Mountains and continues to the present. The following paper describes the methods used during the first 11 years of measurements and reports the associated results. From 2005 to 2015, Sperry Glacier had a cumulative mean mass balance loss of 4.37 m w.e. (water equivalent). The mean winter, summer, and annual glacier-wide mass balances were 2.92, -3.41, and -0.40 m w.e. yr-1 respectively. We derive these cumulative and mean results from an expansive data set of snow depth, snow density, and ablation measurements taken at selected points on the glacier. These data allow for the determination of mass balance point values and a time series of seasonal and annual glacier-wide mass balances for all 11 measurement years. We also provide measurements of glacier extent and accumulation areas for select years. All data have been submitted to the World Glacier Monitoring Service and are available at doi:10.5904/wgms-fog-2016-08. This foundational work provides valuable insight about Sperry Glacier and supplies additional data to the worldwide record of glaciers measured using the glaciological method. Future research will focus on the processes that control accumulation and ablation patterns across the glacier. Also we plan to examine the uncertainties related to our methods and eventually quantify a more robust estimate of error associated with our results.

  13. Glaciological measurements and mass balances from Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA, years 2005–2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Adam; Fagre, Daniel B.; Peitzsch, Erich H.; Reardon, Blase A.; Harper, Joel T.

    2017-01-01

    Glacier mass balance measurements help to provide an understanding of the behavior of glaciers and their response to local and regional climate. In 2005 the United States Geological Survey established a surface mass balance monitoring program on Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA. This project is the first quantitative study of mass changes of a glacier in the US northern Rocky Mountains and continues to the present. The following paper describes the methods used during the first 11 years of measurements and reports the associated results. From 2005 to 2015, Sperry Glacier had a cumulative mean mass balance loss of 4.37 m w.e. (water equivalent). The mean winter, summer, and annual glacier-wide mass balances were 2.92, −3.41, and −0.40 m w.e. yr−1 respectively. We derive these cumulative and mean results from an expansive data set of snow depth, snow density, and ablation measurements taken at selected points on the glacier. These data allow for the determination of mass balance point values and a time series of seasonal and annual glacier-wide mass balances for all 11 measurement years. We also provide measurements of glacier extent and accumulation areas for select years. All data have been submitted to the World Glacier Monitoring Service and are available at doi:10.5904/wgms-fog-2016-08. This foundational work provides valuable insight about Sperry Glacier and supplies additional data to the worldwide record of glaciers measured using the glaciological method. Future research will focus on the processes that control accumulation and ablation patterns across the glacier. Also we plan to examine the uncertainties related to our methods and eventually quantify a more robust estimate of error associated with our results.

  14. The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, A.; Ivins, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in the mass of ice stored in Antarctica and Greenland are of considerable societal importance. The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-Comparison Exercise (IMBIE) is a joint-initiative of ESA and NASA aimed at producing a single estimate of the global sea level contribution to polar ice sheet losses. Within IMBIE, estimates of ice sheet mass balance are developed from a variety of satellite geodetic techniques using a common spatial and temporal reference frame and a common appreciation of the contributions due to external signals. The project brings together the laboratories and space agencies that have been instrumental in developing independent estimates of ice sheet mass balance to date. In its first phase, IMBIE involved 27 science teams, and delivered a first community assessment of ice sheet mass imbalance to replace 40 individual estimates. The project established that (i) there is good agreement between the three main satellite-based techniques for estimating ice sheet mass balance, (ii) combining satellite data sets leads to significant improvement in certainty, (iii) the polar ice sheets contributed 11 ± 4 mm to global sea levels between 1992 and 2012, and (iv) that combined ice losses from Antarctica and Greenland have increased over time, rising from 10% of the global trend in the early 1990's to 30% in the late 2000's. Demand for an updated assessment has grown, and there are now new satellite missions, new geophysical corrections, new techniques, and new teams producing data. The period of overlap between independent satellite techniques has increased from 5 to 12 years, and the full period of satellite data over which an assessment can be performed has increased from 19 to 40 years. It is also clear that multiple satellite techniques are required to confidently separate mass changes associated with snowfall and ice dynamical imbalance - information that is of critical importance for climate modelling. This presentation outlines the approach

  15. Impact of the Montreal Protocol on Antarctic Surface Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previdi, M. J.; Polvani, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the impact of the Montreal Protocol, and associated phase-out of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), on the surface mass balance (SMB) of Antarctica, using simulations from the Community Earth System Model-Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM-WACCM). The effect of ODSs on Antarctic SMB is first established by contrasting two sets of WACCM integrations (each with 6 ensemble members) for the period 1956-2005: one set that includes the full suite of natural and anthropogenic forcings, and a second set identical to the first but with atmospheric concentrations of ODSs held fixed at year 1955 levels. We find that holding ODSs fixed reduces the simulated increase in Antarctic SMB by nearly 60% in the ensemble mean, due to a suppression of Antarctic-mean warming. Having established this SMB impact of ODSs, we next examine three sets of future WACCM integrations (each with 3 ensemble members) for the period 2006-2065. The first two of these are the CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 integrations that include decreases in ODSs due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol, and increases in other well-mixed greenhouse gases such as CO2. The third set of future integrations represents a hypothetical "world avoided" scenario in which the Montreal Protocol is assumed to have never been implemented, resulting in drastic increases in ODSs during the next several decades. In the world avoided, the simulated increase in Antarctic SMB is substantially larger than the other two scenarios, exceeding the SMB increases occurring under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 by a factor of 3.7 and 1.9, respectively. The implications of this for future global sea-level rise will be discussed.

  16. Mass Balance and Structure of the Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, I.; Padman, L.; Chu, W.; Fricker, H. A.; Becker, M. K.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Millstein, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in ice shelf mass balance is key to the long term stability of the Antarctic ice sheet. Although the most extensive thinning occurs on the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica, recent studies indicate that many other ice shelves are also experiencing widespread thinning. Here, we focus on the Ross Ice Self. An 18-year record (1994-2012) of satellite radar altimetry shows elevation change 1 m/yr across the shelf. Significant variability in ice shelf height on interannual time scales makes it difficult to detect a long-term mass budget trend of this ice shelf. Variability of radar signal penetration into the ice-shelf snow and firn layers further complicates assessment of mass changes. In this work, we investigate the Ross Ice Shelf mass balance using aerogeophyical data from the ROSETTA-ICE IcePod and NASA's Operation IceBridge. ROSSETTA-ICE is an aerogeophysical program planned to survey the ice shelf at a 10 km spacing over the course of two field seasons-2015 and 2016. This NSF/Moore Foundation supported multi-University collaborative project is designed to provide an integrated view of the ice shelf and the underlying bathymetry using the IcePod system including its ice-penetrating radars, laser altimetry, gravity meters and magnetometers. We present preliminary results from our ongoing efforts of quantifying the mass balance of the ice shelf using IcePod ice penetrating radars and laser altimetry along with satellite data. We will use internal layers traced from ice penetrating radars to outline the structure of the ice shelf. Airborne laser altimetry measurements from this IcePod survey and IceBridge will be used to study the elevation change of the ice shelf. Spatial variations of thickness of the internal layers in the first few meters of the ice shelf, particularly near the grounding line, will indicate the impact of wind-blown snow coming from the continent onto the ice shelf. In order to infer conditions of melt and freeze-on at the ice

  17. Selenium mass balance in the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W.P.; Naftz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    A mass balance for Se in the south arm of the Great Salt Lake was developed for September 2006 to August 2007 of monitoring for Se loads and removal flows. The combined removal flows (sedimentation and volatilization) totaled to a geometric mean value of 2079??kg Se/yr, with the estimated low value being 1255??kg Se/yr, and an estimated high value of 3143??kg Se/yr at the 68% confidence level. The total (particulates + dissolved) loads (via runoff) were about 1560??kg Se/yr, for which the error is expected to be ?? 15% for the measured loads. Comparison of volatilization to sedimentation flux demonstrates that volatilization rather than sedimentation is likely the major mechanism of selenium removal from the Great Salt Lake. The measured loss flows balance (within the range of uncertainties), and possibly surpass, the measured annual loads. Concentration histories were modeled using a simple mass balance, which indicated that no significant change in Se concentration was expected during the period of study. Surprisingly, the measured total Se concentration increased during the period of the study, indicating that the removal processes operate at their low estimated rates, and/or there are unmeasured selenium loads entering the lake. The selenium concentration trajectories were compared to those of other trace metals to assess the significance of selenium concentration trends. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Biogeochemical mass balance approach to reservoir acidification by atmospheric deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, K.N.

    1982-01-01

    The alkalinity balance of Bickford Reservoir and its forested watershed in central Massachusetts was investigated in an experimental field study. The mass balance of all major inorganic acids and bases in the reservoir and on the watershed was determined from six months of continuous surface water monitoring and periodic chemical analyses. The results confirm that Bickford Reservoir is poorly buffered with alkalinities between 0 and 25 ..mu..eq/liter (pH 5.4-6.4). Reservoir alkalinities and pH showed significant seasonal trends. Mass balance results demonstrated that groundwater inflow to the reservoir was less than 20% of the total hydrologic flux, but groundwater alkalinity more than neutralized the mineral acidity of direct precipitation. Nitric acid neutralization through phytoplankton uptake resulted in a small, but important, internal alkalinity production. The most important neutralizing process on the watershed was aluminosilicate weathering, but nitric acid consumption by the vegetation was nearly quantitative. Nitrogen transformations produced 150 eq/ha/yr of alkalinity, while mineral weathering generated 960 eq/ha/yr. The data further suggest that neutralization of sulfuric acid by sulfate reduction may be occuring on certain subwatersheds. 74 references, 12 figures, 15 tables.

  19. Mass balance of cadmium in two contrasting oak forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sevel, Lisbeth; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    The mass balance of cadmium in forest ecosystems was parameterized. Soil pH is the main variable controlling retention of Cd in the soil and, hence, determines whether Cd is leached from the system or not. However the extent to which root uptake and biomass accumulation of Cd, or the return of Cd to the soil as internal cycling, influences forest Cd balances is unknown. Also unknown is whether these fluxes might counteract Cd leaching from forest soils. The objective of this study was to compare the Cd mass balance of two contrasting oak forest ecosystems, one grown on an acid sandy soil and one on a near-neutral loamy soil. The oak forest ecosystem grown on the acid sandy soil was a source of Cd with an input flux from deposition of 64 microg Cd m(-2) yr(-1), which was only 30% of the output flux with seepage water (175 microg Cd m(-2) yr(-1)). The oak forest ecosystem on the loamy soil acted as a sink for Cd, with an input flux (92 microg Cd m(-2) yr(-1)) 8.4 times higher than the output flux (11 microg Cd m(-2) yr(-1)). Biomass accumulation was 46% and 74% of root uptake on the sandy and the loamy soil, respectively, indicating that biomass accumulation, if harvested, will reduce the net return to the soil and hence the potential amount of Cd prone for leaching.

  20. Selenium mass balance in the Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ximena; Johnson, William P; Naftz, David L

    2009-03-15

    A mass balance for Se in the south arm of the Great Salt Lake was developed for September 2006 to August 2007 of monitoring for Se loads and removal flows. The combined removal flows (sedimentation and volatilization) totaled to a geometric mean value of 2079 kg Se/yr, with the estimated low value being 1255 kg Se/yr, and an estimated high value of 3143 kg Se/yr at the 68% confidence level. The total (particulates+dissolved) loads (via runoff) were about 1560 kg Se/yr, for which the error is expected to be +/-15% for the measured loads. Comparison of volatilization to sedimentation flux demonstrates that volatilization rather than sedimentation is likely the major mechanism of selenium removal from the Great Salt Lake. The measured loss flows balance (within the range of uncertainties), and possibly surpass, the measured annual loads. Concentration histories were modeled using a simple mass balance, which indicated that no significant change in Se concentration was expected during the period of study. Surprisingly, the measured total Se concentration increased during the period of the study, indicating that the removal processes operate at their low estimated rates, and/or there are unmeasured selenium loads entering the lake. The selenium concentration trajectories were compared to those of other trace metals to assess the significance of selenium concentration trends.

  1. An Examination of the Balanced School Day Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehrle, Trisha; Fox, Susan; Hoskin, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    Principals are always looking for effective ways to enhance the learning environment. The Balanced School Day (BSD) schedule, an alternative to the traditional schedule, reframes the school day by eliminating recess and lunch breaks and providing two scheduled nutrition breaks. Advantages and disadvantages to the schedule have been anecdotally…

  2. Dioxin mass balance in a municipal waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Abad, E; Adrados, M A; Caixach, J; Fabrellas, B; Rivera, J

    2000-01-01

    A dioxin mass balance in an Spanish municipal waste incinerator (MWI) is presented. Input and output inventories from two sampling collection episodes including the analysis of PCDD/PCDF in urban solid waste (USW), stack gas emissions, fly ash and slag are reported. In one collection the levels of USW were around 8 pg I-TEQ/g and non-thermal destruction was observed overall. In the other collection the levels of USW were higher (around 64 pg I-TEQ/g) and the dioxin balance revealed a thermal destruction. Analysis of the different waste materials (textile, organic, plastic, wood and paper) was performed separately and the textile samples presented the highest levels.

  3. Mass and element balance in food waste composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijun; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    The mass and element balance in municipal solid waste composting facilities that handle food waste was studied. Material samples from the facilities were analyzed for moisture, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and the oxygen consumption of compost and bulking material was determined. Three different processes were used in the food waste composting facilities: standard in-vessel composting, drying, and stand-alone composting machine. Satisfactory results were obtained for the input/output ash balance despite several assumptions made concerning the quantities involved. The carbon/nitrogen ratio and oxygen consumption values for compost derived only from food waste were estimated by excluding the contribution of the bulking material remaining in the compost product. These estimates seemed to be suitable indices for the biological stability of compost because there was a good correlation between them, and because the values seemed logical given the operating conditions at the facilities. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy and mass balances related to climate change and remediation.

    PubMed

    Lueking, Angela D; Cole, Milton W

    2017-07-15

    The goal of this paper is to provide a forum for a broad interdisciplinary group of scientists and engineers to see how concepts of climate change, energy, and carbon remediation strategies are related to quite basic scientific principles. A secondary goal is to show relationships between general concepts in traditional science and engineering fields and to show how they are relevant to broader environmental concepts. This paper revisits Fourier's early mathematical derivation of the average temperature of the Earth from first principles, i.e. an energy balance common to chemical and environmental engineering. The work then uses the concept of mass balance to critically discuss various carbon remediation strategies. The work is of interest to traditional scientists/engineers, but also it is potentially useful as an educational document in advanced undergraduate science or engineering classes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Mass Balance of Mars' South Polar Residual Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Peter C.; Calvin, Wendy; Haberle, Robert; James, Philip; Lee, Steven

    2014-11-01

    The mass balance of the CO2 ice south polar residual cap (SPRC) of Mars is thought to be an indicator of Mars’ climate stability. Observations of eroding pits combined with year-to-year fluctuations in extent of the cap have inspired attempts to detect any changes in Mars’ atmospheric pressure that might arise from loss or gain of cap CO2 ice [1,2 ]. The results have been ambiguous. Attempts to use imaging to measure mass balance have been limited in scope, and yielded large negative values, -20 to -34 km3/Mars yr [3,4]. We have greatly expanded the mapping of types of features in the SPRC, their erosion rates, and detection of limitations on the vertical changes in the RSPC over the last 7 - 22 Mars yr. We find a net volume balance of -7 to +3 km3 /Mars yr ( ~-0.05% to +0.02% of atmospheric mass/Mars yr). Combined with the apparent relative ages of different units within the cap, the climate fluctuations over the last 20 Mars years probably are different from changes recorded in thick unit deposition probably >100 Mars yr before present. Modest changes of dust loading for extended periods of time (Mars decades) might be important in the different ice depositional regimes. [1] Haberle, R.M., Kahre, M.A. (2010) Int. Jour. Mars Science and Exploration 5, 68-75. [2] Haberle, R.M. et al. (2013) AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A1906. [3] Malin, M.C., et al. (2001) Science 294, 2146-2148. [4] Blackburn, D.G., et al. (2010) Planetary and Space Science 58, 780-791.

  6. Sustainability of algae derived biodiesel: a mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Pfromm, Peter H; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Nelson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous chemical engineering mass balance/unit operations approach is applied here to bio-diesel from algae mass culture. An equivalent of 50,000,000 gallons per year (0.006002 m3/s) of petroleum-based Number 2 fuel oil (US, diesel for compression-ignition engines, about 0.1% of annual US consumption) from oleaginous algae is the target. Methyl algaeate and ethyl algaeate diesel can according to this analysis conceptually be produced largely in a technologically sustainable way albeit at a lower available diesel yield. About 11 square miles of algae ponds would be needed with optimistic assumptions of 50 g biomass yield per day and m2 pond area. CO2 to foster algae growth should be supplied from a sustainable source such as a biomass-based ethanol production. Reliance on fossil-based CO2 from power plants or fertilizer production renders algae diesel non-sustainable in the long term.

  7. Energy and Mass Balance At Gran Campo Nevado, Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Kilian, R.; Casassa, G.

    The Gran Campo Nevado (GCN) Ice Cap on Peninsula Muñoz Gamero, Chile, is lo- cated in the southernmost part of the Patagonian Andes at 53S. It comprises an ice cap and numerous outlet glaciers which mostly end in proglacial lakes at sea level. The total ice covered area sums up to approximately 250 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonian Icefield and the Street of Magallan. Its almost unique location in the zone of the all-year westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the westwind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. Mean annual temperature of approximately +5C at sea level and high precipitation of about 8.000 mm per year lead to an extreme turn-over of ice mass from the accumulation area of the GCN Ice Cap to the ablation areas of the outlet glaciers. Since October 1999 an automated weather station (AWS) is run continuously in the area at Bahia Bahamondes for monitoring climate parameters. From February to April 2000 an additional AWS was operated on Glaciar Lengua a small outlet glacier of GCN to the north-west. Ablation has been measured at stakes during the same pe- riod. The aim of this study, was to obtain point energy and mass balance on Glaciar Lengua. The work was conducted as part of the international and interdisciplinary working group SGran Campo NevadoT and supported by the German Research Foun- & cedil;dation (DFG). Energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulas and calibrated to the measured ablation. It turns out, that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance. Since high cloud cover rates prevail, air tempera- ture is the key factor for the energy balance of the glacier. Despite high rain fall rates, energy input from rain fall is of only minor importance to the overall energy balance. From the energy balance computed, it was possible to derive summer-time degree-day factors for Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby

  8. Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005–2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed. PMID:23528236

  9. A Novel and Low Cost Sea Ice Mass Balance Buoy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Keith; Meldrum, David; Wilkinson, Jeremy; Maksym, Ted; Beckers, Justin; Haas, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Understanding of sea ice mass balance processes requires continuous monitoring of the seasonal evolution of ice thickness. While autonomous ice mass balance buoys (IMBs) deployed over the past two decades have contributed to our understanding of ice growth and decay processes, deployment has been limited, in part, by the cost of such systems. Routine, basin-wide monitoring of the ice cover is realistically achievable through a network of reliable and affordable autonomous instrumentation. We describe the development of a novel autonomous platform and sensor that replaces the traditional thermistors string for monitoring temperature profiles in the ice and snow using a chain of inexpensive digital temperature chip sensors linked by a single-wire data bus. By incorporating a heating element on each sensor, the instrument is capable of resolving material interfaces (e.g. air-snow and ice-ocean boundaries) even under isothermal conditions. The instrument is small, low-cost and easy to deploy. Field and laboratory tests of the sensor chain demonstrate that the technology can reliably resolve material boundaries to within a few centimetres and over 50 scientific deployments have been made with encouraging results. The discrimination between different media based on sensor thermal response is weak in some deployments and efforts to optimise the measurement continue.

  10. Mass balance assessment for mercury in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gao, N.; Armatas, N.G.; Shanley, J.B.; Kamman, N.C.; Miller, E.K.; Keeler, G.J.; Scherbatskoy, T.; Holsen, T.M.; Young, T.; McIlroy, L.; Drake, S.; Olsen, Bill; Cady, C.

    2006-01-01

    A mass balance model for mercury in Lake Champlain was developed in an effort to understand the sources, inventories, concentrations, and effects of mercury (Hg) contamination in the lake ecosystem. To construct the mass balance model, air, water, and sediment were sampled as a part of this project and other research/monitoring projects in the Lake Champlain Basin. This project produced a STELLA-based computer model and quantitative apportionments of the principal input and output pathways of Hg for each of 13 segments in the lake. The model Hg concentrations in the lake were consistent with measured concentrations. Specifically, the modeling identified surface water inflows as the largest direct contributor of Hg into the lake. Direct wet deposition to the lake was the second largest source of Hg followed by direct dry deposition. Volatilization and sedimentation losses were identified as the two major removal mechanisms. This study significantly improves previous estimates of the relative importance of Hg input pathways and of wet and dry deposition fluxes of Hg into Lake Champlain. It also provides new estimates of volatilization fluxes across different lake segments and sedimentation loss in the lake. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  11. Mass balance of dioxins over a cement kiln in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yeqing; Chen, Tong; Zhang, Jiang; Meng, Weijie; Yan, Mi; Wang, Huanzhong; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-02-01

    The cement production process may be a potential source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, "dioxins"), due to the widespread distribution of dioxins and potential precursors in raw materials and to conditions favorable to de novo formation in the heat exchangers. The emission, gas/particle distribution, and mass balance of PCDD/Fs were investigated at a typical state-of-the-art Chinese cement kiln. Input and output inventories were established for three campaigns, including two in normal operation and one while co-processing refuse derived fuel (RDF). Sample analysis from stack gas, cement kiln dust, raw meal, fly dust and clinker for the analysis of PCDD/Fs were reported in this study. Dioxins were also analyzed at various positions in the pre-heater, presenting an adsorption-desorption circulation process of PCDD/Fs. The over-all dioxin mass balance was negative, indicating that this cement kiln is not a source but a sink process of dioxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating nutrient loadings using chemical mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Jain, C K; Singhal, D C; Sharma, M K

    2007-11-01

    The river Hindon is one of the important tributaries of river Yamuna in western Uttar Pradesh (India) and carries pollution loads from various municipal and industrial units and surrounding agricultural areas. The main sources of pollution in the river include municipal wastes from Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar and Ghaziabad urban areas and industrial effluents of sugar, pulp and paper, distilleries and other miscellaneous industries through tributaries as well as direct inputs. In this paper, chemical mass balance approach has been used to assess the contribution from non-point sources of pollution to the river. The river system has been divided into three stretches depending on the land use pattern. The contribution of point sources in the upper and lower stretches are 95 and 81% respectively of the total flow of the river while there is no point source input in the middle stretch. Mass balance calculations indicate that contribution of nitrate and phosphate from non-point sources amounts to 15.5 and 6.9% in the upper stretch and 13.1 and 16.6% in the lower stretch respectively. Observed differences in the load along the river may be attributed to uncharacterized sources of pollution due to agricultural activities, remobilization from or entrainment of contaminated bottom sediments, ground water contribution or a combination of these sources.

  13. A new fitting algorithm for petrological mass-balance problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczynski, M. J.; Olive, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    We present a suite of Matlab programs aimed at solving linear mixing problems in which a composition must be assessed as the convex linear mixture of a known number of end-member compositions (e.g. mineral and melt chemical analyses). It is often the case in experimental petrology that answering a geochemical question involves solving a system of linear mass balance equations. Calculating phase proportions of an experimental charge to determine crystallinity, comparing experimental phase compositions to determine melting/crystallization reactions, and checking the chemical closure of your experimental system, are a few examples of these types of problems. Our algorithm is based on the isometric log-ratio transform, a one-to-one mapping between composition space and an "unconstrained" Euclidian space where standard inversion procedures apply (Egozcue et al., 2003). It allows the consideration of a-priori knowledge and uncertainties on endmember and bulk compositions as well as phase-proportions. It offers an improvement over the typical compositional space algorithms (Bryan et al., 1969; Albarede and Provost, 1977). We have tested our method on synthetic and experimental data sets, and report the uncertainties on phase abundances. The algorithm presented here eliminates the common problem of calculated phase proportions that produce negative mass balance coefficients. In addition, we show how the method can be used to estimate uncertainties on the coefficients for experimentally determined mantle melting equations.

  14. Surface mass balance of Greenland mountain glaciers and ice caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. J.; Box, J. E.; Bromwich, D. H.; Wahr, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps contribute roughly half of eustatic sea-level rise. Greenland has thousands of small mountain glaciers and several ice caps > 1000 sq. km that have not been included in previous mass balance calculations. To include small glaciers and ice caps in our study, we use Polar WRF, a next-generation regional climate data assimilation model is run at grid resolution less than 10 km. WRF provides surface mass balance data at sufficiently high resolution to resolve not only the narrow ice sheet ablation zone, but provides information useful in downscaling melt and accumulation rates on mountain glaciers and ice caps. In this study, we refine Polar WRF to simulate a realistic surface energy budget. Surface melting is calculated in-line from surface energy budget closure. Blowing snow sublimation is computed in-line. Melt water re-freeze is calculated using a revised scheme. Our results are compared with NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and associated error is calculated on a regional and local scale with validation from automated weather stations (AWS), snow pits and ice core data from various regions along the Greenland ice sheet.

  15. Mass balance of perfluoroalkyl acids in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Marko; Berger, Urs; McLachlan, Michael S

    2013-05-07

    A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005-2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed.

  16. Assessment Of Errors In Long-Term Mass Balance Records From Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, R. S.; van Beusekom, A. E.; O'Neel, S.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS maintains a long-term glacier mass balance monitoring program at Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers in Alaska. The records produced by this program are a major component of the world’s mountain glacier balance inventory due to the scarcity of such long-term measurements. Recent data that show rapid glacier volume loss in Alaska further emphasize the importance of these records. An integral part of the long-term mass balance program is repeated assessment of the validity of the methods because bias errors in mass balance data are cumulative. Long-term glacier mass balance records in Alaska have previously been shown to be in good agreement with geodetically determined volume changes despite a minimal network of mass balance stakes. Because the rates of negative mass balance and change in glacier geometry have recently increased, this work reassess whether or not the existing stake networks and method of determining glacier-average balance are still working adequately.

  17. Greenland melt, surface mass balance and equilibrium line altitude from microwave radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, T. L.; Powell, E. J.

    2004-12-01

    Surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet is thought to respond directly to climate changes. However, knowledge of whether the overall change is positive or negative remains unclear. Several studies have addressed the role Greenland plays in predictions of future sea level under various climate change scenarios; however, there is uncertainty as to whether the ice sheet as a whole is increasing or decreasing in mass. The question of how the ice sheet responds to variations in climate, and potential climate change, can be at least partially addressed by examining the variations in snowpack melt. This project presents an update to the time series of Greenland melt extent to 2003 using SMMR and SSM/I data. Significant positive trends exist in the annual time series, as well as months of June, July and August. The interannual variability is largely driven by western and northern Greenland. Estimates of surface mass balance (SMB) using SSM/I-derived melt frequency are the most positive in 1992 and the negative SMB in 1995. This project presents a comparison of the SSM/I-derived ablation area, SMB and equilibrium line altitude estimates and based on ECMWF reanalysis data. The main goals of this project were to examine interannual variability in melt extent, ablation area, surface mass balance and the location of the equilibrium line of the Greenland ice sheet and to assess how the different data sources agree or disagree over this period.

  18. Greenland's mass balance observed by GRACE between 2003-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, B.; Schrama, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have been providing the scientific community with a quasi-continuous record of the Earth's gravity field over the last 6 years. Due to its global coverage, it offers an excellent tool to study mass changes over large regions. Among others, GRACE has lead to a leap in our understanding of the mass balance of Greenland ice sheet, which was indirectly known until a few years ago. In this presentation, we demonstrate how the GRACE observations can be used to monitor changes in Greenland's mass distribution on a regional scale. Over the period of 2003-2008, the ice sheet lost annually approximately 210 cubic kilometers of ice on average, contributing 0.5 mm per year to global mean sea level. According to (Rignot,2008) this value is unprecedented in the last 50 years suggesting a significant impact of global warming on the Greenland's ice volume. A forward modeling technique significantly helps to identify the hydrologic basins where the melt occurs. As a result we now know from the GRACE data that the main melting signal occurs during summer along the southeastern coast, although spreading to the northwest, with most pronounced changes so far occurring in 2007. Although 2008 was not a record year in terms of total mass lost, it may be called exceptional in terms of the spatial pattern of the summer losses, which mainly took place in the high North, consistent with surface melt observations and regional climate model results. Largest mass losses are observed in the regions surroundig the Humboldt Glacier and Zachariae Isstrom, two glaciers that have been reported to have retreated significantly in 2008.

  19. Surface mass balance contributions to acceleration of Antarctic ice mass loss during 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Wilson, Clark R; Scambos, Ted; Kim, Baek-Min; Waliser, Duane E; Tian, Baijun; Kim, Byeong-Hoon; Eom, Jooyoung

    2015-05-01

    Recent observations from satellite gravimetry (the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission) suggest an acceleration of ice mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The contribution of surface mass balance changes (due to variable precipitation) is compared with GRACE-derived mass loss acceleration by assessing the estimated contribution of snow mass from meteorological reanalysis data. We find that over much of the continent, the acceleration can be explained by precipitation anomalies. However, on the Antarctic Peninsula and other parts of West Antarctica, mass changes are not explained by precipitation and are likely associated with ice discharge rate increases. The total apparent GRACE acceleration over all of the AIS between 2003 and 2013 is -13.6 ± 7.2 Gt/yr(2). Of this total, we find that the surface mass balance component is -8.2 ± 2.0 Gt/yr(2). However, the GRACE estimate appears to contain errors arising from the atmospheric pressure fields used to remove air mass effects. The estimated acceleration error from this effect is about 9.8 ± 5.8 Gt/yr(2). Correcting for this yields an ice discharge acceleration of -15.1 ± 6.5 Gt/yr(2).

  20. Closing the Mass Balance on Fluorine on Papers and Textiles.

    PubMed

    Robel, Alix E; Marshall, Kristin; Dickinson, Margaret; Lunderberg, David; Butt, Craig; Peaslee, Graham; Stapleton, Heather M; Field, Jennifer A

    2017-08-15

    Papers and textiles that are treated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are sources of human and environmental exposure. Data for individual PFASs, such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), are not placed into the context of total fluorine for papers and textiles. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to quantify volatile and ionic PFASs, respectively, and the total oxidizable precursor (TOP) assay was used to quantify precursors that form perfluoroalkyl carboxylates. Molar sums of PFASs obtained by GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and precursors were compared to total fluorine (nmol F/cm(2)) determined by particle-induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) spectroscopy, measured before and after extraction. Volatile and ionic PFASs and unknown precursors accounted for 0-2.2%, 0-0.41%, and 0.021-14%, respectively, of the total nmol F/cm(2) determined by PIGE. After extraction, papers and textiles retained 64 ± 28% to 110 ± 30% of the original nmol F/cm(2) as determined by PIGE, indicating that the majority of fluorine remains associated with the papers and textiles. The sum of PFASs in the volatile, ionic, and precursor fraction, and total fluorine after extraction indicate that mass balance was achieved (within analytical error) of the initial total fluorine measured by PIGE.

  1. Balancing mass and momentum in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J. D.; Koposov, S. E.; Irwin, M.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.

    2014-09-01

    In the rest frame of the Local Group (LG), the total momentum of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) should balance to zero. We use this fact to constrain new solutions for the solar motion with respect to the LG centre of mass, the total mass of the LG, and the individual masses of M31 and the MW. Using the set of remote LG galaxies at >350 kpc from the MW and M31, we find that the solar motion has amplitude V⊙ = 299 ± 15 km s-1 in a direction pointing towards galactic longitude l⊙ = 98.4° ± 3.6° and galactic latitude b⊙ = -5.9° ± 3.0°. The velocities of M31 and the MW in this rest frame give a direct measurement of their mass ratio, for which we find log10(MM31/MMW) = 0.36 ± 0.29. We combine these measurements with the virial theorem to estimate the total mass within the LG as MLG = (2.5 ± 0.4) × 1012 M⊙. Our value for MLG is consistent with the sum of literature values for MMW and MM31. This suggests that the mass of the LG is almost entirely located within the two largest galaxies rather than being dispersed on larger scales or in a background medium. The outskirts of the LG are seemingly rather empty. Combining our measurement for MLG and the mass ratio, we estimate the individual masses of the MW and M31 to be MMW = (0.8 ± 0.5) × 1012 M⊙ and MM31 = (1.7 ± 0.3) × 1012 M⊙, respectively. Our analysis favours M31 being more massive than the MW by a factor of ˜2.3, and the uncertainties allow only a small probability (9.8 per cent) that the MW is more massive. This is consistent with other properties such as the maximum rotational velocities, total stellar content, and numbers of globular clusters and dwarf satellites, which all suggest that MM31/MMW > 1.

  2. OXALATE MASS BALANCE DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING IN TANK 6F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-22

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  3. Maintaining Atmospheric Mass and Water Balance Within Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takacs, Lawrence L.; Suarez, Max; Todling, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the modifications implemented into the Goddard Earth Observing System Version-5 (GEOS-5) Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (ADAS) to maintain global conservation of dry atmospheric mass as well as to preserve the model balance of globally integrated precipitation and surface evaporation during reanalysis. Section 1 begins with a review of these global quantities from four current reanalysis efforts. Section 2 introduces the modifications necessary to preserve these constraints within the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) analysis procedure, and the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) algorithm. Section 3 presents experiments quantifying the impact of the new procedure. Section 4 shows preliminary results from its use within the GMAO MERRA-2 Reanalysis project. Section 5 concludes with a summary.

  4. Quantifying Uncertainty in the Greenland Surface Mass Balance Elevation Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, T.

    2015-12-01

    As the shape of the Greenland ice sheet responds to changes in surface mass balance (SMB) and dynamics, it affects the surface mass balance through the atmospheric lapse rate and by altering atmospheric circulation patterns. Positive degree day models include simplified representations of this feedback, but it is difficult to simulate with state-of-the-art models because it requires coupling of regional climate models with dynamical ice sheet models, which is technically challenging. This difficulty, along with the high computational expense of regional climate models, also drastically limits opportunities for exploring the impact of modelling uncertainties on sea level projections. We present a parameterisation of the SMB-elevation feedback in the MAR regional climate model that provides a far easier and quicker estimate than atmosphere-ice sheet model coupling, which can be used with any ice sheet model. This allows us to use ensembles of different parameter values and ice sheet models to assess the effect of uncertainty in the feedback and ice sheet model structure on future sea level projections. We take a Bayesian approach to uncertainty in the feedback parameterisation, scoring the results from multiple possible "SMB lapse rates" according to how well they reproduce a MAR simulation with altered ice sheet topography. We test the impact of the resulting parameterisation on sea level projections using five ice sheet models forced by MAR (in turned forced by two different global climate models) under the emissions scenario A1B. The estimated additional sea level contribution due to the SMB-elevation feedback is 4.3% at 2100 (95% credibility interval 1.8-6.9%), and 9.6% at 2200 (3.6-16.0%).

  5. Nitrogen isotope and mass balance approach in the Elbe Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Tina; Wankel, Scott D.; Dähnke, Kirstin

    2017-04-01

    The supply of bioavailable nitrogen is crucial to primary production in the world's oceans. Especially in estuaries, which act as a nutrient filter for coastal waters, microbial nitrogen turnover and removal has a particular significance. Nitrification as well as other nitrogen-based processes changes the natural abundance of the stable isotope, which can be used as proxies for sources and sinks as well as for process identification. The eutrophic Elbe estuary in northern Germany is loaded with fertilizer-derived nitrogen, but management efforts have started to reduce this load effectively. However, an internal nitrate source in turn gained in importance and the estuary changed from a sink to a source of dissolved inorganic nitrogen: Nitrification is responsible for significant estuarine nutrient regeneration, especially in the Hamburg Port. In our study, we aimed to quantify sources and sinks of nitrogen based on a mass and stable isotope budget in the Elbe estuary. A model was developed reproduce internal N-cycling and associated isotope changes. For that approach we measured dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), particulate nitrogen and their stable isotopes in a case study in July 2013. We found an almost closed mass balance of nitrogen, with only low lost or gains which we attribute to sediment resuspension. The isotope values of different DIN components and the model approach both support a high fractionation of up to -25‰ during nitrification. However, the nitrogen balance and nitrogen stable isotopes suggest that most important processes are remineralization of organic matter to ammonium and further on the oxidation to nitrate. Denitrification and nitrate assimilation play a subordinate role in the Elbe Estuary.

  6. Plant-Available Silica in Soils: A Mass Balance Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyerson, P. E.; Jacobs, P. M.; Mason, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the quantity of high solubility soil silica available for plant uptake (plant-available silica, or PAS, operationally defined using a chemical extraction method); estimate gains and losses (mass balance) of PAS; and identify forms of PAS in soils. We used a coupled chemical extraction-spectrometry technique to measure PAS levels in soils. Gains and losses of PAS were achieved by comparing concentrations of an immobile element by horizon, in this case Zr. Forms of PAS were identified by light microscopy. Two Alfisol soils formed in thick loess were used for this study, one from southeastern Minnesota and the other from west-central Illinois. We identified two distinct origins for PAS: that which is inherited from the parent material, and that which is formed from in situ silicate mineral weathering. We further identified two general forms of PAS: biogenic (e.g. phytoliths) and nonbiogenic (e.g. dissolved silica, cristobalite). Measured, relative PAS levels were found to “spike” in B horizons of both soils, while A and C horizons were much lower. Absolute PAS levels differed between the two soils: The Minnesota soil yielded much higher levels throughout the profile than the Illinois soil, which we attributed to a large amount of inherited nonbiogenic PAS in the former soil. Mass balance data indicated loss of PAS in A horizons, probably due to leaching. A large positive flux of PAS was recorded in B horizons indicating downward movement of PAS and/or in situ weathering of silicate minerals. Forms of PAS vary by horizon as well, with different processes dominating over vertical space. Biologic processes were found to be dominant in A horizons, while chemical weathering and illuviation were dominant in B horizons.

  7. A statistical mass-balance model for reconstruction of LIA ice mass for glaciers in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoöner, Wolfgang; Böhm, Reinhard

    2007-10-01

    Stepwise linear regression models were calibrated against the measured mass balance of glaciers in the Austrian Alps for the prediction of specific annual net balance and summer balance from climatological and topographical input data. For estimation of winter mass balance, a simple ratio between the amount of winter precipitation and the measured winter balance was used. A ratio with a mean value of 2.0 and a standard deviation of 0.44 was derived from the sample of measured winter balances. Climate input data were taken from the HISTALP database which offers a homogenized data source that is outstanding in terms of its spatial and temporal coverage. Data from the Austrian glacier inventory were used as topographical input data. From the group of possible predictors summer air temperature, winter precipitation, summer snow precipitation and continentality (as defined from seasonal temperature variation) were selected as climatological driving forces in addition to lowest glacier elevation and area-weighted mean glacier elevation as topographical driving forces. Summer temperature explains 60% of the variance of summer mass balance and 39% of the variance of annual mass balance. Additional factors increase the explained variance by 22% for summer and 31% for annual net balance. The calibrated mass-balance model was used to reconstruct the mass balance of Hintereisferner and Vernagtferner back to 1800. Whereas the model performs well for Hintereisferner, it fails for some sub-periods for Vernagtferner due to the complicated flow dynamics of the glacier.

  8. New fat free mass - fat mass model for use in physiological energy balance equations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Forbes equation relating fat-free mass (FFM) to fat mass (FM) has been used to predict longitudinal changes in FFM during weight change but has important limitations when paired with a one dimensional energy balance differential equation. Direct use of the Forbes model within a one dimensional energy balance differential equation requires calibration of a translate parameter for the specific population under study. Comparison of translates to a representative sample of the US population indicate that this parameter is a reflection of age, height, race and gender effects. Results We developed a class of fourth order polynomial equations relating FFM to FM that consider age, height, race and gender as covariates eliminating the need to calibrate a parameter to baseline subject data while providing meaningful individual estimates of FFM. Moreover, the intercepts of these polynomial equations are nonnegative and are consistent with observations of very low FM measured during a severe Somali famine. The models preserve the predictive power of the Forbes model for changes in body composition when compared to results from several longitudinal weight change studies. Conclusions The newly developed FFM-FM models provide new opportunities to compare individuals undergoing weight change to subjects in energy balance, analyze body composition for individual parameters, and predict body composition during weight change when pairing with energy balance differential equations. PMID:20459692

  9. Geochemical mass balances of major elements in Lake Baikal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callender, E.; Granina, L.

    1997-01-01

    Major element mass balances for Lake Baikal are calculated with mostly previously published data for soluble fluxes and new, unpublished data for riverine suspended particulate matter chemistry. Physical transport seems to be the most important riverine process. The elements Ca, Mg, and Na seem to be very mobile in the weathering mantle and K and Si seem to be relatively mobile. A comparison of elemental input-output budgets and mass accumulation rates (MAR) in bottom sediments shows that most major elements, except Ca, Si, and Mn, have comparable riverine particulate matter fluxes and MARs. The addition of wet atmospheric deposition fluxes results in an excess of Ca, Mg, and Na entering the lake. The additive effect of these excess inputs during a 40-year period amounts to undetectable concentration increases in the water column. If erosion of weathered bedrock is the source of most dissolved and all particulate matter transported to the lake, theoretical elemental fluxes can be calculated with Al as the conservative element. Flux ratios (observed/theoretical) range from 0.7 to 2.2, but most fall within the acceptable range of 0.7-1.5. Major rock-forming elements are carried by rivers as weathering products and there are minimal biogeochemical processes that modify these inputs as suspended particulate matter accumulates in the bottom sediments of the lake.

  10. Greenland Ice sheet mass balance from satellite and airborne altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Bevis, M. G.; Wahr, J. M.; Wouters, B.; Sasgen, I.; van Dam, T. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Hanna, E.; Huybrechts, P.; Kjaer, K.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Bjork, A. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is dominated by loss in the marginal areas. Dynamic induced ice loss and its associated ice surface lowering is often largest close to the glacier calving front and may vary from rates of tens of meters per years to a few meters per year over relatively short distances. Hence, high spatial resolution data are required to accurately estimate volume changes. Here, we estimate ice volume change rate of the Greenland ice sheet using data from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter during 2003-2009 and CryoSat-2 data during 2010-2012. To improve the volume change estimate we supplement the ICESat and CryoSat data with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2003-2012 and NASA's Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) during 2007-2012. The Airborne data are mainly concentrated along the ice margin and therefore significantly improve the estimate of the total volume change. Furthermore, we divide the GrIS into six major drainage basins and provide volume loss estimates during 2003-2006, 2006-2009 and 2009-2012 for each basin and separate between melt induced and dynamic ice loss. In order to separate dynamic ice loss from melt processes, we use SMB values from the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2) and SMB values from a positive degree day runoff retention model (Janssens & Huybrechts 2000, Hanna et al. 2011 JGR, updated for this study). Our results show increasing SMB ice loss over the last decade, while dynamic ice loss increased during 2003-2009, but has since been decreasing. Finally, we assess the estimated mass loss using GPS observations from stations located along the edge of the GrIS and measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission. Hanna, E., et al. (2011), Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance 1870 to 2010 based on Twentieth Century Reanalysis, and links with global climate forcing, J. Geophys. Res

  11. A California Nitrogen Mass Balance: Uncertainties and information needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liptzin, D.; Dahlgren, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the California Nitrogen (N) Assessment (CNA) is to evaluate the current state of N science, practice, and policy in the state of California. One component is to develop a N mass balance for the state. Because the CNA is an assessment, evaluating the data quality and quantifying uncertainty are also part of the mass balance . We estimate that a total of 1500 Gg of new reactive N is added to California every year. Of this new N, only about half of the N leaves the state while the rest is retained. The main inputs of new reactive N to California are, in order of importance: synthetic N fertilizer, fossil fuel combustion, and biological N fixation. The three largest N outputs from the state are, in order of importance, atmospheric advection, wastewater discharge to the ocean, and riverine discharge to the ocean. Approximately half of the stored N leaches to groundwater, with the other half divided between soils and vegetation, reservoirs, and urban landscapes. These N flows vary not just in magnitude, but also in the uncertainty associated with them. There was no trend in the tonnage of fertilizer sold from 1981-2001, but the 2002-2007 average has remained higher (760 Gg N) than the long-term average (520 Gg N). Bottom up calculations based on crop acreage and fertilization rates are more consistent with the 1980-2001 average suggesting a problem with the sales data. The emission of NOx from fossil fuel burning is one of the most well established flows of N. The production of ammonia and nitrous oxide from fossil fuel combustion is significantly lower than NOx, but there is less evidence to support the emissions inventories. Rates of biological N fixation are speculative with evidence more limited in natural lands than croplands. For most crops it appears that N fixation rates are strongly related to plant production, suggesting that using a single rate across large regions may be inappropriate. In addition, many studies either only measure aboveground N

  12. Modelling aeolian sand transport using a dynamic mass balancing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayaud, Jerome R.; Bailey, Richard M.; Wiggs, Giles F. S.; Weaver, Corinne M.

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the changing rate of sediment flux in space and time is essential for quantifying surface erosion and deposition in desert landscapes. Whilst many aeolian studies have relied on time-averaged parameters such as wind velocity (U) and wind shear velocity (u*) to determine sediment flux, there is increasing field evidence that high-frequency turbulence is an important driving force behind the entrainment and transport of sand. At this scale of analysis, inertia in the saltation system causes changes in sediment transport to lag behind de/accelerations in flow. However, saltation inertia has yet to be incorporated into a functional sand transport model that can be used for predictive purposes. In this study, we present a new transport model that dynamically balances the sand mass being transported in the wind flow. The 'dynamic mass balance' (DMB) model we present accounts for high-frequency variations in the horizontal (u) component of wind flow, as saltation is most strongly associated with the positive u component of the wind. The performance of the DMB model is tested by fitting it to two field-derived (Namibia's Skeleton Coast) datasets of wind velocity and sediment transport: (i) a 10-min (10 Hz measurement resolution) dataset; (ii) a 2-h (1 Hz measurement resolution) dataset. The DMB model is shown to outperform two existing models that rely on time-averaged wind velocity data (e.g. Radok, 1977; Dong et al., 2003), when predicting sand transport over the two experiments. For all measurement averaging intervals presented in this study (10 Hz-10 min), the DMB model predicted total saltation count to within at least 0.48%, whereas the Radok and Dong models over- or underestimated total count by up to 5.50% and 20.53% respectively. The DMB model also produced more realistic (less 'peaky') time series of sand flux than the other two models, and a more accurate distribution of sand flux data. The best predictions of total sand transport are achieved using

  13. The effects of void handling on geodetic mass balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNabb, Robert; Nuth, Chris; Kääb, Andreas; Girod, Luc

    2017-04-01

    Glacier mass balance is a direct expression of climate change, and has implications for changes in sea level, ocean chemistry, and oceanic and terrestrial ecosystems. Glacier mass balance has traditionally been measured through in-situ measurements of surface elevation change on a glacier surface. To estimate changes on a larger spatial scale, however, in-situ measurement is not feasible, and aerial or satellite measurements of digital elevation models (DEMs) over glaciers have been used recently in order to supplement and extend ground-based measurements. Though the resolution and accuracy of these products generally increases with time, there are still often gaps ("voids") in the data, as well as errors and biases that must be addressed. The occurrence and distribution of these voids is at least partially dependent on the sensor or acquisition method used to generate the source DEMs. For example, for optical stereo DEMs, voids can be especially frequent in the accumulation area of glaciers, impacting elevation measurements and the resulting estimates of glacier volume change to an unknown degree. Several methods for handling voids in elevation datasets have been proposed and implemented in the literature, though direct investigation of the uncertainty associated with these methods is generally not reported. In order to estimate the uncertainties associated with various methods for filling voids in elevation data, we simulate typical voids in high-resolution spatially-complete DEMs of glaciers in south-central Alaska (covering the Alaska Range, Chugach, Kenai, and Wrangel Mountains), USA. This region is home to over 7000 individual glaciers covering over 23000 km2, ranging in elevation from sea level to over 6000 m, and representing many different glacier types including surging glaciers, advancing and retreating tidewater glaciers, and large and small valley glaciers. As such, it presents an ideal test region to investigate the impact of various methods for void

  14. Past and future mass balance of 'Ka Roimata o Hine Hukatere' Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brian; Lawson, Wendy; Owens, Ian; Goodsell, Becky

    Despite their relatively small total ice volume, mid-latitude valley glaciers are expected to make a significant contribution to global sea-level rise over the next century due to the sensitivity of their mass-balance systems to small changes in climate. Here we use a degree-day model to reconstruct the past century of mass-balance variation at 'Ka Roimata o Hine Hukatere' Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand, and to predict how mass balance may change over the next century. Analysis of the relationship between temperature, precipitation and mass balance indicates that temperature is a stronger control than precipitation on the mass balance of Franz Josef Glacier. The glacier's mass balance, relative to its 1986 geometry, has decreased at a mean annual rate of 0.02 ma-1 w.e. between 1894 and 2005. We compare this reduction to observations of terminus advance and retreat, of which Franz Josef Glacier has the best record in the Southern Hemisphere. For the years 2000-05 the relative mass balance ranged from -0.75 to +1.50 ma-1 w.e., with 2000/01 the only year showing a negative mass balance. In a regionally downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change mean warming scenario, the annual relative mass balance will continue to decrease at 0.02 ma-1 w.e. through the next century.

  15. Micrometeorological Mass Balance Measurements of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Composting Green-waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, E. R.; Bailey, S.; Stephens, J.; Horwath, W. R.; Paw U, K.

    2013-12-01

    Managed decomposition of organic materials is increasingly being used as an alternative waste management option and the resulting compost can be used as a fertilizer and soil amendment in home gardens and agriculture. An additional benefit is the avoidance of methane emissions associated with anaerobic decomposition in landfills. Greenhouse gases are still emitted during the composting process, but few studies have measured emissions from a full-scale windrow of composting green-waste. This study uses a micrometeorological mass balance technique (upwind and downwind vertical profile measurements of trace gas concentrations and wind velocity) to calculate emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide from a pile of composting green-waste during the dry season in Northern California. The expected source pattern was observed in measured upwind-downwind concentration differences of all three gases averaged over the study period despite substantial noise seen in the half-hourly emission calculations. Sources of uncertainty are investigated and temporal patterns analyzed. An in-situ zero-source test was conducted to examine the mass balance technique when the source of emissions was removed. Results from the micrometeorological mass balance measurements are compared with measurements taken using the more common open chamber technique.

  16. Recommendations from the SCAR Ice Sheet Mass Balance and Sea Level (ISMASS) Workshop.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacka, T. H.

    2002-05-01

    The determination of growth or shrinkage of the great ice sheets is the oldest scientific problem of Earth's polar regions. Today, the issue of ice mass balance has renewed urgency because of the role of grounded ice in sea level change. In fact, the significant variations in sea level over the past million years have been controlled by ice, and it is clear that the response of the ice sheets to climate change in the immediate future could significantly alter sea level. This issue is especially relevant at this time because the prediction of global sea level change is of practical concern. Recent observations of the ice sheets have discovered unexpected change in ice stream velocities as well as ice shelf collapse. Theoretical analysis of ice sheet response to climate change has indicated a wide range of outcomes on different time scales under different climate change scenarios. New technologies have resulted in a significant increase in the ability to observe and model ice sheet properties and processes. Recognizing the likelihood and potential of ice sheet change, the SCAR Glaciology WG, with the support of SCAR-GLOCHANT has established the Ice Sheet Mass Balance and Sea Level (ISMASS) project to examine and report on the study of the ice mass balance of Antarctica. The ISMASS team has recently developed a strategy to establish a meaningful international scientific approach to understanding and predicting Antarctic ice sheet mass balance. The strategy was developed at a workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland, USA, and sponsored by SCAR, with support from WCRP, the Antarctic CRC (Australia) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This presentation will outline the main recommendations from the workshop

  17. Autonomous Observations of the Heat and Mass Balance of Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perovich, D. K.; Richter-Menge, J.; Arntsen, A. E.; Polashenski, C.; Elder, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    For the past decade the Arctic Observing Network included autonomous measurements of the mass balance of Arctic sea ice. A system of Ice Mass Balance (IMB) buoys measured time series of snow accumulation and ablation; ice growth and surface and bottom melt; and vertical profiles of air, snow, ice, and ocean temperature. The mass balance is the great integrator of heat and can be used to derive estimates of both the surface heat budget and ocean heat flux. Large spatial and interannual variations in surface and bottom melting are evident in the data record. For example, over the western Arctic the observed total summer surface melting ranges from as little as 0.05 m to over 0.75 m. Bottom melting exhibits an even more extreme range varying from 0.1 to 2.2 m. IMBs in the Beaufort Sea and Central Arctic during the summer of 2013 are selected for more detailed analysis, calculating the time series of net surface energy budget and of the ocean heat flux. Ice temperature profiles are used to determine internal melting of the ice. Results from these buoys are integrated with high resolution satellite imagery to examine the heat and mass balance on the aggregate scale. Incident solar radiation is obtained from reanalysis products and used to calculate solar heat input to leads and to the upper ocean. Floe perimeter, ice motion, and lead heat content are combined to estimate the amount of lateral melting. From this integrated analysis, summer ice losses due to surface, bottom, lateral, and internal melting are computed on the aggregate scale and compared regionally.

  18. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.

  19. Infiltration History and Spatial Variability Derived from Chloride Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, J. C.; Jaimes, A.; Woocay, A.

    2007-12-01

    Chloride mass balance was applied to drill cuttings collected from the unsaturated zone surrounding the Yucca Mountain Project. Samples correspond to four Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program boreholes where air was used as the drilling fluid to preserve sample integrity. Infiltration dates before present and pore velocities were calculated using a range of annual chloride deposition rates obtained from the literature. The lower chloride loading corresponds to contemporary values, and the upper loading corresponds to an attempt to correct for either past greater chloride deposition or a past higher precipitation with chloride concentration remaining constant. In each borehole, pore velocities present two distinct slopes corresponding to different infiltration regimes. The first one, near the surface, presents the slowest infiltration rate. The second pore velocity corresponds to a past wetter period (late Pleistocene to early Holocene) with much faster pore velocities. Results indicate that pore velocities among the boreholes differ at most by a factor of approximately 3.5. Boreholes located in areas of little or gradual slope present faster infiltration rates than those in areas of greater slope. Borehole NC-EWDP-22S, near Fortymile Wash east of Yucca Mountain, exhibits the most rapid pore velocities where as boreholes further from the wash demonstrate lower velocities. These results denote the effects climate change, and runoff and run-on at the surface have over infiltration rates in arid regions.

  20. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  1. Reaction products and mass balances from irradiated TCE vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S.M.; Wang, F.T.; Mill, T.

    1995-12-31

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) vapor, at a concentration of 3000 ppmv in synthetic air, was sealed in Tedlar bags and irradiated with a 3.7 MeV electron beam. Bags of dry vapor and vapor at 90% relative humidity were irradiated. Doses up to 11 megarads (11 MR) were applied. Each bag was chemically analyzed for reaction products and a mass balance of the chlorine and carbon was obtained within the 11 MR dose range. The results of these radiolysis experiments and chemical analysis show that, given the proper treatment, the TCE concentration is reduced to below detection limit and the reaction products of the organic carbon and chlorine are carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), chlorine gas (Cl{sub 2}) and hydrochloric acid (140). No detectable amounts of dichloroacetyl chloride (DCAC) or phosgene (PG) remained in the sample after proper treatment. DCAC and PG were found only as intermediary oxidation products of the TCE. High energy ionizing radiation, as electron beams and bremsstrahlung, is a new treatment technology for destroying toxic compounds and hazardous Wastes. A demonstration of complete destruction of organic products, using this treatment at standard temperature and pressure, is expected to help implement the use of this technology.

  2. [Mass-balance ecopath model of Belbu Gulf ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuozhi; Qiu, Yongsong; Jia, Xiaoping

    2006-06-01

    Based on the investigation of fishery resources and eco-environment in the Beibu Gulf of northern South China Sea from October 1997 to May 1999, and with EwE software, a mass-balance ecopath model of Beibu Gulf ecosystem was constructed, which consisted of 16 functional groups (boxes) including marine mammals and seabirds, each representing the organisms with similar roles in the food web, and covered the main trophic flow in Beibu Gulf ecosystem. The food web in Beibu Gulf ecosystem was dominated by detrital path, and benthic invertebrate played a significant role in transferring energy from detritus to higher trophic levels. Phytoplankton was the primary producer, and the fractional trophic levels ranged from 1.00 to 4.04, with marine mammals occupying the highest trophic level. By using network analysis, the system network was mapped into a linear food chain, and six discrete trophic levels were found, with a mean transfer efficiency of 12.3% from detritus, and 12.2% from primary producer within the ecosystem. The biomass density of commercially utilized species estimated by the model was 8.7 t x km(-2), and the bioproduction only accounted for 1.81% of the net primary production, which indicated that the system was still in developing status and instable.

  3. Biogeochemical phosphorus mass balance for Lake Baikal, southeastern Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callender, E.; Granina, L.

    1997-01-01

    Extensive data for Lake Baikal have been synthesized into a geochemical mass balance for phosphorus (P). Some of the P budget and internal cycling terms for Baikal have been compared to similar terms for oligotrophic Lake Superior, mesotrophic Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and the Ocean. Lake Baikal has a large external source of fluvial P compared to the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Ocean. The major tributary to Lake Baikal has experienced substantial increases in organic P loading during the past 25 years. This, coupled with potential P inputs from possible phosphorite mining, may threaten Baikal's oligotrophic status in the future. Water-column remineralization of particulate organic P is substantially greater in Lake Baikal than in the Laurentian Great Lakes. This is probably due to the great water depths of Lake Baikal. There is a gradient in P burial efficiency, with very high values (80%) for Lake Baikal and Lake Superior, lower values (50%) for Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and a low value (13%) for the Ocean. The accumulation rate of P in Lake Baikal sediments is somewhat greater than that in the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Baltic Sea, and much greater than in the Ocean. Benthic regeneration rates are surprisingly similar for large lacustrine and marine environments and supply less than 10% of the P utilized for primary production in these aquatic environments.

  4. Runoff, precipitation, mass balance, and ice velocity measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 1993 balance year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow, firn, and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Wash., to determine the winter and net balance for the 1993 balance year. The 1993 winter balance, averaged over the glacier, was 1.98 meters, and the net balance was -1.23 meters. This negative valance continued a trend of negative balance years beginning in 1977. Air temperature, barometric pressure, and runoff from this glacier basin and an adjacent non-glacierized basin were also continuously measured. Surface ice velocity was measured over an annual period. This report makes all these data available to users throughout the glaciological and climato1ogical community.

  5. Mass balance of trace metals in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankéré, S. P. C.; Price, N. B.; Statham, P. J.

    2000-07-01

    A first order mass balance of six different trace metals (Mn, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni) was presented for a 1-year period for the different compartments of the Adriatic Sea: compartment 1 (northern Adriatic Sea), compartment 2 (central Adriatic Sea and surface layer of the southern Adriatic Sea) and compartment 3 (deep water of the southern Adriatic Sea). The Adriatic Sea appeared to be a source of dissolved Cu, Mn and Fe for the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Otranto whereas for dissolved Zn and Pb the Adriatic Sea appeared to be a net sink. For dissolved Ni, inputs and outputs through the Strait of Otranto balanced each other. The residence times of all metals in compartment 1 were significantly shorter than that of water indicating significant removal. In compartments 2 and 3, residence times of Mn and Fe were relatively short suggesting removal from the water column whereas for the other metals their residence times were similar to that of water. Calculations of turnover times of metals with respect to different processes showed that in compartments 1 and 2, sedimentation was the main process that affected the content of the reservoirs whereas in compartment 3, the water flux exchanges played an important role for Zn, Cu and Ni. Most of the metals clearly undergo a very dynamic cycle of sedimentation/remobilization particularly in the Northern Adriatic Sea. In the northern Adriatic Sea, most of the Mn and Fe in deposited sediment were remobilized. This was related to diagenetic processes involving the utilisation and solubilisation of Mn and Fe oxides, which occur in the surface of the sediment in the northern Adriatic Sea. In the central Adriatic Sea, remobilization of Mn and Fe was less than in the northern Adriatic Sea, suggesting that diagenesis processes appear deeper in the sediment. Advective transport of sediment was a major source of metals for the deep basin. As much as 80% of the sediments in the South Adriatic Pit might be advected from the shelf

  6. Changes in self-reported energy balance behaviours and body mass index during a mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Verheijden, Marieke W; van Dommelen, Paula; van Empelen, Pepijn; Crone, Mathilde R; Werkman, Andrea M; van Kesteren, Nicole M C

    2012-04-01

    Prevention of (serious) overweight can be achieved by means of small behaviour changes in physical activity and/or diet. To evaluate a mass media campaign promoting energy balance behaviours in a Dutch population. Effects were examined for body mass index (BMI) and five energy balance behaviours. A representative cohort study of 1200 Dutch adults was employed. Data were collected at four moments. Two campaign waves were launched, following T1 (targeting the general adult population) and T2 [targeting low socio-economic status (SES) men], respectively. Regression analyses were performed to estimate the short-term and long-term effects of campaign exposure. In total, data of 1030 participants (86%) were available. Time trends showed unfavourable changes in most but not all energy balances behaviour for the total sample. No differences were found for BMI. No differences in the outcome measures were found as a result of exposure to the first campaign (19%). A short-term effect of exposure to the second campaign (29% exposure) was found (T2-T3), but only for low SES respondents, with increases in the attention being paid towards food choice (P = 0.02). At long term, BMI was less likely to increase among exposed people with a non-Dutch ethnicity (P = 0.01, T2-T4). Exposure to the campaign was low. The first campaign wave had no effects on BMI and energy balance behaviours. Small but favourable changes in attention towards food choice and BMI for at-risk populations were observed among those exposed to the second campaign wave.

  7. Comparison of glaciological and geodetic mass balance at Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Tian Shan, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Puyu; Li, Zhongqin; Li, Huilin

    2016-04-01

    Glaciological and geodetic measurements are two methods to determine glacier mass balances. The mass balance of Urumqi Glacier No. 1 has been measured since 1959 by the glaciological method using ablation stakes and snowpits, except during the period 1967-1979 when the observations were interrupted. Moreover, topographic surveys have been carried out at various time intervals since the beginning of the glacier observations. Therefore, glacier volume changes are calculated by comparing topographic maps of different periods during nearly 50 years. Between 1962 and 2009, Urumqi Glacier No. 1 lost an ice volume of 29.51×106 m3, which corresponds to a cumulative ice thickness loss of 8.9 m and a mean annual loss of 0.2 m. The results are compared with glaciological mass balances over the same time intervals. The differences are 2.3%, 2.8%, 4.6%, 4.7% and 5.9% for the period 1981-86, 1986-94, 1994-2001, 2001-06 and 2006-09, respectively. For the mass balance measured with the glaciological method, the systematic errors accumulate linearly with time, whereas the errors are random for the geodetic mass balance. The geodetic balance is within the estimated error of the glaciological balance. In conclusion, the geodetic and glaciological mass balances are of high quality and therefore, there is no need to calibrate the mass balance series of Urumqi Glacier No. 1.

  8. Comparisons of soil nitrogen mass balances for an ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We compared the N budgets of an ombrotrophic bog and a minerotrophic fen to quantify the importance of denitrification in peatlands and their watersheds. We also compared the watershed upland mineral soils to bog/fen peat; lagg and transition zone peat to central bog/fen peat; and surface, mid-layer and deep soil and peat horizons. Bog and fen area were derived from a wetland boundary GIS data layer, and bog and fen volumes were calculated as the interpolated product of area and depth of peat. Atmospheric N deposition to the bog and fen were based on measurements from a station located 2km north of the bog watershed and 0.5km from the fen watershed. Precipitation was analyzed for nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and total N (TN), and aggregated to annual values. Outflow water samples from the bog and fen were collected as surface grab samples on each of the May-October sampling dates over the 2010-2013 study, and were analyzed and aggregated annually as for atmospheric N. Soil and peat samples were analyzed for N content, and for net ammonification (AM), nitrification (NT), and ambient (DN) and potential (DEA) denitrification rates. Nitrogen mass balances are based on mean annual atmospheric deposition and outflow; soil and peat standing stocks of N, and mean annual estimates of DN, weighted for contributions of the uplands, lagg or transition zone, and bog or fen hollows and hummocks, and accounting for soil depth effects. Annual deposition of N species was: N

  9. Comparisons of soil nitrogen mass balances for an ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We compared the N budgets of an ombrotrophic bog and a minerotrophic fen to quantify the importance of denitrification in peatlands and their watersheds. We also compared the watershed upland mineral soils to bog/fen peat; lagg and transition zone peat to central bog/fen peat; and surface, mid-layer and deep soil and peat horizons. Bog and fen area were derived from a wetland boundary GIS data layer, and bog and fen volumes were calculated as the interpolated product of area and depth of peat. Atmospheric N deposition to the bog and fen were based on measurements from a station located 2km north of the bog watershed and 0.5km from the fen watershed. Precipitation was analyzed for nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and total N (TN), and aggregated to annual values. Outflow water samples from the bog and fen were collected as surface grab samples on each of the May-October sampling dates over the 2010-2013 study, and were analyzed and aggregated annually as for atmospheric N. Soil and peat samples were analyzed for N content, and for net ammonification (AM), nitrification (NT), and ambient (DN) and potential (DEA) denitrification rates. Nitrogen mass balances are based on mean annual atmospheric deposition and outflow; soil and peat standing stocks of N, and mean annual estimates of DN, weighted for contributions of the uplands, lagg or transition zone, and bog or fen hollows and hummocks, and accounting for soil depth effects. Annual deposition of N species was: N

  10. A global biogeochemical mass balance model for vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Hope, B.K.

    1995-12-31

    Vanadium is a major trace metal in fossil fuels and combustion of these materials provides a significant source of vanadium in the environment. Close correlation exists between atmospheric vanadium concentration and fuel consumption, so that atmospheric vanadium pentoxide has been used as an indicator of human industrial activity. Little vanadium is retained in refined oil products, and vanadium contamination occurs as fallout from refining operations and burning of residual oils. This is the major cause for the approximate doubling of the environmental flux of vanadium as a result of human activity; other sources are products of coal combustion, leachates, and effluents from mining and milling of uranium and titanium. It was estimated in 1975 that the injection of vanadium into the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources equaled the input from natural sources. Such evidence that environmental levels of vanadium are increasing has raised concern over the injection of vanadium into the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources. A simple global mass balance model was developed to demonstrate the influence of anthropogenic vanadium on the global distribution of this trace metal. Vanadium in particulate emissions owing to man`s industrial activities were estimated to comprise {approx} 53% of total atmosphere vanadium loading and exceeded natural continental or volcanogenic dust by only a narrow margin. Oceanic deposition of vanadium adhering to anthropogenic particles was estimated to comprise {approx} 5% of total ocean vanadium loading. There is no suggestion that these inputs of anthropogenic vanadium pose a significant global environmental threat. It is entirely possible, however, that anthropogenic vanadium inputs could pose an environmental hazard given a more restricted area and a specific set of unfavorable circumstances.

  11. Mass balance, meteorological, and runoff measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 1992 balance year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Values of winter snow accumulation and summer snow, firn, and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, WA, to determine the winter and net balance for the 1992 balance year. The 1992 winter balance, averaged over the glacier, was 1.91 m, and the net balance was -2.01 m. This extremely negative balance continued a trend of negative balance years beginning in 1977. Air temperature (at 1,615 m and 1,867 m), barometric pressure, precipitation, and runoff from this glacier basin and an adjacent non-glacierized basin were also continuously measured. This report makes all these data, in tabular, graphical, and machine-readable forms, available to users.

  12. A MASS BALANCE OF SURFACE WATER GENOTOXICITY IN PROVIDENCE RIVER (RHODE ISLAND USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    White and Rasmussen (Mutation Res. 410:223-236) used a mass balance approach to demonstrate that over 85% of the total genotoxic loading to the St. Lawrence River at Montreal is non-industrial. To validate the mass balance approach and investigate the sources of genotoxins in sur...

  13. Results of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project: Atrazine Modeling Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers an overview of chemical properties, measurements in air and water, model construct and assumptions, and results of mathematical mass balance modeling of the herbicide atrazine in the Lake Michigan basin. Within the context of the mass balance, an overview of a...

  14. A MASS BALANCE OF SURFACE WATER GENOTOXICITY IN PROVIDENCE RIVER (RHODE ISLAND USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    White and Rasmussen (Mutation Res. 410:223-236) used a mass balance approach to demonstrate that over 85% of the total genotoxic loading to the St. Lawrence River at Montreal is non-industrial. To validate the mass balance approach and investigate the sources of genotoxins in sur...

  15. Mass balance, energy and exergy analysis of bio-oil production by fast pyrolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mass, energy and exergy balances are analyzed for bio-oil production in a bench scale fast pyrolysis system developed by the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) for the processing of commodity crops to fuel intermediates. Because mass balance closure is difficult to achieve due, in part, to ...

  16. The formation of a clinopyroxene corona — Mass balance considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingg, Andrew J.

    1992-06-01

    The formation of a Cpx-corona is discussed from the viewpoint of continuous reaction techniques. Two cases are distinguished: a closed and open system. The first case is based on the equation eOl w + aPl u = bPl v + Opx x + cCpx y + dSpl y Plagioclase is assumed to be a solid solution between anorthite and albite (Na uCa 1-wAl 2-uSi 2+uO 8). The other minerals are solutions of their Fe- and Mg-end-members [e.g. (Mg wFe 1-w) 2SiO 4 for olivine]. Spinel forms a ternary system of hercynite-spinel-magnetite. Stoichiometric coefficients are expressed in terms of the exchange parameters t, u, v, w, x, y and z. According to stoichiometries, the net molar quantity of phaligioclase consumed equals the number of moles of clinopyroxene and spinel produced. For each mole of olivine consumed there is one mole of opx produced. A closed system is suggested by the ability to predict one of the mineral compositions in terms of the others using one of the six mass balances (Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Si) left from the calculation of five stoichiometric coefficients. This model allows the calculation of mass transfer between different shells and explains coronas from the Adirondacks, Scandinavia and the Niquelândia layered complex (Brazil). In the second case the system is open and is described by the equation. Opx x + aPl u + kCa 2+ + hSi 4+ + fFe 2+ = cCpx y + lNa + + lAl 3 + gMg 2+ The compositional variation of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene allows the determination of c(Cpx), -(Fe 2+) and g(Mg 2+) which are interdependent. With a known value of c and assuming a constant volume of reaction the value of a may be determined. The final equation, for a plagioclase composition of XAn = 0.75, is 1 Opx + 0.35 Pl + 0.74 Ca 2+ + 0.21 Si 4+ + 0.10 Mg 2+ = 1 Cpx + 0.61 Al 3+ + 0.10 Fe 2+ + 0.09 Na + This is the reaction responsible for the formation of Cpx-coronas in the Bushveld complex.

  17. Importance of Stream Denitrification in the Nitrogen Mass Balance of a Midwestern Agricultural Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, M. B.; Royer, T. V.; Opdyke, M. R.; Tank, J. L.

    2005-05-01

    Agricultural regions of the Midwestern US have large N fluxes as a result of inputs from fertilizer and biological fixation, and outputs through rivers and grain harvest. These inputs and outputs are not balanced, however, and denitrification has been suggested to be an important loss mechanism. We examined the role of in-stream denitrification in the N mass balance of Illinois, a predominantly agricultural region. Nitrate concentrations in streams were often >10 mg nitrate-N L-1, suggesting denitrification was not N-limited throughout most of the year. Denitrification rates were measured at many headwater stream sites throughout the year, in both sediments and primary producer habitat, under different geomorphic conditions. Although in-stream denitrification rates were generally high, hydraulic retention time limited the importance of denitrification in terms of export on an annual basis. Geomorphology was important in explaining rates, but extensive channelization has eliminated most in-stream structures, which could have more effectively reduced stream export of N. Therefore, stream denitrification was only minor sink for N and most nitrate in these headwater sites was exported downstream. In the overall mass balance of N, reservoir and in-field denitrification are thought to be much more important than in-stream denitrification.

  18. Measuring Air-water Interfacial Area for Soils Using the Mass Balance Surfactant-tracer Method

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Juliana B.; Mainhagu, Jon; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    There are several methods for conducting interfacial partitioning tracer tests to measure air-water interfacial area in porous media. One such approach is the mass balance surfactant tracer method. An advantage of the mass-balance method compared to other tracer-based methods is that a single test can produce multiple interfacial area measurements over a wide range of water saturations. The mass-balance method has been used to date only for glass beads or treated quartz sand. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness and implementability of the mass-balance method for application to more complex porous media. The results indicate that interfacial areas measured with the mass-balance method are consistent with values obtained with the miscible-displacement method. This includes results for a soil, for which solid-phase adsorption was a significant component of total tracer retention. PMID:25950136

  19. Measuring air-water interfacial area for soils using the mass balance surfactant-tracer method.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Juliana B; Mainhagu, Jon; Brusseau, Mark L

    2015-09-01

    There are several methods for conducting interfacial partitioning tracer tests to measure air-water interfacial area in porous media. One such approach is the mass balance surfactant tracer method. An advantage of the mass-balance method compared to other tracer-based methods is that a single test can produce multiple interfacial area measurements over a wide range of water saturations. The mass-balance method has been used to date only for glass beads or treated quartz sand. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness and implementability of the mass-balance method for application to more complex porous media. The results indicate that interfacial areas measured with the mass-balance method are consistent with values obtained with the miscible-displacement method. This includes results for a soil, for which solid-phase adsorption was a significant component of total tracer retention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The mass balance of the ice plain of Ice Stream B and Crary Ice Rise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The region in the mouth of Ice Stream B (the ice plain) and that in the vicinity of Crary Ice Rise are experiencing large and rapid changes. Based on velocity, ice thickness, and accumulation rate data, the patterns of net mass balance in these regions were calculated. Net mass balance, or the rate of ice thickness change, was calculated as the residual of all mass fluxes into and out of subregions (or boxes). Net mass balance provides a measure of the state of health of the ice sheet and clues to the current dynamics.

  1. Ranking of factors determining potassium mass balance in bicarbonate haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Teutonico, Annalisa; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Lomonte, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    One of the most important pathogenetic factors involved in the onset of intradialysis arrhytmias is the alteration in electrolyte concentration, particularly potassium (K(+)). Two studies were performed: Study A was designed to investigate above all the isolated effect of the factor time t on intradialysis K(+) mass balance (K(+)MB): 11 stable prevalent Caucasian anuric patients underwent one standard (∼4 h) and one long-hour (∼8 h) bicarbonate haemodialysis (HD) session. The latter were pair-matched as far as the dialysate and blood volume processed (90 L) and volume of ultrafiltration are concerned. Study B was designed to identify and rank the other factors determining intradialysis K(+)MB: 63 stable prevalent Caucasian anuric patients underwent one 4-h standard bicarbonate HD session. Dialysate K(+) concentration was 2.0 mmol/L in both studies. Blood samples were obtained from the inlet blood tubing immediately before the onset of dialysis and at t60, t120, t180 min and at end of the 4- and 8-h sessions for the measurement of plasma K(+), blood bicarbonates and blood pH. Additional blood samples were obtained at t360 min for the 8 h sessions. Direct dialysate quantification was utilized for K(+)MBs. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for K(+) measurements. Study A: mean K(+)MBs were significantly higher in the 8-h sessions (4 h: -88.4 ± 23.2 SD mmol versus 8 h: -101.9 ± 32.2 mmol; P = 0.02). Bivariate linear regression analyses showed that only mean plasma K(+), area under the curve (AUC) of the hourly inlet dialyser diffusion concentration gradient of K(+) (hcgAUCK(+)) and AUC of blood bicarbonates and mean blood bicarbonates were significantly related to K(+)MB in both 4- and 8-h sessions. A multiple linear regression output with K(+)MB as dependent variable showed that only mean plasma K(+), hcgAUCK(+) and duration of HD sessions per se remained statistically significant. Study B: mean K(+)MBs were -86.7 ± 22.6 mmol

  2. Surface mass balance reanalysis of Taku and Lemon Creek glaciers, Alaska: 1946-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Christopher

    We reanalyzed geodetic and glaciological surface mass balance records of Taku and Lemon Creek glaciers for the period 1946--2015 to determine what has driven the contradictory behavior of these glaciers. During the past century, Taku Glacier has been increasing in area and mass, while Lemon Creek Glacier has simultaneously shrunk in area and mass. Between 1948 and 1999 geodetic mass balance rates are +0.33+/-0.34 m w.e. a--1 for Taku Glacier and 0.61+/-0.34 m w.e. a--1 for Lemon Creek Glacier. Geodetic mass balance rates decreased to +0.01+/-0.23 m w.e. a--1 and --0.65 +/-0.23 m w.e. a--1 for Taku and Lemon Creek glaciers respectively, between 1999 and 2013. We updated the glaciological analysis of annual field data, and found no significant difference between updated and previous annual mass balance solutions (p--value < 0.001). We used the geodetic mass balance to calibrate annual glaciological estimates between 1946 and 2015, removing systematic biases of +0.06 m w.e. a--1 from the Taku Glacier record and --0.06 m w.e. a --1 from the Lemon Creek Glacier record. Comparing mass balance anomalies we determined inter--annual variability of surface mass balance is the same for Taku and Lemon Creek glaciers. However, differences in glacier specific hypsometry and mass balance profile drive systematic differences in both annual and long--term glacier mass balance rates.

  3. Modeling the mass balance of the Wolverine Glacier Alaska USA using the PTAA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, D.

    2010-12-01

    Glaciers in Alaska have been increasingly losing mass over the last several decades. This trend is especially apparent in South-Central Alaska where many glaciers are undergoing rapid changes and contributing substantially to rising sea levels (Arendt et al., 2002). It is important to understand the rates at which these glaciers are losing mass as well as the important climatic drivers to better prepare for what the future holds in this region and the rest of the world. This work compares glacier mass balance data modeled through the Precipitation-Temperature Area Altitude (PTAA) mass balance model for the Wolverine Glacier in the Kenai Peninsula in South-Central Alaska to observed data from the USGS “benchmark” glacier program in order to help validate the model. The mass balance data are also correlated with climate data in order to understand the main climatic drivers of the glacier mass balance in this region.

  4. Glacier modeling in support of field observations of mass balance at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, Edward G.; Bidlake, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The long-term USGS measurement and reporting of mass balance at South Cascade Glacier was assisted in balance years 2006 and 2007 by a new mass balance model. The model incorporates a temperature-index melt computation and accumulation is modeled from glacier air temperature and gaged precipitation at a remote site. Mass balance modeling was used with glaciological measurements to estimate dates and magnitudes of critical mass balance phenomena. In support of the modeling, a detailed analysis was made of the "glacier cooling effect" that reduces summer air temperature near the ice surface as compared to that predicted on the basis of a spatially uniform temperature lapse rate. The analysis was based on several years of data from measurements of near-surface air temperature on the glacier. The 2006 and 2007 winter balances of South Cascade Glacier, computed with this new, model-augmented methodology, were 2.61 and 3.41 mWE, respectively. The 2006 and 2007 summer balances were -4.20 and -3.63 mWE, respectively, and the 2006 and 2007 net balances were -1.59 and -0.22 mWE. PDF version of a presentation on the mass balance of South Cascade Glacier in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  5. Glaciers and climate change: Interpretation of 50 years of direct mass balance of Hintereisferner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Direct mass balance data of Hintereisferner glacier annually measured for fifty years were reanalyzed and bias-corrected. The glacier area and the patterns of the spatial distribution of specific mass balance were homogenized using the measured data and the current methods of modern mass balance analysis on Hintereisferner. The homogenized mass balance shows a good agreement with the geodetic and the hydrological mass balance. The comparison with modelled mass balance and measured temperature data showed that the homogenized mass balance correlated best with TS sum ( R2 = 0.76) followed by the simple degree-day sum ( R2 = 0.60) and the mean summer temperature ( R2 = 0.55). From that and from the calculation of the effects of albedo changes follows that the frequency and duration of summer snowfalls play an important role in the summer ablation of the glacier. The analysis of sub areas shows that at high elevations mass balance is dominated by the influence of winter precipitation. At low elevations, the increasingly negative mass balance was a result of the increase of the mean summer temperatures and the decrease of surface elevation. Between 1953 and 2003, the surface of the glacier tongue lowered by 160 m. This corresponds to a temperature increase of about 1 °C at the surface 2003 compared to the surface 1953. In the same period, the potential incoming solar radiation during the summer is reduced by the surface lowering. Comparing the effect of these two factors, the impact of the topographic temperature change on mass balance is much higher than the impact of increased shading. At higher elevations, the effect of topographic changes is small compared to changes in the mean surface albedo. The separation of glacier tributaries has been decreasing the inflow of ice to the main tongue. The mass balance of the glacier parts connected to the main tongue decreases faster than the mass balance of the total area. Therefore, the retreat of Hintereisferner is governed

  6. Mass balance of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago using a combination of remote sensing and climate modeling techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciraci, E.; Velicogna, I.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) hosts some of the largest glaciers and ice caps (GIC) outside Greenland and Antarctica and contains one-third of the global volume of land ice outside the ice sheets. Recent observations from satellite and airborne data indicate a large mass loss in that region. Here, we use time series of time-variable gravity from the NASA/DLR GRACE mission using a mascon approach to update the ice mass balance of this region till present. We find a mass loss of 73 Gt/year for April 2003 - December 2013. The mass loss per unit area is disproportionally large compared to that of the entire Greenland Ice Sheet. At the basin scale, we examine laser altimetry records from NASA's ICESat-1 (2003-2009) and Operation IceBridge's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) to delineate areas of thinning and compare the results with surface mass balance (SMB) output products from the Regional Atmospheric and Climate Model (RACMO). We detect the signature of enhanced thinning along some of the CAA fast moving glaciers. Finally, we assemble a reference map of ice velocity from satellite radar interferometry, which we combine with existing ice thickness data to assess the mass flux and state of mass balance of the largest, fast-moving glaciers. Ice velocity from different years (1996 - 2006 - 2013) is used to construct time series of mass loss from the mass budget method. Combining these different sets of information, we address the issue of the partitioning of the mass loss between changes in SMB (essentially melt) and changes in ice dynamics (acceleration of glacier flow) to provide insights about the cause of the CAA change in mass balance in the last decades.

  7. Remote Sensing of Cryosphere: Estimation of Mass Balance Change in Himalayan Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambinakudige, Shrinidhi; Joshi, Kabindra

    2012-07-01

    Glacial changes are an important indicator of climate change. Our understanding mass balance change in Himalayan glaciers is limited. This study estimates mass balance of some major glaciers in the Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) in Nepal using remote sensing applications. Remote sensing technique to measure mass balance of glaciers is an important methodological advance in the highly rugged Himalayan terrain. This study uses ASTER VNIR, 3N (nadir view) and 3B (backward view) bands to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for the SNP area for the years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005. Glacier boundaries were delineated using combination of boundaries available in the Global land ice measurement (GLIMS) database and various band ratios derived from ASTER images. Elevation differences, glacial area, and ice densities were used to estimate the change in mass balance. The results indicated that the rate of glacier mass balance change was not uniform across glaciers. While there was a decrease in mass balance of some glaciers, some showed increase. This paper discusses how each glacier in the SNP area varied in its annual mass balance measurement during the study period.

  8. Reconstruction of specific mass balance for glaciers in Western Himalaya using seasonal sensitivity characteristic(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddam, Vinay Kumar; Kulkarni, Anil V.; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal sensitivity characteristics (SSCs) were developed for Naradu, Shaune Garang, Gor Garang and Gara glaciers, Western Himalaya to quantify the changes in mean specific mass balance using monthly temperature and precipitation perturbations. The temperature sensitivities were observed high during summer (April-October) and precipitation sensitivities during winter months (November-March), respectively. The reconstructed mass balance correlates well with the field and remote sensing measurements, available between 1980 and 2014. Further, SSCs were used with the monthly mean temperatures and precipitation estimates of ERA 20CM ensemble climate reanalysis datasets to reconstruct the specific mass balance for a period of 110 years, between 1900 and 2010. Mass balance estimates suggest that the Shaune Garang, Gor-Garang and Gara glaciers have experienced both positive and negative mass balance, whereas the Naradu glacier has experienced only negative mass balance since 1900 AD. Further, a cumulative loss of -133 ± 21.5 m.w.e was estimated for four glaciers during the observation period. This study is the first record from Indian Himalaya in evaluating the mass balance characteristics over a century scale.

  9. Glacier Sensitivity in the Monsoonal Himalayas: Relative Contributions of Feedback Mechanisms to Regional Glacier Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. S.; Rupper, S.

    2016-12-01

    Despite their societal relevance, glacier mass balances across High Mountain Asia (HMA) remain poorly constrained due, in part, to the limited number of direct measurements, regional climate heterogeneity, and uncertainty in glacier mass balance models. Many studies that model glaciers throughout HMA cite surface feedbacks as an important factor affecting glacier melt, however, little has been done to actually quantify their effects. This study develops a fully distributed surface energy- and mass-balance model to quantify the contributions of 3 surface feedbacks to glacier mass balance. The 3 target feedbacks are an accumulation/snow depth feedback, a sensible heat feedback, and an albedo feedback. The model follows well-known energy balance methods, but includes unique "switches" which allow individual feedbacks to be independently turned on and off. The model applies meteorological inputs from the High Asia Refined analysis to an idealized glacier for 4 different climate settings in HMA. The results show that surface feedbacks increase melt by up to 67% for a +1°C temperature forcing, but that feedback contributions vary significantly under different climate settings. For any given glacier, the feedback strength is highest near the equilibrium line altitude. Furthermore, feedbacks that directly reduce surface albedo consistently contribute the most to glacier mass loss. Feedback magnitude depends most strongly on the frequency of snowfall events occurring concurrently with the melt season, and on the magnitude of incoming shortwave radiation for that region. These results highlight the potential significance of feedbacks on glacier mass balance in HMA, what conditions maximize these feedback magnitudes, and what regions are likely most sensitive to them. They also highlight physical processes that need to be especially well constrained in future glacier mass balance models for glaciers in regions with high feedback sensitivity. Creating glacier mass balance

  10. Annual and seasonal mass balances of Chhota Shigri Glacier (benchmark glacier, Western Himalaya), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Arindan; Ramanathan, Alagappan; Farooq Azam, Mohd; Wagnon, Patrick; Vincent, Christian; Linda, Anurag; Sharma, Parmanand; Angchuk, Thupstan; Bahadur Singh, Virendra; Pottakkal, Jose George; Kumar, Naveen; Soheb, Mohd

    2015-04-01

    Several studies on Himalayan glaciers have been recently initiated as they are of particular interest in terms of future water supply, regional climate change and sea-level rise. In 2002, a long-term monitoring program was initiated on Chhota Shigri Glacier (15.7 square km, 9 km long, 6263-4050 m a.s.l.) located in Lahaul and Spiti Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India. This glacier lies in the monsoon-arid transition zone (western Himalaya) and is a representative glacier in Lahaul and Spiti Valley. While annual mass balances have been measured continuously since 2002 using the glaciological method, seasonal scale observations began in 2009. The annual and seasonal mass balances were then analyzed along with meteorological conditions in order to understand the role of winter and summer balances on annual glacier-wide mass balance of Chhota Shigri glacier. During the period 2002-2013, the glacier experienced a negative glacier-wide mass balance of -0.59±0.40 m w.e. a-1 with a cumulative glaciological mass balance of -6.45 m w.e. Annual glacier-wide mass balances were negative except for four years (2004/05, 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11) where it was generally close to balanced conditions. Equilibrium line altitude (ELA) for steady state condition is calculated as 4950 m a.s.l. corresponding to an accumulation area ratio (AAR) of 62% using annual glacier-wide mass balance, ELA and AAR data between 2002 and 2013. The winter glacier-wide mass balance between 2009 and 2013 ranges from a maximum value of 1.38 m w.e. in 2009/10 to a minimum value of 0.89 in 2012/13 year whereas the summer glacier-wide mass balance varies from the highest value of -0.95 m w.e. in 2010/11 to the lowest value of -1.72 m w.e. in 2011/12 year. The mean vertical mass balance gradient between 2002 and 2013 was 0.66 m w.e. (100 m)-1 quite similar to Alps, Nepalese Himalayas etc. Over debris covered area, the gradients are highly variable with a negative mean value of -2.15 m w.e. (100 m)-1 over 2002

  11. Mass-Balance Fluctuations of Glaciers in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josberger, E. G.; Bidlake, W. R.; March, R. S.; Kennedy, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    The mass balance of mid-latitude glaciers of the Pacific Northwest and southern Alaska fluctuates in response to changes in the regional and global atmospheric climate. More than 40 years of net and seasonal mass balance records by the U.S. Geological Survey for South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, show annual and inter-annual fluctuations that reflect the controlling climatic conditions. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the Northeast Pacific Ocean, and the winter balances are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO). Gulkana Glacier is more isolated from maritime influences and the net balance variation is more closely linked to the summer balance. By the late 1970's, mass-balance records for the three were long enough to reflect the 1976-77 shift in PDO from negative to positive. Both maritime glaciers responded, with net balance of South Cascade Glacier becoming consistently negative and that of Wolverine Glacier becoming predominantly positive. The overall trend of negative mass balance continued through 2004 for South Cascade Glacier, where the 1977 to 2004 cumulative net balance was about -22 meters water equivalent (mweq). After a gain of about 7 mweq, the trend of positive net balance for Wolverine Glacier ended in 1989. Beginning in 1989, the net balance trend for Wolverine Glacier became predominantly negative and the cumulative net balance for 1989 to 2004 was about -14 mweq. Net balance of Gulkana Glacier did not respond appreciably to the 1976-77 PDO shift. The cumulative net balance for Gulkana Glacier from the beginning of the record (1966) through 1988 was about -3 mweq. The major change in trend of mass balance occurred in 1989, when net balance became almost exclusively negative. The cumulative net balance during 1989 through 2004 was about 13 mweq. As a result trends in net balance had become strongly negative for more

  12. A possible change in mass balance of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets in the coming century

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmura, A.; Wild, M.; Bengtsson, L.

    1996-09-01

    A high-resolution GCM is found to simulate precipitation and surface energy balance of high latitudes with high accuracy. This opens new possibilities to investigate the future mass balance of polar glaciers and its effect on sea level. The surface mass balance of the Greenland and the Antarctic ice sheets is simulated using the ECHAM3 GCM with T106 horizontal resolution. With this model, two 5-year integrations for the present and doubled carbon dioxide conditions based on the boundary conditions provided by the ECHAM1/T21 transient to what extent the effect of climate change on the mass balance on the two largest glaciers of the world can differ. On Greenland one sees a slight decrease in accumulation and a substantial increase in melt, while on Antarctica a large increase in accumulation without melt is projected. Translating the mass balances into terms of sea-level equivalent, the Greenland discharge causes a sea level rise of 1.1 mm yr{sup {minus}1}, while the accumulation on Antarctica tends to lower it by 0.9 mm yr{sup {minus}1}. The change in the combined mass balance of the two continents is almost zero. The sea level change of the next century can be affected more effectively by the thermal expansion of seawater and the mass balance of smaller glaciers outside of Greenland and Antarctica. 24 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. The Regional Mass Balance of Lombardy Alps (Italy) during 2007-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonardi, L.; La Barbera, L.; Scotti, R.; Villa, F.

    2012-04-01

    The regional mass balance project aims to estimate the mass balance of Lombardy glaciers (Central Alps, Italy) over the survey period 2007-2011. A network of 52 stakes was established, where measurements were taken yearly. The network was designed to cover 15 of the largest glaciers within the region, as well as to inspect all the glaciarized mountain sectors. Given the geographical representativity, the methodology applied for surveying mass balance at a regional scale followed an elevation criteria. The 244 Lombardy glaciers, for a total surface of 90.4 km2, were considered as one and a classical glaciological mass balance was implemented. Seven elevation ranges were identified, and stakes where positioned accordingly. The correlation between the specific balance and aspect of single stakes was so weak that this parameter was not taken into account. A mass balance value was associated to each altitude range, averaging the measurements taken at the correspondent stakes. In cases of stakes showing a considerably different trend in comparison to the average of the same altitude, a separate analysis was carried out and they were considered representative of the specific glacier only. The consistency of the field measurements was confirmed by the evidences emerged from the monitoring data and pictures collected every year for the Servizio Glaciologico Lombardo glaciological survey, and from projects of glaciological and geodetic mass balance carried out on specific glaciers.Altitude ranges and glaciers surface have been updated to 2007 thanks to newly available Digital Surface Models and aerial photos. The results show a strong negative mass balance: approx. - 615 million cubic meters of water over five years. The hydrological year 2006/2007 accounted for 30% of the loss while the less negative mass balance was recorded in 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 (accounting for 15% of the total loss each). Considering the regional glaciers volume in 2003, it is relevant to notice

  14. An Examination of Family Communication within the Core and Balance Model of Family Leisure Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kevin M.; Freeman, Patti A.; Zabriskie, Ramon B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine family communication within the core and balance model of family leisure functioning. The study was conducted from a youth perspective of family leisure and family functioning. The sample consisted of youth (N= 95) aged 11 - 17 from 25 different states in the United States. Path analyses indicated that…

  15. Tree-ring based mass balance estimates along the North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malcomb, N.; Wiles, G. C.

    2009-12-01

    Glacier mass balance reconstructions provide a means of placing short-term mass balance observations into a longer-term context. In western North America, most instrumental records of mass balance are limited in duration and capture only a narrow window of glacial behavior over an interval that is dominated by warming and ablation. Tree-ring series from northwestern North America are used to reconstruct annual mass balance for Gulkana and Wolverine Glaciers in Alaska, Peyto and Place Glaciers in British Columbia, and South Cascade and Blue Glaciers in Washington State. Mass balance models rely on the temperature and precipitation sensitivity of the tree-ring chronologies and mass balance records, as well as teleconnections along the North Pacific sector. The reconstructions extend through the latter portions of the Little Ice Age (LIA) and highlight the role of decadal and secular-scale climate change in forcing mass balance. Net mass balance reconstructions are broadly consistent with the moraine record that coincides with two major intervals of positive mass balance and with cooling related to the Maunder and Dalton solar minima. Secular warming in the later portions of the 19th and the 20th centuries corresponds with a pronounced interval of negative mass balance, and model instability after 1980. These trends show that the marked changes in glacier systems over recent decades throughout the Northwestern Cordillera are unique for the last several centuries and furthermore, suggest that modest gains forced by increasing precipitation over the latter 20th century in coastal settings are not sufficient to force glacier expansion or moraine building. Reconstructed (blue) and instrumental (red) net mass balances, Northern Hemisphere Temperature anomalies (Wilson et al., 2007), and PDO index (MacDonald and Case, 2005). A= Gulkana Glacier, B=Wolverine Glacier, C=Peyto Glacier, D=Place Glacier, E=South Cascade, F=Blue Glacier, G=PDO index, and H=Northern Hemisphere

  16. Modelled and observed mass balance of Rikha Samba Glacier, Nepal, Central Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurung, T. R.; Kayastha, R. B.; Fujita, K.; Sinisalo, A. K.; Stumm, D.; Joshi, S.; Litt, M.

    2016-12-01

    Glacier mass balance variability has an implication for the regional water resources and it helps to understand the response of glacier to climate change in the Himalayan region. Several mass balance studies have been started in the Himalayan region since 1970s, but they are characterized by frequent temporal gaps and a poor spatial representatively. This study aims at bridging the temporal gaps in a long term mass balance series of the Rikha Samba glacier (5383 - 6475 m a.s.l.), a benchmark glacier located in the Hidden Valley, Mustang, Nepal. The ERA Interim reanalysis data for the period 2011-2015 is calibrated with the observed meteorological variables from an AWS installed near the glacier terminus. We apply an energy mass balance model, validated with the available in-situ measurements for the years 1998 and 2011-2015. The results show that the glacier is shrinking at a moderate negative mass balance rate for the period 1995 to 2015 and the high altitude location of Rikha Samba also prevents a bigger mass loss compared to other small Himalayan glaciers. Precipitation from July to January and the mean air temperature from June to October are the most influential climatic parameters of the annual mass balance variability of Rikha Samba glacier.

  17. Comparison of direct and geodetic mass balances on an annual time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.; Schneider, H.; Merkel, G.; Sailer, R.

    2011-02-01

    Very accurate airborne laserscanning (ALS) elevation data was used to calculate the annual volume changes for Hintereisferner and Kesselwandferner in the Ötztal Alps, Austria for 2001/2002-2008/2009. The comparison of the altitude of 51 recently GPS surveyed ground control points showed that the accuracy of the ALS DEMs is better than 0.3 m. The geodetic mass balance was calculated from the volume change using detailed maps of the firn cover and applying corrections for the seasonal snow cover. The maximum snow height at the time of the elevation data flight was 0.5 m averaged over the glacier surface. The volume change data was compared to in situ mass balance data for the total area and at the stakes. For the total period of 8 yr, the difference between the geodetic and the direct mass balance is 2.398 m w.e. on Hintereisferner and 1.380 m w.e. on Kesselwandferner, corresponding to about two times the mean annual mass balance. The vertical ice flow velocity was measured and found to be on the same order of magnitude as the mass balance at KWF. This is an indicator that volume change data does not allow the calculation of ablation or accumulation rates without detailed measurements or models of the vertical ice flow velocity. Therefore, only direct mass balance data allow process studies or investigation of the climatic controls of the resulting mass changes.

  18. The Mass Balance of Glacier No. 1 at the Headwaters of the Urumqi River in Relation to Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Feifei; Hao, Zhenchun

    2017-04-01

    Most small glaciers in the world have significantly decreased their volume during the last century, which has caused water shortage problems. Glacier No. 1, at the headwaters of the Urumqi River, Tianshan, China, has been monitored since 1959 and similarly has experienced significant mass and volume losses over the last few decades. Thus, we examined the trend and potential abrupt changes of the mass balance of Glacier No. 1. Principal component analysis and singular value decomposition were used to find significant relations between the mass balance of Glacier No. 1 and Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns using climate indices. It was found that the mass balance of Glacier No. 1 had a significantly decreasing trend corresponding to -14.5 mm/year from 1959 to 2010. A change point was detected in 1997 with 99% confidence level. Two time periods with different mass balances were identified as 1959-1996 and 1997-2010. The mass balance for the first period was -136.4 mm/year and up to -663.9 mm/year for the second period. The mass balance of Glacier No. 1 is positively related to the Scandinavian Pattern (SCA), and negatively related to the East Atlantic Pattern (EA). These relationships are useful in better understanding the interaction between glacier mass balance and climate variability.

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-09-08

    The purpose of this calculation document is to develop the bases for the material balances of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Level 1 Process Flow Diagram (PFD). The attached mass balances support revision two of the PFD for the MCO and provide future reference.

  20. Mass-balance approach for assessing nitrate flux intidal wetlands -- lessons learned

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field experiments were carried out in 2010 and 2011 to assess the nitrate balance in a small tidal slough located in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon. In 2010 we used a whole-slough, mass-balance approach, while a smaller scale, flume-like experiment in a tidal channel with a dense ...

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869.

  2. Mass-balance modelling of Ak-Shyirak massif Glaciers, Inner Tian Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rets, Ekaterina; Barandun, Martina; Belozerov, Egor; Petrakov, Dmitry; Shpuntova, Alena

    2017-04-01

    Tian Shan is a water tower of Central Asia. Rapid and accelerating glacier downwasting is typical for this region. Study sites - Sary-Tor glacier and Glacier No.354 are located in Ak-Shyirak massif, Naryn headwaters. Sary-Tor was chosen as representative for Ak-Shyirak (Ushnurtsev, 1991; Oledeneniye TianShanya, 1995) for direct mass-balance measurements in 1985-1991. Glacier No.354 was an object of direct mass-balance measurements for 2011-2016. An energy-balance distributed A-Melt model (Rets et al, 2010) was used to reconstruct mass-balance for the glaciers for 2003-2015. Verification of modelingresults showed a good reproduction of direct melting measurements data on ablation stakes and mass loss according to geodetic method. Modeling results for Glacier No. 354 were compared to different modeling approach: distributed accumulation and temperature-index melt (Kronenberg et al, 2016)

  3. COMBINING PREDICTION AND MONITORING FOR REDUCTION OF TOXICS: THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on PCBs and the primary findings of mathematical modeling including the mass balance of PCBs for Lake Michigan and forecasts of future concentrations of PCBs in lake trout.

  4. GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SURFACE SEDIMENTS COLLECTED DURING THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan Mass Balance (LMMB) study, a national demonstration program within EPA, was initiated to develop improved strategies for management and control of toxic chemicals in the coastal environment. The...

  5. Composition of Meridiani Hematite-rich Spherules: A Mass-Balance Mixing-Model Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Athena Science Team

    2005-03-01

    A mass-balance model using APXS data and microscopic images indicates that the composition of spherules ("blueberries"), found at the Meridiani site by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity and thought to be concretions, contain ~45-60 wt% hematite.

  6. Mercury mass balance in Lake Michigan--the knowns and unknowns

    EPA Science Inventory

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  7. Mercury mass balance in Lake Michigan--the knowns and unknowns

    EPA Science Inventory

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  8. Point measurements of surface mass balance, Eklutna Glacier, Alaska, 2008-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, Louis; Loso, Michael G.; Geck, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This data set consists of a time-series of direct measurements of glacier surface mass balance, at Eklutna Glacier, Alaska. It includes seasonal measurements of winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation.

  9. Torsion-balance experiments and ultra-low-mass fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrano, William

    2017-01-01

    Many of the solutions to outstanding problems in modern cosmology posit new, ultra-light fields. Unifying General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics appears to require new ultra-light fields at some level. Such fields are also invoked to drive inflation and dark energy. Ultra-light fields may also make up much or all of the dark matter density of the universe. Torsion pendulums, a technology that dates to the 18th century, remain one of the most sensitive experimental techniques to search for ultra-light, weakly interacting fields. I will explain how torsion balance experiments can search for beyond-the-standard-model fields using laboratory-based as well as galactic sources, and the important cosmological implications of these measurements. I will also describe a new experimental signature for which certain torsion balance geometries make very sensitive direct dark matter detectors over a broad range of interesting dark matter parameter space.

  10. Myths and methodologies: Making sense of exercise mass and water balance.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Montain, Scott J

    2017-09-01

    What is the topic of this review? There is a need to revisit the basic principles of exercise mass and water balance, the use of common equations and the practice of interpreting outcomes. What advances does it highlight? We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying exercise mass and water balance calculations in conditions where food is not consumed and waste is not excreted: ∆body mass - 0.20 g/kcal(-1)  = ∆body water. The relative efficacy of exercise drinking behaviours can be judged using the following equation: percentage dehydration = [(∆body mass - 0.20 g kcal(-1) )/starting body mass] × 100. Changes in body mass occur because of flux in liquids, solids and gases. This knowledge is crucial for understanding metabolism, health and human water needs. In exercise science, corrections to observed changes in body mass to estimate water balance are inconsistently applied and often misinterpreted, particularly after prolonged exercise. Although acute body mass losses in response to exercise can represent a close surrogate for body water losses, the discordance between mass and water balance equivalence becomes increasingly inaccurate as more and more energy is expended. The purpose of this paper is briefly to clarify the roles that respiratory water loss, gas exchange and metabolic water production play in the correction of body mass changes for fluid balance determinations during prolonged exercise. Computations do not include waters of association with glycogen because any movement of water among body water compartments contributes nothing to water or mass flux from the body. Estimates of sweat loss from changes in body mass should adjust for non-sweat losses when possible. We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying the study of exercise mass and water balance: ∆body mass - 0.20 g kcal(-1)  = ∆body water. This equation directly controls for the influence of energy expenditure on body mass

  11. A new mascon approach to assess global ice sheet and glacier mass balances from GRACE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, Ernst; Rietbroek, Roelof; Wouters, Bert

    2013-04-01

    Purpose of this paper is to assess the mass balances of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), Ice Sheets over Antarctica (AIS) and Land Glaciers and Ice Caps (LGIC) with a new method that yields monthly mass variations at 10242 mascons. Input for this algorithm are level 2 data from the GRACE system between 2002.7 and 2012.2. An ensemble of recently updated GIA models based upon new ice history models show for Greenland a mass change of -271 ± 21 Gt/yr which is compatible with mass balances computed from the ICE-5G based GIA models. Whereas the mass balances for the GrIS appear to be insensitive to GIA modeling uncertainties this is not anymore the case for the mass-balance of Antarctica. Ice history models for Antarctica were recently improved and updated historic ice height datasets and GPS time series have been used to generate new GIA models for Antarctica. We investigated the performance of two new GIA models dedicated for Antarctica and found an average mass balance of -91 ± 27 Gt/yr which is approximately 88 Gt/yr less negative than a mass balance derived with the ICE-5g based GIA models. The largest GIA model differences occur on East Antarctica; within the analyzed time window two episodic events occurred in 2009 and 2011 on Dronning Maud land which are related to extreme weather events. The mass balance of land glaciers and ice caps currently stands at -174 ± 8 Gt/yr for which there is no alternative other than to use an ICE-5G based GIA models. We assess the mass-driven part of sea level rise budget at 1.48 ± 0.04 mm/yr which is 0.25 mm/yr less than obtained with traditional GIA models.

  12. Daily physical activity as determined by age, body mass and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2015-06-01

    Insight into the determinants of physical activity, including age, body mass and energy balance, facilitates the design of intervention studies with body mass and energy balance as determinants of health and optimal performance. An analysis of physical activity energy expenditure in relation to age and body mass and in relation to energy balance, where activity energy expenditure is derived from daily energy expenditure as measured with doubly labelled water and body movement is measured with accelerometers, was conducted in healthy subjects under daily living conditions over intervals of one or more weeks. Activity energy expenditure as a fraction of daily energy expenditure is highest in adults at the reproductive age. Then, activity energy expenditure is a function of fat-free mass. Excess body mass as fat does not affect daily activity energy expenditure, but body movement decreases with increasing fatness. Overweight and obesity possibly affect daily physical activity energy expenditure through endurance. Physical activity is affected by energy availability; a negative energy balance induces a reduction of activity expenditure. Optimal performance and health require prevention of excess body fat and maintenance of energy balance, where energy balance determines physical activity rather than physical activity affecting energy balance.

  13. Mass-balance modelling of Chhota Shigri and Patsio glacier in western Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Markus; Kumar, Pankaj; Li, Lu; Ramanathan, Alagappan

    2016-04-01

    Projections of glacier mass-balance evolution in the Himalayas are afflicted with high uncertainty due to the diversity of the climatic conditions and the extremes in topographical relief. Large spatial variations in glacier mass balances are connected with the diverse precipitation patterns. While there are indications of recent glacier retreats in the Himalayas, only few glaciers have been monitored over long periods. In 2002, a long term continuous monitoring programme of glacier mass balance was started on Chhota Shigri glacier (15.7 km²). During the period 2002-2013, measurements show an average glacier-wide mass balance of -0.59±0.12 m w.e. after near zero annual mass balances in the 1990s. On Patsio glacier (2.3 km²) mass-balance studies were initiated in 2010. We apply a mass-balance model for the glaciers Chhota Shigri and Patsio using gridded data from two different regional climate models: 1) the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model for the period 1970-2005 (on 50 km resolution) and 1996-2005 (on 3 km resolution), and 2) the regional climate model REMO for the period and 1989-2013 (25 km resolution). The data are downscaled from its grid resolution to the glacier grid (300 m). Additional input are daily potential global radiation values, calculated using a digital elevation model (DEM) at a resolution of 30 m and considering slope, aspect and shading of the surrounding topography. The mass-balance model calculates snow accumulation, melt and runoff on a sub-daily (hourly) time scale. Calibration and validation data are the available seasonal and annual mass-balance measurements together with point measurements of temperature, precipitation and radiation. Results show that this region of the Himalayas is situated in the transition zone between areas where the annual glacier mass balance ba is controlled by summer temperature and areas where ba is controlled by winter precipitation. In addition, summer snowfalls are a major influencing factor on

  14. Mass balance for a meteoric ice layer of the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Cheng, X.; Hui, F.

    2011-12-01

    Snow accumulation on the upper surface and melting from the lower surface are important to the mass balance of an ice shelf. However the ice shelf surface accumulation measurements are only available from stakes, firn-core records and automatic weather station (AWS) measurements. The total mass balance can be obtained from the continuity equation by employing the steady-state assumption. But it is hardly used to calculate the mass balance, due to the lack of spatially continuous data, the uncertainty of ice flow properties, and other limitations. With the recently structural glaciological description and more updated datasets, a modified mass-balance model for a meteoric ice layer was developed and applied to a longitudinal flowband of the Amery ice shelf, East Antarctica. The datasets of ice velocity and meteoric ice thickness are employed. Here, the changes in ice flow velocity, meteoric ice thickness on the centre flowline, as well as flowband width with the distance along the flowband was modeled by piecewise cubic polynomial fitting. The original model overestimates the mass balance. We introduce a ratio to modify it model with only one observation. The model was then used to simulate the mass balance of a meteoric ice layer along a longitudinal flowband that extends some 300 km all way to the calving front. Sensitivity tests showed that the modeled mass balance is nearly equally sensitive to changes in ice flow velocity, ice thickness, and flow width. But there is more uncertainty with changes in flow width because the flowband boundary is delineated manually. The results were compared to observations and previous studies, which showed that the model ignoring the changes in flow width has better simulation result. The calculated specific mass balance of the meteoric ice layer is from 0.6812 m/a near the ice shelf front to -0.2645 m/a 300 km far away from the ice shelf front.

  15. Determination of Interannual to Decadal Changes in Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Busalacchi, Antonioa J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A major uncertainty in predicting sea level rise is the sensitivity of ice sheet mass balance to climate change, as well as the uncertainty in present mass balance. Since the annual water exchange is about 8 mm of global sea level equivalent, the +/- 25% uncertainty in current mass balance corresponds to +/- 2 mm/yr in sea level change. Furthermore, estimates of the sensitivity of the mass balance to temperature change range from perhaps as much as - 10% to + 10% per K. Although the overall ice mass balance and seasonal and inter-annual variations can be derived from time-series of ice surface elevations from satellite altimetry, satellite radar altimeters have been limited in spatial coverage and elevation accuracy. Nevertheless, new data analysis shows mixed patterns of ice elevation increases and decreases that are significant in terms of regional-scale mass balances. In addition, observed seasonal and interannual variations in elevation demonstrate the potential for relating the variability in mass balance to changes in precipitation, temperature, and melting. From 2001, NASA's ICESat laser altimeter mission will provide significantly better elevation accuracy and spatial coverage to 86 deg latitude and to the margins of the ice sheets. During 3 to 5 years of ICESat-1 operation, an estimate of the overall ice sheet mass balance and sea level contribution will be obtained. The importance of continued ice monitoring after the first ICESat is illustrated by the variability in the area of Greenland surface melt observed over 17-years and its correlation with temperature. In addition, measurement of ice sheet changes, along with measurements of sea level change by a series of ocean altimeters, should enable direct detection of ice level and global sea level correlations.

  16. Determination of Interannual to Decadal Changes in Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Busalacchi, Antonioa J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A major uncertainty in predicting sea level rise is the sensitivity of ice sheet mass balance to climate change, as well as the uncertainty in present mass balance. Since the annual water exchange is about 8 mm of global sea level equivalent, the +/- 25% uncertainty in current mass balance corresponds to +/- 2 mm/yr in sea level change. Furthermore, estimates of the sensitivity of the mass balance to temperature change range from perhaps as much as - 10% to + 10% per K. Although the overall ice mass balance and seasonal and inter-annual variations can be derived from time-series of ice surface elevations from satellite altimetry, satellite radar altimeters have been limited in spatial coverage and elevation accuracy. Nevertheless, new data analysis shows mixed patterns of ice elevation increases and decreases that are significant in terms of regional-scale mass balances. In addition, observed seasonal and interannual variations in elevation demonstrate the potential for relating the variability in mass balance to changes in precipitation, temperature, and melting. From 2001, NASA's ICESat laser altimeter mission will provide significantly better elevation accuracy and spatial coverage to 86 deg latitude and to the margins of the ice sheets. During 3 to 5 years of ICESat-1 operation, an estimate of the overall ice sheet mass balance and sea level contribution will be obtained. The importance of continued ice monitoring after the first ICESat is illustrated by the variability in the area of Greenland surface melt observed over 17-years and its correlation with temperature. In addition, measurement of ice sheet changes, along with measurements of sea level change by a series of ocean altimeters, should enable direct detection of ice level and global sea level correlations.

  17. System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator Jae-Jun Kim∗ and Brij N. Agrawal † Department of...TITLE AND SUBTITLE System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...and Dynamics, Vol. 20, No. 4, July-August 1997, pp. 625-632. 6Schwartz, J. L. and Hall, C. D., “ System Identification of a Spherical Air-Bearing

  18. Comparison of direct and geodetic mass balances on a multi-annual time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.

    2011-02-01

    The geodetic mass balances of six Austrian glaciers over 19 periods between 1953 and 2006 are compared to the direct mass balances over the same periods. For two glaciers, Hintereisferner and Kesselwandferner, case studies showing possible reasons for discrepancies between the geodetic and the direct mass balance are presented. The mean annual geodetic mass balance for all periods is -0.5 m w.e. a-1, the mean annual direct mass balance -0.4 m w.e. a-1. The mean cumulative difference is -0.6 m w.e., the minimum -7.3 m w.e., and the maximum 5.6 m w.e. The accuracy of geodetic mass balance may depend on the accuracy of the DEMs, which ranges from 2 m w.e. for photogrammetric data to 0.02 m w.e. for airborne laser scanning (LiDAR) data. Basal melt, seasonal snow cover, and density changes of the surface layer also contribute up to 0.7 m w.e. to the difference between the two methods over the investigated period of 10 yr. On Hintereisferner, the fraction of area covered by snow or firn has been changing within 1953-2006. The accumulation area is not identical with the firn area, and both are not coincident with areas of volume gain. Longer periods between the acquisition of the DEMs do not necessarily result in a higher accuracy of the geodetic mass balance. Trends in the difference between the direct and the geodetic data vary from glacier to glacier and can differ systematically for specific glaciers under specific types of climate forcing. Ultimately, geodetic and direct mass balance data are complementary, and great care must be taken when attempting to combine them.

  19. Distributed modeling of snow cover mass and energy balance in the Rheraya watershed (High Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchane, Ahmed; Gascoin, Simon; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine

    2016-04-01

    The mountains of the High Moroccan Atlas represent an important source of water for the neighboring arid plains. Despite the importance of snow in the regional water balance, few studies were devoted to the modeling of the snow cover at the watershed scale. This type of modeling is necessary to characterize the contribution of snowmelt to water balance and understanding its sensitivity to natural and human-induced climate fluctuations. In this study, we applied a spatially-distributed model of the snowpack evolution (SnowModel, Liston & Elder 2006) on the Rheraya watershed (225 km²) in the High Atlas in order to simulate the mass and energy balance of the snow cover and the evolution of snow depth over a full season (2008-2009). The model was forced by 6 meteorological stations. The model was evaluated locally at the Oukaimeden meteorological station (3230 m asl) where snow depth is recorded continuously. To evaluate the model at the watershed scale we used the daily MODIS snow cover products and a series of 15 cloud-free optical images acquired by the FORMOSAT-2 satellite at 8-m resolution from February to June 2009. The results showed that the model is able to simulate the snow depth in the Oukaimeden station for the 2008-2009 season, and also to simulate the spatial and temporal variation of of the snow cover area in the watershed Rheraya. Based on the model output we examine the importance of the snow sublimation on the water balance at the watershed scale.

  20. Analysis of balance beam deformation in the inertial mass measurement experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhuang; Zhang, Zhonghua; Li, Zhengkun; Li, Shisong

    2017-09-01

    This paper provides an analysis of mechanical balance beam deformation in the inertial mass measurement experiment since 2012. The relation between the applied test masses and three types of mechanical elastic deformation of the balance beam, i.e. the changes of rotational inertia, beam length and mass center, are discussed. It is found that changes in the rotational inertia and beam length are high order small quantities of the test mass, and a mechanically optimized balance beam which has good mechanical strength and a light structure is adopted to decrease the influence of the two types of deformation. The mass center change, being proportional to the test mass, has the most impact and can be compensated by a novel mass center compensation approach. Simulations and experiments confirm the effectiveness of the new balance beam and the mass center compensation method. It is emphasized that the analysis of the beam deformation in this paper can also be applied in other experiments where mechanical deformation of the balance beam needs to be considered.

  1. Examining the nomological network of satisfaction with work-life balance.

    PubMed

    Grawitch, Matthew J; Maloney, Patrick W; Barber, Larissa K; Mooshegian, Stephanie E

    2013-07-01

    This study expands on past work-life research by examining the nomological network of satisfaction with work-life balance-the overall appraisal or global assessment of how one manages time and energy across work and nonwork domains. Analyses using 456 employees at a midsized organization indicated expected relationships with bidirectional conflict, bidirectional facilitation, and satisfaction with work and nonwork life. Structural equation modeling supported the utility of satisfaction with balance as a unique component of work-life interface perceptions. Results also indicated that satisfaction with balance mediated the relationship between some conflict/facilitation and life satisfaction outcomes, though conflict and facilitation maintained unique predictive validity on domain specific outcomes (i.e., work-to-life conflict and facilitation with work life satisfaction; life-to-work conflict and facilitation with nonwork life satisfaction).

  2. Detailed High Mountain Asia glacier mass balance from ASTER stereo imagery (2000-2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Fanny; Etienne, Berthier; Wagnon, Patrick; Kääb, Andreas; Treichler, Désirée

    2017-04-01

    Regionally-averaged mass balances are crucial to assess glacier contribution to sea level rise, but there is also a need to document volume and mass changes of individual glaciers to better understand their individual interaction with climate, their contribution to local downstream hydrology and verify glacier mass balance models. In High Mountain Asia (HMA), there is currently a lack of up-to-date region-wide estimates of mass changes as the most complete studies relied on ICESat, which operated only until 2009. The ICESat sampling is also relatively sparse. Alternatively, other studies measured glacier volume changes from DEM differences, often relying on SRTM as one reference. The latter estimates are potentially subject to bias introduced by radar signal penetration into snow and ice, and they have a limited spatial coverage. The estimates based on the measurement of changes in the Earth gravity field using GRACE are also subject to potential biases because of the strong hydrological signal induced by the monsoon and human groundwater pumping, and the low spatial resolution of GRACE. Here we address these limitations by computing the mass balance of 96% of the 87,000 glaciers (91,000 km2) in HMA using time series of digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER). The strength of our method lies in the use of a homogeneous and extensive (> 50,000 stereo scenes) set of DEMs that we generate in-house from ASTER stereo images. Our ASTER-derived volume changes and mass balances are validated against earlier geodetic estimates from optical (SPOT5, Pléiades) and radar (SRTM, TanDEM-X) imagery in the Mont-Blanc area (European Alps) and selected glaciers and regions of HMA. We calculate an HMA-wide mass balance of -0.18 m w.e. yr-1 (-16.1 Gt yr-1) during 2000-2016. The obtained pattern of mass loss is consistent with previous estimates, as we found positive mass balance for Kunlun Shan, near zero mass balance

  3. BALANCE

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  4. Forecasting Glacier Evolution and Hindcasting Paleoclimates In Light of Mass Balance Nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, A.; Doughty, A. M.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers are commonly used barometers of present and past climate change, with their variations often being linked to shifts in the mean climate. Climate variability within a unchanging mean state, however, can produce short term mass balance and glacier length anomalies, complicating this linkage. Also, the mass balance response to this variability can be nonlinear, possibly impacting the longer term state of the glacier. We propose a conceptual model to understand these nonlinearities and quantify their impacts on the longer term mass balance and glacier length. The relationship between mass balance and elevation, i.e. the vertical balance profile (VBP), illuminates these nonlinearities (Figure A). The VBP, given here for a wet tropical glacier, is piecewise, which can lead to different mass balance responses to climate anomalies of similar magnitude but opposite sign. We simulate the mass balance response to climate variability by vertically (temperature anomalies) and horizontally (precipitation anomalies) transposing the VBP for the mean climate (Figure A). The resulting anomalous VBP is the superposition of the two translations. We drive a 1-D flowline model with 10,000 years of anomalous VBPs. The aggregate VBP for the mean climate including variability differs from the VBP for the mean climate excluding variability, having a higher equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and a negative mass balance (Figure B). Accordingly, the glacier retreats, and the equilibrium glacier length for the aggregate VBP is the same as the mean length from the 10,000 year flowline simulation (Figure C). The magnitude of the VBP shift and glacier retreat increases with greater temperature variability and larger discontinuities in the VBP slope. These results highlight the importance of both the climate mean and variability in determining the longer term state of the glacier. Thus, forecasting glacier evolution or hindcasting past climates should also include representation of climate

  5. Glacier mass-balance fluctuations in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josberger, Edward G.; Bidlake, William R.; March, Rod S.; Kennedy, Ben W.

    2007-10-01

    The more than 40 year record of net and seasonal mass-balance records from measurements made by the United States Geological Survey on South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, shows annual and interannual fluctuations that reflect changes in the controlling climatic conditions at regional and global scales. As the mass-balance record grows in length, it is revealing significant changes in previously described glacier mass-balance behavior, and both inter-glacier and glacier-climate relationships. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Their net balances have generally been controlled by winter accumulation, with fluctuations that are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Recently, warm dry summers have begun to dominate the net balance of the two maritime glaciers, with a weakening of the correlation between the winter balance fluctuations and the PDO. Non-synchronous periods of positive and negative net balance for each glacier prior to 1989 were followed by a 1989-2004 period of synchronous and almost exclusively negative net balances that averaged -0.8 m for the three glaciers.

  6. Glacier mass-balance fluctuations in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, E.G.; Bidlake, W.R.; March, R.S.; Kennedy, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    The more than 40 year record of net and seasonal mass-balance records from measurements made by the United States Geological Survey on South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, shows annual and interannual fluctuations that reflect changes in the controlling climatic conditions at regional and global scales. As the mass-balance record grows in length, it is revealing significant changes in previously described glacier mass-balance behavior, and both inter-glacier and glacier-climate relationships. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Their net balances have generally been controlled by winter accumulation, with fluctuations that are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Recently, warm dry summers have begun to dominate the net balance of the two maritime glaciers, with a weakening of the correlation between the winter balance fluctuations and the PDO. Non-synchronous periods of positive and negative net balance for each glacier prior to 1989 were followed by a 1989-2004 period of synchronous and almost exclusively negative net balances that averaged -0.8 m for the three glaciers.

  7. Group Balance Training Specifically Designed for Individuals With Alzheimer Disease: Impact on Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go, Gait Speed, and Mini-Mental Status Examination.

    PubMed

    Ries, Julie D; Hutson, Janet; Maralit, Leslie A; Brown, Megan B

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Alzheimer disease (IwAD) experience more frequent and more injurious falls than their cognitively intact peers. Evidence of balance and gait dysfunction is observed earlier in the course of Alzheimer disease (AD) than once believed. Balance training has been demonstrated to be effective in improving balance and decreasing falls in cognitively intact older adults but is not well studied in IwAD. This study was designed to analyze the effects of a group balance training program on balance and falls in IwAD. The program was developed specifically for IwAD, with explicit guidelines for communication/interaction and deliberate structure of training sessions catered to the motor learning needs of IwAD. This prospective, quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design study describes the effects of a balance training program for a cohort of IwAD. Thirty IwAD were recruited from 3 adult day health centers; 22 completed at least 1 posttest session. Participants were tested with Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Self-Selected Gait Speed (SSGS), Fast Gait Speed (FGS), and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) immediately before and after the 3-month intervention and again 3 months later. Group training was held at the adult day health centers for 45 minutes, twice per week. Sessions were characterized by massed, constant, and blocked practice of functional, relevant activities with considerable repetition. Ratio of participant to staff member never exceeded 3:1. Physical therapist staff members assured that participants were up on their feet the majority of each session and were individually challenged as much as possible. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for BBS was significant (F = 15.04; df = 1.67/28.40; P = .000) with post hoc tests, revealing improvement between pretest and immediate posttest (P = .000) and decline in performance between immediate and 3-month posttest (P = .012). Repeated-measures ANOVA posttest for MMSE was

  8. Comparison of geodetic and glaciological mass-balance techniques, Gulkana Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, L.H.; March, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    The net mass balance on Gulkana Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A., has been measured since 1966 by the glaciological method, in which seasonal balances are measured at three index sites and extrapolated over large areas of the glacier. Systematic errors can accumulate linearly with time in this method. Therefore, the geodetic balance, in which errors are less time-dependent, was calculated for comparison with the glaciological method. Digital elevation models of the glacier in 1974, 1993 and 1999 were prepared using aerial photographs, and geodetic balances were computed, giving - 6.0??0.7 m w.e. from 1974 to 1993 and - 11.8??0.7 m w.e. from 1974 to 1999. These balances are compared with the glaciological balances over the same intervals, which were - 5.8??0.9 and -11.2??1.0 m w.e. respectively; both balances show that the thinning rate tripled in the 1990s. These cumulative balances differ by <6%. For this close agreement, the glaciologically measured mass balance of Gulkana Glacier must be largely free of systematic errors and be based on a time-variable area-altitude distribution, and the photography used in the geodetic method must have enough contrast to enable accurate photogrammetry.

  9. Compact Sensitive Piezoelectric Mass Balance for Measurement of Unconsolidated Materials in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Yen, Jesse T.

    2010-01-01

    In many in-situ instruments information about the mass of the sample could aid in the interpretation of the data and portioning instruments might require an accurate sizing of the sample mass before dispensing the sample. In addition, on potential sample return missions a method to directly assess the captured sample size would be required to determine if the sampler could return or needs to continue attempting to acquire sample. In an effort to meet these requirements piezoelectric balances were developed using flextensional actuators which are capable of monitoring the mass using two methods. A piezoelectric balance could be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric which is linear with force, or it could be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change. In this case of the latter, the piezoelectric actuator/balance would be swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a mass is added to the balance the resonance frequency would shift down proportionally to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift the mass could be determined. This design would allow for two independent measurements of the mass. In microgravity environments spacecraft thrusters could be used to provide acceleration in order to produce the required force for the first technique or to bring the mass into contact with the balance in the second approach. In addition, the measuring actuators, if driven at higher voltages, could be used to fluidize the powder to aid sample movement. In this paper, we outline some of our design considerations and present the results of a few prototype balances that we have developed.

  10. Compact Sensitive Piezoelectric Mass Balance for Measurement of Unconsolidated Materials in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Yen, Jesse T.

    2010-01-01

    In many in-situ instruments information about the mass of the sample could aid in the interpretation of the data and portioning instruments might require an accurate sizing of the sample mass before dispensing the sample. In addition, on potential sample return missions a method to directly assess the captured sample size would be required to determine if the sampler could return or needs to continue attempting to acquire sample. In an effort to meet these requirements piezoelectric balances were developed using flextensional actuators which are capable of monitoring the mass using two methods. A piezoelectric balance could be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric which is linear with force, or it could be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change. In this case of the latter, the piezoelectric actuator/balance would be swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a mass is added to the balance the resonance frequency would shift down proportionally to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift the mass could be determined. This design would allow for two independent measurements of the mass. In microgravity environments spacecraft thrusters could be used to provide acceleration in order to produce the required force for the first technique or to bring the mass into contact with the balance in the second approach. In addition, the measuring actuators, if driven at higher voltages, could be used to fluidize the powder to aid sample movement. In this paper, we outline some of our design considerations and present the results of a few prototype balances that we have developed.

  11. Local reduction of decadal glacier thickness loss through mass balance management in ski resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Andrea; Helfricht, Kay; Stocker-Waldhuber, Martin

    2016-11-01

    For Austrian glacier ski resorts, established in the 1970s and 1980s during a period of glacier advance, negative mass balances with resulting glacier area loss and decrease in surface elevation present an operational challenge. Glacier cover, snow farming, and technical snow production were introduced as adaptation measures based on studies on the effect of these measures on energy and mass balance. After a decade of the application of the various measures, we studied the transition from the proven short-term effects of the measures on mass balance to long-term effects on elevation changes. Based on lidar digital elevation models and differential GPS measurements, decadal surface elevation changes in 15 locations with mass balance management were compared to those without measures (apart from piste grooming) in five Tyrolean ski resorts on seven glaciers. The comparison of surface elevation changes presents clear local differences in mass change, and it shows the potential to retain local ice thickness over 1 decade. Locally up to 21.1 m ± 0.4 m of ice thickness was preserved on mass balance managed areas compared to non-maintained areas over a period of 9 years. In this period, mean annual thickness loss in 15 of the mass balance managed profiles is 0.54 ± 0.04 m yr-1 lower (-0.23 ± 0.04 m yr-1on average) than in the respective reference areas (-0.78 ± 0.04 m yr-1). At two of these profiles the surface elevation was preserved altogether, which is promising for a sustainable maintenance of the infrastructure at glacier ski resorts. In general the results demonstrate the high potential of the combination of mass balance management by snow production and glacier cover, not only in the short term but also for multi-year application to maintain the skiing infrastructure.

  12. Glaciological and geodetic mass balance of ten long-term glaciers in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreassen, L. M.; Elvehøy, H.; Kjøllmoen, B.; Engeset, R. V.

    2015-11-01

    The glaciological and geodetic methods provide independent observations of glacier mass balance. The glaciological method measures the surface mass balance, on a seasonal or annual basis, whereas the geodetic method measures surface, internal and basal mass balances, over a period of years or decades. In this paper, we reanalyse the 10 glaciers with long-term mass balance series in Norway. The reanalysis includes (i) homogenisation of both glaciological and geodetic observation series, (ii) uncertainty assessment, (iii) estimates of generic differences including estimates of internal and basal melt, (iv) validation, and (v) partly calibration of mass balance series. This study comprises an extensive set of data (454 mass balance years, 34 geodetic surveys and large volumes of supporting data, such as metadata and field notes). In total, 21 periods of data were compared and the results show discrepancies between the glaciological and geodetic methods for some glaciers, which in part are attributed to internal and basal ablation and in part to inhomogeneity in the data processing. Deviations were smaller than 0.2 m w.e. a-1 for 12 out of 21 periods. Calibration was applied to seven out of 21 periods, as the deviations were larger than the uncertainty. The reanalysed glaciological series shows a more consistent signal of glacier change over the period of observations than previously reported: six glaciers had a significant mass loss (14-22 m w.e.) and four glaciers were nearly in balance. All glaciers have lost mass after year 2000. More research is needed on the sources of uncertainty, to reduce uncertainties and adjust the observation programmes accordingly. The study confirms the value of carrying out independent high-quality geodetic surveys to check and correct field observations.

  13. Reanalysis of long-term series of glaciological and geodetic mass balance for 10 Norwegian glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreassen, Liss M.; Elvehøy, Hallgeir; Kjøllmoen, Bjarne; Engeset, Rune V.

    2016-03-01

    Glaciological and geodetic methods provide independent observations of glacier mass balance. The glaciological method measures the surface mass balance, on a seasonal or annual basis, whereas the geodetic method measures surface, internal, and basal mass balances, over a period of years or decades. In this paper, we reanalyse the 10 glaciers with long-term mass-balance series in Norway. The reanalysis includes (i) homogenisation of both glaciological and geodetic observation series, (ii) uncertainty assessment, (iii) estimates of generic differences including estimates of internal and basal melt, (iv) validation, and, if needed, (v) calibration of mass-balance series. This study comprises an extensive set of data (484 mass-balance years, 34 geodetic surveys, and large volumes of supporting data, such as metadata and field notes). In total, 21 periods of data were compared and the results show discrepancies between the glaciological and geodetic methods for some glaciers, which are attributed in part to internal and basal ablation and in part to inhomogeneity in the data processing. Deviations were smaller than 0.2 m w.e. a-1 for 12 out of 21 periods. Calibration was applied to 7 out of 21 periods, as the deviations were larger than the uncertainty. The reanalysed glaciological series shows a more consistent signal of glacier change over the period of observations than previously reported: six glaciers had a significant mass loss (14-22 m w.e.) and four glaciers were nearly in balance. All glaciers have lost mass after the year 2000. More research is needed on the sources of uncertainty to reduce uncertainties and adjust the observation programmes accordingly. The study confirms the value of carrying out independent high-quality geodetic surveys to check and correct field observations.

  14. Human mass balance study of the novel anticancer agent ixabepilone using accelerator mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Garner, R. C.; Cohen, M. B.; Galbraith, S.; Duncan, G. F.; Griffin, T.; Beijnen, J. H.; Schellens, J. H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Ixabepilone (BMS-247550) is a semi-synthetic, microtubule stabilizing epothilone B analogue which is more potent than taxanes and has displayed activity in taxane-resistant patients. The human plasma pharmacokinetics of ixabepilone have been described. However, the excretory pathways and contribution of metabolism to ixabepilone elimination have not been determined. To investigate the elimination pathways of ixabepilone we initiated a mass balance study in cancer patients. Due to autoradiolysis, ixabepilone proved to be very unstable when labeled with conventional [14C]-levels (100 μCi in a typical human radio-tracer study). This necessitated the use of much lower levels of [14C]-labeling and an ultra-sensitive detection method, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Eight patients with advanced cancer (3 males, 5 females; median age 54.5 y; performance status 0–2) received an intravenous dose of 70 mg, 80 nCi of [14C]ixabepilone over 3 h. Plasma, urine and faeces were collected up to 7 days after administration and total radioactivity (TRA) was determined using AMS. Ixabepilone in plasma and urine was quantitated using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Mean recovery of ixabepilone-derived radioactivity was 77.3% of dose. Fecal excretion was 52.2% and urinary excretion was 25.1%. Only a minor part of TRA is accounted for by unchanged ixabepilone in both plasma and urine, which indicates that metabolism is a major elimination mechanism for this drug. Future studies should focus on structural elucidation of ixabepilone metabolites and characterization of their activities. PMID:17347871

  15. Insight into glacier climate interaction: reconstruction of the mass balance field using ice extent data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visnjevic, Vjeran; Herman, Frédéric; Licul, Aleksandar

    2016-04-01

    With the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), about 20 000 years ago, ended the most recent long-lasting cold phase in Earth's history. We recently developed a model that describes large-scale erosion and its response to climate and dynamical changes with the application to the Alps for the LGM period. Here we will present an inverse approach we have recently developed to infer the LGM mass balance from known ice extent data, focusing on a glacier or ice cap. The ice flow model is developed using the shallow ice approximation and the developed codes are accelerated using GPUs capabilities. The mass balance field is the constrained variable defined by the balance rate β and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA), where c is the cutoff value: b = max(βṡ(S(z) - ELA), c) We show that such a mass balance can be constrained from the observed past ice extent and ice thickness. We are also investigating several different geostatistical methods to constrain spatially variable mass balance, and derive uncertainties on each of the mass balance parameters.

  16. Error diagnostics and data reconciliation for activated sludge modelling using mass balances.

    PubMed

    Meijer, S C F; van der Spoel, H; Susanti, S; Heijne, J J; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2002-01-01

    Research on activated sludge models is mainly directed towards the reliability and estimation of model coefficients. Model calculations however, rely heavily on accurate determination of operational conditions. Accurate measurement of operational conditions and mass flows is difficult, caused by large (full-scale) process flows and the absence of reliable measurements. Therefore operational data should be verified on (gross) errors before being implemented in model studies. Calibrating a model on erroneous mass flows leads to laborious calibration procedures and moreover, unjustified adaptation of the model (kinetic and stoichiometric) parameters. Gross error detection is possible when there are more measurements than strictly required to solve a system of linear conservation relations (mass balances). A simple method for error detection is evaluating the mass balance residuals. For over determined systems data accuracy can be improved using balancing methods (i.e. minimising balance residuals). This is referred to as data reconciliation. A reconciled data set contains fewer errors and is exactly in line with the mass balances of the system. In this paper we describe a method for gross error detection and data reconciliation. It is shown how data reconciliation improves the accuracy of the data set and how the use of a balanced data set simplifies the model calibration procedure. This is demonstrated on the basis of a modelling study of a full-scale WWTP.

  17. Mass-balance measurements in Alaska and suggestions for simplified observation programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trabant, D.C.; March, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    US Geological Survey glacier fieldwork in Alaska includes repetitious measurements, corrections for leaning or bending stakes, an ability to reliably measure seasonal snow as deep as 10 m, absolute identification of summer surfaces in the accumulation area, and annual evaluation of internal accumulation, internal ablation, and glacier-thickness changes. Prescribed field measurement and note-taking techniques help eliminate field errors and expedite the interpretative process. In the office, field notes are transferred to computerized spread-sheets for analysis, release on the World Wide Web, and archival storage. The spreadsheets have error traps to help eliminate note-taking and transcription errors. Rigorous error analysis ends when mass-balance measurements are extrapolated and integrated with area to determine glacier and basin mass balances. Unassessable errors in the glacier and basin mass-balance data reduce the value of the data set for correlations with climate change indices. The minimum glacier mass-balance program has at least three measurement sites on a glacier and the measurements must include the seasonal components of mass balance as well as the annual balance.

  18. Understanding Recent Mass Balance Changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderVeen, Cornelius

    2003-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to better understand the current transfer of mass between the Greenland Ice Sheet, the world's oceans and the atmosphere, and to identify processes controlling the rate of this transfer, to be able to predict with greater confidence future contributions to global sea level rise. During the first year of this project, we focused on establishing longer-term records of change of selected outlet glaciers, reevaluation of mass input to the ice sheet and analysis of climate records derived from ice cores, and modeling meltwater production and runoff from the margins of the ice sheet.

  19. Simulated rainfall study for transport of veterinary antibiotics--mass balance analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Chul; Davis, Jessica G; Truman, Clinton C; Ascough, James C; Carlson, Kenneth

    2010-03-15

    Occurrence of human and veterinary antibiotics has been reported in various environmental compartments. Yet, there is a lack of information verifying the transport mechanisms from source to environment, particularly the transport of veterinary antibiotics as a non-point source pollutant. A rainfall simulation study was conducted to address surface runoff as a possible transport mechanism of veterinary antibiotics introduced in the field and mass balance was calculated with supplementary surface and depth soil measurement. Seven veterinary antibiotics that are the most abundantly used in agriculture for therapeutic and non-therapeutic (growth-promotion) purposes were examined in this study, including tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamethazine (SMZ), erythromycin (ETM), tylosin (TYL), and monensin (MNS). Runoff in aqueous and sediment phases was collected every 5 min for 1h with varied rainfall intensity and additional surface (0-2 cm) and depth (2-30 cm) soil samples were collected after rainfall simulation for mass balance analysis. Quantification of antibiotic concentration in all collected samples was based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by measurement with high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). MNS showed the highest concentration in runoff aqueous samples (0.22 mg plot(-1)), while ETM showed the highest concentration in runoff sediment samples (0.08 mg plot(-1)). The highest concentration of each applied antibiotic in surface soil samples occurred at different locations. This result might indicate the mobility of these compounds in surface soil varies due to different physicochemical properties among the antibiotics. Further, the analysis results showed that all of the subject antibiotics had penetrated into the subsurface; yet, no residuals were found for STZ, suggesting this compound might have penetrated even deeper into the soil. These results indicate that aqueous or

  20. A high-resolution record of Greenland mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Malcolm; Leeson, Amber; Shepherd, Andrew; Briggs, Kate; Armitage, Thomas W. K.; Hogg, Anna; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Broeke, Michiel; Noël, Brice; Berg, Willem Jan; Ligtenberg, Stefan; Horwath, Martin; Groh, Andreas; Muir, Alan; Gilbert, Lin

    2016-07-01

    We map recent Greenland Ice Sheet elevation change at high spatial (5 km) and temporal (monthly) resolution using CryoSat-2 altimetry. After correcting for the impact of changing snowpack properties associated with unprecedented surface melting in 2012, we find good agreement (3 cm/yr bias) with airborne measurements. With the aid of regional climate and firn modeling, we compute high spatial and temporal resolution records of Greenland mass evolution, which correlate (R = 0.96) with monthly satellite gravimetry and reveal glacier dynamic imbalance. During 2011-2014, Greenland mass loss averaged 269 ± 51 Gt/yr. Atmospherically driven losses were widespread, with surface melt variability driving large fluctuations in the annual mass deficit. Terminus regions of five dynamically thinning glaciers, which constitute less than 1% of Greenland's area, contributed more than 12% of the net ice loss. This high-resolution record demonstrates that mass deficits extending over small spatial and temporal scales have made a relatively large contribution to recent ice sheet imbalance.

  1. Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet at High Elevations.

    PubMed

    Thomas; Akins; Csatho; Fahnestock; Gogineni; Kim; Sonntag

    2000-07-21

    Comparison of ice discharge from higher elevation areas of the entire Greenland Ice Sheet with total snow accumulation gives estimates of ice thickening rates over the past few decades. On average, the region has been in balance, but with thickening of 21 centimeters per year in the southwest and thinning of 30 centimeters per year in the southeast. The north of the ice sheet shows less variability, with average thickening of 2 centimeters per year in the northeast and thinning of about 5 centimeters per year in the northwest. These results agree well with those from repeated altimeter surveys, except in the extreme south, where we find substantially higher rates of both thickening and thinning.

  2. Improving Estimates of Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance with Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, K.

    2016-12-01

    Mass losses from the Greenland Ice Sheet have been accelerating over recent years (e.g. McMillan et al., 2016; Velicogna et al., 2014). This acceleration has predominantly been linked to increasing rates of negative surface mass balance, and in particular, increasing ice surface melt rates (e.g. McMillan et al., 2016; Velicogna et al., 2014). At the ice sheet scale, SMB is assessed using SMB model outputs, which in addition to enabling understanding of the origin of mass balance signals, are required as ancillary data in mass balance assessments from altimetry and the mass budget method. Due to the importance of SMB for mass balance over Greenland and the sensitivity of mass balance assessments to SMB model outputs, high accuracy of these models is crucial. A critical limiting factor in SMB modeling is however, a lack of in-situ data that is required for model constraint and evaluation. Such data is limited in time and space due to inherent logistical and financial constraints. Remote sensing datasets, being spatially extensive and relatively densely sampled in both space and time, do not suffer such constraints. Here, we show satellite observations of Greenland SMB. McMillan, M., Leeson, A., Shepherd, A., Briggs, K., Armitage, T. W.K., Hogg, A., Kuipers Munneke, P., van den Broeke, M., Noël, B., van de Berg, W., Ligtenberg, S., Horwath, M., Groh, A. , Muir, A. and Gilbert, L. 2016. A high resolution record of Greenland Mass Balance. Geophysical Research Letters. 43, doi:10.1002/2016GL069666 Velicogna, I., Sutterley, T. C. and van den Broeke, M. R. 2014. Regional acceleration in ice mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica using GRACE time-variable gravity data. Geophysical Research Letters. 41, 8130-8137, doi:10.1002/2014GL061052

  3. The mass balance approach: application to interpreting the chemical evolution of hydrologic systems.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Back, W.

    1980-01-01

    Mass balance calculations are applied to observed chemical and isotopic data of three natural water systems involving carbonate reactions in order to define mineral stoichiometry of reactants and products, relative rates of reactions, and mass transfer. One study evaluates reactions in a lagoon on the east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.- from Authors

  4. Mass Balance. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    This module describes the process used to determine solids mass and location throughout a waste water treatment plant, explains how these values are used to determine the solids mass balance around single treatment units and the entire system, and presents calculations of solids in pounds and sludge units. The instructor's manual contains a…

  5. Water vapor mass balance method for determining air infiltration rates in houses

    Treesearch

    David R. DeWalle; Gordon M. Heisler

    1980-01-01

    A water vapor mass balance technique that includes the use of common humidity-control equipment can be used to determine average air infiltration rates in buildings. Only measurements of the humidity inside and outside the home, the mass of vapor exchanged by a humidifier/dehumidifier, and the volume of interior air space are needed. This method gives results that...

  6. Surface mass balance of glaciers in the French Alps: distributed modeling and sensitivity to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbaux, M.; Genthon, C.; Etchevers, P.; Vincent, C.; Dedieu, J. P.

    A new physically based distributed surface mass-balance model is presented for Alpine glaciers. Based on the Crocus prognostic snow model, it resolves both the temporal (1 hour time-step) and spatial (200 m grid-step) variability of the energy and mass balance of glaciers. Mass-balance reconstructions for the period 1981 2004 are produced using meteorological reconstruction from the SAFRAN meteorological model for Glacier de Saint-Sorlin and Glacier d'Argentière, French Alps. Both glaciers lost mass at an accelerated rate in the last 23 years. The spatial distribution of precipitation within the model grid is adjusted using field mass-balance measurements. This is the only correction made to the SAFRAN meteorological input to the glacier model, which also includes surface atmospheric temperature, moisture, wind and all components of downward radiation. Independent data from satellite imagery and geodetic measurements are used for model validation. With this model, glacier sensitivity to climate change can be separately evaluated with respect to a full range of meteorological parameters, whereas simpler models, such as degree-day models, only account for temperature and precipitation. We provide results for both mass balance and equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) using a generic Alpine glacier. The sensitivity of the ELA to air temperature alone is found to be 125 m °C-1, or 160 m °C-1 if concurrent (Stefan Boltzmann) longwave radiation change is taken into account.

  7. Comparison of direct and geodetic mass balances on a multi-annual time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.

    2010-07-01

    Glacier mass balance is measured with the direct or the geodetic method. In this study, the geodetic mass balances of six Austrian glaciers in 19 periods between 1953 and 2006 are compared to the direct mass balances in the same periods. The mean annual geodetic mass balance for all periods is -0.5 m w.e./year. The mean difference between the geodetic and the direct data is -0.7 m w.e., the minimum -7.3 m w.e. and the maximum 5.6 m w.e. The accuracy of geodetic mass balance resulting from the accuracy of the DEMs ranges from 2 m w.e. for photogrammetric data to 0.002 m w.e. for LIDAR data. Basal melt, seasonal snow cover and density changes of the surface layer contribute up to 0.7 m w.e. for the period of 10 years to the difference to the direct method. The characteristics of published data of Griesgletscher, Gulkana Glacier, Lemon Creek glacier, South Cascade, Storbreen, Storglaciären, and Zongo Glacier is similar to these Austrian glaciers. For 26 analyzed periods with an average length of 18 years the mean difference between the geodetic and the direct data is -0.4 m w.e., the minimum -7.2 m w.e. and the maximum 3.6 m w.e. Longer periods between the acquisition of the DEMs do not necessarily result in a higher accuracy of the geodetic mass balance. Specific glaciers show specific trends of the difference between the direct and the geodetic data according to their type and state. In conclusion, geodetic and direct mass balance data are complementary, but differ systematically.

  8. Determination of the hypsometric variation of glacier surface mass balance sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, M.; Huintjes, E.; Buttstädt, M.; Schneider, C.

    2009-04-01

    The sensitivity of glacier surface mass balance on climate change is a key issue for any estimation of future glacier change as induced by global climate warming. It varies with geographical setting and forms typical characteristics for specific climatic conditions. The well-established method of Oerlemans and Reichert (2000) displays glacier mass balance sensitivity on changes in air temperature and precipitation regimes as monthly values forming a so-called ‘seasonal sensitivity matrix'. The derived matrices represent glaciers as a whole and thus depend on individual glacier topography. However, with oncoming climate warming glaciers will retreat and change their hypsometry. As surface mass balance depends on altitude it seems likely that also its variability does. This would imply that glacier surface mass balance sensitivity might change according to changing glacier surface topography in the course of their recession. Therefore, with regard to the estimation of future glacier change it can be concluded that there is a need to distribute glacier surface mass balance sensitivity over altitude. This would provide valuable information for the modelling of future glacier evolution. We present a method for altitudinal distribution of the seasonal sensitivity matrix. It was developed using meteorological and glaciological data from Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap (southernmost Chilean Patagonia). To demonstrate the wider applicability of this method it is transferred to Glacier No.1 (Chinese Tian Shan Mountains) and Martial Este Glacier (Tierra del Fuego). Results for Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap indicate a general increase of the surface mass balance sensitivity on air temperature changes during the summer months and a year-round overall decrease of the sensitivity with altitude. Regarding the sensitivity on precipitation changes a temporally unstructured pattern was obtained. However, a general increase of surface mass balance sensitivity on precipitation with altitude is

  9. Diagnosing the decline in climatic mass balance of glaciers in Svalbard over 1957-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ims Østby, Torbjørn; Vikhamar Schuler, Thomas; Ove Hagen, Jon; Hock, Regine; Kohler, Jack; Reijmer, Carleen H.

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the long-term mass balance of the high-Arctic Svalbard archipelago is difficult due to the incomplete geodetic and direct glaciological measurements, both in space and time. To close these gaps, we use a coupled surface energy balance and snow pack model to analyse the mass changes of all Svalbard glaciers for the period 1957-2014. The model is forced by ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, downscaled to 1 km resolution. The model is validated using snow/firn temperature and density measurements, mass balance from stakes and ice cores, meteorological measurements, snow depths from radar profiles and remotely sensed surface albedo and skin temperatures. Overall model performance is good, but it varies regionally. Over the entire period the model yields a climatic mass balance of 8.2 cm w. e. yr-1, which corresponds to a mass input of 175 Gt. Climatic mass balance has a linear trend of -1.4 ± 0.4 cm w. e. yr-2 with a shift from a positive to a negative regime around 1980. Modelled mass balance exhibits large interannual variability, which is controlled by summer temperatures and further amplified by the albedo feedback. For the recent period 2004-2013 climatic mass balance was -21 cm w. e. yr-1, and accounting for frontal ablation estimated by Błaszczyk et al.(2009) yields a total Svalbard mass balance of -39 cm w. e. yr-1 for this 10-year period. In terms of eustatic sea level, this corresponds to a rise of 0.037 mm yr-1. Refreezing of water in snow and firn is substantial at 22 cm w. e. yr-1 or 26 % of total annual accumulation. However, as warming leads to reduced firn area over the period, refreezing decreases both absolutely and relative to the total accumulation. Negative mass balance and elevated equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) resulted in massive reduction of the thick (> 2 m) firn extent and an increase in the superimposed ice, thin (< 2 m) firn and bare ice extents. Atmospheric warming also leads to a marked change in the thermal regime

  10. Present and future mass standards for the LNE watt balance and the future dissemination of the mass unit in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinot, Patrick; Beaudoux, Florian; Bentouati, Djilali; Espel, Patrick; Madec, Tanguy; Thomas, Matthieu; Silvestri, Zaccari; Ziane, Djamel; Piquemal, François

    2016-08-01

    The value of the Planck constant h was determined in 2014 by means of the LNE watt balance experiment. The relative standard uncertainty was 31 parts in 108. This first determination was performed in air with a 500 g mass standard made from XSH Alacrite. The main uncertainty components in air associated with the mass involve the calibration, the mass stability, the buoyancy correction and the magnetic interaction correction. The combined relative uncertainty due to the mass is 7.2 parts in 108. The use in 2016 of a mass standard made from platinum iridium alloy significantly reduces the component of uncertainty arising from the mass standard for a Planck constant measurement either in air or under vacuum. The relative uncertainty due to this contribution is estimated to be about 3 parts in 108 in air and one part in 108 under vacuum. The future system for the dissemination of the mass unit using the LNE watt balance will be based on a primary realization with three 500 g mass standards made from platinum-iridium alloy, pure iridium and Udimet 720 respectively, coupled with a pool of kilograms made from different materials. Pure iridium and Udimet 720 are new materials to make reference mass standards proposed by CNAM and LNE respectively and have never been used by any NMI for manufacturing mass standards until now. Some new results concerning their surface behavior are given.

  11. Mass balances on selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the New York-New Jersey Harbor.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Valle, Sandra N; Panero, Marta A; Muñoz, Gabriela R; Shor, Leslie M

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances on 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the New York-New Jersey Harbor (hereafter "the Harbor") were constructed using monitoring data from the water column, sediment, and atmosphere. Inputs considered included tributaries, atmospheric deposition, wastewater treatment plant discharges, combined sewer overflows (CSOs), and stormwater runoff. Removal processes examined included tidal exchange between the Harbor and the coastal Bight and Long Island Sound, volatilization, and accumulation or burial of sediment-bound PAHs in the Harbor. The PAHs investigated were fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, perylene, benzo[ghi]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene. The results show inputs and outputs are fairly well balanced for most compounds, a finding that suggests aerobic biodegradation may not be a key loss process in this Harbor, as has been assumed in other systems. The main pathway for inputs of all PAHs is stormwater runoff. Atmospheric deposition is an important conveyor of PAHs with molecular weights < or =202 g mol(-1). A principal objective of this report is to expose key data gaps, which include the need for comprehensive monitoring of both flow and PAH concentrations in stormwater and CSOs. An improved understanding of the key transmission routes of nonpoint source pollutants is essential for sustainable management of urban water resources.

  12. Uncertainty in Modeling Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing from Size Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chun; Chen, Siyu; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Kok, Jasper; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Huang, J.

    2013-11-05

    This study examines the uncertainties in simulating mass balance and radiative forcing of mineral dust due to biases in the aerosol size parameterization. Simulations are conducted quasi-globally (180oW-180oE and 60oS-70oN) using the WRF24 Chem model with three different approaches to represent aerosol size distribution (8-bin, 4-bin, and 3-mode). The biases in the 3-mode or 4-bin approaches against a relatively more accurate 8-bin approach in simulating dust mass balance and radiative forcing are identified. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach simulates similar but coarser size distributions of dust particles in the atmosphere, while the 3-mode pproach retains more fine dust particles but fewer coarse dust particles due to its prescribed og of each mode. Although the 3-mode approach yields up to 10 days longer dust mass lifetime over the remote oceanic regions than the 8-bin approach, the three size approaches produce similar dust mass lifetime (3.2 days to 3.5 days) on quasi-global average, reflecting that the global dust mass lifetime is mainly determined by the dust mass lifetime near the dust source regions. With the same global dust emission (~6000 Tg yr-1), the 8-bin approach produces a dust mass loading of 39 Tg, while the 4-bin and 3-mode approaches produce 3% (40.2 Tg) and 25% (49.1 Tg) higher dust mass loading, respectively. The difference in dust mass loading between the 8-bin approach and the 4-bin or 3-mode approaches has large spatial variations, with generally smaller relative difference (<10%) near the surface over the dust source regions. The three size approaches also result in significantly different dry and wet deposition fluxes and number concentrations of dust. The difference in dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) (a factor of 3) among the three size approaches is much larger than their difference (25%) in dust mass loading. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach yields stronger dust absorptivity, while the 3-mode

  13. Trends and variability in the global dataset of glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medwedeff, William G.; Roe, Gerard H.

    2017-05-01

    Glacier mass balance (i.e., accumulation and ablation) is the most direct connection between climate and glaciers. We perform a comprehensive evaluation of the available global network of mass-balance measurements. Each mass-balance time series is decomposed into a trend and the variability about that trend. Observed variability ranges by an order of magnitude, depending on climate setting (i.e., maritime vs continental). For the great majority of glaciers, variability is well characterized by normally distributed, random fluctuations that are uncorrelated between seasons, or in subsequent years. The magnitude of variability for both summer and winter is well correlated with mean wintertime balance, which reflects the climatic setting. Collectively, summertime variability exceeds wintertime variability, except for maritime glaciers. Trends in annual mass balance are generally negative, driven primarily by summertime changes. Approximately 25 % of annual-mean records show statistically significant negative trends when judged in isolation. In aggregate, the global trend is negative and significant. We further evaluate the magnitude of trends relative to the variability. We find that, on average, trends are approximately -0.2 standard deviations per decade, although there is a broad spread among individual glaciers. Finally, for two long records we also compare mass-balance trends and variability with nearby meteorological stations. We find significant differences among stations meaning caution is warranted in interpreting any point measurement (such as mass balance) as representative of region-wide behavior. By placing observed trends in the context of natural variability, the results are useful for interpreting past glacial history, and for placing constraints on future predictability.

  14. Trends and variability in the global dataset of glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medwedeff, William G.; Roe, Gerard H.

    2016-06-01

    Glacier mass balance (i.e., accumulation and ablation) is the most direct connection between climate and glaciers. We perform a comprehensive evaluation of the available global network of mass-balance measurements. Each mass-balance time series is decomposed into a trend and the variability about that trend. Observed variability ranges by an order of magnitude, depending on climate setting (i.e., maritime vs continental). For the great majority of glaciers, variability is well characterized by normally distributed, random fluctuations that are uncorrelated between seasons, or in subsequent years. The magnitude of variability for both summer and winter is well correlated with mean wintertime balance, which reflects the climatic setting. Collectively, summertime variability exceeds wintertime variability, except for maritime glaciers. Trends in annual mass balance are generally negative, driven primarily by summertime changes. Approximately 25 % of annual-mean records show statistically significant negative trends when judged in isolation. In aggregate, the global trend is negative and significant. We further evaluate the magnitude of trends relative to the variability. We find that, on average, trends are approximately -0.2 standard deviations per decade, although there is a broad spread among individual glaciers. Finally, for two long records we also compare mass-balance trends and variability with nearby meteorological stations. We find significant differences among stations meaning caution is warranted in interpreting any point measurement (such as mass balance) as representative of region-wide behavior. By placing observed trends in the context of natural variability, the results are useful for interpreting past glacial history, and for placing constraints on future predictability.

  15. Muscle strength rather than muscle mass is associated with standing balance in elderly outpatients.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y; Pasma, Jantsje H; Lambers, Dorine; Stijntjes, Marjon; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2013-07-01

    Assessment of the association of muscle characteristics with standing balance is of special interest, as muscles are a target for potential intervention (ie, by strength training). Cross-sectional study. Geriatric outpatient clinic. The study included 197 community-dwelling elderly outpatients (78 men, 119 women; mean age 82 years). Muscle characteristics included handgrip and knee extension strength, appendicular lean mass divided by height squared (ALM/height(2)), and lean mass as percentage of body mass. Two aspects of standing balance were assessed: the ability to maintain balance, and the quality of balance measured by Center of Pressure (CoP) movement during 10 seconds of side-by-side, semitandem, and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Logistic and linear regression models were adjusted for age, and additionally for height, body mass, cognitive function, and multimorbidity. Handgrip and knee extension strength, adjusted for age, were positively related to the ability to maintain balance with eyes open in side-by-side (P = .011; P = .043), semitandem (P = .005; P = .021), and tandem stance (P = .012; P = .014), and with eyes closed in side-by-side (P = .004; P = .004) and semitandem stance (not significant; P = .046). Additional adjustments affected the results only slightly. ALM/height(2) and lean mass percentage were not associated with the ability to maintain standing balance, except for an association between ALM/height(2) and tandem stance with eyes open (P = .033) that disappeared after additional adjustments. Muscle characteristics were not associated with CoP movement. Muscle strength rather than muscle mass was positively associated with the ability to maintain standing balance in elderly outpatients. Assessment of CoP movement was not of additional value. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biogeochemical mass balances in a turbid tropical reservoir. Field data and modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuong Doan, Thuy Kim; Némery, Julien; Gratiot, Nicolas; Schmid, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The turbid tropical Cointzio reservoir, located in the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), behaves as a warm monomictic water body (area = 6 km2, capacity 66 Mm3, residence time ~ 1 year). It is strategic for the drinking water supply of the city of Morelia, capital of the state of Michoacán, and for downstream irrigation during the dry season. This reservoir is a perfect example of a human-impacted system since its watershed is mainly composed of degraded volcanic soils and is subjected to high erosion processes and agricultural loss. The reservoir is threatened by sediment accumulation and nutrients originating from untreated waters in the upstream watershed. The high content of very fine clay particles and the lack of water treatment plants lead to serious episodes of eutrophication (up to 70 μg chl. a L-1), high levels of turbidity (Secchi depth < 30 cm) and a long period of anoxia (from May to October). Based on intensive field measurements in 2009 (deposited sediment, benthic chamber, water vertical profiles, reservoir inflow and outflow) we determined suspended sediment (SS), carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mass balances. Watershed SS yields were estimated at 35 t km2 y-1 of which 89-92 % were trapped in the Cointzio reservoir. As a consequence the reservoir has already lost 25 % of its initial storage capacity since its construction in 1940. Nutrient mass balances showed that 50 % and 46 % of incoming P and N were retained by sedimentation, and mainly eliminated through denitrification respectively. Removal of C by 30 % was also observed both by sedimentation and through gas emission. To complete field data analyses we examined the ability of vertical one dimensional (1DV) numerical models (Aquasim biogeochemical model coupled with k-ɛ mixing model) to reproduce the main biogeochemical cycles in the Cointzio reservoir. The model can describe all the mineralization processes both in the water column and in the sediment. The values of the

  17. Uncertainty in alpine snow mass balance simulations due to snow model parameterisation and windflow representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musselman, K. N.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Essery, R.; Leroux, N.

    2013-12-01

    Despite advances in alpine snow modelling there remain two fundamental areas of divergent scientific thought in estimating alpine snow mass balances: i) blowing snow sublimation losses, and ii) wind flow representation. Sublimation calculations have poorly understood humidity feedbacks that vary considerably and mathematical representations of alpine windflow vary in complexity - these differences introduce uncertainty. To better estimate and restrain this uncertainty, a variety of physically based, spatially distributed snowmelt models that consider the physics of wind redistribution and sublimation of blowing snow were evaluated for their ability to simulate seasonal snow distribution and melt patterns in a windy alpine environment in the Canadian Rockies. The primary difference in the snow models was their calculation of blowing snow sublimation losses which ranged from large to small estimates. To examine the uncertainty introduced by windflow calculations on the snow model simulations, each model was forced with output from windflow models of varying computational complexity and physical realism from a terrain-based empirical interpolation of station observations to a simple turbulence model to a computational fluid dynamics model that solves for the Navier-Stokes equations. The high-resolution snow simulations were run over a 1 km2 spatial extent centred on a ridgetop meteorological station within the Marmot Creek Research basin, Alberta, Canada. The three windflow simulations all produced reasonable results compared to wind speeds measured on two opposing slopes (bias better than ×0.3 m s-1; RMSE < 1.1 m s-1), however there was great sensitivity in SWE simulated by the snow models to the driving windflow simulation used. Specifically, there were distinct differences in the magnitude and location of snow drifts from all snow models that depended on the windflow scheme. When compared to measurements from airborne LiDAR, snow surveys, and automated snow depth

  18. Uncertainties associated with the estimation of mass balances and gaussian parameters from atmospheric tracer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, P.A.; Reible, D.D.; Shair, F.H.

    1982-07-01

    Data resulting from two atmospheric tracer experiments in the land-sea breeze winds in Los Angeles, CA are used to compare the observed and released amounts of tracer (a mass balance). The mass balance calculation indicated that essentially all of the tracer transported to sea during the land breeze was transpoted back across the shore during the subsequent sea breeze. A methodology for calculating a mass balance and the associated uncertainties is presented. The experimental and calculation procedures presented allowed mass balance estimates with less uncertainty than is present in individual measurements of concentration or mixing height. Similarly, a methodology for calculating dispersion parameters for the gaussian plume model from tracer data is discussed and applied to the results of two atmospheric tracer studies conducted during the afternoon sea breeze in the Santa Barbara Channel of California. The method presented involves the integral definitions of the statistical quantities. By considering only tracer concentrations greater than 10% of the maximum concentration, and by considering sufficiently many data points, the uncertainty associated with the parameter estimation was again less than the relative uncertainties in any individual data point. These studies were primarily designed to relate the uncertainties in estimates of mass balances and in estimations of gaussian parameters to the uncertainties inherent within field data.

  19. Calculation and Evaluation of the Mass Balance of Hintereisferner using Airborne LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollmann, Erik; Fischer, Andrea; Fritzmann, Patrick; Sailer, Rudolf; Stötter, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Since 2001 airborne LiDAR measurements have been carried out regularly at the Hintereisferner region (Ötztal, Tyrol, Austria). This results in a worldwide unique data set of 18 airborne LiDAR flight campaigns, which is primarily used for multitemporal glacial and periglacial surface analyses. The potential of this data set for the quantification of glacier surface elevation changes with high spatial and temporal resolution has already been shown in several studies. In this study we go beyond this stage and calculate the net mass balance of Hintereisferner by applying the geodetic method on regular raster digital elevation models (DEMs) with 1 m spatial resolution. The total geodetic net mass balance of the glacier is determined on an interannual time-scale as well as over the whole investigation period from 2001 - 2008. The accuracy of the geodetic net mass balance mainly depends on the accuracy of the input airborne LiDAR data and on density assumptions which have to be made to convert surface elevation changes to mass changes. To determine the accuracy of the LiDAR data and the derived DEMs, an accuracy assessment was computed comprising i) deviations between dGPS- and LiDAR-points, ii) errors resulting from point to raster conversion and iii) accuracy dependence of the DEMs on terrain slope angles. The calculated geodetic net mass balances of Hintereisferner are compared to results from the direct glaciological method. Mass balance calculations using the direct glaciological method already started in glaciological year 1952/53 and are continued up to the present day. Thus, a wide experience and well-founded knowledge on the application of the method at Hintereisferner was obtained and its accuracy is determined to be ± 100 mm water equivalent a-1 for the mean specific mass balance. Comparing the results of the geodetic method to direct measurements on the total net mass balance on an interannual time-scale, some stronger deviations between the two methods

  20. Internal melt as an important contributor to the total mass balance of Alpine glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberkorn, A.; Fischer, A.; Sailer, R.

    2012-04-01

    The total glacier mass balance is composed of the surface-, the internal- and the basal mass balance. Traditionally, the internal- and the basal mass change of a glacier are assumed to be negligible. During recent years, areas with exceptional high subsidence rates compared to their surroundings have been observed on several Alpine mountain glaciers which lead to the assumption that internal- or basal melt processes must play an important role at such locations. Detailed measurement campaigns were carried out at the tongue of Hintereisferner, Ötztal Alps, Austria, in 2009 and 2010, in order to assess the contribution of such processes to the local mass balance. We applied a multi-method approach, which includes direct surface mass balance measurements, digital elevation models (DEM) generated during four detailed differential GPS field surveys, ground penetrating radar (GPR) ice thickness measurements, a simple model of local ice dynamics, as well as a comparison of DEM gained by airborne laser scanning (ALS). The total mass change was derived by DGPS measurements and amounts to -475·106 kg. The surface mass change, obtained by the direct glaciological method is just -431·106 kg and the dynamical mass change due to the ice fluxes across the test site margins is 42·106 kg. Therefore, a substantial amount of ice must be removed by internal- or basal melt processes. Using the above mentioned values, the contribution of basal or internal melt is quantified with a value of -87·106 kg, which is a relative contribution to the total mass balance of 18%. This indicates that subglacial melt processes play a significant role at the study site.

  1. Overview of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance and Dynamics from ICESat Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the ICESat mission was to determine the present-day mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, identify changes that may be occurring in the surface-mass flux and ice dynamics, and estimate their contributions to global sea-level rise. Although ICESat's three lasers were planned to make continuous measurements for 3 to 5 years, the mission was re-planned to operate in 33-day campaigns 2 to 3 times each year following failure of the first laser after 36 days. Seventeen campaigns were conducted with the last one in the Fall of 2009. Mass balance maps derived from measured ice-sheet elevation changes show that the mass loss from Greenland has increased significantly to about 170 Gt/yr for 2003 to 2007 from a state of near balance in the 1990's. Increased losses (189 Gt/yr) from melting and dynamic thinning are over seven times larger'than increased gains (25 gt/yr) from precipitation. Parts of the West Antarctic ice sheet and the Antarctic Peninsula are losing mass at an increasing rate, but other parts of West Antarctica and the East Antarctic ice sheet are gaining mass at an increasing rate. Increased losses of 35 Gt/yr in Pine Island, Thwaites-Smith, and Marie-Bryd.Coast are more than balanced by gains in base of Peninsula and ice stream C, D, & E systems. From the 1992-2002 to 2003-2007 period, the overall mass balance for Antarctica changed from a loss of about 60 Gt/yr to near balance or slightly positive.

  2. Preliminary Examination of the Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.; Bird, L.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, the demand for renewable electricity has accelerated as a consequence of state and federal policies and the growth of voluntary green power purchase markets, along with the generally improving economics of renewable energy development. This paper reports on a preliminary examination of the supply and demand balance for renewable electricity in the United States, with a focus on renewable energy projects that meet the generally accepted definition of "new" for voluntary market purposes, i.e., projects installed on or after January 1, 1997. After estimating current supply and demand, this paper presents projections of the supply and demand balance out to 2010 and describe a number of key market uncertainties.

  3. Mass-balance Approach to Interpreting Weathering Reactions in Watershed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricker, O. P.; Jones, B. F.; Bowser, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    The mass-balance approach is conceptually simple and has found widespread applications in many fields over the years. For example, chemists use mass balance (Stumm and Morgan, 1996) to sum the various species containing an element in order to determine the total amount of that element in the system (free ion, complexes). Glaciologists use mass balance to determine the changes in mass of glaciers ( Mayo et al., 1972 and references therein). Groundwater hydrologists use this method to interpret changes in water balance in groundwater systems ( Rasmussen and Andreasen, 1959; Bredehoeft et al., 1982; Heath, 1983; Konikow and Mercer, 1988; Freeze and Cherry, 1979; Ingebritsen and Sanford, 1998). This method has also been used to determine changes in chemistry along a flow path ( Plummer et al., 1983; Bowser and Jones, 1990) and to quantify lake hydrologic budgets using stable isotopes ( Krabbenhoft et al., 1994). Blum and Erel (see Chapter 5.12) discuss the use of strontium isotopes, Chapelle (see Chapter 5.14) treats carbon isotopes in groundwater, and Kendall and Doctor (see Chapter 5.11) and Kendall and McDonnell (1998) discuss the use of stable isotopes in mass balance. Although the method is conceptually simple, the parameters that define a mass balance are not always easy to measure. Watershed investigators use mass balance to determine physical and chemical changes in watersheds ( Garrels and Mackenzie, 1967; Plummer et al., 1991; O'Brien et al., 1997; Drever, 1997). Here we focus on describing the mass-balance approach to interpret weathering reactions in watershed systems including shallow groundwater.Because mass balance is simply an accounting of the flux of material into a system minus the flux of material out of the system, the geochemical mass-balance approach is well suited to interpreting weathering reactions in watersheds (catchments) and in other environmental settings (Drever, 1997). It is, perhaps, the most accurate and reliable way of defining

  4. Improving the XAJ Model on the Basis of Mass-Energy Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuanghao; Corbari, Chiara; Zhang, Xingnan; Mancini, Marco

    2014-11-01

    The Xin’anjiang(XAJ) model is a conceptual model developed by the group led by Prof. Ren-Jun Zhao, which takes the pan evaporation as one of its input and then computes the effective evapotranspiration (ET) of the catchment by mass balance. Such scheme can ensure a good performance of discharge simulation but has obvious defects, one of which is that the effective ET is spatially-constant over the computation unit, neglecting the spatial variation of variables that influence the effective ET and therefore the simulation of ET and SM by the XAJ model, comparing with discharge, is less reliable. In this study, The XAJ model was improved to employ both energy and mass balance to compute the ET following the energy-mass balance scheme of FEST-EWB. model.

  5. Improving the XAJ Model on the Basis of Mass-Energy Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuanhao; Corbari, Chiara; Zhang, Xingnan; Mancini, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: The Xin'anjiang(XAJ) model is a conceptual model developed by the group led by Prof. Ren-Jun Zhao, which takes the pan evaporation as one of its input and then computes the effective evapotranspiration (ET) of the catchment by mass balance. Such scheme can ensure a good performance of discharge simulation but has obvious defects, one of which is that the effective ET is spatially-constant over the computation unit, neglecting the spatial variation of variables that influence the effective ET and therefore the simulation of ET and SM by the XAJ model, comparing with discharge, is less reliable. In this study, The XAJ model was improved to employ both energy and mass balance to compute the ET following the energy-mass balance scheme of FEST-EWB. model.

  6. Relations between atmospheric circulation and mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Fountain, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The yearly net mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, has decreased since the mid-1970s. Resuls show that the decrease is primarily caused by a significant decrease in the winter mass balance. Changes in atmospheric circulation indicate a decrease in the movement of storms and moisture from the Pacific Ocean into the western contiguous United States. In addition, the increase in winter mean 700-mb heights over western Canada and the northern western contiguous United States indicates an increase in subsidence, which results in a warming and drying of the air that further reduces precipitation and also increases the ratio of rain to snow during the cold season. These factors contribute to below-average winter mass balances. -from Authors

  7. Modelling Glacier Mass Balance on Regional and Global Scales: How Precise Can the Models Be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radic, V.; Hock, R.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in mass contained by mountain glaciers and ice caps can modify the Earth's hydrological cycle on multiple scales. On a global scale, the mass loss from glaciers contributes to sea-level rise. On regional and local scales, glacier meltwater is an important contributor to and modulator of river flow. Until recently, the lack of basic inventory data was a major impediment in global mass balance assessments and projections. The recently completed Randolph Glacier Inventory, the first globally complete glacier inventory, is a major forward step towards reducing uncertainties in global-scale studies. In this talk I will review some of the recent attempts to model glacier mass changes on regional and global scales, and discuss the main challenges these models face. Particular emphasis will be given to the use of glacier mass balance observations in model calibration and evaluation.

  8. Gravimetric mass balance products for the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwath, Martin; Groh, Andreas; Horvath, Alexander; Forsberg, Rene; Meister, Rakia; Shepherd, Andrew; Hogg, Anna; Muir, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) mass balance products for both the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) and the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) have been developed by the AIS_cci and the GIS_cci project. These Gravimetric Mass Balance (GMB) products are derived from satellite gravimetry data acquired by GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), which is the only sensor directly sensitive to changes in mass. Using monthly GRACE gravity field solutions covering the period from 2002 until present two different GMB products are derived: (a) time series of monthly mass changes for the entire ice sheet and for individual drainage basins, and (b) gridded mass changes covering the entire ice sheet. The gridded product depicts spatial patterns of mass changes at a formal resolution of about 50 km, although the effective resolution provided by GRACE is about 200-500km. The algorithms used for the product generation have been selected within an open round robin experiment and are optimized to account for the complex GRACE error structures, to advance the limited spatial resolution and to separate signals super-imposed to mass changes of the cryosphere. Here the first release of the ESA CCI GMB products is presented. Both the basin averaged and the gridded products are assessed regarding their signal content and error characteristics. Finally, up-to-date mass balance estimates are presented for both ice sheets. The GMB products are freely accessible through data portals hosted by the AIS_cci and the GIS_cci project.

  9. Re-analysis of Alaskan benchmark glacier mass-balance data using the index method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Beusekom, Ashely E.; O'Nell, Shad R.; March, Rod S.; Sass, Louis C.; Cox, Leif H.

    2010-01-01

    At Gulkana and Wolverine Glaciers, designated the Alaskan benchmark glaciers, we re-analyzed and re-computed the mass balance time series from 1966 to 2009 to accomplish our goal of making more robust time series. Each glacier's data record was analyzed with the same methods. For surface processes, we estimated missing information with an improved degree-day model. Degree-day models predict ablation from the sum of daily mean temperatures and an empirical degree-day factor. We modernized the traditional degree-day model and derived new degree-day factors in an effort to match the balance time series more closely. We estimated missing yearly-site data with a new balance gradient method. These efforts showed that an additional step needed to be taken at Wolverine Glacier to adjust for non-representative index sites. As with the previously calculated mass balances, the re-analyzed balances showed a continuing trend of mass loss. We noted that the time series, and thus our estimate of the cumulative mass loss over the period of record, was very sensitive to the data input, and suggest the need to add data-collection sites and modernize our weather stations.

  10. Differences in mass balance behavior for three glaciers from different climatic regions on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meilin; Yao, Tandong; Yang, Wei; Xu, Baiqing; Wu, Guanjian; Wang, Xiaojun

    2017-07-01

    Glacier mass balance shows a spatially heterogeneous pattern in response to global warming on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), and the climate mechanisms controlling this pattern require further study. In this study, three glaciers where systematic glaciological and meteorological observations have been carried out were selected, specifically Parlung No. 4 (PL04) and Zhadang (ZD) glaciers on the southern TP and Muztag Ata No. 15 (MZ15) glacier in the eastern Pamir. The characteristics of the mass and energy balances of these three glaciers during the periods between October 1th, 2008 and September 23rd, 2013 were analyzed and compared using the energy and mass balance model. Results show that differences in surface melt, which mainly result from differences in the amounts of incoming longwave radiation (L in ) and outgoing shortwave radiation (S out ), represent the largest source of the observed differences in mass balance changes between PL04 and ZD glaciers and MZ15 glacier, where air temperature, humidity, precipitation and cloudiness are dramatically different. In addition, sensitivity experiments show that mass balance sensitivity to air temperature change is remarkably higher than that associated with precipitation change on PL04 and ZD glaciers, in contrast results from MZ15 glacier. And significantly higher sensitivities to air temperature change are noted for PL04 and ZD glaciers than for MZ15 glacier. These significant differences in the sensitivities to air temperature change are mainly caused by differences in the ratio of snowfall to precipitation during the ablation season, melt energy (L in +S out ) during the ablation season and the seasonality of precipitation among the different regions occupied by glaciers. In turn, these conditions are related to local climatic conditions, especially air temperature. These factors can be used to explain the different patterns of change in Tibetan glacier mass balance under global warming.

  11. Using a biocultural approach to examine migration/globalization, diet quality, and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Himmelgreen, David A; Cantor, Allison; Arias, Sara; Romero Daza, Nancy

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role and impact that globalization and migration (e.g., intra-/intercontinental, urban/rural, and circular) have had on diet patterns, diet quality, and energy balance as reported on in the literature during the last 20 years. Published literature from the fields of anthropology, public health, nutrition, and other disciplines (e.g., economics) was collected and reviewed. In addition, case studies from the authors' own research are presented in order to elaborate on key points and dietary trends identified in the literature. While this review is not intended to be comprehensive, the findings suggest that the effects of migration and globalization on diet quality and energy balance are neither lineal nor direct, and that the role of social and physical environments, culture, social organization, and technology must be taken into account to better understand this relationship. Moreover, concepts such as acculturation and the nutrition transition do not necessarily explain or adequately describe all of the global processes that shape diet quality and energy balance. Theories from nutritional anthropology and critical bio-cultural medical anthropology are used to tease out some of these complex interrelationships.

  12. A systems analysis of biodiesel production from wheat straw using oleaginous yeast: process design, mass and energy balances.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Hanna; Ahlgren, Serina; Sandgren, Mats; Passoth, Volkmar; Wallberg, Ola; Hansson, Per-Anders

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel is the main liquid biofuel in the EU and is currently mainly produced from vegetable oils. Alternative feedstocks are lignocellulosic materials, which provide several benefits compared with many existing feedstocks. This study examined a technical process and its mass and energy balances to gain a systems perspective of combined biodiesel (FAME) and biogas production from straw using oleaginous yeasts. Important process parameters with a determining impact on overall mass and energy balances were identified and evaluated. In the base case, 41% of energy in the biomass was converted to energy products, primary fossil fuel use was 0.37 MJprim/MJ produced and 5.74 MJ fossil fuels could be replaced per kg straw dry matter. The electricity and heat produced from burning the lignin were sufficient for process demands except in scenarios where the yeast was dried for lipid extraction. Using the residual yeast cell mass for biogas production greatly increased the energy yield, with biogas contributing 38% of total energy products. In extraction methods without drying the yeast, increasing lipid yield and decreasing the residence time for lipid accumulation are important for the energy and mass balance. Changing the lipid extraction method from wet to dry makes the greatest change to the mass and energy balance. Bioreactor agitation and aeration for lipid accumulation and yeast propagation is energy demanding. Changes in sugar concentration in the hydrolysate and residence times for lipid accumulation greatly affect electricity demand, but have relatively small impacts on fossil energy use (NER) and energy yield (EE). The impact would probably be greater if externally produced electricity were used.

  13. Examining fundamental movement competency and closed chain upper extremity dynamic balance in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Bullock Spt, Garrett S; Brookerson, Nate; Knab, Amy M; Butler, Robert J

    2016-09-16

    Abnormal fundamental movement patterns and upper quarter dynamic balance are proposed mechanisms affecting athletic performance and injury risk. There are few studies investigating functional movement and closed chain upper extremity dynamic stability in swimmers. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in fundamental movement competency and closed chain upper extremity dynamic balance, utilizing the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-UQ), of high school (HS; n=70) and collegiate (COL; n=70) swimmers. Variables included the individual movement tests on the FMS, and the average normalized reach (%LL) for each direction, with the YBT-UQ. Statistical analysis was completed utilizing a chi-square for the independent test scores on the FMS while independent samples t-test to examine performance on the YBT-UQ (p<0.05). HS swimmers exhibited a statistically significant greater percentage of below average performance (score of 0 or 1) on the following FMS tests: lunge (HS:22.9%, COL:4.3%), hurdle step (HS:31.4%, COL:7.1%) and push up (HS:61.4 %, COL:31.4%). Furthermore, COL males performed worse in the lunge (Male 9%, Female 0%), while COL females had poorer efficiency in the pushup (Male: 17.6%, Female 44%). Significant effects of competition level and sex were observed in YBT-UQ medial reach (HS: Female 92.06, Male 101.63, COL: Female 101.3, Male 101.5 %LL). Individual fundamental movement patterns that involved lumbopelvic neuromuscular control differed between HS and COL swimmers. General upper extremity dynamic balance differed between competition levels. These data may be helpful in understanding injury and performance based normative data for participation and return to swimming.

  14. Comparison of surface mass balance of ice sheets simulated by positive-degree-day method and energy balance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Eva; Ganopolski, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    Glacial cycles of the late Quaternary are controlled by the asymmetrically varying mass balance of continental ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. Surface mass balance is governed by processes of ablation and accumulation. Here two ablation schemes, the positive-degree-day (PDD) method and the surface energy balance (SEB) approach, are compared in transient simulations of the last glacial cycle with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2. The standard version of the CLIMBER-2 model incorporates the SEB approach and simulates ice volume variations in reasonable agreement with paleoclimate reconstructions during the entire last glacial cycle. Using results from the standard CLIMBER-2 model version, we simulated ablation with the PDD method in offline mode by applying different combinations of three empirical parameters of the PDD scheme. We found that none of the parameter combinations allow us to simulate a surface mass balance of the American and European ice sheets that is similar to that obtained with the standard SEB method. The use of constant values for the empirical PDD parameters led either to too much ablation during the first phase of the last glacial cycle or too little ablation during the final phase. We then substituted the standard SEB scheme in CLIMBER-2 with the PDD scheme and performed a suite of fully interactive (online) simulations of the last glacial cycle with different combinations of PDD parameters. The results of these simulations confirmed the results of the offline simulations: no combination of PDD parameters realistically simulates the evolution of the ice sheets during the entire glacial cycle. The use of constant parameter values in the online simulations leads either to a buildup of too much ice volume at the end of glacial cycle or too little ice volume at the beginning. Even when the model correctly simulates global ice volume at the last glacial maximum (21 ka), it is unable to simulate complete deglaciation

  15. Northern Hemisphere Glacier and ice cap surface mass balance and runoff modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernild, S. H.; Liston, G. E.; Hiemstra, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mass loss of land-terminating glaciers and ice caps (GIC) has been documented in high-latitude regions, even though repeat observations have been limited. Here, we present new surface simulations for every individual GIC on the Northern Hemisphere north of 25 deg. N latitude and with surface areas greater than or equal to 1 km2. Recent dataset and modeling developments permit relatively high-resolution (1-km horizontal grid; 3-h time step) GIC estimates for 1979 through present. Using MicroMet and SnowModel in conjunction with land cover (the Randolph glacier inventory), topography, and the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric reanalysis data, a distributed and individual GIC dataset was created including air temperature, snow precipitation, winter mass-balance, summer mass-balance, net mass-balance, and freshwater runoff. Regional variability was analyzed to highlight the spatial and temporal variability in mass-balance between GIC in e.g., Alaska, Svalbard, Himalaya, Central Europe, Caucasus, etc., and the GIC contribution to global sea-level rise.

  16. Recent geodetic mass balance of Monte Tronador glaciers, northern Patagonian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Lucas; Berthier, Etienne; Viale, Maximiliano; Pitte, Pierre; Masiokas, Mariano H.

    2017-02-01

    Glaciers in the northern Patagonian Andes (35-46° S) have shown a dramatic decline in area in the last decades. However, little is known about glacier mass balance changes in this region. This study presents a geodetic mass balance estimate of Monte Tronador (41.15° S; 71.88° W) glaciers by comparing a Pléiades digital elevation model (DEM) acquired in 2012 with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) X-band DEM acquired in 2000. We find a slightly negative Monte-Tronador-wide mass budget of -0.17 m w.e. a-1 (ranging from -0.54 to 0.14 m w.e. a-1 for individual glaciers) and a slightly negative trend in glacier extent (-0.16 % a-1) over the 2000-2012 period. With a few exceptions, debris-covered valley glaciers that descend below a bedrock cliff are losing mass at higher rates, while mountain glaciers with termini located above this cliff are closer to mass equilibrium. Climate variations over the last decades show a notable increase in warm season temperatures in the late 1970s but limited warming afterwards. These warmer conditions combined with an overall drying trend may explain the moderate ice mass loss observed at Monte Tronador. The almost balanced mass budget of mountain glaciers suggests that they are probably approaching a dynamic equilibrium with current (post-1977) climate, whereas the valley glaciers tongues will continue to retreat. The slightly negative overall mass budget of Monte Tronador glaciers contrasts with the highly negative mass balance estimates observed in the Patagonian ice fields further south.

  17. Time-scale of changes in Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    I review estimates of ice sheet mass balance during the time period 1992 to 2011 and how the data record has been extended to 1957 in Greenland and 1975 in Antarctica. The long record from the mass budget method calculates the difference between surface mass balance reconstructed from regional atmospheric climate models - I will review why such models are more accurate than prior reconstructions of surface mass balance - with the ice discharge deduced from the flux of ice across the grounding line of major outlet glaciers. Over the time period 2002-2011, we compare this record with the GRACE data and find an excellent agreement in mass, mass loss, and acceleration in mass loss for both the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, excluding surrounding glaciers and ice caps. Comparison of GRACE and the flux method suggests that 9 years of GRACE data are sufficient to extract long-term trends, except perhaps in Antarctica; 20 years of data significantly reduces the uncertainty in estimated acceleration of the mass loss; and longer time periods are essential to detect potential changes in precipitation in Antarctica. From these results, it is clear that monitoring ice sheet mass balance over several decades is critical. We have only begun this effort in the 1990s with the advent of new satellites. The 2007-2009 IPY provided a new impetus for polar research and international collaboration that must be continued well into the 21rst century and also include major observational gaps that will limit progress in providing more realistic predictions of ice sheet evolution.

  18. An Early Formed D'' Reservoir Reconciles Geochemical Mass Balance With Whole Mantle Convection Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikhin, I. N.; Kramers, I.

    2004-12-01

    One of the most intriguing present-day problems in Earth sciences is reconciling whole mantle convection models (that follow from seismic tomography and dynamic modeling) and the chemical and isotopic mass balance of continents and depleted mantle, which favor partial-mantle convection. Specifically, geochemical observations point to an apparently isolated, early-formed reservoir deep in the Earth. The most important of these observations are: (1) The occurrence of solar noble gases in the mantle, which is in contrast with the extreme degassing of this reservoir indicated by mantle xenology; (2) specific isotopic compositions of mantle He, Ne and Xe point to a reservoir with low U/3He and 136Xe(Pu)/129Xe(I) ratios, implying both early formation and low degassing of this reservoir. We suggest that the core-mantle transition zone (termed D'') is the reservoir indicated by these observations. The material of D'' could comprise an early gabbroic-basaltic crust loaded with chondrite-like, late-accreting matter including a solar-wind irradiated regolith. If subducted, this material should accumulate above the metal core due to an intrinsic density contrast. Provided that it was not hydrated at the surface, so that subduction did not entail volatile loss, it could have retained its geochemical characteristics. We examined the consequences of this scenario by transport models envisaging: (1) Earth accretion accompanied by mantle melting and fractionation, core segregation, formation and recycling of mafic crust, degassing, and gas loss from the atmosphere, followed by (2) crust-mantle evolution involving continent growth and recycling. Comparison of calculated and observed parameters allows a solution of the model. The D'' is formed within a time interval from 40 to 80 Ma after formation of the solar system and comprises about 20% of the BSE inventory of incompatible (including heat-producing) elements. Because the bulk of the D'' material (basalt) is fractionated, its

  19. A balanced scorecard approach in assessing IT value in healthcare sector: an empirical examination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ing-Long; Kuo, Yi-Zu

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare sector indicates human-based and knowledge-intensive property. Massive IT investments are necessary to maintain competitiveness in this sector. The justification of IT investments is the major concern of senior management. Empirical studies examining IT value have found inconclusive results with little or no improvement in productivity. Little research has been conducted in healthcare sector. The balanced scorecard (BSC) strikes a balance between financial and non-financial measure and has been applied in evaluating organization-based performance. Moreover, healthcare organizations often consider their performance goal at customer satisfaction in addition to financial performance. This research thus proposed a new hierarchical structure for the BSC with placing both finance and customer at the top, internal process at the next, and learning and growth at the bottom. Empirical examination has found the importance of the new BSC structure in assessing IT investments. Learning and growth plays the initial driver for reaching both customer and financial performance through the mediator of internal process. This can provide deep insight into effectively managing IT resources in the hospitals.

  20. Complex principal component analysis of mass balance changes on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jingang; Shi, Hongling; Wang, Yong; Yao, Yixin

    2017-06-01

    Climatic time series for Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau locations are rare. Although glacier shrinkage is well described, the relationship between mass balance and climatic variation is less clear. We studied the effect of climate changes on mass balance by analyzing the complex principal components of mass changes during 2003-2015 using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite data. Mass change in the eastern Himalayas, Karakoram, Pamirs, and northwestern India was most sensitive to variation in the first principal component, which explained 54 % of the change. Correlation analysis showed that the first principal component is related to the Indian monsoon and the correlation coefficient is 0.83. Mass change on the eastern Qinghai plateau, eastern Himalayas-Qiangtang Plateau-Pamirs area and northwestern India was most sensitive to variation of the second major factor, which explained 16 % of the variation. The second major component is associated with El Niño; the correlation coefficient was 0.30 and this exceeded the 95 % confidence interval of 0.17. Mass change on the western and northwestern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was most sensitive to the variation of its third major component, responsible for 6 % of mass balance change. The third component may be associated with climate change from the westerlies and La Niña. The third component and El Niño have similar signals of 6.5 year periods and opposite phases. We conclude that El Niño now has the second largest effect on mass balance change of this region, which differs from the traditional view that the westerlies are the second largest factor.

  1. A spatially resolved estimate of High Mountain Asia glacier mass balances, 2000-2016.

    PubMed

    Brun, Fanny; Berthier, Etienne; Wagnon, Patrick; Kääb, Andreas; Treichler, Désirée

    2017-09-01

    High Mountain Asia hosts the largest glacier concentration outside the polar regions. These glaciers are important contributors to streamflow in one of the most populated areas of the world. Past studies have used methods that can only provide regionally-averaged glacier mass balances to assess the High Mountain Asia glacier contribution to rivers and sea level rise. Here we compute the mass balance for about 92 % of the glacierized area of High Mountain Asia using time series of digital elevation models derived from satellite stereo-imagery. We calculate an average region-wide mass balance of -16.3 ± 3.5 Gt yr(-1) (-0.18 ± 0.04 m w.e. yr(-1)) between 2000 and 2016, which is less negative than most previous estimates. Region-wide mass balances vary from -4.0 ± 1.5 Gt yr(-1) (-0.62 ± 0.23 m w.e. yr(-1)) in Nyainqentanglha to +1.4 ± 0.8 Gt yr(-1) (+0.14 ± 0.08 m w.e. yr(-1)) in Kunlun, with large intra-regional variability of individual glacier mass balances (standard deviation within a region ˜0.20 m w.e. yr(-1)). Specifically, our results shed light on the Nyainqentanglha and Pamir glacier mass changes, for which contradictory estimates exist in the literature. They provide crucial information for the calibration of the models used for projections of future glacier response to climatic changes, models that presently do not capture the pattern, magnitude and intra-regional variability of glacier changes in High Mountain Asia.

  2. Thorium Mass Balance for the Moon from Lunar Prospector and Sample Data: Implications for Thermal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Haskin, Larry A.

    2000-01-01

    A global lunar mass-balance model for Th based on Lunar Prospector gamma-ray and lunar sample data is presented within the context of major crustal terranes. The consequences of strong enrichment of Th in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane are discussed.

  3. Mass Balance Estimates of Louth Crater Water Ice and Climatic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapst, J.; Byrne, S.

    2016-09-01

    We estimate the mass balance of the most-equatorward water ice mound on Mars, located in Louth crater (70N). It is expected to be ablating in the current climate. Our estimates include a wide range of atmospheric water abundances.

  4. Great Lakes water quality scenario models: Operational feasibility -Lake Michigan Mass Balance models

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance models were provided (eutrophication/nutrients, atrazine, mercury, and PCBs) with emphasis on the PCB model post-audit and forecast for Lake Trout. Provided were modeling construct, model description, and primary results. An assessm...

  5. MICHTOX: A MASS BALANCE AND BIOACCUMULATION MODEL FOR TOXIC CHEMICALS IN LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    MICHTOX is a toxic chemical mass balance and bioaccumulation model for Lake Michigan. It was developed for USEPA's Region V in support of the Lake Michigan Lake-wide Management Plan (LaMP) to provide guidance on expected water quality improvements in response to critical pollutan...

  6. LM-3: A High-resolution Lake Michigan Mass Balance Water Quality Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a user’s manual that describes the high-resolution mass balance model known as LM3. LM3 has been applied to Lake Michigan to describe the transport and fate of atrazine, PCB congeners, and chloride in that system. The model has also been used to model eutrophicat...

  7. Nitrate Removal in Two Relict Oxbow Urban Wetlands: A 15N Mass-balance Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 15N-tracer method was used to quantify nitrogen (N) removal processes in two relict oxbow wetlands located adjacent to the Minebank Run restored stream reach in Baltimore County (Maryland, USA) during summer 2009 and early spring 2010. A mass-balance approach was used to determ...

  8. SEMIC: an efficient surface energy and mass balance model applied to the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapp, Mario; Robinson, Alexander; Ganopolski, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    We present SEMIC, a Surface Energy and Mass balance model of Intermediate Complexity for snow- and ice-covered surfaces such as the Greenland ice sheet. SEMIC is fast enough for glacial cycle applications, making it a suitable replacement for simpler methods such as the positive degree day (PDD) method often used in ice sheet modelling. Our model explicitly calculates the main processes involved in the surface energy and mass balance, while maintaining a simple interface and requiring minimal data input to drive it. In this novel approach, we parameterise diurnal temperature variations in order to more realistically capture the daily thaw-freeze cycles that characterise the ice sheet mass balance. We show how to derive optimal model parameters for SEMIC specifically to reproduce surface characteristics and day-to-day variations similar to the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional, version 2) and its incorporated multilayer snowpack model SISVAT (Soil Ice Snow Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer). A validation test shows that SEMIC simulates future changes in surface temperature and surface mass balance in good agreement with the more sophisticated multilayer snowpack model SISVAT included in MAR. With this paper, we present a physically based surface model to the ice sheet modelling community that is general enough to be used with in situ observations, climate model, or reanalysis data, and that is at the same time computationally fast enough for long-term integrations, such as glacial cycles or future climate change scenarios.

  9. THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE PROJECT: QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR MATHEMATICAL MODELLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the quality assurance process for the development and application of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Models. The scope includes the overall modeling framework as well as the specific submodels that are linked to form a comprehensive synthesis of physical, che...

  10. Great Lakes water quality scenario models: Operational feasibility -Lake Michigan Mass Balance models

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance models were provided (eutrophication/nutrients, atrazine, mercury, and PCBs) with emphasis on the PCB model post-audit and forecast for Lake Trout. Provided were modeling construct, model description, and primary results. An assessm...

  11. Energy balance and mass conservation in reduced order models of fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohebujjaman, Muhammad; Rebholz, Leo G.; Xie, Xuping; Iliescu, Traian

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate theoretically and computationally the conservation properties of reduced order models (ROMs) for fluid flows. Specifically, we investigate whether the ROMs satisfy the same (or similar) energy balance and mass conservation as those satisfied by the Navier-Stokes equations. All of our theoretical findings are illustrated and tested in numerical simulations of a 2D flow past a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number Re = 100. First, we investigate the ROM energy balance. We show that using the snapshot average for the centering trajectory (which is a popular treatment of nonhomogeneous boundary conditions in ROMs) yields an incorrect energy balance. Then, we propose a new approach, in which we replace the snapshot average with the Stokes extension. Theoretically, the Stokes extension produces an accurate energy balance. Numerically, the Stokes extension yields more accurate results than the standard snapshot average, especially for longer time intervals. Our second contribution centers around ROM mass conservation. We consider ROMs created using two types of finite elements: the standard Taylor-Hood (TH) element, which satisfies the mass conservation weakly, and the Scott-Vogelius (SV) element, which satisfies the mass conservation pointwise. Theoretically, the error estimates for the SV-ROM are sharper than those for the TH-ROM. Numerically, the SV-ROM yields significantly more accurate results, especially for coarser meshes and longer time intervals.

  12. Single-Pan Balances, Buoyancy, and Gravity or "A Mass of Confusion."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin; Williamson, Arthur G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems and pitfalls of working with single-pan balances and methods used to advertise their accuracy. Investigated manufacturers knowledge of buoyancy effects, relating provisions and recommendations made by various companies. Provides a routine for intercalibration of weight using dummy weights of approximately known mass. (JM)

  13. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY DEPOSITION TO LAKE MICHIGAN DURING THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wet and dry mercury (Hg) deposition were calculated to Lake Michigan using a hybrid receptor modeling framework. The model utilized mercury monitoring data collected during the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the Atmospheric Exchange Over Lakes and Oceans Study together w...

  14. Relations between atmospheric circulation and mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, G.J.; Fountain, A.G.

    1995-08-01

    The yearly net mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, has decreased since the mid-1970s. Results show that the decrease in winter mass balance is caused, in part, by changes in winter mean atmospheric circulation that began during the mid-1970s. Approximately 60% of the variability in winter mass balance can be explained by variations in winter mean 700-mb heights over western Canada. Since the mid-1970s, there has been an increase in winter mean 700-mb heights over western Canada and the northern western contiguous United States and a decrease in winter mean 700-mb heights in the eastern North Pacific Ocean centered near the Aleutian Islands. These changes in atmospheric circulation indicate a decrease in the movement of storms and moisture from the Pacific Ocean into the western contiguous United States. In addition, the increase in winter mean 700-mb heights over western Canada and the northern western contiguous United States indicates an increase in subsidence, which results in a warming and drying of the air that further reduces precipitation and also increases the ratio of rain to snow during the cold season. These factors contribute to below-average winter mass balances. 43 refs., 13 figs.

  15. AN OVERVIEW OF THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE MODELING PROJECT: BACKGROUND, ACCOMPLISHMENTS, AND FUTURE WORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling associated with the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project (LMMBP) is being conducted using WASP-type water quality models to gain a better understanding of the ecosystem transport and fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), atrazine, mercury, and trans-nonachlor in Lake M...

  16. LM-3: A High-resolution Lake Michigan Mass Balance Water Quality Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a user’s manual that describes the high-resolution mass balance model known as LM3. LM3 has been applied to Lake Michigan to describe the transport and fate of atrazine, PCB congeners, and chloride in that system. The model has also been used to model eutrophicat...

  17. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY DEPOSITION TO LAKE MICHIGAN DURING THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wet and dry mercury (Hg) deposition were calculated to Lake Michigan using a hybrid receptor modeling framework. The model utilized mercury monitoring data collected during the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the Atmospheric Exchange Over Lakes and Oceans Study together w...

  18. REVIEW OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND SOURCE APPORTIONMENT BY CHEMICAL MASS BALANCE. (R826237)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model has apportioned volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in more than 20 urban areas, mostly in the United States. These applications differ in terms of the total fraction apportioned, the calculation method, the chemical compounds used ...

  19. Single-Pan Balances, Buoyancy, and Gravity or "A Mass of Confusion."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin; Williamson, Arthur G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems and pitfalls of working with single-pan balances and methods used to advertise their accuracy. Investigated manufacturers knowledge of buoyancy effects, relating provisions and recommendations made by various companies. Provides a routine for intercalibration of weight using dummy weights of approximately known mass. (JM)

  20. Mass, Energy, Entropy and Exergy Rate Balance in a Ranque-Hilsh Vortex Tube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrascal Lecumberri, Edorta; Sala Lizarraga, José María

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a laboratory program designed for the Thermodynamics course offered in the Department of Thermal Engineering at the University of the Basque Country. With reference to one of the examples given in the textbook by Moran, Shapiro, Boettner and Bailey (2012), the balances of mass, energy, entropy and exergy…

  1. Nitrate Removal in Two Relict Oxbow Urban Wetlands: A 15N Mass-balance Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 15N-tracer method was used to quantify nitrogen (N) removal processes in two relict oxbow wetlands located adjacent to the Minebank Run restored stream reach in Baltimore County (Maryland, USA) during summer 2009 and early spring 2010. A mass-balance approach was used to determ...

  2. Relations between winter 700-mb height anomalies and mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, G.J.; Fountain, A.G.

    1995-12-31

    The yearly net mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, decreased during the mid-1970`s. Results show that the decrease is primarily caused by a significant decrease in the winter mass balance. The decrease in winter mass balance is caused, in part, by changes in winter mean atmospheric circulation that began during the mid-1970`s. Since the mid-1970`s, there has been an increase in winter mean atmospheric pressure over western Canada and the northern western contiguous US and a decrease in winter mean atmospheric pressure in the eastern North Pacific Ocean centered near the Aleutian islands. These changes in atmospheric circulation indicate a decrease in the movement of storms and moisture from the Pacific Ocean into the western contiguous US. In addition, the increase in atmospheric pressure over western Canada and the northern western contiguous US indicates an increase in subsidence, which results in a warming and drying of the air that further reduces precipitation and also increases the ratio of rain to snow during the cold season. These factors contribute to below-average winter mass balances.

  3. REVIEW OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND SOURCE APPORTIONMENT BY CHEMICAL MASS BALANCE. (R826237)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model has apportioned volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in more than 20 urban areas, mostly in the United States. These applications differ in terms of the total fraction apportioned, the calculation method, the chemical compounds used ...

  4. MICHTOX: A MASS BALANCE AND BIOACCUMULATION MODEL FOR TOXIC CHEMICALS IN LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    MICHTOX is a toxic chemical mass balance and bioaccumulation model for Lake Michigan. It was developed for USEPA's Region V in support of the Lake Michigan Lake-wide Management Plan (LaMP) to provide guidance on expected water quality improvements in response to critical pollutan...

  5. Equation reliability of soil ingestion estimates in mass-balance soil ingestion studies.

    PubMed

    Stanek Iii, Edward J; Xu, Bo; Calabrese, Edward J

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to chemicals from ingestion of contaminated soil may be an important pathway with potential health consequences for children. A key parameter used in assessing this exposure is the quantity of soil ingested, with estimates based on four short longitudinal mass-balance soil ingestion studies among children. The estimates use trace elements in the soil with low bioavailability that are minimally present in food. Soil ingestion corresponds to the excess trace element amounts excreted, after subtracting trace element amounts ingested from food and medications, expressed as an equivalent quantity of soil. The short duration of mass-balance studies, different concentrations of trace elements in food and soil, and potential for trace elements to be ingested from other nonsoil, nonfood sources contribute to variability and bias in the estimates. We develop a stochastic model for a soil ingestion estimator based on a trace element that accounts for critical features of the mass-balance equation. Using results from four mass-balance soil ingestion studies, we estimate the accuracy of soil ingestion estimators for different trace elements, and identify subjects where the difference between Al and Si estimates is larger (>3 RMSE) than expected. Such large differences occur in fewer than 12% of subjects in each of the four studies. We recommend the use of such criteria to flag and exclude subjects from soil ingestion analyses. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Thorium Mass Balance for the Moon from Lunar Prospector and Sample Data: Implications for Thermal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Haskin, Larry A.

    2000-01-01

    A global lunar mass-balance model for Th based on Lunar Prospector gamma-ray and lunar sample data is presented within the context of major crustal terranes. The consequences of strong enrichment of Th in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane are discussed.

  7. Implications of sodium mass balance for interpreting the calcium cycle of a forested ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Scott W. Bailey; Donald C. Buso; Gene E. Likens

    2003-01-01

    Disturbance of forest ecosystems, such as that caused by harvesting or acid deposition, is thought to alter the ability of the ecosystem to retain nutrients. Although many watershed studies have suggested depletion of available calcium (Ca) pools, interpretation of ecosystem Ca mass balance has been limited by the difficulty in obtaining mineral weathering flux...

  8. Uncertainty analysis on simple mass balance model to calculate critical loads for soil acidity

    Treesearch

    Harbin Li; Steven G. McNulty

    2007-01-01

    Simple mass balance equations (SMBE) of critical acid loads (CAL) in forest soil were developed to assess potential risks of air pollutants to ecosystems. However, to apply SMBE reliably at large scales, SMBE must be tested for adequacy and uncertainty. Our goal was to provide a detailed analysis of uncertainty in SMBE so that sound strategies for scaling up CAL...

  9. Mass balance fluctuations of Chhota Shigri glacier estimated from remotely sensed snow line altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miège, C.; Rabatel, A.; Arnaud, Y.; Racoviteanu, A.; Wagnon, P.; Chevallier, P.

    2009-04-01

    Himalayan glaciers are representative indicators of climate fluctuations through their mass balance variations. Mass balance is generally computed from field measurements but can also be estimated from remotely sensed images. One remote sensing method uses snow line altitudes observed from satellite images as a proxy of the equilibrium line altitude at the end of the hydrological year. This method allows inferring quantitative information on the annual glacier mass balance. This technique, which proved to be reliable in the French Alps, has been applied on the Chhota Shigri glacier (Himachal Pradesh, Indian Himalaya). Annual field measurements since 2002 were used to validate the snow line altitude obtained from ASTER images acquired between 2002 and 2007. Nevertheless, snowfalls occurring at the end of the monsoon (sept/oct) are disturbing the signal and preliminary results point out the difficulty to apply this method in this region of the Himalayas. Consequences are an underestimation of the equilibrium line altitude leading to an overestimation of mass balance. Our abilities to observe a snow line representative of the glacier equilibrium line at the end of the hydrological year are limited by the scarcity of suitable images.

  10. An examination of Mars' north seasonal polar cap using MGS: Composition and infrared radiation balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Gary B.

    2013-08-01

    A detailed analysis of data from one revolution of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is presented. Approximately 80% of this revolution observes the mid-winter northern seasonal polar cap, which covers the surface to <60°N, and which is predominantly within polar night. The surface composition and temperature are determined through analysis of 6-50 μm infrared spectra from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). The infrared radiative balance, which is the entire heat balance in the polar night except for small subsurface and atmospheric advection terms, is calculated for the surface and atmospheric column. The primary constituent, CO2 ice, also dominates the infrared spectral properties by variations in its grain size and by admixtures of dust and water ice, which cause large variations in the 20-50 μm emissivity. This is modified by incomplete areal coverage, and clouds or hazes. This quantitative analysis reveals CO2 grain radii ranging from ˜100 μm in isolated areas, to 1-5 mm in more widespread regions. The water ice content varies from none to about one part per thousand by mass, with a clear increase towards the periphery of the polar cap. The dust content is typically a few parts per thousand by mass, but is as much as an order of magnitude less abundant in "cold spot" regions, where the low emissivity of pure CO2 ice is revealed. This is the first quantitative analysis of thermal spectra of the seasonal polar cap and the first to estimate water ice content. Our models show that the cold spots represent cleaner, dust-free ice rather than finer grained ice than the background. Our guess is that the dust in cold spots is hidden in the center of the CO2 frost particles rather than not present. The fringes of the cap have more dust and water ice, and become patchy, with warmer water snow filling the gaps on the night side, and warmer bare soil on the day side. A low optical depth (<1 in the visible) water ice atmospheric haze is apparent on the night side

  11. Improving the Xin'anjiang hydrological model based on mass-energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Xingnan; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco; Niu, Guo-Yue; Zeng, Wenzhi

    2017-07-01

    Conceptual hydrological models are preferable for real-time flood forecasting, among which the Xin'anjiang (XAJ) model has been widely applied in humid and semi-humid regions of China. Although the relatively simple mass balance scheme ensures a good performance of runoff simulation during flood events, the model still has some defects. Previous studies have confirmed the importance of evapotranspiration (ET) and soil moisture content (SMC) in runoff simulation. In order to add more constraints to the original XAJ model, an energy balance scheme suitable for the XAJ model was developed and coupled with the original mass balance scheme of the XAJ model. The detailed parameterizations of the improved model, XAJ-EB, are presented in the first part of this paper. XAJ-EB employs various meteorological forcing and remote sensing data as input, simulating ET and runoff yield using a more physically based mass-energy balance scheme. In particular, the energy balance is solved by determining the representative equilibrium temperature (RET), which is comparable to land surface temperature (LST). The XAJ-EB was evaluated in the Lushui catchment situated in the middle reach of the Yangtze River basin for the period between 2004 and 2007. Validation using ground-measured runoff data proves that the XAJ-EB is capable of reproducing runoff comparable to the original XAJ model. Additionally, RET simulated by XAJ-EB agreed well with moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS)-retrieved LST, which further confirms that the model is able to simulate the mass-energy balance since LST reflects the interactions among various processes. The validation results prove that the XAJ-EB model has superior performance compared with the XAJ model and also extends its applicability.

  12. Long-term mass- and energy balance of Kongsvegen glacier, Spitzbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krismer, Thomas; Obleitner, Friedrich; Kohler, Jack

    2010-05-01

    We present meteorological and glaciological data from the equilibrium line (ELA) of Kongsvegen glacier (550masl) in Svalbard, covering the period 2000 until 2008. Mean annual air temperatures for the period range from -6.9 to -10.1°C and specific net annual mass balances range from -670 to +281 mm w eq. During some years substantial superimposed ice was formed and even survived the summer. The meteorological data were homogenized and used for input and validation of mass- and energy-balance simulations. The meteorological regime at the ELA is characterized by a coreless winter and summer temperatures around 0°C. Wind conditions are largely determined by katabatic winds and topgraphically channeled upper-air winds. Net short-wave radiation is determined by cloudiness during the polar day and by the seasonal evolution of glacier surface albedo. Long-wave radiation fluxes withdraw energy throughout the year and the mean annual net radiation is almost negligible. The turbulent sensible heat fluxes constitute a comparatively strong and continuous source of energy. The latent heat flux is characterized by prevailing condensation during winter and evaporation during summer. On average, however, the turbulent fluxes provide only a small amount of heat to the glacier. Most of the energy available from the atmosphere is used for summer melt and a small amount goes into heating the near surface ice layers. Similar investigations were performed at the tongue of the glacier (170masl) for a shorter period. Here the conditions are characterized by enhanced input from the atmospheric fluxes and correspondingly increased melt rates. In addition, accumulation is usually small (>50 cm snow) and melt can also occur during winter. We then investigate whether spatially distributed mass balance can be simulated using data measured outside of the glacier. Regression models were developed to derive model input from climate data measured at a nearby research station. These models are

  13. Processes Controlling the Surface Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet for Improving Mass Balance Estimates: Outcomes from a Community Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, M.; Bell, R. E.; Das, I.; Hanna, E.; Alexander, P. M.; Koenig, L.; MacFerrin, M. J.; Rennermalm, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the progress in physics parameterizations in regional climate models, the increasing computational power and the increasing volume of airborne and in-situ datasets collected over Greenland, there are still many challenges that limit our capability to estimate current and project future surface mass balance (SMB) with the degree of accuracy needed to accurately constrain sea level rise. A NASA-sponsored workshop focusing on understanding of the processes controlling the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet for improving mass balance estimates was held at the beginning of September 2016 at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. The workshop was first advocated during the discussion at the 2015 PARCA meeting as a crucial tool to answer questions such as: How do we separate the uncertainties deriving from the physics of the models and their forcing on SMB estimates? How do we scale estimates of runoff to a larger scale? How do we interpret elevation-change data and improve mass balance-change estimates by accounting for densification and compaction processes? What is the spatial and temporal variability of uncertainties of the quantities driving SMB? The ultimate goal of the workshop was recommending a series of programmatic and scientific actions that will ultimately lead to improved GrIS SMB estimates in a timely manner. In this talk, we, the organizing committee, report and discuss the outcomes of the workshop. We will first discuss the structure and format of the workshop, the activities carried out to gather community feedback and the list of recommendations and priorities identified during the workshop. This presentation will also be used to continue gathering feedback from the community through the shared live document that will be generated at the end of the workshop but that will still be open during AGU for those colleagues who did not participate to the workshop to provide their feedback. The outcome of the workshop

  14. Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass balance products from satellite gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwath, Martin; Groh, Andreas; Horvath, Alexander; Forsberg, René; Meister, Rakia; Barletta, Valentina R.; Shepherd, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Because of their important role in the Earth's climate system, ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) has identified both the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) and the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) as Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Since respondents of a user survey indicated that the ice sheet mass balance is one of the most important ECV data products needed to better understand climate change, the AIS_cci and the GIS_cci project provide Gravimetric Mass Balance (GMB) products based on satellite gravimetry data. The GMB products are derived from GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) monthly solutions of release ITSG-Grace2016 produced at TU Graz. GMB basin products (i.e. time series of monthly mass changes for the entire ice sheets and selected drainage basins) and GMB gridded products (e.g. mass balance estimates with a formal resolution of about 50km, covering the entire ice sheets) are generated for the period from 2002 until present. The first GMB product was released in mid 2016. Here we present an extended and updated version of the ESA CCI GMB products, which are freely available through data portals hosted by the projects (https://data1.geo.tu-dresden.de/ais_gmb, http://products.esa-icesheets-cci.org/products/downloadlist/GMB). Since the initial product release, the applied processing strategies have been improved in order to further reduce GRACE errors and to enhance the separation of signals super-imposed to the ice mass changes. While a regional integration approach is used by the AIS_cci project, the GMB products of the GIS_cci project are derived using a point mass inversion. The differences between both approaches are investigated through the example of the GIS, where an alternative GMB product was generated using the regional integration approach implemented by the AIS_cci. Finally, we present the latest mass balance estimates for both ice sheets as well as their corresponding contributions to global sea level rise.

  15. Establishing mass balance observation at Austre Grønfjordbreen, Nordenskjöld land, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elagina, Nelly; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Chernov, Robert; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Vasilyeva, Tatiana; Mavlyudov, Bulat; Kudikov, Arseny

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic archipelago Svalbard consists of a vast glacierized area which contributes significantly to the sea level rise outside of Greenland and Antarctica due to recent warming. The glaciers of Svalbard have already experienced an unprecedented increase in average summer temperatures, melt periods, and rainfall in late autumn and early summer. Glaciers of the Nordenskjöld land were the subject of glaciological studies conducted through the Soviet scientific program at the Institute of Geography RAS, Moscow starting in the 1960s. However, with the collapse of the Soviet Union glaciological monitoring was stopped in the late 1980s. It was resumed in 2003 with direct observations of winter accumulation and summer melt at a number of glaciers in Nordenskjöld land. However, until now snow pit and stake data were inconsistent and were reported randomly. Recent efforts by the Institute of Geography RAS have been aimed at establishing mass balance observation at Austre Grønfjordbreen (7 km2) located 16 km south of Barentsburg. Starting from 2014 observations have included a new ablation stake network of 15 stakes measured biannually, two automatic weather stations located at the glacier tongue and at the accumulation area, and annual high resolution GPR surveys of snow thickness together with snow pit measurements repeated every spring. Special attention has been paid to the evaluation of refreezing ice and superimposed ice distribution. Active layer (10 m) borehole temperatures are measured annually at stake locations. The obtained mass balance gradients are compared with the geodetic mass balance changes in 1990-2005 and recent Arctic DEM data. Additionally glacier bedrock, polythermal structure and surface topography maps have been completed using GPR data and DGPS measurements. All available satellite imagery has been used to reconstruct the snowline elevation changes from 1986 to 2016. Remarkably almost a total absence of accumulation area has been registered in

  16. Elevation Change and Remote-Sensing Mass-Balance Methods on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlstrom, A. P.; Reeh, N.; Christensen, E. L.; Kristensen, S. S.; Forsberg, R.; Stenseng, L.

    2005-12-01

    The mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is virtually impossible to obtain with traditional ground-based methods alone due to its vast size. It is thus desirable to develop mass-balance methods depending on remote sensing instead and this field has experienced a dramatic development within the last decade. Large amounts of data have been collected from satellite and airborne platforms, yielding surface elevation changes and surface velocity fields. Here we present data from the Greenland Ice-Sheet margin acquired with a new small-scale airborne system, designed for regional high-density coverage. During campaigns in 2000, 2003 and 2005, we have collected and processed ice-sheet surface elevation and ice-thickness data, acquired with a laser altimeter and a 60~MHz ice-penetrating radar. Both instruments were mounted on a small Twin-Otter aircraft which were positioned using three onboard differential GPS instruments and corrected for pitch, roll and crab using an Inertial Navigation System. Knowledge of elevation change and ice thickness alone does not provide mass balance, but when combined with the surface velocity field obtained from satellite repeat-track interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), it is possible to apply the principle of mass conservation and derive the mass balance from this. The method has previously been applied to a flow line, but the intention is here to attempt a regional, distributed calculation. We will present the method and its weaknesses and show a map of measured surface elevation change over a 50x50~km part of the western Greenland Ice-Sheet margin near Kangerlussuaq. In this region, the mean observed elevation change has been -0.5~m from 2000 to 2003. However, the change is unevenly distributed with the northern and central part generally in balance and the southern part clearly thinning.

  17. Response of glacier mass balance and discharge to future climate change, upper Susitna basin, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry-Wake, C.; Hock, R.; Braun, J. L.; Zhang, J.; Wolken, G. J.; Liljedahl, A.

    2013-12-01

    As glaciers retreat, they highly alter the characteristics of the overall water budget of the larger drainage basin. Understanding and quantifying glacier melt is key to effectively project future changes in watershed-scale stream flow from glacierized landscapes. In glacierized Southcentral Alaska, the State of Alaska is reviving analyses of the Susitna River's hydroelectric potential and impact by supporting a multitude of field and modeling studies. Here, we focus on the response of discharge to projected climate change through the end-of-the century. The analyzed sub-catchment is largely untouched by humans, and covers an area of 2,230 km2 (740 - 4000 m a.s.l.) of which 25% is glacierized. We use a distributed temperature index model (DETIM), which uses daily air temperature and precipitation to compute runoff, ice and snow melt/accumulation. Model calibration included daily discharge and annual mass balance point measurements between 1955 and 2012. Output from the CCSM global climate model forced by three emission scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) was downscaled to project future runoff and glacier mass balance until 2100. Depending on the climate scenario, runoff is projected to increase by 22 to 39% (yrs 2005-2100) due to increased mean annual air temperature ranging from 3.0 to 4.9°C and precipitation increase between 23 and 34%. During the same period, the glaciers are projected to lose between 11 to 14% of their area. The future projections show no trend in winter glacier mass balance, but suggest an increasingly negative specific summer mass balance. The DETIM model, despite its hydrologic simplicity and focus on snow and ice melt and accumulation, is able to reproduce well the observations in basin discharge and glacier mass balance.

  18. The Importance of Labyrinthine Examination in the Prognosis and Therapy for Balance in Spinocerebellar Ataxia.

    PubMed

    Faryniuk, João Henrique; Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Fo, Vinicius Ribas; Liberalesso, Paulo Breno Noronha; Marques, Jair Mendes

    2017-04-19

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the presence of progressive cerebellar ataxia. Identify vestibular disorders and demonstrate the importance of labyrinthine examination in the prognosis and therapy for balance in patients with SCAs. The study had a retrospective cross-sectional design and evaluated 57 patients, mean age of 41.6 years and standard deviation of 13 years. Patients underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, ENT examination and vestibular exam using electronystagmography (ENG). The most frequent complaints were gait imbalance (71.9%), dysarthria (49.1%), dizziness (43.8%) and dysphagia (36.8%). 84.2% of the tests showed alterations. The most common tests with alterations were the caloric test (78.9%), slow saccades (61.4%) and the rotating chair test (49.1%). The clinical history of the patient and oculomotor alterations in the labyrinthine examination provide sufficient information for the proper use of virtual rehabilitation protocols in the treatment of imbalance, making it the most effective therapy method. It was evident that changes in ENG are related to the severity of the SCA or the clinical stage of the disease. The labyrinthine examination proved to be an important concomitant tool to clinical and genetic study.

  19. Climate model performance and its implications for future glacier mass balance in southwestern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radic, V.; Anslow, F. S.; Jarosch, A.; Reuten, C.; Clarke, G. K.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to model the 21st century mass balance of all glaciers in southwestern Canada and northern Washington State, applying the climate scenarios of General Circulation Models (GCMs). Prior to projecting future mass balance the performance of 22 GCMs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) archive is analyzed in comparison with North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) over the overlapping period (1980-1999). Two different approaches are used for this analysis: (1) statistical metrics such as root-mean-square errors computed for several climate variables and (2) Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) for deriving climatic patterns and comparing their frequency of occurrence in GCMs vs NARR. Based on the average of the relative errors over all climate variables considered, some models appear to perform substantially better than others. However, the ranking of the models strongly depends on the choice of validation approaches. The 21st century scenarios from validated GCMs are statistically downscaled using a variant of ‘weather typing’ that links the patterns of general atmospheric circulation with the patterns of regional mass balance fields, both derived from the SOM algorithm. Results confirm the dominant role of warmer climate as a driver for large glacier mass loss in the region. The range of projections associated with the choice of GCM is large, with enhanced future warming and more mass loss simulated when the better performing GCMs are used.

  20. Influence of Persistent Wind Scour on the Surface Mass Balance of Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Indrani; Bell, Robin E.; Scambos, Ted A.; Wolovick, Michael; Creyts, Timothy T.; Studinger, Michael; Fearson, Nicholas; Nicolas, Julien P.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; vandenBroeke, Michiel R.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate quantification of surface snow accumulation over Antarctica is a key constraint for estimates of the Antarctic mass balance, as well as climatic interpretations of ice-core records. Over Antarctica, near-surface winds accelerate down relatively steep surface slopes, eroding and sublimating the snow. This wind scour results in numerous localized regions (< or = 200 sq km) with reduced surface accumulation. Estimates of Antarctic surface mass balance rely on sparse point measurements or coarse atmospheric models that do not capture these local processes, and overestimate the net mass input in wind-scour zones. Here we combine airborne radar observations of unconformable stratigraphic layers with lidar-derived surface roughness measurements to identify extensive wind-scour zones over Dome A, in the interior of East Antarctica. The scour zones are persistent because they are controlled by bedrock topography. On the basis of our Dome A observations, we develop an empirical model to predict wind-scour zones across the Antarctic continent and find that these zones are predominantly located in East Antarctica. We estimate that approx. 2.7-6.6% of the surface area of Antarctica has persistent negative net accumulation due to wind scour, which suggests that, across the continent, the snow mass input is overestimated by 11-36.5 Gt /yr in present surface-mass-balance calculations.

  1. The seasonal in-situ mass balance, temperature and precipitation of Yala Glacier, Langtang Valley, Nepal, from 2011 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumm, Dorothea; Fujita, Koji; Gurung, Tika; Joshi, Sharad; Litt, Maxime; Shea, Joseph; Sherpa, Mingma; Sinisalo, Anna; Wagnon, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    In-situ glacier mass balance measurements are still scarce in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region and little is known about the seasonal balances. The glaciers in the Nepalese Himalaya have been considered summer accumulation glacier types because of the assumption that the majority of the accumulation occurs in the summer months during the monsoon. The glacier mass balance of Yala Glacier in the Langtang Valley of Nepal has been measured using the glaciological method since autumn 2011. Stakes were measured biannually in pre- and post-monsoon, usually in early May and in November, respectively. The measured mass balance gradient for the summer balance was larger than the winter balance, which is typical for glaciers with distinct ablation and accumulation seasons. On Yala Glacier, the summer balance was negative, and the winter balance was positive in all years with measurements. However, the annual net balance was negative for all four mass balance years from 2011 to 2015. The mass balances were further compared to temperature and precipitation data measured at nearby climate stations during the same time periods. In October 2013 and 2014, the Central Himalayas received large amounts of precipitation brought by the cyclones Phailin and Hudhud. These precipitation events contributed to the summer balance since the measurements were taken after the cyclones passed. In conclusion, on Yala Glacier accumulation processes dominated ablation processes during the winter, and ablation processes dominated during the summer, which could be explained by the low elevation range of Yala Glacier and precipitation from westerlies in the winter. Hence, this should be kept in mind when using the term 'summer accumulation glacier' for Yala Glacier. For future research in the HKH region, seasonal mass balances should be measured, and the processes impacting the mass balance and the role of winter precipitation should be investigated for other glaciers in the HKH region.

  2. Development of the ECLSS Sizing Analysis Tool and ARS Mass Balance Model Using Microsoft Excel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlothlin, E. P.; Yeh, H. Y.; Lin, C. H.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a Microsoft Excel-compatible Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) sizing analysis "tool" for conceptual design of Mars human exploration missions makes it possible for a user to choose a certain technology in the corresponding subsystem. This tool estimates the mass, volume, and power requirements of every technology in a subsystem and the system as a whole. Furthermore, to verify that a design sized by the ECLSS Sizing Tool meets the mission requirements and integrates properly, mass balance models that solve for component throughputs of such ECLSS systems as the Water Recovery System (WRS) and Air Revitalization System (ARS) must be developed. The ARS Mass Balance Model will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Performance of the Fuel Conditioning Facility electronic in-cell mass balances

    SciTech Connect

    Orechwa, Y.; Bucher, R.G.

    1996-05-01

    An approach to error estimation and measurement control in the analysis of the balance measurements of mass standards on the in-cell electronic mass balances of the Fuel Conditioning Facility is presented. In light of measurement data from one year of operation, the algorithms proposed are evaluated. The need to take into account the effects of facility operations on the estimates of measurement uncertainty is demonstrated. In the case of a newly installed balance, where no historical data exists, an ad hoc procedure of adding a term which takes into account the operational variability is proposed. This procedure allows a sufficiently long operation so as to collect data for the estimate of the contribution of operational effects to the uncertainty estimate. An algorithm for systematically taking into account historical data is developed and demonstrated for two balances over two calibration periods. The algorithm, both asymptotically and in the two samples cases, has the necessary desirable properties for estimating the uncertainty in the measurements of the balances.

  4. Mass and energy balance constraints on the biological production of chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.

    1990-01-01

    Several organic chemicals, including methane and ethanol, may be produced by the bioprocessing of coal. This may be done either by direct microbial attack on the coal, or indirectly by the bioprocessing of solubilized coal. As in chemical liquefaction and gasification, the relative amounts of the various products that can be produced are severely constrained by mass and energy balance considerations. The main differences in biological processing are that water is a ubiquitous reactant, carbon dioxide a common product, and that some of the carbon and nitrogen in the coal may go to the synthesis of new biomass rather than products. The conventional biotechnological yield analysis applied to coal processing has several interesting consequences. The mass balance reduces to a balance of available electrons, and coal has a similar oxidation/reduction state to both carbohydrates and biomass. This makes high product yields feasible particularly under anaerobic conditions, although leaving open the question of whether the relevant hydrolase enzymes exist. Recommendations are made on products, and combinations of two products, that may be made with high yields and economic return. The energy balance provides little extra information. A general intracellular energy balance can be written in terms of the production and consumption of ATP, but much of the necessary information on the metabolic pathways is currently not available for coal processing microorganisms. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.

  6. Reconstructing the mass balance of Brewster Glacier, New Zealand, using MODIS-derived glacier-wide albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirguey, Pascal; Still, Holly; Cullen, Nicolas J.; Dumont, Marie; Arnaud, Yves; Conway, Jonathan P.

    2016-10-01

    In New Zealand, direct measurements of mass balance are sparse due to the inaccessibility of glaciers in the Southern Alps and the logistical difficulties associated with maintaining a mass balance record. In order to explore the benefit of remotely sensed imaging to monitor mass balance in the Southern Alps, this research assesses the relationship between measurements of glacier surface albedo derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and mass balance observations using the glaciological method on Brewster Glacier over the 2005-2013 period. We confirm that minimum glacier-wide albedo is a reliable predictor for annual mass balance in this maritime environment (R2 = 0.93). Furthermore, we show that regular monitoring of glacier-wide albedo enables a new metric of winter accumulation to be derived, namely the cumulative winter albedo, which is found to correlate strongly with winter mass balance (R2 = 0.88), thus enabling the reconstruction of separate winter and summer mass balance records. This allows the mass balance record for Brewster Glacier to be extended back to the start of MODIS observations in 2000 and to confirm that the annual balance of Brewster Glacier is largely controlled by summer balance (R2 = 92 %). An application of the extended record is proposed whereby the relationship between mass balance and the photographic record of the end-of-summer snowline altitude is assessed. This allowed the annual balance record of Brewster Glacier to be reconstructed over the period 1977-2013, thus providing the longest record of mass balance for a glacier in New Zealand. Over the 37-year period, our results show that Brewster Glacier gained a significant mass of up to 14.5 ± 2.7 m w.e. by 2007. This gain was offset by a marked shift toward negative balances after 2008, yielding a loss of 5.1 ± 1.2 m w.e., or 35 % of the gain accumulated over the previous 30 years. The good correspondence between mass balance of Brewster Glacier and the

  7. A spatially resolved estimate of High Mountain Asia glacier mass balances from 2000 to 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Fanny; Berthier, Etienne; Wagnon, Patrick; Kääb, Andreas; Treichler, Désirée

    2017-09-01

    High Mountain Asia hosts the largest glacier concentration outside the polar regions. These glaciers are important contributors to streamflow in one of the most populated areas of the world. Past studies have used methods that can provide only regionally averaged glacier mass balances to assess the glacier contribution to rivers and sea level rise. Here we compute the mass balance for about 92% of the glacierized area of High Mountain Asia using time series of digital elevation models derived from satellite stereo-imagery. We calculate a total mass change of -16.3 +/- 3.5 Gt yr-1 (-0.18 +/- 0.04 m w.e. yr-1) between 2000 and 2016, which is less negative than most previous estimates. Region-wide mass balances vary from -4.0 +/- 1.5 Gt yr-1 (-0.62 +/- 0.23 m w.e. yr-1) in Nyainqentanglha to +1.4 +/- 0.8 Gt yr-1 (+0.14 +/- 0.08 m w.e. yr-1) in Kunlun, with large intra-regional variability of individual glacier mass balances (standard deviation within a region ~0.20 m w.e. yr-1). Specifically, our results shed light on the Nyainqentanglha and Pamir glacier mass changes, for which contradictory estimates exist in the literature. They provide crucial information for the calibration of the models used for projecting glacier response to climatic change, as these models do not capture the pattern, magnitude and intra-regional variability of glacier changes at present.

  8. Alternative strategies for energy recovery from municipal solid waste Part A: Mass and energy balances.

    PubMed

    Consonni, S; Giugliano, M; Grosso, M

    2005-01-01

    This two-part paper assesses four strategies for energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) by dedicated waste-to-energy (WTE) plants generating electricity through a steam cycle. The feedstock is the residue after materials recovery (MR), assumed to be 35% by weight of the collected MSW. In strategy 1, the MR residue is fed directly to a grate combustor. In strategy 2, the MR residue is first subjected to light mechanical treatment. In strategies 3 and 4, the MR residue is converted into RDF, which is combusted in a fluidized bed combustor. To examine the relevance of scale, we considered a small waste management system (WMS) serving 200,000 people and a large WMS serving 1,200,000 people. A variation of strategy 1 shows the potential of cogeneration with district heating. The assessment is carried out by a Life Cycle Analysis where the electricity generated by the WTE plant displaces electricity generated by fossil fuel-fired steam plants. Part A focuses on mass and energy balances, while Part B focuses on emissions and costs. Results show that treating the MR residue ahead of the WTE plant reduces energy recovery. The largest energy savings are achieved by combusting the MR residue "as is" in large scale plants; with cogeneration, primary energy savings can reach 2.5% of total societal energy use.

  9. A heuristic simulation model of Lake Ontario circulation and mass balance transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, J.E.; Chalupnicki, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The redistribution of suspended organisms and materials by large-scale currents is part of natural ecological processes in large aquatic systems but can contribute to ecosystem disruption when exotic elements are introduced into the system. Toxic compounds and planktonic organisms spend various lengths of time in suspension before settling to the bottom or otherwise being removed. We constructed a simple physical simulation model, including the influence of major tributaries, to qualitatively examine circulation patterns in Lake Ontario. We used a simple mass balance approach to estimate the relative water input to and export from each of 10 depth regime-specific compartments (nearshore vs. offshore) comprising Lake Ontario. Despite its simplicity, our model produced circulation patterns similar to those reported by more complex studies in the literature. A three-gyre pattern, with the classic large counterclockwise central lake circulation, and a simpler two-gyre system were both observed. These qualitative simulations indicate little offshore transport along the south shore, except near the mouths of the Niagara River and Oswego River. Complex flow structure was evident, particularly near the Niagara River mouth and in offshore waters of the eastern basin. Average Lake Ontario residence time is 8 years, but the fastest model pathway indicated potential transport of plankton through the lake in as little as 60 days. This simulation illustrates potential invasion pathways and provides rough estimates of planktonic larval dispersal or chemical transport among nearshore and offshore areas of Lake Ontario. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  10. Gulkana Glacier, Alaska-Mass balance, meteorology, and water measurements, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    March, Rod S.; O'Neel, Shad

    2011-01-01

    The measured winter snow, maximum winter snow, net, and annual balances for 1997-2001 in the Gulkana Glacier basin are determined at specific points and over the entire glacier area using the meteorological, hydrological, and glaciological data. We provide descriptions of glacier geometry to aid in estimation of conventional and reference surface mass balances and descriptions of ice motion to aid in the understanding of the glacier's response to its changing geometry. These data provide annual estimates for area altitude distribution, equilibrium line altitude, and accumulation area ratio during the study interval. New determinations of historical area altitude distributions are given for 1900 and annually from 1966 to 2001. As original weather instrumentation is nearing the end of its deployment lifespan, we provide new estimates of overlap comparisons and precipitation catch efficiency. During 1997-2001, Gulkana Glacier showed a continued and accelerated negative mass balance trend, especially below the equilibrium line altitude where thinning was pronounced. Ice motion also slowed, which combined with the negative mass balance, resulted in glacier retreat under a warming climate. Average annual runoff augmentation by glacier shrinkage for 1997-2001 was 25 percent compared to the previous average of 13 percent, in accordance with the measured glacier volume reductions.

  11. Analysis of difference between direct and geodetic mass balance measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Net mass balance has been measured since 1958 at South Cascade Glacier using the 'direct method,' e.g. area averages of snow gain and firn and ice loss at stakes. Analysis of cartographic vertical photography has allowed measurement of mass balance using the 'geodetic method' in 1970, 1975, 1977, 1979-80, and 1985-97. Water equivalent change as measured by these nearly independent methods should give similar results. During 1970-97, the direct method shows a cumulative balance of about -15 m, and the geodetic method shows a cumulative balance of about -22 m. The deviation between the two methods is fairly consistent, suggesting no gross errors in either, but rather a cumulative systematic error. It is suspected that the cumulative error is in the direct method because the geodetic method is based on a non-changing reference, the bedrock control, whereas the direct method is measured with reference to only the previous year's summer surface. Possible sources of mass loss that are missing from the direct method are basal melt, internal melt, and ablation on crevasse walls. Possible systematic measurement errors include under-estimation of the density of lost material, sinking stakes, or poorly represented areas.

  12. Mass balances of dissolved gases at river network scales across biomes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Sheehan, K.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating aquatic metabolism and gas fluxes at broad spatial scales is needed to evaluate the role of aquatic ecosystems in continental carbon cycles. We applied a river network model, FrAMES, to quantify the mass balances of dissolved oxygen at river network scales across five river networks in different biomes. The model accounts for hydrology; spatially varying re-aeration rates due to flow, slope, and water temperature; gas inputs via terrestrial runoff; variation in light due to canopy cover and water depth; benthic gross primary production; and benthic respiration. The model was parameterized using existing groundwater information and empirical relationships of GPP, R, and re-aeration, and was tested using dissolved oxygen patterns measured throughout river networks. We found that during summers, internal aquatic production dominates the river network mass balance of Kings Cr., Konza Prairie, KS (16.3 km2), whereas terrestrial inputs and aeration dominate the network mass balance at Coweeta Cr., Coweeta Forest, NC (15.7 km2). At network scales, both river networks are net heterotrophic, with Coweeta more so than Kings Cr. (P:R 0.6 vs. 0.7, respectively). The river network of Kings Creek showed higher network-scale GPP and R compared to Coweeta, despite having a lower drainage density because streams are on average wider so cumulative benthic surface areas are similar. Our findings suggest that the role of aquatic systems in watershed carbon balances will depend on interactions of drainage density, channel hydraulics, terrestrial vegetation, and biological activity.

  13. California's Snow Gun and its implications for mass balance predictions under greenhouse warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howat, I.; Snyder, M.; Tulaczyk, S.; Sloan, L.

    2003-12-01

    Precipitation has received limited treatment in glacier and snowpack mass balance models, largely due to the poor resolution and confidence of precipitation predictions relative to temperature predictions derived from atmospheric models. Most snow and glacier mass balance models rely on statistical or lapse rate-based downscaling of general or regional circulation models (GCM's and RCM's), essentially decoupling sub-grid scale, orographically-driven evolution of atmospheric heat and moisture. Such models invariably predict large losses in the snow and ice volume under greenhouse warming. However, positive trends in the mass balance of glaciers in some warming maritime climates, as well as at high elevations of the Greenland Ice Sheet, suggest that increased precipitation may play an important role in snow- and glacier-climate interactions. Here, we present a half century of April snowpack data from the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountains of California, USA. This high-density network of snow-course data indicates that a gain in winter snow accumulation at higher elevations has compensated loss in snow volume at lower elevations by over 50% and has led to glacier expansion on Mt. Shasta. These trends are concurrent with a region-wide increase in winter temperatures up to 2° C. They result from the orographic lifting and saturation of warmer, more humid air leading to increased precipitation at higher elevations. Previous studies have invoked such a "Snow Gun" effect to explain contemporaneous records of Tertiary ocean warming and rapid glacial expansion. A climatological context of the California's "snow gun" effect is elucidated by correlation between the elevation distribution of April SWE observations and the phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Nino Southern Oscillation, both controlling the heat and moisture delivered to the U.S. Pacific coast. The existence of a significant "Snow Gun" effect presents two challenges to snow and glacier mass

  14. Snow contribution to first-year and second-year Arctic sea ice mass balance north of Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granskog, Mats A.; Rösel, Anja; Dodd, Paul A.; Divine, Dmitry; Gerland, Sebastian; Martma, Tõnu; Leng, Melanie J.

    2017-03-01

    The salinity and water oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of 29 first-year (FYI) and second-year (SYI) Arctic sea ice cores (total length 32.0 m) from the drifting ice pack north of Svalbard were examined to quantify the contribution of snow to sea ice mass. Five cores (total length 6.4 m) were analyzed for their structural composition, showing variable contribution of 10-30% by granular ice. In these cores, snow had been entrained in 6-28% of the total ice thickness. We found evidence of snow contribution in about three quarters of the sea ice cores, when surface granular layers had very low δ18O values. Snow contributed 7.5-9.7% to sea ice mass balance on average (including also cores with no snow) based on δ18O mass balance calculations. In SYI cores, snow fraction by mass (12.7-16.3%) was much higher than in FYI cores (3.3-4.4%), while the bulk salinity of FYI (4.9) was distinctively higher than for SYI (2.7). We conclude that oxygen isotopes and salinity profiles can give information on the age of the ice and enables distinction between FYI and SYI (or older) ice in the area north of Svalbard.

  15. A Preliminary Model for Spacecraft Propulsion Performance Analysis Based on Nuclear Gain and Subsystem Mass-Power Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, Suman; Schmidt, George R.; Thio, Y. C.; Hurst, Chantelle M.

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary model for spacecraft propulsion performance analysis based on nuclear gain and subsystem mass-power balances are presented in viewgraph form. For very fast missions with straight-line trajectories, it has been shown that mission trip time is proportional to the cube root of alpha. Analysis of spacecraft power systems via a power balance and examination of gain vs. mass-power ratio has shown: 1) A minimum gain is needed to have enough power for thruster and driver operation; and 2) Increases in gain result in decreases in overall mass-power ratio, which in turn leads to greater achievable accelerations. However, subsystem mass-power ratios and efficiencies are crucial: less efficient values for these can partially offset the effect of nuclear gain. Therefore, it is of interest to monitor the progress of gain-limited subsystem technologies and it is also possible that power-limited systems with sufficiently low alpha may be competitive for such ambitious missions. Topics include Space flight requirements; Spacecraft energy gain; Control theory for performance; Mission assumptions; Round trips: Time and distance; Trip times; Vehicle acceleration; and Minimizing trip times.

  16. An Examination of Balanced Literacy Instructional Model Implemented to Youths with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuner, Yildiz; Girgin, Umit; Kaya, Zehranur; Karasu, Guzin; Girgin, M. Cem; Erdiken, Behram; Cavkaytar, Serap; Tanridiler, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the balanced literacy approach, a combination of whole language and skill development approaches has received attention in literacy instruction. The purpose of this school-based action research was to create a balanced literacy environment, and to describe the impacts of the various instructional activities based on the balanced literacy…

  17. The role of crystallization-driven exsolution on the sulfur mass balance in volcanic arc magmas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, Yanqing; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Zajacz, Zoltán; Wright, Heather M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    The release of large amounts of sulfur to the stratosphere during explosive eruptions affects the radiative balance in the atmosphere and consequentially impacts climate for up to several years after the event. Quantitative estimations of the processes that control the mass balance of sulfur between melt, crystals, and vapor bubbles is needed to better understand the potential sulfur yield of individual eruption events and the conditions that favor large sulfur outputs to the atmosphere. The processes that control sulfur partitioning in magmas are (1) exsolution of volatiles (dominantly H2O) during decompression (first boiling) and during isobaric crystallization (second boiling), (2) the crystallization and breakdown of sulfide or sulfate phases in the magma, and (3) the transport of sulfur-rich vapor (gas influx) from deeper unerupted regions of the magma reservoir. Vapor exsolution and the formation/breakdown of sulfur-rich phases can all be considered as closed-system processes where mass balance arguments are generally easier to constrain, whereas the contribution of sulfur by vapor transport (open system process) is more difficult to quantify. The ubiquitous “excess sulfur” problem, which refers to the much higher sulfur mass released during eruptions than what can be accounted for by amount of sulfur originally dissolved in erupted melt, as estimated from melt inclusion sulfur concentrations (the “petrologic estimate”), reflects the challenges in closing the sulfur mass balance between crystals, melt, and vapor before and during a volcanic eruption. In this work, we try to quantify the relative importance of closed- and open-system processes for silicic arc volcanoes using kinetic models of sulfur partitioning during exsolution. Our calculations show that crystallization-induced exsolution (second boiling) can generate a significant fraction of the excess sulfur observed in crystal-rich arc magmas. This result does not negate the important role of

  18. The impact of Saharan dust events on long-term glacier mass balance in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauder, A.; Gabbi, J.; Huss, M.; Schwikowski, M.

    2014-12-01

    Saharan dust falls are frequently observed in the Alpine region and are easily recognized by the unique yellowish coloration of the snow surface. Such Saharan dust events contribute to a large part to the total mineral dust deposited in snow and impact the surface energy budget by reducing the snow and ice albedo. In this study we investigate the long-term effect of such Saharan dust events on the surface albedo and the glacier's mass balance. The analysis is performed over the period 1914-2013 for two field sites on Claridenfirn, Swiss Alps, where an outstanding 100-year record of seasonal mass balance measurements is available. Based on the detailed knowledge about the mass balance, annual melt and accumulation rates are derived. A firn/ice core drilled at the glacier saddle of Colle Gnifetti (Swiss Alps) provides information on the impurity concentration in precipitation over the last century. A mass balance model combined with a parameterization for snow and ice albedo based on the specific surface area of snow and the snow impurity concentration is employed to assess the dust-albedo feedback. In order to track the position and thickness of snow layers a snow density model is implemented. Atmospheric dust enters the system of snow layers by precipitation and remains in the corresponding layer as long as there is no melt. When melt occurs, the water-insoluble part of the dust of the melted snow is supposed to accumulate in the top surface layer. The upper site has experienced only positive net mass balance and dust layers are continuously buried so that the impact of strong Saharan dust events is mainly restricted to the corresponding year. In the case of the lower site, the surface albedo is more strongly influenced by dust events of previous years due to periods with negative mass balances. Model results suggest that the enhanced melting in the 1940s yield even higher dust concentrations in 1947 compared to years with exceptional high Saharan dust deposition

  19. In-Situ Mass Balance Measurements and Morphology Study of Patsio Glacier, Himachal Pradesh, Western Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angchuk, T.; AL, R.; Mandal, A.; Soheb, M.; Bahuguna, I. M.; Singh, V.; Linda, A.

    2016-12-01

    The present ongoing study is oriented to do the detailed study of the Patsio glacier which is in the Bhaga Basin, Lahaul, Himachal Pradesh. Patsio glacier is a compound valley glacier survived by two prominent tributaries namely Eastern and Western. The two tributaries are facing opposite to each other. The Western tributary facing almost eastward shows higher melting as compared to Eastern tributary facing northwest. This is probably due to solar radiation and sunshine hour, as Western tributary receives high solar radiation and for longer duration. A series of supraglacial lakes which were connected to each other through supra channels were observed on the upper part of the ablation zone at an altitude range of 5100 m and 5300 m amsl. A dead ice covered with thick debris was observed below the current terminus. Despite the large variability of the mass balance in the different seasons Patsio glacier annual balance for the year 2012-2013 was found to be 0.04 ± 0.40 m w.e. the low values signifies that glacier has lost significant amount of mass in recent past and now it is near to the equilibrium state. Seasonal mass balance of Patsio glacier has shown wide range of variability in the mass balances. Patsio glacier receives most of the accumulation during the winter months and duration is long whereas, ablation season is short but quite significant. Monthly and daily variation has depicted that peak ablation months are July and August. The daily ablation in the month of August 2013 was found to be around 5 cm per day, probably due to air temperature. To have a clear picture of the meteorological parameters and its relation with glacier an AWS has set up on the Patsio glacier at an altitude of 5050 m amsl in June 2014. Seasonal mass balance gradients show that gradient was high during the early and late ablation seasons as compared to peak ablation season. The mass balance for the year 2010-2011 was slightly positive.

  20. The role of crystallization-driven exsolution on the sulfur mass balance in volcanic arc magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Zajacz, Zoltán.; Wright, Heather; Vazquez, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    The release of large amounts of sulfur to the stratosphere during explosive eruptions affects the radiative balance in the atmosphere and consequentially impacts climate for up to several years after the event. Quantitative estimations of the processes that control the mass balance of sulfur between melt, crystals, and vapor bubbles is needed to better understand the potential sulfur yield of individual eruption events and the conditions that favor large sulfur outputs to the atmosphere. The processes that control sulfur partitioning in magmas are (1) exsolution of volatiles (dominantly H2O) during decompression (first boiling) and during isobaric crystallization (second boiling), (2) the crystallization and breakdown of sulfide or sulfate phases in the magma, and (3) the transport of sulfur-rich vapor (gas influx) from deeper unerupted regions of the magma reservoir. Vapor exsolution and the formation/breakdown of sulfur-rich phases can all be considered as closed-system processes where mass balance arguments are generally easier to constrain, whereas the contribution of sulfur by vapor transport (open system process) is more difficult to quantify. The ubiquitous "excess sulfur" problem, which refers to the much higher sulfur mass released during eruptions than what can be accounted for by amount of sulfur originally dissolved in erupted melt, as estimated from melt inclusion sulfur concentrations (the "petrologic estimate"), reflects the challenges in closing the sulfur mass balance between crystals, melt, and vapor before and during a volcanic eruption. In this work, we try to quantify the relative importance of closed- and open-system processes for silicic arc volcanoes using kinetic models of sulfur partitioning during exsolution. Our calculations show that crystallization-induced exsolution (second boiling) can generate a significant fraction of the excess sulfur observed in crystal-rich arc magmas. This result does not negate the important role of vapor

  1. Analysis of the mass balance time series of glaciers in the Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carturan, Luca; Baroni, Carlo; Brunetti, Michele; Carton, Alberto; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanoner, Thomas; Zuecco, Giulia

    2016-03-01

    This work presents an analysis of the mass balance series of nine Italian glaciers, which were selected based on the length, continuity and reliability of observations. All glaciers experienced mass loss in the observation period, which is variable for the different glaciers and ranges between 10 and 47 years. The longest series display increasing mass loss rates, which were mainly due to increased ablation during longer and warmer ablation seasons. The mean annual mass balance (Ba) in the decade from 2004 to 2013 ranged from -1788 to -763 mm w.e. yr-1. Low-altitude glaciers with low range of elevation are more out of balance than the higher, larger and steeper glaciers, which maintain residual accumulation areas in their upper reaches. The response of glaciers is mainly controlled by the combination of October-May precipitations and June-September temperatures, but rapid geometric adjustments and atmospheric changes lead to modifications in their response to climatic variations. In particular, a decreasing correlation of Ba with the June-September temperatures and an increasing correlation with October-May precipitations are observed for some glaciers. In addition, the October-May temperatures tend to become significantly correlated with Ba, possibly indicating a decrease in the fraction of solid precipitation, and/or increased ablation, during the accumulation season. Because most of the monitored glaciers have no more accumulation area, their observations series are at risk due to their impending extinction, thus requiring a replacement soon.

  2. Analysis of the mass balance time series of glaciers in the Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carturan, L.; Baroni, C.; Brunetti, M.; Carton, A.; Dalla Fontana, G.; Salvatore, M. C.; Zanoner, T.; Zuecco, G.

    2015-10-01

    This work presents an analysis of the mass balance series of nine Italian glaciers, which were selected based on the length, continuity and reliability of observations. All glaciers experienced mass loss in the observation period, which is variable for the different glaciers and ranges between 10 and 47 years. The longest series display increasing mass loss rates, that were mainly due to increased ablation during longer and warmer ablation seasons. The mean annual mass balance (Ba) in the decade from 2004 to 2013 ranged from -1788 mm to -763 mm w.e. yr-1. Low-altitude glaciers with low elevation ranges are more out of balance than the higher, larger and steeper glaciers, which maintain residual accumulation areas in their upper reaches. The response of glaciers is mainly controlled by the combination of October-May precipitation and June-September temperature, but rapid geometric adjustments and atmospheric changes lead to modifications in their response to climatic variations. In particular, a decreasing correlation of Ba with the June-September temperature and an increasing correlation with October-May precipitation are observed for some glaciers. In addition, the October-May temperature tends to become significantly correlated with Ba, possibly indicating a decrease in the fraction of solid precipitation, and/or increased ablation, during the accumulation season. Because most of the monitored glaciers have no more accumulation area, their observations series are at risk due to their impending extinction, thus requiring a soon replacement.

  3. 3D viscosity maps for Greenland and effect on GRACE mass balance estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Xu, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    The GRACE satellite mission measures mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet. To correct for glacial isostatic adjustment numerical models are used. Although generally found to be a small signal, the full range of possible GIA models has not been explored yet. In particular, low viscosities due to a wet mantle and high temperatures due to the nearby Iceland hotspot could have a significant effect on GIA gravity rates. The goal of this study is to present a range of possible viscosity maps, and investigate the effect on GRACE mass balance estimates. Viscosity is derived using flow laws for olivine. Mantle temperature is computed from global seismology models, based on temperature derivatives for different mantle compositions. An indication for grain sizes is obtained by xenolith findings at a few locations. We also investigate the weakening effect of the presence of melt. To calculate gravity rates, we use a finite-element GIA model with the 3D viscosity maps and the ICE-5G loading history. GRACE mass balances for mascons in Greenland are derived with a least-squares inversion, using separate constraints for the inland and coastal areas in Greenland. Biases in the least-squares inversion are corrected using scale factors estimated from a simulation based on a surface mass balance model (Xu et al., submitted to The Cryosphere). Model results show enhanced gravity rates in the west and south of Greenland with 3D viscosity maps, compared to GIA models with 1D viscosity. The effect on regional mass balance is up to 5 Gt/year. Regional low viscosity can make present-day gravity rates sensitivity to ice thickness changes in the last decades. Therefore, an improved ice loading history for these time scales is needed.

  4. Balance mass flux and ice velocity across the equilibrium line in drainage systems of Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.

    2001-12-01

    Estimates of balance mass flux and depth-averaged ice velocity through the cross section aligned with the equilibrium line are produced for each of six drainage systems in Greenland. The estimates are based on a model equilibrium line fitted to field data and on a revised distribution of surface mass balance for the conterminous ice sheet. Ice drainage divides and six major drainage systems are delineated using surface topography from ERS radar altimeter data. Ice thicknesses at the equilibrium line and throughout each drainage system are based on the latest compilation of airborne radar sounding data described elsewhere. The net accumulation rate in the area bounded by the equilibrium line is 399 Gt a-1, and net ablation rate in the remaining area is 231 Gt a-1. Excluding an east central coastal ridge reduces the net accumulation rate to 397 Gt a-1, with a range from 42 to 121 Gt a-1 for the individual drainage systems. The mean balance mass flux and depth-averaged ice velocity at the cross-section aligned with the modeled equilibrium line are 0.1011 Gt km-2 a-1 and 0.111 km a-1, respectively, with little variation in these values from system to system. In contrast, the mean mass discharge per unit length along the equilibrium line ranges from one half to double the overall mean rate of 0.0468 Gt km-1 a-1. The ratio of the ice mass in the area bounded by the equilibrium line to the rate of mass output implies an effective exchange time of approximately 6 ka for total mass exchange. The range of exchange times, from a low of 3 ka in the SE drainage system to 14 ka in the NE, suggests a rank as to which regions of the ice sheet may respond more rapidly to climate fluctuations.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge and treated biosolids: effect factors and mass balance.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Guerra, P; Theocharides, M; Barclay, K; Smyth, S A; Alaee, M

    2013-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been consistently detected in sewage sludge and treated biosolids. Two hundred and eighty-eight samples including primary sludge (PS), waste biological sludge (WBS) and treated biosolids from fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Canada were analyzed to investigate the factors affecting accumulation of PBDEs in sludge and biosolids. Factors examined included environmental/sewershed conditions and operational parameters of the WWTPs. PBDE concentrations in PS, WBS and treated biosolids were 230-82,000 ng/g, 530-8800 ng/g and 420-6000 ng/g, respectively; BDE-209,-99, and -47 were the predominant congeners. Concentrations were influenced by industrial input, leachate, and temperature. Several examinations including the measurement of BDE-202 indicated minimal debromination during wastewater treatment. Estimated solids-liquid distribution coefficients were moderately correlated to hydraulic retention time, solids loading rate, mixed liquor suspended solids, solids retention time, and removal of organic solids, indicating that PBDE partitioning to solids can be optimized by WWTPs' operational conditions. Solids treatment type strongly affected PBDE levels in biosolids: 1.5 times increase after solids digestion, therefore, digestion efficiency could be a potential factor for variability of PBDEs concentration. In contrast, alkaline treatment reduced PBDE concentrations in biosolids. Overall, mass balance approaches confirmed that PBDEs were removed from the liquid stream through partitioning to solids. Variability of PBDE levels in biosolids could result in different PBDEs burdens to agricultural land, and different exposure levels to soil organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 20 years of mass balances on the Piloto glacier, Las Cuevas river basin, Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, J. C.; Cabrera, G. A.; Lenzano, L. E.

    2007-10-01

    Climatic changes of the 20th century have altered the water cycle in the Andean basins of central Argentina. The most visible change is seen in the mountain glaciers, with loss of part of their mass due to decreasing thickness and a substantial recession in the last 100 years. This paper briefly describes the results of glacier mass balance research since 1979 in the Piloto Glacier at the Cajón del Rubio, in the headwaters of Las Cuevas River, presenting new results for the period 1997-2003. Very large interannual variability of net annual specific balance is evident, due largely to variations in winter snow accumulation, with a maximum net annual value of + 151 cm w.e. and a minimum value of - 230 cm w.e. Wet El Niño years are normally associated with positive net annual balances, while dry La Niña years generally result in negative balances. Within the 24-year period, 67% of the years show negative net annual specific balances, with a cumulative mass balance loss of - 10.50 m water equivalent (w.e.). Except for exceptions normally related to El Niño events, a general decreasing trend of winter snow accumulation is evident in the record, particularly after 1992, which has a strong effect in the overall negative mass balance values. The glacier contribution to Las Cuevas River runoff is analysed based on the Punta de Vacas River gauge station for a hypothetical year without snow precipitation (YWSP), when the snowmelt component is zero. Extremely dry years similar to a YWSP have occurred in 1968-1969, 1969-1970 and 1996-1997. The Punta de Vacas gauge station is located 62 km downstream from Piloto Glacier, and the basin contains 3.0% of uncovered glacier ice and 3.7% of debris-covered ice. The total glacier contribution to Las Cuevas River discharge is calculated as 82 ± 8% during extremely dry years. If glacier wastage continues at the present trend as observed during the last 2 decades, it will severely affect the water resources in the arid central Andes of

  7. Improved estimate of accelerated Antarctica ice mass loses from GRACE, Altimetry and surface mass balance from regional climate model output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicogna, I.; Sutterley, T. C.; A, G.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Ivins, E. R.

    2016-12-01

    We use Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly gravity fields to determine the regional acceleration in ice mass loss in Antarctica for 2002-2016. We find that the total mass loss is controlled by only a few regions. In Antarctica, the Amundsen Sea (AS) sector and the Antarctic Peninsula account for 65% and 18%, respectively, of the total loss (186 ± 10 Gt/yr) mainly from ice dynamics. The AS sector contributes most of the acceleration in loss (9 ± 1 Gt/yr2 ), and Queen Maud Land, East Antarctica, is the only sector with a significant mass gain due to a local increase in SMB (57 ± 5 Gt/yr). We compare GRACE regional mass balance estimates with independent estimates from ICESat-1 and Operation IceBridge laser altimetry, CryoSat-2 radar altimetry, and surface mass balance outputs from RACMO2.3. In the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica, an area experiencing rapid retreat and mass loss to the sea, we find good agreement between GRACE and altimetry estimates. Comparison of GRACE with these independent techniques in East Antarctic shows that GIA estimates from the new regional ice deglaciation models underestimate the GIA correction in the EAIS interior, which implies larger losses of the Antarctica ice sheet by about 70 Gt/yr. Sectors where we are observing the largest losses are closest to warm circumpolar water, and with polar constriction of the westerlies enhanced by climate warming, we expect these sectors to contribute more and more to sea level as the ice shelves that protect these glaciers will melt faster in contact with more heat from the surrounding oc

  8. Mass balance of Greenland from combined GRACE and satellite altimetry inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Rene; Sandberg Sørensen, Louise; Nilsson, Johan; Simonsen, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    With 12 years of GRACE satellite data now available, the ice mass loss trend of Greenland are clearly demonstrating ice mass loss in marginal zones of the ice sheets, and increasing mass loss trends in some regions such as the north west marginal zones. Although the GRACE release-5 products have provided a significant increase in resolution, the detailed space-based detection of where the ice sheet is loosing mass needs to come from other sources, notably satellite altimetry from EnviSat, IceSat and CryoSat, which point out the detailed location of areas of change, and - when combined with firn compaction and density models - also can be used to infer mass changes. In the paper we outline results of a novel direct inversion method, where all satellite data can be utilized in a general inverse estimation scheme, and the leakage from neighbouring ice caps minimized. We demonstrate overall mass change results from Greenland and Eastern Canadian Ice Caps 2003-14, highlighting the increasing melt in the marginal zones both in NW and NE Greenland, and highlighting the dynamic nature of the Greenland ice sheet mass loss through the 2012 record melt event, and the 2013 mass gain anomaly. The used data for the Greenland Ice Sheet are provided partly through the ESA Ice Sheets CCI project 2012-17, which will make available long term Essential Climate Variables such as Surface Elevation Changes, Ice Velocity, Mass Balance and Calving Front Locations.

  9. Mass balance source apportionment modeling of indoor air pollution exposures during the Ethiopian coffee ceremony.

    PubMed

    Keil, Chris; Coleman, Quincy; Brown, Alex; Kassa, Hailu

    2014-01-01

    Mass balance modeling was used to apportion previously measured carbon monoxide and respirable particle exposures of women preparing coffee during Ethiopian coffee ceremonies. The coffee ceremony generates smoke indoors from the use of charcoal and incense. This creates inhalation exposures, particularly for the women preparing the coffee. Understanding the health risks associated with this practice will be improved with knowledge of the relative contribution to combustion byproduct exposures from the different sources. Source fingerprints were developed in the laboratory for carbon monoxide and respirable particle emissions from charcoal and incense. A mass balance model determined that the majority of the carbon monoxide exposures were from charcoal use and that the respirable particle exposures were approximately half from incense and half from charcoal. Efforts to decrease health risks from these exposures must be directed by Ethiopian cultural stakeholders who understand the exposure conditions, the health risks, and the societal context.

  10. Mass balance-based regression modeling of PAHs accumulation in urban soils, role of urban development.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in 68 soils samples collected at housing developments that represent different length of development periods across Beijing. Based on the data, we derived a mass balanced mathematical model to simulate the dynamics of PAH accumulations in urban soils as affected by the urban developments. The key parameters were estimated by fitting the modified mass balance model to the data of PAH concentrations vs. building age of the sampling green area. The total PAH concentrations would increase from the baseline of 267 ng g(-1) to 3631 ng g(-1) during the period of 1978-2048. It showed that the dynamic changes in the rates of accumulations of light and heavy PAH species were related to the shifting of sources of fuels, combustion efficiencies, and amounts of energy consumed during the course of development.

  11. Reconstruction of mass balance variations for Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand, 1913 to 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Mingko Woo ); Fitzharris, B.B. )

    1992-11-01

    A model of mass balance is constructed for the Franz Josef Glacier on the west coast of New Zealand. It uses daily data from a nearby, but short-record climate station. The model is extended back to 1913 by creating hybrid climate data from a long-record, but more distant, climate station. Its monthly data provide long-term temperature and precipitation trends, and daily fluctuations are simulated using a stochastic approach that is tuned to the characteristics of the short-record station. The glacier model provides estimates of equilibrium-line altitudes which are in reasonable agreement with those observed, and variations of cumulative mass balance that correspond with patterns of advance and retreat of the glacier terminus.

  12. A prospective study examining balance confidence among individuals with lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Miller, W C; Deathe, A B

    In this study we assessed whether balance confidence scores changed over a 2-year follow up period, and identified predictors of balance confidence and predictors of change in balance confidence among lower limb amputees. A prospective follow-up survey of 245 community living adults with unilateral below and above knee lower limb amputation who used their prosthetic limb daily was conducted. Balance confidence, assessed using the 16-item Activity-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, socio-demographic, health and amputation related variables were collected at baseline and 2 years later. ABC scores were similar at baseline (mean = 67.6; SD = 25.7) and follow up (mean = 68.0; SD = 25.8). Lower balance confidence scores at follow up were predicted by older age, being female, use of a mobility device, poor perceived health, increased symptoms of depression, having to concentrate while walking, and fear of falling (all p < 0.05). Predictors of change in balance confidence included gender and perceived health (all p < 0.05). Balance confidence appears to be a persistent problem in the amputee population. Health professionals are encouraged to consider balance confidence as a potentially important variable that may influence function in this clinically unique group of individuals. The identified predictor variables may be useful to clinicians in targeting individuals who require attention to improve balance confidence.

  13. Separation of physical loading from photosynthesis/respiration processes in rivers by mass balance.

    PubMed

    Iwanyshyn, M; Ryan, M C; Chu, A

    2008-02-01

    Diurnal variations in physical and chemical concentrations, including nutrients, are observed in river ecosystems. Understanding these cycles and separating the effects of physical loading (from point and non-point sources) and biogeochemical processes are necessary for water management and the TMDL process. A chloride mass balance approach is used to separate the relative influences of physical loading and biogeochemical processes in the Bow River through Calgary, Canada, which has a significant influence on the river water chemistry. Sampling campaigns were conducted in December 2005, when minimal photosynthesis and respiration occur, and in July 2006, when river discharge is high and some photosynthesis and respiration activity is present. Samples in each campaign were collected at point source input and output along the river reach through the city every hour for a 24-hour period, allowing for time of travel. The two wastewater treatment facilities within the city contributed the majority of physical mass loading to the river, with temporal variations in effluent discharge, chloride, and nutrient concentrations. Wastewater effluent chloride to nutrient (as well as other parameter relationships) concentrations also varied diurnally. An hourly chloride mass balance was achieved, within 0.5% (average, S.D.=4.4) for December and 7.7% (average, S.D.=4.2) for July, between estimated cumulative sum values from all inputs and measured values at the river output downgradient of the city, allowing for the investigation of other parameter conservativeness. Some slight diurnal variations associated with photosynthesis and respiration were observed even with limited productivity in the river. Nitrate mass fluxes appeared to be most strongly influenced by photosynthesis and respiration processes, with phosphate being less influenced. Ammonia mass fluxes appeared to be most strongly influenced by wastewater effluent loading. Physical loading can mask or enhance biogeochemical

  14. Association of Body Mass Index With Self-Report and Performance-Based Measures of Balance and Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Wert, David M.; Hile, Elizabeth S.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Brach, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The incidence of obesity is increasing in older adults, with associated worsening in the burden of disability. Little is known about the impact of body mass index (BMI) on self-report and performance-based balance and mobility measures in older adults. Objective The purposes of this study were (1) to examine the association of BMI with measures of balance and mobility and (2) to explore potential explanatory factors. Design This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Methods Older adults (mean age=77.6 years) who participated in an ongoing observational study (N=120) were classified as normal weight (BMI=18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI=25.0–29.9 kg/m2), moderately obese (BMI=30.0–34.9 kg/m2), or severely obese (BMI≥35 kg/m2). Body mass index data were missing for one individual; thus, data for 119 participants were included in the analysis. Mobility and balance were assessed using self-report and performance-based measures and were compared among weight groups using analysis of variance and chi-square analysis for categorical data. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the association among BMI, mobility, and balance after controlling for potential confounding variables. Results Compared with participants who were of normal weight or overweight, those with moderate or severe obesity were less likely to report their mobility as very good or excellent (52%, 55%, 39%, and 6%, respectively); however, there was no difference in self-report of balance among weight groups. Participants with severe obesity (n=17) had the lowest levels of mobility on the performance-based measures, followed by those who were moderately obese (n=31), overweight (n=42), and of normal weight (n=29). There were no differences on performance-based balance measures among weight groups. After controlling for age, sex, minority status, physical activity level, education level, and comorbid conditions, BMI still significantly contributed to mobility (

  15. Quantification of colloidal and aqueous element transfer in soils: The dual-phase mass balance model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Thompson, Aaron; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    2015-01-01

    Mass balance models have become standard tools for characterizing element gains and losses and volumetric change during weathering and soil development. However, they rely on the assumption of complete immobility for an index element such as Ti or Zr. Here we describe a dual-phase mass balance model that eliminates the need for an assumption of immobility and in the process quantifies the contribution of aqueous versus colloidal element transfer. In the model, the high field strength elements Ti and Zr are assumed to be mobile only as suspended solids (colloids) and can therefore be used to distinguish elemental redistribution via colloids from redistribution via dissolved aqueous solutes. Calculations are based upon element concentrations in soil, parent material, and colloids dispersed from soil in the laboratory. We illustrate the utility of this model using a catena in South Africa. Traditional mass balance models systematically distort elemental gains and losses and changes in soil volume in this catena due to significant redistribution of Zr-bearing colloids. Applying the dual-phase model accounts for this colloidal redistribution and we find that the process accounts for a substantial portion of the major element (e.g., Al, Fe and Si) loss from eluvial soil. In addition, we find that in illuvial soils along this catena, gains of colloidal material significantly offset aqueous elemental loss. In other settings, processes such as accumulation of exogenous dust can mimic the geochemical effects of colloid redistribution and we suggest strategies for distinguishing between the two. The movement of clays and colloidal material is a major process in weathering and pedogenesis; the mass balance model presented here is a tool for quantifying effects of that process over time scales of soil development.

  16. Sewer epidemiology mass balances for assessing the illicit use of methamphetamine, amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Nicell, Jim A

    2012-04-01

    In sewer epidemiology, mass balances are used to back-extrapolate measurements of wastewater influent concentrations of appropriate drug residues to assess the parent illicit drug's level of use in upstream populations. This study focussed on developing and refining mass balances for the use of illicit methamphetamine, amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol. As a first step, a multi-criteria evaluation was used to select unchanged methamphetamine, unchanged amphetamine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol as the most appropriate drug residues to track a selected population's use of illicit methamphetamine, amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol, respectively. For each of these selected drug residues, mass balances were developed by utilizing all disposition data available for their release from all their respective sources, incorporating route-of-administration considerations where relevant, and accounting for variations in the metabolic capacity of users of the various relevant licit and illicit sources. Further, since the selected drug residues for the use of methamphetamine and amphetamine cannot only result from their use but numerous other licit and illicit sources, comprehensive general source models were developed for their enantiomeric-specific release to sewers. The relative importance of the sources identified in the general source model was evaluated by performing national substance flow analyses for a number of countries. Results suggested that licit sources of methamphetamine are expected to be only of significance in populations where its illicit use is minor. Similarly, in populations where the use of illicitly produced amphetamine is currently of relevance, licit contributions to the sewer loads of amphetamine are likely to be of negligible importance. Lastly, the study of tetrahydrocannabinol back-extrapolation mass balances suggested that further research is required to assess the importance of fecal elimination of 11-nor-9-carboxy

  17. Applying an Orographic Precipitation Model to Improve Mass Balance Modeling of the Juneau Icefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, A. C.; Hock, R.; Schuler, T.; Bieniek, P.

    2016-12-01

    Mass loss from glaciers in Southeast Alaska is expected to alter downstream ecological systems as runoff patterns change. To investigate these potential changes under future climate scenarios, distributed glacier mass balance modeling is required. However, the spatial resolution gap between global or regional climate models and the requirements for glacier mass balance modeling studies must be addressed first. We have used a linear theory of orographic precipitation model to downscale precipitation from both the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and ERA-Interim to the Juneau Icefield region over the period 1979-2013. This implementation of the LT model is a unique parameterization that relies on the specification of snow fall speed and rain fall speed as tuning parameters to calculate the cloud time delay, τ. We assessed the LT model results by considering winter precipitation so the effect of melt was minimized. The downscaled precipitation pattern produced by the LT model captures the orographic precipitation pattern absent from the coarse resolution WRF and ERA-Interim precipitation fields. Observational data constraints limited our ability to determine a unique parameter combination and calibrate the LT model to glaciological observations. We established a reference run of parameter values based on literature and performed a sensitivity analysis of the LT model parameters, horizontal resolution, and climate input data on the average winter precipitation. The results of the reference run showed reasonable agreement with the available glaciological measurements. The precipitation pattern produced by the LT model was consistent regardless of parameter combination, horizontal resolution, and climate input data, but the precipitation amount varied strongly with these factors. Due to the consistency of the winter precipitation pattern and the uncertainty in precipitation amount, we suggest a precipitation index map approach to be used in combination with

  18. Relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass is associated with isokinetic muscle strength and balance in healthy collegiate men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Hong, Ju; Cha, Jun-Youl; Park, Jung-Min; Eun, Denny; Yoo, Jaehyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-11-01

    There are few studies on the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and balance in the young ages. We investigated the relationship between appendicular skeletal muscle mass, isokinetic muscle strength of lower extremity, and balance among healthy young men using relative skeletal muscle index. Thirty men were grouped according to relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass index: higher skeletal muscle group (n = 15) and lower skeletal muscle group (n = 15). Static and dynamic balance abilities were measured using the following: a test where participants stood on one leg with eyes closed, a modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (mCTSIB) with eyes open and eyes closed, a stability test, and limits of stability test. The muscle strength of lower extremities was measured with an isokinetic analyser in hip, knee, and ankle joints. Participants with higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass were significantly more stable in maintaining dynamic balance than those with lower appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Moreover, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index was positively correlated with dynamic balance ability. Participants with higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass had stronger strength in the lower extremity, and there were significant differences in the isokinetic torque ratios between groups. From these results, it can be inferred that higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass relates to muscle strength and the alteration in the peak torque ratio of the lower extremity, contributing to the maintenance of balance.

  19. The watt or Kibble balance: a technique for implementing the new SI definition of the unit of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.; Schlamminger, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    The redefinition of the SI unit of mass in terms of a fixed value of the Planck constant has been made possible by the Kibble balance, previously known as the watt balance. Once the new definition has been adopted, the Kibble balance technique will permit the realisation of the mass unit over a range from milligrams to kilograms. We describe the theory underlying the Kibble balance and practical techniques required to construct such an instrument to relate a macroscopic physical mass to the Planck constant with an uncertainty, which is achievable at present, in the region of 2 parts in 108. A number of Kibble balances have either been built or are under construction and we compare the principal features of these balances.

  20. Autonomous Ice Mass Balance Observations for Changing Arctic Sea Ice Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, J. D.; Planck, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Richter-Menge, J.; Elder, B. C.; Polashenski, C.

    2016-12-01

    Results from observational data and predictive models agree: the state of the Arctic sea ice cover is in transition with a major shift from thick multiyear ice to thinner seasonal ice. The ice mass-balance represents the integration of all surface and ocean heat fluxes, and frequent temporal measurement can aid in attributing the impact of these forcing fluxes on the ice cover. Autonomous Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB's) have proved to be important measurement tools allowing in situ, long-term data collection at multiple locations. Seasonal IMB's (SIMB's) are free floating versions of the IMB that allow data collection in thin ice and during times of transition. To accomplish this a custom computer was developed to integrate the scientific instruments, power management, and data communications while providing expanded autonomous functionality. This new design also allows for the easy incorporation of other sensors. Additionally, the latest generation of SIMB includes improvements to make it more stable, longer lasting, easier to deploy, and less expensive. Models can provide important insights as to where to deploy the sea ice mass balance buoys and what measurements are the most important. The resulting dataset from the buoys can be used to inform and assess model results.

  1. Evaluating different methods for glacier mass balance interpolation on a tropical glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölg, Nico; Ceballos, Jorge Luis

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers in the inner tropics receive precipitation throughout the year while the annual temperature amplitude is small. Therefore, a seasonal distinction in accumulation and ablation season as for mid-latitude glaciers is hardly applicable. In order to better understand the sub-annual glacier development and its relation to meteorological conditions, a mass balance programme with monthly resolution was established on Conejeras Glacier in the Cordillera Central in Colombia in 2006. After almost ten years of measurements the time series has been reanalysed. The results show a mass balance of around -25 m w.e. during this period and a strong correlation to several warm and cold phases of ENSO. Reanalysis of the monthly mass balance data reveal an often low correlation between ablation/accumulation and elevation. Quality and density of the measurement network allow for the application of several different interpolation methods, recommended ones as well as "outlawed" GIS methods like Kriging. In this study we show the advantages and disadvantages of a number of possibilities and try to rank their usability according to different conditions and purposes. The application of multiple methods can also be of advantage for the estimation of uncertainty ranges.

  2. Estimating riverine discharge of nitrogen from the South Korea by the mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehoon; Kim, Geonha; Kim, Sungwon; Choi, Euiso

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to estimate the total mass of nitrogen discharged from various sources in Korea using the mass balance approach. Three different nitrogen mass balances were presented: (1) agricultural activities including raising crops and animal husbandry; (2) domestic activities, and (3) activities in forest and urban areas. These nitrogen balances were combined to estimate riverine discharge of nitrogen to the ocean in national scale. Nitrogen inputs include atmospheric deposition, biological nitrogen fixation, application of inorganic fertilizers/manures, animal feed/imported foodstuffs, and meat/fish. Nitrogen outputs include ammonia volatilization, denitrification, human/animal waste generation, crop/meat production, and riverine discharge to the ocean. The estimated total nitrogen input in Korea was 1,194.5 x 10(3) tons N/year. Nitrogen discharged into rivers was estimated as 408-422 x 10(3) tons N/year, of which 66-71% was diffuse in origin. The estimated diffuse discharges for land uses were estimated as 82 x 10(3) tons N/year from agricultural areas, 7 x 10(3) tons N/year from forestry and 75 x 10(3) tons N/year from urban and industrial areas.

  3. Relation between mass balance aperture and hydraulic properties from field experiments in fractured rock in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjerne, Calle; Nordqvist, Rune

    2014-09-01

    Results from tracer tests are often used to infer connectivity and transport properties in bedrock. However, the amount of site-specific data from tracer tests is often very limited, while data from hydraulic tests are more abundant. It is therefore of great interest for predictive transport modeling to use hydraulic data to infer transport properties. In this study, data from cross-hole tracer tests carried out in crystalline bedrock in Sweden were compiled and analysed. The tests were performed within investigations made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) between 1978 and 2009 at five different locations. An empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity was found and quantified by using 74 observations. The empirical relationship deviates considerably from the cubic law aperture, as mass balance aperture is found to be at least one order of magnitude larger than cubic law aperture. Hence, usage of cubic law aperture, derived from hydraulic testing, for transport predictions is unsuitable, as the advective transport time will be considerably underestimated. Another result, from the data set studied, is that mass balance aperture appears to correlate better to apparent storativity than to transmissivity.

  4. Mass Balance of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in a Pristine Boreal Catchment.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Marko; Laudon, Hjalmar; McLachlan, Michael S; Berger, Urs

    2015-10-20

    Mass balances of ten individual perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in two nested pristine catchments in Northern Sweden with different sizes and hydrological functions were assembled for 2011-2012. Concentrations of PFAAs in rain and snowmelt, as well as in streamwater at the outlet of the two watersheds were measured and used to calculate PFAA atmospheric inputs to and riverine outputs from the catchments. The results generally showed a great excess of PFAA inputs for both catchments over the whole study year. However, during the spring flood period, the inputs and outputs were within a factor of 2 for several PFAAs and the streamwater showed PFAA patterns resembling the patterns in rain (as opposed to snowmelt), suggesting that snowmelt water infiltrating the ground had displaced water from the previous summer. Comparison of PFAA mass balances between the two catchments further suggested that atmospheric inputs of short-chain (replacement) perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids had increased in the years before sampling, while inputs of the legacy perfluorooctane sulfonic acid had decreased. Overall, the mass balances indicate that a considerable portion of the PFAAs deposited from the atmosphere are stored in soil and may be released to surface and marine water environments in the future.

  5. A Range Correction for Icesat and Its Potential Impact on Ice-sheet Mass Balance Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsa, A. A.; Moholdt, G.; Fricker, H. A.; Brunt, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a previously undocumented range error in NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) that degrades elevation precision and introduces a small but significant elevation trend over the ICESat mission period. This range error (the Gaussian-Centroid or 'G-C'offset) varies on a shot-to-shot basis and exhibits increasing scatter when laser transmit energies fall below 20 mJ. Although the G-C offset is uncorrelated over periods less than1 day, it evolves over the life of each of ICESat's three lasers in a series of ramps and jumps that give rise to spurious elevation trends of -0.92 to -1.90 cm yr(exp -1), depending on the time period considered. Using ICESat data over the Ross and Filchner-Ronne ice shelves we show that (1) the G-C offset introduces significant biases in ice-shelf mass balance estimates, and (2) the mass balance bias can vary between regions because of different temporal samplings of ICESat.We can reproduce the effect of the G-C offset over these two ice shelves by fitting trends to sample-weighted mean G-C offsets for each campaign, suggesting that it may not be necessary to fully repeat earlier ICESat studies to determine the impact of the G-C offset on ice-sheet mass balance estimates.

  6. Sensitivity of Mass Balance and Equilibrium Line Altitude to Climate Change in the French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six, D.

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of the sensitivity of surface mass balance and equilibrium line altitude to climate change is crucial for the simulation of the future evolution of glaciers. Such an assessment has been carried out using a very extensive data set comprising numerous measurements of snow accumulation and snow and ice ablation made on four French glaciers over the last 16 years. Winter mass balances show a complicated pattern with respect to altitude, showing no clear linear relationship. Although the ratios of winter mass balance to valley precipitation differ considerably from one site to another, they remain relatively constant over time. Relationships between snow/ice ablation and temperature are stable, showing no link with altitude. The mean snow and ice PDD factors found are 0.003 and 0.0061 m w.e. °C-1 d-1. This analysis shows that, at a given site, ablation depends mainly on the amount of snow precipitation and on cumulative positive degree days. The sensitivity of annual ablation to temperature change increases almost linearly from 0.25 m w.e. °C-1 at 3500 m to 1.55 m w.e. °C-1 at 1650 m. Equilibrium line altitude sensitivity to temperature change was found to ranges from 50 m °C-1 to 85 m °C-1, generally lower than previous studies.

  7. Large-scale subduction of continental crust implied by India-Asia mass-balance calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingalls, Miquela; Rowley, David B.; Currie, Brian; Colman, Albert S.

    2016-11-01

    Continental crust is buoyant compared with its oceanic counterpart and resists subduction into the mantle. When two continents collide, the mass balance for the continental crust is therefore assumed to be maintained. Here we use estimates of pre-collisional crustal thickness and convergence history derived from plate kinematic models to calculate the crustal mass balance in the India-Asia collisional system. Using the current best estimates for the timing of the diachronous onset of collision between India and Eurasia, we find that about 50% of the pre-collisional continental crustal mass cannot be accounted for in the crustal reservoir preserved at Earth's surface today--represented by the mass preserved in the thickened crust that makes up the Himalaya, Tibet and much of adjacent Asia, as well as southeast Asian tectonic escape and exported eroded sediments. This implies large-scale subduction of continental crust during the collision, with a mass equivalent to about 15% of the total oceanic crustal subduction flux since 56 million years ago. We suggest that similar contamination of the mantle by direct input of radiogenic continental crustal materials during past continent-continent collisions is reflected in some ocean crust and ocean island basalt geochemistry. The subduction of continental crust may therefore contribute significantly to the evolution of mantle geochemistry.

  8. Assessing the links between Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance and Arctic climate using Climate Models and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Ruth; Rodehacke, Christian; Boberg, Fredrik; Langen, Peter; Sloth Madsen, Marianne; Høyer Svendsen, Synne; Yang, Shuting; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Olesen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Changes in different parts of the Arctic cryosphere may have knock-on effects on other parts of the system. The fully coupled climate model EC-Earth, which includes the ice sheet model PISM, is a useful tool to examine interactions between sea ice, ice sheet, ocean and atmosphere. Here we present results from EC-Earth experimental simulations that show including an interactive ice sheet model changes ocean circulation, sea ice extent and regional climate with, for example, a dampening of the expected increase in Arctic temperatures under the RCP scenarios when compared with uncoupled experiments. However, the relatively coarse resolution of the climate model likely influences the calculated surface mass balance forcing applied to the ice sheet model and it is important therefore to evaluate the model performance over the ice sheet. Here, we assess the quality of the climate forcing from the GCM to the ice sheet model by comparing the energy balance and surface mass balance (SMB) output from EC-Earth with that from a regional climate model (RCM) run at very high resolution (0.05 degrees) over Greenland. The RCM, HIRHAM5, has been evaluated over a wide range of climate parameters for Greenland which allows us to be confident it gives a representative climate forcing for the Greenland ice sheet. To evaluate the internal variability in the climate forcing, we compare simulations from HIRHAM5 forced with both the EC-Earth historical emissions and the ERA-Interim reanalysis on the boundaries. The EC-Earth-PISM RCP8.5 scenario is also compared with an EC-Earth run without an ice sheet to assess the impact of an interactive ice sheet on likely future changes. To account for the resolution difference between the models we downscale both EC-Earth and HIRHAM5 simulations with a simple offline energy balance model (EBM).

  9. Improved Net Protein Balance, Lean Mass, and Gene Expression Changes With Oxandrolone Treatment in the Severely Burned

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Steven E.; Thomas, Steven J.; Dasu, Mohan R.; Ferrando, Arny A.; Chinkes, David L.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Herndon, David N.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of the anabolic agent oxandrolone on muscle protein and gene expression in severely burned children. Summary Background Data The authors previously showed that oxandrolone increased net muscle protein synthesis in emaciated burned patients receiving delayed treatment for severe burns. They hypothesized that similar effects would be seen in those treated early after burn. Methods Thirty-two severely burned children were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial. Subjects underwent studies to assess leg protein net balance 5 days after the first excision and grafting procedure. Immediately after these studies, treatment with placebo (n = 18) or 0.1 mg/kg oxandrolone (n = 14) twice a day was started. One week after this, another net balance study was performed in each subject. Body weights and total body potassium counting were used to determine body compositional changes. Muscle biopsies were taken 1 week after treatment in oxandrolone subjects to examine gene expression changes with gene array (12,600 genes). Results Protein net balance did not change in the placebo group, while oxandrolone-treated subjects had a significant improvement. Body weights and fat free mass significantly decreased in the placebo group, while no changes were found in the oxandrolone-treated subjects. Expression changes were seen in 14 genes in the oxandrolone group compared to placebo. Some of these included myosin light chain (+2.7-fold change), tubulin (+2.3), calmodulin (−2.3), and protein phosphatase I inhibitor (−2.8). Conclusions Oxandrolone improves protein net balance and lean mass in the severely burned. These changes are associated with increased gene expression for functional muscle proteins. PMID:12796576

  10. Numerical modelling of the effect of changing surface geometry on mountain glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Carrivick, J.; Evans, A.; Carver, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps are extremely useful indicators of environmental change. Due to their small size, they have much faster response times to climate changes than the large ice masses of Greenland and Antarctica. Mountain glaciers are important for society as sources of water for energy production and irrigation. The meltwater cycles significantly impact local ecology. Consequently, models assessing the effect of complicated glacier surface geometry on glacier mass balance are becoming increasingly popular. Here we apply such a model to a glacier record spanning 100 years. Our study encompasses the creation of a GIS enabling analysis of changing glacier geometry over the 20th and early 21st Centuries and the development and testing of a novel user-friendly distributed-surface energy balance model that is designed specifically to consider the effect that these changes have on mountain glacier mass balance. Long-term records of mass balance are rare for arctic Mountain glaciers, making model development and evaluation difficult. One exception is Kårsaglaciären in arctic Sweden for which there is a variety of data for the past 100 years, sourced from historical surveys, satellite imagery and recent field work. Firstly, we present the construction of robust three-dimensional glacier surface reconstructions for Kårsaglaciären within a GIS, specifically discussing the methods of interpolation used to create the surfaces. We highlight the methods and importance of inter-model sensitivity analyses as well as Monte Carlo simulations used to assess the effect of the input data utilised in the kriging algorithms. Analyses integral to the modelling stage of the project, such as the geometries of the resultant surfaces as well as the interrelationships between them, will be discussed. Secondly, we present the melt model which has been constructed in order to test the effect of changing geometry on mass balance. Our melt model can carry out systematic testing of

  11. GRACE Hydrologic Mass Balance Secular Trends and Variations on Arctic Permafrost Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, R. R.

    2008-12-01

    Permafrost is largest component of the Arctic cryosphere by area extent. Over the last century, substantial changes in storage and cycling of fresh water have been observed. Observations of the globally distributed hydrologic mass balance (water equivalent thickness change relative to the geoid) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment mission offer to provide a greater understanding of the processes controlling redistribution of water mass (groundwater storage, discharge, snow water equivalent storage, vegetation water storage, and ice sheet mass balance) under ongoing effects of climate warming. Using newly processed monthly GRACE grids, Level-3 Release 4, de-striped, adjusted for post-glacial rebound I investigate the hydrologic mass balance of the Arctic watershed regions. Regionally-averaged monthly time series show strong seasonal periodicity, with maxima occurring in April/May and minima in September/October. Eurasian watersheds have significant positive secular trends. The Ob-Irtysh watershed shows a water equivalent gain of 22.7 ± 13.5 km3/yr, and the Lena watershed shows a water equivalent gain of 44.7 ± 0.8 km3/yr from August 2002 through March 2008. The Mackenzie watershed shows a water equivalent volume change of -5.6 ± 7.2 km3/yr in the same time period. The permafrost area extent in the watersheds investigated shows the Ob-Irtysh draining the least continuous permafrost extent and the Lena draining the most. The Mackenzie watershed drains a mixture of continuous and discontinuous permafrost area extents. Regionally-average snow water equivalent time series show seasonal periodicity whose maxima and minima occur one month ahead of the GRACE time series. Secular trends of snow water equivalent show neither significant gain nor loss over the time period. This removes snow water equivalent (a component of surface water storage) as being the source of the GRACE secular trends. A subsurface source of water mass exchange of the GRACE secular

  12. Reanalysis of a 10-year record (2004-2013) of seasonal mass balances at Langenferner/Vedretta Lunga, Ortler Alps, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galos, Stephan Peter; Klug, Christoph; Maussion, Fabien; Covi, Federico; Nicholson, Lindsey; Rieg, Lorenzo; Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Mölg, Thomas; Kaser, Georg

    2017-06-01

    Records of glacier mass balance represent important data in climate science and their uncertainties affect calculations of sea level rise and other societally relevant environmental projections. In order to reduce and quantify uncertainties in mass balance series obtained by direct glaciological measurements, we present a detailed reanalysis workflow which was applied to the 10-year record (2004 to 2013) of seasonal mass balance of Langenferner, a small glacier in the European Eastern Alps. The approach involves a methodological homogenization of available point values and the creation of pseudo-observations of point mass balance for years and locations without measurements by the application of a process-based model constrained by snow line observations. We examine the uncertainties related to the extrapolation of point data using a variety of methods and consequently present a more rigorous uncertainty assessment than is usually reported in the literature. Results reveal that the reanalyzed balance record considerably differs from the original one mainly for the first half of the observation period. For annual balances these misfits reach the order of > 300 kg m-2 and could primarily be attributed to a lack of measurements in the upper glacier part and to the use of outdated glacier outlines. For winter balances respective differences are smaller (up to 233 kg m-2) and they originate primarily from methodological inhomogeneities in the original series. Remaining random uncertainties in the reanalyzed series are mainly determined by the extrapolation of point data to the glacier scale and are on the order of ±79 kg m-2 for annual and ±52 kg m-2 for winter balances with values for single years/seasons reaching ±136 kg m-2. A comparison of the glaciological results to those obtained by the geodetic method for the period 2005 to 2013 based on airborne laser-scanning data reveals that no significant bias of the reanalyzed record is detectable.

  13. Recent mass balance of Arctic glaciers derived from repeat-track ICESat altimetry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moholdt, G.; Nuth, C.; Hagen, J. M.; Wolken, G. J.; Gardner, A.

    2010-12-01

    thickness and density make it difficult to convert these volume changes into mass balances, so we apply several different density assumptions to assess the range of possible mass balances in each region. The results show a negative mass balance over most of the Arctic, with the largest losses occurring in the Canadian Arctic, especially during the last 3 years. This is in good agreement with coincident mass balance estimates from field measurements and surface mass balance modelling using meteorological reanalysis data.

  14. Mass balance of Icelandic ice caps from CryoSat swath mode altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresta, L.; Gourmelen, N.; Pálsson, F.; Willis, I. C.; Nienow, P. W.; Shepherd, A.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite altimetry has been traditionally used in the past to infer elevation of land ice, quantify changes in ice topography and infer mass balance over large and remote areas such as the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Radar Altimetry (RA) is particularly well suited to this task due to its all-weather year-round capability for observing the ice surface. However, monitoring of ice caps has proven more challenging. The large footprint of a conventional radar altimeter and relatively coarse ground track coverage are less suited to monitoring comparatively small regions with complex topography, so that mass balance estimates from RA rely on extrapolation methods to regionalize elevation change.Since 2010, the Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL) on board the ESA radar altimetry CryoSat mission has collected ice elevation measurements over ice caps. Ground track interspacing (~4km at 60°) is one order of magnitude smaller than ERS/ENVISAT missions and half of ICESAT's, providing dense spatial coverage. Additionally the Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric (SARIn) mode of CryoSat provides a reduced footprint and the ability to locate accurately the position of the surface reflection. Conventional altimetry provides the elevation of the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA) within each waveform, every 250 m along the flight path. Time evolution of POCA elevation is then used to investigate ice elevation change.Here, we present an assessment of the geodetic mass balance of Icelandic ice caps using a novel processing approach, swath altimetry, applied to CryoSat SARIn mode data. In swath mode altimetry, elevation beyond the POCA is extracted from the waveform when coherent echoes are present providing between one and two orders of magnitude more elevations when compared to POCA. We generate maps of ice elevation change that are then used to compute geodetic mass balance for the period 2010 to 2015. We compare our results to estimates generated using

  15. Glacier albedo decrease in the European Alps: potential causes and links with mass balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Julitta, Tommaso; Colombo, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Both mountain glaciers and polar ice sheets are losing mass all over the Earth. They are highly sensitive to climate variation, and the widespread reduction of glaciers has been ascribed to the atmospheric temperature increase. Beside this driver, also ice albedo plays a fundamental role in defining mass balance of glaciers. In fact, dark ice absorbs more energy causing faster glacier melting, and this can drive to more negative balances. Previous studies showed that the albedo of Himalayan glaciers and the Greenland Ice Sheet is decreasing with important rates. In this contribution, we tested the hypothesis that also glaciers in the European Alps are getting darker. We analyzed 16-year time series of MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) snow albedo from Terra (MOD13A1, 2000-2015) and Aqua (MYD13A1, 2002-2015) satellites. These data feature a spatial resolution of 500m and a daily temporal resolution. We evaluated the existence of a negative linear and nonlinear trend of the summer albedo values both at pixel and at glacier level. We also calculated the correlation between MODIS summer albedo and glacier mass balances (from the World Glaciological Monitoring Service, WGMS database), for all the glaciers with available mass balance during the considered period. In order to estimate the percentage of the summer albedo that can be explained by atmospheric temperature, we correlated MODIS albedo and monthly air temperature extracted from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. Results show that decreasing trends exist with a strong spatial variability in the whole Alpine chain. In large glaciers, such as the Aletch (Swiss Alps), the trend varies significantly also within the glacier, showing that the trend is higher in the area across the accumulation and ablation zone. Over the 17 glaciers with mass balance available in the WGMS data set, 11 gave significant relationship with the MODIS summer albedo. Moreover, the comparison between ERA-Interim temperature

  16. Taking OSCE examiner training on the road: reaching the masses

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Katharine; Smallwood, David; Collins, Margo; Sutherland, Ruth; Dodds, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Background To ensure the rigour of objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) in assessing medical students, medical school educators must educate examiners with a view to standardising examiner assessment behaviour. Delivering OSCE examiner training is a necessary yet challenging part of the OSCE process. A novel approach to implementing training for current and potential OSCE examiners was trialled by delivering large-group education sessions at major teaching hospitals. Methods The ‘OSCE Roadshow’ comprised a short training session delivered in the context of teaching hospital ‘Grand Rounds’ to current and potential OSCE examiners. The training was developed to educate clinicians about OSCE processes, clarify the examiners’ role and required behaviours, and to review marking guides and mark allocation in an effort to standardise OSCE processes and encourage consistency in examiner marking behaviour. A short exercise allowed participants to practise marking a mock OSCE to investigate examiner marking behaviour after the training. Results OSCE Roadshows at four metropolitan and one rural teaching hospital were well received and well attended by 171 clinicians across six sessions. Unexpectedly, medical students also attended in large numbers (n=220). After training, participants’ average scores for the mock OSCE clustered closely around the ideal score of 28 (out of 40), and the average scores did not differ according to the levels of clinical experience. Conclusion The OSCE Roadshow demonstrated the potential of brief familiarisation training in reaching large numbers of current and potential OSCE examiners in a time and cost-effective manner to promote standardisation of OSCE processes. PMID:27687287

  17. [Examination of dynamic body balance using the body tracking test in cases of vestibular neuronitis].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomoe; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Nomura, Toshiyuki; Ohwada, Satoko; Takazawa, Rio; Ikemiyagi, Yoshihiro; Shigeta, Fuyuko

    2008-09-01

    Body Tracking Test (BTT) is a testing method of the dynamic body balance function wherein movement of the center of gravity in accordance with a moving visual target stimulus is examined to evaluate the tracking function of the body. The objects were the patients who were diagnosed as having vestibular neuronitis at the Department of Otolaryngology in Toho University medical center Sakura hospital, and were undergoing hospital treatment. Lateral BTT was performed in 31 subjects, and antero-posterior (A-P) BTT in 45 subjects. Although gaze nystagmus was noted, inspection was enforced when a standing position posture was possible. In lateral BTT, the average (cm/second) horizontal direction body sway speed was compared, however, no clear lateral difference was noted. In the antero-posterior (A-P) BTT, it inquired using the direction body sway average center displacement (cm) of X. Deviation was seen by the affected side in stabilometry. Deviation was seen by the unaffected side in the antero-posterior (A-P) BTT. This phenomenon differs from the deviation pattern until now and is considered to involve participation of the higher centers.

  18. Examining Histone Posttranslational Modification Patterns by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu; Garcia, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Histone variants and posttranslational modifications (PTMs) are essential for epigenetic regulation of transcriptional expression. Single and/or combinatorial PTMs of histones play important roles in development and disease formation. Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a powerful tool to study histone variants and PTMs as it not only can identify novel PTMs but also can provide quantitative measurement of a spectrum of histone variants and PTMs in the same sample. In this chapter, we employ a combination of chemical derivation and high resolution mass spectrometry to identify and quantify multiple histone variants and PTMs. Histones are acid extracted and modified with propionyl groups, and subsequently produces suitable sizes of fragments for MS analysis by trypsin digestion. The newly generated N-termini of histone peptides can be differentially marked by stable isotope labeling in a second reaction of propionylation, which enables direct comparison between two different samples in the following MS analysis. PMID:22910200

  19. Hypsometric control on glacier mass balance sensitivity in Alaska and northwest Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, D.; Sass, L.; O'Neel, S.; Arendt, A.; Kienholz, C.

    2017-03-01

    Glacier hypsometry provides a first-order approach for assessing a glacier's response to climate forcings. We couple the Randolph Glacier Inventory to a suite of in situ observations and climate model output to examine potential change for the ˜27,000 glaciers in Alaska and northwest Canada through the end of the 21st century. By 2100, based on Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5-8.5 forcings, summer temperatures are predicted to increase between +2.1 and +4.6°C, while solid precipitation (snow) is predicted to decrease by -6 to -11%, despite a +9 to +21% increase in total precipitation. Snow is predicted to undergo a pronounced decrease in the fall, shifting the start of the accumulation season back by ˜1 month. In response to these forcings, the regional equilibrium line altitude (ELA) may increase by +105 to +225 m by 2100. The mass balance sensitivity to this increase is highly variable, with the most substantive impact for glaciers with either limited elevation ranges (often small (<1 km2) glaciers, which account for 80% of glaciers in the region) or those with top-heavy geometries, like icefields. For more than 20% of glaciers, future ELAs, given RCP 6.0 forcings, will exceed the maximum elevation of the glacier, resulting in their eventual demise, while for others, accumulation area ratios will decrease by >60%. Our results highlight the first-order control of hypsometry on individual glacier response to climate change, and the variability that hypsometry introduces to a regional response to a coherent climate perturbation.

  20. On the interest of positive degree day models for mass balance modeling in the inner tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisincho, L.; Favier, V.; Wagnon, P.; Basantes Serrano, R.; Francou, B.; Villacis, M.; Rabatel, A.; Mourre, L.; Jomelli, V.; Cáceres, B.

    2014-05-01

    A positive degree-day (PDD) model was tested on Antizana Glacier 15α (0.28 km2; 0°28' S, 78°09' W) to assess to what extent this approach is suitable for studying glacier mass balance in the inner tropics. Cumulative positive temperatures were compared with field measurements of melting amount and with surface energy balance computations. A significant link was revealed when a distinction was made between the snow and ice comprising the glacier surface. Significant correlations allowed degree-day factors to be retrieved for snow, and clean and dirty ice. The relationship between melt amount and temperature was mainly explained by the role of net shortwave radiation in both melting and in the variations in the temperature of the surface layer. However, this relationship disappeared from June to October (Period 1), because high wind speeds and low humidity cause highly negative turbulent latent heat fluxes. However, this had little impact on the computed total amount of melting at the annual time scale because temperatures are low and melting is generally limited during Period 1. At the daily time scale, melting starts when daily temperature means are still negative, because around noon incoming shortwave radiation is very high, and compensates for energy losses when the air is cold. The PDD model was applied to the 2000-2008 period using meteorological inputs measured on the glacier foreland. Results were compared to the glacier-wide mass balances measured in the field and were good, even though the melting factor should be adapted to the glacier surface state and may vary with time. Finally, the model was forced with precipitation and temperature data from the remote Izobamba station and NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data, also giving good results and showing that temperature variations are homogenous at the regional scale, meaning glacier mass balances can be modelled over large areas.

  1. On the interest of positive degree day models for mass balance modeling in the inner tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisincho, Luis; Favier, Vincent; Wagnon, Patrick; Basantes, Ruben; Francou, Bernard; Villacis, Marcos; Rabatel, Antoine; Mourre, Lise; Jomelli, Vincent; Caceres, Bolivar

    2014-05-01

    A positive degree-day (PDD) model was tested on Antizana Glacier 15α (0.28 km2; 0o28'S, 78o09'W) to assess to what extent this approach is adapted to study glacier mass balance in the inner tropics. Cumulative positive temperature amounts were compared with field measurements of melting and with surface energy balance computations, showing a significant link if a separation according to surface state, i.e. between snow and ice, is performed. Significant correlations allowed retrieving degree-day factors for snow, clean and dirty ice. The relationship between melting and temperature is mainly explained by the role of the net shortwave radiation in both melting and surface layer temperature changes. However, this relationship disappears during the period from June to October (Period P1), because high wind speeds and low humidity induce highly negative latent turbulent heat flux. Nevertheless, this has a low impact on the computed total amount of melting at annual scale because both temperature and melting are generally low during P1. At daily scale, melting starts while daily temperature means are still negative, reflecting that incoming shortwave radiation around noon is very high and compensates for energy losses when the air is cold. The PDD model was applied for the 2000-2009 period considering meteorological inputs measured on the glacier foreland. Results were compared to the specific mass balances measured in the field showing good results, even though the melting factor values should be adapted to the glacier surface state and may vary with time. Finally, the model was forced with precipitation and temperature data from the remote Izobamba-Quito station and NCEP-DOE Reanalysis data, giving good results and showing that temperature variations present a homogenous regional-scale signal allowing the modeling of glacier mass balances over large areas.

  2. Quantification of Submarine Groundwater Discharge Using a Radon (222-Rn) Mass Balance and Hydrogeological Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petermann, Eric; Stollberg, Reiner; Scholten, Jan; Knöller, Kay; Schubert, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Apart from river and surface water runoff subsurface discharge of groundwater plays a key role in coastal water and matter budgets. Two major forms of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can be distinguished: (i) pure freshwater discharge from continental aquifers that are connected to the coastal sea driven by a positive hydraulic gradient (fresh SGD) and (ii) re-circulation of seawater that has penetrated permeable coastal sediments (re-circulated SGD), e.g. driven by tidal pumping. The localization of SGD zones and the quantification of SGD fluxes is of high interest for coastal water management due to potential threats related to SGD, namely (i) the detrimental impact of discharging nutrient- or contaminant-laden groundwater on coastal seawater quality, an aspect that is of relevance along coastlines which are impacted by agriculture, industry or intense urbanization, and (ii) the loss of freshwater to the ocean, an issue that is of major relevance in all coastal areas with (seasonally) limited freshwater availability. In this work, we discuss estimates for the total (fresh + re-circulated) SGD fluxes derived from a mass balance of the radioactive noble gas radon (222-Rn) with estimates of fresh SGD fluxes derived by hydrogeological modelling. The precision of the mass balance results depends on the adequate determination of the mass balance source and sink terms. These terms are calculated based on field observations of environmental tracers (salinity, δ18O, 222-Rn, 223-Ra, 224-Ra, 226-Ra) in seawater and porewater, as well as on meteorological data. The numerical hydrogeological model estimates groundwater flow based on groundwater monitoring data, river flow data, groundwater recharge estimates, tidal dynamics, and density effects along the freshwater/seawater interface. We compare these two independent methodological approaches of SGD flux estimation, discuss results regarding their relevance for the regional water balance and reason the implications of

  3. Examining Teachers' Beliefs about and Implementation of a Balanced Literacy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Gary E.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.

    2013-01-01

    While many embrace balanced literacy as a framework for quality literacy instruction, the way in which teachers operationalise the tenets of balanced literacy can vary greatly. In the present study, 581 teachers in the United States completed questionnaires concerning: (a) their beliefs about literacy skills and literacy instructional strategies…

  4. An Examination of Orthoptic Vision and Balance Performance of Nonhandicapped and Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom-Meek, Sherry L.; And Others

    This study compared orthoptic vision development and balance performance of nonhandicapped and learning disabled children between the ages of 10 and 13 years of age. Each subject was individually administered two orthoptic vision screening tests (Cover Test and Biopter), a dynamic balance test using a changing consistency board, and two static…

  5. Ocean Basalt Simulator version 1 (OBS1): Trace element mass balance in adiabatic melting of a pyroxenite-bearing peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    present a new numerical trace element mass balance model for adiabatic melting of a pyroxenite-bearing peridotite for estimating mantle potential temperature, depth of melting column, and pyroxenite fraction in the source mantle for a primary ocean basalt/picrite. The Ocean Basalt Simulator version 1 (OBS1) uses a thermodynamic model of adiabatic melting of a pyroxenite-bearing peridotite with experimentally/thermodynamically parameterized liquidus-solidus intervals and source mineralogy. OBS1 can be used to calculate a sequence of adiabatic melting with two melting models, including (1) melting of peridotite and pyroxenite sources with simple mixing of their fractional melts (melt-melt mixing model), and (2) pyroxenite melting, melt metasomatism in the host peridotite, and melting of the metasomatized peridotite (source-metasomatism model). OBS1 can be used to explore (1) the fractions of peridotite and pyroxenite, (2) mantle potential temperature, (3) pressure of termination of melting, (4) degree of melting, and (5) residual mode of the sources. In order to constrain these parameters, the model calculates a mass balance for 26 incompatible trace elements in the sources and in the generated basalt/picrite. OBS1 is coded in an Excel spreadsheet and runs with VBA macros. Using OBS1, we examine the source compositions and conditions of the mid-oceanic ridge basalts, Loihi-Koolau basalts in the Hawaiian hot spot, and Jurassic Shatsky Rise and Mikabu oceanic plateau basalts and picrites. The OBS1 model shows the physical conditions, chemical mass balance, and amount of pyroxenite in the source peridotite, which are keys to global mantle recycling.

  6. The impact of model complexity on CO2 saturation and mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehnert, E.; Gershenzon, N. I.; Kohanpur, A. H.; Okwen, R. T.; Patterson, C.; Ritzi, R. W., Jr.; Valocchi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    When modeling geologic carbon sequestration, predicting the saturation of carbon dioxide (CO2) over space and time and the distribution of CO2 mass (free, trapped or dissolved) over time are primary concerns. Modeling may be done to address short-term concerns such as determining the saturation of CO2 at the end of the injection period or long-term concerns such as estimating the mass of dissolved CO2 hundreds of years after the injection period. Model complexity describes the physics included in the flow model and encompasses how simply key input data can be described-- homogeneous or heterogeneous permeability, homogeneous or heterogeneous capillary pressure, simple or hysteretic relative permeability, and simple or hysteretic capillary pressure. Starting with a simple 3D model and building to a complex model in a stepwise manner, the effects of additional complexity on the short-term and long-term CO2 saturation and mass balance (free supercritical fluid, trapped, and dissolved) are being evaluated. Initial results suggest that the CO2 plume footprint, plume extent and mass balance vary significantly with model complexity over the short- and long-term, and that representing full complexity (i.e., heterogeneity and hysteresis in the characteristic relationships for capillary pressure and relative permeability, as they vary within the reservoir's geologic architecture) may be critical to properly representing CO2 dynamics in some candidate reservoirs. Ultimately, we seek to demonstrate the significance of various pore-scale processes to the continuum-scale distribution of CO2.

  7. A comprehensive energy and mass balance firn model for simulations over multiple glacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, Michael; Born, Andreas; Stocker, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    We present a fast yet physically comprehensive glacier surface mass balance model capable of simulations that cover the entire Northern Hemisphere over several glacial cycles. Fluxes of energy and mass are calculated between the atmosphere and a multilayer snow cover, including internal processes like densification and water percolation as well as snow and ice melt. The model is especially designed to provide upper boundary conditions to force ice sheet models on time scales of up to 106 years. To achieve a high numerical efficiency, the model employs a variable time stepping scheme on the grid point level and a Lagrangian grid attached to the snow mass. The input variables are short wave radiation, air temperature and precipitation with half-weekly or daily time steps. This new surface mass balance model has been tested in extensive ensemble simulations and yields realistic representations of present-day ice sheets. The extent of the intra-annual snow cover on the Northern Hemisphere correlates temporally and spatially well with satellite measurements. Perennial firn aquifers are simulated realistically in Greenland and the simulated densification and snow temperature at two bore hole sites in central Greenland yield promising results.

  8. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in a municipal wastewater treatment plant: mass balance and removal processes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pin; Ding, Yunjie; Li, Hui; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2012-06-01

    Occurrence and removal efficiencies of fifteen pharmaceuticals were investigated in a conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant in Michigan. Concentrations of these pharmaceuticals were determined in both wastewater and sludge phases by a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer. Detailed mass balance analysis was conducted during the whole treatment process to evaluate the contributing processes for pharmaceutical removal. Among the pharmaceuticals studied, demeclocycline, sulfamerazine, erythromycin and tylosin were not detected in the wastewater treatment plant influent. Other target pharmaceuticals detected in wastewater were also found in the corresponding sludge phase. The removal efficiencies of chlortetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamerazine, acetaminophen and caffeine were >99%, while doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfadiazine and lincomycin exhibited relatively lower removal efficiencies (e.g., <50%). For sulfamethoxazole, the removal efficiency was approximately 90%. Carbamazepine manifested a net increase of mass, i.e. 41% more than the input from the influent. Based on the mass balance analysis, biotransformation is believed to be the predominant process responsible for the removal of pharmaceuticals (22% to 99%), whereas contribution of sorption to sludge was relatively insignificant (7%) for the investigated pharmaceuticals.

  9. Mass balance of Greenland from combined GRACE and satellite altimetry inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, R.; Sandberg Sørensen, L.; Nilsson, J.; Simonsen, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    With 12 years of GRACE satellite data now available, the ice mass loss trend of Greenland are clearly demonstrating ice mass loss in marginal zones of the ice sheets, and increasing mass loss trends in some regions such as the north west marginal zones. Although the GRACE release-5 products have provided a significant increase in resolution, the detailed space-based detection of where the ice sheet is loosing mass needs to come from other sources, notably satellite altimetry from EnviSat, IceSat and CryoSat, which point out the detailed location of areas of change, and - when combined with firn compaction and density models - also can be used to infer mass changes. In the paper we outline results of a novel direct inversion method, where all satellite data can be utilized in a general inverse estimation scheme, and the leakage from neighbouring ice caps minimized. We demonstrate overall mass change results from Greenland and Eastern Canadian Ice Caps 2003-14, highlighting the increasing melt in the marginal zones both in NW and NE Greenland. Most of the used data used are provided by the ESA Ice Sheets CCI project 2012-14, which makes available long term Essential Climate Variables such as Surface Elevation Changes, Ice Velocity and Calving Front Locations for the Greenland ice sheet. In the upcoming 2nd phase of the CCI project, Gravimetric Mass Balance from GRACE will be included as a ECV time series, and a similar CCI project started for Antarctica.

  10. Distributed glacier mass-balance modelling as an important component of modern multi-level glacier monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machguth, Horst; Paul, Frank; Hoelzle, Martin; Haeberli, Wilfried

    Modern concepts of worldwide glacier monitoring include numerical models for (1) interconnecting the different levels of observations (local mass balance, representative length change, glacier inventories for global coverage) and (2) extrapolations in space (coupling with climate models) and time (backward and forward). In this context, one important new tool is distributed mass-balance modelling in complex mountain topography. This approach builds on simplified energy-balance models and can be applied for investigating the spatio-temporal representativity of the few mass-balance measurements, for estimating balance values at the tongue of unmeasured glaciers in order to derive long-term average balance values from a great number of glaciers with known length change, and for assessing special effects such as the influence of Sahara dust falls on the albedo and mass balance or autocorrelation effects due to surface darkening of glaciers with strongly negative balances. Experience from first model runs in the Swiss Alps and from applications to the extreme conditions in summer 2003 provides evidence about the usefulness of this approach for glacier monitoring and analysis of glacier changes in high-mountain regions. The main difficulties concern the spatial variability of the input parameters (e.g. precipitation, snow cover and surface albedo) and the uncertainties in the parameterizations of the components of the energy balance. Field measurements remain essential to tie the models to real ground conditions.

  11. The mid-cretaceous water bearer: Isotope mass balance quantification of the Albian hydrologic cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ufnar, David F.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Brenner, Richard L.; Witzke, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    A latitudinal gradient in meteoric ??18O compositions compiled from paleosol sphaerosiderites throughout the Cretaceous Western Interior Basin (KWIB) (34-75??N paleolatitude) exhibits a steeper, more depleted trend than modern (predicted) values (3.0??? [34??N latitude] to 9.7??? [75??N] lighter). Furthermore, the sphaerosiderite meteoric ??18O latitudinal gradient is significantly steeper and more depleted (5.8??? [34??N] to 13.8??? [75??N] lighter) than a predicted gradient for the warm mid-Cretaceous using modern empirical temperature-??18O precipitation relationships. We have suggested that the steeper and more depleted (relative to the modern theoretical gradient) meteoric sphaerosiderite ??18O latitudinal gradient resulted from increased air mass rainout effects in coastal areas of the KWIB during the mid-Cretaceous. The sphaerosiderite isotopic data have been used to constrain a mass balance model of the hydrologic cycle in the northern hemisphere and to quantify precipitation rates of the equable 'greenhouse' Albian Stage in the KWIB. The mass balance model tracks the evolving isotopic composition of an air mass and its precipitation, and is driven by latitudinal temperature gradients. Our simulations indicate that significant increases in Albian precipitation (34-52%) and evaporation fluxes (76-96%) are required to reproduce the difference between modern and Albian meteoric siderite ??18O latitudinal gradients. Calculations of precipitation rates from model outputs suggest mid-high latitude precipitation rates greatly exceeded modern rates (156-220% greater in mid latitudes [2600-3300 mm/yr], 99% greater at high latitudes [550 mm/yr]). The calculated precipitation rates are significantly different from the precipitation rates predicted by some recent general circulation models (GCMs) for the warm Cretaceous, particularly in the mid to high latitudes. Our mass balance model by no means replaces GCMs. However, it is a simple and effective means of obtaining

  12. Reconciling high-altitude precipitation in the upper Indus basin with glacier mass balances and runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immerzeel, Walter; Wanders, Niko; Lutz, Arthur; Shea, Joseph; Bierkens, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Mountain ranges in Asia are important water suppliers, especially if downstream climates are arid, water demands are high and glaciers are abundant. In such basins, the hydrological cycle depends heavily on high-altitude precipitation. Yet direct observations of high-altitude precipitation are lacking and satellite derived products are of insufficient resolution and quality to capture spatial variation and magnitude of mountain precipitation. Here we use glacier mass balances to inversely infer the high-altitude precipitation in the upper Indus basin and show that the amount of precipitation required to sustain the observed mass balances of large glacier systems is far beyond what is observed at valley stations or estimated by gridded precipitation products. An independent validation with observed river flow confirms that the water balance can indeed only be closed when the high altitude precipitation on average is more than twice as high and in extreme cases up to a factor of 10 higher than previously thought. We conclude that these findings alter the present understanding of high-altitude hydrology and will have an important bearing on climate change impact studies, planning and design of hydropower plants and irrigation reservoirs as well as the regional geopolitical situation in general.

  13. Numerical modelling of the effect of changing surface geometry on mountain glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Chris; Carrivick, Jonathan; Evans, Andrew; Carver, Steve

    2013-04-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps are extremely useful indicators of environmental change. Due to their small size, they have much faster response times to climate changes than the large ice masses of Greenland and Antarctica. Mountain glaciers are important for society as sources of water for energy production and irrigation and the meltwater cycles significantly impact local ecology. We have applied a spatially distributed surface energy balance model to a glacier record spanning 100 years. Our study encompasses (i) the creation of a GIS enabling quantitative analysis of changing glacier geometry; absolute length, area, surface lowering and volume change, over the 20th and early 21st Centuries and (ii) the development and testing of a novel user-friendly distributed-surface energy balance model that is designed specifically to consider the effect that these geometrical changes have on mountain glacier mass balance. Our study site is Kårsaglaciären in Arctic Sweden for which there is a variety of data for the past 100 years, sourced from historical surveys, satellite imagery and recent field work. This contrasts with other Arctic mountain glaciers where long-term records are rare, making model development and evaluation very difficult. Kårsaglaciären has been in a state of negative balance throughout the 20th century. Disintegration of the glacier occurred during the 1920s, breaking the glacier into two separate bodies. Between 1926 and 2008, the glacier retreated 1.3 km and reduced in area by 3.41km2. In 2008 the glacier had an estimated surface area of 0.89km2 and a length of approximately 1.0km. Firstly, we present the GIS based construction of robust three-dimensional glacier surface reconstructions for Kårsaglaciären from 1926 to 2010 using a decadal interval. We highlight the kriging interpolation methods used for surface development and the importance of inter-model sensitivity analyses as well as the use of Monte Carlo simulations used to assess the

  14. Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry 1992 to 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Cornejo, Helen; Giovinetto, Mario; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2003-01-01

    A major uncertainty in understanding the causes of the current rate of sea level rise is the potential contributions from mass imbalances of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Estimates of the current mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet are derived from surface- elevation changes obtained from 9 years of ERS - 1 & 2 radar altimeter data. Elevation time-series are created from altimeter crossovers among 90-day data periods on a 50 km grid to 81.5 S. The time series are fit with a multivariate linear/sinusoidal function to give the average rate of elevation change (dH/dt). On the major Rome-Filchner, Ross, and Amery ice shelves, the W d t are small or near zero. In contrast, the ice shelves of the Antarctic Peninsula and along the West Antarctic coast appear to be thinning significantly, with a 23 +/- 3 cm per year surface elevation decrease on the Larsen ice shelf and a 65 +/- 4 cm per year decrease on the Dotson ice shelf. On the grounded ice, significant elevation decreases are obtained over most of the drainage basins of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in West Antarctica and inland of Law Dome in East Antarctica. Significant elevation increases are observed within about 200 km of the coast around much of the rest of the ice sheet. Farther inland, the changes are a mixed pattern of increases and decreases with increases of a few centimeters per year at the highest elevations of the East Antarctic plateau. The derived elevation changes are combined with estimates of the bedrock uplift from several models to provide maps of ice thickness change. The ice thickness changes enable estimates of the ice mass balances for the major drainage basins, the overall mass balance, and the current contribution of the ice sheet to global sea level change.

  15. Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry 1992 to 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Cornejo, Helen; Giovinetto, Mario; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2003-01-01

    A major uncertainty in understanding the causes of the current rate of sea level rise is the potential contributions from mass imbalances of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Estimates of the current mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet are derived from surface- elevation changes obtained from 9 years of ERS - 1 & 2 radar altimeter data. Elevation time-series are created from altimeter crossovers among 90-day data periods on a 50 km grid to 81.5 S. The time series are fit with a multivariate linear/sinusoidal function to give the average rate of elevation change (dH/dt). On the major Rome-Filchner, Ross, and Amery ice shelves, the W d t are small or near zero. In contrast, the ice shelves of the Antarctic Peninsula and along the West Antarctic coast appear to be thinning significantly, with a 23 +/- 3 cm per year surface elevation decrease on the Larsen ice shelf and a 65 +/- 4 cm per year decrease on the Dotson ice shelf. On the grounded ice, significant elevation decreases are obtained over most of the drainage basins of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in West Antarctica and inland of Law Dome in East Antarctica. Significant elevation increases are observed within about 200 km of the coast around much of the rest of the ice sheet. Farther inland, the changes are a mixed pattern of increases and decreases with increases of a few centimeters per year at the highest elevations of the East Antarctic plateau. The derived elevation changes are combined with estimates of the bedrock uplift from several models to provide maps of ice thickness change. The ice thickness changes enable estimates of the ice mass balances for the major drainage basins, the overall mass balance, and the current contribution of the ice sheet to global sea level change.

  16. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  17. Freshwater fluxes into the subpolar North Atlantic from secular trends in Arctic land ice mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, J. L.; Enderlin, E. M.; Howat, I. M.; Wouters, B.; van den Broeke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater fluxes (FWF) from river runoff and precipitation minus evaporation for the pan Arctic seas are relatively well documented and prescribed in ocean GCMs. Fluxes from Greenland and Arctic glaciers and ice caps on the other hand are generally ignored, despite their potential impacts on ocean circulation and marine biology and growing evidence for changes to the hydrography of parts of the subpolar North Atlantic. In a previous study we determined the FWF from Greenland for the period 1958-2010 using a combination of observations and regional climate modeling. Here, we update the analysis with data from new satellite observations to extend the record both in space and time. The new FWF estimates cover the period 1958-2014 and include the Canadian, Russian and Norwegian Arctic (Svalbard) in addition to the contributions from Greenland. We combine satellite altimetry (including CryoSat 2) with grounding line flux data, regional climate modeling of surface mass balance and gravimetry to produce consistent estimates of solid ice and liquid FWF into the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. The total cumulative FWF anomaly from land ice mass loss started to increase significantly in the mid 1990s and now exceeds 5000 km^3, a value that is about half of the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s. The majority of the anomaly is entering two key areas of deep water overturning in the Labrador and Irminger Seas, at a rate that has been increasing steadily over the last ~20 years. Since the mid 2000s, however, the Canadian Arctic archipelago has been making a significant contribution to the FW anomaly entering Baffin Bay. Tracer experiments with eddy-permitting ocean GCMs suggest that the FW input from southern Greenland and the Canadian Arctic should accumulate in Baffin Bay with the potential to affect geostrophic circulation, stratification in the region and possibly the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. We also examine the trajectory of

  18. Energy and mass balance in the three-phase interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong; Cowie, Lennox L.

    1988-12-01

    Details of the energy and mass balances are considered in the context of a three-phase interstellar medium. The rates of mass exchange between the different phases are derived based on the pressure variations created by supernova remnant expansions. It is shown that the pressure-confined warm and cold gases have stable temperatures under a variety of interstellar conditions. The three-phase quasi-static configuration is found to be a natural outcome, and both warm and cold phases generally contribute about half of the total mass density to the diffuse interstellar gas. The model is also likely to be self-regulatory in the sense that variations of the input parameters do not strongly alter the general result, which is consistent with most current observations. The consequences of extreme conditions on this model are considered, and the possible implications for interstellar medium in other galaxies are briefly discussed.

  19. Energy and mass balance in the three-phase interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhong; Cowie, Lennox L.

    1988-01-01

    Details of the energy and mass balances are considered in the context of a three-phase interstellar medium. The rates of mass exchange between the different phases are derived based on the pressure variations created by supernova remnant expansions. It is shown that the pressure-confined warm and cold gases have stable temperatures under a variety of interstellar conditions. The three-phase quasi-static configuration is found to be a natural outcome, and both warm and cold phases generally contribute about half of the total mass density to the diffuse interstellar gas. The model is also likely to be self-regulatory in the sense that variations of the input parameters do not strongly alter the general result, which is consistent with most current observations. The consequences of extreme conditions on this model are considered, and the possible implications for interstellar medium in other galaxies are briefly discussed.

  20. Mass Balance of the West Antarctic Ice-Sheet from ICESat Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Robins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Mass balance estimates for 2003-2008 are derived from ICESat laser altimetry and compared with estimates for 1992-2002 derived from ERS radar altimetry. The net mass balance of 3 drainage systems (Pine Island, Thwaites/Smith, and the coast of Marie Bryd) for 2003-2008 is a loss of 100 Gt/yr, which increased from a loss of 70 Gt/yr for the earlier period. The DS including the Bindschadler and MacAyeal ice streams draining into the Ross Ice Shelf has a mass gain of 11 Gt/yr for 2003-2008, compared to an earlier loss of 70 Gt/yr. The DS including the Whillans and Kamb ice streams has a mass gain of 12 Gt/yr, including a significant thickening on the upper part of the Kamb DS, compared to a earlier gain of 6 Gt/yr (includes interpolation for a large portion of the DS). The other two DS discharging into the Ronne Ice Shelf and the northern Ellsworth Coast have a mass gain of 39 Gt/yr, compared to a gain of 4 Gt/yr for the earlier period. Overall, the increased losses of 30 Gt/yr in the Pine Island, Thwaites/Smith, and the coast of Marie Bryd DSs are exceeded by increased gains of 59 Gt/yr in the other 4 DS. Overall, the mass loss from the West Antarctic ice sheet has decreased to 38 Gt/yr from the earlier loss of 67 Gt/yr, reducing the contribution to sea level rise to 0.11 mm/yr from 0.19 mm/yr

  1. Physical and bio-chemical mass-balance model around seafloor cold seepages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Takeuchi, R.; Monoe, D.; Oomi, T.; Nakata, K.; Fukushima, T.

    2007-12-01

    Natural cold seepages are characterized as rapid upward transports of methane from deeper part of geological structures to the seafloors. Prior to reach the seafloors, when methane meets downwards diffusing seawater sulfate, it is oxidized anaerobically by a consortium of microorganisms that use sulfate as an oxidant, producing sulfide. The anaerobic oxidation of methane and anaerobic sulfate reduction are clarified as a coupled biological activity. A significant portion of the bicarbonate produced after the sulfate reduction as authigenic carbonate, mainly aragonite and high-Mg calcite, near the seafloor. Where the methane fluxes are much, these anaerobic reactions occur just beneath the seafloor. There, usually sulfur oxidizing microorganisms are visible on the seafloor just above the coupled consortium of microorganisms. They are called bacterial mats. When the fluxes too much, direct methane bubbling occurs and chemosynthesis-immobilization communities such as tubeworms and clams distribute around the bubbling locations with the bacterial mats. The physical and bio-chemical mass-balance model around cold seepages on seafloor and in water column has been studied by the authors and some preliminary results were reported (Yamazaki et al., 2005 and 2006; Takeuchi et al., 2007). The approach is to analyze the existing field observation and numerical modeling studies of cold seepages and to create a new physical and bio-chemical mass-balance model in the environment. The model is separated into three parts. They are methane supply, seafloor ecosystem, and water column units. The seafloor ecosystem unit has been improved to analyze the unsteady formation processes of the ecosystem. The time dependencies of formations of the consortium of microorganisms (AOM), the chemosynthetic community, and bicarbonates examined with the improved model are introduced. After the bubbling from seafloor, the methane bubble jet blows up in the water column due to the buoyancy. Then the

  2. Interannual to Decadal Variability in Climate and the Glacier Mass Balance in Washington, Western Canada, and Alaska*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitz, C. M.; Battisti, D. S.

    1999-11-01

    The authors examine the net winter, summer, and annual mass balance of six glaciers along the northwest coast of North America, extending from Washington State to Alaska. The net winter (NWB) and net annual (NAB) mass balance anomalies for the maritime glaciers in the southern group, located in Washington and British Columbia, are shown to be positively correlated with local precipitation anomalies and storminess (defined as the rms of high-passed 500-mb geopotential anomalies) and weakly and negatively correlated with local temperature anomalies. The NWB and NAB of the maritime Wolverine glacier in Alaska are also positively correlated with local precipitation, but they are positively correlated with local winter temperature and negatively correlated with local storminess. Hence, anomalies in mass balance at Wolverine result mainly from the change in moisture that is being advected into the region by anomalies in the averaged wintertime circulation rather than from a change in storminess. The patterns of the wintertime 500-mb circulation and storminess anomalies associated with years of high NWB in the southern glacier group are similar to those associated with low NWB years at the Wolverine glacier, and vice versa.The decadal ENSO-like climate phenomenon discussed by Zhang et al. has a large impact on the NWB and NAB of these maritime glaciers, accounting for up to 35% of the variance in NWB. The 500-mb circulation and storminess anomalies associated with this decadal ENSO-like mode resemble the Pacific-North American pattern, as do 500-mb composites of years of extreme NWB of South Cascade glacier in Washington and of Wolverine glacier in Alaska. Hence, the decadal ENSO-like mode affects precipitation in a crucial way for the NWB of these glaciers. Specifically, the decadal ENSO-like phenomenon strongly affects the storminess over British Columbia and Washington and the moisture transported by the seasonally averaged circulation into maritime Alaska. In contrast

  3. Anaerobic digestion of source-segregated domestic food waste: performance assessment by mass and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Banks, Charles J; Chesshire, Michael; Heaven, Sonia; Arnold, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    An anaerobic digester receiving food waste collected mainly from domestic kitchens was monitored over a period of 426 days. During this time information was gathered on the waste input material, the biogas production, and the digestate characteristics. A mass balance accounted for over 90% of the material entering the plant leaving as gaseous or digestate products. A comprehensive energy balance for the same period showed that for each tonne of input material the potential recoverable energy was 405 kWh. Biogas production in the digester was stable at 642 m3 tonne(-1) VS added with a methane content of around 62%. The nitrogen in the food waste input was on average 8.9 kg tonne(-1). This led to a high ammonia concentration in the digester which may have been responsible for the accumulation of volatile fatty acids that was also observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mass and Energy Balance Modeling of Glaciers in the Upper Susitna Basin, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, A.; Hock, R.; Aubry-Wake, C.; Bliss, A.; Gusmeroli, A.; Liljedahl, A.; Gillispie, L.; Wolken, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    The State of Alaska is reviving analyses of the Susitna River's hydroelectric potential by supporting a multitude of field and modeling studies for the proposed Susitna-Watana Hydroelectric project. Critical to any effective hydroelectric development is a firm understanding of the basin-wide controls on river runoff and how seasonal reservoir recharge may change over the course of the structure's life-span. Effectively projecting future changes in watershed-scale stream flow for the Susitna river demands understanding and quantifying glacier melt in the Alaskan range. Our research is restricted to a sub-catchment of the upper Susitna basin that feeds the Susitna River covering 2,230 km2, of which 25% is glacierized. The goals of our study are to investigate the spatial and seasonal variations of the energy balance and its components across the glaciers and to model resulting streamflow from the catchment for the summer of 2013 using two models of different complexity. We apply DEBAM, a distributive energy balance model and DETIM, an enhanced temperature-index model, both coupled to a linear-reservoir runoff model, to simulate hourly surface energy fluxes, melt rates and glacier runoff using meteorological observations from an automated weather station located in the ablation zone of the West Fork glacier. Model results are compared to measurements of streamflow and mass balance at 20 ablation stakes across the glacierized area. The largest source of energy contributing to 85% of melt is net radiation followed by the sensible and latent heat fluxes. Both models capture well the seasonal and diurnal variations in streamflow and show good agreement with the mass balance point observations. The discrepancies between modeled and measured discharge can be attributed to the high uncertainty in precipitation and initial snow cover across the unglaciated part of the basin which accounts for over 75% of the modeled area.

  5. A snapshot of the UK net greenhouse gas flux using a mass balance approach with aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G.; Pitt, J. R.; Palmer, P. I.; Percival, C.; Mead, M. I.; Lee, J. D.; Le Breton, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present airborne observations of high-precision in-situ and remotely sensed CO2, CH4 and other trace gases made from the NERC Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft during Spring and Summer months in 2014 and 2015. Measurements were recorded during the GAUGE (Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions) aircraft field campaign, based out of Cranfield, UK, with sampling around and over the UK Mainland and Ireland. We derive Lagrangian mass-balanced net surface fluxes of CO2, CH4, CO, and N2O from a large surface footprint of England based on data collected during a flight in May 2015 by combining in-situ and remote-sensed concentration measurements and measured boundary layer thermodynamic profiles. By employing an advective box model for the volume enclosed by the flight-tracks and combining aircraft-measured winds and along-track Lagrangian back-trajectory modelling, we examine the sensitivity of total flux uncertainty to atmospheric transport and measurement errors using error propagation implicit in the mass balancing method. Finally, we compare the measured snapshot net fluxes to those reported in the current UK emissions inventory (weighted for surface footprint) and to previous UK-regional greenhouse gas top-down assessments.

  6. Changes in ice dynamics and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Rignot, Eric

    2006-07-15

    The concept that the Antarctic ice sheet changes with eternal slowness has been challenged by recent observations from satellites. Pronounced regional warming in the Antarctic Peninsula triggered ice shelf collapse, which led to a 10-fold increase in glacier flow and rapid ice sheet retreat. This chain of events illustrated the vulnerability of ice shelves to climate warming and their buffering role on the mass balance of Antarctica. In West Antarctica, the Pine Island Bay sector is draining far more ice into the ocean than is stored upstream from snow accumulation. This sector could raise sea level by 1m and trigger widespread retreat of ice in West Antarctica. Pine Island Glacier accelerated 38% since 1975, and most of the speed up took place over the last decade. Its neighbour Thwaites Glacier is widening up and may double its width when its weakened eastern ice shelf breaks up. Widespread acceleration in this sector may be caused by glacier ungrounding from ice shelf melting by an ocean that has recently warmed by 0.3 degrees C. In contrast, glaciers buffered from oceanic change by large ice shelves have only small contributions to sea level. In East Antarctica, many glaciers are close to a state of mass balance, but sectors grounded well below sea level, such as Cook Ice Shelf, Ninnis/Mertz, Frost and Totten glaciers, are thinning and losing mass. Hence, East Antarctica is not immune to changes.

  7. Mass balance of nitrogen and potassium in urban groundwater in Central Africa, Yaounde/Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kringel, R; Rechenburg, A; Kuitcha, D; Fouépé, A; Bellenberg, S; Kengne, I M; Fomo, M A

    2016-03-15

    Mass flow of nutrients from innumerous latrines and septic tanks was assessed to best describe the groundwater quality situation in the urban environment of Yaounde. 37 groundwater samples were taken at the end of dry season 2012 and analysed for nutrient related (NO3(-), NH4(+), NO2(-), K(+), Cl(-), HPO4(2-) and TOC) and physico-chemical ambient parameters. A survey on waste water discharge close to water points constrained point sources from sanitation. The results showed that the median of nitrate concentration exceeds the WHO limit. We realized that EC increases from the geogenic background to very high levels in the urban area within short distance, suggesting anthropogenic input. Dug wells showed nitrate and ammonium in equivalent concentrations, indicating incomplete nitrification and mandating their inclusion into water type classification. The mass turnover of nutrients in urban groundwater scales high in comparison to national statistical figures on fertilizer import for 2012. A mass N,K balance for infiltration water overestimates observed concentrations by a factor of 4.5. The marked balance gap is attributed to dynamic non-equilibrium between input and output. Unresolved questions like a) urban sanitation, b) hygiene & health and c) environmental protection urgently call for closing the nutrient cycle. In the light of Cameroonian strategies on rural development, tackling the groundwater nutrient, urban agriculture, food--NEXUS might partially restore urban and periurban ecosystem services under economical constraints and thus improve living conditions.

  8. Assessment of uncertainty in long-term mass balances for acidification assessments: a MAGIC model exercise.

    PubMed

    Köhler, S J; Zetterberg, T; Futter, M N; Fölster, J; Löfgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Long-term (1860-2010) catchment mass balance calculations rely on models and assumptions which are sources of uncertainty in acidification assessments. In this article, we report on an application of MAGIC to model acidification at the four Swedish IM forested catchments that have been subject to differing degrees of acidification stress. Uncertainties in the modeled mass balances were mainly associated with the deposition scenario and assumptions about sulfate adsorption and soil mass. Estimated base cation (BC) release rates (weathering) varied in a relatively narrow range of 47-62 or 42-47 meq m(-2) year(-1), depending on assumptions made about soil cation exchange capacity and base saturation. By varying aluminum solubility or introducing a dynamic weathering feedback that allowed BC release to increase at more acidic pHs, a systematic effect on predicted changes in acid neutralizing capacity (ΔANC ca. 10-41 μeq l(-1)) and pH (ca. ΔpH = 0.1-0.6) at all sites was observed. More robust projections of future changes in pH and ANC are dependent on reducing uncertainties in BC release rates, the timing, and extent of natural acidification through BC uptake by plants, temporal changes in soil element pools, and fluxes of Al between compartments.

  9. Surface Energy and Mass Balance Model for Greenland Ice Sheet and Future Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojian

    The Greenland Ice Sheet contains nearly 3 million cubic kilometers of glacial ice. If the entire ice sheet completely melted, sea level would raise by nearly 7 meters. There is thus considerable interest in monitoring the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Each year, the ice sheet gains ice from snowfall and loses ice through iceberg calving and surface melting. In this thesis, we develop, validate and apply a physics based numerical model to estimate current and future surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The numerical model consists of a coupled surface energy balance and englacial model that is simple enough that it can be used for long time scale model runs, but unlike previous empirical parameterizations, has a physical basis. The surface energy balance model predicts ice sheet surface temperature and melt production. The englacial model predicts the evolution of temperature and meltwater within the ice sheet. These two models can be combined with estimates of precipitation (snowfall) to estimate the mass balance over the Greenland Ice Sheet. We first compare model performance with in-situ observations to demonstrate that the model works well. We next evaluate how predictions are degraded when we statistically downscale global climate data. We find that a simple, nearest neighbor interpolation scheme with a lapse rate correction is able to adequately reproduce melt patterns on the Greenland Ice Sheet. These results are comparable to those obtained using empirical Positive Degree Day (PDD) methods. Having validated the model, we next drove the ice sheet model using the suite of atmospheric model runs available through the CMIP5 atmospheric model inter-comparison, which in turn built upon the RCP 8.5 (business as usual) scenarios. From this exercise we predict how much surface melt production will increase in the coming century. This results in 4-10 cm sea level equivalent, depending on the CMIP5 models. Finally, we try to bound melt water

  10. Glacier Mass Balance in the Cordillera Vilcanota, Glacier Suyuparina, Cusco - Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikos, Felipe; Giráldez, Claudia; Schauwecker, Simone; Molina, Edwin; Haeberli, Wilfried; Drenkhan, Fabian; Salzmann, Nadine; Rado, Maxwell; Chaparro, Nicacio; Samata, Jaime; Flores, Andrés; Saito, Carlos; Montoya, Nilton

    2017-04-01

    The Cordillera Vilcanota is the second most glaciated mountain range in Peru, and concentrates approximately 279 km2 of ice extent which corresponds to 25% of Peruvian glaciers. These glaciers have shrunk about 33% within the last 40 years and are a direct indicator of climate change impacts. Hydroclimatic changes in this region pose hazards and consecutive risks for local and regional livelihoods, socioeconomic activities and water supply. Therefore, it is important to understand high-mountain climatic and hydroglacial parameters and dynamics. In 2010/11, the first mass balance measurements were made on the Suyuparina glacier and the adjacent Quisoquipina glacier. In 2013, we have continued measurements through the present, of which we present some of the results for Suyuparina glacier. The net point mass balance for the hydrological year 2013-2014 in the lower zone is highly variable with values between +0.2 m w.e. (accumulation) and up to -6 m w.e. (ablation).; whereas for the hydrological year 2014-2015 values range from +0.004 m w.e. (accumulation) to -0.047 m w.e. (ablation) depending on the particular microtopography (e.g. ice cliffs) of the glacier. In the accumulation zone, the average for two stakes was +1.4 m w.e. for the hydrological year 2012-2013 and 1.3 m w.e.,in 2013-2014, +1.2 m w.e. for 2014-2015; and +0.7 m w.e in 2015-2016, respectively. The water equivalent gain has been gradually reduced in the last estimate, depending exclusively on the rainfall regime. The velocity of the glacial flow from October 2013 to November 2014 is in the range of 10 to 20 m per year. The glacier retreat in the front corresponds to 48.49 m for the period 2010-2014. Total glacier area of Suyuparina has decreased by 7% from about 1.21 km2 in 2009 to 1.13 km2 in 2013. A seasonal pattern can be observed in the point mass balance, indicating less ablation in the wet season (December-May), continuous ablation in the dry period, and a high horizontal ablation due to its

  11. HUMAN MASS BALANCE STUDY OF TAS-102 USING 14C ANALYZED BY ACCELERATOR MASS SPECTROMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James J.; Seraj, Jabed; Yoshida, Kenichiro; Mizuguchi, Hirokazu; Strychor, Sandra; Fiejdasz, Jillian; Faulkner, Tyeler; Parise, Robert A.; Fawcett, Patrick; Pollice, Laura; Mason, Scott; Hague, Jeremy; Croft, Marie; Nugteren, James; Tedder, Charles; Sun, Weijing; Chu, Edward; Beumer, Jan Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Background TAS-102 is an oral fluoropyrimidine prodrug composed of trifluridine (FTD) and tipiracil hydrochloride (TPI) in a 1:0.5 ratio. FTD is a thymidine analog, and it is degraded by thymidine phosphorylase (TP) to the inactive trifluoromethyluracil (FTY) metabolite. TPI inhibits degradation of FTD by TP, increasing systemic exposure to FTD. Methods Patients with advanced solid tumors (6 M/2 F; median age 58 years; PS 0–1) were enrolled on this study. Patients in group A (N = 4) received 60 mg TAS-102 with 200 nCi [14C]-FTD, while patients in group B (N = 4) received 60 mg TAS-102 with 1000 nCi [14C]-TPI orally. Plasma, blood, urine, feces, and expired air (group A only) were collected up to 168 h, and were analyzed for 14C by accelerator mass spectrometry and analytes by LC-MS/MS. Results FTD: 59.8% of the 14C dose was recovered; 54.8% in urine mostly as FTY and FTD glucuronide isomers. The extractable radioactivity in the pooled plasma consisted of 52.7% FTD and 33.2% FTY. TPI: 76.8% of the 14C dose was recovered; 27.0% in urine mostly as TPI, and 49.7% in feces. The extractable radioactivity in the pooled plasma consisted of 53.1% TPI and 30.9% 6-HMU, the major metabolite of TPI. Conclusion Absorbed 14C-FTD was metabolized and mostly excreted in urine. The majority of 14C-TPI was recovered in feces, and the majority of absorbed TPI was excreted in urine. The current data with the ongoing hepatic and renal dysfunction studies will provide an enhanced understanding of the TAS-102 elimination profile. PMID:26787503

  12. Human mass balance study of TAS-102 using (14)C analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, James J; Seraj, Jabed; Yoshida, Kenichiro; Mizuguchi, Hirokazu; Strychor, Sandra; Fiejdasz, Jillian; Faulkner, Tyeler; Parise, Robert A; Fawcett, Patrick; Pollice, Laura; Mason, Scott; Hague, Jeremy; Croft, Marie; Nugteren, James; Tedder, Charles; Sun, Weijing; Chu, Edward; Beumer, Jan Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    TAS-102 is an oral fluoropyrimidine prodrug composed of trifluridine (FTD) and tipiracil hydrochloride (TPI) in a 1:0.5 ratio. FTD is a thymidine analog, and it is degraded by thymidine phosphorylase (TP) to the inactive trifluoromethyluracil (FTY) metabolite. TPI inhibits degradation of FTD by TP, increasing systemic exposure to FTD. Patients with advanced solid tumors (6 M/2 F; median age 58 years; PS 0-1) were enrolled on this study. Patients in group A (N = 4) received 60 mg TAS-102 with 200 nCi [(14)C]-FTD, while patients in group B (N = 4) received 60 mg TAS-102 with 1000 nCi [(14)C]-TPI orally. Plasma, blood, urine, feces, and expired air (group A only) were collected up to 168 h and were analyzed for (14)C by accelerator mass spectrometry and analytes by LC-MS/MS. FTD: 59.8% of the (14)C dose was recovered: 54.8% in urine mostly as FTY and FTD glucuronide isomers. The extractable radioactivity in the pooled plasma consisted of 52.7% FTD and 33.2% FTY. TPI: 76.8% of the (14)C dose was recovered: 27.0% in urine mostly as TPI and 49.7% in feces. The extractable radioactivity in the pooled plasma consisted of 53.1% TPI and 30.9% 6-HMU, the major metabolite of TPI. Absorbed (14)C-FTD was metabolized and mostly excreted in urine. The majority of (14)C-TPI was recovered in feces, and the majority of absorbed TPI was excreted in urine. The current data with the ongoing hepatic and renal dysfunction studies will provide an enhanced understanding of the TAS-102 elimination profile.

  13. Mass balance modeling to elucidate historical and continuing sources of dioxin into an urban estuary.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Hanadi S; Lakshmanan, Divagar; Suarez, Monica P

    2013-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins) are typically found in sediment, water and tissue as in the case of the Houston Ship Channel and Upper Galveston Bay (HSC-UGB) in Texas studied in this research. While hydrodynamic and fate and transport models are important to understand dioxin distribution in the various media, it is difficult to assimilate modeling results into a decision framework without appropriate tools that can aid in the interpretation of the simulated data. This paper presents the development of a mass-balance modeling tool linked to RMA2 and WASP models of the HSC-UGB system for 2002-2005. The mass-balance tool was used to aggregate modeling results spatially and temporally and estimate the relative contribution of sediments to dioxin loading into the Channel in comparison to runoff, deposition, and permitted effluent discharges. The total sediment associated-dioxin load into the system calculated using the mass balance model was 2.34 × 10(7) ng d(-1) (almost 86% of the toxic equivalent load), and the re-deposited load to the sediment from the water column was 1.48 × 10(7)ng-TEQd(-1), such that 8.6 × 10(6)ng-TEQ d(-1) or approximately 69% of the average daily dioxin flux is transported between model segments as sediment. The external loads to the system contribute approximately 3.83 × 10(6)ng-TEQ d(-1), a value that is an order of magnitude smaller when compared to the contribution from sediment. These findings point to the need for sediment remediation strategies that take into account the spatial locations within the system that serve as sediment sources to dioxin in the water column. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new statistical model to find bedrock, a prequel to geochemical mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B.; Rendahl, A. K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Yoo, K.

    2016-12-01

    We present a new statistical model to assess weathering trends in deep weathering profiles. The Weathering Trends (WT) model is presented as an extension of the geochemical mass balance model (Brimhall & Dietrich, 1987), and is available as an open-source R library on GitHub (https://github.com/AaronRendahl/WeatheringTrends). WT uses element concentration data to determine the depth to fresh bedrock by assessing the maximum extent of weathering for all elements and the model applies confidence intervals on the depth to bedrock. WT models near-surface features and the shape of the weathering profile using a log transformation of data to capture the magnitude of changes that are relevant to geochemical kinetics and thermodynamics. The WT model offers a new, enhanced opportunity to characterize and understand biogeochemical weathering in heterogeneous rock types. We apply the model to two 21-meter drill cores in the Laurels Schist bedrock in the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory in the Pennsylvania Piedmont. The Laurels Schist had inconclusive weathering indicators prior to development and application of WT model. The model differentiated between rock variability and weathering to delineate the maximum extent of weathering at 12.3 (CI 95% [9.2, 21.3]) meters in Ridge Well 1 and 7.2 (CI 95% [4.3, 13.0]) meters in Interfluve Well 2. The modeled extent to weathering is decoupled from the water table at the ridge, but coincides with the water table at the interfluve. These depths were applied as the parent material for the geochemical mass balance for the Laurels Schist. We test statistical approaches to assess the variability and correlation of immobile elements to facilitate the selection of the best immobile element for use in both models. We apply the model to other published data where the geochemical mass balance was applied, to demonstrate how the WT model provides additional information about weathering depth and weathering trends.

  15. Climate, not atmospheric deposition, drives the biogeochemical mass-balance of a mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Heath, Jared

    2014-01-01

    Watershed mass-balance methods are valuable tools for demonstrating impacts to water quality from atmospheric deposition and chemical weathering. Owen Bricker, a pioneer of the mass-balance method, began applying mass-balance modeling to small watersheds in the late 1960s and dedicated his career to expanding the literature and knowledge of complex watershed processes. We evaluated long-term trends in surface-water chemistry in the Loch Vale watershed, a 660-ha. alpine/subalpine catchment located in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA. Many changes in surface-water chemistry correlated with multiple drivers, including summer or monthly temperature, snow water equivalent, and the runoff-to-precipitation ratio. Atmospheric deposition was not a significant causal agent for surface-water chemistry trends. We observed statistically significant increases in both concentrations and fluxes of weathering products including cations, SiO2, SO4 2−, and ANC, and in inorganic N, with inorganic N being primarily of atmospheric origin. These changes are evident in the individual months June, July, and August, and also in the combined June, July, and August summer season. Increasingly warm summer temperatures are melting what was once permanent ice and this may release elements entrained in the ice, stimulate chemical weathering with enhanced moisture availability, and stimulate microbial nitrification. Weathering rates may also be enhanced by sustained water availability in high snowpack years. Rapid change in the flux of weathering products and inorganic N is the direct and indirect result of a changing climate from warming temperatures and thawing cryosphere.

  16. Balance Mass Flux and Velocity Across the Equilibrium Line in Ice Drainage Systems of Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Estimates of balance mass flux and the depth-averaged ice velocity through the cross-section aligned with the equilibrium line are produced for each of six drainage systems in Greenland. (The equilibrium line, which lies at approximately 1200 m elevation on the ice sheet, is the boundary between the area of net snow accumulation at higher elevations and the areas of net melting at lower elevations around the ice sheet.) Ice drainage divides and six major drainage systems are delineated using surface topography from ERS (European Remote Sensing) radar altimeter data. The net accumulation rate in the accumulation zone bounded by the equilibrium line is 399 Gt/yr and net ablation rate in the remaining area is 231 Gt/yr. (1 GigaTon of ice is 1090 kM(exp 3). The mean balance mass flux and depth-averaged ice velocity at the cross-section aligned with the modeled equilibrium line are 0.1011 Gt kM(exp -2)/yr and 0.111 km/yr, respectively, with little variation in these values from system to system. The ratio of the ice mass above the equilibrium line to the rate of mass output implies an effective exchange time of approximately 6000 years for total mass exchange. The range of exchange times, from a low of 3 ka in the SE drainage system to 14 ka in the NE, suggests a rank as to which regions of the ice sheet may respond more rapidly to climate fluctuations.

  17. Evaluation of a mass-balance approach to determine consumptive water use in northeastern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Patrick C.; Duncker, James J.; Over, Thomas M.; Marian Domanski,; ,; Engel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Under ideal conditions, accurate quantification of consumptive use at the sewershed scale by the described mass-balance approach might be possible. Under most prevailing conditions, quantification likely would be more costly and time consuming than that of the present study, given the freely contributed technical support of the host community and relatively appropriate conditions of the study area. Essentials to quantification of consumptive use are a fully cooperative community, storm and sanitary sewers that are separate, and newer sewer infrastructure and (or) a robust program for limiting infiltration, exfiltration, and inflow.

  18. Primary mineral weathering in the central Appalachians: a mass balance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Tanya; Thompson, Patricia; Hatchl, Brian

    1998-09-01

    We use a mass balance approach to calculate long-term weathering rates for three forested watersheds in the southeastern USA. One watershed (Shaver Hollow) is underlain by Precambrian granodiorite, and two (White Oak Run, Deep Run) are underlain by Cambrian metasedimentary units. Each of the study areas receives high levels of acidic precipitation, and each watershed was almost completely defoliated by gypsy moth larvae for at least two consecutive years during the study period. Our analysis uses stream and precipitation chemistry obtained weekly from 1987 to 1993 for Shaver Hollow and from 1980 to 1993 for White Oak Run and Deep Run. Mass balance calculations for the granodiorite watershed indicate that plagioclase feldspar is the dominant reactant and that basalt dikes which comprise a small fraction of the catchment make a significant contribution to the base cation budget. Corresponding calculations for the metasedimentary bedrock watersheds indicate contributions from plagioclase feldspar, muscovite, and biotite. At best, the mass balance models provide an approximation of weathering processes because the soils are immature and contain few stoichiometric clay minerals such as kaolinite. Annual cation release rates from Shaver Hollow suggest soil profile ages of ˜4 ka, consistent with the observed surficial geology and the geological history of the area. Base cation efflux patterns during the period of severe defoliation differ markedly between the three watersheds and reflect a continuum of ecosystem sensitivities. The Pedlar granodiorite system is relatively robust to the effects of disturbance: calculated weathering rates and proportions change by <10% during defoliation. The Chilhowee Formation watershed White Oak Run is moderately acid-sensitive and is unstable with respect to defoliation: annual base cation export by roughly 30% during each year of larval infestation. The Deep Run watershed is superficially robust to defoliation, as base cation efflux

  19. Geochemical mass-balance relationships for selected ions in precipitation and stream water, Catoctin Mountains, Maryland.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Bricker, O.P.; Kennedy, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a study of input/output mass balances for major ions based on the chemical composition of precipitation and stream-water, geochemical reactions with different loading rates of hydrogen ion, and watershed processes influencing the chemical character of stream-waters in two small watershed areas are reported with a view to predicting the effect of additions of acidic rain to the watershed systems. Geochemical weathering processes account for the observed changes in the chemistry of stream flow. Although present in bedrock in extremely small quantities, calcite plays an important role in neutralization of the total hydrogen-ion input.-M.S.

  20. Integrated configurable equipment selection and line balancing for mass production with serial-parallel machining systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaïa, Olga; Dolgui, Alexandre; Guschinsky, Nikolai; Levin, Genrikh

    2014-10-01

    Solving equipment selection and line balancing problems together allows better line configurations to be reached and avoids local optimal solutions. This article considers jointly these two decision problems for mass production lines with serial-parallel workplaces. This study was motivated by the design of production lines based on machines with rotary or mobile tables. Nevertheless, the results are more general and can be applied to assembly and production lines with similar structures. The designers' objectives and the constraints are studied in order to suggest a relevant mathematical model and an efficient optimization approach to solve it. A real case study is used to validate the model and the developed approach.

  1. Well-posedness and exact controllability of the mass balance equations for an extrusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diagne, Mamadou; Shang, Peipei; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study the well-posedness and exact controllability of a physical model for a food extrusion process in the isothermal case. The model expresses the mass balance in the extruder chamber and consists of a hyperbolic Partial Differential Equation (PDE) and a nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) whose dynamics describes the evolution of a moving interface. By suitable change of coordinates and fixed point arguments, we prove the existence, uniqueness and regularity of the solution, and finally the exact controllability of the coupled system.

  2. In-vehicle CO ingression: validation through field measurements and mass balance simulations.

    PubMed

    Esber, Layale Abi; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2008-05-01

    In this study a mass balance modeling approach with measured out-vehicle carbon monoxide (CO) levels and trip-specific movement record as boundary conditions were used to simulate in-vehicle CO concentration profiles. The simulation results were coupled with field measurements to demonstrate the occurrence of CO ingression into the vehicle compartment from the engine combustion and/or exhaust return of the test vehicle. Agreement between field and simulation results was obtained for variable amounts of infiltrated CO equivalent to an in-vehicle emission rate of 250 to 1250 mg/h of CO depending on the vehicle ventilation settings.

  3. NETPATH-WIN: an interactive user version of the mass-balance model, NETPATH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    El-Kadi, A. I.; Plummer, L.N.; Aggarwal, P.

    2011-01-01

    NETPATH-WIN is an interactive user version of NETPATH, an inverse geochemical modeling code used to find mass-balance reaction models that are consistent with the observed chemical and isotopic composition of waters from aquatic systems. NETPATH-WIN was constructed to migrate NETPATH applications into the Microsoft WINDOWS® environment. The new version facilitates model utilization by eliminating difficulties in data preparation and results analysis of the DOS version of NETPATH, while preserving all of the capabilities of the original version. Through example applications, the note describes some of the features of NETPATH-WIN as applied to adjustment of radiocarbon data for geochemical reactions in groundwater systems.

  4. Evaluation of total phosphorus mass balance in the lower Boise River and selected tributaries, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2013-01-01

    he U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, developed spreadsheet mass-balance models for total phosphorus using results from three synoptic sampling periods conducted in the lower Boise River watershed during August and October 2012, and March 2013. The modeling reach spanned 46.4 river miles (RM) along the Boise River from Veteran’s Memorial Parkway in Boise, Idaho (RM 50.2), to Parma, Idaho (RM 3.8). The USGS collected water-quality samples and measured streamflow at 14 main-stem Boise River sites, two Boise River north channel sites, two sites on the Snake River upstream and downstream of its confluence with the Boise River, and 17 tributary and return-flow sites. Additional samples were collected from treated effluent at six wastewater treatment plants and two fish hatcheries. The Idaho Department of Water Resources quantified diversion flows in the modeling reach. Total phosphorus mass-balance models were useful tools for evaluating sources of phosphorus in the Boise River during each sampling period. The timing of synoptic sampling allowed the USGS to evaluate phosphorus inputs to and outputs from the Boise River during irrigation season, shortly after irrigation ended, and soon before irrigation resumed. Results from the synoptic sampling periods showed important differences in surface-water and groundwater distribution and phosphorus loading. In late August 2012, substantial streamflow gains to the Boise River occurred from Middleton (RM 31.4) downstream to Parma (RM 3.8). Mass-balance model results indicated that point and nonpoint sources (including groundwater) contributed phosphorus loads to the Boise River during irrigation season. Groundwater exchange within the Boise River in October 2012 and March 2013 was not as considerable as that measured in August 2012. However, groundwater discharge to agricultural tributaries and drains during non-irrigation season was a large source of discharge and

  5. Evaporation and NARS Nitric Acid Mass Balance Summary: 2000--2005

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Kreutzberg; R.L. Ames; K.M. Hansel

    2005-11-01

    A compilation of the historical nitric acid processing data for the evaporation and nitric acid recycle system (NARS) in TA-55 has provided general acid mass balance trends, as well as the location of missing information in both the evaporation system and NARS data logs. The data were accumulated during the calendar years 2000 to 2005. After making a number of processing assumptions, the empirical system information was used to create an interactive spreadsheet that predicts, with moderate accuracy, some of the various stream variables for the combined evaporation and acid recycle processes. Empirical data and interactive calculations were compared to an Aspen Plus{trademark} simulation of the process.

  6. Seasonal Ice Mass-Balance Buoys: Adapting Tools to the Changing Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    latitudes ( Schauer and others, 2004; Woodgate and others, 2006) and atmos- pheric circulation patterns (Hilmer and Jung, 2000; Rigor and others, 2002). The...at the bottom. A tick mark is 7 days. A number of interesting data features are labeled. Polashenski and others: Seasonal ice mass-balance buoys 23...Figure 4a–d are on the same timescale shown at the bottom, with 7 days between tick marks . In Figure 4c, we can see that snow depth begins to decline

  7. The impact of supraglacial debris on the mass balance and dynamics of Khumbu Glacier, Nepalese Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, Ann; Quincey, Duncan; Glasser, Neil; Egholm, David; Gibson, Morgan; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram; Porter, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Rapid changes in glacier volumes and dynamics have been observed in the monsoon-influenced Himalaya over recent decades, with marked consequences for the hydrological budgets and glacial hazard potential of catchments such as the Dudh Kosi, a tributary of the Ganges River. For many large glaciers such as Khumbu Glacier in eastern Nepal, supraglacial rock debris modifies the thermal properties of the ice surface and mass balance variations in response to climatic change. Ice flow dynamics vary dramatically with supraglacial debris thickness -- the debris-covered section of Khumbu Glacier appears stagnant, while the clean-ice section reaches velocities exceeding 50 m per year -- resulting in spatial variation in the drivers of mass transfer and loss. However, the relative importance of supraglacial debris in modifying mass balance compared to external forcing by the summer monsoon is poorly understood, and as a result quantifying the sensitivity of this glacier to climatic change is challenging. To calculate ablation across the glacier we need to incorporate the thermal properties of the debris layer and how these vary with altitude and time into a mass balance calculation. We made field observations describing debris thickness and sub-debris melt rates on Khumbu Glacier. At four different sites, we measured vertical temperature profiles through the supraglacial debris and at the ice surface, debris thickness, and 1 m air temperature through the summer monsoon, and calculated ablation rates following the method of Nicholson and Benn (2006, J. Glacio.). These data were used with local meteorological data to calculate the spatial and temporal variability in the surface energy balance of Khumbu Glacier. To investigate the sensitivity of Khumbu Glacier to climatic change, we developed a numerical model of this glacier from our field data. Our higher-order flow model (Egholm et al., 2011; JGR) reproduces accurately the variations in ice velocity observed using feature

  8. Airborne Laser Altimetry Mapping of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Application to Mass Balance Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalati, W.; Krabill, W.; Frederick, E.; Manizade, S.; Martin, C.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Thomas, R.; Wright, W.; Yungel, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 and '99, the Arctic Ice Mapping (AIM) program completed resurveys of lines occupied 5 years earlier revealing elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet and identifying areas of significant thinning, thickening and balance. In planning these surveys, consideration had to be given to the spatial constraints associated with aircraft operation, the spatial nature of ice sheet behavior, and limited resources, as well as temporal issues, such as seasonal and interannual variability in the context of measurement accuracy. This paper examines the extent to which the sampling and survey strategy is valid for drawing conclusions on the current state of balance of the Greenland ice sheet. The surveys covered the entire ice sheet with an average distance of 21.4 km between each location on the ice sheet and the nearest flight line. For most of the ice sheet, the elevation changes show relatively little spatial variability, and their magnitudes are significantly smaller than the observed elevation change signal. As a result, we conclude that the density of the sampling and the accuracy of the measurements are sufficient to draw meaningful conclusions on the state of balance of the entire ice sheet over the five-year survey period. Outlet glaciers, however, show far more spatial and temporal variability, and each of the major ones is likely to require individual surveys in order to determine its balance.

  9. Ocean Basalt Simulator version 1 (OBS1): Trace element mass balance in adiabatic melting of a pyroxenite-bearing peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, J. I.; Kawabata, H.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new numerical mass balance model for estimating the source conditions of a primary ocean basalt from adiabatic melting of a pyroxenite-bearing peridotite. The Ocean Basalt Simulator version 1 (OBS1) uses a thermodynamic model of adiabatic melting of a pyroxenite-bearing peridotite with experimentally parameterized liquidus-solidus and melting intervals and thermodynamically/experimentally parameterized source mineralogy of pyroxenite and peridotite. OBS1 uses a sequence of adiabatic melting with pyroxenite melting, melt metasomatism in the host peridotite, and melting of the metasomatized peridotite. OBS1 explores (1) the fractions of peridotite and pyroxenite, (2) mantle potential temperature Tp, (3) depth of termination of melting Pmt, (4) degree of melting F, and (5) residual mode Xa of the sources. The model also examines the mass balance of 26 incompatible trace elements in the sources and in the generated basalt. OBS1 can also calculate Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions in the sources and in the melt. OBS1 is coded in an Excel spreadsheet and runs with VBA macros. Using OBS1, we examine the source conditions of the mid oceanic ridge basalts (MORBs), plume-influenced ocean ridge basalts in Galápagos, Loihi-Loa-Koolau basalts in the Hawaiian hotspot, high-mu (HIMU) basalt from the St. Helena hotspot, and Shatsky Rise and Jurassic Mikabu oceanic plateau basalts and picrites. OBS1 is a unique model that provides an opportunity to examine the source mantle conditions using incompatible trace elements and relevant isotopes, which are key factors in global mantle recycling.

  10. Mass balance, meteorological, ice motion, surface altitude, runoff, and ice thickness data at Gulkana Glacier, Alaska, 1995 balance year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    March, Rod S.

    2000-01-01

    The 1995 measured winter snow, maximum winter snow, net, and annual balances in the Gulkana Glacier basin were evaluated on the basis of meteorological, hydrological, and glaciological data obtained in the basin. Averaged over the glacier, the measured winter snow balance was 0.94 meter on April 19, 1995, 0.6 standard deviation below the long-term average; the maximum winter snow balance, 0.94 meter, was reached on April 25, 1995; the net balance (from September 18, 1994 to August 29, 1995) was -0.70 meter, 0.76 standard deviation below the long-term average. The annual balance (October 1, 1994, to September 30, 1995) was -0.86 meter. Ice-surface motion and altitude changes measured at three index sites document seasonal ice speed and glacier-thickness changes. Annual stream runoff was 2.05 meters averaged over the basin, approximately equal to the long-term average. The 1976 ice-thickness data are reported from a single site near the highest measurement site (180 meters thick) and from two glacier cross profiles near the mid-glacier (270 meters thick on centerline) and low glacier (150 meters thick on centerline) measurement sites. A new area-altitude distribution determined from 1993 photogrammetry is reported. Area-averaged balances are reported from both the 1967 and 1993 area-altitude distribution so the reader may directly see the effect of the update. Briefly, loss of ablation area between 1967 and 1993 results in a larger weighting being applied to data from the upper glacier site and hence, increases calculated area-averaged balances. The balance increase is of the order of 15 percent for net balance.

  11. Batura-Glacier - mass balance and 'Karakoram Anomaly' (Upper Hunza, Karakoram)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerst, U.; Winiger, M.; Bookhagen, B.

    2013-12-01

    In line with an almost worldwide trend the (non-surging) glaciers in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya Range manifest a remarkable down melting of their tongues and retreating of their terminuses in the last few decades. A series of recent studies prove an overall negative mass balance for most of the Himalayan glaciers. Contrary to these statements various publications register stable or positive mass balances for a number of glaciers located in the NW-Karakoram Mountains - postulating the so-called 'Karakoram-Anomaly'. Unlike the many investigations in the Himalaya, the Karakoram records very few detailed local investigations emphasizing the spatial and temporal development of glaciers. This presentation focuses on the Batura Glacier in NW-Karakorum in Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan). With a west-to-east extension of ~ 57 km and an elevation range of 5.3 km (2.500 - 7.800 masl), the Batura Glacier belongs to the worldwide largest glaciers in the mid and low latitudes. Detailed mapping and further ground-based investigations have been carried out in the 1920ies, 1953/59, 1974/5 and in the past few years by different research teams. In order to determine the glacier's mass balance for the last 50 years we relied on Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): digitized maps from 1959 and 1974 are compared to DEMs derived through stereogrammetry from ASTER-scenes for 2001, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2011. The ASTER-DEMs were post-processed with various correction methods and techniques to insure the relative DEM comparability and include corrections for aspect, altitude, and tilt. Next, we calculated surface differences from the ice and snow-free areas with respect to the SRTM C-Band DEM. Our remote sensing techniques are supplemented by differential GPS measurements and ice-surface profiles from 2013 as well as by multi-temporal photography matching. Preliminary results indicate a significant down melting of the glacier tongue from 1959 to the present day and acceleration during the past

  12. A mass-balance model to separate and quantify colloidal and solute redistributions in soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, C.R.; Chadwick, O.A.; Hartshorn, A.S.; Khomo, L.M.; Chorover, J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of weathering and pedogenesis have long used calculations based upon low solubility index elements to determine mass gains and losses in open systems. One of the questions currently unanswered in these settings is the degree to which mass is transferred in solution (solutes) versus suspension (colloids). Here we show that differential mobility of the low solubility, high field strength (HFS) elements Ti and Zr can trace colloidal redistribution, and we present a model for distinguishing between mass transfer in suspension and solution. The model is tested on a well-differentiated granitic catena located in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Ti and Zr ratios from parent material, soil and colloidal material are substituted into a mixing equation to quantify colloidal movement. The results show zones of both colloid removal and augmentation along the catena. Colloidal losses of 110kgm-2 (-5% relative to parent material) are calculated for one eluviated soil profile. A downslope illuviated profile has gained 169kgm-2 (10%) colloidal material. Elemental losses by mobilization in true solution are ubiquitous across the catena, even in zones of colloidal accumulation, and range from 1418kgm-2 (-46%) for an eluviated profile to 195kgm-2 (-23%) at the bottom of the catena. Quantification of simultaneous mass transfers in solution and suspension provide greater specificity on processes within soils and across hillslopes. Additionally, because colloids include both HFS and other elements, the ability to quantify their redistribution has implications for standard calculations of soil mass balances using such index elements. ?? 2011.

  13. Impact of glacial-isostatic adjustment on ice-mass balances in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasgen, Ingo; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wouters, Bert

    2017-04-01

    To cross-validate regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) using various measurement techniques requires improved regional estimates of the glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA). Here, we assess the impact of GIA on GrIS mass change from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission and evaluate the corresponding uncertainties. Newly available time series of bedrock displacement measured with Greenland GPS Network (GNET) show that forward models have considerably underestimated GIA in Greenland. In particular, uplift rates related to GIA are much greater in the northwest and southeast sectors of the GrIS. We reconstruct the evolution of the GrIS since Last-Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21 thousand years ago), including the GNET GPS uplift rates and relative sea-level data. Correcting GRACE mass change with the new GPS-constrained GIA forward model results in significantly more mass loss (17 Gt/yr). The revised GRACE estimate for ice-mass loss amounts to -279 Gt/yr (2003-2015) for the entire GrIS.

  14. An Examination of Exposure Control and Content Balancing Restrictions on Item Selection in CATs Using the Partial Credit Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin; Pastor, Dena A.; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chiang, Claire; Fitzpatrick, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of the Sympson-Hetter technique and rotated content balancing relative to no exposure control and no content rotation conditions in a computerized adaptive testing system based on the partial credit model. Simulation results show the Sympson-Hetter technique can be used with minimal impact on measurement precision,…

  15. Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Karatzos, Sergios Kimon; Edye, Leslie Alan; Doherty, William Orlando Sinclair

    2012-08-24

    Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs), still relatively new class of solvents, are attractive for biomass pretreatment because some demonstrate the rare ability to dissolve all components of lignocellulosic biomass including highly ordered (crystalline) cellulose. In the present study, three ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc) are used to dissolve/pretreat and fractionate sugarcane bagasse. In these IL-based pretreatments the biomass is completely or partially dissolved in ILs at temperatures greater than 130°C and then precipitated by the addition of an antisolvent to the IL biomass mixture. For the first time mass balances of IL-based pretreatments are reported. Such mass balances, along with kinetics data, can be used in process modelling and design. Lignin removals of 10% mass of lignin in bagasse with [C4mim]Cl, 50% mass with [C2mim]Cl and 60% mass with [C2mim]OAc, are achieved by limiting the amount of water added as antisolvent to 0.5 water:IL mass ratio thus minimising lignin precipitation. Enzyme saccharification (24 h, 15FPU) yields (% cellulose mass in starting bagasse) from the recovered solids rank as: [C2mim]OAc(83%) > >[C2mim]Cl(53%) = [C4mim]Cl(53%). Composition of [C2mim]OAc-treated solids such as low lignin, low acetyl group content and preservation of arabinosyl groups are characteristic of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of chloride IL-treated solids resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. All ILs are fully recovered after use (100% mass as determined by ion chromatography). In all three ILs regulated addition of water as an antisolvent effected a polysaccharide enriched precipitate since some of the lignin remained dissolved in the aqueous IL solution. Of

  16. Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs), still relatively new class of solvents, are attractive for biomass pretreatment because some demonstrate the rare ability to dissolve all components of lignocellulosic biomass including highly ordered (crystalline) cellulose. In the present study, three ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc) are used to dissolve/pretreat and fractionate sugarcane bagasse. In these IL-based pretreatments the biomass is completely or partially dissolved in ILs at temperatures greater than 130°C and then precipitated by the addition of an antisolvent to the IL biomass mixture. For the first time mass balances of IL-based pretreatments are reported. Such mass balances, along with kinetics data, can be used in process modelling and design. Results Lignin removals of 10% mass of lignin in bagasse with [C4mim]Cl, 50% mass with [C2mim]Cl and 60% mass with [C2mim]OAc, are achieved by limiting the amount of water added as antisolvent to 0.5 water:IL mass ratio thus minimising lignin precipitation. Enzyme saccharification (24 h, 15FPU) yields (% cellulose mass in starting bagasse) from the recovered solids rank as: [C2mim]OAc(83%) > >[C2mim]Cl(53%) = [C4mim]Cl(53%). Composition of [C2mim]OAc-treated solids such as low lignin, low acetyl group content and preservation of arabinosyl groups are characteristic of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of chloride IL-treated solids resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. All ILs are fully recovered after use (100% mass as determined by ion chromatography). Conclusions In all three ILs regulated addition of water as an antisolvent effected a polysaccharide enriched precipitate since some of the lignin remained dissolved

  17. Portable ultrasonography in mass casualty incidents: The CAVEAT examination

    PubMed Central

    Stawicki, Stanislaw Peter; Howard, James M; Pryor, John P; Bahner, David P; Whitmill, Melissa L; Dean, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonography used by practicing clinicians has been shown to be of utility in the evaluation of time-sensitive and critical illnesses in a range of environments, including pre-hospital triage, emergency department, and critical care settings. The increasing availability of light-weight, robust, user-friendly, and low-cost portable ultrasound equipment is particularly suited for use in the physically and temporally challenging environment of a multiple casualty incident (MCI). Currently established ultrasound applications used to identify potentially lethal thoracic or abdominal conditions offer a base upon which rapid, focused protocols using hand-carried emergency ultrasonography could be developed. Following a detailed review of the current use of portable ultrasonography in military and civilian MCI settings, we propose a protocol for sonographic evaluation of the chest, abdomen, vena cava, and extremities for acute triage. The protocol is two-tiered, based on the urgency and technical difficulty of the sonographic examination. In addition to utilization of well-established bedside abdominal and thoracic sonography applications, this protocol incorporates extremity assessment for long-bone fractures. Studies of the proposed protocol will need to be conducted to determine its utility in simulated and actual MCI settings. PMID:22474622

  18. A mass balance study of the phytoremediation of perchloroethylene-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    James, C Andrew; Xin, Gang; Doty, Sharon L; Muiznieks, Indulis; Newman, Lee; Strand, Stuart E

    2009-01-01

    A mass balance study was performed under controlled field conditions to investigate the phytoremediation of perchloroethylene (PCE) by hybrid poplar trees. Water containing 7-14 mg L(-1) PCE was added to the test bed. Perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and cis-dichloroethylene were detected in the effluent at an average of 0.12 mg L(-1), 3.9 mg L(-1), and 1.9 mg L(-1), respectively. The total mass of chlorinated ethenes in the water was reduced by 99%. Over 95% of the recovered chlorine was as free chloride in the soil, indicating near-complete dehalogenation of the PCE. Transpiration, volatilization, and accumulation in the trees were all found to be minor loss mechanisms. In contrast, 98% of PCE applied to an unplanted soil chamber was recovered as PCE in the effluent water or volatilized into the air. These results suggest that phytoremediation can be an effective method for treating PCE-contaminated groundwater in field applications.

  19. Improving Surface Mass Balance Over Ice Sheets and Snow Depth on Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Box, Jason; Kurtz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) over ice sheets and snow on sea ice (SOSI) are important components of the cryosphere. Large knowledge gaps remain in scientists' abilities to monitor SMB and SOSI, including insufficient measurements and difficulties with satellite retrievals. On ice sheets, snow accumulation is the sole mass gain to SMB, and meltwater runoff can be the dominant single loss factor in extremely warm years such as 2012. SOSI affects the growth and melt cycle of the Earth's polar sea ice cover. The summer of 2012 saw the largest satellite-recorded melt area over the Greenland ice sheet and the smallest satellite-recorded Arctic sea ice extent, making this meeting both timely and relevant.

  20. Impact of sublimation losses in the mass balance of glaciers in semi-arid mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Burlando, Paolo; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers in semiarid mountain regions may lose an important part of their winter snow accumulation through sublimation processes that are enhanced by the high-elevation, intense radiation and dry atmosphere of these environments. As glaciers in these regions secure freshwater resources to lower valleys during summer and drought periods, it is important to advance in a detailed quantification of their sublimation losses. However, logistical concerns and complex meteorological features make the measuring and modelling of glacier mass balances a difficult task. In this study, we estimated the spring-summer mass balances of Tapado and Juncal Norte glaciers in the semiarid Andes of north-central Chile by running a distributed energy balance model that accounts for melt, refreezing and sublimation from the surface and blowing snow. Meteorological input data were available from on-glacier Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) that were installed during the ablation season of years 2005-06, 2008-09, 2013-14 and 2014-15. Snow pits, ablation stakes and a time-lapse camera that provided surface albedo were also available. Distributed air temperature and wind speed were dynamically downscaled from NASA MERRA reanalysis using the software WINDSIM and validated against the data from the AWSs. The rest of the meteorological variables were distributed using statistical relations with air temperature derived from the AWSs data. Initial snow conditions were estimated using satellite images and distributed manual snow depth measurements. Preliminary results show that total ablation diminishes with elevation and that, during the early ablation season (October-November), melt is the main ablation component below 4500 m with sublimation dominating the ablation above this elevation. Above 4500 m an important fraction of meltwater refreezes during night. As the ablation season advances (December-February), melt extends to higher elevations, refreezing plays a smaller role and sublimation is

  1. Mass balance attending gel palagonitization of hyaloclastites in the HSDP 2 Phase 1 core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, A. W.; Schiffman, P.; MacPherson, G.

    2002-12-01

    In the HSDP 2 core, the alteration of hyaloclastites is multi-episodic, but the predominant, "normal" alteration process - recorded in samples from depths between 1573 m and the bottom of the hole at over 3000 m - entails the conversion of rinds of sideromelane-rich shards to gel palagonite and growth of pore-filling chabazite. This reaction must occur relatively rapidly, because point-count porosity in the zone of normal alteration approaches zero within 200 m of the top of this zone and remains very low to the deepest samples. Furthermore, thickness of palagonite rinds does not increase down hole. Using modes from point counts on thin sections, major element analyses by electron microprobe, and trace element analyses by LAM-ICPMS, we have modeled the elemental mass balance for the normal palagonitization process in the HSDP hyaloclastites. Petrographic evidence suggests that this reaction does not involve solids other than sideromelane, gel palagonite, and chabazite and that the conversion of sideromelane to gel palagonite is isovolumetric. We used literature values of density: 2.80 g/cc for sideromelane, 2.00 for gel palagonite, and 2.075 for chabazite. The major elemental balance calculated for these conditions, and averaged over 10 samples shows net addition of K2O (by 17%), TiO2 (19%), and water, with net losses of MgO (73%), P2O5 (52%), MnO (29%), CaO (17%), Na2O (36%), SiO2 (19%), FeO (15%), and Al2O3 (18%). Individual samples show similar patterns. Decreasing the gel palagonite density (to 1.9 g/cc) and allowing for a 5% volume decrease reduces the TiO2 uptake (to 8%), but also increases the apparent loss of other "immobile" elements (FeO to 23% and Al2O3 to 22%). Normalized REE patterns for sideromelane versus gel palagonite show no systematic fractionations, although the normal reaction requires net gains on the order of 10-20% for most REEs. HFS elements are enriched in gel palagonite, relative to values in sideromelane, but LIL elements are depleted

  2. Has Natural Variability Masked the Expected Increase in Antarctic Surface Mass Balance with Global Warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previdi, Michael; Polvani, Lorenzo M.

    2016-04-01

    One of the expected and rather paradoxical consequences of anthropogenic global warming is an increase in Antarctic surface mass balance (or net snow accumulation), as robustly simulated by both global and regional climate models. This surface mass balance (SMB) increase occurs because the higher moisture content of a warmer atmosphere leads to increases in precipitation, with this precipitation falling in the form of snow over Antarctica. Despite these robust model projections, however, observations indicate that there has been no significant change in Antarctic SMB during the past several decades. Here, we show that this apparent discrepancy between models and observations can be explained by the fact that the anthropogenic climate change signal is still relatively small compared to the noise associated with natural climate variability. Using an ensemble of 35 global coupled climate models to separate signal and noise, we find that the forced SMB increase due to global warming in recent decades is unlikely to be detectable in a statistical sense as a result of large natural SMB variability on interannual-to-multidecadal timescales. However, our analysis reveals that if the world continues to follow the present trajectory of greenhouse gas emissions, the anthropogenic impact on Antarctic SMB will emerge from natural variability by the middle of the current century. With this, SMB increases over Antarctica will begin to mitigate global sea-level rise, partially offsetting the effects of dynamic ice loss.

  3. A carbon isotope mass balance for an anoxic marine sediment: Isotopic signatures of diagenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehme, Susan E.

    1993-01-01

    A carbon isotope mass balance was determined for the sediments of Cape Lookout Bight, NC to constrain the carbon budgets published previously. The diffusive, ebullitive and burial fluxes of sigma CO2 and CH4, as well as the carbon isotope signatures of these fluxes, were measured. The flux-weighted isotopic signature of the remineralized carbon (-18.9 plus or minus 2.7 per mil) agreed with the isotopic composition of the remineralized organic carbon determined from the particulate organic carbon (POC) delta(C-13) profiles (-19.2 plus or minus 0.2), verifying the flux and isotopic signature estimates. The measured delta(C-13) values of the sigma CO2 and CH4 diffusive fluxes were significantly different from those calculated from porewater gradients. The differences appear to be influenced by methane oxidation at the sediment-water interface, although other potential processes cannot be excluded. The isotope mass balance provides important information concerning the locations of potential diagenetic isotope effects. Specifically, the absence of downcore change in the delta(C-13) value of the POC fraction and the identical isotopic composition of the POC and the products of remineralization indicate that no isotopic fractionation is expressed during the initial breakdown of the POC, despite its isotopically heterogeneous composition.

  4. A metabolism perspective on alternative urban water servicing options using water mass balance.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Tauheed A; Renouf, Marguerite A; Kenway, Steven J

    2016-12-01

    Urban areas will need to pursue new water servicing options to ensure local supply security. Decisions about how best to employ them are not straightforward due to multiple considerations and the potential for problem shifting among them. We hypothesise that urban water metabolism evaluation based a water mass balance can help address this, and explore the utility of this perspective and the new insights it provides about water servicing options. Using a water mass balance evaluation framework, which considers direct urban water flows (both 'natural' hydrological and 'anthropogenic' flows), as well as water-related energy, we evaluated how the use of alternative water sources (stormwater/rainwater harvesting, wastewater/greywater recycling) at different scales influences the 'local water metabolism' of a case study urban development. New indicators were devised to represent the water-related 'resource efficiency' and 'hydrological performance' of the urban area. The new insights gained were the extent to which alternative water supplies influence the water efficiency and hydrological performance of the urban area, and the potential energy trade-offs. The novel contribution is the development of new indicators of urban water resource performance that bring together considerations of both the 'anthropogenic' and 'natural' water cycles, and the interactions between them. These are used for the first time to test alternative water servicing scenarios, and to provide a new perspective to complement broader sustainability assessments of urban water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Purity determination and uncertainty evaluation of folic acid by mass balance method.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hui; Huang, Ting; Yang, Yi; Wang, Haifeng

    2012-11-15

    Folic acid is one of the most important nutrient substances for human beings, especially for the pregnant women and infants. Therefore the purity determination of folic acid is particularly important. The mass balance method was employed to determine the purity of folic acid, by using the measures of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Karl Fischer titration and other conventional approach. The moisture quantification of folic acid was a major problem since it is a thermally unstable substance and it is apt to contain crystal water. Therefore, a novel improved Karl Fischer method was established for accurate determination of the water content in folic acid, whose repeatability (RSD=2.9%) was significantly better than that of the original direct injection method (RSD=12%). The purity of folic acid certified reference material (CRM) determined by mass balance method was 90.9% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.35%, and the content of water (the major impurity) was 8.5%, with an expanded uncertainty of 0.32%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Logs and completion data for water and mass balance wells in Mortandad and Ten Site Canyons

    SciTech Connect

    McLin, S.G.; Purtymun, W.D.; Swanton, A.S.; Koch, R.J.

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-four monitoring wells were drilled and completed in December 1994 as part of a water and mass balance study for the shallow perched aquifer in the Mortandad Canyon alluvium and in the lower part of Ten-Site Canyon. The wells penetrated the alluvium containing the aquifer and were completed into the top of the weathered tuff. Twelve of these wells encountered the Tshirege Member (Cooing Unit 1 g) of the Bandelier Tuff below the canyon alluvium, while ten wells made contact with the Cerro Toledo interval, which lies between the Tshirege and Otowi Members of the Bandelier Tuff. The remaining two wells were completed into the alluvium above the weathered tuff contact. These wells provide access for continuous water level measurement and water sampling. Data from these new wells will be used to determine changes in alluvial aquifer water storage, water quality sampling, and estimation of seepage into the unsaturated Bandelier Tuff below the alluvium. This report documents drilling activities and well completion logs for the water and mass balance study. These wells also provide critical new data for fourteen north-south vertical cross-sections constructed for the canyon alluvium.

  7. Tectonic controls on the long-term carbon isotope mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Graham A.; Mills, Benjamin J. W.

    2017-04-01

    The long-term, steady-state marine carbon isotope record reflects changes to the proportional burial rate of organic carbon relative to total carbon on a global scale. For this reason, times of high δ13C are conventionally interpreted to be oxygenation events caused by excess organic burial. Here we show that the carbon isotope mass balance is also significantly affected by tectonic uplift and erosion via changes to the inorganic carbon cycle that are independent of changes to the isotopic composition of carbon input. This view is supported by inverse covariance between δ13C and a range of uplift proxies, including seawater 87Sr/86Sr, which demonstrates how erosional forcing of carbonate weathering outweighs that of organic burial on geological timescales. A model of the long-term carbon cycle shows that increases in δ13C need not be associated with increased organic burial and that alternative tectonic drivers (erosion, outgassing) provide testable and plausible explanations for sustained deviations from the long-term δ13C mean. Our approach emphasizes the commonly overlooked difference between how net and gross carbon fluxes affect the long-term carbon isotope mass balance, and may lead to reassessment of the role that the δ13C record plays in reconstructing the oxygenation of earth’s surface environment.

  8. Tectonic controls on the long-term carbon isotope mass balance.

    PubMed

    Shields, Graham A; Mills, Benjamin J W

    2017-04-25

    The long-term, steady-state marine carbon isotope record reflects changes to the proportional burial rate of organic carbon relative to total carbon on a global scale. For this reason, times of high δ(13)C are conventionally interpreted to be oxygenation events caused by excess organic burial. Here we show that the carbon isotope mass balance is also significantly affected by tectonic uplift and erosion via changes to the inorganic carbon cycle that are independent of changes to the isotopic composition of carbon input. This view is supported by inverse covariance between δ(13)C and a range of uplift proxies, including seawater (87)Sr/(86)Sr, which demonstrates how erosional forcing of carbonate weathering outweighs that of organic burial on geological timescales. A model of the long-term carbon cycle shows that increases in δ(13)C need not be associated with increased organic burial and that alternative tectonic drivers (erosion, outgassing) provide testable and plausible explanations for sustained deviations from the long-term δ(13)C mean. Our approach emphasizes the commonly overlooked difference between how net and gross carbon fluxes affect the long-term carbon isotope mass balance, and may lead to reassessment of the role that the δ(13)C record plays in reconstructing the oxygenation of earth's surface environment.

  9. Impact of global warming on the Antarctic mass balance and global sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Budd, W.F.; Simmonds, I.

    1992-03-01

    The onset of global warming from increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can have a number of important different impacts on the Antarctic ice sheet. These include increasing basal melt of ice shelves, faster flow of the grounded ice, increased surface ablation in coastal regions, and increased precipitation over the interior. An analysis of these separate terms by ice sheet modeling indicates that the impact of increasing ice sheet flow rates on sea level does not become a dominant factor until 100--200 years after the realization of the warming. For the time period of the next 100 years the most important impact on sea level from the Antarctic mass balance can be expected to result from increasing precipitation minus evaporation balance over the grounded ice. The present Antarctic net accumulation and coastal ice flux each amount to about 2000 km3 yr-1, both of which on their own would equate to approximately 6 mm yr-1 of sea level change. The present rate of sea level rise of about 1.2 mm yr-1 is therefore equivalent to about 20% imbalance in the Antarctic mass fluxes. The magnitude of the changes to the Antarctic precipitation and evaporation have been studied by a series of General Circulation Model experiments, using a model which gives a reasonable simulation of the present Antarctic climate, including precipitation and evaporation.

  10. Geochemical investigation of weathering processes in a forested headwater catchment: Mass-balance weathering fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Herman, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Geochemical research on natural weathering has often been directed towards explanations of the chemical composition of surface water and ground water resulting from subsurface water-rock interactions. These interactions are often defined as the incongruent dissolution of primary silicates, such as feldspar, producing secondary weathering products, such as clay minerals and oxyhydroxides, and solute fluxes (Meunier and Velde, 1979). The chemical composition of the clay-mineral product is often ignored. However, in earlier investigations, the saprolitic weathering profile at the South Fork Brokenback Run (SFBR) watershed, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, was characterized extensively in terms of its mineralogical and chemical composition (Piccoli, 1987; Pochatila et al., 2006; Jones et al., 2007) and its basic hydrology. O'Brien et al. (1997) attempted to determine the contribution of primary mineral weathering to observed stream chemistry at SFBR. Mass-balance model results, however, could provide only a rough estimate of the weathering reactions because idealized mineral compositions were utilized in the calculations. Making use of detailed information on the mineral occurrence in the regolith, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of compositional variation on mineral-solute mass-balance modelling and to generate plausible quantitative weathering reactions that support both the chemical evolution of the surface water and ground water in the catchment, as well as the mineralogical evolution of the weathering profile. ?? 2008 The Mineralogical Society.

  11. Mass balance-based regression modeling of Cd and Zn accumulation in urban soils of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C; Crittenden, John C

    2017-03-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in urban soil can pose adverse impacts on public health and terrestrial ecosystems. We developed a mass balance-based regression model to simulate the heavy metal accumulation in urban soils as a function of time and to explore connections between metal concentration and urbanization processes. Concentrations of Cd and Zn in 68 residential soil samples in the urban area of Beijing were used. The background concentrations, the loss rates and the input fluxes of Cd and Zn in urban soils of Beijing during the last three decades were estimated using a regression of the time series of accumulations of the metals. Based on the regression estimates, we simulated the general trends of Cd and Zn accumulation in the soils from 1978 to 2078. The concentrations of Cd and Zn in urban soil generally increased with the population growth, vehicle use and coal consumption. The mean concentrations of Cd and Zn in urban soil of Beijing would increase by 3 fold over the next 70years for the current development scenario. The mass balance-based regression approach, which is able to reconstruct the history data of urban soil pollution, provides fundamental information for urban planning and environmental management. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Has Natural Variability Masked the Expected Increase in Antarctic Surface Mass Balance with Global Warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previdi, M. J.; Polvani, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the expected and rather paradoxical consequences of anthropogenic global warming is an increase in Antarctic surface mass balance (or net snow accumulation), as robustly simulated by both global and regional climate models. This surface mass balance (SMB) increase occurs because the higher moisture content of a warmer atmosphere leads to increases in precipitation, with this precipitation falling in the form of snow over Antarctica. Despite these robust model projections, however, observations indicate that there has been no significant change in Antarctic SMB during the past several decades. Here, we show that this apparent discrepancy between models and observations can be explained by the fact that the anthropogenic climate change signal is still relatively small compared to the noise associated with natural climate variability. Using an ensemble of 35 global coupled climate models to separate signal and noise, we find that the forced SMB increase due to global warming in recent decades is unlikely to be detectable in a statistical sense as a result of large natural SMB variability on interannual-to-multidecadal timescales. However, our analysis reveals that if the world continues to follow the present trajectory of greenhouse gas emissions, the anthropogenic impact on Antarctic SMB will emerge from natural variability by the middle of the current century. With this, SMB increases over Antarctica will begin to mitigate global sea-level rise, partially offsetting the effects of dynamic ice loss.

  13. Stable climate and surface mass balance in Svalbard over 1979-2013 despite the Arctic warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, C.; Fettweis, X.; Erpicum, M.

    2015-01-01

    With the help of the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis (MARERA) and the MIROC5 (Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate) global model (MARMIROC5) from the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) database, we have modelled the climate and surface mass balance of Svalbard at a 10 km resolution over 1979-2013. The integrated total surface mass balance (SMB) over Svalbard modelled by MARERA is negative (-1.6 Gt yr-1) with a large interannual variability (7.1 Gt) but, unlike over Greenland, there has been no acceleration of the surface melt over the past 35 years because of the recent change in atmospheric circulation bringing northwesterly flows in summer over Svalbard, contrasting the recent observed Arctic warming. However, in 2013, the atmospheric circulation changed to a south-southwesterly flow over Svalbard causing record melt, SMB (-20.4 Gt yr-1) and summer temperature. MIROC5 is significantly colder than ERA-Interim over 1980-2005 but MARMIROC5 is able to improve the near-surface MIROC5 results by simulating not significant SMB differences with MARERA over 1980-2005. On the other hand, MIROC5 does not represent the recent atmospheric circulation shift in summer and induces in MARMIROC5 a significant trend of decreasing SMB (-0.6 Gt yr-2) over 1980-2005.

  14. Meta-analysis of mass-balance studies of soil ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Stanek Iii, Edward J; Calabrese, Edward J; Xu, Bo

    2012-03-01

    Ingestion of soil by young children may be an important source of exposure to environmental contaminants. Estimates of soil ingestion have been made by several studies using trace elements in a mass-balance approach, but differ substantially between studies and trace elements. We conduct a meta-analysis of four major mass-balance soil ingestion studies conducted on children between one and seven in the summer/fall in the northern United States. The analysis takes advantage of primary data from all studies, and provides a more complete description of soil ingestion among children. The meta-analysis uses data based on the two most reliable trace elements, Al and Si, that have passed a screening to identify and exclude measures with a high likelihood of bias. Details are described in a companion paper. The best linear unbiased predictor is used in a mixed model to estimate soil ingestion for study subjects. Overall, 11% of subject-periods are identified as outliers and excluded from the analysis. An analysis on 216 children based on Al and Si as tracer elements indicates that the mean (median) soil ingestion is 26 mg/day (33 mg/day), with the 95th percentile estimated as 79 mg/day. This systematic approach provides more reliable estimates than individual study results. There is some evidence that soil ingestion increases with a child's age, but insufficient data to distinguish soil ingestion by gender. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Implementation of depth-dependent soil concentrations in multimedia mass balance models.

    PubMed

    Hollander, A; Hessels, L; De Voogt, P; van de Meent, D

    2004-01-01

    In standard multimedia mass balance models, the soil compartment is modeled as a box with uniform concentrations, which often does not correspond with actual field situations. Therefore, the theoretically expected decrease of soil concentrations with depth was implemented in the multimedia model SimpleBox 3.0. The effects of this implementation on the model outcomes were explored for nine compounds in four environmental compartments. For compounds with a low penetration depth, the new model predicts substantially higher or lower concentrations in the vegetation compartment than the old model. For those compounds, predicted concentrations in surface water and air were higher in the new model, but the deviations from the old model were smaller than in the vegetation compartment. For compounds with a large penetration depth, the model adaptations show little effect. No field study was carried out to validate the results of the model calculations, but we did collect measured data on concentrations in vertical soil profiles from literature. According to those data, we concluded that the implementation of depth dependent soil concentrations might be a useful extension for steady state multimedia mass balance models. More field study has to be carried out to validate the model outcomes.

  16. Can we derive ice flow from surface mass balance and surface elevation change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, M. H.; Olefs, M.

    2010-12-01

    Most likely we can not, or not exactly. The difference “delta” of surface mass balance and changes in surface elevation at one point or at one elevation band is the net result of two dimensional convergence of ice flow, advection of ice thickness by basal sliding, vertically integrated changes of firn density including creation and closing of voids in the ice, and basal melting. Here we present a series of delta values for 100 m elevation bands of Hintereisferner of the years 1953, 68, 79, 97, 2006. We believe that surface mass balance b and flow divergence du/dx dominate delta values in the accumulation area where surface elevation stayed constant within 10 m and we present evidence that basal melting has become important under the tongue since 1979. This is in accordance with a simultaneous, exponential decay of ice flow by one order of magnitude for Hintereisferner and other glaciers in the Alps. Based on observed delta values and measured ice thickness we attempt an extrapolation of thickness and area changes into coming years and calculate the associated melt water production for glaciers of various sizes.

  17. Climate dependent contrast in surface mass balance in East Antarctica over the past 216 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrenin, Frédéric; Fujita, Shuji; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawamura, Kenji; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Motoyama, Hideaki; Saito, Fuyuki; Severi, Mirko; Stenni, Barbara; Uemura, Ryu; Wolff, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Documenting past changes in the East Antarctic surface mass balance is important to improve ice core chronologies and to constrain the ice-sheet contribution to global mean sea-level change. Here we reconstruct past changes in the ratio of surface mass balance (SMB ratio) between the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and Dome Fuji (DF) East Antarctica ice core sites, based on a precise volcanic synchronization of the two ice cores and on corrections for the vertical thinning of layers. During the past 216 000 a, this SMB ratio, denoted SMB EDC /SMB DF , varied between 0.7 and 1.1, being small during cold periods and large during warm periods. Our results therefore reveal larger amplitudes of changes in SMB at EDC compared with DF, consistent with previous results showing larger amplitudes of changes in water stable isotopes and estimated surface temperature at EDC compared with DF. Within the last glacial inception (Marine Isotope Stages, MIS-5c and MIS-5d), the SMB ratio deviates by up to 0.2 from what is expected based on differences in water stable isotope records. Moreover, the SMB ratio is constant throughout the late parts of the current and last interglacial periods, despite contrasting isotopic trends.

  18. MASS BALANCE: A KEY TO ADVANCING MONITORED AND ENHANCED ATTENUATION FOR CHLORINATED SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B; Karen Vangelas, K; Karen-M Adams, K; Francis H. Chappelle; Tom O. Early; Claire H. Sink

    2006-06-30

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and enhanced attenuation (EA) are two environmental management strategies that rely on a variety of attenuation processes to degrade or immobilize contaminants and are implemented at appropriate sites by demonstrating that contaminant plumes have low risk and are stable or shrinking. The concept of a mass balance between the loading and attenuation of contaminants in a groundwater system is a powerful framework for conceptualizing and documenting the relative stability of a contaminant plume. As a result, this concept has significant potential to support appropriate implementation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and enhanced attenuation (EA). For mass balance to be useful in engineering practice, however, it is necessary to quantify it in practical ways that facilitate overall site remediation and which are consistent with existing regulatory guidance. Two divergent philosophies exist for quantifying plume stability--empirical and deterministic. The first relies on historical contaminant concentration data and bulk geochemical information from a monitoring well network and documents plume stability using trend analysis and statistical tools. This empirical approach, when feasible, provides powerful and compelling documentation of plume behavior and mass balance. It provides an interpretation on a relevant scale under field conditions. It integrates the operative attenuation processes measured by observing their actual impact on the plume. The power of the empirical approach was recognized early in the development of MNA guidance and protocols and it is currently the basis of the three lines of evidence used in MNA studies. The empirical approach has some weaknesses, however. It requires a relatively long period of undisturbed historical data. Thus it cannot be effectively applied to sites where active remediation was initiated quickly and is currently operating. It cannot be used as a tool to determine how much source

  19. Establishing the Balance: Re-Examining Students' Androcentric Readings of Katherine Anne Porter's "Rope."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nudd, Donna Marie

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes undergraduates' interpretations of a short story that presents a relatively balanced argument between a man and a woman. Finds both male and female students arrived at androcentric readings by solving text ambiguities in favor of the male character. Presents methods that encourage students to recognize and reevaluate their reading…

  20. Mass balance approaches for estimating the intestinal absorption and metabolism of peptides and analogues: theoretical development and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinko, P. J.; Leesman, G. D.; Amidon, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical analysis for estimating the extent of intestinal peptide and peptide analogue absorption was developed on the basis of a mass balance approach that incorporates convection, permeability, and reaction. The macroscopic mass balance analysis (MMBA) was extended to include chemical and enzymatic degradation. A microscopic mass balance analysis, a numerical approach, was also developed and the results compared to the MMBA. The mass balance equations for the fraction of a drug absorbed and reacted in the tube were derived from the general steady state mass balance in a tube: [formula: see text] where M is mass, z is the length of the tube, R is the tube radius, Pw is the intestinal wall permeability, kr is the reaction rate constant, C is the concentration of drug in the volume element over which the mass balance is taken, VL is the volume of the tube, and vz is the axial velocity of drug. The theory was first applied to the oral absorption of two tripeptide analogues, cefaclor (CCL) and cefatrizine (CZN), which degrade and dimerize in the intestine. Simulations using the mass balance equations, the experimental absorption parameters, and the literature stability rate constants yielded a mean estimated extent of CCL (250-mg dose) and CZN (1000-mg dose) absorption of 89 and 51%, respectively, which was similar to the mean extent of absorption reported in humans (90 and 50%). It was proposed previously that 15% of the CCL dose spontaneously degraded systematically; however, our simulations suggest that significant CCL degradation occurs (8 to 17%) presystemically in the intestinal lumen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Dual-sensor mapping of mass balance on Russia's northernmost ice caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolskiy, D.; Malinnikov, V.; Sharov, A.; Ukolova, M.

    2012-04-01

    Mass balance of Russia's northernmost ice caps is poorly known and scarcely mapped. Thorough information about glacier fluctuations in the outer periphery of Russian shelf seas is both lacking and highly desired since it may constitute the relevant benchmark for judging and projecting climate change impacts in the entire Arctic. The present study is focussed on geodetic measurements and medium-scale mapping of the mass balance on a dozen insular ice caps, some large and some smaller, homogeneously situated along the Eurasian boundary of Central Arctic Basin. The study region extends for approx. 2.200 km from Victoria and Arthur islands in the west across Rudolph, Eva-Liv, Ushakova, Schmidt and Komsomolets islands in the north to Bennett and Henrietta islands in the east thereby comprising the most distant and least studied ice caps in the Russian Arctic. The situation of insular ice masses close to the edge of summer minimum sea ice proved helpful in analysing spatial asymmetry of glacier accumulation signal. The overall mapping of glacier elevation changes and quantification of mass balance characteristics in the study region was performed by comparing reference elevation models of study glaciers derived from Russian topographic maps 1:200,000 (CI = 20 or 40 m) representing the glacier state as in the 1950s-1960s with modern elevation data obtained from satellite radar interferometry and lidar altimetry. In total, 14 ERS and 4 TanDEM-X high-quality SAR interferograms of 1995/96 and 2011 were acquired, processed in the standard 2-pass DINSAR manner, geocoded, calibrated, mosaicked and interpreted using reference elevation models and co-located ICESat altimetry data of 2003-2010. The DINSAR analysis revealed the existence of fast-flowing outlet glaciers at Arthur, Rudolph, Eva-Liv and Bennett islands. The calculation of separate mass-balance components is complicated in this case because of generally unknown glacier velocities and ice discharge values for the mid-20

  2. Fresh, stockpiled, and composted beef cattle feedlot manure: nutrient levels and mass balance estimates in Alberta and Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Larney, Francis J; Buckley, Katherine E; Hao, Xiying; McCaughey, W Paul

    2006-01-01

    The fate of manure nutrients in beef cattle (Bos taurus) feedlots is influenced by handling treatment, yet few data are available in western Canada comparing traditional practices (fresh handling, stockpiling) with newer ones (composting). This study examined the influence of handling treatment (fresh, stockpiled, or composted) on nutrient levels and mass balance estimates of feedlot manure at Lethbridge, Alberta, and Brandon, Manitoba. Total carbon (TC) concentration of compost (161 kg Mg(-1)) was lower (P < 0.001) than stockpiled (248 kg Mg(-1)), which was in turn lower (P < 0.001) than fresh manure (314 kg Mg(-1)). Total nitrogen (TN) concentration was not affected by handling treatment while total phosphorus (TP) concentration increased with composting at Lethbridge. The percent inorganic nitrogen (PIN) was lower (P < 0.01) for compost (5.1%) than both fresh (24.7%) and stockpiled (28.9%) manure. Composting led to higher (P < 0.05) dry matter (DM) losses (39.8%) compared to stockpiling (22.5%) and higher (P < 0.05) total mass (water + DM) losses (65.6 vs. 35.2%). Carbon (C) losses were higher (P < 0.01) with composting (66.9% of initial) than with stockpiling (37.5%), as were nitrogen (N) losses (46.3 vs. 22.5%, P < 0.05). Composting allowed transport of two times as much P as fresh manure and 1.4 times as much P as stockpiled manure (P < 0.001) on an "as is" basis. Our study looked at one aspect of manure management (i.e., handling treatment effects on nutrient concentrations and mass balance estimates) and, as such, should be viewed as one component in the larger context of a life cycle assessment.

  3. The role of mass balance equations in growth mechanics illustrated in surface and volume dissolutions.

    PubMed

    Ateshian, Gerard A

    2011-01-01

    Growth mechanics problems require the solution of mass balance equations that include supply terms and account for mass exchanges among constituents of a mixture. Though growth may often be accompanied by a variety of concomitant phenomena that increase modeling complexity, such as solid matrix deformation, evolving traction-free configurations, cell division, and active cell contraction, it is important to distinguish these accompanying phenomena from the fundamental growth process that consists of deposition or removal of mass from the solid matrix. Therefore, the objective of this study is to present a canonical problem of growth, namely, dissolution of a rigid solid matrix in a solvent. This problem illustrates a case of negative growth (loss of mass) of the solid in a mixture framework that includes three species, a solid, a solvent, and a solute, where the solute is the product of the solid dissolution. By analyzing both volumetric and surface dissolutions, the two fundamental modes of growth are investigated within the unified framework of mixture theory.

  4. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to water surfaces: A mass balance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVeety, Bruce D.; Hites, Ronald A.

    A mass balance model was developed to explain the movement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) into and out of Siskiwit Lake, which is located on a wilderness island in northern Lake Superior. Because of its location, the PAH found in this lake must have originated exclusively from atmospheric sources. Using gas Chromatographie mass spectrometry, 11 PAH were quantified in rain, snow, air, lake water, sediment core and sediment trap samples. From the dry deposition fluxes, an aerosol deposition velocity of 0.99 ± 0.15 cm s -1 was calculated for indeno[1,2,3- cd]pyrene and benzo[ ghi]perylene, two high molecular weight PAH which are not found in the gas phase. The dry aerosol deposition was found to dominate the wet removal mechanism by an average ratio of 9:1. The dry gas flux was negative, indicating that surface volatilization was taking place; it accounted for 10-80 % of the total output flux depending on the volatility of the PAH. The remaining PAH were lost to sedimentation. From the dry gas flux, an overall mass transfer coefficient for PAH was calculated to be 0.18 ± 0.06 m d -1. In this case, the overall mass transfer is dominated by the liquid phase resistance.

  5. THE IMPACT OF FIRN COMPACTION ON ESTIMATES OF ICE SHEET MASS BALANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Zwally, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    Deriving the mass change dM/dt from the altimetry surface elevation change dH/dt requires information of changes in both present accumulation rate and the surface temperature together with the knowledge of bedrock rebound. The conventional theory that multiplying an effective density ranging from 0.3-0.9 to the altimeter derived surface elevation change dH/dt to obtain the mass change is fundamentally limited. A method of estimating the mass change of the ice sheet using altimetry data combined with firn densification model is presented. By using the unified firn densification model, the altimetry derived surface elevation change dH/dt is due to the following components: the present accumulation rate driven dHA/dt; the surface air temperature and accumulation rate driven compaction rates dCT/dt and dCA/dt; the long-term ice dynamic imbalance dHL/dt, together with the bedrock rebound dB/dt that may be obtained from the numerical models. The firn densification model also allows the calculation of the firn density ρA that is associated with the impact of the changes in accumulation rate. We use the ICESat derived surface elevation change dH/dt (2003-2007) data and the firn densification model forced by the changes in monthly surface air temperature from AVHRR (1982-2007), and the accumulation rate due to the temperature change to estimate the mass balances of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.

  6. Mass balance of Mars' residual south polar cap from CTX images and other data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. C.; Calvin, W.; Cantor, B.; Haberle, R.; James, P. B.; Lee, S. W.

    2016-04-01

    Erosion of pits in the residual south polar cap (RSPC) of Mars concurrent with deposition and fluctuating cap boundaries raises questions about the mass balance and long term stability of the cap. Determining a mass balance by measurement of a net gain or loss of atmospheric CO2 by direct pressure measurements (Haberle, R.M. et al. [2014]. Secular climate change on Mars: An update using one Mars year of MSL pressure data. American Geophysical Union (Fall). Abstract 3947), although perhaps the most direct method, has so far given ambiguous results. Estimating volume changes from imaging data faces challenges, and has previously been attempted only in isolated areas of the cap. In this study we use 6 m/pixel Context Imager (CTX) data from Mars year 31 to map all the morphologic units of the RSPC, expand the measurement record of pit erosion rates, and use high resolution images to place limits on vertical changes in the surface of the residual cap. We find the mass balance in Mars years 9-31 to be -6 to +4 km3/♂y, or roughly -0.039% to +0.026% of the mean atmospheric CO2 mass/♂y. The indeterminate sign results chiefly from uncertainty in the amounts of deposition or erosion on the upper surfaces of deposits (as opposed to scarp retreat). Erosion and net deposition in this period appear to be controlled by summertime planetary scale dust events, the largest occurring in MY 9, another, smaller one in MY 28. The rates of erosion and the deposition observed since MY 9 appear to be consistent with the types of deposits and erosional behavior found in most of the residual cap. However, small areas (<10%) of the cap are distinguished by their greater thickness, polygonal troughs, and embayed contacts with thinner units. These deposits may require extended periods (>100 ♂y) of depositional and/or erosional conditions different from those occurring in the period since MY 9, although these environmental differences could be subtle.

  7. A pilot study examining measures of balance and mobility in children with unilateral lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Feick, Emma; Hamilton, Peggy-Rae; Luis, Marlene; Corbin, Melissa; Salback, Nancy M; Torres-Moreno, Ricardo; Andrysek, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with unilateral lower-limb amputation (LLA) have altered structure and physiology of their lower limbs which impairs their balance, mobility, physical function and participation in physical activities. As part of (re)habilitation, focus is given to improving gait and balance in order to enhance overall mobility, function, self-efficacy, and independence. However, the relationships amongst body impairments and physical activity limitations remain unclear, particularly in the pediatric population. To provide an examination of the relationships among balance and mobility measures in children with unilateral lower-limb amputation and able-bodied children. Cross-sectional prospective comparative pilot study. Spatiotemporal gait parameters and standing postural control were evaluated in children with lower-limb amputation (n = 10) and age-matched able-bodied children (n = 10) in a laboratory-based setting. Clinical tests for mobility and balance consisted of the 10-m walk test, the 6-min walk test, and the Community Balance and Mobility scale. Energy expenditure was estimated during the 6-min walk test using the Physiological Cost Index. Analysis included comparing variables between able-bodied and lower-limb amputation groups, as well as examining the correlations among them. Walking speed, distance, and functional balance (p < 0.05) were significantly diminished in children with lower-limb amputation compared to able-bodied children. For children with lower-limb amputation, reduced energy expenditure was associated with narrower step width and more symmetrical gait; better postural control and balance were associated with faster walking speeds (p < 0.05). A greater clinical understanding of gait and balance deficits in this population may help to improve rehabilitation outcomes and overall functional mobility. Improved understanding of deficits in children with lower-limb amputation (LLA) may lead to more targeted interventions and

  8. Sensitivity of annual mass balance gradient and Hypsometry to the changing climate: the case of Dokriani Glacier, central Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratap, B.

    2015-12-01

    The glacier mass balance is undelayed, unfiltered and direct method to assess the impact of climate change on the glaciers. Many studies suggest that some of the Himalayan glaciers have lost their mass at an increased rate during the past few decades. Furthermore, the mass balance gradient and hypsometric analysis are important to understand the glacier response towards climatic perturbations. Our long term in-situ monitoring on the Dokriani Glacier provides great insights to understand the variability in central Himalayan glaciers. We report the relationship between glacier hypsometry and annual mass balance gradient (12 years) to understand the glacier's response towards climate change. Dokriani Glacier in the Bhagirathi basin is a small (7 km2) NNW exposed glacier in the western part of central Himalaya, India. The study analysed the annual balance, mass balance gradient and length changes observed during first decade of 21st century (2007-2013) and compare with the previous observations of 1990s (1992-2000). A large spatial variability in the mass balance gradients of two different periods has been observed. The equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) was fluctuated between 5000 and 5100 m a.s.l. and the derived time averaged ELA (ELAn) and balance budget ELA (ELA0) were 5075 and 4965 m a.s.l respectively during 1992-2013. The observed time-averaged accumulation-area ratio (AARn) and balance budget AAR (AAR0) were 0.67 and 0.72 respectively during 1992-2013. The higher value of AAR comprises due to flat and broader accumulation area (4.50 km2) of the glacier. Although, having larger accumulation area, the glacier has faced strong mass wasting with average annual ablation of -1.82 m w.e. a-1 in the ablation zone as compare to residual average annual accumulation of 0.41 m w.e. a-1. Based on the annual mass balance series (12 years) Dokriani Glacier has continuous negative annual balances with monotonically negative cumulative mass loss of -3.86 m w.e with the average

  9. Speciation distribution and mass balance of copper and zinc in urban rain, sediments, and road runoff.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiaojun; Fu, Dafang; Li, He

    2012-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution in road runoff had caused widespread concern since the last century. However, there are little references on metal speciation in multiple environmental media (e.g., rain, road sediments, and road runoff). Our research targeted the investigation of metal speciation in rain, road sediments, and runoff; the analysis of speciation variation and mass balance of metals among rain, road sediments, and runoff; the selection of main factors by principal component analysis (PCA); and the establishment of equation to evaluate the impact of rain and road sediments to metals in road runoff. Sequential extraction procedure contains five steps for the chemical fractionation of metals. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Shimadzu, AA-6800) was used to determine metal speciation concentration, as well as the total and dissolved fractions. The dissolved fractions for both Cu and Zn were dominant in rain. The speciation distribution of Zn was different from that of Cu in road sediments, while speciation distribution of Zn is similar to that of Cu in runoff. The bound to carbonates for both Cu and Zn in road sediments were prone to be dissolved by rain. The levels of Cu and Zn in runoff were not obviously influenced by rain, but significantly influenced by road sediments. The masses for both Cu and Zn among rain, road sediments, and road runoff approximately meet the mass balance equation for all rainfall patterns. Five principal factors were selected for metal regression equation based on PCA, including rainfall, average rainfall intensity, antecedent dry periods, total suspended particles, and temperature. The established regression equations could be used to predict the effect of road runoff on receiving environments.

  10. Changes in Ice Flow Dynamics of Totten Glacier, East Antarctica and Impacts on Ice Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; An, L.

    2014-12-01

    Totten Glacier, East Antarctica is one of the largest glaciers in Antarctica, draining an area of 5.3*105 km2 and containing ice at an equivalent 9 m sea level rise. Lidar/radar altimetry data from 2003-2009 suggests that the glacier is thinning. Thinning is concentrated in areas of fast flow and therefore indicative of changes in ice dynamics. Here, we employ time series of ice velocity from ERS-1/2, RADARSAT-1, LANDSAT-7, ALOS PALSAR, TanDEM/TerraSAR-X and COSMO-Skymed to measure the glacier velocity from 1996 till present. We find significant temporal changes in ice velocity, especially in 1996-2007, followed by a period of slow decrease in 2010-2013. Comparing the results with RACMO2 surface mass balance in the interior suggests that the glacier mass balance was already negative in 1996 and became more negative into the 2000s. The resulting mass loss and stretching of the ice is compatible with the 1.5 m/yr thinning detected by the radar altimeters near the grounding zone. The grounding zone of the glacier includes a vast 15 km long ice plain where the glacier is only grounded a few 10m above hydrostatic equilibrium. We detect a retreat of the region of partial floatation with time, but not solid migration of the grounding line of the glacier. Inverted bathymetry results from gravity data collected offshore suggest the presence of a paleo subglacial channel conducive to the transfer of surface ocean heat, likely diluted circumpolar deep water, whose transfer to the ice shelf cavity may have affected the glacier stability. We suggest that further transfer of ocean heat to the ice shelf could trigger a rapid glacier retreat in this region.

  11. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent evolution and mass balance of Cordón Martial glaciers, Cordillera Fueguina Oriental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelin, Jorge; Iturraspe, Rodolfo

    2007-10-01

    Past and present glacier changes have been studied at Cordón Martial, Cordillera Fueguina Oriental, Tierra del Fuego, providing novel data for the Holocene deglaciation history of southern South America and extrapolating as well its future behavior based on predicted climatic changes. Regional geomorphologic and stratigraphic correlations indicate that the last glacier advance deposited the ice-proximal ("internal") moraines of Cordón Martial, around 330 14C yr BP, during the Late Little Ice Age (LLIA). Since then glaciers have receded slowly, until 60 years ago, when major glacier retreat started. There is a good correspondence for the past 100 years between the surface area variation of four small cirque glaciers at Cordón Martial and the annual temperature and precipitation data of Ushuaia. Between 1984 and 1998, Martial Este Glacier lost 0.64 ± 0.02 × 10 6 m 3 of ice mass (0.59 ± 0.02 × 10 6 m 3 w.e.), corresponding to an average ice thinning of 7.0 ± 0.2 m (6.4 ± 0.2 m w.e), according to repeated topographic mapping. More detailed climatic data have been obtained since 1998 at the Martial Este Glacier, including air temperature, humidity and solar radiation. These records, together with the monthly mass balance measured since March 2000, document the annual response of the Martial Este Glacier to the climate variation. Mass balances during hydrological years were positive in 2000, negative in 2001 and near equilibrium in 2002. Finally, using these data and the regional temperature trend projections, modeled for different future scenarios by the Atmosphere-Ocean Model (GISS-NASA/GSFC), potential climatic-change effects on this mountain glacier were extrapolated. The analysis shows that only the Martial Este Glacier may survive this century.

  13. Glacier mass balance and its potential impacts in the Altai Mountains over the period 1990-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Ohata, Tetsuo; Kitabata, Hideyuki; Kadota, Tsutomu; Hirabayashi, Yukiko

    2017-10-01

    The Altai Mountains contain 1281 glaciers covering an area of 1191 km2. These glaciers have undergone significant changes in glacial length and area over the past decade. However, mass changes of these glaciers and their impacts remain poorly understood. Here we present surface mass balances of all glaciers in the region for the period 1990-2011, using a glacier mass-balance model forced by the outputs of a regional climate model. Our results indicate that the mean specific mass balance for the whole region is about -0.69 m w.e. yr-1 over the entire period, and about 81.3% of these glaciers experience negative net mass balance. We detect an accelerated wastage of these glaciers in recent years, and marked differences in mass change and its sensitivity to climate change for different regions and size classes. In particular, higher mass loss and temperature sensitivity are observed for glaciers smaller than 0.5 km2. In addition to temperature rise, a decrease in precipitation in the western part of the region and an increase in precipitation in the eastern part likely contribute to significant sub-region differences in mass loss. With significant glacier wastage, the contribution of all glaciers to regional water resources and sea-level change becomes larger than before, but may not be a potential threat to human populations through impacts on water availability.

  14. Glacial changes and glacier mass balance at Gran Campo Nevado, Chile during recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Schnirch, M.; Kilian, R.; Acuña, C.; Casassa, G.

    2003-04-01

    /2001 and 8.5 m in 2001/2002. This is in excellent accordance (+/-4%) with measurements at 12 m-long ablation stakes that have been drilled into the glacier. The DEM and a GIS layer defining glacier boundaries provide the basis for the distributed calculation of glacier mass balance. It was computed from the degree-day-model by applying elevation-corrected temperature and precipitation data to each grid point of the DEM. Furthermore, weather station data from Punta Arenas and Faro Evangelistas since 1905 enables to estimate the mass balance of Glaciar Lengua for almost one century. The derived mass balance record indicates a slightly negative mass balance during most of the 20th century. This in excellent agreement with the result obtained from aerial photography and GIS. The work was conducted as part of the international and interdisciplinary working group “Gran Campo Nevado” and was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG).

  15. Sensitivity of Glacier Mass Balance to Climate Change at High Latitudes: Implications for Long-Term Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    In addition to the Greenland ice sheet there are other large glacier masses at high latitudes, e.g. in the arctic territories of Canada and Russia and on Svalbard. Any large scale melting of these glaciers will have profound impact on the global environment, especially global sea level and oceanic circulation. We should therefore monitor these glaciers for any signs of large volume changes under a warmer climate. However, both observations on glacier mass balance and modeling show that the mass balances of arctic glaciers have relatively low sensitivity to climatic change. Much greater sensitivity is found for glaciers around the arctic, e.g. Kamchatka, coastal North America and Iceland, and in Patagonia in the Southern Hemisphere. This is because mass balance sensitivity depends on precipitation regime, e.g. mass balance amplitude, and arctic glacier are relatively dry in global terms. Long-term monitoring programs need to take account of these differences in climatic sensitivity. The paper concludes with a proposed climatic classification of glaciers that attempts to put the mass balances of high latitude glaciers into context.

  16. Adjustment of regional climate model output for modeling the climatic mass balance of all glaciers on Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Möller, Marco; Obleitner, Friedrich; Reijmer, Carleen H; Pohjola, Veijo A; Głowacki, Piotr; Kohler, Jack

    2016-05-27

    Large-scale modeling of glacier mass balance relies often on the output from regional climate models (RCMs). However, the limited accuracy and spatial resolution of RCM output pose limitations on mass balance simulations at subregional or local scales. Moreover, RCM output is still rarely available over larger regions or for longer time periods. This study evaluates the extent to which it is possible to derive reliable region-wide glacier