Science.gov

Sample records for mass media health

  1. Misrepresentation of health risks by mass media.

    PubMed

    Bomlitz, Larisa J; Brezis, Mayer

    2008-06-01

    Mass media are a leading source of health information for general public. We wished to examine the relationship between the intensity of media coverage for selected health topics and their actual risk to public health. Mass media reports in the United States on emerging and chronic health hazards (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bioterrorism, West Nile Fever, AIDS, smoking and physical inactivity) were counted for the year 2003, using LexisNexis database. The number of media reports for each health risk was correlated with the corresponding death rate as reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The number of media reports inversely correlated with the actual number of deaths for the health risks evaluated. SARS and bioterrorism killed less than a dozen people in 2003, but together generated over 100 000 media reports, far more than those covering smoking and physical inactivity, which killed nearly a million Americans. Emerging health hazards are over-reported in mass media by comparison to common threats to public health. Since premature mortality in industrialized societies is most often due to well-known risks such as smoking and physical inactivity, their under-representation on public agendas may cause suboptimal prioritization of public health resources.

  2. The Role of Mass Media in Health Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Donald J.; Quesada, Gustavo M.

    This paper reviews the research that has been done on mass media effects in health communication: breakthroughs in treatment, rising costs of medical care, innovations in the organization of health care, governmental involvement, the rise in malpractice litigation, and so on. The conceptual framework employed proposes a continuum of audience…

  3. Mass media antismoking campaigns: a powerful tool for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Siegel, M

    1998-07-15

    Cigarette advertising and promotion have been shown to influence smoking in young persons, but the powerful effect of the mass media on behavior can also be used to promote health. Several states have earmarked a portion of their cigarette excise tax revenues to fund mass media antismoking campaigns, which have been effective in reducing cigarette consumption and in helping persons quit smoking. Despite their successes, the campaigns have been hindered by tobacco industry-supported attempts to cut their funding or restrict their scope. The most aggressive campaigns, which attack the tobacco industry and challenge social norms about tobacco use and promotion, are the most controversial but also the most effective. Mass media antismoking campaigns are a promising tool for health promotion, but only if sustained funding can be guaranteed and the development of the advertisements can be protected from intrusion by political forces.

  4. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Loken, Barbara; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-10-09

    Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages.

  5. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A.; Loken, Barbara; Hornik, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages. PMID:20933263

  6. Examination of the mass media process and personal factors affecting the assessment of mass media-disseminated health information.

    PubMed

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çakır, Tülin; Avşar, Zakir; Üzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the mass media and personal characteristics leading to health communication inequality as well as the role of certain factors in health communication's mass media process. Using both sociodemographic variables and Maletzke's model as a basis, we investigated the relationship between selected components of the mass communication process, the receiving of reliable health information as a result of health communication, and the condition of its use. The study involved 1853 people in Turkey and was structured in two parts. The first part dealt with questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the use of the mass media and the public's ability to obtain health information from it, the public's perception of the trustworthiness of health information, and the state of translating this information into health-promoting behaviours. In the second part, questions related to the mass communication process were posed using a five-point Likert scale. This section tried to establish structural equation modelling using the judgements prepared on the basis of the mass media model. Through this study, it has been observed that sociodemographic factors such as education and age affect individuals' use of and access to communication channels; individuals' trust in and selection of health information from the programme content and their changing health behaviours (as a result of the health information) are related to both their perception of the mass communication process and to sociodemographic factors, but are more strongly related to the former.

  7. [The efficiency of mass media utilization in preventive health programs and mental health promotion].

    PubMed

    Devault, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews articles pertaining to mental health prevention and promotion programs that have used mass media as a component of their program. The programs are analyzed according to four roles that media can play in health promotion programs: promotion, education, complementarity, and support. The relationship between the function assigned to the media and the effects of the programs in changing knowledge, attitudes, or behaviour is explored. When mass media are used alone, they seem to be powerful in recruiting people into groups or social services and in enhancing knowledge and changing attitudes. But when it comes to changing behaviour, mass media by themselves have limited impact. This type of change is more likely to occur when media are combined with face-to-face intervention. Finally, some issues involved in improving the use of mass media in mental health are discussed.

  8. Mass media interventions for reducing mental health-related stigma.

    PubMed

    Clement, Sarah; Lassman, Francesca; Barley, Elizabeth; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Williams, Paul; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Slade, Mike; Rüsch, Nicolas; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-07-23

    Mental health-related stigma is widespread and has major adverse effects on the lives of people with mental health problems. Its two major components are discrimination (being treated unfairly) and prejudice (stigmatising attitudes). Anti-stigma initiatives often include mass media interventions, and such interventions can be expensive. It is important to know if mass media interventions are effective. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on reducing stigma (discrimination and prejudice) related to mental ill health compared to inactive controls, and to make comparisons of effectiveness based on the nature of the intervention (e.g. number of mass media components), the content of the intervention (e.g. type of primary message), and the type of media (e.g. print, internet). We searched eleven databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2011); MEDLINE (OvidSP),1966 to 15 August 2011; EMBASE (OvidSP),1947 to 15 August 2011; PsycINFO (OvidSP), 1806 to 15 August 2011; CINAHL (EBSCOhost) 1981 to 16 August 2011; ERIC (CSA), 1966 to 16 August 2011; Social Science Citation Index (ISI), 1956 to 16 August 2011; OpenSIGLE (http://www.opengrey.eu/), 1980 to 18 August 2012; Worldcat Dissertations and Theses (OCLC), 1978 to 18 August 2011; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/mrct_about.asp), 1973 to 18 August 2011; and Ichushi (OCLC), 1903 to 11 November 2011. We checked references from articles and reviews, and citations from included studies. We also searched conference abstracts and websites, and contacted researchers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or interrupted time series studies of mass media interventions compared to inactive controls in members of the general public or any of its constituent groups (excluding studies in which all participants were people with mental health problems), with mental health as a subject of the intervention and

  9. Evaluation of accuracy of health studies reported in mass media.

    PubMed

    Motl, Susannah E; Timpe, Erin M; Eichner, Samantha F

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate communication of clinical research in the written media for completeness and accuracy. Observational assessment. United States. Not applicable. Content of media articles discussing randomized controlled trials was assessed by three reviewers on the basis of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) criteria modified for the mass media. Reports from October 1 through December 31, 2002, published in the top two U.S. daily newspapers (USA Today and Wall Street Journal), weekly news magazines (Time and Newsweek), and daily news Web sources (CNN.com and MSNBC.com) and the corresponding published RCTs were analyzed. Total score and score in 10 specific content areas, leading to classification of coverage as poor, fair, or excellent. A total of 60 media reports discussing results of 25 RCTs appeared in these media during the study period. All reports were categorized as fair, and no content area was rated excellent. Several content areas received poor rankings in all and/or most media, including reporting of adverse effects, outcomes data, and statistical tests used. Media reports written by newswire services were rated more highly than were those prepared by nonnewswire services, but only 1 of 10 criteria had statistically significant differences. Mass media reports of RCTs are often incomplete. This type of reporting may misinform the lay public and may lead to questions about the applicability of the results to individual patients.

  10. Mass media, secular trends, and the future of cardiovascular disease health promotion: an interpretive analysis.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, J R; Viswanath, K; Hertog, J

    1999-12-01

    Mass media roles in promoting cardiovascular health in the context of lessons learned from major U.S. community studies, changing media technology, and emergent models of media-community partnerships are discussed. Three principal issues are explored: (1) implications of the current expansion, convergence, and harmonization of mass media technology;(2) recent trends in media coverage of heart disease and population practices; and (3) implications for the future relationship between the media and public health in cardiovascular health promotion. It is concluded that classic campaign models focusing on individual-level change have evolved to recognize environmental-level influences on behavior. Emergent public health campaign models have moved toward "agenda-building," in which the focus is on a more unified approach to influencing public and community agendas for social, behavioral, and policy change. Recent developments among the commercial mass media may offer new opportunities for public health partnerships to promote cardiovascular health.

  11. Opportunities for improving the nation's health through collaboration with the mass media.

    PubMed Central

    Arkin, E B

    1990-01-01

    Understanding the mass media is a prerequisite to gaining the cooperation of those who control access to media time and space to improve the coverage of health issues about which the public needs, and often wants, to know. To address the complexities of the mass media and how they influence the public's health, a group of Public Health Service agencies, foundations, and research institutions collaborated to review recent changes in the mass media and public health sectors and to recommend steps for increased interaction. These included broadening strategies to include paid advertising, media advocacy, and other tactics beyond public service campaigns; increasing awareness within the public health sector of the media's perspective on health; working collaboratively with media professionals and organizations, including the minority media; and developing guidelines for public-private sector partnerships. These recommendations, and factors affecting the roles of the media and public health communities in informing the public about health, are described in this paper. A complete discussion of these recommendations and related issues can be found in "Mass Media and Health," edited by Caroline McNeil and Elaine Bratic Arkin, a forthcoming publication of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Public Health Service. PMID:2113678

  12. Using mass media within health-promoting practice: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, D

    2000-10-01

    For some time health professionals have recognized the growing importance of utilizing mass media strategies as part of their health-promoting practice. The ever-evolving climate of technology and increasing reliance on mass communications has further reinforced the position of mass media initiatives. The enormous potential for mass media resources to reach certain audiences and influence their health-related behaviours has become particularly well established. Despite these facts, however, it is argued that the nursing profession has been less than pro-active in acknowledging, accommodating and adopting such practices. Consequently, the incorporation of health-related mass media initiatives into nursing's health-promotional role remains an elusive exercise. The maintenance of such a position, it is claimed, is potentially damaging for the profession as a whole. In light of this state of affairs, this paper seeks to review the literature surrounding the nature and processes of mass media strategies, their relevance to health promotion and nursing, how they are currently utilized and how they can be incorporated further into nursing practice. In conclusion, it is argued that nursing should seek to become a more active user of mass communication/media technology--especially in relation to its health-promotional practices.

  13. Does Health Information in Mass Media Help or Hurt Patients? Investigation of Potential Negative Influence of Mass Media Health Information on Patients' Beliefs and Medication Regimen Adherence.

    PubMed

    Im, Heewon; Huh, Jisu

    2017-03-01

    As an important public health issue, patient medication non-adherence has drawn much attention, but research on the impact of mass media as an information source on patient medication adherence has been scant. Given that mass media often provide confusing and contradicting information regarding health/medical issues, this study examined the potential negative influence of exposure to health information in mass media on patients' beliefs about their illnesses and medications, and medication adherence, in comparison with the effects of exposure to another primary medication information source, physicians. Survey data obtained from patients on blood thinner regimens revealed that the frequency of exposure to health information in mass media was negatively related to accuracy of patients' beliefs about their medication benefits and patient medication adherence. On the other hand, frequency of visits with physicians was positively associated with patients' beliefs about their medication benefits but had no significant relation to medication regimen adherence. The implications of the study findings are discussed, and methodological limitations and suggestion for future research are presented.

  14. [How much can we trust health related information provided by mass media in Argentina?].

    PubMed

    Izcovich, Ariel; Criniti, Juan Martín; Popoff, Federico; González Malla, Carlos; Catalano, Hugo N

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the certainty and accuracy of the healthcare information provided by the mass media in Argentina, a group of senior medical students, blind to the study objectives, identified healthcare related statements transmitted through mass media. These findings were challenged against the recommendations of a group of physicians trained in evidence-based decision making (EBDM). We compared the strength and direction of the mass media recommendations with those of experts on EBDM. Eighty one recommendations/questions were identified and answered by the experts on EBDM, 15 with high, 18 with moderate, 30 with low and 18 with very low quality of evidence. Only 53% (CI95% 42-64%) of the mass media recommendations agreed with the expert recommendation in direction (for or against) and 28% (CI95% 18-39%) were classified as inappropriate (significant discrepancies both in direction and strength). Subgroup analysis revealed that 71% (CI95% 56-86%) of there commendations made by professionals in mass media agreed with experts in direction and 17% (IC95% 6-33%) were classified as inappropriate, OR = 0.35 (CI95% 0.1-1.1) compared to recommendations in mass media by non-professionals. We conclude that the healthcare information provided by mass media in Argentina is unreliable; this fact can probably have a negative impact in the health system performance and physician-patient relationship.

  15. Finding health and AIDS information in the mass media: an exploratory study among Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Walsh-Childers, K; Treise, D; Swain, K A; Dai, S

    1997-12-01

    Western health officials believe the incidence of HIV infection in the People's Republic of China is much higher than has been reported, but knowledge about the disease remains low. This paper describes a preliminary study of Chinese college students' AIDS knowledge and beliefs and of the acceptability of mass media for AIDS education. Focus group interviews of 73 Xiamen University students showed that the students used radio more consistently than any other media and viewed magazines as the best media source of health information. However, they expressed a general distrust of the health information media offer. They possessed quite a bit of accurate information about AIDS but also harbored many inaccurate beliefs. Most felt that their personal risk from AIDS was very low because they felt distanced--either geographically or morally--from those at risk. Disturbing numbers felt that fate, not individual behavior, determines whether or not a person contracts HIV. The paper discusses the study's implications for future research.

  16. Mass Media Campaigns in a Hostile Environment: Advertising as Anti-Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallack, Lawrence M.

    1983-01-01

    Charges that mass media campaigns have not been effective in dealing with such public health problems as drinking, smoking, and drugs. Reasons for this lack of effectiveness are discussed in terms of a hostile environment of antihealth advertising. Three conditions for success (monopolization, canalization, and supplementation) are discussed. (JAC)

  17. Analysis of the mass media coverage of the Gates Foundation grand challenges in global health initiative.

    PubMed

    Verma, G

    2009-03-01

    The Grand Challenges were launched in 2003 by the Gates Foundation and other collaborators to address the health needs of developing countries. This paper outlines the current problem with health research and development in the context of inequality as conveyed by the 90/10 divide. The paper then looks at the focus and nature of press reporting of global health issues by analysing how press articles have portrayed the Grand Challenges in Global Health initiative. Analysis of the mass media illustrates that the focus of reporting on the Grand Challenges tends to be on utilitarian themes, leaving issues related to justice and equity comparatively under-reported.

  18. Mass Media: A Casebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Richard F., Ed.

    Recognizing that mass media--now at a stage of viewing critically its effects and responsibilities--and society at large are interdependent, this casebook reviews the many facets of the media and mass communication as they relate to both producers and consumers of messages. The 23 chapters include discussions of the media's responsibility toward…

  19. Mass media health communication campaigns combined with health-related product distribution: a community guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Maren N; Tansil, Kristin A; Elder, Randy W; Soler, Robin E; Labre, Magdala P; Mercer, Shawna L; Eroglu, Dogan; Baur, Cynthia; Lyon-Daniel, Katherine; Fridinger, Fred; Sokler, Lynn A; Green, Lawrence W; Miller, Therese; Dearing, James W; Evans, William D; Snyder, Leslie B; Kasisomayajula Viswanath, K; Beistle, Diane M; Chervin, Doryn D; Bernhardt, Jay M; Rimer, Barbara K

    2014-09-01

    Health communication campaigns including mass media and health-related product distribution have been used to reduce mortality and morbidity through behavior change. The intervention is defined as having two core components reflecting two social marketing principles: (1) promoting behavior change through multiple communication channels, one being mass media, and (2) distributing a free or reduced-price product that facilitates adoption and maintenance of healthy behavior change, sustains cessation of harmful behaviors, or protects against behavior-related disease or injury. Using methods previously developed for the Community Guide, a systematic review (search period, January 1980-December 2009) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of health communication campaigns that use multiple channels, including mass media, and distribute health-related products. The primary outcome of interest was use of distributed health-related products. Twenty-two studies that met Community Guide quality criteria were analyzed in 2010. Most studies showed favorable behavior change effects on health-related product use (a median increase of 8.4 percentage points). By product category, median increases in desired behaviors ranged from 4.0 percentage points for condom promotion and distribution campaigns to 10.0 percentage points for smoking-cessation campaigns. Health communication campaigns that combine mass media and other communication channels with distribution of free or reduced-price health-related products are effective in improving healthy behaviors. This intervention is expected to be applicable across U.S. demographic groups, with appropriate population targeting. The ability to draw more specific conclusions about other important social marketing practices is constrained by limited reporting of intervention components and characteristics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Implementation of mass media community health education: the Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    Dignan, M; Bahnson, J; Sharp, P; Beal, P; Smith, M; Michielutte, R

    1991-09-01

    The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project (FCP) is a community-based health education project funded by the National Cancer Institute. The target population includes around 25 000 black women age 18 and older who reside in Forsyth County, North Carolina. The overall goal of the program is to prevent mortality from cervical cancer by promoting Pap smears and return for follow-up care when needed. Based on the principles of social marketing, a plan to reach the target population with mass media educational messages through electronic and print channels was developed. Guided by marketing objectives, the target population was divided into relatively discrete segments. The segments included church attenders, patients in waiting rooms of public and selected health providers, female students at local colleges, shoppers, viewers of radio and television, newspaper readers, and business owners and managers. Introduction of the program was based on strategies developed for reaching the target population in each segment with television, radio and print mass media messages. Qualitative assessment of the mass media developed by the program indicated that all forms of communication helped to increase awareness of the program.

  1. Media, Minds, and Masses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggot, James; Vino, Faith

    This booklet describes the language arts course "Media, Minds, and Masses," written for the Dade County, Fla., public schools. Topics for the course include the workings of contemporary radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and movies; the present status and power of media; the history and development of media; and the influences of…

  2. People's trust in health news disseminated by mass media in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Nedjat, Sima; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Farshadi, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    People are increasingly interested in health news. As a mass media, the 'Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting' (IRIB) has the highest number of target audiences. In Iran, some people follow health news via health programs on satellites and other means of communication. However, all of these programs do not live up to the standards of scientific evidence. In this study, we examined Tehran people's trust in health news disseminated by the IRIB and other mass media outlets. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran. Through multistage sampling, 510 households proportional to size were randomly selected from five regions of Tehran including northern, eastern, western, southern and central regions. One person from each household completed the questionnaire through interviews. The questionnaire included questions on people's level of trust in health news delivered by the IRIB, satellite programs, the internet and magazines. It also included demographic questions. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated. Among the interviewees, 50.6% was female. The highest level of trust by the participants was observed in the IRIB (65.2%), and the lowest trust was observed in satellite news (43.4%); p< 0.001. The interviewees believed that the IRIB news broadcasters had more mastery over the subject than the ones in satellite channels (p< 0.001). The IRIB's coverage of important and relevant health topics was also significantly perceived to be better than that of satellite news (p< 0.001). According to 83.5% of interviewees, the quality of health news had improved in the past 10 years. Fifty nine point eight percent of participants believed the quality and accuracy of the IRIB health news was monitored. People's higher level of trust in domestic news as compared to foreign sources and the better status of domestic sources in other areas such as precision in reporting, coverage of more important news, its delivery in lay language, the news broadcasters

  3. Exposure to mass media health information, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection behaviors in a United States probability sample

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer; Coups, Elliot J.; Ford, Jennifer; DiBonaventura, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Background The mass media is increasingly important in shaping a range of health beliefs and behaviors. Objective We examined the association between mass media health information exposure (general health, cancer, sun-protection information), skin cancer beliefs and sun protection behaviors. Methods We utilized a general population national probability sample comprised of 1,633 individuals with no skin cancer history (Health Information National Trends Survey, 2005, National Cancer Institute) and examined univariate and multivariate associations between family history of skin cancer, mass media exposure, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection (use of sunscreen, shade-seeking, and use of sun-protective clothing). Results Mass media exposure was higher in younger individuals, and among those who were Caucasian and more highly educated. More accurate skin cancer beliefs and more adherent sun protection practices were reported by older individuals, and among those who were Caucasian and more highly educated. Recent Internet searches for health or sun-protection information was associated with sunscreen use. Limitations Study limitations include the self-report nature of sun protection behaviors and cross-sectional study design. Conclusion We identify demographic differences in mass media health exposure, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection behaviors that will contribute to planning skin cancer awareness and prevention messaging across diverse population subgroups. PMID:19596487

  4. A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M

    2006-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have long been a tool for promoting public health. How effective are such campaigns in changing health-related attitudes and behaviors, however, and how has the literature in this area progressed over the past decade? The purpose of the current article is threefold. First, I discuss the importance of health mass media campaigns and raise the question of whether they are capable of effectively impacting public health. Second, I review the literature and discuss what we have learned about the effectiveness of campaigns over the past 10 years. Finally, I conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for the health campaign literature over the next 10 years. The overriding conclusion is the following: The literature is beginning to amass evidence that targeted, well-executed health mass media campaigns can have small-to-moderate effects not only on health knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, but on behaviors as well, which can translate into major public health impact given the wide reach of mass media. Such impact can only be achieved, however, if principles of effective campaign design are carefully followed.

  5. Mass media, 'monsters' and mental health clients: the need for increased lobbying.

    PubMed

    Cutcliffe, J R; Hannigan, B

    2001-08-01

    A review of the limited empirical and theoretical literature indicates that current mass media representations of mental health service users appear to emphasize violence, dangerousness and criminality. This is despite the empirical evidence that indicates a decline over the last 40 years in the number of homicides carried out by people identified as suffering from mental health problems. Such inappropriate representations do much to increase stigma, ostracism, harassment and victimization of these individuals by the public. Furthermore, it can be argued that there is another repercussion of these representations and that is the subsequent government position/policy and the resulting legislation concerning care of people with mental health problems. Consequently, this paper argues that there is a clear need for psychiatric/mental health (P/MH) nurses to become more mindful of the wider, socio-political environment in which their practice occurs, particularly if psycho-social approaches to practice are adopted in their fullest sense, and as a result increase their political lobby. Such increased lobbying should occur on behalf of, and in collaboration with, service users, and accordingly the authors describe a range of activities under the broad headings of pro-active and reactive lobbying. Furthermore, it is incumbent upon P/MH nurse educationalists to prepare aspirant P/MH nurses for this lobbying role and equip them with the skills necessary to do so.

  6. Mass media tours Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    In May 1998, representatives of Japan's mass media toured Bangladesh to learn about the country's reproductive health and population programs. The goal of the visit was for the journalists to spread information about the projects to their peers, to government officials, and parliamentarians responsible for allocations of foreign aid. The 1st stage of the visit involved meetings with program officials and organizers. In the 2nd stage, the journalists toured: 1) Matlab, where the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research has been implementing an intensive family planning (FP) program; 2) the Panchdona IP area, where the Integrated Family Development Project is being conducted with funding from the Japanese government; 3) an FP office and satellite clinic; and 4) a site where voluntary organizations are providing FP/maternal-child health care. The journalists also learned about how micro-credit loans operate. Participating journalists reported that they were very impressed with the people of Bangladesh, and that they had gained a new understanding of the relationship between reproductive health and human rights.

  7. Keep Your Eye on the Moving Target: Planning Mass Media for Public Health Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochheimer, John L.; Courtney, Judith A.

    Social scientists who begin a public health education intervention by surveying the literature would be hard-pressed to find guidance about what to do and what to avoid when planning the media strategy of their campaign. What is needed is a media strategy to develop the greatest control possible over community exposure to the messages of the…

  8. The impact of mass media health communication on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior of u.s. Hispanic population.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Mass media health communication has enormous potential to drastically alter how health-related information is disseminated and obtained by different populations. However, there is little evidence regarding the influence of media channels on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behaviors among the Hispanic population. The Pew 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey was used to test the hypothesis that the amount of mass media health communication (i.e., quantity of media-based health information received) is more likely to influence Hispanic adults' health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior compared to health literacy and language proficiency variables. Results indicated that quantity of media-based health information is positively associated with health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior above and beyond the influence of health literacy and English and Spanish language proficiency. In a context where physician-patient dynamics are increasingly shifting from a passive patient role model to a more active patient role model, media-based health information can serve as an influential cue to action, prompting Hispanic individuals to make certain health-related decisions and to seek more health advice and information from a health provider. Study implications are discussed.

  9. Mass Media and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Alan

    Designed to serve as a basic text for general liberal arts courses in mass communication, this book presents essays, largely from recent magazine articles, written from the layman (although there are a few more overtly scholarly articles). It begins with an examination of the media industries in the United States, treating them as complex…

  10. Mass Media and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Alan

    Designed to serve as a basic text for general liberal arts courses in mass communication, this book presents essays, largely from recent magazine articles, written from the layman (although there are a few more overtly scholarly articles). It begins with an examination of the media industries in the United States, treating them as complex…

  11. Economics of mass media health campaigns with health-related product distribution: a community guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Verughese; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Elder, Randy W; Robinson, Maren N; Tansil, Kristin A; Soler, Robin E; Labre, Magdala P; Mercer, Shawna L

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to determine the costs, benefits, and overall economic value of communication campaigns that included mass media and distribution of specified health-related products at reduced price or free of charge. Economic evaluation studies from a literature search from January 1980 to December 2009 were screened and abstracted following systematic economic review methods developed by The Community Guide. Data were analyzed in 2011. The economic evidence was grouped and assessed by type of product distributed and health risk addressed. A total of 15 evaluation studies were included in the economic review, involving campaigns promoting the use of child car seats or booster seats, pedometers, condoms, recreational safety helmets, and nicotine replacement therapy. Economic merits of the intervention could not be determined for health communication campaigns associated with use of recreational helmets, child car seats, and pedometers, primarily because available economic information and analyses were incomplete. There is some evidence that campaigns with free condom distribution to promote safer sex practices were cost-effective among high-risk populations and the cost per quit achieved in campaigns promoting tobacco cessation with nicotine replacement therapy products may translate to a cost per quality-adjusted life-year less than $50,000. Many interventions were publicly funded trials or programs, and the failure to properly evaluate their economic cost and benefit is a serious gap in the science and practice of public health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Demography and the Mass Media.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    discussion of demography, its history, methodology and limitations, followed by a review of communications theory as it applies to the mass media . The...interrelations among the mass media , the government, and target audiences are demonstrated. (Modified author abstract)

  13. Mass media and sexual health behaviour of college students in Nigeria: a study of Lagos State University.

    PubMed

    Onipede, Wusu

    2009-12-01

    This paper examines the effects of mass media on the sexual health behaviour of single college students in Nigeria. Simple random sampling procedure was adopted. A total of 300 pre-coded questionnaires were administered in study population. Data analysis reveals that the respondents are more frequently exposed to the internet (75%), TV (77%) and radio (75%). More frequent exposure to print, home video and internet media are significantly related to rising level of sexual activities among female respondents. Frequent exposure to radio (over 3 times) and internet (4 times) are more likely to influence condom use positively among male respondents. Among their female counterparts, more frequent internet utilization (almost twice) is more likely to raise the level of condom use. Thus, an international accord on the content of the mass media, especially on their moral implications for the younger generation is imperative.

  14. Mass Media and Health: Opportunities for Improving the Nation's Health. A Report to the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion and Office for Substance Abuse Prevention. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

    Several interested organizations and agencies completed an exploration of the complexities and challenges affecting the communication of health information through the mass media. The goal of this effort was to create a shared agenda for increasing cooperation between mass media and public health professionals in addressing the issues, problems,…

  15. MASS MEDIA AND SOCIAL CHANGE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The relationships between mass media of communication and social change are discussed, and the significance and roles of the mass media in developing and modernized countries are summarized. On the assumption that the contents of the... mass media mirror as well as affect the perspectives and values

  16. Turning negative into positive: public health mass media campaigns and negative advertising.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, D E; Malone, R E

    2009-06-01

    Literature suggests that 'negative advertising' is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation's "truth" campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy's "truth" campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry's own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of 'vilifying' it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the "truth" campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion.

  17. Turning negative into positive: public health mass media campaigns and negative advertising

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, D. E.; Malone, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    Literature suggests that ‘negative advertising’ is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation’s “truth” campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy’s “truth” campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry’s own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of ‘vilifying’ it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the “truth” campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion. PMID:18948569

  18. Health Education and Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1983-01-01

    Health educators should be able to use mass comunications media and should be knowledgeable about the most recent media theories, methods, and technologies. Suggestions for making effective use of television, newspapers, and other media for disseminating health information and for conducting media campaigns are given. (PP)

  19. Mass Media as Community Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the image of the pernicious effects of mass media, media consumers are not passive receptors of media-generated beliefs and ideas. Educators can help adults become media literate by helping them decode, filter, and interpret the messages they read, see, and hear through content and context analysis. (SK)

  20. The Mass Media Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Rod, Ed.; Norton, William, Ed.

    This anthology consists of two major sections, "The News Media" and "The Entertainment Media." Both feature essays by critics, working professionals, and professional observers of the media. One aim of the anthology is to show the pervasive effect of the media on us. The section on news media comments on such topics as credibility gap, Vice…

  1. The Mass Media Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Rod, Ed.; Norton, William, Ed.

    This anthology consists of two major sections, "The News Media" and "The Entertainment Media." Both feature essays by critics, working professionals, and professional observers of the media. One aim of the anthology is to show the pervasive effect of the media on us. The section on news media comments on such topics as credibility gap, Vice…

  2. Children and the Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Shirley

    1970-01-01

    Resume of testimony given at hearings at the White House Conference on Children, September, 1970. Topics considered were the influence of the mass media on children and ways to improve media products. (NH)

  3. Health and media: a partnership.

    PubMed

    Ling, J C

    1985-12-01

    There has been growing awareness among professionals engaged in marketing and advertising that modern advertising methods can be applied in support of social goals, including health. This has been accompanied by a recognition among health professionals that health is a social phenomenon dependent upon an adequately informed public. However, the health and media sectors have grown apart in past decades. The former tends to be technical and scientific, while the latter is geared to the broadest common denominator of the public. Health professionals often view the mass media with suspicion, and promotion is mistakenly associated with advertising. This paper draws attention to the need for these 2 sectors to work more closely together. Without the involvement of the media, the health sector will not be able to inform the general public on health issues or help stimulate a process of community involvement. Without the technical input of the health sector, the media cannot fulfill their obligation of serving the interests of the public. The role of the media to raise consciousness, stimulate public discussion, articulate public aspirations, disseminate information, and reflect social norms has become established. However, for health practices to be adopted, media input must be complemented by face-to-face communication and should be part of a multifacted program of health services and action. Cooperation between the media and the health sector should be broadened in the years ahead a process that could significantly enhance health and social development.

  4. Developing World and Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Organization of Journalists, Prague (Czechoslovakia).

    This volume presents six keynote papers submitted by noted scholars to the Working Group on Mass Media and Developing Nations at the International Scientific Conference of the International Association for Mass Communication Research held at Leipzig, Germany, in September 1974. The following titles are included: "Mass Media and Developing Nations:…

  5. Developing World and Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Organization of Journalists, Prague (Czechoslovakia).

    This volume presents six keynote papers submitted by noted scholars to the Working Group on Mass Media and Developing Nations at the International Scientific Conference of the International Association for Mass Communication Research held at Leipzig, Germany, in September 1974. The following titles are included: "Mass Media and Developing Nations:…

  6. [Eating disorders and mass media].

    PubMed

    Peroutsi, A; Gonidakis, F

    2011-01-01

    During the last 50 years, eating disorders have developed to a complicated and widespread medical and social issue. The latest research results indicate that eating disorders have a quite complicated and multifactorial etiology. According to the multifactorial etiological model, the impact of mass media can be regarded mainly as a precipitating factor. The literature review showed that mass media have a considerable impact on the development and perpetuation of eating disorders. Mass media contribute to the promotion of the thinness ideal as a way to achieve social approval, recognition and success. Mass media also promote dieting and food deprivation, as a successful way of life or as a socially agreeable practice. Furthermore, the literature review showed that mass media remain the main source of information about eating disorders. Considering the above result, mass media could play a major role in the promotion of prevention practices and early diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders.

  7. Media Literacy and Health Promotion for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsma, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    The mass media rank among the most important socialization agents influencing the health behaviors of today's youth, with some researchers estimating that youth spend 33-50% of their waking hours with some form of media (Strasburger and Wilson 2002). The impact of the media on health and the large amount of time adolescents spend with media make…

  8. The Impact of Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Pearl G.

    In order to bring the student's contemporary environment into the classroom for study and to avoid topicality, this book provides general principles by which to evaluate current media offerings, outlines the patterns from which media materials are cut for public consumption, and focuses the student's attention on the mass media themselves. Each of…

  9. The Impact of Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Pearl G.

    In order to bring the student's contemporary environment into the classroom for study and to avoid topicality, this book provides general principles by which to evaluate current media offerings, outlines the patterns from which media materials are cut for public consumption, and focuses the student's attention on the mass media themselves. Each of…

  10. Can mass media interventions reduce child mortality?

    PubMed

    Head, Roy; Murray, Joanna; Sarrassat, Sophie; Snell, Will; Meda, Nicolas; Ouedraogo, Moctar; Deboise, Laurent; Cousens, Simon

    2015-07-04

    Many people recognise that mass media is important in promoting public health but there have been few attempts to measure how important. An ongoing trial in Burkina Faso (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01517230) is an attempt to bring together the very different worlds of mass media and epidemiology: to measure rigorously, using a cluster-randomised design, how many lives mass media can save in a low-income country, and at what cost. Application of the Lives Saved Tool predicts that saturation-based media campaigns could reduce child mortality by 10-20%, at a cost per disability-adjusted life-year that is as low as any existing health intervention. In this Viewpoint we explain the scientific reasoning behind the trial, while stressing the importance of the media methodology used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mass media influences on sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jane D

    2002-02-01

    The mainstream mass media (television, magazines, movies, music, and the Internet) provide increasingly frequent portrayals of sexuality. We still know relatively little about how this content is used and how it affects sexual beliefs and behaviors. The few available studies suggest that the media do have an impact because the media keep sexual behavior on public and personal agendas, media portrayals reinforce a relatively consistent set of sexual and relationship norms, and the media rarely depict sexually responsible models. More longitudinal research, especially with early adolescents is needed to learn more about how media content is attended to, interpreted, and incorporated into developing sexual lives.

  12. Education and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Beatrice Beach; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the strong educational role of mass media in the Soviet Union. Articles cover "Controlling Individual Development and Behavior,""The Educational Potential of the Mass Media,""Some Problems of Ideological Work and the Tasks of Psychology," plus discussion of books, television, the press, films, and the…

  13. Agenda setting for smoking control in Japan, 1945-1990: influence of the mass media on national health policy making.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hajime

    2003-01-01

    Agenda setting is regarded as a key process in policymaking. This study first examines the trends in newspaper articles on smoking and health and the debates on the issue in the Diet in Japan for the period 1945-1990. Then relationships of those articles and debates with national administrative actions are analyzed. Although the media helped set the agenda in the Diet before the emergence of the nonsmokers' rights movement, it did not do so thereafter. On the other hand, media reports continued to be associated with various aspects of administrative policy making throughout the study period and played an important role in mobilizing administrative agencies. Effects of mass media on agencies were regarded as largely independent of the debates in the Diet. It is also noted that simple "scientific" reports on the health hazards of smoking had no association either with agency action or with Diet debates. This indicates that issue building, which consists of creating a package of ideas about the facts, the causal theories, the responsibilities, and the feasible solutions, is important when scientific facts are to be dealt with by policymakers.

  14. Health in Nepalese media.

    PubMed

    Kumal, A B; Ghimire, J; Mishra, A; Joshi, P; Risal, P; Kc, R

    2013-05-01

    Coverage of health in Nepali print media is quite a recent phenomenon despite readers' ample appetite for it. Dominated by politics, Nepal's print media has been marginally publishing news pieces, features, editorials and op-ed articles, photographs and cartoons on health, though marginally. But the media did not wake up to the issues of human resources for health until lately. We content analysed the coverage of health issues including, human resources for health in select Nepali print media Kantipur, Nagarik and Annapurna Post of select three months in 2012 April, August and December. News pieces and their placements, Op-eds, editorials, features, letters to the editor, photos and cartoons were subjected to analysis. Over the study period, the papers covered 544 health news pieces, 44% of political news pieces. Health workforce news pieces contributed 24% to it. However, only 10% of the health news made to the front pages. Coverage of health in editorials, features, Op-eds, photographs, cartoons and letters to the editor is even more meager. For example, only 7% of the editorials are relating to health. Health is prioritized far less by the print media than politics despite the reader's appetite for it. Print media should give health a top priority, particularly in those areas that relate to health systems like human resources for health, for their massive impact on the lives of the people.

  15. Effective Utilization of the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Norma Haston

    The question of whether or not the mass media can successfully be used as a vehicle for creative social and individual change is discussed and brief descriptions are given of successful and unsuccessful campaigns that attempted to improve public attitudes toward certain health problems. Ten recommendations are made for using the mass media…

  16. A national quitline service and its promotion in the mass media: modelling the health gain, health equity and cost-utility.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhung; Cleghorn, Christine L; Leung, William; Nair, Nisha; Deen, Frederieke S van der; Blakely, Tony; Wilson, Nick

    2017-07-24

    Mass media campaigns and quitlines are both important distinct components of tobacco control programmes around the world. But when used as an integrated package, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are not well described. We therefore aimed to estimate the health gain, health equity impacts and cost-utility of the package of a national quitline service and its promotion in the mass media. We adapted an established Markov and multistate life-table macro-simulation model. The population was all New Zealand adults in 2011. Effect sizes and intervention costs were based on past New Zealand quitline data. Health system costs were from a national data set linking individual health events to costs. The 1-year operation of the existing intervention package of mass media promotion and quitline service was found to be net cost saving to the health sector for all age groups, sexes and ethnic groups (saving $NZ84 million; 95%uncertainty interval 60-115 million in the base-case model). It also produced greater per capita health gains for Māori (indigenous) than non-Māori (2.2 vs 0.73 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) per 1000 population, respectively). The net cost saving of the intervention was maintained in all sensitivity and scenario analyses for example at a discount rate of 6% and when the intervention effect size was quartered (given the possibility of residual confounding in our estimates of smoking cessation). Running the intervention for 20 years would generate an estimated 54 000 QALYs and $NZ1.10 billion (US$0.74 billion) in cost savings. The package of a quitline service and its promotion in the mass media appears to be an effective means to generate health gain, address health inequalities and save health system costs. Nevertheless, the role of this intervention needs to be compared with other tobacco control and health sector interventions, some of which may be even more cost saving. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  17. You and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franza, August

    This student workbook provides information about mass media and invites students to consider and respond to that information. Students are encouraged to use reading, writing, researching, critical thinking, interpreting, and debating skills in their responses. The book is organized into 8 chapters: (1) "The World of Media"; (2) "Television: Is…

  18. Mass Media in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Brian

    The teacher is provided with a range of practical suggestions for teaching about mass media. Chapters are devoted to the press, magazines, television, advertising, and film. The author argues that the teacher must start from the place of the various media in the lives of the children and not from a desire to instruct the children as to what they…

  19. You and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franza, August

    This student workbook provides information about mass media and invites students to consider and respond to that information. Students are encouraged to use reading, writing, researching, critical thinking, interpreting, and debating skills in their responses. The book is organized into 8 chapters: (1) "The World of Media"; (2) "Television: Is…

  20. Mass Media and Political Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewellen, James R.

    1976-01-01

    Research reviews and statistical analysis of a specific study suggest that the mass media play a direct role in the political socialization of adolescents insofar as overt political behavior is concerned. (Author/AV)

  1. Looking at Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sive, Mary Robinson

    1979-01-01

    This article offers a bibliography of recent inexpensive filmstrips, slide sets, and study prints that can expand students' awareness of such issues as psychic manipulation in TV commercials, the intrusion of show biz into news reporting, and the role of the advertiser in determining media content. (Editor/SJL)

  2. Mass media campaigns designed to support new pictorial health warnings on cigarette packets: evidence of a complementary relationship.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah J; Cotter, Trish; Harper, Todd; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2011-11-01

    In Australia, introduction of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packets was supported by a televised media campaign highlighting illnesses featured in two of the warning labels--gangrene and mouth cancer. Two studies examined whether the warnings and the television advertisements complemented one another. Population telephone surveys of two cross-sections of adult smokers measured changes in top-of-mind awareness of smoking-related health effects from before (2005; n=587) to after the pack warnings were introduced (2006; n=583). A second study assessed cognitive and emotional responses and intentions to quit after smokers watched one of the campaign advertisements, comparing outcomes of those with and without prior pack warning exposure. Between 2005 and 2006, the proportion of smokers aware that gangrene is caused by smoking increased by 11.2 percentage points (OR=23.47, p=0.000), and awareness of the link between smoking and mouth cancer increased by 6.6 percentage points (OR=2.00, p=0.006). In contrast, awareness of throat cancer decreased by 4.3 percentage points, and this illness was mentioned in the pack warnings but not the advertisements. In multivariate analyses, smokers who had prior exposure to the warnings were significantly more likely to report positive responses to the advertisements and stronger post-exposure quitting intentions. Television advertisements and pictorial health warnings on cigarette packets may operate in a complementary manner to positively influence awareness of the health consequences of smoking and motivation to quit. Jurisdictions implementing pictorial warnings should consider the benefits of supportive mass media campaigns to increase the depth, meaning and personal relevance of the warnings.

  3. Teaching English through Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafani, Vilma

    2009-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing the importance of using Mass Media in the classroom and finding the ways how to use Printed and Audio-visual Media. It is the result of an in-depth study, surveys and questionnaires thus trying to make the ideas in this article more trustworthy. It is based not only on the literature review but also on long personal…

  4. Assessing the impact of mass media public health campaigns. Be Clear on Cancer 'blood in pee': a case in point.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Browne, Daisy; Mensah, Elsie; Vale, Justin; Mayer, Erik

    2016-04-01

    To assess the impact on suspected cancer referral burden and new cancer diagnosis of Public Health England's recent Be Clear on Cancer 'blood in pee' mass media campaign. A retrospective cohort study design was used. For two distinct time periods, August 2012 to May 2013 and August 2013 to May 2014, all referrals of patients deemed to be at risk of urological cancer by the referring primary healthcare physician to Imperial College NHS Healthcare Trust were screened. Data were collected on age and sex and whether the referral was for visible haematuria, non-visible haematuria or other suspected urological cancer. In addition to referral data, hospital episode data for all new renal cell (RCC) and upper and lower tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), as well as testicular and prostate cancer diagnoses for the same time periods were obtained. Over the campaign period and the subsequent 3 months, the number of haematuria referrals increased by 92% (P = 0.013) when compared with the same period a year earlier. This increase in referrals was not associated with a significant corresponding rise in cancer diagnosis; instead changes of 26.8% (P = 0.56) and -3.3% (P = 0.84) were seen in RCC and TCC, respectively. This study has shown that the Be Clear on Cancer 'blood in pee' mass media campaign significantly increased the number of new suspected cancer referrals, but there was no significant change in the diagnosis of target cancers across a large catchment. Mass media campaigns are expensive, require significant planning and appropriate implementation and, while the findings of this study do not challenge their fundamental objective, more work needs to be done to understand why no significant change in target cancers was observed. Further consideration should also be given to the increased referral burden that results from these campaigns, such that pre-emptive strategies, including educational and process mapping, across primary and secondary care can be implemented

  5. Media and mental health in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kigozi, F; Ssebunnya, J; Kizza, D; Ndyanabangi, S

    2010-05-01

    The media is largely regarded as an important stakeholder in health service delivery, with a great influence on public attitudes. However, little is known about its interest in mental health and the guiding factors that influence media coverage of mental health issues. This article describes the importance accorded to mental health by the media and the factors that influence media coverage of mental health issues in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were held with representatives from six prominent media houses as part of the situational analysis of the mental health system in Uganda. Data was analyzed using Nvivo 7 qualitative data analysis software. The media was found to be interested and actively involved in health initiatives, but with little attention devoted to mental health. Coverage and interest in mental health was noted to be mainly dependent on the individual journalists' interests, and mostly for personal reasons. Low interest was largely attributed to mental health being perceived as a non-priority area, and the fact that mental illness is not a major contributor to mortality. Media coverage and reporting is guided by prioritization of the Health Department. The media in Uganda is an important stakeholder in the health care system with a key role of advocacy, publicity and mass education. Media houses however are less interested in mental health as evidenced by low coverage of mental health issues. This calls for advocacy and sensitization as a way of persuading media for more involvement in mental health initiatives.

  6. Coping With the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

    This textbook, one of "The Language of Man" series, has five sections, each including several articles. Introductory articles detail the role of the mass media in our lives; other sections deal with television, movies, newspapers, and the ideas of Marshall McLuhan. The focus of concern is less with aesthetics and more with the social…

  7. Using Mass Media For Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrington, Roger, Ed.

    The nine articles in this collection by members of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges' Task Force on the Uses of Mass Media for Learning are concerned almost entirely with television, since the telecourse is the medium with which the most experience has been gained and which has the most potential for many community…

  8. English and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Andrew

    1969-01-01

    Despite an excess of materials available today on classroom approaches to the mass media, few English teachers have either the training or experience to determine which studies are relevant and worthwhile or how to utilize them in the classroom. A survey of some of this literature, therefore, can help interested teachers make selections…

  9. Using Communication Strategies to Promote Sexual Health: Can Mass Media Get in Bed with the "Female" Condom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Sarah Mariel; Austin, S. Bryn

    2010-01-01

    Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health…

  10. Using Communication Strategies to Promote Sexual Health: Can Mass Media Get in Bed with the "Female" Condom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Sarah Mariel; Austin, S. Bryn

    2010-01-01

    Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health…

  11. Changing the way people think about health-enhancing physical activity: do mass media campaigns have a role?

    PubMed

    Cavill, Nick; Bauman, Adrian

    2004-08-01

    Mass media campaigns are conducted to influence community norms around health behaviours, including physical activity. Campaigns can reach large populations at relatively low cost, to influence awareness, knowledge and beliefs through to intention and behaviour change. We reviewed 15 campaigns with an explicit focus on physical activity, and explored impacts upon a range of proximal and distal variables. Campaigns achieved high recall, with a median of 70% of the target group aware of the campaign. Increases in knowledge or attitudes to physical activity were found among half the campaigns that reported this measure. Few campaigns reported other proximal variables, such as saliency, beliefs, self-efficacy or behavioural intention. Increases in physical activity were reported among motivated sub-groups of volunteers, but few campaigns reported population increases in activity. Campaigns increase awareness of the issue of physical activity but may not have a population-level effect on behaviour. Campaigns should focus more on influencing proximal variables, such as social norms, to bring about long-term behaviour change. This should be seen as part of a broader strategy, including policy and environmental change. Evaluation designs that measure the full range of variables are preferred to an over-concentration on behaviour alone.

  12. Women and Society: The Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Linda J.

    Males and females have become vitally concerned with sex-role images in the mass media because of the ubiquitous nature of the media. Mass media, which have heavily penetrated Americans' lives, have the potential for initiating, reinforcing, or denying certain social values. In studies of various media, including magazine advertising, magazine…

  13. Women and Society: The Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Linda J.

    Males and females have become vitally concerned with sex-role images in the mass media because of the ubiquitous nature of the media. Mass media, which have heavily penetrated Americans' lives, have the potential for initiating, reinforcing, or denying certain social values. In studies of various media, including magazine advertising, magazine…

  14. The impact of mass media interventions on tuberculosis awareness, health-seeking behaviour and health service utilisation: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nglazi, Mweete D; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin; Shey, Muki S; Uthman, Olalekan A; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. Strategies to curb the spread of TB must match the multifaceted nature of the epidemic. The use of mass media is one of the important strategies in communicating behavioural change in relation to TB prevention and the treatment. However, the benefits of this intervention are unclear. We, therefore, plan to conduct a systematic review on the effects of mass media interventions on TB awareness, health-seeking behaviour and health service utilisation. Methods and analysis We will preferably include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this systematic review. However, non-randomised studies will be included if there is an inadequate number of RCTs. We will perform electronic searches in PubMed, Scopus and other databases, along with manual searches. Articles written (or translated) in English and French and published between 1 January 1980 and 31 October 2013 will be eligible for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes will be TB knowledge, attitudes and awareness, healthcare-seeking behaviour and service utilisation. The secondary outcomes will include stigma and discrimination against people with TB and the costs of the interventions. We will investigate clinical and statistical heterogeneity and pool studies judged to be clinically and statistically homogeneous. Relative risks will be calculated for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences for continuous outcomes, both with their corresponding 95% CIs. Ethics and dissemination The systematic review will use data that is not linked to individuals. The review findings may have implications for clinical practice and future research, and will be disseminated electronically and in print through peer-reviewed publications. Protocol registration number PROSPERO CRD42013005867 PMID:24430882

  15. Mass media makes a difference.

    PubMed

    El-bakly, S; Hess, R W

    1994-09-01

    of mass media for family planning promotion provides valuable lessons for others.

  16. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  17. Mass Media: The Invisible Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glessing, Robert J.; White, William P.

    This anthology for students of media consists of essays and articles grouped under four topics: media forms, media content, media environments, and "the last word." Media forms deals with the nature of these kinds of media: electronic, print, film, music, and comics, graffiti, and clothing. Media content contains articles on the news, advertising,…

  18. Mass Media: The Invisible Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glessing, Robert J.; White, William P.

    This anthology for students of media consists of essays and articles grouped under four topics: media forms, media content, media environments, and "the last word." Media forms deals with the nature of these kinds of media: electronic, print, film, music, and comics, graffiti, and clothing. Media content contains articles on the news, advertising,…

  19. Building brands without mass media.

    PubMed

    Joachimsthaler, E; Aaker, D A

    1997-01-01

    Costs, market fragmentation, and new media channels that let customers bypass advertisements seem to be in league against the old ways of marketing. Relying on mass media campaigns to build strong brands may be a thing of the past. Several companies in Europe, making a virtue of necessity, have come up with alternative brand-building approaches and are blazing a trail in the post-mass-media age. In England, Nestlé's Buitoni brand grew through programs that taught the English how to cook Italian food. The Body Shop garnered loyalty with its support of environmental and social causes. Cadbury funded a theme park tied to its history in the chocolate business. Häagen-Dazs opened posh ice-cream parlors and got itself featured by name on the menus of fine restaurants. Hugo Boss and Swatch backed athletic or cultural events that became associated with their brands. The various campaigns shared characteristics that could serve as guidelines for any company hoping to build a successful brand: senior managers were closely involved with brand-building efforts; the companies recognized the importance of clarifying their core brand identity; and they made sure that all their efforts to gain visibility were tied to that core identity. Studying the methods of companies outside one's own industry and country can be instructive for managers. Pilot testing and the use of a single and continuous measure of brand equity also help managers get the most out of novel approaches in their ever more competitive world.

  20. Mass Media Types: Three Q-Analyses of Mass Media Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.

    The purpose of a mass media study was to (l) identify mass media types (patterns of exposure to mass media content) among seventh graders, high school juniors, and adults in a given geographic area; (2) show similarities and differences in the mass media types isolated for these three age groups; (3) pinpoint demographic variables most strongly…

  1. Mass Media Types: Three Q-Analyses of Mass Media Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.

    The purpose of a mass media study was to (l) identify mass media types (patterns of exposure to mass media content) among seventh graders, high school juniors, and adults in a given geographic area; (2) show similarities and differences in the mass media types isolated for these three age groups; (3) pinpoint demographic variables most strongly…

  2. Longer term impact of the mass media campaign to promote the Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service®: increasing the saliency of a new public health program.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Gebel, Klaus; Banovic, Debbie; Buffett, Kym M; Bauman, Adrian E

    2014-11-01

    The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) was introduced in New South Wales in February 2009. It used mass reach media advertising and direct mail and/or proactive marketing to recruit participants. This article reports on the long-term impact of the campaign on GHS participation from July 2011 to June 2012. A stand-alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge, and behavioral variables before the first advertising phase, (n = 1,544, August-September 2010), during the advertising period (n = 1,500, February-March 2011; n = 1,500, June-July 2011; n = 1,500, February 2012), and after the advertising period (n = 1,500, June-July 2012). GHS usage data (n = 6,095) were collated during July 2011-June 2012. Unprompted and prompted awareness of GHS mass media significantly increased (0% to 8.0%, p < .001; and 14.1% to 43.9%, p < .001, respectively) as well as knowledge and perceived effectiveness of the GHS. Those from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic disadvantage and respondents who were overweight or obese were significantly more likely to report prompted campaign awareness. The majority (84.4%) of new GHS calls occurred when television advertising was present. Participants who cited mass media as their referral source were significantly more likely to enroll in the intensive coaching program. Mass media campaigns remain an effective method of promoting a telephone-based statewide lifestyle program. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. The mass media and disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    Past investigations by myself and others on the role of the mass media in disasters indicate that news people typically find themselves in situations of uncertainty, ambiguity, and conflicting information; the communication and transportation services that these people use in covering a story become inoperative. However, the media are expected to make sense of the disaster situation almost immediately. the difficulties of doing so were reflected by the ABC Goodyear Blimp footage of the collapsed Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, California, broadcast nationally on the evening of October 17, 1989. The televised picture showed the disastrous results of the Loma Prieta earthquake, but for an hour or more the announcer could not correctly identify what was being shown. He did not seem to realize that the upper deck of the freeway had collapsed on the lower deck, crushing vechiles and people. 

  4. Student Musings on Life without Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardenne, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Discusses comments from hundreds of students over a dozen years in response to an assignment in which they are asked to avoid all forms of mass media for four of five days and record their reactions in diaries. Discusses media as companion, media easing routine tasks, media as addiction, antidote to silence, alternate activities, and fear of…

  5. Mass Media Orientations among Hispanic Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; Heeter, Carrie

    1983-01-01

    A five-city survey of 464 fifth- and tenth-grade southwestern Mexican American boys and girls focused on media consumption. Findings paralleled other boy-girl and age group mass media experience comparisons. Students used media about nine hours per school day. Spanish-language media were little liked and seldom used. (MH)

  6. Crisis and Emergency Risk Messaging in Mass Media News Stories: Is the Public Getting the Information They Need to Protect Their Health?

    PubMed

    Parmer, John; Baur, Cynthia; Eroglu, Dogan; Lubell, Keri; Prue, Christine; Reynolds, Barbara; Weaver, James

    2016-10-01

    The mass media provide an important channel for delivering crisis and emergency risk information to the public. We conducted a content analysis of 369 newspaper and television broadcast stories covering natural disaster and foodborne outbreak events and coded for seven best practices in crisis and emergency risk messaging. On average, slightly less than two (1.86) of the seven best practices were included in each story. The proportion of stories including individual best practices ranged from 4.6% for "expressing empathy" to 83.7% for "explaining what is known" about the event's impact to human health. Each of the other five best practices appeared in less than 25% of stories. These results suggest much of the risk messaging the public receives via mass media does not follow best practices for effective crisis and emergency communication, potentially compromising public understanding and actions in response to events.

  7. Media and health must forge a partnership.

    PubMed

    Ling, J C

    1986-03-01

    The objective of health for all requires use of all available means--traditional and modern--to reach the population and mobilize communities. The mass media have particular potential for breaking down class barriers and reaching large numbers. However, many media campaigns have been haphazard, without attention to the many determinants of health behavior or other program aspects. Media activity that is not part of a package of programmed activities, including interpersonal follow-up with clearly defined objectives and comprehensive strategy, is ineffective. Media personnel generally recognize their social responsibility in the development process. The media can confer status to a social issue and reinforce social norms. The World Health Organization Expert Committee on Health Education has identified the following roles of the mass media in the field of health: help strengthen political will by appealing to policy makers; raise general health consciousness and clarify options concerning actions that have a strong bearing on health; inform decision makers and the public about the latest developments in the health sciences; help deliver technical health message to the public; and foster community involvement by reflecting public opinion, encouraging dialogue, and facilitating feedback from the community.

  8. Mass media and smoking cessation: a critical review.

    PubMed Central

    Flay, B R

    1987-01-01

    Evaluations of 40 mass media programs/campaigns designed to influence cigarette smoking were reviewed. Information/motivation programs/campaigns generally produced changes in awareness, knowledge, and attitudes. Extensive national campaigns also produced meaningful behavioral change. Programs/campaigns designed to promote some specific smoking-related action produced mixed results, depending in large part on the type of promotion involved. Mass media cessation clinics were found to be effective, with media plus social support being more effective than viewing plus printed material, and either combination being more effective than viewing alone. It was concluded that mass media health promotion programs can be more effective than many academics may have thought, but that the knowledge necessary to ensure such success is seriously lacking. Research studies, rather than simple evaluations, are needed to improve our knowledge base and build a science of mass media health promotion. PMID:3541650

  9. Public health and media advocacy.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Lori; Krasnow, Ingrid Daffner

    2014-01-01

    Media advocacy blends communications, science, politics, and advocacy to advance public health goals. In this article, we explain how media advocacy supports the social justice grounding of public health while addressing public health's "wicked problems" in the context of American politics. We outline media advocacy's theoretical foundations in agenda setting and framing and describe its practical application, from the layers of strategy to storytelling, which can illuminate public health solutions for journalists, policy makers, and the general public. Finally, we describe the challenges in evaluating media advocacy campaigns.

  10. [A methodological approach to assessing the quality of medical health information on its way from science to the mass media].

    PubMed

    Serong, Julia; Anhäuser, Marcus; Wormer, Holger

    2015-01-01

    A current research project deals with the question of how the quality of medical health information changes on its way from the academic journal via press releases to the news media. In an exploratory study a sample of 30 news items has been selected stage-by-stage from an adjusted total sample of 1,695 journalistic news items on medical research in 2013. Using a multidimensional set of criteria the news items as well as the corresponding academic articles, abstracts and press releases are examined by science journalists and medical experts. Together with a content analysis of the expert assessments, it will be verified to what extent established quality standards for medical journalism can be applied to medical health communication and public relations or even to studies and abstracts as well.

  11. Mass media health information: quantitative and qualitative analysis of daily press coverage and its relation with public perceptions.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Annalaura; Alfani, Simona; Sassi, Manuela; Cinini, Alessandra; Calamusa, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the methods followed by the Pisa University OCS for collecting, storing and analyzing all health-related articles and database contents. Moreover, an example population survey on the topic of food safety based on such analysis is shown. Articles published each day since 1999 in Italy's three most popular newspapers are collected and stored in a Data Base Text; on these articles quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted. On the basis of these results as well as of epidemiological data, a questionnaire survey was carried out about sources of information, knowledge and risk perception of citizens regarding food safety. On a total of 24,434 articles on all health topics, 18% regarded food related hazards: their evolution over time showed peaks on BSE, avian flu and dioxin. A large proportion of the people surveyed declared having changed their food habits, at least temporarily, as a consequence of media information. Most get their information on food safety mainly from television. Most respondents remembered having previously heard news on BSE, avian flu and dioxin, but did not recall having heard of listeriosis, brucellosis or typhoid fever. Newspapers articles facing food related hazards tend to be alarming thus affecting the citizens risk perception. On the other hand people often ignore how to manage their own food safety in a practical way. Analysis of media messages can help to evaluate and correct the negative effects that may result in wrong information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mass Media, Education, and a Better Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Jay W.

    In an examination of the conflict between the mass media and public education, the author concludes that a pressing need exists for better understanding and cooperation between the two and calls for action which involves them both. The overcommunication of the media and the under-utilization of the media toward constructive ends are examined.…

  13. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  14. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  15. Media Support for Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostini, Marino

    1982-01-01

    This discussion of the use of audiovisual instruction in the health sciences emphasizes the importance of instructional effectiveness and describes such activities of the media center of the Vaud University Hospital (Switzerland) as instructional development and training of media users, including World Health Organization (WHO) fellows. Eight…

  16. Media Relations for Health Educators: The Inside Story about the News Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, M. D.; Giles, M.; Neiger, B. L.; Thomsen, S.; Thackeray, R.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of using mass media in public health education practice is increasing. However, the challenges most health educators face in using the news media include either not knowing how to access the media or feeling a sense of ambivalence due to the risk of being misquoted or misrepresented. Developing an appreciation for the motivations and…

  17. Mass Media and the Fear of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Linda; Gilbert, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the research on mass media effects on perceptions of crime danger, personal fear of crime, and reactions to crime risk. Discovers that mass media effects involve a number of variables and moderators. These include audience characteristics, degree and type of coverage, and location. (MJP)

  18. Mass Media Criticism as Transformational Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Janice Hocker

    Most messages from the mass media operate on the collective unconscious of a culture. The ethical consequence of such identification through unawareness is the transfer of decision making from consumers to image makers. The mass media critic can serve as a mediator of the ethical problems created by such a mode of identification. As mediating…

  19. The Three Paradigms of Mass Media Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James; And Others

    A study examined the mass media research literature to determine if there was a dominant paradigm in the field. The mass media research published in eight communication journals from 1965 to 1989 was content analyzed to identify paradigm, orientation (focus and theory), data (type, source, and sample), methodology (type and manipulation), and…

  20. Mass Media and Communication. Second, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Charles S., Ed.

    This revised and enlarged second edition contains sections focusing on a number of mass media: newspapers, the American magazine, motion pictures, broadcasting media, and book publishing. Other section topics include the structure and development of mass communication, public opinion, international communication, the motivation of assent, the…

  1. The Mass Media: An Integrated Unit. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Barry

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to a critical study of the mass media is presented in this journal insert, which also provides a format for planning an integrated unit. The main section of the insert focuses on seven questions and their answers concerning: (1) selection of the topic, (2) justifying a mass media curriculum, (3) entry experience, (4)…

  2. Environmental professionals and the mass media

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfeld, C.

    1983-01-01

    Environmental professionals frequently attempt to use the mass media as vehicles for public information and education campaigns; the mass media, on the other hand, frequently engage in ''the use of subject matter and literary treatment calculated to arouse excited interest and emotional response.'' It is not then surprising that environmental professionals and others have given the media mixed reviews in terms of media performance in constructing the environment as a social problem. Yet it is difficult to see how pervasive public pro-environmental reportage by the mass media. The continuing challenge to environmental professional-media relations is one of facilitating a sober consideration of ways that will help enhance environmental quality and energy conservation without jeopardizing other human needs. 61 references.

  3. Social media in public health.

    PubMed

    Kass-Hout, Taha A; Alhinnawi, Hend

    2013-01-01

    While social media interactions are currently not fully understood, as individual health behaviors and outcomes are shared online, social media offers an increasingly clear picture of the dynamics of these processes. Social media is becoming an increasingly common platform among clinicians and public health officials to share information with the public, track or predict diseases. Social media can be used for engaging the public and communicating key public health interventions, while providing an important tool for public health surveillance. Social media has advantages over traditional public health surveillance, as well as limitations, such as poor specificity, that warrant additional study. Social media can provide timely, relevant and transparent information of public health importance; such as tracking or predicting the spread or severity of influenza, west nile virus or meningitis as they propagate in the community, and, in identifying disease outbreaks or clusters of chronic illnesses. Further work is needed on social media as a valid data source for detecting or predicting diseases or conditions. Also, whether or not it is an effective tool for communicating key public health messages and engaging both, the general public and policy-makers.

  4. Observations on the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Roger J.; Payden, William R.

    Thirty-three articles present observations on how the media operate and how the media have affected society to date. The articles deal with a wide variety of topics, including the editorial page; political cartooning; daily-newspaper starts and suspensions from 1960 to 1969; journalistic ethics; well-known journalists, such as John Dunlap, James…

  5. Observations on the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Roger J.; Payden, William R.

    Thirty-three articles present observations on how the media operate and how the media have affected society to date. The articles deal with a wide variety of topics, including the editorial page; political cartooning; daily-newspaper starts and suspensions from 1960 to 1969; journalistic ethics; well-known journalists, such as John Dunlap, James…

  6. Physical activity interventions using mass media, print media, and information technology.

    PubMed

    Marcus, B H; Owen, N; Forsyth, L H; Cavill, N A; Fridinger, F

    1998-11-01

    Media-based physical activity interventions include a variety of print, graphic, audiovisual, and broadcast media programs intended to influence behavior change. New information technology allows print to be delivered in personalized, interactive formats that may enhance efficacy. Media-based interventions have been shaped by conceptual models from health education, Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, and Social Marketing frameworks. We reviewed 28 studies of media-based interventions of which seven were mass media campaigns at the state or national level and the remaining 21 were delivered through health care, the workplace, or in the community. Recall of mass-media messages generally was high, but mass-media campaigns had very little impact on physical activity behavior. Interventions using print and/or telephone were effective in changing behavior in the short term. Studies in which there were more contacts and interventions tailored to the target audience were most effective. A key issue for research on media-based physical activity interventions is reaching socially disadvantaged groups for whom access, particularly to new forms of communication technology, may be limited. There is a clear need for controlled trials comparing different forms and intensities of media-based physical activity interventions. Controlled studies of personalized print, interactive computer-mediated programs, and web-based formats for program delivery also are needed. The integration of media-based methods into public and private sector service delivery has much potential for innovation.

  7. [The perils of risk communication and the role of the mass media].

    PubMed

    Rossmann, C; Brosius, H-B

    2013-01-01

    Based on theories and empirical results from communication science, the present paper provides an overview of the role of mass media in risk communication. It is guided by the following questions: How do risk issues find their way into the media and how does the media depict them? How do mass-mediated risk messages affect people's perception of risks, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior? What potential does the media have in disseminating health risk information in campaigns? Hence, the present paper aims to provide a basis for the appropriate use of mass media in health risk communication so as to make use of the potential of mass media without neglecting its limits.

  8. Mass media in Peru promotes "responsible parenthood".

    PubMed

    Brace, J; Pareja, R

    1985-01-01

    This article describes a media campaign being carried out in Peru under the auspices of the Ministry of Health. The overall theme of the campaign is Responsible Parenthood, specifically in the areas of family planing, oral rehydration, and immunization. The mass media campaign was based on the results of extensive audience research data that identified knowledge and beliefs in these areas. The research identified 2 target audiences for family planning messages: those who want no more children and those who are using traditional contraceptive methods. In addition to quantitative audience surveys, focus group discussions were held. These groups revealed important information about contraceptive habits, male attitudes toward family planning, and the folk vocabulary used for family planning activities. They further suggested that the quality of services given in health centers affects future use of that service and that the most credible source of information about family planning is considered to be a mature female doctor, herself a mother. Pretesting of television spots for the campaign was valuable for identifying unacceptable or ineffective images. It was also learned that radio and telvision spots cannot be the same; rather, they require unique content.

  9. AAAS: The Mass Media Science Fellows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Gail

    1981-01-01

    Describes activities of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Mass Media Fellows Program, which began in 1975 to improve the reporting on current events in science and technology. (CS)

  10. Mass media approaches to reducing cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed Central

    Bellicha, T; McGrath, J

    1990-01-01

    A key function of a basic and clinical biomedical research organization is to communicate the findings of clinical investigations so that people may apply the results to improve their health and well-being. To help communicate results from cardiovascular disease research, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has established a series of national health education programs. The authors describe a model for two of the five programs and discuss the role of communication media in supporting national goals for education programs. The research basis for the programs is reviewed, together with the process by which the Institute develops information materials for mass media, notably public service announcements. A description of two national health education campaigns, hypertension and cholesterol, illustrates how market research is used to identify appropriate target audiences, develop messages, and select channels of communication. Lessons learned about the role of mass media in a national health education campaign are summarized. PMID:2113682

  11. Basic Books in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Eleanor

    References to information on the background, structure, function, contents, and effects of mass communications are provided in this annotated booklist. Material is included on theory, popular culture, the Black press, communications technology, the underground press and film, and mass media violence and the entries are arranged according to the…

  12. Basic Books in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Eleanor

    References to information on the background, structure, function, contents, and effects of mass communications are provided in this annotated booklist. Material is included on theory, popular culture, the Black press, communications technology, the underground press and film, and mass media violence and the entries are arranged according to the…

  13. Effects of the Mass Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Walter

    The mass media are considered to be television, radio, movies, and newspapers. They may generate changes in cognition and comprehension. They do effect emotional arousal, sex and behavior identification, and changes in allocation of time, consumer purchase, and voting behavior. The only data which show a clear relationship between the mass media…

  14. Effects of the Mass Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Walter

    The mass media are considered to be television, radio, movies, and newspapers. They may generate changes in cognition and comprehension. They do effect emotional arousal, sex and behavior identification, and changes in allocation of time, consumer purchase, and voting behavior. The only data which show a clear relationship between the mass media…

  15. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Laura J; Bunn, Janice Y; Flynn, Brian S; Pirie, Phyllis L; Worden, John K; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-08-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory. The authors enrolled 2,030 adolescent smokers into the cohort (n = 987 experimental; n = 1,043 comparison) and assessed them via annual telephone surveys for 3 years. Although the condition by time interaction was not significant, the proportion of adolescents smoking in the past month was significantly lower in the experimental than comparison condition at 3-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline smoking status. The media campaign did not impact targeted mediating variables. A media campaign based on social cognitive constructs produced a modest overall effect on smoking prevalence among adolescents, but the role of theory-based constructs is unclear.

  16. Lay responses to health messages about the genetic risk factors for salt sensitivity: do mass media genetic health messages result in genetic determinism?

    PubMed

    Smerecnik, Chris M R

    2010-08-01

    Media coverage of genetics may lead to overestimation of the impact of genetics on disease development. In this study, we presented one student sample and one general public sample from the Netherlands with a general or a genetic health message (HM) about salt sensitivity. After reading the genetic (but not the general) HM, participants reported higher perceived impact of genetic versus lifestyle factors and a higher attributable fraction of genetics on disease development. Nevertheless, participants were able to recognise the balance between lifestyle and genetic risk factors in disease development. They also contextualised and restricted the message's implications to the specific information provided, and did not extrapolate these implications to other diseases. These results illustrate the nuanced understanding the general public may have concerning genetic risk factors.

  17. Media and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David

    1983-01-01

    Outlines some of the main issues and areas of debate at the first international Congress on Audio-Visual Communication and Mental Health, which was held in Helsinki in June 1983. The issues discussed include the connection between violent actions and violence on television and censorship. The declared congress objectives are listed. (Author/MBR)

  18. The Mass Media in a Violent World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnet, Mary

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a symposium on the impact of the representation of violence in the mass media on youth and adults. The symposium participants agreed on a working definition of violence as "the use of means of action which are harmful to the physical, psychic, or moral…

  19. The Mass Media Role in Terrorist Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tim; Clavier, David E.

    Terrorists seek recognition for their cause by using violence to create public fear which will force the government into repressive counter-measures. The mass media play a vital role in this strategy. News reports of terrorism may magnify the climate of fear, thereby augmenting the public's overreaction. Moreover, broadcast of terrorist acts may…

  20. Mass Media and Socialization: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Verna, Mary Ellen

    Given the growing interest in the area of socialization and mass media, this bibliography of articles and books is intended to simplify reference to the literature and to stimulate research. Three primary sources are used: "Psychological Abstracts (1950-1972),""Sociological Abstracts (1953-1972)," and the "Cumulative Book…

  1. The Finns as Users of Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapasalo, Jukka

    This report is a compilation of data on mass media consumption by Finns. It describes the results of a survey conducted using 1162 Finnish-speaking respondents, 12 years of age or older. It also compares these results with those collected from earlier studies. Radio is in 98% of Finnish homes and is listened to 1 hour and 45 minutes per day, a…

  2. The Mass Media Role in Terrorist Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tim; Clavier, David E.

    Terrorists seek recognition for their cause by using violence to create public fear which will force the government into repressive counter-measures. The mass media play a vital role in this strategy. News reports of terrorism may magnify the climate of fear, thereby augmenting the public's overreaction. Moreover, broadcast of terrorist acts may…

  3. Britain's Open University, User of Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, William

    The way that the Open University system in Great Britain operates and the use of the mass media are discussed in detail. A number of problems the adult student is likely to face are identified, along with basic differences between U.S. and British societies that influence the application of an open university approach. Attention is directed to:…

  4. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  5. Social Studies: Media, Minds, and Masses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggot, James; Vino, Faith

    This secondary course of study teaches the student to investigate and analyze the impact of mass communication on contemporary society. Media affects the individual and society politically, socially, and economically. Knowledge and understanding of the operation, impact, history and development of radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and…

  6. [Proposal for a media guideline to improve medical and health journalism].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masami

    2012-01-01

    A lot of healthcare professionals experienced annoyance with biased mass media news regarding medical and health issues. In this paper, I propose "news profiling method" and "media guideline" to improve the medical and health journalism.

  7. MASS MEDIA SIMULATION PROGRAM USER’S MANUAL,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The mass media simulation herein described allows a researcher to estimate the extent of exposure of a population to themes carried in mass media over...a period of time. The simulation program accepts input data about the mass media and their content, about the audience population, and about their

  8. Mass Media Representation of Teaching: A Behaviour Analysis Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Sandy; Mackie, Stirling

    Although psychological studies of the mass media have been dominated by cognitivist and psychodynamic concepts, a study of the mass media using a behavior analysis method may be used to analyze the content of the mass media. By applying that analysis to fictional teacher-learner interactions an interpretation of those relationships can be made and…

  9. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  10. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  11. Children, adolescents, and the media: health effects.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.

  12. Physical activity in the mass media: an audience perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ben J; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M F

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception study was conducted involving in-depth interviews with 46 adults in New South Wales, Australia. The sample was stratified by gender, age group, area of residence and body mass index. Most respondents could only recall media coverage of physical activity with prompting. Television was the primary channel of exposure, with reality television the dominant source, followed by news programs and sports coverage. The messages most readily recalled were the health risks of inactivity, especially obesity, and the necessity of keeping active. Physical activity was regarded as a matter of personal volition, or for children, parental responsibility. Respondents believed that the media had given physical activity inadequate attention, focused too heavily on risks and not provided practical advice. In Australia, there is a need to counter the framing of physical activity by reality television, and engage the media to generate understanding of the socioecological determinants of inactivity. Physical activity campaigns should deliver positive and practical messages.

  13. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  14. Evaluation of a Canadian back pain mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Gross, Douglas P; Russell, Anthony S; Ferrari, Robert; Battié, Michele C; Schopflocher, Donald; Hu, Richard; Waddell, Gordon; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2010-04-15

    Quasi-experimental before-and-after design with control group. We evaluated a back pain mass media campaign's impact on population back pain beliefs, work disability, and health utilization outcomes. Building on previous campaigns in Australia and Scotland, a back pain mass media campaign (Don't Take it Lying Down) was implemented in Alberta, Canada. A variety of media formats were used with radio ads predominating because of budget constraints. Changes in back pain beliefs were studied using telephone surveys of random samples from intervention and control provinces before campaign onset and afterward. The Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) was used along with specific questions about the importance of staying active. For evaluating behaviors, we extracted data from governmental and workers' compensation databases between January 1999 and July 2008. Outcomes included indicators of number of visits to health care providers, use of diagnostic imaging, and compensation claim incidence and duration. Analysis included time series analysis and ANOVA testing of the interaction between province and time. Belief surveys were conducted with a total of 8566 subjects over the 4-year period. Changes on BBQ scores were not statistically significant, however, the proportion of subjects agreeing with the statement, "If you have back pain you should try to stay active" increased in Alberta from 56% to 63% (P = 0.008) with no change in the control group (consistently approximately 60%). No meaningful or statistically significant effects were seen on the behavioral outcomes. A Canadian media campaign appears to have had a small impact on public beliefs specifically related to campaign messaging to stay active, but no impact was observed on health utilization or work disability outcomes. Results are likely because of the modest level of awareness achieved by the campaign and future campaigns will likely require more extensive media coverage.

  15. An Unseen Hand: The Mass Media and Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Mike

    This paper examines the role of mass media in the British education policy process, in particular, how the mass media steer education policy and inhibit certain issues from becoming the subject of policy. The paper describes how media professionals comprise an interest group competing with others to affect education policy; how they and other…

  16. Educating women for HIV prevention: does exposure to mass media make them more knowledgeable?

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta; Abdullah, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Mass media is an important vehicle for health promotion in developing countries. In Bangladesh multiple media campaigns are being carried out to educate people about HIV/AIDS. We examined the extent of HIV/AIDS knowledge and the association of exposure to mass media among women in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) provides data for this article. We found that media exposure (combined index of television, radio, and newspaper) was a highly significant predictor of women's knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Other significant predictors of HIV knowledge include women's education, age, employment, and urban residence.

  17. Media can contribute to better health.

    PubMed

    Keller, S

    1997-01-01

    The mass media can be a powerful tool for teaching young people about the consequences of sexual activity. The HIV prevention media campaigns in Uganda have been instrumental in reducing HIV prevalence among young women in the 1990s. They produced a rise in monogamy, condom use in risky sexual relationships, and later age of sexual debut. Nevertheless, more research is needed to measure the influence of such campaigns on sexual behavior. In Uganda a nationwide campaign is promoting safer sex among adolescents, including abstinence, partner reduction, and condom use. Starting in 1995 the campaign by the Delivery of Improved Services for Health (DISH) Project, implemented by Pathfinder International and Johns Hopkins University, promoted HIV prevention messages through songs and soap operas, rap music contests, drama, and newsletters and posters. Eighty music groups performed songs about HIV prevention for target audiences 15-19 years old in 10 different districts. The winning song was recorded and distributed to taxi drivers and youth centers. In surveys of 1681 adolescents condom use among them increased from 46% before the campaign to 69% afterwards. The AIDS Information Center used radio announcements to promote HIV testing, with the result of young people turning up in large numbers. A 1993 survey of 6879 reproductive-age women also showed that about 13% of those who had seen the videos of songs 3 years earlier vs. only 4% of those who had not, were currently using contraception. Clinic locations, hotline telephone numbers, and referral networks can be included in mass media campaigns to enhance their effectiveness. If messages appear in different media simultaneously (music, television, radio, movies, and posters) the campaigns become even more effective. Focus group research and pretesting of materials help assess the effectiveness of materials before wide distribution.

  18. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  19. Media, racism and public health psychology.

    PubMed

    Nairn, Raymond; Pega, Frank; McCreanor, Tim; Rankine, Jenny; Barnes, Angela

    2006-03-01

    International literature has established that racism contributes to ill-health of migrants, ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples. Racism generally negates wellbeing, adversely affecting physical and psychological health. Numerous studies have shown that media contribute marginalizing particular ethnic and cultural groups depicting them primarily as problems for and threats to the dominant. This articles frames media representations of, and their effect on, the indigenous Maori of Aotearoa, New Zealand within the ongoing processes of colonization. We argue that reflects the media contribution to maintenance and naturalisation of colonial relationships and seek to include critical media scholarship in a critical public health psychology.

  20. Media usage as health segmentation variables.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Shelly; Chen, Qimei; Duffy, Margaret; Fleming, Kenneth

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to contrast a traditional audience segmentation model that uses demographics and health evaluations against a model that uses these same variables plus media usage variables. The goal was to determine whether media usage variables - typically not used in health segmentation studies - add predictive power in determining health behaviors and attitudes. The results of the analysis showed an increase in the ability to predict health behaviors such as aspirin use, vitamin use, diet, and exercise, and suggest that there is predictive value for including media variables as part of the segmentation process. Implications for public health education and campaign planning are discussed.

  1. Mass media and behavior change: hand in hand.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, Johns Hopkins University's Population communication Services has conducted evaluations of mass media campaigns in developing countries which communications personnel have designed to change health and sex behavior. The mass media campaigns involved relaying health and family planning information via radio, television, and pamphlets. The evaluations showed that these campaigns were an effective technique to promote behavior change, e.g. they have boosted demand for contraceptives, condom sales, clinic visits, and inquiries to hotlines. A 6-part television drama incorporating health and family planning into its storyline stimulated behavior change in Pakistan in 1991. 36% of people surveyed after the drama series said they would limit the number of children they would have. 44% planned to improve communication with their spouse. An amusing television promotion in Brazil which ran for 6 months in the late 1980s prompted 58% of new clinic patients in 1 town to seek a vasectomy. 1 clinic experienced an 81% increase in vasectomies. A 6-month campaign to promote condom use in Colombia in 1988-89 resulted in a 75% rise in condom sales. In the mid 1980, a 6-9 month mass media popular music campaign (2 songs and videos disseminated via television, radio, and print materials) in Mexico and Latin America strove to encourage youth to be responsible for their sexual behavior. During the campaign, an adult counseling center received an 800% increase in letters (50-450 letters/month). 4 radio and 5 television spots promoting health and family planning in Kwara State, Nigeria in 1984-87 increased family planning acceptors 500% from 258 to 1526 in the 7 existing clinics. Other successful campaigns took place in the Philippines, Zimbabwe, Indonesia, Turkey, Bolivia and Honduras.

  2. Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people.

    PubMed

    Carson, Kristin V; Ameer, Faisal; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Hnin, Khin; van Agteren, Joseph Em; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Brinn, Malcolm P; Esterman, Adrian J; Chang, Anne B; Smith, Brian J

    2017-06-02

    Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE and Embase in June 2016. This is an update of a review first published in 1998. Randomized trials, controlled trials without randomization and interrupted time-series studies that assessed the effect of mass media campaigns (defined as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, social media, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact) in influencing the smoking behaviour (either objective or self-reported) of young people under the age of 25 years. We define smoking behaviour as the presence or absence of tobacco smoking or other tobacco use, or both, and the frequency of tobacco use. Eligible comparators included education or no intervention. Two review authors independently extracted information relating to the characteristics and the content of media interventions, participants, outcomes, methods of the study and risks of bias. We combined studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. We assessed the risks of bias for each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, alongside additional domains to account for the nature of the intervention. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to outcomes using GRADE. We identified eight eligible studies reporting information about mass media smoking

  3. Covering Science as a Mass Media Fellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.

    2006-03-01

    I remember my first unpleasant biology lab dissection in high school. I am not sure if the experience was worse for me or for the unfortunate fetal pig we dissected that day. The sights and smells of that fateful morning forever put me on a path toward the physical sciences, and probably have a lot to do with my ending up as a graduate student in atmospheric chemistry instead of at some medical school cutting up dead bodies. So imagine my horror after encountering the leg of a dead horse as I walked into a bioengineering laboratory to report on a story about artificial joint research. Subjecting myself to such biological horrors, though, was part of my duties as an AGU-sponsored American Association for the Advancement of Science Mass Media Fellow. The program places graduate students and recent graduates from scientific fields in major media outlets throughout the country. The aim of the program is to give science-trained individuals a taste of a career in science journalism as well as to help scientists develop better communication skills.

  4. Mass Media Forces in Our society. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelker, Francis H.; Voelker, Ludmila A.

    The primary purpose of this book is to help the public become more aware and critical in their selection and appraisal of the media. Part 1 consists of a single essay by Theodore Peterson that gives a historical perspective on the development of the mass media in the United States. Part 2 deals with the print and electronic media: magazines, photo…

  5. An Integrated Approach to Studying Mass Media Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latourette, Deb; And Others

    Based on the premise that multimethod approaches that integrate quantitative and qualitative research methods are best suited to contextual studies of media audiences, two studies of mass media use and meaning were conducted with college undergraduates. Research grew out of a classroom assignment wherein students avoided all media products (films,…

  6. Mass Media Forces in Our society. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelker, Francis H.; Voelker, Ludmila A.

    The primary purpose of this book is to help the public become more aware and critical in their selection and appraisal of the media. Part 1 consists of a single essay by Theodore Peterson that gives a historical perspective on the development of the mass media in the United States. Part 2 deals with the print and electronic media: magazines, photo…

  7. Interaction with Mass Media: The Importance of Rhythm and Tempo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Stresses that understanding the impact of interaction with mass media requires conceptualizing media as an institutionalized social form. A critical feature of this process is the grammatical character of media interaction in the form of rhythm and tempo, because these rhythms and tempos become established in everyday routine. (SKC)

  8. The Role of the Mass Media in Parenting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, A. Rae

    Although there has been an explosion of information and advice about child rearing in the mass media, little attention has been given to the nature or extent of the media's impact on parents or to ways in which media could be used more effectively. Based on an analysis of books, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, film, videotapes, software,…

  9. Mass media entertainment for AIDS communication in Zaire.

    PubMed

    Convisser, J

    1992-01-01

    Health communicators use entertainment and mass media to prevent HIV transmission. Population Services International operates an AIDS Mass Media Project as an adjunct to its Condom Social Marketing Project. It collaborates with the Government of Zaire's National AIDS Program. Its 1st target is urban youth because most AIDS cases in Zaire were infected as teenagers, urban youth have access to television (TV), and they take part in high risk sexual behavior. The project uses various AIDS songs to reach this group. A 6-month posttest shows that the 1st song was so effective that 65% heard it and that 93% of them recalled the major AIDS messages and 85% said that they changed their behavior. The project distributes a video of the 1990 World AIDS Day concert. Research in Zaire and other African countries shows that the threat AIDS poses to children's health strongly motivates parents' behavior. Thus the 2nd target is the 20-30 year old group--young and prospective parents. The project boasts a 4-part TV series about a groom who does not reveal his AIDS status to his young bride until after their wedding night. 2 scenes stress the benefits of condoms. After its 1st airing, 66% of the 20-30 year old group in Kinshasa watched all 4 parts of the series. Of these, about 75% said they would change their behavior. Most people in Zaire change behavior by using condoms. Indeed, during the mass media campaign, condom sales grew 1000% which saved almost 7200 lives. The project also features comic strips informing working men and women and teenagers about AIDS and distributes an inexpensive notebook listening AIDS facts and myths for school children. The project uses regional radio stations to broadcast 28 AIDS feature programs, 22 radio spots, 8 AIDS radio dramas, and 2 songs to high priority rural areas. These AIDS radio efforts have indeed influenced AIDS knowledge and attitudes.

  10. The Impact of Mass Media Upon Public Opinion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The history of public opinion and mass media is briefly covered to set the background for a closer look at the factors which influence the formation...family church, school and peer groups. The primary mass media instruments, television, radio and the newspaper are examined to determine if a

  11. Culture in Education and Mass Media: Conformation or Confrontation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosa, Ali Abdullah

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the concept of culture in light of the technological revolution that has crossed traditional geopolitical boundaries. Topics include the function of education; the function of mass media; and a comparison of how educational and mass media institutions affect culture. (Author/LRW)

  12. Use of the Mass Media for Education in Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Sushma

    1995-01-01

    Explains how mass media, radio, and television have been playing an important role in the formal education of Ethiopian children for a quarter of a century. Describes the chronological development and future plans for the use of mass media in education. States that Ethiopia may serve as an example for other Third World countries. (PA)

  13. Fashion Alienation: Older Adults and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Susan B.; Chandler, Joan L.

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 209 adults over age 50 regarding use of mass media for fashion information. Results showed an inverse relationship between frequency of use of mass media for fashion information and fashion alienation. Frustration was expressed with regard to finding suitable clothes in stores and keeping up with fashion changes. (JAC)

  14. New Ideas and Fertility Limitation: The Role of Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Axinn, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the mass media as a social change that shapes individual behavior primarily via ideational mechanisms. We construct a theoretical framework drawing on social demography and social psychology to explain how mass media may affect behavior via attitudinal change. Empirical analyses of 1,091 couples in the Chitwan Valley…

  15. New Ideas and Fertility Limitation: The Role of Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Axinn, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the mass media as a social change that shapes individual behavior primarily via ideational mechanisms. We construct a theoretical framework drawing on social demography and social psychology to explain how mass media may affect behavior via attitudinal change. Empirical analyses of 1,091 couples in the Chitwan Valley…

  16. Imaging Teachers: In Fact and in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Xae Alicia; Rios, Diana I.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of mass media on public images of teachers and students is considered in a dialogue between two educational and mass media researchers. Stereotypes in films, such as teacher-savior and student-failure, and abundant reports about Latino dropout rates and low academic achievement impact teachers and the public, who accept negative images…

  17. Patterns of Mass Media Exposure among Seventh Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.

    In a study to identify types of mass media consumers, a Q-type factor analysis was run on respondent exposure to 90 categories of content within seven mass media (television, radio, recordings, motion pictures, newspapers, magazines, and books). The respondents were 116 seventh graders in Waterloo, Iowa, who were asked to keep daily diaries of…

  18. Fashion Alienation: Older Adults and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Susan B.; Chandler, Joan L.

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 209 adults over age 50 regarding use of mass media for fashion information. Results showed an inverse relationship between frequency of use of mass media for fashion information and fashion alienation. Frustration was expressed with regard to finding suitable clothes in stores and keeping up with fashion changes. (JAC)

  19. The Literate Adolescent in an Age of Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Jack R.; Plattor, Emma E.

    Some uses of the mass media for educating the adolescent are discussed, and the fact that teachers have generally neglected using mass media devices is emphasized. Multisensory stimuli are seen to enhance the excitement and drama of the written page and to be essential to a concept of literacy broad enough to encompass all aspects of critical and…

  20. Audiovisual Mass Media and Education. TTW 27/28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Stapele, Peter, Ed.; Sutton, Clifford C., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The 15 articles in this special issue focus on learning about the audiovisual mass media and education, especially television and film, in relation to various pedagogical and didactical questions. Individual articles are: (1) "Audiovisual Mass Media for Education in Pakistan: Problems and Prospects" (Ahmed Noor Kahn); (2) "The Role of the…

  1. FUNCTIONAL ORIENTATION OF WISCONSIN FARM WOMEN TOWARDS MASS MEDIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOSTIAN, LLOYD R.; ROSS, JOHN E.

    THE STUDY WAS SET UP IN 1963 CHIEFLY TO IDENTIFY THE FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS MASS MEDIA AND THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE TO THE AUDIENCE (A SAMPLE OF WISCONSIN FARM WOMEN). THE FARM WOMEN WERE IN CONTACT WITH MASS MEDIA AN AVERAGE OF SIX OR SEVEN HOURS DAILY. BASED ON EARLIER DATA (1957) IT APPEARED THAT THE PROPORTION OF HOMES WITH TELEVISION, WOMEN'S…

  2. Mass Communication: An Introduction; Theory and Practice of Mass Media in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, John R.

    From the perspectives of historical, contemporary, and future interpretations of mass communication, this introduction to the theory and practice of mass media in society treats both the social context of mass communication and the hardware components that make it operable. The book discusses all mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio,…

  3. Mass Communication: An Introduction; Theory and Practice of Mass Media in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, John R.

    From the perspectives of historical, contemporary, and future interpretations of mass communication, this introduction to the theory and practice of mass media in society treats both the social context of mass communication and the hardware components that make it operable. The book discusses all mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio,…

  4. Social Media: A Path to Health Literacy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michelle; Callahan, Lizz; O'Leary, Catina

    2017-01-01

    Social media - websites and other online tools called social networks - serve as a tool to connect people and organizations around topics of common interest. Social media platforms offer tremendous opportunity to engage quickly and sometimes in depth with many and diverse stakeholders as people have the ability to communicate back-and-forth from anywhere in the world. As increasing numbers of people receive their news and health information online, it is important to ensure content delivered through online resources is accessible to diverse target audiences. This chapter discusses a mid-sized health literacy nonprofit organizations' social media philosophy and tactics during the past 10 years, as both social media and health literacy strategies evolved continuously. The integration of social media in health literacy program content depends on the use with best evidence health literacy strategies, such as the use of plain language techniques. Strategy and technical considerations for the implementation and integration of social media within a health literate health communications model are discussed.

  5. Evaluating the effects of a youth health media campaign.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Thorson, Esther

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a socially oriented public health media campaign that aims to influence social indicators among adults as a means to advances in youth health outcomes. Hierarchical regression analyses are conducted on telephone survey data from 18 weekly telephone surveys of adults in Kansas. Media campaign exposure was positively associated with two outcome measures: beliefs about youth development and behaviors toward youth development. In addition, these two outcome measures increased significantly over time, with the dissemination of the campaign's television and newspaper advertisements. Furthermore, these over-time increases were present only among respondents who were exposed to the media campaign. These findings offer support for the campaign's influence on the two social indicators, which would, per other research, be expected to influence improvements in youth health. Findings are discussed in reference to previous research in the areas of public health and mass communication, with implications made for practitioners and researchers.

  6. Health professions students' use of social media.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Carolyn; Giordano, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The internet is increasingly a part of everyday life by facilitating networking opportunities and offering ways to associate with others who have similar interests, values, or goals. An online survey was administered to 644 first-year students and 413 graduating students via Surveymonkey to investigate their media preferences, to gauge if they are active on social media sites, and to evaluate how they responded to advertisements. Students were in the following health professions: biotechnology, couple and family therapy, medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, public health, radiologic and imaging sciences, and pharmacy. Results indicate that students prefer online media as their primary source of information. The majority of students were using Facebook, and very few were using Twitter or LinkedIn or other social networking sites. Understanding social media usage has several implications for educating, connecting with, and researching health professions students from all stages of their academic career.

  7. The Media Mural Project: Empowering Youth in New Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damsen, Jess

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the pedagogy, practice and outcomes of a digital art program developed to enable high school and middle school students to become active participants in new forms of grassroots public media. Students and their teachers become producers and controllers of art-based videos and associated digital dialogue which is distributed…

  8. Mental health professionals and media professionals: a survey of attitudes towards one another.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Beth; Shankar, Rohit; Palmer, Joanne; Laugharne, Richard

    2017-10-01

    The general public regard mass media as their main source of information about mental illness. Psychiatrists are reluctant to engage with the media. There is little understanding of why this is the case. The paper looks to explore attitudes of mental health clinicians and the media towards one another. Media and mental health clinicians in the southwest of England completed self-report surveys. Of 119 questionnaires returned 85 were mental health clinicians and 34 media professionals. Both groups agreed that stigma is a major issue and clinicians have a key role influencing media portrayal of mental illness. The media view their reporting to be more balanced than clinicians and lack awareness of clinician mistrust towards them. Those clinicians with media training (13%) felt significantly more comfortable talking to media and significantly less mistrustful of them. Clinicians who had experience of working with media felt more comfortable doing media work. Only 15% of media professionals had received mental health awareness training. Media training and experience are associated with an increased willingness of mental health professionals to engage with the media. Reciprocal awareness training between media and mental health professionals may be a simple intervention worth pursuing.

  9. The mass media alone are not effective change agents.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, J M

    1991-01-01

    Social mobilization programs for immunization have been used by African leaders, however, coverage from 20% to 70% in capitals like Mogadishu, Maputo, and Dakar were the result of short campaigns rather than the consequence of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) improvement. One-party states relied on their network of cadres issuing decrees from the top down to enforce completion of these immunization campaigns. Sometimes resistance developed against these programs, as the military mobilized people (e.g., Somalia). These efforts became rather superficial once the temporary pressure evaporated. In Mogadishu coverage increased from 22% to 70% in 1985, and within a year it dropped back to 8% above the original level. Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo where they used regular mini campaigns had better results. Research data from Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia were analyzed. In 1983 in Kenya 73% of health workers never advised their clients, and 82% were incompetent to do so. Data also showed that clinics provided the bulk of information to women aged 15-45 in lower income groups, but they rarely consulted village health workers. Radio and TV programs were not reaching people because radio ownership was not universal (47% in Zambia and 30% in Zimbabwe), and batteries were often not available. In addition, most people turned to the radio for entertainment. In 1989, vaccination coverage was 19% in Luanda, Angola, but only 5% of 232 respondents to an evaluation could name the immunizable diseases. An identical percentage was familiar with these diseases in a Zambian study in 1986. Media experts proposed dramas to raise interest, but innovative mass media programs of dissemination of the message advocated in the 1960s did not prove effective to bring about KAP changes. Training of health and paramedical personnel by mass organizations as initiated in Ethiopia may prove to be worthwhile.

  10. The Mass Media and Urban Development: An Historical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jowett, Garth S.

    The mass media in the United States have played a major role in the emergence of a mass society resulting from the interaction of urbanization, industrialization, and modernization and have thus become an integral part of the total social fabric. Society's culture and social structure shape its system of mass communication so that the development,…

  11. Medicine, morality and health care social media

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Social media includes many different forms of technology including online forums, blogs, microblogs (i.e. Twitter), wikipedias, video blogs, social networks and podcasting. The use of social media has grown exponentially and time spent on social media sites now represents one in five minutes spent online. Concomitant with this online growth, there has been an inverse trajectory in direct face-to-face patient-provider moments, which continue to become scarcer across the spectrum of health care. In contrast to standard forms of engagement and education, social media has advantages to include profound reach, immediate availability, an archived presence and broad accessibility. Our opportunity as health care providers to partner with our patients has never been greater, yet all too often we allow risk averse fears to limit our ability to truly leverage our good content effectively to the online community. This risk averse behavior truly limits our capacity to effectively engage our patients where they are -- online. PMID:22856531

  12. Medicine, morality and health care social media.

    PubMed

    Timimi, Farris K

    2012-08-02

    Social media includes many different forms of technology including online forums, blogs, microblogs (i.e. Twitter), wikipedias, video blogs, social networks and podcasting. The use of social media has grown exponentially and time spent on social media sites now represents one in five minutes spent online. Concomitant with this online growth, there has been an inverse trajectory in direct face-to-face patient-provider moments, which continue to become scarcer across the spectrum of health care. In contrast to standard forms of engagement and education, social media has advantages to include profound reach, immediate availability, an archived presence and broad accessibility. Our opportunity as health care providers to partner with our patients has never been greater, yet all too often we allow risk averse fears to limit our ability to truly leverage our good content effectively to the online community. This risk averse behavior truly limits our capacity to effectively engage our patients where they are--online.

  13. Exploring the Borderlands between Media and Health: Conceptualizing "Critical Media Health Literacy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Joan Wharf; Begoray, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    In Canada, as elsewhere, there is considerable concern about adolescents' health. Much of the blame is thought to lie in the social context for today's adolescents and their interaction with and dependence on various media. Yet, it is not clear whether and how adolescents learn to engage critically with media messages about health. Emerging from…

  14. Do mass media affect Medicare beneficiaries' use of diabetes services?

    PubMed

    Schade, Charles P; McCombs, Marc

    2005-07-01

    Appropriate secondary preventive care for people with diabetes can reduce complications and premature death, yet many people with diabetes do not get these services. Mass media may influence individual health behavior. In 1999, the West Virginia Medical Institute (WVMI) began a long-term radio and television campaign to educate West Virginia Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes about the importance of foot exams, eye exams, HbA1c testing, and influenza and pneumonia immunizations using messages with an "Ask your doctor about..." formula. To assess campaign efficacy, WVMI commissioned a telephone survey of 1500 randomly selected beneficiaries likely to have diabetes in two groups of counties with differing exposure to the messages. The survey asked whether the beneficiary had heard the messages and responded to them, by message topic. Nearly everyone (90%) in both survey groups said they had seen or heard the diabetes ads. However, high-exposure group members were about 1.2 times more likely to recall hearing most messages than low-exposure group members, and were 1.2 to 1.8 times more likely to say that they did what the messages suggested. Media campaigns with preventive health messages targeted to Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes can reach them and may induce appropriate responses.

  15. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  16. Interdisciplinary Study of the Mass Media. A Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Trevor R.; And Others

    A course titled "Interdisciplinary Research in Mass Communication," drawing on law, business, economics, and communication, was offered at Stanford. This syllabus presents the seven topics considered in the course: the citizen's need to know, the new communication media, privacy, media concentration, access, advertising and consumerism,…

  17. The Rest of the Elephant: Perspectives on the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John D.; Porter, William E.

    This book presents an analytical introduction to the study of the mass media. Aspects of media that have received little attention--audiences, economics, working processes and ethics--are treated in the four sections of the book. Section one covers symbiosis between the medium and the audience. Section two discusses the way in which business and…

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Mass Media Ethics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Byung; Padgett, George

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…

  19. Media Casebook; An Introductory Reader in American Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Peter M., Ed.; And Others

    Each selection in this anthology offers a single example of a major problem or characteristic of the American mass media. The anthology has four sections: development, responsibility, media, and coverage. Development in journalism is shown by comparing accounts of Presidential conventions over a 125-year period. Articles about responsibility deal…

  20. The Mass Media: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    This guide to materials available in the McLennan Library is intended to assist students in locating information and literature necessary for sociological studies of the mass media (excluding film). It does not deal with the more technical aspects of the media or the "how to" literature. The annotations are arranged under the following headings:…

  1. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  2. Media Casebook; An Introductory Reader in American Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Peter M., Ed.; And Others

    Each selection in this anthology offers a single example of a major problem or characteristic of the American mass media. The anthology has four sections: development, responsibility, media, and coverage. Development in journalism is shown by comparing accounts of Presidential conventions over a 125-year period. Articles about responsibility deal…

  3. The Mass Media of Entertainment and Human Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorney, Roderic; Steele, Gary

    Urgently needed for human survival is a means of influencing large numbers of people to put into rapid action measures which could neutralize such menances as pollution, overpopulation, and violence. Though the cumulative effect of the mass media is not fully established, media entertainment may be the most influential institution in our society.…

  4. The Rest of the Elephant: Perspectives on the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John D.; Porter, William E.

    This book presents an analytical introduction to the study of the mass media. Aspects of media that have received little attention--audiences, economics, working processes and ethics--are treated in the four sections of the book. Section one covers symbiosis between the medium and the audience. Section two discusses the way in which business and…

  5. The Mass Media of Entertainment and Human Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorney, Roderic; Steele, Gary

    Urgently needed for human survival is a means of influencing large numbers of people to put into rapid action measures which could neutralize such menances as pollution, overpopulation, and violence. Though the cumulative effect of the mass media is not fully established, media entertainment may be the most influential institution in our society.…

  6. Mass Media and the Law; Freedom and Restraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David G., Ed.; Hutchinson, Earl R., Ed.

    The papers and articles collected in this volume examine the relationship between government, business conglomerates, and the mass media and discuss the effect of this relationship on the flow of information. Separate sections are devoted to: the "right to know"; the effect of media barons on the flow of news; the "right of access"; the sometimes…

  7. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  8. The Media Environment: Mass Communications in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Robert H.; Steinberg, Charles S.

    The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with an informational frame of reference that will permit the formation of critical judgments concerning America's mass media institutions. The book covers the broad spectrum of the communications media in terms of their impact on American society. Such topics are discussed as social aspects of…

  9. Primary care nurses’ experiences of how the mass media influence frontline healthcare in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass media plays an important role in communicating about health research and services to patients, and in shaping public perceptions and decisions about health. Healthcare professionals also play an important role in providing patients with credible, evidence-based and up-to-date information on a wide range of health issues. This study aims to explore primary care nurses’ experiences of how mass media influences frontline healthcare. Methods In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 18 primary care nurses (nine health visitors and nine practice nurses) working in the United Kingdom (UK). Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data was analysed using thematic analysis, with a focus on constant comparative analysis. Results Three themes emerged from the data. First, participants reported that their patients were frequently influenced by controversial health stories reported in the media, which affected their perceptions of, and decisions about, care. This, in turn, impinged upon participants’ workloads as they had to spend additional time discussing information and reassuring patients. Second, participants also recalled times in their own careers when media reports had contributed to a decline in their confidence in current healthcare practices and treatments. Third, the participants in this study suggested a real need for additional resources to support and expand their own media literacy skills, which could be shared with patients. Conclusion In an ever expanding media landscape with greater reporting on health, nurses working in the primary care setting face increasing pressure to effectively manage media stories that dispute current health policies and practices. These primary care nurses were keen to expand their media literacy skills to develop critical autonomy in relation to all media, and to facilitate more meaningful conversations with their patients about their health concerns and choices. PMID:24267614

  10. Primary care nurses' experiences of how the mass media influence frontline healthcare in the UK.

    PubMed

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E; Hilton, Shona

    2013-11-24

    Mass media plays an important role in communicating about health research and services to patients, and in shaping public perceptions and decisions about health. Healthcare professionals also play an important role in providing patients with credible, evidence-based and up-to-date information on a wide range of health issues. This study aims to explore primary care nurses' experiences of how mass media influences frontline healthcare. In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 18 primary care nurses (nine health visitors and nine practice nurses) working in the United Kingdom (UK). Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data was analysed using thematic analysis, with a focus on constant comparative analysis. Three themes emerged from the data. First, participants reported that their patients were frequently influenced by controversial health stories reported in the media, which affected their perceptions of, and decisions about, care. This, in turn, impinged upon participants' workloads as they had to spend additional time discussing information and reassuring patients. Second, participants also recalled times in their own careers when media reports had contributed to a decline in their confidence in current healthcare practices and treatments. Third, the participants in this study suggested a real need for additional resources to support and expand their own media literacy skills, which could be shared with patients. In an ever expanding media landscape with greater reporting on health, nurses working in the primary care setting face increasing pressure to effectively manage media stories that dispute current health policies and practices. These primary care nurses were keen to expand their media literacy skills to develop critical autonomy in relation to all media, and to facilitate more meaningful conversations with their patients about their health concerns and choices.

  11. A media maniac's guide to removable mass storage media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempster, Linda S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses at a high level, the many individual technologies available today in the removable storage arena including removable magnetic tapes, magnetic floppies, optical disks and optical tape. Tape recorders represented below discuss logitudinal, serpantine, logitudinal serpantine,and helical scan technologies. The magnetic floppies discussed will be used for personal electronic in-box applications.Optical disks still fill the role for dense long-term storage. The media capacities quoted are for native data. In some cases, 2 KB ASC2 pages or 50 KB document images will be referenced.

  12. Mass Communication Functions in a Media-Rich Developing Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Steven H.; Izcaray, Fausto

    1975-01-01

    Discusses media-centered communication research models and applies them to a field setting in Venezuela in an attempt to assess the extent to which social processes depend on mass communication. See CS 703 632 for subscription information. (MH)

  13. Mass Communication Functions in a Media-Rich Developing Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Steven H.; Izcaray, Fausto

    1975-01-01

    Discusses media-centered communication research models and applies them to a field setting in Venezuela in an attempt to assess the extent to which social processes depend on mass communication. See CS 703 632 for subscription information. (MH)

  14. Effects of a Brief Media Intervention on Expectations, Attitudes, and Intentions of Mental Health Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demyan, Amy L.; Anderson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mass-media video intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions to seek help from professional mental health care services. A public service announcement-style, mass-media video intervention was developed, with prior empirical research on help-seeking behaviors organized according to the theory of…

  15. Effects of a Brief Media Intervention on Expectations, Attitudes, and Intentions of Mental Health Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demyan, Amy L.; Anderson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mass-media video intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions to seek help from professional mental health care services. A public service announcement-style, mass-media video intervention was developed, with prior empirical research on help-seeking behaviors organized according to the theory of…

  16. Social percolation and the influence of mass media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proykova, Ana; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2002-09-01

    In the marketing model of Solomon and Weisbuch, people buy a product only if their neighbours tell them of its quality, and if this quality is higher than their own quality expectations. Now we introduce additional information from the mass media, which is analogous to the ghost field in percolation theory. The mass media shift the percolative phase transition observed in the model, and decrease the time after which the stationary state is reached.

  17. Social Media and Patient Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To provide a review of the current excellent research published in the field of Consumer Health Informatics. Method We searched MEDLINE® and WEB OF SCIENCE® databases for papers published in 2013 in relation with Consumer Health Informatics. The authors identified 16 candidate best papers, which were then reviewed by four reviewers. Results Five out of the 16 candidate papers were selected as best papers. One paper presents the key features of a system to automate the collection of web-based social media content for subsequent semantic annotation. This paper emphasizes the importance of mining social media to collect novel data from which new findings in drug abuse research were uncovered. The second paper presents a practical method to predict how a community structure would impact the spreading of information within the community. The third paper presents a method for improving the quality of online health communities. The fourth presents a new social network to allow the monitoring of the evolution of individuals’ health status and diagnostic deficiencies, difficulties or barriers in rehabilitation. The last paper reports on teenage patients’ perception on privacy and social media. Conclusion Selected papers not only show the value of using social media in the medical field but how to use these media to detect emergent diseases or risks, inform patients, promote disease prevention, and follow patients’ opinion on healthcare resources. PMID:25123742

  18. Readings in Mass Communication; Concepts and Issues in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Michael C.; Smythe, Ted Curtis

    The aim of this book of readings is to provide college students with a wide variety of articles on the rapid changes and problems of today's mass media. The problems of access, control, protection of sources, and relevance are considered crucial to the changing role of the media. Changes in the structure of both traditional media and new…

  19. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  20. Native Americans and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Ray

    Presenting testimony from various sources, this report describes growing resentment in the American Indian community of Anglo media misinterpretation and exploitation of Indian culture and Indian people. The full text of the Navajo Nation's plan for a Navajo Communications Board (established by the Advisory Committee of the Navajo Tribal Council)…

  1. Education and The Mass Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, John J., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph deals with the utilization of modern communicational media as aids to instruction and learning in the English classroom and contains studies pointing the way toward expanding student experience through multimedia instruction. Chapters include "Magazines," which presents objectives for magazine study, discusses students' reading…

  2. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting.

    PubMed

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study's objective was to explore national news media's reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles.

  3. The Effects of Media Reports on Disease Spread and Important Public Health Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Collinson, Shannon; Khan, Kamran; Heffernan, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the spread of influenza to reduce the effects of infection on a population is an important mandate of public health. Mass media reports on an epidemic or pandemic can provide important information to the public, and in turn, can induce positive healthy behaviour practices (i.e., handwashing, social distancing) in the individuals, that will reduce the probability of contracting the disease. Mass media fatigue, however, can dampen these effects. Mathematical models can be used to study the effects of mass media reports on epidemic/pandemic outcomes. In this study we employ a stochastic agent based model to provide a quantification of mass media reports on the variability in important public health measurements. We also include mass media report data compiled by the Global Public Health Intelligence Network, to study the effects of mass media reports in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We find that the report rate and the rate at which individuals relax their healthy behaviours (media fatigue) greatly affect the variability in important public health measurements. When the mass media reporting data is included in the model, two peaks of infection result. PMID:26528909

  4. The Effects of Media Reports on Disease Spread and Important Public Health Measurements.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Shannon; Khan, Kamran; Heffernan, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the spread of influenza to reduce the effects of infection on a population is an important mandate of public health. Mass media reports on an epidemic or pandemic can provide important information to the public, and in turn, can induce positive healthy behaviour practices (i.e., handwashing, social distancing) in the individuals, that will reduce the probability of contracting the disease. Mass media fatigue, however, can dampen these effects. Mathematical models can be used to study the effects of mass media reports on epidemic/pandemic outcomes. In this study we employ a stochastic agent based model to provide a quantification of mass media reports on the variability in important public health measurements. We also include mass media report data compiled by the Global Public Health Intelligence Network, to study the effects of mass media reports in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We find that the report rate and the rate at which individuals relax their healthy behaviours (media fatigue) greatly affect the variability in important public health measurements. When the mass media reporting data is included in the model, two peaks of infection result.

  5. Creating Metaphors to Analyze Media and Apply Mass Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourland-Davis, Pamela G.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses having students in an undergraduate mass communication theory class create metaphors of their own relationships with mass media. Highlights literature in the field related to critical thinking and teaching methods. Describes application of the assignment. Notes that this assignment provides the professor with a means to evaluate…

  6. Mass Society/Culture/Media: An Eclectic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry B.

    Instructors of courses in mass society, culture, and communication start out facing three types of difficulties: the historical orientation of learning, the parochialism of various disciplines, and negative intellectually elitist attitudes toward mass culture/media. Added to these problems is the fact that many instructors have little or no…

  7. Potential Reach of mHealth Versus Traditional Mass Media for Prevention of Chronic Diseases: Evidence From a Nationally Representative Survey in a Middle-Income Country in Africa.

    PubMed

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-05-20

    with female sex (P<.001), younger age (P<.001), and higher SES (P<.001). Controlling for SES, exposure to NCD-related programs on public television or radio and willingness to receive health-related SMS were not independently associated with a person's NCD risk. Broadcasting health programs through traditional mass media (national public radio and television) reached the majority of the population under study, including older adults and those in lower socioeconomic groups. With a high penetration of mobile phones and willingness to receive health-related SMS, mHealth presents an opportunity for health programs, especially when targeted SMS messages are intended for younger adults and those in higher socioeconomic groups. By contrast, due to reduced Internet access, email-based programs had a more limited reach for health promotion programs. These findings emphasize the different reach of interventions using SMS or email versus traditional mass media, according to demographic and socioeconomic categories, for health education programs in a developing country.

  8. Potential Reach of mHealth Versus Traditional Mass Media for Prevention of Chronic Diseases: Evidence From a Nationally Representative Survey in a Middle-Income Country in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude

    2016-01-01

    health-related SMS, which was positively associated with female sex (P <.001), younger age (P <.001), and higher SES (P <.001). Controlling for SES, exposure to NCD-related programs on public television or radio and willingness to receive health-related SMS were not independently associated with a person’s NCD risk. Conclusions Broadcasting health programs through traditional mass media (national public radio and television) reached the majority of the population under study, including older adults and those in lower socioeconomic groups. With a high penetration of mobile phones and willingness to receive health-related SMS, mHealth presents an opportunity for health programs, especially when targeted SMS messages are intended for younger adults and those in higher socioeconomic groups. By contrast, due to reduced Internet access, email-based programs had a more limited reach for health promotion programs. These findings emphasize the different reach of interventions using SMS or email versus traditional mass media, according to demographic and socioeconomic categories, for health education programs in a developing country. PMID:27207074

  9. Clarifications on mass media campaigns promoting organ donation: a response to Rady, McGregor, & Verheijde (2012).

    PubMed

    Morgan, Susan E; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2013-11-01

    The current paper provides readers some clarifications on the nature and goals of mass media campaigns designed to promote organ donation. These clarifications were necessitated by an earlier essay by Rady et al. (Med Health Care Philos 15:229-241, 2012) who present erroneous claims that media promotion campaigns in this health context represent propaganda that seek to misrepresent the transplantation process. Information is also provided on the nature and relative power of media campaigns in organ donation promotion.

  10. Supplementing Public Health Inspection via Social Media.

    PubMed

    Schomberg, John P; Haimson, Oliver L; Hayes, Gillian R; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant's likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table). We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%). When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we achieved 74% sensitivity

  11. Supplementing Public Health Inspection via Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Schomberg, John P.; Haimson, Oliver L.; Hayes, Gillian R.; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant’s likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table). We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%). When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we achieved 74

  12. [Health and the media in Spain].

    PubMed

    Revuelta, Gemma

    2006-03-01

    The so-called media agenda has a great influence on the issues considered to be important by society. In this article, based on the Informe Quiral (Quiral Survey), the author analyses the coverage of health issues in Spanish press. In Spain, media concentration causes a clear tendency to information homogeneity and thus, health issues are rarely dealt with in an independent way or in its own specific space or by specialized professionals. The main chronic issues the Spanish press has followed during the years included in the survey have been: cancer, sexuality and reproduction, aids, drugs (including tobacco), mental disorders and nutrition-related issues. Politicians or individuals with political and technical posts are the sources which carry the burden of informing about health issues (49%). On the other hand, the more specialized sector is the source of information in only 26% of the cases. In order to improve health information, the author suggests establishing communication platforms and closer collaboration between the specialized sector and the media, fostering mutual knowledge of all professional groups taking part in the process and ridding health information of all political influences.

  13. Past lessons and new uses of the mass media in reducing tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Erickson, A C; McKenna, J W; Romano, R M

    1990-01-01

    A review of mass media response to the smoking issue over the past 25 years reveals that sustained involvement of the broadcast and print media has served significantly to heighten public awareness and reduce smoking rates in the total U.S. population. Public service advertising has been an integral part of the smoking control movement from its outset, but today's intensely competitive media environment has forced health promoters to look beyond public service announcements in the development of total communication programs. Media advocacy--using the media to sharpen public awareness and mold public policy to serve the public interest, a technique derived from political campaigns--is emerging as a powerful tool in the smoking control movement. Its emphasis is on changing the entire social context of tobacco use in America, rather than the smoking behavior of people. Because media advocates' success pivots on their access to the media, they must be able both to create news and to react quickly to breaking news and unexpected events. The opportunistic, risk-taking nature of media advocacy requires that most efforts be waged at the State and local levels. An increasing number of State health departments and other organizations are using paid advertising to improve the frequency and reach of nonsmoking messages. Research verifies that paid media campaigns increase the target audience's exposure to smoking control messages, but planning and making efficient media purchases require sophistication and, of course, the necessary funds. Irrefutable medical evidence linking smoking to disease and addiction, combined with the powerful social force of the nonsmokers' rights movement, offer hope that a smoke-free society is an achievable goal. Success,however, will only be realized if tobacco control activists make use of the full range of mass media technologies to sustain and nourish this momentum.

  14. The Mental Health Consequences of Mass Shootings.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Violence and mass media: are laws and regulations effective?

    PubMed

    Wulff, Christian

    2007-10-01

    In Germany, there are several laws and legal and administrative regulations restricting presentation and propagation of violence in mass media. They have proven to be partly effective. Whilst control and supervision of public media is feasible, the containment of what is distributed over the internet proves to be very difficult. It is well recognized that laws and regulations can be only one part of protection for children and youngsters; school, kindergarten and above all the parents must be educated and held responsible for creating media competence in children and adolescents.

  16. Mass media influence spreading in social networks with community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candia, Julián; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2008-07-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across a society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considering inhomogeneous mass media fields, we study the conditions for successful message spreading and find a novel phase diagram in the multidimensional parameter space. These findings show that social modularity effects are of paramount importance for designing successful, cost-effective advertising campaigns.

  17. Harnessing social media for health promotion and behavior change.

    PubMed

    Korda, Holly; Itani, Zena

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and innovative advances in participative Internet communications, referred to as "social media," offer opportunities for modifying health behavior. Social media let users choose to be either anonymous or identified. People of all demographics are adopting these technologies whether on their computers or through mobile devices, and they are increasingly using these social media for health-related issues. Although social media have considerable potential as tools for health promotion and education, these media, like traditional health promotion media, require careful application and may not always achieve their desired outcomes. This article summarizes current evidence and understanding of using social media for health promotion. More important, it discusses the need for evaluating the effectiveness of various forms of social media and incorporating outcomes research and theory in the design of health promotion programs for social media.

  18. Using mass media to reduce adolescent involvement in drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Romer, D

    1994-06-01

    Drug trafficking among adolescents is a newly recognized high-risk behavior that seems to be involving large numbers of youths. Strategies to prevent and/or alter this behavior must be developed and evaluated. In view of the high exposure of adolescents to the mass media, interventionists seeking to reduce adolescent risk behavior have increasingly employed the media in their efforts to reduce adolescent risk behaviors in general. However, not all risk behaviors may be amendable to change as a result of this approach. Therefore, before utilizing this approach to address adolescent drug trafficking, it is important to investigate previous efforts targeting related risk behaviors. Mass media campaigns against the use of drugs have been common in the US and seem to have played a role in reducing consumption of both legal and illegal drugs. The most effective messages seem to focus on the risks of drug use and the social disapproval that attends use. The mass media may increase the influence of these antidrug messages by changing the social climate surrounding drug use. The mass media may be a particularly effective way to reach adolescents and their parents in communities in which adolescent drug trafficking is prevalent and to unite the institutions that could influence adolescents against involvement in the drug trade. However, intervention efforts must also contend with the economic incentives of the drug trade in poor, central-city communities.

  19. Mass Media and HIV/AIDS in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Guan, Jihui; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Lu, Yao

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to mass media related to HIV/AIDS has been linked to attitudinal and behavioral changes. This study aims to identify the source(s) of HIV information for the general Chinese population and examine their association with HIV transmission knowledge and stigmatizing attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Method A total of 3,716 market workers in Fuzhou, China participated in a face-to-face survey. Multiple regression models were used to describe correlations among respondents' HIV/STD information sources, HIV transmission knowledge, and stigmatizing attitude towards PLWHA. Results Mass media sources, such as TV programs, newspapers and magazines, were more frequently identified as the channels for HIV information than interpersonal sources, such as friends and service providers. Exposure to multiple sources of HIV information (where at least one source is mass media) was significantly related to HIV knowledge and less stigmatizing attitude towards PLWHA. Discussion Mass media in China has been a major source of HIV information to the public. Enhancing the content and penetration of HIV/AIDS campaigns within various channels of the media can be an important strategy in disseminating HIV knowledge and reducing HIV related discrimination. PMID:19657923

  20. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting

    PubMed Central

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study’s objective was to explore national news media’s reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles. PMID:28119907

  1. Physical Activity in the Mass Media: An Audience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ben J.; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception…

  2. Physical Activity in the Mass Media: An Audience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ben J.; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception…

  3. New Media for Health Education: A Revolution in Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Jay M.; Chaney, J. Don; Chaney, Beth H.; Hall, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    Health education researchers have continued to explore creative new ways to leverage the Internet and diverse new media applications to increase the efficacy of their interventions. The number of new media and health education studies continues to grow, as does the number of manuscripts related to new media that are submitted to "Health Education…

  4. New Media for Health Education: A Revolution in Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Jay M.; Chaney, J. Don; Chaney, Beth H.; Hall, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    Health education researchers have continued to explore creative new ways to leverage the Internet and diverse new media applications to increase the efficacy of their interventions. The number of new media and health education studies continues to grow, as does the number of manuscripts related to new media that are submitted to "Health Education…

  5. Traditional Forms of Communication and the Mass Media in India. Communication and Society, 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Madhu

    Oral folklore and folk drama are emphasized in this report, which focuses on the use of folk media to convey developmental messages through mass media agencies. Discussion covers the relationship between folk and mass media, experiments in India to integrate the two media, problems encountered in the integration process, and folk media's potential…

  6. Traditional Forms of Communication and the Mass Media in India. Communication and Society, 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Madhu

    Oral folklore and folk drama are emphasized in this report, which focuses on the use of folk media to convey developmental messages through mass media agencies. Discussion covers the relationship between folk and mass media, experiments in India to integrate the two media, problems encountered in the integration process, and folk media's potential…

  7. Looking to the future of new media in health marketing: deriving propositions based on traditional theories.

    PubMed

    Della, Lindsay J; Eroglu, Dogan; Bernhardt, Jay M; Edgerton, Erin; Nall, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Market trend data show that the media marketplace continues to rapidly evolve. Recent research shows that substantial portions of the U.S. media population are "new media" users. Today, more than ever before, media consumers are exposed to multiple media at the same point in time, encouraged to participate in media content generation, and challenged to learn, access, and use the new media that are continually entering the market. These media trends have strong implications for how consumers of health information access, process, and retain health-related knowledge. In this article we review traditional information processing models and theories of interpersonal and mass media access and consumption. We make several theory-based propositions for how traditional information processing and media consumption concepts will function as new media usage continues to increase. These propositions are supported by new media usage data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's entry into the new media market (e.g., podcasting, virtual events, blogging, and webinars). Based on these propositions, we conclude by presenting both opportunities and challenges that public health communicators and marketers will face in the future.

  8. Mass Communication as Political Rhetoric: A Critique of Representation and Commodity Theories of Mass Media Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that contemporary rhetorical theory and research can use important insights into the nature of mass media language that representation and commodity theories cannot incorporate. Suggests that, by recognizing the rhetorical aspects of media language, scholars can legitimize the research and the dialogue that are required for the…

  9. Mass Communication as Political Rhetoric: A Critique of Representation and Commodity Theories of Mass Media Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that contemporary rhetorical theory and research can use important insights into the nature of mass media language that representation and commodity theories cannot incorporate. Suggests that, by recognizing the rhetorical aspects of media language, scholars can legitimize the research and the dialogue that are required for the…

  10. Dynamic effective mass of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Ingale, Rohit; Valenza, John; Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Gland, Nicolas; Makse, Hernan

    2009-03-01

    We report an experimental and theoretical investigation of the frequency-dependent effective mass, M(φ), of loose granular particles which occupy a rigid cavity to a filling fraction of 48%, the remaining volume being air of differing humidities. We demonstrate that this is a sensitive and direct way to measure those properties of the granular medium that are the cause of the changes in acoustic properties of structures containing grain-filled cavities. Specifically, we apply this understanding to the case of the flexural resonances of a rectangular bar with a grain-filled cavity within it. The dominant features of M(φ) are a sharp resonance and a broad background, which we analyze within the context of simple models. We find that: a) These systems may be understood in terms of a height-dependent and diameter-dependent effective sound speed (˜130 m/s) and an effective viscosity (˜2x10^4 Poise). b) There is a dynamic Janssen effect in the sense that, at any frequency, and depending on the method of sample preparation, approximately one-half of the effective mass is borne by the side walls of the cavity and one-half by the bottom. c) On a fundamental level, dissipation is dominated by adsorbed films of water at grain-grain contacts in our experiments.

  11. Predicting heat and mass transfer in fractured porous media (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, S.; Cortis, A.; Emmanuel, S.

    2010-12-01

    Fractures are abundant in the subsurface and affect many relevant single- and multi-phase transport processes such as gas and oil extraction, contaminant transport, or geothermal reservoir engineering. However, making reliable predictions of heat and mass transfer in fractured porous media is an outstanding challenge due to its multi-scale nature and the orders-of-magnitude varations in transport rates. Direct high-resolution simulations provide fundamental insights into the local advective and diffusive transport processes in fractured porous media. However, this approach is intractable for inverse simulations because of its high computational requirements. Continuous Time Random Walks on the other hand are a viable alternative and general way to model heat and mass transfer in structurally complex and multi-scale geological media, particularly for inverse problems. But they do not offer the same insights into local transport processes as direct numerical simulations. Here we combine both approaches to simulate the detailed transport processes occurring during heat and mass transfer in fractured porous media and analyse how these affect the breakthrough curves used to calibrate the Continuous Time Random Walks. We show that heat transport in fractured porous media can be anomalous, i.e. characterised by early breakthrough and long tailing, like it is well known for solute transport. We also demonstrate that a careful analysis of the solute breakthrough curves can yield insights into the heterogeneity of the fracture pattern and the transport occurring between fracture and matrix as well as within the matrix and fractures.

  12. The interaction of financial news between mass media and new media: Evidence from news on Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Zuochao; Liu, Lanbiao; Shen, Dehua

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate both the contemporaneous and the lead-lag relationships between the mass media news and the new media news of the financial news on the constitute stocks of the CSI 300. The empirical results show that: (1) there exists a strong correlation between these two types of news; (2) the granger causality direction from new media news to mass media news is increasingly obvious, while the reverse direction has a downward trend; (3) new media is playing a increasingly important role in the stock market and exhibits a trend to substitutes the mass media.

  13. Dynamic Effective Mass of Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Johnson, David L.; Ingale, Rohit A.; Valenza, John J.; Gland, Nicolas; Makse, Hernán A.

    2009-02-01

    We develop the concept of frequency dependent effective mass, Mtilde (ω), of jammed granular materials which occupy a rigid cavity to a filling fraction of 48%, the remaining volume being air of normal room condition or controlled humidity. The dominant features of Mtilde (ω) provide signatures of the dissipation of acoustic modes, elasticity, and aging effects in the granular medium. We perform humidity controlled experiments and interpret the data in terms of a continuum model and a “trap” model of thermally activated capillary bridges at the contact points. The results suggest that attenuation of acoustic waves in granular materials can be influenced significantly by the kinetics of capillary condensation between the asperities at the contacts.

  14. Bibliographic Instruction and Mass Media News Literacy: A Theoretical Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework for understanding mass media news influence; explores the concepts of agenda setting, priming, framing, asymmetrical selection, binary oppositionalism, and institutional hegemony in a survey of literature in journalism and communications; and outlines a teaching strategy that highlights one news event and compares…

  15. Desensitizing Children's Emotional Reactions to the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses effectiveness of two desensitization strategies for reducing children's emotional reactions to mass media. Examines children having passive exposure, modeled exposure, or no exposure to lizards before watching a horror movie involving lizards. Finds that modeled exposure decreases emotional reactions and negative interpretations, whereas…

  16. Authority and Mass Media as Variables in Rumor Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Reed H.; And Others

    This paper offers the hypothesis that in times of low collective excitement rumors in a complex society whose content is beyond normal social discourse (a spectral rumor, for instance) will increasingly exhibit one or the other, or both, of two legitimizing agents--authority and mass media--as a means of gaining greater plausibility and…

  17. The Ideal of Conversation in the Study of Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schudson, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Examines the "ideal of conversation," and demonstrates that most actual conversation rarely achieves the "ideal." Argues that the rise of mass media is responsible for making ideal conversation more realizable, however, by making talk between men and women, and adults and children, more egalitarian and spontaneous. (PD)

  18. The Mass Media: Aspen Institute Guide to Communication Industry Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Christopher H.; Haight, Timothy R.

    Intended to provide a single reference source for the most significant statistics describing communication industry trends in the United States since 1900, this book is a collection and assessment of the currently available quantitative descriptive information on mass media industries. The core of the book is its more than 300 tables of data on…

  19. Mass Media and Interpersonal Influence in Adolescent Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    This study explores the consumer socialization process in adolescents with regard to mass media and interpersonal factors associated with the acquisition of consumer skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Questionnaires were completed by 300 consumer education students in three Grand Forks, North Dakota schools, assessing such variables as "consumer…

  20. The Mass Media: Aspen Institute Guide to Communication Industry Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Christopher H.; Haight, Timothy R.

    Intended to provide a single reference source for the most significant statistics describing communication industry trends in the United States since 1900, this book is a collection and assessment of the currently available quantitative descriptive information on mass media industries. The core of the book is its more than 300 tables of data on…

  1. Mass Media; A Worktext in the Processes of Modern Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz, Ann Christine; And Others

    This workbook introduces key concepts and issues related to the mass media. Students perform activities related to these concepts and issues to understand the part they play in their own lives. The usual format consists of a probe, a lab, a focus, an interface, an investigation, and a simulation. For example, one probe is "What are some qualities…

  2. The Role of the Mass Media in Shaping Public Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Michael J.

    This discussion of agenda setting reviews early theories of mass communication and traces the beginnings of agenda setting theory to the 1968 United States presidential campaign, during which researchers found a high correlation between what the media were saying about issues and what the people thought were important issues. The results of more…

  3. Desensitizing Children's Emotional Reactions to the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses effectiveness of two desensitization strategies for reducing children's emotional reactions to mass media. Examines children having passive exposure, modeled exposure, or no exposure to lizards before watching a horror movie involving lizards. Finds that modeled exposure decreases emotional reactions and negative interpretations, whereas…

  4. Mass Media: A Cornucopia of Ideas for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A.

    The collection of readings deals with some important developments affecting the use of the mass media in adult education. These include cablecasting as a means of urging citizens to become involved in community problems, films as spurs to social action, and television programs that employ the soap opera format for educational ends. Also presented…

  5. Mass Media Use by College Students during Hurricane Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how college students prepare for the threat of natural disasters. This study surveyed college students' preferences in mass media use prior to an approaching hurricane. The convenience sample (n = 76) were from a university located in the hurricane-prone area of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Interestingly,…

  6. Mass Media Values and the Future of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulliam, John D.

    The paper focuses on the impact of mass media, especially television, on the educational process and outlines implications for the future. Studies point out that children view an average of 8,000 hours of television annually between ages three and five. Positive effects include increase in the vocabulary of young children, a better appreciation of…

  7. Mining the Popular Culture: The Mass Media and Freshman Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, M. W.

    The study of mass media and popular culture in a composition class allows students and teachers together to develop a critical awareness of television and advertising. Jerzy Kosinski's book, "Being There," a novel about the impact of television, is a beginning point for the study of television. Using that book as if it were a collection of events,…

  8. The Mass Media and Modern Society. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, William L.; And Others

    The focus throughout this second edition is on the 1970's and the impact of mass communication on contemporary society. Analyzing the ways in which communication affects and is, in turn, affected by society, the book examines the social, economic, and intellectual environments in which the media operate. Two intellectual factors which have had the…

  9. Mass Media and Environmental Cognition in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara K. W.

    A postal survey on a random cluster sample of 1,032 secondary school students in Hong Kong was conducted to investigate how much students know about the environment and how their environmental cognition is shaped by the use of mass media. Results indicated that students were very knowledgeable on both general and local environmental issues. The…

  10. Mass Media Values and the Future of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulliam, John D.

    The paper focuses on the impact of mass media, especially television, on the educational process and outlines implications for the future. Studies point out that children view an average of 8,000 hours of television annually between ages three and five. Positive effects include increase in the vocabulary of young children, a better appreciation of…

  11. The New Mass Media and the Shaping of Amazigh Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almasude, Amar

    This paper describes the Imazighen of North Africa, known in the West as Berbers; threats to their language and culture from schooling and the dominant Arabo-Islamic culture; and recent effects of mass media. As the indigenous people of North Africa, the Imazighen have been invaded frequently during the last 3000 years, but only the Arabs…

  12. Black Families and the Mass Media. Occasional Paper No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroman, Carolyn A.

    The paper examines the role the mass media play in the functioning of black families. Emphasis is on the perspectives and images of black families that are presented via commercial television, newspapers, and magazines. Divided into four parts, the paper discusses the following: (1) the theoretical framework around which the paper is centered,…

  13. Political Socialization and Mass Media Use: A Reverse Causality Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Alexis S.

    A reverse causality model treating mass media use for public affairs information as a result rather than as a cause of political behavior was tested utilizing surveys of 190 Mexican-American, 176 black, and 225 white adults. The criterion variable used in each sample was frequency of television and newspaper use for public affairs information. The…

  14. Mass Communication and National Development in China: Media Roles Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul Siu-nam

    1994-01-01

    Examines the development of mass media in China since 1949. Suggests that the rapid growth of television at a time when China is experiencing its fastest economic growth may indicate a mutual reinforcing relationship. Argues that television and entertainment may play an important role in economic growth since they may help build consensus and…

  15. The Role of the Mass Media in Shaping Public Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Michael J.

    This discussion of agenda setting reviews early theories of mass communication and traces the beginnings of agenda setting theory to the 1968 United States presidential campaign, during which researchers found a high correlation between what the media were saying about issues and what the people thought were important issues. The results of more…

  16. Mass Media Use by College Students during Hurricane Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how college students prepare for the threat of natural disasters. This study surveyed college students' preferences in mass media use prior to an approaching hurricane. The convenience sample (n = 76) were from a university located in the hurricane-prone area of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Interestingly,…

  17. Children's Reactions to Dreams Conveyed in Mass Media Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    Explores children's ability to understand formal features of television and film by investigating their reactions to a televised dream. Indicates that children are able to recognize dreams in mass media programing and that prior knowledge of an upcoming dream can influence children's interpretations of and emotional reactions to dreamed events in…

  18. Mining the Popular Culture: The Mass Media and Freshman Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, M. W.

    The study of mass media and popular culture in a composition class allows students and teachers together to develop a critical awareness of television and advertising. Jerzy Kosinski's book, "Being There," a novel about the impact of television, is a beginning point for the study of television. Using that book as if it were a collection of events,…

  19. The Mass Media and Modern Society. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, William L.; And Others

    The focus throughout this second edition is on the 1970's and the impact of mass communication on contemporary society. Analyzing the ways in which communication affects and is, in turn, affected by society, the book examines the social, economic, and intellectual environments in which the media operate. Two intellectual factors which have had the…

  20. The Role of Audiovisual Mass Media News in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2011-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the role of audio/visual mass media news in language learning. In this regard, the two important issues regarding the selection and preparation of TV news for language learning are the content of the news and the linguistic difficulty. Content is described as whether the news is specialized or universal. Universal…

  1. A Tale of Two Industries: Mass Media and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nartowski, Andrzej S.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that the commercialization of higher education leads to governance; governance leads to the flow of money; and governance plus money lead to quality. Suggests that it is time to rethink the missions of mass media and higher education in contemporary society and to revise the idea that the right to education is of less importance than the…

  2. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Taguri, Masataka; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs. Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500), conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control) based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status). To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model. Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls) after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, "I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it" suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.23). Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action. This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health communication strategies and further research is needed.

  3. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Taguri, Masataka; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Background The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs. Methods Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500), conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control) based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status). To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model. Results Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls) after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, “I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it” suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02–0.23). Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action. Conclusions This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health

  4. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15–25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience. PMID:25113152

  5. Reach of mass media among tobacco users in India: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Rooban, T; Madan Kumar, P D; Ranganathan, K

    2010-07-01

    Tobacco use is a health hazard and its use is attributed to a lack of knowledge regarding the ill effects of tobacco. To identify the exposure of different mass media among a representative cohort population in the Indian subcontinent and compare the reach of the different mass media among tobacco users and nonusers using the "reach of HIV information" as a model. Secondary Data Analysis of Indian National Family Health Survey-3. Any tobacco use, gender, source of HIV information. Use of mass media. Of the study group, 27% of males and 54.4% of females never read newspaper or magazine; 29.3% of males and 52.6% of females never heard radio; 12.4% of males and 25% of females never see television; and 79.3% of males and 93.46% of females did not see a movie at least once a month. The most common source of information of HIV was television among males (71.8%) and females (81%), whereas the least common source was leaders among males (0.8%) and females (0.2%). Television is the single largest media used by both genders and was a major source of HIV information dissemination. A well-designed tobacco control program similar to HIV awareness program will help to curb tobacco use. The reach of different media among Indian tobacco users is presented and HIV model of information dissemination may prove to be effective in tobacco control.

  6. Use and Acceptance of Social Media among Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl; West, Joshua; Neiger, Brad; Thackeray, Rosemary; Barnes, Michael; McIntyre, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Background: As social media use grows in popularity, health educators are challenged to think differently about how to communicate with audiences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore social media use and factors that determine acceptance of social media use among health educators. Methods: A random sample of Certified Health…

  7. Social Media and Health Education: What the Early Literature Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Robyn; Carter, Lorraine; Nowrouzi, Behdin; McLean, Natalie; Guimond, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Social media allows for a wealth of social interactions. More recently, there is a growing use of social media for the purposes of health education. Using an adaptation of the Networked student model by Drexler (2010) as a conceptual model, this article conducts a literature review focusing on the use of social media for health education purposes.…

  8. Social Media and Health Education: What the Early Literature Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Robyn; Carter, Lorraine; Nowrouzi, Behdin; McLean, Natalie; Guimond, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Social media allows for a wealth of social interactions. More recently, there is a growing use of social media for the purposes of health education. Using an adaptation of the Networked student model by Drexler (2010) as a conceptual model, this article conducts a literature review focusing on the use of social media for health education purposes.…

  9. The Relationship Between Sexual Content on Mass Media and Social Media: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Vandenbosch, Laura; van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether exposure to sexual reality television content and Internet pornography (IP) is related to sexual self-presentation on social media. Based on a two-wave panel survey among 1,765 adolescents aged 13-17 years, we found that watching sexual reality television content stimulated adolescents to produce and distribute sexual images of themselves on social media. In turn, sexual self-presentation on social media led adolescents to watch sexual reality television content more frequently. These relationships were similar among boys and girls. No reciprocal relationship between exposure to IP and boys' and girls' sexual self-presentation on social media was found. The results suggest that sexual content in mainstream mass media may predict adolescents' sexually oriented behavior on social media and vice versa. Moreover, adolescents seem to differentiate between types of sexual content (i.e., mainstream versus more explicit sexual content) when incorporating sexual media content in their sexual behavior online.

  10. Predictors of perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations: sociodemographic factors and mass media exposures.

    PubMed

    Han, Paul K J; Moser, Richard P; Klein, William M P; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Dunlavy, Andrea C; Hesse, Bradford W

    2009-12-01

    Cancer prevention recommendations reaching the public today are often ambiguous-that is, of uncertain reliability, credibility, or adequacy-yet little is known about the factors that influence public perceptions of this ambiguity. We used data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, conducted by the U.S. National Cancer Institute, to explore how sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported mass media exposures relate to perceptions of ambiguity regarding recommendations for the prevention of colon, skin, and lung cancer. Various sociodemographic characteristics (age, education, race) and mass media exposures (television, radio, Internet, health news) were found to be associated with perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations, and many of these associations varied by cancer type. These findings have important implications for future health communication research and practice.

  11. Impact of increasing social media use on sitting time and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Alley, Stephanie; Wellens, Pauline; Schoeppe, Stephanie; de Vries, Hein; Rebar, Amanda L; Short, Camille E; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-10-28

    Issue addressed: Sedentary behaviours, in particular sitting, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and poorer mental health status. In Australia, 70% of adults sit for more than 8h per day. The use of social media applications (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) is on the rise; however, no studies have explored the association of social media use with sitting time and body mass index (BMI).Methods: Cross-sectional self-report data on demographics, BMI and sitting time were collected from 1140 participants in the 2013 Queensland Social Survey. Generalised linear models were used to estimate associations of a social media score calculated from social media use, perceived importance of social media, and number of social media contacts with sitting time and BMI.Results: Participants with a high social media score had significantly greater sitting times while using a computer in leisure time and significantly greater total sitting time on non-workdays. However, no associations were found between social media score and sitting to view TV, use motorised transport, work or participate in other leisure activities; or total workday, total sitting time or BMI.Conclusions: These results indicate that social media use is associated with increased sitting time while using a computer, and total sitting time on non-workdays.So what?: The rise in social media use may have a negative impact on health by contributing to computer sitting and total sitting time on non-workdays. Future longitudinal research with a representative sample and objective sitting measures is needed to confirm findings.

  12. Fashion alienation: older adults and the mass media.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, S B; Chandler, J L

    1984-01-01

    A self-administered questionnaire including questions related to fashion alienation, frequency of use of mass media for fashion information, and demographics was completed by 209 "50-plus" aged consumers in Northern California. Fashion alienation was measured using ten separate statements related to 1) degree of identification with fashion symbols in the media and 2) feelings of social and economic estrangement from fashion. Two of the statements produced significant regression models. In both statements, age was positively related to fashion alienation, and there was an inverse relationship between frequency of use of media for fashion information and fashion alienation. The data provide implications for a conceptual distinction between information and meaning processing with regard to fashion.

  13. Translating psychological science: Highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings: Comment on Kaslow (2015).

    PubMed

    Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    In her presidential address, N. J. Kaslow (see record 2015-33530-002) argued that psychologists have a responsibility to translate psychological science to the public and identifies various platforms for doing so. In this comment on her article, I advocate that psychology as a field immediately heed her call in the area of psychological science highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings. I point out the psychological science documenting media contagion for suicide and mass shootings, the World Health Organization's (2008) guidelines for media in reporting suicide deaths to prevent that contagion, and discuss ways-based on Dr. Kaslow's suggestions-that psychologists can disseminate psychological science to prevent similar tragedies in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Questioning reliability assessments of health information on social media.

    PubMed

    Dalmer, Nicole K

    2017-01-01

    This narrative review examines assessments of the reliability of online health information retrieved through social media to ascertain whether health information accessed or disseminated through social media should be evaluated differently than other online health information. Several medical, library and information science, and interdisciplinary databases were searched using terms relating to social media, reliability, and health information. While social media's increasing role in health information consumption is recognized, studies are dominated by investigations of traditional (i.e., non-social media) sites. To more richly assess constructions of reliability when using social media for health information, future research must focus on health consumers' unique contexts, virtual relationships, and degrees of trust within their social networks.

  15. Mass media interventions to reduce youth smoking prevalence.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Laura J; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Connolly, Scott W; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2010-07-01

    Mass media interventions for reduction of youth cigarette smoking have been recommended based on a broad array of evidence, although few randomized community trials have been reported. Four matched pairs of independent media markets were identified; one member of each pair was randomized to receive the intervention. School surveys were conducted in all markets, in 2001 before (n=19,966) and in 2005 after (n=23,246) the interventions were completed. Grade 7-12 students from public schools in these eight medium-sized metropolitan areas participated in the summative evaluations; Grades 4-12 students were targeted to receive mass media interventions in four of these markets. Four simultaneous campaigns consisting of specially developed messages based on behavioral theory and targeted to defined age groups of racially and ethnically diverse young people were placed in popular TV, cable, and radio programming using purchased time for 4 years. Prevalence of youth smoking and psychosocial mediators of smoking. No significant impacts of these interventions on smoking behaviors or mediators were found for the overall samples. A positive effect was found for one mediator in subgroups. Among Hispanic participants a marginally favorable effect on smoking prevalence and significant effects on mediators were found. General awareness of smoking prevention TV messages was slightly higher over time in the intervention areas. Mass media interventions alone were unable to induce an incremental difference in youth smoking prevalence, probably because of a relatively strong tobacco control environment that included a substantial national smoking prevention media campaign. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mass Media Interventions to Reduce Youth Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Laura J.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Connolly, Scott W.; Ramirez, Amelie G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mass media interventions for reduction of youth cigarette smoking have been recommended based on a broad array of evidence, although few randomized community trials have been reported. Design Four matched pairs of independent media markets were identified; one member of each pair was randomized to receive the intervention. School surveys were conducted in all markets, in 2001 before (n=19,966) and in 2005 after (n=23,246) the interventions were completed. Setting/Participants Grade 7–12 students from public schools in these eight medium sized metropolitan areas participated in the summative evaluations; grades 4–12 students were targeted to receive mass media interventions in four of these markets. Intervention Four simultaneous campaigns consisting of specially developed messages based on behavioral theory and targeted to defined age groups of racially and ethnically diverse young people were placed in popular TV, cable, and radio programming using purchased time for 4 years. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of youth smoking and psychosocial mediators of smoking. Results No significant impacts of these interventions on smoking behaviors or mediators were found for the overall samples. A positive effect was found for one mediator in subgroups. Among Hispanic participants a marginally favorable effect on smoking prevalence, and significant effects on mediators were found. General awareness of smoking prevention TV messages was slightly higher over time in the intervention areas. Conclusions Mass media interventions alone were unable to induce an incremental difference in youth smoking prevalence, likely due to a relatively strong tobacco control environment that included a substantial national smoking prevention media campaign. PMID:20537841

  17. Complementary relationships between traditional media and health apps among american college students.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehee; Lee, H Erin; Quinlan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the potential relationships between existing media and health apps for health information among college students. This study collected and analyzed a total of 408 surveys from students of 7 universities across the United States. In order to explore the research questions and test the hypotheses, quantitative data from the online survey were analyzed through hierarchical regression analyses. Results from the hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the perceived credibility of health information from traditional mass media was positively and significantly associated with college students' perception of health apps. However, there was no significant effect in regards to online media. This study's consideration of the relationships between existing media and health apps may guide health practitioners in their strategic approaches to improve the well-being of college students.

  18. Mass media barriers to social marketing interventions: the example of sun protection in the UK.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Gillian Ann; Eagle, Lynne; Verne, Julia

    2011-03-01

    The role of the mass media in communicating health-related information to the wider population is the focus of this paper. Using the example of sun protection within the UK, we highlight some of the major challenges to raising awareness of steadily increasing melanoma rates and of effective sun protection strategies. The implications of potential barriers to official sun protection messages via conflicting messages in the media are discussed in terms of editorial on sun protection and in the way in which television programme content portrays the issues. Implications for public policy and future research conclude the paper.

  19. Media Exposure and Health in Europe: Mediators and Moderators of Media Systems.

    PubMed

    Blom, Niels; van der Zanden, Reneé; Buijzen, Moniek; Scheepers, Peer

    This study examined media exposure as an explanatory factor for individual and cross-national differences in self-assessed general health. In studying media exposure, traditional media (television, radio, and newspapers) and contemporary media (internet) were separately considered. Aside from hypotheses about the relation between media exposure and general health, we also tested hypotheses regarding the mediating role of social isolation and mean world syndrome as well as the moderating role of different media systems across countries. Therefore, we used European Social Survey 2010, covering 25 European countries (n = 36,692). The results of our multilevel regression analyses indicated that exposure to television was negatively related to general health, whereas exposure to radio and newspapers were positively related to health. For contemporary media, findings indicated consistent positive relations between internet exposure and health across. Furthermore, limited support was found for the mediating role of social isolation and the mean world syndrome in the link between media exposure and health. Across media systems, findings for the relations between exposure to the various types of media and health proved to be robust.

  20. Tobacco Use and Mass Media Utilization in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Achia, Thomas N. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Media utilization has been identified as an important determinant of tobacco use. We examined the association between self-reported tobacco use and frequency of mass media utilization by women and men in nine low-to middle-income sub-Saharan African countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Data for the study came from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Liberia, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe over the period 2006–2011. Each survey population was a cross-sectional sample of women aged 15–49 years and men aged 15–59 years, with information on tobacco use and media access being obtained by face-to-face interviews. An index of media utilization was constructed based on responses to questions on the frequency of reading newspapers, frequency of watching television and frequency of listening to the radio. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were considered as potentially confounding covariates. Logistic regression models with country and cluster specific random effects were estimated for the pooled data. Results The risk of cigarette smoking increased with greater utilization to mass media. The use of smokeless tobacco and tobacco use in general declined with greater utilization to mass media. The risk of tobacco use was 5% lower in women with high media utilization compared to those with low media utilization [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.82–1.00]. Men with a high media utilization were 21% less likely to use tobacco compared to those with low media utilization [AOR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.73–0.85]. In the male sample, tobacco use also declined with the increased frequency of reading newspapers (or magazines), listening to radio and watching television. Conclusions Mass media campaigns, conducted in the context of comprehensive tobacco control programmes, can reduce the prevalence of tobacco smoking in sub-Saharan Africa. The reach, intensity, duration and

  1. Tobacco use and mass media utilization in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O

    2015-01-01

    Media utilization has been identified as an important determinant of tobacco use. We examined the association between self-reported tobacco use and frequency of mass media utilization by women and men in nine low-to middle-income sub-Saharan African countries. Data for the study came from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Liberia, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe over the period 2006-2011. Each survey population was a cross-sectional sample of women aged 15-49 years and men aged 15-59 years, with information on tobacco use and media access being obtained by face-to-face interviews. An index of media utilization was constructed based on responses to questions on the frequency of reading newspapers, frequency of watching television and frequency of listening to the radio. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were considered as potentially confounding covariates. Logistic regression models with country and cluster specific random effects were estimated for the pooled data. The risk of cigarette smoking increased with greater utilization to mass media. The use of smokeless tobacco and tobacco use in general declined with greater utilization to mass media. The risk of tobacco use was 5% lower in women with high media utilization compared to those with low media utilization [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.82-1.00]. Men with a high media utilization were 21% less likely to use tobacco compared to those with low media utilization [AOR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.73-0.85]. In the male sample, tobacco use also declined with the increased frequency of reading newspapers (or magazines), listening to radio and watching television. Mass media campaigns, conducted in the context of comprehensive tobacco control programmes, can reduce the prevalence of tobacco smoking in sub-Saharan Africa. The reach, intensity, duration and type of messages are important aspects of the campaigns but need to also

  2. Do mass media campaigns improve physical activity? a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass media campaigns are frequently used to influence the health behaviors of various populations. There are currently no quantitative meta-analyses of the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. Methods We searched six electronic databases from their inception to August 2012 and selected prospective studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. We excluded studies that did not have a proper control group or did not report the uncertainties of the effect estimates. Two reviewers independently screened the title/abstracts and full articles. We used random-effects models to pool effect estimates across studies for 3 selected outcomes. Results Nine prospective cohorts and before-after studies that followed-up 27,601 people over 8 weeks to 3 years met the inclusion criteria. Based on the pooled results from these studies, mass media campaigns had a significant effect on promoting moderate intensity walking (pooled relative risk (RR) from 3 studies=1.53, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.25 to 1.87), but did not help participants achieve sufficient levels of physical activity [4 studies pooled RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.14)]. The apparent effect of media campaigns on reducing sedentary behavior (pooled RR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.30) was lost when a relatively low-quality study with large effects was excluded in a sensitivity analysis. In subgroup analyses, campaigns that promoted physical activity as a ‘social norm’ seemed to be more effective in reducing sedentary behavior. Conclusion Mass media campaigns may promote walking but may not reduce sedentary behavior or lead to achieving recommended levels of overall physical activity. Further research is warranted on different campaign types and in low- and middle- income countries. PMID:23915170

  3. Pharmacy, social media, and health: Opportunity for impact.

    PubMed

    Cain, Jeff; Romanelli, Frank; Fox, Brent

    2010-01-01

    To discuss opportunities and challenges for pharmacists' use of social media to affect health care. Not applicable. Evolutions in social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) are beginning to alter the way society communicates. These new applications promote openness, user-generated content, social networking, and collaboration. The technologies, along with patient behaviors and desires, are stimulating a move toward more open and transparent access to health information. Although social media applications can reach large audiences, they offer message-tailoring capabilities that can effectively target specific populations. Another powerful aspect of social media is that they facilitate the organization of people and distribution of content-two necessary components of public health services. Although implementing health interventions via social media poses challenges, several examples exist that display the potential for pharmacists to use social media in health initiatives. Pharmacists have long played a role in educating patients on matters influencing health care. Social media offer several unique features that may be used to advance the role of pharmacy in health care initiatives. Public familiarity with social media, the economical nature of using social media, and the ability to disseminate information rapidly through social media make these new applications ideal for pharmacists wanting to provide innovative health care on both an individual and public level.

  4. Social media for public health: an exploratory policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Fast, Ingrid; Sørensen, Kristine; Brand, Helmut; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2015-02-01

    To accomplish the aims of public health practice and policy today, new forms of communication and education are being applied. Social media are increasingly relevant for public health and used by various actors. Apart from benefits, there can also be risks in using social media, but policies regulating engagement in social media is not well researched. This study examined European public health-related organizations' social media policies and describes the main components of existing policies. This research used a mixed methods approach. A content analysis of social media policies from European institutions, non-government organizations (NGOs) and social media platforms was conducted. Next, individuals responsible for social media in their organization or projects completed a survey about their social media policy. Seventy-five per cent of institutions, NGOs and platforms had a social media policy available. The primary aspects covered within existing policies included data and privacy protection, intellectual property and copyright protection and regulations for the engagement in social media. Policies were intended to regulate staff use, to secure the liability of the institution and social responsibility. Respondents also stressed the importance of self-responsibility when using social media. This study of social media policies for public health in Europe provides a first snapshot of the existence and characteristics of social media policies among European health organizations. Policies tended to focus on legal aspects, rather than the health of the social media user. The effect of such policies on social media adoption and usage behaviour remains to be examined. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Teachers Must Not Pass along Popular "Myths" Regarding the Supposed Omnipotence of the Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David L.

    2006-01-01

    High school teachers must not use that time devoted to the study of the mass media to "beat up" on the press or to "frighten" students with stories which exaggerate the power of the mass media industries. At the same time the potential enormous impact of the contemporary mass media must not be ignored. This means that teachers must not overstate…

  6. The Effective Use of Mass Media in Sociology Education: Confronting the Competing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Nancy Wendlandt

    1983-01-01

    Literature that deals with both sociological analyses of mass media and teaching techniques that utilize mass media products is discussed. Methods of using the mass media in college-level sociology courses are outlined, and examples of each are provided. (RM)

  7. Teachers Must Not Pass along Popular "Myths" Regarding the Supposed Omnipotence of the Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David L.

    2006-01-01

    High school teachers must not use that time devoted to the study of the mass media to "beat up" on the press or to "frighten" students with stories which exaggerate the power of the mass media industries. At the same time the potential enormous impact of the contemporary mass media must not be ignored. This means that teachers must not overstate…

  8. Historical Background of the Mass Media Declaration. New Communication Order 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The Unesco Mass Media Declaration, which seeks to establish fundamental principles concerning the contribution of the mass media to strengthening peace and international understanding, is presented in the paper. Part one provides a brief history of the Mass Media Declaration, with annexed information on resolutions, meetings, and amendments…

  9. Historical Background of the Mass Media Declaration. New Communication Order 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The Unesco Mass Media Declaration, which seeks to establish fundamental principles concerning the contribution of the mass media to strengthening peace and international understanding, is presented in the paper. Part one provides a brief history of the Mass Media Declaration, with annexed information on resolutions, meetings, and amendments…

  10. The Influence of Mass Media and Interpersonal Communication on Societal and Personal Risk Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Cynthia-Lou.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal channels, and self-efficacy on risk judgment. Confirms that mass media channels influence social-level risk judgments. Finds that personal-level risk was influenced to some degree by mass media channels and that interpersonal channels and self-efficacy account for some variance on social-level…

  11. Questioning reliability assessments of health information on social media

    PubMed Central

    Dalmer, Nicole K.

    2017-01-01

    This narrative review examines assessments of the reliability of online health information retrieved through social media to ascertain whether health information accessed or disseminated through social media should be evaluated differently than other online health information. Several medical, library and information science, and interdisciplinary databases were searched using terms relating to social media, reliability, and health information. While social media’s increasing role in health information consumption is recognized, studies are dominated by investigations of traditional (i.e., non-social media) sites. To more richly assess constructions of reliability when using social media for health information, future research must focus on health consumers’ unique contexts, virtual relationships, and degrees of trust within their social networks. PMID:28096748

  12. Exposure to media content and sexual health behaviour among adolescents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wusu, Onipede

    2013-06-01

    The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis.

  13. Mass media as a sexual super peer for early maturing girls.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jane D; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the possibility that the mass media (television, movies, music, and magazines) serve as a kind of super peer for girls who enter puberty sooner than their age-mates. Multiple studies have demonstrated significant associations between earlier pubertal timing and earlier transition to first sex. Does puberty also stimulate interest in sexual media content that is seen as giving permission to engage in sexual behavior? White and African-American female adolescents (n = 471; average age 13.7 years) recruited from public middle schools in central North Carolina completed two self-administered surveys in their homes about their pubertal status, interest in and exposure to various media, and perceptions of sexual media content. Earlier maturing girls reported more interest than later maturing girls in seeing sexual content in movies, television, and magazines, and in listening to sexual content in music, regardless of age or race. Earlier maturing girls were also more likely to be listening to music and reading magazines with sexual content, more likely to see R-rated movies, and to interpret the messages they saw in the media as approving of teens having sexual intercourse. The mass media may be serving as a kind of sexual super peer, especially for earlier maturing girls. Given the lack of sexual health messages in most media adolescents attend to, these findings give cause for concern. The media should be encouraged to provide more sexually healthy content, and youth service providers and physicians should be aware that earlier maturing girls may be interested in sexual information.

  14. Mass media campaigns and organ donation: managing conflicting messages and interests.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2012-05-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely and successfully used to change health decisions and behaviors for better or for worse in society. In the United States, media campaigns have been launched at local offices of the states' department of motor vehicles to promote citizens' willingness to organ donation and donor registration. We analyze interventional studies of multimedia communication campaigns to encourage organ-donor registration at local offices of states' department of motor vehicles. The media campaigns include the use of multifaceted communication tools and provide training to desk clerks in the use of scripted messages for the purpose of optimizing enrollment in organ-donor registries. Scripted messages are communicated to customers through mass audiovisual entertainment media, print materials and interpersonal interaction at the offices of departments of motor vehicles. These campaigns give rise to three serious concerns: (1) bias in communicating information with scripted messages without verification of the scientific accuracy of information, (2) the provision of misinformation to future donors that may result in them suffering unintended consequences from consenting to medical procedures before death (e.g, organ preservation and suitability for transplantation), and (3) the unmanaged conflict of interests for organizations charged with implementing these campaigns, (i.e, dual advocacy for transplant recipients and donors). We conclude the following: (1) media campaigns about healthcare should communicate accurate information to the general public and disclose factual materials with the least amount of bias; (2) conflicting interests in media campaigns should be managed with full public transparency; (3) media campaigns should disclose the practical implications of procurement as well as acknowledge the medical, legal, and religious controversies of determining death in organ donation; (4) organ-donor registration must satisfy the criteria of informed

  15. The Role of Media/Video Production in Non-Media Disciplines: The Case of Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuldman, Mitch; Tajik, Mansoureh

    2010-01-01

    Media creation has been almost exclusively a domain of media and communication fields. Traditionally, non-media fields, such as public health and health promotion, do not typically include media creation courses. As media technologies continue to advance, however, opportunities arise for the development of new pedagogical models based on new…

  16. The Role of Media/Video Production in Non-Media Disciplines: The Case of Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuldman, Mitch; Tajik, Mansoureh

    2010-01-01

    Media creation has been almost exclusively a domain of media and communication fields. Traditionally, non-media fields, such as public health and health promotion, do not typically include media creation courses. As media technologies continue to advance, however, opportunities arise for the development of new pedagogical models based on new…

  17. One Health in social networks and social media.

    PubMed

    Mekaru, S R; Brownstein, J S

    2014-08-01

    In the rapidly evolving world of social media, social networks, mobile applications and citizen science, online communities can develop organically and separately from larger or more established organisations. The One Health online community is experiencing expansion from both the bottom up and the top down. In this paper, the authors review social media's strengths and weaknesses, earlier work examining Internet resources for One Health, the current state of One Health in social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) and online social networking sites (e.g. LinkedIn and ResearchGate), as well as social media in One Health-related citizen science projects. While One Health has a fairly strong presence on websites, its social media presence is more limited and has an uneven geographic distribution. In work following the Stone Mountain Meeting,the One Health Global Network Task Force Report recommended the creation of an online community of practice. Professional social networks as well as the strategic use of social media should be employed in this effort. Finally, One Health-related research projects using volunteers (citizen science) often use social media to enhance their recruitment. Including these researchers in a community of practitioners would take full advantage of their existing social media presence. In conclusion, the interactive nature of social media, combined with increasing global Internet access, provides the One Health community with opportunities to meaningfully expand their community and promote their message.

  18. Inferring Social Influence of Anti-Tobacco Mass Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Qianyi; Zhang, Jiawei; Yu, Philip S; Emery, Sherry; Xie, Junyuan

    2017-07-01

    Anti-tobacco mass media campaigns are designed to influence tobacco users. It has been proved that campaigns will produce users' changes in awareness, knowledge, and attitudes, and also produce meaningful behavior change of audience. Anti-smoking television advertising is the most important part in the campaign. Meanwhile, nowadays, successful online social networks are creating new media environment, however, little is known about the relation between social conversations and anti-tobacco campaigns. This paper aims to infer social influence of these campaigns, and the problem is formally referred to as the Social Influence inference of anti-Tobacco mass mEdia campaigns (Site) problem. To address the Site problem, a novel influence inference framework, TV advertising social influence estimation (Asie), is proposed based on our analysis of two real anti-tobacco campaigns. Asie divides audience attitudes toward TV ads into three distinct stages: 1) cognitive; 2) affective; and 3) conative. Audience online reactions at each of these three stages are depicted by Asie with specific probabilistic models based on the synergistic influences from both online social friends and offline TV ads. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of Asie.

  19. Child health in the information age: media education of pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Rich, M; Bar-On, M

    2001-01-01

    Substantial research has associated exposure to entertainment media with increased levels of interpersonal violence, risky sexual behavior, body image distortion, substance abuse, and obesity. The objective of this study was to determine what pediatric residency programs are teaching trainees about media and the influence of media on the physical and mental health of children and adolescents. Survey of residency curricula, consisting of 17 items about children's exposure to media, including television, movies, popular music, computer/video games and the Internet, the effects of this exposure on specific health risks, and associations between program characteristics and media education in the residency curriculum. Participants. Directors of the 209 accredited pediatric residency programs in the United States. Two hundred four programs (97.6%) responded. Fifty-eight programs (28.4%) offered formal education on 1 or more types of media; 60 programs (29.4%) discussed the influences of media when teaching about specific health conditions. Residents in 96 programs (47.1%) were encouraged to discuss media use with patients and parents; 13 programs (6.4%) taught media literacy as an intervention. Among program characteristics, only media training received by program directors was significantly associated with inclusion of media in residency curricula. Despite increasing awareness of media influence on child health, less than one-third of US pediatric residency programs teach about media exposure. Developing a pediatric media curriculum and training pediatric residency directors or designated faculty may be a resource-effective means of improving health for children growing up in a media-saturated environment.

  20. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Mass media influence and risk of developing eating disorders in female students from Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Lazo Montoya, Yessenia; Quenaya, Alejandra; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2015-12-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a public health problem, and their relationship to mass media is still controversial. To assess whether there is an association between models of body image shown in mass media and the risk of developing EDs among female adolescent students from Lima, Peru. Cross-sectional study conducted in three schools located in the district of La Victoria, Lima, Peru. The risk of developing EDs was measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), while mass media influence was measured using the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3), which was categorized into tertiles both in the overall score and its subscales (information, pressure, general internalization, and athletic internalization). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for EDs were estimated. Four hundred and eighty-three students were included, their median age was 14 ? 3 years old. A risk of developing an ED was observed in 13.9% of them. Students who are more influenced by mass media (upper tertile of the SATAQ-3) have a higher probability of having a risk of developing an ED (aPR: 4.24; 95% confidence interval |-CI-|: 2.10-8.56), as well as those who have a greater access to information (PR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.09-3.25), suffer more pressure (PR: 4.97; 95% CI: 2.31-10.69), show a greater general internalization (PR: 5.00; 95% CI: 2.39-10.43), and show a greater level of athletic internalization (PR: 4.35; 95% CI: 2.19-8-66). The greater the influence of mass media, the greater the probability of having a risk of developing an ED among female students from Lima, Peru.

  2. The Mass Media and Alcohol Education: A New Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFoe, James R.; Breed, Warren

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how the media portray alcohol and drinking and how to change media performance. Presents some findings in abbreviated form for several media and suggests a model for working with the media in the interests of alcohol education. (Author)

  3. Using media to impact health policy-making: an integrative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bou-Karroum, Lama; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hemadi, Nour; Faraj, Yasmine; Ojha, Utkarsh; Shahrour, Maher; Darzi, Andrea; Ali, Maha; Doumit, Carine; Langlois, Etienne V; Melki, Jad; AbouHaidar, Gladys Honein; Akl, Elie A

    2017-04-18

    Media interventions can potentially play a major role in influencing health policies. This integrative systematic review aimed to assess the effects of planned media interventions-including social media-on the health policy-making process. Eligible study designs included randomized and non-randomized designs, economic studies, process evaluation studies, stakeholder analyses, qualitative methods, and case studies. We electronically searched Medline, EMBASE, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the WHO Global Health Library. We followed standard systematic review methodology for study selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Twenty-one studies met our eligibility criteria: 10 evaluation studies using either quantitative (n = 7) or qualitative (n = 3) designs and 11 case studies. None of the evaluation studies were on social media. The findings of the evaluation studies suggest that media interventions may have a positive impact when used as accountability tools leading to prioritizing and initiating policy discussions, as tools to increase policymakers' awareness, as tools to influence policy formulation, as awareness tools leading to policy adoption, and as awareness tools to improve compliance with laws and regulations. In one study, media-generated attention had a negative effect on policy advocacy as it mobilized opponents who defeated the passage of the bills that the media intervention advocated for. We judged the confidence in the available evidence as limited due to the risk of bias in the included studies and the indirectness of the evidence. There is currently a lack of reliable evidence to guide decisions on the use of media interventions to influence health policy-making. Additional and better-designed, conducted, and reported primary research is needed to better understand the effects of media interventions, particularly social media, on health policy-making processes, and

  4. Effect of social media in health care and orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Jenine; Robinson, Brooke S; Kugler, Nathan W; Illingworth, Kenneth D; Patel, Pranay; Saleh, Khaled J

    2012-04-01

    With the growth of social media platforms, their potential to affect health care, and orthopedics specifically, continues to expand. We reviewed the literature to obtain all pertinent information on social media in health care and examined its strengths and weaknesses from patient and physician perspectives. Health care professionals have slowly begun to use social media to stay connected with patients. The recent use of networking sites aims to improve education, provide a forum to discuss relevant medical topics, and allow for improved patient care. The use of social media, with the understanding of its limitations, may help promote patient happiness and safety and serve as an educational platform.

  5. Mass Media in Society: The Need of Research. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication, Number 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    More and better research should be undertaken, nationally and internationally, on the effect of mass media upon society. Prior to such research, there needs to be an awareness of the realities of society today and of broadcasting structure. There should also be an understanding of the research that has already been done and of the gaps in that…

  6. One Health in social networks and social media

    PubMed Central

    Mekaru, S.R.; Brownstein, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the rapidly evolving world of social media, social networks, mobile applications and citizen science, online communities can develop organically and separately from larger or more established organisations. The One Health online community is experiencing expansion from both the bottom up and the top down. In this paper, the authors review social media’s strengths and weaknesses, earlier work examining Internet resources for One Health, the current state of One Health in social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) and online social networking sites (e.g. LinkedIn and ResearchGate), as well as social media in One Health-related citizen science projects. While One Health has a fairly strong presence on websites, its social media presence is more limited and has an uneven geographic distribution. In work following the Stone Mountain Meeting, the One Health Global Network Task Force Report recommended the creation of an online community of practice. Professional social networks as well as the strategic use of social media should be employed in this effort. Finally, One Health-related research projects using volunteers (citizen science) often use social media to enhance their recruitment. Including these researchers in a community of practitioners would take full advantage of their existing social media presence. In conclusion, the interactive nature of social media, combined with increasing global Internet access, provides the One Health community with opportunities to meaningfully expand their community and promote their message. PMID:25707189

  7. A Media Advocacy Intervention Linking Health Disparities and Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Melanie J.; McIntyre, Lynn; Persaud, Steven A.; Thomas, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Media advocacy is a well-established strategy for transmitting health messages to the public. This paper discusses a media advocacy intervention that raised issues about how the public interprets messages about the negative effects of poverty on population health. In conjunction with the publication of a manuscript illustrating how income-related…

  8. Strategic media planning: furthering the impact of health care advertising.

    PubMed

    Patrick, G

    1985-11-01

    The changing marketplace and the competitive atmosphere makes advertising increasingly necessary for health care providers. Alternative delivery systems are already using the media to promote their products and hospitals will also need to market the services they provide. This article traces the history of health care advertising and outlines how to prepare an effective media plan.

  9. A Media Advocacy Intervention Linking Health Disparities and Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Melanie J.; McIntyre, Lynn; Persaud, Steven A.; Thomas, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Media advocacy is a well-established strategy for transmitting health messages to the public. This paper discusses a media advocacy intervention that raised issues about how the public interprets messages about the negative effects of poverty on population health. In conjunction with the publication of a manuscript illustrating how income-related…

  10. Australian health professions student use of social media.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Woods, Cindy; Casellac, Evan; Glass, Nel; Wilson, Rhonda; Mayner, Lidia; Jackson, Debra; Brown, Janie; Duffy, Elaine; Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth; Irwin, Pauletta

    2014-01-01

    Increased bandwidth, broadband network availability and improved functionality have enhanced the accessibility and attractiveness of social media. The use of the Internet by higher education students has markedly increased. Social media are already used widely across the health sector but little is currently known of the use of social media by health profession students in Australia. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to explore health profession students' use of social media and their media preferences for sourcing information. An electronic survey was made available to health profession students at ten participating universities across most Australian states and territories. Respondents were 637 first year students and 451 final year students. The results for first and final year health profession students indicate that online media is the preferred source of information with only 20% of students nominating traditional peer-reviewed journals as a preferred information source. In addition, the results indicate that Facebook usage was high among all students while use of other types of social media such as Twitter remains comparatively low. As health profession students engage regularly with social media, and this use is likely to grow rather than diminish, educational institutions are challenged to consider the use of social media as a validated platform for learning and teaching.

  11. Health and social media: perfect storm of information.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Luque, Luis; Bau, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    The use of Internet in the health domain is becoming a major worldwide trend. Millions of citizens are searching online health information and also publishing content about their health. Patients are engaging with other patients in online communities using different types of social media. The boundaries between mobile health, social media, wearable, games, and big data are becoming blurrier due the integration of all those technologies. In this paper we provide an overview of the major research challenges with the area of health social media. We use several study cases to exemplify the current trends and highlight future research challenges. Internet is exploding and is being used for health purposes by a great deal of the population. Social networks have a powerful influence in health decisions. Given the lack of knowledge on the use of health social media, there is a need for complex multidisciplinary research to help us understand how to use social networks in favour of public health. A bigger understanding of social media will give health authorities new tools to help decision-making at global, national, local, and corporate level. There is an unprecedented amount of data that can be used in public health due the potential combination of data acquired from mobile phones, Electronic Health Records, social media, and other sources. To identify meaningful information from those data sources it is not trial. Moreover, new analytics tools will need to be developed to analyse those sources of data in a way that it can benefit healthcare professionals and authorities.

  12. Media education.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  13. The media and AIDS: health elite perspectives of coverage.

    PubMed

    Backstrom, C H; Robins, L S

    1998-01-01

    Most writers assessing AIDS have been critical of the media's coverage of this epidemic. To ascertain the views of key elites on media coverage of AIDS, the authors surveyed chief state public health officers, chairs of legislative health committees, and directors of hospital associations. In general, these groups tended to reject criticisms that media handling of AIDS is unbalanced. Conversely, however, they also generally rate the media as not doing a good job of educating the public about AIDS. The media's success in accurately communicating professional perspectives regarding AIDS might have accounted for their relative lack of independent influence in AIDS policymaking. The media exhibited a "guard dog" role-protecting the health professionals' positions-instead of an agenda-setting role-dictating to the decision-makers what issues they should be addressing.

  14. Selection and Evaluation of Media for Behavioral Health Interventions Employing Critical Media Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick A; Cherenack, Emily M; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Harper, Gary W

    2017-06-01

    Although a growing number of psychosocial health promotion interventions use the critical analysis of media to facilitate behavior change, no specific guidelines exist to assist researchers and practitioners in the selection and evaluation of culturally relevant media stimuli for intervention development. Mobilizing Our Voices for Empowerment is a critical consciousness-based health enhancement intervention for HIV-positive Black young gay/bisexual men that employs the critical analysis of popular media. In the process of developing and testing this intervention, feedback on media stimuli was collected from youth advisory board members (n = 8), focus group participants (n = 19), intervention participants (n = 40), and intervention facilitators (n = 6). A thematic analysis of qualitative data resulted in the identification of four key attributes of media stimuli and participants' responses to media stimuli that are important to consider when selecting and evaluating media stimuli for use in behavioral health interventions employing the critical analysis of media: comprehension, relevance, emotionality, and action. These four attributes are defined and presented as a framework for evaluating media, and adaptable tools are provided based on this framework to guide researchers and practitioners in the selection and evaluation of media for similar interventions.

  15. Heat and mass transfer in unsaturated porous media. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, S.W.; Malstaff, G.

    1982-02-01

    A preliminary study of heat and water transport in unsaturated porous media is reported. The project provides background information regarding the feasibility of seasonal thermal energy storage in unconfined aquifers. A parametric analysis of the factors of importance, and an annotated bibliography of research findings pertinent to unconfined aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) are presented. This analysis shows that heat and mass transfer of water vapor assume dominant importance in unsaturated porous media at elevated temperature. Although water vapor fluxes are seldom as large as saturated medium liquid water fluxes, they are important under unsaturated conditions. The major heat transport mechanism for unsaturated porous media at temperatures from 50 to 90/sup 0/C is latent heat flux. The mechanism is nonexistent under saturated conditions but may well control design of unconfined aquifer storage systems. The parametric analysis treats detailed physical phenomena which occur in the flow systems study and demonstrates the temperature and moisture dependence of the transport coefficients of importance. The question of design of an unconfined ATES site is also addressed by considering the effects of aquifer temperature, depth to water table, porous medium flow properties, and surface boundary conditions. Recommendations are made for continuation of this project in its second phase. Both scientific and engineering goals are considered and alternatives are presented.

  16. Cuban Mass Media: Organization, Control and Functions. Journalism Monographs Number Seventy-Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, John Spicer

    The mass media as interdependent parts of a larger social system both control and are controlled by other subsystems. The various combinations of control, in turn, determine the functions the media system will serve. In the 1960's, the Cuban mass media underwent frequent change that reflected the volatility of the revolutionary process. Today,…

  17. Use of consumer survey data to target cessation messages to smokers through mass media.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David E; Gallogly, Meg; Pederson, Linda L; Barry, Matthew; McGoldrick, Daniel; Maibach, Edward W

    2008-03-01

    We identified the mass media channels that reach the most cigarette smokers in an attempt to more effectively target smoking cessation messages. Reach estimates and index scores for smokers were taken from 2002-2003 ConsumerStyles and HealthStyles national surveys of adults (N=11660) to estimate overall and demographic-specific exposure measures for television, radio, newspapers, and magazines. Smokers viewed more television, listened to more radio, and read fewer magazines and newspapers than did nonsmokers. Nearly one third of smokers were regular daytime or late-night television viewers. Selected cable television networks (USA, Lifetime, and Discovery Channel) and selected radio genres, such as classic rock and country, had high reach and were cost-efficient channels for targeting smokers. Certain mass media channels offer efficient opportunities to target smoking cessation messages so they reach relatively large audiences of smokers at relatively low cost. The approach used in this study can be applied to other types of health risk factors to improve health communication planning and increase efficiency of program media expenditures.

  18. [Messages about physical activity and nutrition offered by Quebec mass media?].

    PubMed

    Renaud, Lise; Lagaé, Marie Claude; Caron-Bouchard, Monique

    2009-01-01

    As social elements of our environment, mass media are regarded as determinants of individual and population beliefs, social norms and habits. Since it is recognized that they influence population health, this study aims to obtain a better portrait of Quebec media content regarding physical activity and nutrition messages on a public health level. First, we analyzed the content of fictional television shows (n = 1 3) and advertisements broadcast during those shows (n = 68). Second, we reviewed the content of La Presse newspaper and of French television Société Radio-Canada from 1986 to 2005 with regard to physical activity and nutrition messages. Our results indicate a difference between how men and women are portrayed on French television, with women more often being shown as underweight and men as at or above healthy body weight. The results also show that during the 20-year period of the reviewed content, there were fewer messages about physical activity than about nutrition. To be successful in their goal of improving population health, mass media should address both subjects together in their messages.

  19. Electronic media use and adolescent health and well-being: cross-sectional community study.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Megan; Canterford, Louise; Olds, Tim; Hesketh, Kylie; Ridley, Kate; Wake, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    To describe time adolescents spend using electronic media (television, computer, video games, and telephone); and to examine associations between self-reported health/well-being and daily time spent using electronic media overall and each type of electronic media. Design-Cross-sectional data from the third (2005) wave of the Health of Young Victorians Study, an Australian school-based population study. Outcome Measures-Global health, health-related quality of life (HRQoL; KIDSCREEN), health status (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0; PedsQL), depression/anxiety (Kessler-10), and behavior problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Exposure Measures-Duration of electronic media use averaged over 1 to 4 days recalled with the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adolescents (MARCA) computerized time-use diary. Analysis-Linear and logistic regression; adjusted for demographic variables and body mass index z score. A total of 925 adolescents (mean +/- standard deviation age, 16.1+/-1.2 years) spent, on average, 3 hours 16 minutes per day using electronic media (television, 128 minutes per day; video games, 35; computers, 19; telephone, 13). High overall electronic media use was associated with poorer behavior, health status, and HRQoL. Associations with duration of specific media exposures were mixed; there was a favorable association between computer use (typing/Internet) and psychological distress, whereas high video game use was associated with poorer health status, HRQoL, global health, and depression/anxiety. Television and telephone durations were not associated with any outcome measure. Despite television's associations with obesity, time spent in other forms of media use appear more strongly related to adolescent health and well-being. This study supports efforts to reduce high video game use and further exploration of the role of computers in health enhancement.

  20. Social Media in Health Science Education: An International Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cutts, Emily; Kavikondala, Sushma; Salcedo, Alejandra; D'Souza, Karan; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; Anderson, Claire; Tiwari, Agnes; Ho, Kendall; Last, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Background Social media is an asset that higher education students can use for an array of purposes. Studies have shown the merits of social media use in educational settings; however, its adoption in health science education has been slow, and the contributing reasons remain unclear. Objective This multidisciplinary study aimed to examine health science students’ opinions on the use of social media in health science education and identify factors that may discourage its use. Methods Data were collected from the Universitas 21 “Use of social media in health education” survey, distributed electronically among the health science staff and students from 8 universities in 7 countries. The 1640 student respondents were grouped as users or nonusers based on their reported frequency of social media use in their education. Results Of the 1640 respondents, 1343 (81.89%) use social media in their education. Only 462 of the 1320 (35.00%) respondents have received specific social media training, and of those who have not, the majority (64.9%, 608/936) would like the opportunity. Users and nonusers reported the same 3 factors as the top barriers to their use of social media: uncertainty on policies, concerns about professionalism, and lack of support from the department. Nonusers reported all the barriers more frequently and almost half of nonusers reported not knowing how to incorporate social media into their learning. Among users, more than one fifth (20.5%, 50/243) of students who use social media “almost always” reported sharing clinical images without explicit permission. Conclusions Our global, interdisciplinary study demonstrates that a significant number of students across all health science disciplines self-reported sharing clinical images inappropriately, and thus request the need for policies and training specific to social media use in health science education. PMID:28052842

  1. Social Media in Health Science Education: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth; Cutts, Emily; Kavikondala, Sushma; Salcedo, Alejandra; D'Souza, Karan; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; Anderson, Claire; Tiwari, Agnes; Ho, Kendall; Last, Jason

    2017-01-04

    Social media is an asset that higher education students can use for an array of purposes. Studies have shown the merits of social media use in educational settings; however, its adoption in health science education has been slow, and the contributing reasons remain unclear. This multidisciplinary study aimed to examine health science students' opinions on the use of social media in health science education and identify factors that may discourage its use. Data were collected from the Universitas 21 "Use of social media in health education" survey, distributed electronically among the health science staff and students from 8 universities in 7 countries. The 1640 student respondents were grouped as users or nonusers based on their reported frequency of social media use in their education. Of the 1640 respondents, 1343 (81.89%) use social media in their education. Only 462 of the 1320 (35.00%) respondents have received specific social media training, and of those who have not, the majority (64.9%, 608/936) would like the opportunity. Users and nonusers reported the same 3 factors as the top barriers to their use of social media: uncertainty on policies, concerns about professionalism, and lack of support from the department. Nonusers reported all the barriers more frequently and almost half of nonusers reported not knowing how to incorporate social media into their learning. Among users, more than one fifth (20.5%, 50/243) of students who use social media "almost always" reported sharing clinical images without explicit permission. Our global, interdisciplinary study demonstrates that a significant number of students across all health science disciplines self-reported sharing clinical images inappropriately, and thus request the need for policies and training specific to social media use in health science education.

  2. A systematic review of the use and effectiveness of social media in child health.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Michele P; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Williams, Gillian; Milne, Andrea; Scott, Shannon D; Hartling, Lisa

    2014-06-02

    Social media use is highly prevalent among children, youth, and their caregivers, and its use in healthcare is being explored. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine: 1) for what purposes social media is being used in child health and its effectiveness; and 2) the attributes of social media tools that may explain how they are or are not effective. We searched Medline, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge, and Proquest Dissertation and Theses Database from 2000-2013. We included primary research that evaluated the use of a social media tool, and targeted children, youth, or their families or caregivers. Quality assessment was conducted on all included analytic studies using tools specific to different quantitative designs. We identified 25 studies relevant to child health. The majority targeted adolescents (64%), evaluated social media for health promotion (52%), and used discussion forums (68%). Most often, social media was included as a component of a complex intervention (64%). Due to heterogeneity in conditions, tools, and outcomes, results were not pooled across studies. Attributes of social media perceived to be effective included its use as a distraction in younger children, and its ability to facilitate communication between peers among adolescents. While most authors presented positive conclusions about the social media tool being studied (80%), there is little high quality evidence of improved outcomes to support this claim. This comprehensive review demonstrates that social media is being used for a variety of conditions and purposes in child health. The findings provide a foundation from which clinicians and researchers can build in the future by identifying tools that have been developed, describing how they have been used, and isolating components that have been effective.

  3. A systematic review of the use and effectiveness of social media in child health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media use is highly prevalent among children, youth, and their caregivers, and its use in healthcare is being explored. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine: 1) for what purposes social media is being used in child health and its effectiveness; and 2) the attributes of social media tools that may explain how they are or are not effective. Methods We searched Medline, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge, and Proquest Dissertation and Theses Database from 2000–2013. We included primary research that evaluated the use of a social media tool, and targeted children, youth, or their families or caregivers. Quality assessment was conducted on all included analytic studies using tools specific to different quantitative designs. Results We identified 25 studies relevant to child health. The majority targeted adolescents (64%), evaluated social media for health promotion (52%), and used discussion forums (68%). Most often, social media was included as a component of a complex intervention (64%). Due to heterogeneity in conditions, tools, and outcomes, results were not pooled across studies. Attributes of social media perceived to be effective included its use as a distraction in younger children, and its ability to facilitate communication between peers among adolescents. While most authors presented positive conclusions about the social media tool being studied (80%), there is little high quality evidence of improved outcomes to support this claim. Conclusions This comprehensive review demonstrates that social media is being used for a variety of conditions and purposes in child health. The findings provide a foundation from which clinicians and researchers can build in the future by identifying tools that have been developed, describing how they have been used, and isolating components that have been

  4. Non-Fickian mass transport in fractured porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Sergei A.; Chugunov, Vladimir A.; Hashida, Toshiyuki

    2011-02-01

    The paper provides an introduction to fundamental concepts of mathematical modeling of mass transport in fractured porous heterogeneous rocks. Keeping aside many important factors that can affect mass transport in subsurface, our main concern is the multi-scale character of the rock formation, which is constituted by porous domains dissected by the network of fractures. Taking into account the well-documented fact that porous rocks can be considered as a fractal medium and assuming that sizes of pores vary significantly (i.e. have different characteristic scales), the fractional-order differential equations that model the anomalous diffusive mass transport in such type of domains are derived and justified analytically. Analytical solutions of some particular problems of anomalous diffusion in the fractal media of various geometries are obtained. Extending this approach to more complex situation when diffusion is accompanied by advection, solute transport in a fractured porous medium is modeled by the advection-dispersion equation with fractional time derivative. In the case of confined fractured porous aquifer, accounting for anomalous non-Fickian diffusion in the surrounding rock mass, the adopted approach leads to introduction of an additional fractional time derivative in the equation for solute transport. The closed-form solutions for concentrations in the aquifer and surrounding rocks are obtained for the arbitrary time-dependent source of contamination located in the inlet of the aquifer. Based on these solutions, different regimes of contamination of the aquifers with different physical properties can be readily modeled and analyzed.

  5. Adoption and use of social media among public health departments.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Smith, Amanda K; Van Wagenen, Sarah B

    2012-03-26

    Effective communication is a critical function within any public health system. Social media has enhanced communication between individuals and organizations and has the potential to augment public health communication. However, there is a lack of reported data on social media adoption within public health settings. The purposes of this study were to assess: 1) the extent to which state public health departments (SHDs) are using social media; 2) which social media applications are used most often; and 3) how often social media is used interactively to engage audiences. This was a non-experimental, cross sectional study of SHD social media sites. Screen capture software Snag-It® was used to obtain screenshots of SHD social media sites across five applications. These sites were coded for social media presence, interactivity, reach, and topic. Sixty percent of SHDs reported using at least one social media application. Of these, 86.7% had a Twitter account, 56% a Facebook account, and 43% a YouTube channel. There was a statistically significant difference between average population density and use of social media (p = .01). On average, SHDs made one post per day on social media sites, and this was primarily to distribute information; there was very little interaction with audiences. SHDs have few followers or friends on their social media sites. The most common topics for posts and tweets related to staying healthy and diseases and conditions. Limitations include the absence of a standard by which social media metrics measure presence, reach, or interactivity; SHDs were only included if they had an institutionally maintained account; and the study was cross sectional. Social media use by public health agencies is in the early adoption stage. However, the reach of social media is limited. SHDs are using social media as a channel to distribute information rather than capitalizing on the interactivity available to create conversations and engage with the audience. If

  6. Adoption and use of social media among public health departments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Effective communication is a critical function within any public health system. Social media has enhanced communication between individuals and organizations and has the potential to augment public health communication. However, there is a lack of reported data on social media adoption within public health settings. The purposes of this study were to assess: 1) the extent to which state public health departments (SHDs) are using social media; 2) which social media applications are used most often; and 3) how often social media is used interactively to engage audiences. Methods This was a non-experimental, cross sectional study of SHD social media sites. Screen capture software Snag-It® was used to obtain screenshots of SHD social media sites across five applications. These sites were coded for social media presence, interactivity, reach, and topic. Results Sixty percent of SHDs reported using at least one social media application. Of these, 86.7% had a Twitter account, 56% a Facebook account, and 43% a YouTube channel. There was a statistically significant difference between average population density and use of social media (p = .01). On average, SHDs made one post per day on social media sites, and this was primarily to distribute information; there was very little interaction with audiences. SHDs have few followers or friends on their social media sites. The most common topics for posts and tweets related to staying healthy and diseases and conditions. Limitations include the absence of a standard by which social media metrics measure presence, reach, or interactivity; SHDs were only included if they had an institutionally maintained account; and the study was cross sectional. Conclusions Social media use by public health agencies is in the early adoption stage. However, the reach of social media is limited. SHDs are using social media as a channel to distribute information rather than capitalizing on the interactivity available to create

  7. Factors behind change in knowledge after a mass media campaign targeting periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, C; Söderfeldt, B; Andersson, P; Halling, A; Renvert, S

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in knowledge before and after a mass media campaign, in relation to social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. The study was based on a questionnaire in a cohort design, sent out to 900 randomly sampled people aged 50-75 in Sweden. The response rate to the questionnaire before and after the campaign was 70% and 65% respectively. Sixty-four percent answered both questionnaires. Two questions addressed knowledge, while 10 questions aimed to measure social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. Data were analysed for bivariate relations as to change in knowledge and social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. Data were also analysed in multiple regression analysis with knowledge before, knowledge after and knowledge differences as dependent variables. The results showed that there were a number of independent variables with influence on the dependent variables. Of the social attributes, secondary education gave almost 10% (P < 0.001) better knowledge both before and after the campaign. Among care system attributes, high care utilization was related to knowledge both before and after the campaign. The most important factors for knowledge about periodontitis were education, care utilization and perceived importance of oral health. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that mass media might increase knowledge about periodontitis as a health promotion strategy.

  8. A media advocacy intervention linking health disparities and food insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Melanie J.; McIntyre, Lynn; Persaud, Steven A.; Thomas, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Media advocacy is a well-established strategy for transmitting health messages to the public. This paper discusses a media advocacy intervention that raised issues about how the public interprets messages about the negative effects of poverty on population health. In conjunction with the publication of a manuscript illustrating how income-related food insecurity leads to disparities related to the consumption of a popular food product across Canada (namely, Kraft Dinner®), we launched a media intervention intended to appeal to radio, television, print and Internet journalists. All the media coverage conveyed our intended message that food insecurity is a serious population health problem, confirming that message framing, personal narratives and visual imagery are important in persuading media outlets to carry stories about poverty as a determinant of population health. Among politicians and members of the public (through on-line discussions), the coverage provoked on-message as well as off-message reactions. Population health researchers and health promotion practitioners should anticipate mixed reactions to media advocacy interventions, particularly in light of new Internet technologies. Opposition to media stories regarding the socio-economic determinants of population health can provide new insights into how we might overcome challenges in translating evidence into preventive interventions. PMID:21685402

  9. A media advocacy intervention linking health disparities and food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Rock, Melanie J; McIntyre, Lynn; Persaud, Steven A; Thomas, Karen L

    2011-12-01

    Media advocacy is a well-established strategy for transmitting health messages to the public. This paper discusses a media advocacy intervention that raised issues about how the public interprets messages about the negative effects of poverty on population health. In conjunction with the publication of a manuscript illustrating how income-related food insecurity leads to disparities related to the consumption of a popular food product across Canada (namely, Kraft Dinner®), we launched a media intervention intended to appeal to radio, television, print and Internet journalists. All the media coverage conveyed our intended message that food insecurity is a serious population health problem, confirming that message framing, personal narratives and visual imagery are important in persuading media outlets to carry stories about poverty as a determinant of population health. Among politicians and members of the public (through on-line discussions), the coverage provoked on-message as well as off-message reactions. Population health researchers and health promotion practitioners should anticipate mixed reactions to media advocacy interventions, particularly in light of new Internet technologies. Opposition to media stories regarding the socio-economic determinants of population health can provide new insights into how we might overcome challenges in translating evidence into preventive interventions.

  10. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    PubMed

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating.

  11. The relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women in health centers of Isfahan.

    PubMed

    Akbarinejad, Farideh; Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Shahrzadi, Leila

    2017-01-01

    The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and convey information in various forms of media including print and nonprint requires media literacy, but the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic information and services needed for appropriate decisions regarding health, considered an important element in a woman's ability to participate in health promotion and prevention activities for herself and her children, is needed to a level of health literacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women in health centers in Isfahan. This study used a descriptive correlation study. Data collection tools include Shahin media literacy and functional health literacy in adults' questionnaires. The population include pregnant women in health centers of Isfahan (4080 people). Ten out of the 351 health centers in Isfahan were selected as cluster. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Media literacy of respondents in the five dimensions was significantly lower than average 61.5% of pregnant women have inadequate health literacy, 18.8% had marginal health literacy, and only 19.7% of them have had adequate health literacy. There was a significant positive relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women. This study showed that the majority of pregnant women covered by health centers had limited health literacy and media literacy. Since one of the basic requirements for the utilization of health information is needed for adequate media literacy, promotion of media literacy is necessary for the respondents.

  12. Making Evidence on Health Policy Issues Accessible to the Media

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Noralou P.; O'Grady, Kathleen; Singer, Sharon Manson; Turczak, Shannon; Tapp, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    The media shape consumer expectations and interpretations of health interventions, influencing how people think about their need for care and the sustainability of the system. EvidenceNetwork.ca is a non-partisan, web-based project funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Manitoba Health Research Council to make the latest evidence on controversial health policy issues available to the media. This website links journalists with health policy experts. We publish opinion pieces on current health policy issues in both French and English. We track who follows and uses the EvidenceNetwork.ca website and monitor the impact of our efforts. PMID:23968614

  13. Health effects of media on children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2010-04-01

    Youth spend an average of >7 hours/day using media, and the vast majority of them have access to a bedroom television, computer, the Internet, a video-game console, and a cell phone. In this article we review the most recent research on the effects of media on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Studies have shown that media can provide information about safe health practices and can foster social connectedness. However, recent evidence raises concerns about media's effects on aggression, sexual behavior, substance use, disordered eating, and academic difficulties. We provide recommendations for parents, practitioners, the media, and policy makers, among others, for ways to increase the benefits and reduce the harm that media can have for the developing child and for adolescents.

  14. Effects of mass media coverage on timing and annual receipt of influenza vaccination among Medicare elderly.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Holland, Margaret L; Bhattacharya, Jay; Phelps, Charles E; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2010-10-01

    To measure the association between mass media coverage on flu-related topics and influenza vaccination, regarding timing and annual vaccination rates, among the nationally representative community-dwelling elderly. Years 1999, 2000, and 2001 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Cross-sectional survival analyses during each of three influenza vaccination seasons between September 1999 and December 2001. The outcome variable was daily vaccine receipt. We measured daily media coverage by counting the number of television program transcripts and newspaper/wire service articles, including keywords of influenza/flu and vaccine/shot shortage/delay. All models' covariates included three types of media, vaccine supply, and regional/individual factors. Influenza-related reports in all three media sources had a positive association with earlier vaccination timing and annual vaccination rate. Four television networks' reports had most consistent positive effects in all models, for example, shifting the mean vaccination timing earlier by 1.8-4.1 days (p<.001) or increasing the annual vaccination rate by 2.3-7.9 percentage points (p<.001). These effects tended to be greater when reported in a headline rather than in text only and if including additional keywords, for example, vaccine shortage/delay. Timing and annual receipt of influenza vaccination appear to be influenced by media coverage, particularly by headlines and specific reports on shortage/delay. Copyright © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Mass media can help improve treatment of childhood diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rao, K V; Mishra, V K; Retherford, R D

    1998-08-01

    The Government of India has identified oral rehydration therapy (ORT) promotion as a priority child survival strategy. Since two-thirds of mothers in India are illiterate, radio and television have been important vehicles for educating mothers about the need to increase a child's fluid intake and continue feeding during episodes of diarrhea, to use prepackaged oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home-made solution (RHS), and to recognize symptoms that require treatment at a health facility. The effects of exposure to electronic media messages about childhood diarrhea on mothers' knowledge and use of ORT were investigated through data from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey. the data set included 38,161 women who gave birth in the 4 years preceding the survey and 4558 children born 1-47 months before the survey who were sick with diarrhea at any time during the 2 weeks before the interview. 43% of mothers were aware of ORS. Only 18% of infants received ORS and 19% were given RHS during the recent diarrhea episode; 69% received neither ORS or RHS. Moreover, children with diarrhea were twice as likely to receive decreased amounts of breast milk and other fluids than to be given increased amounts. The low use of ORS is especially alarming since 61% of children with diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks were taken to a health facility for treatment. 94% of these children were given antibiotics or other unnecessary drugs. Both knowledge and use of ORS were significantly higher among mothers with regular (weekly) exposure to electronic media, even after controls for potential confounding factors. These findings indicate a need to strengthen education programs in this area for both mothers and health care providers.

  16. Does Socio-Economic Status and Health Consciousness Influence How Women Respond to Health Related Messages in Media?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Anette Christine; Kraft, Pal

    2006-01-01

    During the past few decades, people have been increasingly exposed to health-related messages in the mass media, conveying recommendations for healthy lifestyles. The present study investigates whether these messages represent a stressor, and whether coping responses increase levels of motivation or levels of negative affect. A sample of 403 women…

  17. Dissemination of High Value Mass Media International News to the College Student Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, John R.; Hunt, Gary

    The "two-step flow" theory of mass communication posits that people are less influenced by the mass media themselves than by those who watch the mass media. Hypotheses were that the two-step flow would predominate in the dissemination of four major news events among college students and that the students' most frequent "source" of knowledge for…

  18. The Use of Mass Media in Religiously Motivated Adult Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Robert W.; Jaberg, Eugene C.

    Beginning with definitions of the mass communication process, this paper reviews mass media adult education literature from a variety of sources (social scientists, religious educators, experimental public affairs broadcasting projects, and others) relevant to the use of mass media in connection with group programs stimulated by religious…

  19. Ethnicity and the Mass Media in Canada: An Annotated Bibliography = Bibliographie annotee sur les ethnies et les media au Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karim, Karim H.; Sansom, Gareth

    This bibliography lists 135 publications dealing with the portrayal and employment of Canadians of all ethnic backgrounds in mainstream Canadian media. A broad definition of mass media encompassing all widely distributed communicative materials, including educational textbooks and forms of hate material, is used for the purposes of the…

  20. Media Tactics in New Zealand's Crown Health Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comrie, Margie

    1997-01-01

    States that New Zealand's public hospitals, converted into Crown Health Enterprises (CHEs) and required to operate within commercial restraints, were the target of attacks from politicians, medical organizations, community groups, and media. Examines press coverage of two similar CHEs over three months. Shows proactive media relations paid off in…

  1. Simple, inexpensive media for mass production of three entomophthoralean fungi.

    PubMed

    Leite, Luis G; Alves, Sérgio B; Batista Filho, Antonio; Roberts, Donald W

    2005-03-01

    The entomophthoralean fungi Batkoa sp., Furia sp. and Neozygites floridana have been suggested for biocontrol of insect pests: the first two for control of spittlebug pests of pasture and sugarcane, and the third for mites of agricultural importance. To develop these agents as biopesticides and bioacaricides, it is important to have available culture media that maximize production at low cost. The research reported here evaluates, in different combinations and concentrations, the effect of four complex sources of nitrogen on production of mycelium or hyphal bodies in liquid media of all three species. Yeast extract allowed the highest production of Batkoa sp., with a concentration of 0.5% being the most suitable for vegetative (mycelial) growth. The combination of 0.33% each of yeast extract + beef extract + skim milk allowed the highest production of Furia sp. Mycelium. The combination of yeast extract + skim milk (0.5% of each) allowed the second highest production of Furia sp., and was the most suitable for mass production due to the lower cost. The combination of 1 %each of yeast extract + peptone + skim milk was the most suitable for production of N. floridana hyphal bodies.

  2. Media complementarity and health information seeking in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yan; Robinson, James D

    2014-01-01

    This investigation incorporates the Orientation1-Stimulus-Orientation2-Response model on the antecedents and outcomes of individual-level complementarity of media use in health information seeking. A secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data suggests that education and gender were positively associated with individual-level media complementarity of health information seeking, which, in turn, was positively associated with awareness of health concepts and organizations, and this awareness was positively associated with a specific health behavior: fruit and vegetable consumption. This study extends the research in media complementarity and health information use; it provides an integrative social psychological model empirically supported by the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data.

  3. Systematic review of the effectiveness of mass media interventions for child survival in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Danielle A; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Through a systematic review of the literature, this article summarizes and evaluates evidence for the effectiveness of mass media interventions for child survival. To be included, studies had to describe a mass media intervention; address a child survival health topic; present quantitative data from a low- or middle-income country; use an evaluation design that compared outcomes using pre- and postintervention data, treatment versus comparison groups, or postintervention data across levels of exposure; and report a behavioral or health outcome. The 111 campaign evaluations that met the inclusion criteria included 15 diarrheal disease, 8 immunization, 2 malaria, 14 nutrition, 1 preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, 4 respiratory disease, and 67 reproductive health interventions. These evaluations were then sorted into weak (n = 33), moderate (n = 32), and stronger evaluations (n = 46) on the basis of the sampling method, the evaluation design, and efforts to address threats to inference of mass media effects. The moderate and stronger evaluations provide evidence that mass media-centric campaigns can positively impact a wide range of child survival health behaviors.

  4. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Mass Media Interventions for Child Survival in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Danielle A.; Hornik, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Through a systematic review of the literature, this article summarizes and evaluates evidence for the effectiveness of mass media interventions for child survival. To be included, studies had to describe a mass media intervention; address a child survival health topic; present quantitative data from a low- or middle-income country; use an evaluation design that compared outcomes using pre- and postintervention data, treatment versus comparison groups, or postintervention data across levels of exposure; and report a behavioral or health outcome. The 111 campaign evaluations that met the inclusion criteria included 15 diarrheal disease, 8 immunization, 2 malaria, 14 nutrition, 1 preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, 4 respiratory disease, and 67 reproductive health interventions. These evaluations were then sorted into weak (n = 33), moderate (n = 32), and stronger evaluations (n = 46) on the basis of the sampling method, the evaluation design, and efforts to address threats to inference of mass media effects. The moderate and stronger evaluations provide evidence that mass media-centric campaigns can positively impact a wide range of child survival health behaviors. PMID:25207453

  5. Induced Monoculture in Axelrod Model with Clever Mass Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Arezky H.; Del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Vázquez, G. J.

    A new model is proposed, in the context of Axelrod's model for the study of cultural dissemination, to include an external vector field (VF) which describes the effects of mass media on social systems. The VF acts over the whole system and it is characterized by two parameters: a nonnull overlap with each agent in the society and a confidence value of its information. Beyond a threshold value of the confidence, there is induced monocultural globalization of the system lined up with the VF. Below this value, the multicultural states are unstable and certain homogenization of the system is obtained in opposite line up according to that we have called negative publicity effect. Three regimes of behavior for the spread process of the VF information as a function of time are reported.

  6. Evaluation of a mass media campaign on smoking and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Campion, P; Owen, L; McNeill, A; McGuire, C

    1994-10-01

    Two surveys were conducted among pregnant women throughout England, before (n = 625) and after (n = 607) a mass media campaign on smoking and pregnancy targeted at women aged 15-24 years, in the social grade C2DE. The majority of the post-campaign sample recalled having seen at least one of the campaign's series of press advertisements. There was a significant increase among this sample in those considering smoking to be very dangerous to the unborn child, in those understanding the term passive smoking and in those considering passive smoking to be very dangerous. During the campaign there was a 14% increase in the number of calls to a cessation helpline from pregnant women. Over the campaign there were no significant changes in smoking prevalence and consumption among pregnant women or partners or in the numbers of partners offering suggestions to pregnant women about their smoking behaviour.

  7. Mass media and rational domination: a critical review of a dominant paradigm.

    PubMed

    Moemeka, A

    1988-01-01

    The mass media exert powerful influences on the way people perceive, think about, and ultimately act in their world. Despite agreement on this fact, communication scholars are divided into 2 opposing camps. The functionalists view the mass media as instruments for providing the framework for the education and enlightenment of the masses socially, economically, and politically. In contrast, the conflict and critical theorists see the mass media as instruments for rational domination and manipulation of the masses through ideological control. Because the mass media are part of the social system and their operators belong to the ruling elite class, they invariably support the ideology of the power structure through justifying the sociopolitical status quo. It is axiomatic that the mass media are capable of diverting people's attention and consciousness away from sociopolitical issues by filling their leisure time with escapist forms of entertainment. The political structure is fully aware of the potential of the mass media to effect cognitive changes among individuals and to structure their thinking. As long as social, political, and economic status determine who is important and who is not, the media will continue to be instruments of control. However, this control function can be weakened when media infrastructure and administration are decentralized and closer to the masses. Then, solutions to the problems of the masses are the priority targets of media contents. The democratic-participant media theory calls for the right of access to the mass media for citizens and the rights of the masses to be served by the media according to their own self-determined needs.

  8. Media created violence: a social determinant of mental health.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shamshad; Khowaja, Shaneela Sadruddin; Ali, Gulnar

    2012-12-01

    In today's high technological world, scientific discoveries contribute remarkable development to human life, but it could also have an adverse impact on mankind. Among all these advancements, media is one of the inventions which aims at capturing a countless group of viewers and transmit information via various mediums. Media violence is considered one of the hampering determinants which harms an individual psychologically. The primary goal of a health professional is to work for the maintenance of mental health. Therefore, it is imperative to create an understanding about the impact of media violence on mental health, particularly in the Pakistani context. Violence has become a major public health problem in Pakistan. The main cause of violence seems to be anger and frustration due to poverty, political conflicts, lack of education, and the overall governance approach in the country. Therefore, there is a prime need to think and work on this neglected area like conducting research and increasing public awareness, and to curb media violence.

  9. Population-based evaluation of the 'LiveLighter' healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M

    2016-04-01

    The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P < 0.05) and physical activity intentions (P < 0.05). Endorsement of stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour.

  10. Evaluation of a Health and Fitness Social Media Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimming, Renee E.; Polsgrove, Myles Jay; Bower, Glenna G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: University health and fitness faculty members are continually striving to enhance the health knowledge of their students. Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to survey student reflections of a social media experience. Methods: Students were placed into one of two groups: Learners (N = 92) or Pre-Service Health and Fitness…

  11. Media participation and mental health in terrorist attack survivors.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims.

  12. [Sociology of health, social ecology and media democracy].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2012-05-27

    The correlation of the sociology of health, social ecology and media democracy is demonstrated in the study. In societies of today, the role of the media is unquestionable in disseminating information relating to health and the environment. According to Paragraph (1) of Article XXI of the Hungarian Constitution of 2011, everyone has the right to a healthy environment. An environmentalist media democracy may forward environmental justice, environmental education, and environmentalist economy, etc. All these are required in order to establish a society where the healthy environment is an objective value.

  13. Health crises and media relations: relationship management-by-fire.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver-Lariscy, Ruthann

    2007-01-01

    Media relations is an important function in the operation of any health organization, yet it is often relegated as a simple task function. Such an orientation can be problematic, particularly in times of crisis. This article provides an overview of some of the inherent internal conflicts within health organizations that may mitigate against the best media relations practices in times of crises. The article surveys some of the predominant theoretical models used for crisis management, and suggests directions for the further development of media relations and crisis communication theory and practice.

  14. Health and Social Media: Perfect Storm of Information

    PubMed Central

    Bau, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The use of Internet in the health domain is becoming a major worldwide trend. Millions of citizens are searching online health information and also publishing content about their health. Patients are engaging with other patients in online communities using different types of social media. The boundaries between mobile health, social media, wearable, games, and big data are becoming blurrier due the integration of all those technologies. In this paper we provide an overview of the major research challenges with the area of health social media. Methods We use several study cases to exemplify the current trends and highlight future research challenges. Results Internet is exploding and is being used for health purposes by a great deal of the population. Social networks have a powerful influence in health decisions. Given the lack of knowledge on the use of health social media, there is a need for complex multidisciplinary research to help us understand how to use social networks in favour of public health. A bigger understanding of social media will give health authorities new tools to help decision-making at global, national, local, and corporate level. Conclusions There is an unprecedented amount of data that can be used in public health due the potential combination of data acquired from mobile phones, Electronic Health Records, social media, and other sources. To identify meaningful information from those data sources it is not trial. Moreover, new analytics tools will need to be developed to analyse those sources of data in a way that it can benefit healthcare professionals and authorities. PMID:25995958

  15. Exposure to the mass media and weight concerns among girls.

    PubMed

    Field, A E; Cheung, L; Wolf, A M; Herzog, D B; Gortmaker, S L; Colditz, G A

    1999-03-01

    article (OR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.77-5.17); and to feel that magazines influence what they believe is the ideal body shape (OR = 2.81; 95% CI: 1.72-4.58). In addition, moderate-frequency readers were more likely than infrequent readers of fashion magazines to report exercising because of a magazine article (OR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.14-3.30) and feeling that magazines influence what they believe is the ideal body shape (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.30-3.15). The majority of the preadolescent and adolescent girls in this school-based study were unhappy with their body weight and shape. This discontentment was strongly related to the frequency of reading fashion magazines. Although previous studies have concluded that the print media promotes an unrealistically thin body ideal, which in turn is at least partially responsible for promoting eating disorders, the present study is the first that we are aware of to assess directly the impact of the print media on the weight and body shape beliefs of young girls. We observed that the frequency of reading fashion magazines was positively associated with the prevalence of having dieted to lose weight, having gone on a diet because of a magazine article, exercising to lose weight or improve body shape, and deciding to exercise because of a magazine article. Given the substantial health risk associated with overweight and the fact that during the past 2 decades the prevalence of overweight has increased sharply among children and adolescents, it is not prudent to suggest that overweight girls should accept their body shape and not be encouraged to lose weight. However, aspiring to look like underweight models may have deleterious psychological consequences. The results suggest that the print media aimed at young girls could serve a public health role by refraining from relying on models who are severely underweight and printing more articles on the benefits of physical

  16. A simple methodology for piloting and evaluating mass media interventions: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dale, Rachele; Hanbury, Andria

    2010-03-01

    To develop effective mass media health campaigns it is important to explore the behaviour-change techniques that make campaigns more or less effective. This exploratory study observed the behaviour-change techniques employed in two current healthy eating television programmes, and mapped these techniques onto key theoretical frameworks. Interviews were then conducted with six participants who watched the programmes, to identify which techniques were perceived to be more and less effective and to identify any disjunctures between the behaviour-change techniques used in the programmes and factors perceived by the participants to be particularly influential upon their healthy eating. The two programmes were found to use similar behaviour-change techniques, with a heavy reliance on providing general health motivation. Interviews revealed that participants perceived several specific barriers to eating healthily, felt the need for more specific guidance and emphasised the importance of identifying with the role models used in the programmes. Recommendations for future mass media health campaigns include the need to educate individuals about how to overcome specific barriers that they might face when trying to eat a healthy diet and to include a wider range of role models to encourage the audience to identify with the programme participants.

  17. Using Videos To Teach Mass Media and Society from a Critical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna Lee

    2000-01-01

    Explores using videos to teach mass media and society from a critical sociological perspective. Discusses the content of the course from focusing on analysis of corporate capitalism and media producers to analyzing popular media texts on gender, race, the working class, and sexuality. Addresses the evaluation of the course. (CMK)

  18. A Frustrated Fourth Estate: Portugal's Post-Revolutionary Mass Media. Journalism Monographs Number Eighty-Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Warren K.; Traquina, Nelson

    1984-01-01

    To explain how and why the Portuguese mass media constitute a frustrated Fourth Estate, this monograph summarizes the history and development of Portuguese media. The first section summarized the history of media legislation that has confronted Portuguese journalists and stunted the development of journalistic tradition. The second section…

  19. A Look at the Mass Media Situation in the Philippines: Implications for Education and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guioguio, Reynaldo V.

    Mass media in the Philippines at present show two seemingly opposite trends: a small but noticeable increase in the number of provincial newspapers, and a reduction in the number of radio stations in certain areas. Two general features of the media situation, the private ownership of the media and the need for progressive public service…

  20. The relationship between audience mentality and attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in the mass media.

    PubMed

    Lignowska, Izabella; Borowiec, Agnieszka; Slonska, Zofia

    2016-09-01

    Health promoters who use the mass media to encourage people to change their health behaviours usually underestimate the importance of audience's mental predispositions, which may determine their susceptibility to such influences. This paper presents research findings that show how some elements of an audience's mentality are related to their attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in the mass media (HLPMM). The research project, undertaken between 2007 and 2009, comprised: a qualitative study using in-depth interviews (N=30); a self-administered survey on a purposive sample (N=237) and a computer-assisted personal interview or interviewing (CAPI) survey on a representative sample of Polish adult population (N=934). The findings from the first two studies were used to construct a scale to investigate the attitude towards HLPMM. This scale was applied in a nation wide survey and, as a result, four dimensions of the attitude were identified: (1) appraisal of the idea of HLPMM; (2) appraisal of HLPMM practice; (3) propensity to receive media messages promoting healthy lifestyle and (4) propensity to avoid such messages. Moreover, the survey results confirmed the hypotheses whereby a higher degree of individualism, a higher degree of authoritarianism, a weaker demanding orientation and generalised trust are related to a more positive attitude towards HLPMM. The aforementioned relationships indicate that producers of media messages promoting a healthy lifestyle need to take account of their audience's mentality, since knowledge of mental predispositions of the target audience may help them make the message more suitable for specific recipients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Social perception of droughts in the mass media (southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, T. Leon; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    In the Mediterranean environment, drought is one of the extreme phenomena that has most direct consequences and complexity. It also has a direct social impact through the mass media, whose analysis, typology and characterization should be a priority in strategies to plan and mitigate effects. The appearance of droughts is slow, their occurrence is often not recognized until human activity and the environment have already been significantly affected, and drought effects persist for a long time after the drought has ended. The spatial distribution of droughts is highly complex, and significant variation in drought conditions is common between different locations. This makes it difficult to identify similar regions, especially in areas of climate transition, where the atmospheric influences are complex. This is the situation in the Iberian Peninsula (particularly the south of the peninsula), which straddles both temperate and sub-tropical climates and in which precipitation is highly variable and spatial variability is substantial. In this study we analyzed rainfall anomalies (Standardized Precipitation Index) over the last 50 years at 4 representative meteorological stations in southern Spain, two on the coast (Málaga and Algarrobo) and two at the headwaters of river basins regulated by dams (Antequera and Periana). The aims of the study were to: i) analyze the types of drought, and their frequency and intensity; and ii) establish the dynamics and evolution of the social perception of droughts in the context of global change, brought about by the communications media. The results showed the SPI was a useful tool for identifying dry anomalies that may feature in our field of study of meteorological and hydrological drought, depending on its duration. Meteorological drought impact on the eco-geomorphological system is common and has had a particular development since the 80's. Hydrological droughts are those that have had the greatest effect on water reserves

  2. Public Education about Globalization: The Role of the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the media treatment of the 1996 Australian election to illustrate the power of the media to disseminate corporate propaganda and to persuade the public to accept the political and economic changes of globalization. (SK)

  3. Mass Media Content as a Dependent Variable: Five Media Sociology Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.; Mayfield, Elizabeth Kay

    To better understand the effects of the media on audiences, five media sociology theoretical approaches to the study of influences on media were investigated by looking at tests of the approaches in three journals over the last 10 years. The mirror approach predicted that the media would accurately represent reality, but, while accurate, the media…

  4. Mass Media Content as a Dependent Variable: Five Media Sociology Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.; Mayfield, Elizabeth Kay

    To better understand the effects of the media on audiences, five media sociology theoretical approaches to the study of influences on media were investigated by looking at tests of the approaches in three journals over the last 10 years. The mirror approach predicted that the media would accurately represent reality, but, while accurate, the media…

  5. Images of Education: The Mass Media's Version of America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, George R.

    Offering insights and ideas for school leaders, the news media, and the public to consider, this book examines how the print and electronic media portray one of the crucial news stories of our time: the education of 50 million American youngsters. The book maintains that, while the school-media connection should be "a natural" for both…

  6. Potential Interrelationships Between Library and Other Mass Media Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edwin B.

    The function of libraries is to make it easy for the people in their community to obtain information from other people or environments that may be distant is space, time or imagination. To perform this function libraries require communication media. Storage media are essential, but duplication and transmission media can improve the service of…

  7. Media coverage of health issues and how to work more effectively with journalists: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Leask, Julie; Hooker, Claire; King, Catherine

    2010-09-08

    The mass media has enormous potential to influence health-related behaviours and perceptions. Much research has focused on how the media frames health issues. This study sought to explore how journalists in Australia select and shape news on health issues. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 16 journalists from major Australian print, radio and television media organisations reporting on avian influenza and pandemic planning. Journalists, including reporters, editors and producers, were interviewed between October 2006 and August 2007. Thematic analysis was used to draw out major lessons for health communicators. Journalists routinely attempted to balance different, sometimes competing, aims amidst significant operational constraints. They perceived the most trusted sources on health issues to be respected and independent doctors. Specialist health and medical reporters had a more sound technical knowledge, channels to appropriate sources, power within their organisations, and ability to advocate for better quality coverage. An awareness of how to work with the media is essential for health communicators. This includes understanding journalists' daily routines, being available, providing resources, and building relationships with specialist health reporters.

  8. Social media, help or hindrance: what role does social media play in young people's mental health?

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Alfie

    2014-11-01

    Social media is a huge force in the lives of young people with wide ranging effects on their development; given the importance of adolescence in the genesis of mental illness, social media is a factor in the mental health of young people. Despite the role that social media obviously plays in the development of mental illness, little research has been done into the impact that social media has on in the mental illness of young people. In general, what research there is points towards social media having a large impact on young people in both positive and negative ways. In particular, certain studies show a greater incidence and severity of bullying online compared to offline which may contribute to the development of depression. This contrasts with the positive impact that social media seems to have for young people in minority groups (ethnic minorities and those with chronic disease or disability) by allowing them to connect with others who live similar lives despite geographical separation. This acts as a positive influence in these people's lives though a direct link to mental illness was not shown. Overall, several important issues are raised: firstly, the lack of research that has been conducted in the area; secondly, the gulf that exists between the generation of younger, 'digital native' generations and the older generations who are not as engaged with social media; and finally, the huge potential that exists for the use of social media as a protective influence for adolescents. With proper engagement, policy makers and health professionals could use social media to connect with young people on issues like mental health.

  9. A Comparison of Agenda Setting in the United States by the Mass Media and Political Parties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hampden H., III

    A review of research on the roles played by the mass media and the political parties during the agenda-setting stage of political activity in the United States indicates that the mass media have assumed some of the informing and issue-initiating functions generally understood to be performed by political parties. It seems desirable to develop an…

  10. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  11. Deference, Denial, and Beyond: A Repertoire Approach to Mass Media and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymes, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines two general research approaches, within the education world, to these mass-mediated formations: "Deference" and "Denial." Researchers who recognize the social practices that give local meaning to mass media formations and ways of speaking do not attempt to recontextualize youth media in their own social…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Mass Media Development in Less-Developed Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Hemant

    A study was conducted to examine the causal predictors of mass media development in 105 underdeveloped countries for various lengths of time to determine if there were consistent relationships among the dependent and independent variables regardless of the time lag. The study also sought to determine how mass media developed during the 29-year…

  13. The Educational Use of Mass Media. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 491.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courrier, Kathleen, Ed.

    This 7-chapter volume presents 11 papers dealing with the issues commonly encountered by educators and decision-makers in less developed countries when they consider the use of mass media to further their country's education and development. Individual topics and their authors are (1) "Marshalling, Managing, and Evaluating the Mass Media for…

  14. The Influence of the Mass Media on Young People as a Problem of Russian Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapesotskii, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the influence of the mass media on the moral state of Russian society discerns negative consequences of that influence, and sees the mass media (particularly television) as involved in the cultural degradation of the population. It argues in favor of state, social, and pedagogical controls to facilitate a more positive role of the…

  15. Developmental Play: A New Approach to the Role of Mass Media in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Keith P.; Hagahmed, Gamaleldin O.

    Most of the "talk" about the role of mass media in the Third World is generated by politicians rather than by professional communicators. The "Developmental Play Model" treats media experience as an encounter with the "self" and considers the "self" as an integral part of the mass communication process. The…

  16. A Communication Model for Teaching a Course in Mass Media and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumley, Wilma; Stricklin, Michael

    Many professors of mass media and society courses have relied on a teaching model implying that students are sponges soaking up information. A more appropriate model invites concern with an active audience, transaction, the interpersonal mass media mix, a general systems approach, and process and change--in other words, utilization of current and…

  17. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  18. The Mass Media in Cooperative Extension: A Review of Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everly, Jack C.

    A brief account is given of current evaluative and research activity by Cooperative Extension personnel as they try to assess the role of mass media in environmental education and a growing range of other areas. Attention is given to principles of mass media rural extension, as well as to basic communication theory, the overall usefulness of mass…

  19. The Influence of the Mass Media on Young People as a Problem of Russian Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapesotskii, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the influence of the mass media on the moral state of Russian society discerns negative consequences of that influence, and sees the mass media (particularly television) as involved in the cultural degradation of the population. It argues in favor of state, social, and pedagogical controls to facilitate a more positive role of the…

  20. Deference, Denial, and Beyond: A Repertoire Approach to Mass Media and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymes, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines two general research approaches, within the education world, to these mass-mediated formations: "Deference" and "Denial." Researchers who recognize the social practices that give local meaning to mass media formations and ways of speaking do not attempt to recontextualize youth media in their own social…

  1. High Context Messaging in Chinese English-Language Mass Media: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, James A.

    This article describes high context messaging in Chinese English-language mass media. A case study analysis of said mass media, during the 1996 Taiwan sovereignty/reunification controversy related to People's Liberation Army exercises in the Taiwan Straits, is done as a means of focusing on one singular event. The exercises were staged to dampen…

  2. The Educational Use of Mass Media. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 491.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courrier, Kathleen, Ed.

    This 7-chapter volume presents 11 papers dealing with the issues commonly encountered by educators and decision-makers in less developed countries when they consider the use of mass media to further their country's education and development. Individual topics and their authors are (1) "Marshalling, Managing, and Evaluating the Mass Media for…

  3. The Influence of the Mass Media on the Life Plans of Rural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillaste, G. G.

    2005-01-01

    Rural students, who live in the villages of Russia, are more resolved than ever to leave their native land. Their decision is influenced by the mass media, which plays a large role in determining their views and the way they relate to the world. In this article, the author examines the influence of the mass media on the life of rural students…

  4. The Influence of the Mass Media on the Life Plans of Rural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillaste, G. G.

    2005-01-01

    Rural students, who live in the villages of Russia, are more resolved than ever to leave their native land. Their decision is influenced by the mass media, which plays a large role in determining their views and the way they relate to the world. In this article, the author examines the influence of the mass media on the life of rural students…

  5. A Communication Model for Teaching a Course in Mass Media and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumley, Wilma; Stricklin, Michael

    Many professors of mass media and society courses have relied on a teaching model implying that students are sponges soaking up information. A more appropriate model invites concern with an active audience, transaction, the interpersonal mass media mix, a general systems approach, and process and change--in other words, utilization of current and…

  6. Pleasing the masses: messages for daily life management in African American women's popular media sources.

    PubMed

    Black, Angela Rose; Peacock, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the "strong Black woman" (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Using the search term "strong Black woman," we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management ("please the masses"), emotional suppression ("game face"), and postponement of self-care ("last on the list") incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources.

  7. Accounting for Sitting and Moving: An Analysis of Sedentary Behavior in Mass Media Campaigns.

    PubMed

    Knox, Emily; Biddle, Stuart; Esliger, Dale W; Piggin, Joe; Sherar, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Mass media campaigns are an important tool for promoting health-related physical activity. The relevance of sedentary behavior to public health has propelled it to feature prominently in health campaigns across the world. This study explored the use of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns within the context of current debates surrounding the association between sedentary behavior and health, and messaging strategies to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A web-based search of major campaigns in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and Australia was performed to identify the main campaign from each country. A directed content analysis was then conducted to analyze the inclusion of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns and to elucidate key themes. Important areas for future research were illustrated. Four key themes from the campaigns emerged: clinging to sedentary behavior guidelines, advocating reducing sedentary behavior as a first step on the activity continuum and the importance of light activity, confusing the promotion of MVPA, and the demonization of sedentary behavior. Strategies for managing sedentary behavior as an additional complicating factor in health promotion are urgently required. Lessons learned from previous health communication campaigns should stimulate research to inform future messaging strategies.

  8. Boot Camp for Occupational Health Nurses: Understanding Social Media.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Debra M; Olszewski, Kimberly

    2015-08-01

    Social media is a buzzword frequently referred to in marketing materials, general media, and personal conversations. Although many refer to the term social media, some individuals do not understand its meaning or how it affects their daily lives at work and home. Since the expansion of the Internet to web 2.0, multiple platforms of communication occur virtually through various social media. Understanding and learning how to use these platforms are essential to stay connected with friends, family, and colleagues; advance connections to professional organizations; and extend educational opportunities. This article presents basic information for occupational health nurses to improve their understanding of social media and how to communicate virtually using different platforms safely and securely.

  9. Social media for diabetes health education - inclusive or exclusive?

    PubMed

    Pal, B Rani

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovations are rising rapidly and are inevitably becoming part of the health care environment. Patients frequently access Social media as a forum for discussion of personal health issues; and healthcare providers are now considering ways of harnessing social media as a source of learning and teaching. This review highlights some of the complex issues of using social media as an opportunity for interaction between public- patient-healthcare staff; considers the impact of self- education and self-management for patients with diabetes, and explores some recent advances in delivering education for staff. When using any information technology, the emphasis should rely on being assessed rigorously to show it promotes health education safely, can be recognized as delivering up-to- date health information effectively, and should ensure there is no bias in selective communication, or disadvantage to isolated patient groups.

  10. Mass Media Fellow Westley spends summer publishing in Newsweek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifert, Harvey

    If you are a subscriber to Newsweek, you probably remember these stories from the past few months: “Vaccine Revolution,” “Aliens Invade America!,” “A Gymnast's Long Fall,” “Is AIDS Forever?,” and a cover story, “Science Finds God.” They all had something in common, aside from their science focus: at the end of each article was the credit line, “With Marian Westley.” In addition, a story titled “A Long, Wacky Summer,” on recent weather patterns, carried Marian Westley's byline. Who, you may have wondered, is this Marian Westley, who reports with equal aplomb on matters as diverse as epidemiology, meteorology, the predations of nonnative plant species, and the interface between scientists and theologians? Actually, Westley is a graduate student in biological oceanography at the University of Hawaii and a member of AGU. She spent the summer of 1998 as the AAAS/AGU Mass Media Fellow at Newsweek in New York.

  11. The mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Brown, Jane D; Kenneavy, Kristin

    2006-03-01

    This study compared influences from the mass media (television, music, movies, magazines) on adolescents' sexual intentions and behaviors to other socialization contexts, including family, religion, school, and peers. A sample of 1011 Black and White adolescents from 14 middle schools in the Southeastern United States completed linked mail surveys about their media use and in-home Audio-CASI interviews about their sexual intentions and behaviors. Analysis of the sexual content in 264 media vehicles used by respondents was also conducted. Exposure to sexual content across media, and perceived support from the media for teen sexual behavior, were the main media influence measures. Media explained 13% of the variance in intentions to initiate sexual intercourse in the near future, and 8-10% of the variance in light and heavy sexual behaviors, which was comparable to other contexts. Media influences also demonstrated significant associations with intentions and behaviors after all other factors were considered. All contextual factors, including media, explained 54% of the variance in sexual intentions and 21-33% of the variance in sexual behaviors. Adolescents who are exposed to more sexual content in the media, and who perceive greater support from the media for teen sexual behavior, report greater intentions to engage in sexual intercourse and more sexual activity. Mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual socialization, and media influences should be considered in research and interventions with early adolescents to reduce sexual activity.

  12. Integrating Social Media Monitoring Into Public Health Emergency Response Operations.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Tamer A; Fleshler, Keren

    2016-10-01

    Social media monitoring for public health emergency response and recovery is an essential response capability for any health department. The value of social media for emergency response lies not only in the capacity to rapidly communicate official and critical incident information, but as a rich source of incoming data that can be gathered to inform leadership decision-making. Social media monitoring is a function that can be formally integrated into the Incident Command System of any response agency. The approach to planning and required resources, such as staffing, logistics, and technology, is flexible and adaptable based on the needs of the agency and size and scope of the emergency. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has successfully used its Social Media Monitoring Team during public health emergency responses and planned events including major Ebola and Legionnaires' disease responses. The concepts and implementations described can be applied by any agency, large or small, interested in building a social media monitoring capacity. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  13. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further

  14. Social media in adolescent health literacy education: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tse, Carrie Kw; Bridges, Susan M; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda Ss

    2015-03-09

    While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual's approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents' oral health literacy (OHL) education. A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants' sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further analyses with a larger study group is warranted.

  15. The relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women in health centers of Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Akbarinejad, Farideh; Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Shahrzadi, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Background: The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and convey information in various forms of media including print and nonprint requires media literacy, but the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic information and services needed for appropriate decisions regarding health, considered an important element in a woman's ability to participate in health promotion and prevention activities for herself and her children, is needed to a level of health literacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women in health centers in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This study used a descriptive correlation study. Data collection tools include Shahin media literacy and functional health literacy in adults’ questionnaires. The population include pregnant women in health centers of Isfahan (4080 people). Ten out of the 351 health centers in Isfahan were selected as cluster. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Media literacy of respondents in the five dimensions was significantly lower than average 61.5% of pregnant women have inadequate health literacy, 18.8% had marginal health literacy, and only 19.7% of them have had adequate health literacy. There was a significant positive relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women. Conclusion: This study showed that the majority of pregnant women covered by health centers had limited health literacy and media literacy. Since one of the basic requirements for the utilization of health information is needed for adequate media literacy, promotion of media literacy is necessary for the respondents. PMID:28546982

  16. Mind the gap: social media engagement by public health researchers.

    PubMed

    Keller, Brett; Labrique, Alain; Jain, Kriti M; Pekosz, Andrew; Levine, Orin

    2014-01-14

    The traditional vertical system of sharing information from sources of scientific authority passed down to the public through local health authorities and clinicians risks being made obsolete by emerging technologies that facilitate rapid horizontal information sharing. The rise of Public Health 2.0 requires professional acknowledgment that a new and substantive forum of public discourse about public health exists on social media, such as forums, blogs, Facebook, and Twitter. Some public health professionals have used social media in innovative ways: to surveil populations, gauge public opinion, disseminate health information, and promote mutually beneficial interactions between public health professionals and the lay public. Although innovation is on the rise, most in the public health establishment remain skeptical of this rapidly evolving landscape or are unclear about how it could be used. We sought to evaluate the extent to which public health professionals are engaged in these spaces. We conducted a survey of professorial- and scientist-track faculty at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We asked all available faculty via email to complete a 30-question survey about respondent characteristics, beliefs about social media, and usage of specific technologies, including blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. A total of 181 (19.8%) of 912 professor- and scientist-track faculty provided usable responses. The majority of respondents rarely used major social media platforms. Of these 181 respondents, 97 (53.6%) had used YouTube, 84 (46.4%) had used Facebook, 55 (30.4%) had read blogs, and 12 (6.6%) had used Twitter in the prior month. More recent degree completion was the best predictor of higher usage of social media. In all, 122 (67.4%) agreed that social media is important for disseminating information, whereas only 55 (30.4%) agreed that social media is useful for their research. In all, 43 (23.8%) said social media

  17. Innovative uses of electronic health records and social media for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Emma M; Weitzman, Elissa R

    2014-03-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) and social media have the potential to enrich public health surveillance of diabetes. Clinical and patient-facing data sources for diabetes surveillance are needed given its profound public health impact, opportunity for primary and secondary prevention, persistent disparities, and requirement for self-management. Initiatives to employ data from EHRs and social media for diabetes surveillance are in their infancy. With their transformative potential come practical limitations and ethical considerations. We explore applications of EHR and social media for diabetes surveillance, limitations to approaches, and steps for moving forward in this partnership between patients, health systems, and public health.

  18. Social media targeting of health messages

    PubMed Central

    Betsch, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    In their contribution, Remschmidt and colleagues1 put forward an innovative approach for recruiting female, German study participants from diverse social and ethnical backgrounds to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HPV vaccination. The approach involves placing advertisements on the social media platform Facebook that specify tags for not only the sought after socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender) but also self-relevant aspects of the target group. These tags determine which Facebook users will see the ad. By sequentially adjusting the tags, the researchers were able to recruit different sub-populations, resulting in a final sample similar to a representative German sample for a particular age group. PMID:25483481

  19. Mass media exposure, social stratification, and tobacco consumption among Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Tafawa, Adebola Odunlami; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Williams, David R

    2012-03-01

    Mass media exposure is a strong determinant of tobacco use yet little is known about this relationship in African countries. We explored socio-demographic and socio-contextual correlates of tobacco consumption and associations between mass media exposure, gender and the use of any and various forms of tobacco among Nigerians. The study included 47,805 adults from the cross-sectional and nationally representative Nigeria demographic and health survey 2008. Weighted binary logistic models predicted any tobacco use whereas weighted multinomial logistic models predicted smoking and smokeless tobacco, all compared with no tobacco use. Approximately 4.2% of Nigerian adults used tobacco--2.7% smoked tobacco whereas 1.5% used smokeless tobacco. Tobacco use was more prevalent among men than women (12% vs. 0.6%; p value <0.0001). Gender modified the associations between tobacco use and radio exposure or TV exposure (p values ranged = 0.02-0.05). Among men, some radio exposure and high radio exposure were associated with increased odds of any tobacco use, compared with no radio exposure. Among men, infrequently reading newspapers/magazines and frequently reading newspapers/magazines were associated with higher odds of smokeless tobacco use, compared with not reading newspapers/magazines. Among women, infrequently reading newspapers/magazines was associated with reduced odds of smokeless tobacco use, compared with not reading newspaper/magazines. The relationships between mass media exposure and tobacco consumption differed by gender and were more pronounced among men. Research on radio programs may help to form policies that can address tobacco use among Nigerian men.

  20. Media exposure and oral health outcomes among adults.

    PubMed

    Zini, Avraham; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Vered, Yuval

    2013-02-01

    To assess the impact of media exposure on oral health outcomes among Jewish adults in Jerusalem, Israel, by means of a conceptual hierarchical model. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified sample of 254 adults 35 to 44 years (mean age, 38.63 years) in Jerusalem, Israel. Media exposure was operationally categorized by type and frequency. Behavioral data included toothbrushing, dental attendance, oral hygiene aids use, plaque level, sugar consumption, and smoking. Clinical outcomes were assessed according to the decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT) index and the community periodontal index (CPI). Results were analyzed by chi-square test, independent test, one-way ANOVA, and linear and multiple logistic regression models. A total of 254 examinees consisted of 127 men and 127 mean (married couples). High type and high frequency of media exposure, as compared with other modes, revealed statistically significant higher caries experience (DMFT, 13.10), higher level of untreated decay (D, 1.67), and lower periodontal health (CPI [0], 0.39). A conceptual hierarchical regression model identified that the relationship described was mediated by sociodemographic determinants (education) and behavioral determinants (dental attendance and plaque level). Media exposure should be observed by community health program planners and general practitioners to examine the type and frequency of the messages. They also need to react on time to balanced bad advertising and add a good message at the community. This pragmatic approach could lead to better use of the media and improve oral health behavior and outcomes.

  1. [Social media and health communication: do we need rules?].

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Social media, online social networks and apps for smartphones and tablets are changing the way to communicate health and health issues to consumers and health professionals. Google, Facebook, Apple, and other companies have launched tools to make easier the doctor-patient communication, to group patients with similar diseases allowing them to share stories, experiences, and opinions, and to remotely track and monitor users health and wellbeing. However several concerns about patients' and consumers' privacy remain. Doctor-patient communication through e-mail and social media also introduces other ethical and privacy issues that were addressed only by few medical societies with appropriate guidelines and policies. In addition, pharmaceutical companies have started to use social media channels to communicate with doctors, patients and consumers. This type of communication has been only partially regulated by the Food and Drug Administration with the recently published guidelines for industries. Similar concerns exist for health and medical applications for smartphones and tablets for which only few agencies (including Food and Drug Administration) are requiring a formal (even if restricted in typology) validation. It's time for Europe and Italy to adopt appropriate guidelines for the use of the new media in health communication.

  2. Racism in the Mass Media--Perpetuating the Stereotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewels, Francisco J.

    1978-01-01

    Racism in the media cannot fairly reflect society's multiracial nature, with no preference for or special treatment of any particular race. Whether intentional or not, the effects are equally devastating for those discriminated against. This article explains how racism in media works and what can be done about it. (NQ)

  3. Social Effects of Mass Media Advertising on the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ruth B.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…

  4. Statistical Literacy Social Media Project for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundlach, Ellen; Maybee, Clarence; O'Shea, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a social media assignment used to teach and practice statistical literacy with over 400 students each semester in large-lecture traditional, fully online, and flipped sections of an introductory-level statistics course. Following the social media assignment, students completed a survey on how they approached the assignment.…

  5. Elites, Masses, and Media Blacklists: The Dixie Chicks Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown the influence of ownership on media content in routine contexts, but none has quantitatively tested it in the context of a crisis. Recently the country musicians the Dixie Chicks were blacklisted from the radio for criticizing the president in wartime. I use this event to test the role of media ownership in a crisis.…

  6. Student Mass Media Projects: Combining Content and Context Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papademas, Diana

    1983-01-01

    Described is a sociology of communications and media course in which college students look at and analyze major media institutions in order to understand communications in society. The strategy of developing students' analytic, synthesis, and critical thinking skills is applicable to other programs and courses. (RM)

  7. The Status of Mass Media Coverage of Campaign '80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.

    Some of the similarities and differences in the news media coverage of the United States presidential campaign of 1980 are discussed in this paper. Among the differences related are the loss of the symbolic power of tbe primary elections, which forced the media to look for significant trends elsewhere; the mixture of politics with the…

  8. Mass Media and the School: Descartes or McLuhan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Pierre

    1980-01-01

    Compares the world of learning with the world of the media, with emphasis on the areas of common interest. Discusses areas of potential cooperation, including local audiovisual centers, adaptation of new media to educational content, computer technology, telematics, and accumulation of audiovisual stock on topics pertinent to education. (DB)

  9. Mass Media Use by Activist and Non-Activist Publics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Mark A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine if environmental activists differed from nonactivists in their use of the various media; specifically in their use of the media to obtain information on environmental issues. Based on a review of environmental literature, it was hypothesized that activists (1) would spend more time using newspapers and less time…

  10. Mass Media Portrayals of Suicide: Informing the Australian Policy Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, R. Warwick; Putnis, Peter; Pirkis, Jane

    Research on the news media's reporting on suicide and mental illness is understudied in Australia despite the controversial nature of much coverage and its possible consequences for a variety of audiences. This paper critiques the underlying assumptions of most international research in this area, which follows a media imitation or contagion…

  11. Mass Media and the Debate about Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Thomas M.

    Many factors contribute to the difficulties the media have in dealing with science, engineering, and technology. These difficulties were pointed up in the media coverage of the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant, which reflected confusion and lack of understanding and which combined with other factors (including the movie…

  12. Elites, Masses, and Media Blacklists: The Dixie Chicks Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown the influence of ownership on media content in routine contexts, but none has quantitatively tested it in the context of a crisis. Recently the country musicians the Dixie Chicks were blacklisted from the radio for criticizing the president in wartime. I use this event to test the role of media ownership in a crisis.…

  13. Mass Media and the Debate about Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Thomas M.

    Many factors contribute to the difficulties the media have in dealing with science, engineering, and technology. These difficulties were pointed up in the media coverage of the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant, which reflected confusion and lack of understanding and which combined with other factors (including the movie…

  14. Promoting healthy eating and physical activity short-term effects of a mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Fernandez, Carolyn; Wall, Jerry L; Farley, Thomas A

    2007-03-01

    Soaring obesity levels present a severe health risk in the United States, especially in low-income minority populations. High-frequency paid television and radio advertising, as well as bus and streetcar signage. A mass media campaign in New Orleans to promote walking and fruit and vegetable consumption in a low-income, predominantly African-American urban population. Messages tailored with consideration of the African-American majority. Random-digit-dial telephone surveys using cross-sectional representative samples at baseline in 2004 and following the onset of the campaign in 2005. Survey items on campaign message recall; attitudes toward walking, snack food avoidance, and fruit and vegetable consumption; and behaviors related to fruit and vegetable consumption, snack food consumption, and utilitarian and leisure walking. From baseline, there were significant increases in message recall measures, positive attitudes toward fruit and vegetable consumption, and positive attitudes toward walking. Behaviors did not change significantly. In 2005, message recall measures were associated with positive levels of each of the outcome variables. Over 5 months, the media campaign appeared to have stimulated improvements in attitudes toward healthy diet and walking behaviors addressed by the campaign. These findings encourage the continuation of the media campaign, with future evaluation to consider whether the behavioral measures change.

  15. Social media and suicide: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Luxton, David D; June, Jennifer D; Fairall, Jonathan M

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that the Internet and social media can influence suicide-related behavior. Important questions are whether this influence poses a significant risk to the public and how public health approaches might be used to address the issue. To address these questions, we provide an overview of ways that social media can influence suicidal behavior, both negatively and positively, and we evaluate the evidence of the risk. We also discuss the legal complexities of this important topic and propose future directions for research and prevention programs based on a public health perspective.

  16. Social Media and Suicide: A Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    June, Jennifer D.; Fairall, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the Internet and social media can influence suicide-related behavior. Important questions are whether this influence poses a significant risk to the public and how public health approaches might be used to address the issue. To address these questions, we provide an overview of ways that social media can influence suicidal behavior, both negatively and positively, and we evaluate the evidence of the risk. We also discuss the legal complexities of this important topic and propose future directions for research and prevention programs based on a public health perspective. PMID:22401525

  17. Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Olusesan S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Adebimpe, Wasiu O; Omisore, Akin G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. Objectives To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16. Results Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%). Most (64.0%) respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332), electronic mail (89.0%, n=356), and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298). Most of the respondents (73.5%) opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths’ sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%), 37 (16.4%), 31 (13.7%), and 10 (4.4%) practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0%) always used condoms, whereas 90 (40.0%) never used condoms during sexual activity; 33 (14.6%) had had sex with commercial sex workers. Further analysis showed that those who were yet to marry (single) were less likely to be sexually experienced than those who were married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.008–0.679), and those who said accessing

  18. Social Media Adoption in Local Health Departments Nationwide

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Nancy L.; Snider, Doneisha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether characteristics of local health departments (LHD) and their geographic region were associated with using Facebook and Twitter. We also examined the number of tweets per month for Twitter accounts as an indicator of social media use by LHDs. Methods. In 2012, we searched for Facebook and Twitter accounts for 2565 LHDs nationwide, and collected adoption date and number of connections for each account. Number of tweets sent indicated LHD use of social media. LHDs were classified as innovators, early adopters, or nonadopters. Characteristics of LHDs were compared across adoption categories, and we examined geographic characteristics, connections, and use. Results. Twenty-four percent of LHDs had Facebook, 8% had Twitter, and 7% had both. LHDs serving larger populations were more likely to be innovators, tweeted more often, and had more social media connections. Frequency of tweeting was not associated with adoption category. There were differences in adoption across geographic regions, with western states more likely to be innovators. Innovation was also higher in states where the state health department adopted social media. Conclusions. Social media has the potential to aid LHDs in disseminating information across the public health system. More evidence is needed to develop best practices for this emerging tool. PMID:23865660

  19. Effects of a mass media intervention on HIV-related stigma: 'Radio Diaries' program in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Creel, A H; Rimal, R N; Mkandawire, G; Böse, K; Brown, J W

    2011-06-01

    HIV-related stigma has been recognized as a significant public health issue, yet gaps remain in development and evaluation of mass media interventions to reduce stigma. The Malawi 'Radio Diaries' (RD) program features people with HIV telling stories about their everyday lives. This study evaluates the program's effects on stigma and the additional effects of group discussion. Thirty villages with 10 participants each were randomized to listen to RD only, to the program followed by group discussion or to a control program. Post-intervention surveys assessed four stigma outcomes: fear of casual contact, shame, blame and judgment and willingness to disclose HIV status. Regression analyses indicated that fear of casual contact was reduced by the intervention. Shame was reduced by the radio program, but only for those reporting prior exposure to the radio program and for those who did not have a close friend or relative with HIV. Shame was not reduced when the radio program was followed by discussion. The intervention reduced blame for men and not women and for younger participants but not older participants. Including people with HIV/AIDS in mass media interventions has potential to reduce stigma.

  20. The 2005 British Columbia Smoking Cessation Mass Media Campaign and short-term changes in smoking.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Lynda

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the 2005 British Columbia Ministry of Health Smoking Cessation Mass Media Campaign on short-term smoking behavior. National cross-sectional data are used with a quasi-experimental approach to test the impact of the campaign. Findings indicate that prevalence and average number of cigarettes smoked per day deviated upward from trend for the rest of Canada (P = .08; P = .01) but not for British Columbia. They also indicate that British Columbia smokers in lower risk groups reduced their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend (-2.23; P = .10), whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did not, and that British Columbia smokers in high-risk groups did not increase their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend, whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did (2.97; P = .01). The overall poorer performance of high-risk groups is attributed to high exposure to cigarette smoking, which reduces a smoker's chances of successful cessation. In particular, high-risk groups are by definition more likely to be exposed to smoking by peers, but are also less likely to work in workplaces with smoking bans, which are shown to have a substantial impact on prevalence. Results suggest that for mass media campaigns to be more effective with high-risk groups, they need to be combined with other incentives, and that more prolonged interventions should be considered.

  1. Social media in health--what are the safety concerns for health consumers?

    PubMed

    Lau, Annie Y S; Gabarron, Elia; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Armayones, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature has discussed the unintended consequences of clinical information technologies (IT) on patient safety, yet there has been little discussion about the safety concerns in the area of consumer health IT. This paper presents a range of safety concerns for consumers in social media, with a case study on YouTube. We conducted a scan of abstracts on 'quality criteria' related to YouTube. Five areas regarding the safety of YouTube for consumers were identified: (a) harmful health material targeted at consumers (such as inappropriate marketing of tobacco or direct-to-consumer drug advertising); (b) public display of unhealthy behaviour (such as people displaying self-injury behaviours or hurting others); (c) tainted public health messages (i.e. the rise of negative voices against public health messages); (d) psychological impact from accessing inappropriate, offensive or biased social media content; and (e) using social media to distort policy and research funding agendas. The examples presented should contribute to a better understanding about how to promote a safe consumption and production of social media for consumers, and an evidence-based approach to designing social media interventions for health. The potential harm associated with the use of unsafe social media content on the Internet is a major concern. More empirical and theoretical studies are needed to examine how social media influences consumer health decisions, behaviours and outcomes, and devise ways to deter the dissemination of harmful influences in social media.

  2. Social Media in Health - What are the Safety Concerns for Health Consumers?

    PubMed

    Lau, Annie Y S; Gabarron, Elia; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Armayones, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    Recent literature has discussed the unintended consequences of clinical information technologies (IT) on patient safety, yet there has been little discussion about the safety concerns in the area of consumer health IT. This paper presents a range of safety concerns for consumers in social media, with a case study on YouTube. We conducted a scan of abstracts on 'quality criteria' related to YouTube. Five areas regarding the safety of YouTube for consumers were identified: (a) harmful health material targeted at consumers (such as inappropriate marketing of tobacco or direct-to-consumer drug advertising); (b) public display of unhealthy behaviour (such as people displaying self-injury behaviours or hurting others); (c) tainted public health messages (i.e. the rise of negative voices against public health messages); (d) psychological impact from accessing inappropriate, offensive or biased social media content; and (e) using social media to distort policy and research funding agendas. The examples presented should contribute to a better understanding about how to promote a safe consumption and production of social media for consumers, and an evidence-based approach to designing social media interventions for health. The potential harm associated with the use of unsafe social media content on the Internet is a major concern. More empirical and theoretical studies are needed to examine how social media influences consumer health decisions, behaviours and outcomes, and devise ways to deter the dissemination of harmful influences in social media.

  3. Patients' and health professionals' use of social media in health care: motives, barriers and expectations.

    PubMed

    Antheunis, Marjolijn L; Tates, Kiek; Nieboer, Theodoor E

    2013-09-01

    To investigate patients' and health professionals' (a) motives and use of social media for health-related reasons, and (b) barriers and expectations for health-related social media use. We conducted a descriptive online survey among 139 patients and 153 health care professionals in obstetrics and gynecology. In this survey, we asked the respondents about their motives and use of social network sites (SNS: Facebook and Hyves), Twitter, LinkedIn, and YouTube. Results showed that patients primarily used Twitter (59.9%), especially for increasing knowledge and exchanging advice and Facebook (52.3%), particularly for social support and exchanging advice. Professionals primarily used LinkedIn (70.7%) and Twitter (51.2%), for communication with their colleagues and marketing reasons. Patients' main barriers for social media use were privacy concerns and unreliability of the information. Professionals' main barriers were inefficiency and lack of skills. Both patients and professionals expected future social media use, provided that they can choose their time of social media usage. The results indicate disconcordance in patients' and professionals' motives and use of social media in health care. Future studies on social media use in health care should not disregard participants' underlying motives, barriers and expectations regarding the (non)use of social media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical activity mass media campaigns and their evaluation: a systematic review of the literature 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Leavy, Justine E; Bull, Fiona C; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-12-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns, 2003-2010. A focus was on reviewing evaluation designs, theory used, formative evaluation, campaign effects and outcomes. Literature was searched resulting in 18 individual adult mass media campaigns, mostly in high-income regions and two in middle-income regions. Designs included: quasi experimental (n = 5); non experimental (n = 12); a mixed methods design (n = 1). One half used formative research. Awareness levels ranged from 17 to 95%. Seven campaigns reported significant increases in physical activity levels. The review found that beyond awareness raising, changes in other outcomes were measured, assessed but reported in varying ways. It highlighted improvements in evaluation, although limited evidence of campaign effects remain. It provides an update on the evaluation methodologies used in the adult literature. We recommend optimal evaluation design should include: (1) formative research to inform theories/frameworks, campaign content and evaluation design; (2) cohort study design with multiple data collection points; (3) sufficient duration; (4) use of validated measures; (5) sufficient evaluation resources.

  5. The impact of a mass media campaign on personal risk perception, perceived self-efficacy and on other behavioural predictors.

    PubMed

    Agha, S

    2003-12-01

    To determine whether an AIDS prevention mass media campaign influenced risk perception, self-efficacy and other behavioural predictors. We used household survey data collected from 2,213 sexually experienced male and female Kenyans aged 15-39. Respondents were administered a questionnaire asking them about their exposure to branded and generic mass media messages concerning HIV/AIDS and condom use. They were asked questions concerning their personal risk perception, self-efficacy, condom effectiveness, condom availability, and their embarrassment in obtaining condoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the impact of exposure to mass media messages on these predictors of behaviour change. Those exposed to branded advertising messages were significantly more likely to consider themselves at higher risk of acquiring HIV and to believe in the severity of AIDS. Exposure to branded messages was also associated with a higher level of personal self-efficacy, a greater belief in the efficacy of condoms, a lower level of perceived difficulty in obtaining condoms and reduced embarrassment in purchasing condoms. Moreover, there was a dose-response relationship: a higher intensity of exposure to advertising was associated with more positive outcomes. Exposure to generic advertising messages was less frequently associated with positive health beliefs and these relationships were also weaker. Branded mass media campaigns that promote condom use as an attractive lifestyle choice are likely to contribute to the development of perceptions that are conducive to the adoption of condom use.

  6. Targeted mass media interventions promoting healthy behaviours to reduce risk of non-communicable diseases in adult, ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Mosdøl, Annhild; Lidal, Ingeborg B; Straumann, Gyri H; Vist, Gunn E

    2017-02-17

    Physical activity, a balanced diet, avoidance of tobacco exposure, and limited alcohol consumption may reduce morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mass media interventions are commonly used to encourage healthier behaviours in population groups. It is unclear whether targeted mass media interventions for ethnic minority groups are more or less effective in changing behaviours than those developed for the general population. To determine the effects of mass media interventions targeting adult ethnic minorities with messages about physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of NCDs. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, SweMed+, and ISI Web of Science until August 2016. We also searched for grey literature in OpenGrey, Grey Literature Report, Eldis, and two relevant websites until October 2016. The searches were not restricted by language. We searched for individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time series studies (ITS). Relevant interventions promoted healthier behaviours related to physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption; were disseminated via mass media channels; and targeted ethnic minority groups. The population of interest comprised adults (≥ 18 years) from ethnic minority groups in the focal countries. Primary outcomes included indicators of behavioural change, self-reported behavioural change and knowledge and attitudes towards change. Secondary outcomes were the use of health promotion services and costs related to the project. Two authors independently reviewed the references to identify studies for inclusion. We extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in all included studies. We did not pool the results due to heterogeneity in comparisons made, outcomes, and study designs. We describe the results narratively and present them in 'Summary of findings

  7. The Laugh Model: Reframing and Rebranding Public Health Through Social Media.

    PubMed

    Lister, Cameron; Royne, Marla; Payne, Hannah E; Cannon, Ben; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2015-11-01

    We examined the use of low-cost social media platforms in communicating public health messages and outline the laugh model, a framework through which public health organizations can reach and engage communities. In August 2014, we developed an online campaign (Web site and social media) to help promote healthy family meals in Utah in conjunction with the state and local health departments. By the end of September 2014, a total of 3641 individuals had visited the Utahfamilymeals.org Web site. Facebook ads reached a total of 29 078 people, and 56 900 people were reached through Twitter ads. The per-person price of the campaign was 0.2 cents, and the total estimated target population reach was between 10% and 12%. There are 3 key takeaways from our campaign: use of empowering and engaging techniques may be more effective than use of educational techniques; use of social media Web sites and online marketing tactics can enhance collaboration, interdisciplinary strategies, and campaign effectiveness; and use of social media as a communication platform is often preferable to use of mass media in terms of cost-effectiveness, more precise evaluations of campaign success, and increased sustainability.

  8. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michael J; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534) and obesity (r =  -.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  9. Media depictions of health topics: challenge and stigma formats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This article explored the notion that media depictions of health concerns come in one of two formats: challenge and stigma. After explicating the five features that should appear in challenge format and the seven features of stigma formats, we analyzed the content of health messages in magazines, brochures, and posters (n = 75) in a metropolitan area. The results of a two-factor confirmatory factor model showed that the five suggested features for challenge formats did, indeed, appear together (alpha = .76), and the seven features for stigma formats, also, appeared together (alpha = .90), and showed no residual relationship. In other words, the results suggest that media depictions of health topics appear in either challenge or stigma formats (r = - .87). Health issues appearing in magazine advertisements and articles presented messages in challenge formats, while brochures and posters from largely nonprofit and government groups depicted health issues in stigma formats. Some health topics appeared most often in challenge formats (including cancer, heart disease, and scoliosis), while others appeared in stigma formats (including tuberculosis, hepatitis, smoking, and sexually transmitted diseases [STDs]). Findings suggest that media depictions of health differ, and the implications of stigma and challenge formats are discussed.

  10. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  11. Digital Media for Primary Health Care in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Johannes; Tuttle-Weidinger, Linda; Reckwitz, Luise

    2017-01-01

    Primary health care (PHC) is currently being improved in all developed industries. The aim is to make healthcare more patient-centered and close to the patient's place of residence. In addition to the organizational and interdisciplinary reorientation, the use of digital media is increasingly being emphasized. Through literature research and an online survey among Austrian doctors and general practitioners, the current and future challenges for the use of digital media in networked and regional primary health care were identified and prioritized. It becomes clear that basic functions like documentation, communication and coordination in the individual medical practice are at the forefront. In the future it will be necessary to support regional and interprofessional networking through digital media.

  12. Mass print media depictions of cancer and heart disease: community versus individualistic perspectives?

    PubMed

    Clarke, Juanne; van Amerom, Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on a critical discourse content analysis of 40 stories from the 20 highest circulating English-language mass magazines available in Canada and published in Canada or the USA in 2001. It examines the presence or absence of the social determinants perspective in the portrayal of the two most significant causes of morbidity and mortality in these countries: cancer and heart disease. The media analysis documents an absence of reflection of the social determinants viewpoint on these, the most important causes of disease and death. Thus, magazine stories ignore the role of such considerations as income, education level, ethnicity, visible minority or, Aboriginal status, early life experiences, employment and working conditions, food accessibility and quality, housing, social services, social exclusion, or unemployment and employment security in explaining health. Instead, the magazine articles underscore an individualistic approach to disease that assumes that health care is accessible and available to all, and that these diseases are preventable and treatable through individual lifestyle choices in combination with the measures prescribed through conventional medicine. Although cancer and heart disease are framed by a medical discourse, articles tended to emphasise the independence, freedom and power of the individual within the medical care system. The research documents a continuation of the dominance of conventional medicine buttressed by individualism in media stories. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed. Some of the practical consequences for policy-makers and professionals are noted.

  13. Effectiveness of Social Media for Communicating Health Messages in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannor, Richard; Asare, Anthony Kwame; Bawole, Justice Nyigmah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an in-depth understanding of the effectiveness, evolution and dynamism of the current health communication media used in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a multi-method approach which utilizes a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. In-depth interviews are…

  14. Using mass-media communications to increase population usage of Australia's Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service®.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Bauman, Adrian E; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2012-09-11

    Global obesity prevalence is increasing and population health programs are required to support changes to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Such interventions benefit from mass-communications to promote their use. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service ® (GHS) utilised mass-reach media advertising to recruit participants to an Australian state-wide program. A stand alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge and behavioural variables before the first advertising phase, (n = 1,544; August -September 2010), during (n = 1,500; February - March 2011) and after the advertising period (n = 1,500; June-July 2011). GHS usage data (n = 6,375) was collated during July 2010 - June 2011. The results showed that television-lead mass-media significantly increased unprompted awareness (0% to 31.8%, p < 0.001); prompted awareness (2.5% to 23.7%, p < 0.001); and understanding (10.2% to 32.2%, p < 0.001). Mass-media (television, print and mail out information) was more often cited as the source of referral by males, those aged 18 - 49 years, employed, and from the lowest socio-economic groups. During the weeks when mass-media advertising was present, 4 and 2.5 times more information and coaching participants respectively registered than when there was no advertising present. Participants who cited television and print were less likely to enrol in GHS coaching, but this was not the case for mail out information and secondary referral sources. GHS mass-communications campaigns are effective at increasing awareness and usage of the GHS, especially among hard-to-reach population groups. Television advertising provides universal reach, but should be supplemented by health professional referrals and targeted mail-out information to recruit participants to the intensive GHS coaching program.

  15. How the media influences women's perceptions of health care.

    PubMed

    Kahn, C

    2001-01-01

    To better understand the effectiveness of media sources that marketers use to channel direct-to-consumer (DTC) campaigns to women, researchers devised a study that segmented the female participants according to their degree of involvement in health care decisions, marital status, age, employment, income, and education. The findings show that women in certain population segments reacted far differently to health care information depending on whether it was presented through the Internet, magazines, newspapers, radio, or TV.

  16. The Mass Media and Latinos: Policy and Research Agendas for the Next Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subervi-Velez, Federico A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses policy and research needs related to the mass media and Latinos in five areas: emergency communications planning that considers limited-English-speaking populations, access to telecommunications and information technology, culturally sensitive children's television programming, bias in news and entertainment media, and teaching and…

  17. Mass Media, Interpersonal, and Social Background Influences in Two Canadian American Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, David E.; Caron, Andre H.

    A study investigated the effects of mass media, interpersonal communication, and sociolinguistic background on adults' political, cultural, and economic attitudes and agendas. Data for the study came from two earlier research efforts: one conducted in Minnesota, involved 414 adults who were interviewed concerning their media use, interpersonal…

  18. Mass Media and Racial Crisis: A Study of the New Bethel Church Incident in Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Donald I.

    1972-01-01

    Based on responses from 1130 interviews in black and white neighborhoods, perceptions of what occurred relating to an incident in Detroit were linked to reports from mass media. Different media combinations were associated differently with how whites and blacks relying on these sources perceived the incident. (Author)

  19. Integrating Mass Media Instruction: "Connecting" NIE and TV Programs for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Barbara

    More high school students watch television regularly than read newspapers. Newspapers in Education coordinators should be involved in teaching their students critical viewing skills. The essential concepts that students need to learn are to: (1) understand what mass media and popular culture mean; (2) understand how the media shape attitudes and…

  20. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  1. The Mass Media, Public Opinion, and Public Policy Analysis: Linkage Explorations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strouse, James C.

    The purpose of this book is to explore the effects of public opinion on governmental policy making, with a special focus on the role of the mass media in this process. Specific areas covered include political campaigning, the President and the press, blacks and the media, and cable television. Topics of discussion in the ten chapters are: linkage…

  2. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  3. Social Class, Temporal Orientation, and Mass Media Use within the Family System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Amy B.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the impact of social class on the relationship between ideologies of time and mass media use within the family system. Finds that families from different social strata have distinct beliefs about the value and use of time, beliefs that shape their media-related behaviors. (RS)

  4. Voters and the Mass Media: Information-Seeking, Political Interest, and Issue Agendas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Maxwell; Weaver, David

    A study to determine the agenda-setting role of the mass media concerning the political interests of the general public during the 1976 presidential campaign is reported. Agenda-setting refers to the transfer of concerns from the media to the general public. The concept is concerned with cognitions rather than attitudes. It has been stated that…

  5. Mass Media: The Image, Role, and Social Conditions of Women. No. 84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceulemans, Mieke; Fauconnier, Guido

    A UNESCO-sponsored study was conducted to systematize, analyze, and evaluate the research about the interrelationships between mass media and the status of women on the basis of currently available international literature. The study sought to determine which aspects of women's media roles have been frequently researched, on which continents and…

  6. Mass Media and the Ego-Centric Predicament/The Trivialization of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambus, John

    The discussion in this paper is based on three conclusions drawn from a professional lifetime in the media: that limited to a choice from among information, persuasion, or entertainment, the purpose of the mass media is entertainment; that given a choice between technology and content, technology such as cable TV predominates; and that faced with…

  7. Political Education through the Mass Media? A Survey Of Indonesian University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamad, Ibnu; Ichtiat, Helmi Qodrat; Zulham

    2001-01-01

    Surveys Indonesian university students to determine how effective the mass media was as an agent of political education in influencing the students' political activities. Notes that the relationship between media consumption and political participation was low. Suggests that several decades of government suppression of so-called "practical…

  8. The Guiding Light: Mass Media and National Ideology Formation and Propagation in Third World Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, John A.

    This paper discusses the evolution of development journalism into development communication, concentrating in the process on what has happened to government-media relationships and traditional freedom of the press notions as Third World presses are subjected to guidance policies and rampant authoritarianism. It looks at the use of mass media in…

  9. Mass Media Use and Political Knowledge. Journalism Monographs Number Sixty-One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmgreen, Philip

    A study was conducted to test identical models of the political learning process with data concerning national and local issues. These models hypothesized ways in which political learning from mass media is affected by such factors as strength of information flow, political system level, individual media exposure, interpersonal discussion,…

  10. Survey of the Mass Media: Curriculum Guide for Stow Senior High School 1971-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Judith; And Others

    An outline guide for a survey of major mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio, television, movies, books, and advertising--is presented. The course intends to help students develop critical judgement of the media by improving viewing, reading, and listening skills. The objectives include: (1) presentation of the characteristics of each major…

  11. A History of Research on Children and the Mass Media: An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadowcraft, Jeanne M.; McDonald, Daniel G.

    Histories of media research commonly assume that models of mass media effects have progressed from direct or hypodermic effect models to indirect or multi-step models. Recently, however, B. Reeves and E. Wartella have objected to this assumption. To evaluate their alternative hypotheses, 163 studies from over 88 sources, representing nearly a…

  12. Educational Leadership in the Era of Mass Media: State, Consequences and Repercussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavish, Tali; Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the relationships between school head teachers and mass media on various aspects of their role: emotional-personal, behavioural-managerial and perception. It also examines the sociocultural experience in which these head teacher-media interactions take place, that is, the adjustment of the school system,…

  13. Adolescents and the Mass Media: From "Leave It to Beaver" to "Beverly Hills 90210."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the effect of the mass media, particularly the influence of violence and sex, on adolescents, noting the paucity of research on the subject. The article recommends a compromise between censorship and free expression. It examines how teachers and parents can help by discussing media messages with students. (SM)

  14. Mass Media: The Image, Role, and Social Conditions of Women. No. 84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceulemans, Mieke; Fauconnier, Guido

    A UNESCO-sponsored study was conducted to systematize, analyze, and evaluate the research about the interrelationships between mass media and the status of women on the basis of currently available international literature. The study sought to determine which aspects of women's media roles have been frequently researched, on which continents and…

  15. Educational Leadership in the Era of Mass Media: State, Consequences and Repercussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavish, Tali; Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the relationships between school head teachers and mass media on various aspects of their role: emotional-personal, behavioural-managerial and perception. It also examines the sociocultural experience in which these head teacher-media interactions take place, that is, the adjustment of the school system,…

  16. Associations between media use and health in US children.

    PubMed

    Russ, Shirley A; Larson, Kandyce; Franke, Todd Michael; Halfon, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Television viewing has been associated with poorer health attributes, but relationships between computer use and health are less clear. The aim of this study was to determine associations between TV and computer use, both separately and combined, and health attributes in US children. We performed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of cross-sectional data on 54 863 children ages 6 to 17 years who participated in the National Survey of Children's Health. Key independent variables were TV, computer, and combined media use; outcome variables were 6 measures of health. In models controlling for a wide range of sociodemographic variables, each additional hour of television viewing was associated with greater odds of overweight/obesity (odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-1.08), poorer oral health (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.09), social-emotional problems (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.11), concern about self-esteem, and lower social competence. Greater computer use was associated only with overweight/obesity (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07). Combined media use showed similar, but weaker, health associations to television viewing alone. Interaction analyses showed that TV viewing was associated with overweight/obesity only for white, not black or Hispanic, children. TV/video use is associated with a broader range of negative physical and social-emotional health attributes than computer use. Associations between media use and health are modest, but persistent at the population level. TV/video use reduction strategies may lead to improved physical and social-emotional population health. However, reductions in TV viewing may have little effect on overweight/obesity in black or Hispanic children. Mechanisms underlying observed health associations need further study.

  17. The Controversy over "Mass Media Violence" and the Study of Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grixti, Joe

    1985-01-01

    How the large number of empirical tests and arguments that have been conducted to prove that mass media violence directly influences behavior have failed to discredit contrary arguments is discussed. (Author/RM)

  18. Nonequilibrium transition induced by mass media in a model for social influence.

    PubMed

    González-Avella, J C; Cosenza, M G; Tucci, K

    2005-12-01

    We study the effect of mass media, modeled as an applied external field, on a social system based on Axelrod's model for the dissemination of culture. The numerical simulations show that the system undergoes a nonequilibrium phase transition between an ordered phase (homogeneous culture) specified by the mass media and a disordered (culturally fragmented) one. The critical boundary separating these phases is calculated on the parameter space of the system, given by the intensity of the mass media influence and the number of options per cultural attribute. Counterintuitively, mass media can induce cultural diversity when its intensity is above some threshold value. The nature of the phase transition changes from continuous to discontinuous at some critical value of the number of options.

  19. Furnishing Music: An Analysis of Mass Media in Terms of Music Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrom, David

    1975-01-01

    Author presented for consideration the position that the importance of mass media music (FM, AM, juke box, TV, film, etc.) might not be so much in its music as in the musical systems represented by that music. (Author/RK)

  20. Mining Health Social Media with Sentiment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fu-Chen; Lee, Anthony J T; Kuo, Sz-Chen

    2016-11-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, more and more users utilize health communities (known as forums) to find health-related information, share their medical stories and experiences, or interact with other people in the communities. In this paper, we propose a framework to analyze the user-generated contents in a health community. The proposed framework contains three phases. First, we extract medical terms, including conditions, symptoms, treatments, effectiveness and side effects to form a virtual document for each question in the community. Next, we modify Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) by adding a weighted scheme, called conLDA, to cluster virtual documents with similar medical term distributions into a conditional topic (C-topic). Finally, we analyze the clustered C-topics by sentiment polarities, and physiological and psychological sentiment. The experiment results show that conLDA outperforms the original LDA, and can cluster relevant medical terms and relevant questions together. The C-topics clustered by conLDA are more thematic than those clustered by the original LDA. The results of sentiment analysis may provide a quick reference and valuable insights for patients, caregivers and doctors.

  1. Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned

  2. An exploratory review of HIV prevention mass media campaigns targeting men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HIV infection in both high- and low-income settings. Mass media campaigns have been used as a means of communicating HIV health promotion messages to large audiences of MSM. There is no consensus on which designs are most appropriate to evaluate the process and outcomes of such interventions. Methods An exploratory review was conducted to assess research examining awareness, acceptability, effects on HIV testing, disclosure and sexual risk, and cost-effectiveness of HIV mass media campaigns targeting MSM. We searched for quantitative and qualitative studies published between 1990 and May 2011 via the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psych Info, ISI Web of Science, OpenGrey and COPAC, and contacting experts. No exclusions were made on the basis of study design or methods because our primary aim was to map evidence. We appraised study quality and present a narrative synthesis of findings. Results Sixteen reports from 12 studies were included. All were from high-income countries and most examined multi-media interventions. Half of the studies were single cross-sectional surveys. Three repeat cross-sectional studies collected data pre and post the campaign launch. The remaining three studies monitored routine data. Three studies included a nested qualitative component. Campaign coverage was the most commonly reported outcome (9 studies). Imagery, tone of language, content and relevance were identified in the qualitative research as factors influencing campaign acceptability. HIV testing rates (or intention to test) were reported by five studies. Two studies reported that testing rates were higher among men who had seen the campaigns compared to men who had not, but this may reflect confounding. Findings were less consistent regarding reductions in sexual risk behaviours (4 studies). None of the studies examined cost-effectiveness. Conclusions Campaigns aim to provide MSM

  3. Using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use: a review.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jane Appleyard; Duke, Jennifer C; Davis, Kevin C; Kim, Annice E; Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    This review synthesizes the published literature on using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use, with particular focus on effects within population subgroups and the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO conducted in March of 2014 yielded 397 studies with 34 suitable for inclusion. Included were quantitative studies that evaluate an antitobacco media campaign intended to influence youth cognitions or behavior or explore the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics among youth. An automated search and assessment of suitability for inclusion was done. Study outcomes were compared and synthesized. Antitobacco media campaigns can be effective across racial/ethnic populations, although the size of the campaign effect may differ by race/ethnicity. Evidence is insufficient to determine whether campaign outcomes differ by socioeconomic status (SES) and population density. Youth are more likely to recall and think about advertising that includes personal testimonials; a surprising narrative; and intense images, sound, and editing. Evidence in support of using a health consequences message theme is mixed; an industry manipulation theme may be effective in combination with a health consequences message. Research is insufficient to determine whether advertising with a secondhand smoke or social norms theme influences youth tobacco use. Our recommendation is to develop antitobacco campaigns designed to reach all at-risk youth, which can be effective across racial/ethnic populations. Research priorities include assessing campaign influence among lower SES and rural youth, disentangling the effects of message characteristics, and assessing the degree to which this body of evidence may have changed as a result of changes in youth culture and communication technology.

  4. Providing health messages to Hispanics/Latinos: understanding the importance of language, trust in health information sources, and media use.

    PubMed

    Clayman, Marla L; Manganello, Jennifer A; Viswanath, K; Hesse, Bradford W; Arora, Neeraj K

    2010-01-01

    Health communication is critical to promoting healthy lifestyles and preventing unhealthy behaviors. However, populations may differ in terms of their trust in and use of health information sources, including mass media, the Internet, and interpersonal channels. We used the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to test the hypothesis that Hispanics who are less comfortable speaking English would differ from Hispanics who are comfortable speaking English with respect to trust in health information sources and media use. Hispanics/Latinos comprised 9% of the 2005 HINTS sample (n = 496). Respondents not born in the United States regardless of race/ethnicity and all Hispanics were asked, "How comfortable do you feel speaking English?" Responses of "completely," "very," or "native speaker" were combined into "comfortable speaking English": all other responses were categorized as "less comfortable speaking English." Those comfortable speaking English reported higher trust for health information from newspapers (p < .05), magazines (p < .05), and the Internet (p < .01) compared with those less comfortable speaking English. They also reported more media exposure: daily hours listening to the radio and watching television (both p < .05) and days per week reading newspapers (p < .05). Hispanics comfortable speaking English reported much higher levels of Internet use (54% versus 14%, p < .0001). Hispanics who are not comfortable speaking English may be difficult to reach, not only because of language barriers and lower trust in media, but also because they report relatively little use of various media channels. These findings have important implications for health communications toward non-native speakers of English in general and Hispanics in particular.

  5. Ability of a mass media campaign to influence knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about sugary drinks and obesity.

    PubMed

    Boles, Myde; Adams, Adelle; Gredler, Amy; Manhas, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    We examined the impact of a mass media campaign that was designed to educate residents about the amount of added sugars in soda and other sugary drinks, as well as the health impacts of consuming such drinks. The campaign was implemented in Multnomah County (Portland), Oregon in 2011 and included paid and unpaid media on the web, television, billboards, and transit. A telephone survey (n=402) measured campaign awareness, attitudes toward obesity, knowledge about health problems of excessive sugar, and behavioral intentions and behaviors around soda and sugary drink consumption. Nearly 80% of people who were aware of the media campaign intended to reduce the amount of soda or sugary drinks they offered to a child as a result of the campaign ads. Those who were aware of the campaign were more likely to agree that too much sugar causes health problems (97.3% vs. 85.9%). There was no significant change in self-reported soda consumption. Media campaigns about sugary drinks and obesity may be effective for raising awareness about added sugars in beverages, increasing knowledge about health problems associated with excessive sugar consumption, and prompting behavioral intentions to reduce soda and sugary drink consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-management education en masse: effectiveness of the Back Pain: Don't Take It Lying Down mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2008-11-17

    Despite the availability of a range of Australian self-management support programs targeting the individual patient and/or health professional, three-quarters of Australians have at least one long-term medical condition, suggesting that a more comprehensive public health approach is needed. Use of mass media to deliver community health messages is a well established public health strategy. It may enhance more targeted approaches with its ability to reach large numbers of people simultaneously, including those difficult to identify, high-risk groups and those difficult to reach through traditional medical delivery. By simultaneously influencing large numbers of people, well designed health messages have the potential to promote and maintain behavioural change over time. Back Pain: Don't Take It Lying Down (1997-1999), a mass media campaign of the Victorian WorkCover Authority, can be seen as a prototype of a successful public health strategy designed to enhance people's self-management abilities. One of the main messages of the campaign was that there is a lot you can do to help yourself, which emphasises shifting the responsibility of control onto the individual. The success of the campaign makes a compelling evidence-based case for using a similar strategy to enhance the self-management abilities of the population.

  7. Fluid and porous media property effects on dense nonaqueous phase liquid migration and contaminant mass flux.

    PubMed

    Totten, C T; Annable, M D; Jawitz, J W; Delfinot, J J

    2007-03-01

    The effects of fluid and porous media properties on dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) migration and associated contaminant mass flux generation were evaluated. Relationships between DNAPL mass and solute mass flux were generated by measuring steady-state mass flux following stepwise injection of perchloroethylene (PCE) into flow chambers packed with homogeneous porous media. The effects of fluid properties including density and interfacial tension (IFT), and media properties including grain size and wettability were evaluated by varying the density contrast and interfacial tension properties between PCE and water, and by varying the porous media mean grain diameter and wettability characteristics. Contaminant mass flux was found to increase as grain size decreased, suggesting enhanced lateral and vertical DNAPL spreading with higher fluid entry pressure. Mass flux showed a slight increase as the DNAPL approached neutral buoyancy, likely due to enhanced vertical spreading above the injection point. DNAPL spatial distribution and contaminant mass flux were only minimally affected by IFT and by intermediate-level wettability changes, but were dramatically affected by wettability reversal. The relationship between DNAPL loading and flux generation became more linear as grain size decreased and density contrast between fluids decreased. These results imply that capillary flow characteristics of the porous media and fluid properties will control mass flux generation from source zones.

  8. Promoting Oral Health Using Social Media Platforms: Seeking Arabic Online Oral Health Related Information (OHRI).

    PubMed

    Almaiman, Sarah; Bahkali, Salwa; Alabdulatif, Norah; Bahkaly, Ahlam; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa

    2016-01-01

    Access to oral health care services around the world is limited by a lack of universal coverage. The internet and social media can be an important source for patients to access supplementary oral health related information (OHRI). Online OHRI presents an opportunity to enhance dental public health education about innumerable oral health issues and promote dental self-care. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of social media users among the Saudi population and identify the preferred social media platform for seeking Arabic OHRI and its impact on seekers' knowledge, attitude, and behavior. A total of 2652 Twitter followers were surveyed, using a web-based self-administered questionnaire to collect data on demographic characteristics and online OHRI seeking behavior More than two thirds, 67.7% (n= 1796), of the participants reported they were seeking Arabic online OHRI, while 41.1% of the participants reported they had no preference for using a specific social media platform. These results emphasize the need and importance of supporting the content of social media with trusted and high quality online OHRI resources to promote a high level of public awareness about oral health and dental health services. Further studies in this regard are highly recommended on a larger scale of nationalities to explore the role of social media platform preference in promoting health promotion and dental public health awareness.

  9. The mass media and the cancer patient--some views.

    PubMed

    Rimer, I

    1984-01-01

    A study by the National Cancer Institute indicates extensive newspaper coverage of the subject of cancer. Some of the media presentations on cancer are highly emotional in nature, such as the PBS special, "Joan Robinson: One Woman's Story." Other more optimistic stories may have a negative impact on patients facing more advanced stages of the disease. Yet the media appear to be gradually stripping the mystery from cancer and preparing patients to deal with their treatment and physicians more intelligently and more assertively. Breast and lung cancers are the two sites that get the most attention from the press. Unfortunately, colon and rectum cancers rank quite low in press attention. The American Cancer Society (ACS) has studied public attitudes toward these cancers and is preparing programs to reach the public about them. This paper will deal with these topics and make some observations on the impact of media coverage on cancer patients.

  10. Media, audience, and policy perspectives in health broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Sharada, P V; Venkataramana, C; Nirupama, K R

    2001-01-01

    Effective coordination between service delivery systems and communication networks is essential for the success of development programs. This becomes particularly crucial when the number of agencies involved is large and they are not working under 1 authority. Information needs of the community are another major concern. This article attempts to assess the extent of convergence between electronic media, government policy, and the targeted audience on the coverage of health topics. The Indian state of Andhra Pradesh was chosen as the field. The study adopts a mix of both quantitative and qualitative techniques. The findings reveal limited convergence, indicating the need for more effective reflection of the policy guidelines into media programs.

  11. Mass media and heterogeneous bounds of confidence in continuous opinion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, M.; Buendía, G. M.

    2015-02-01

    This work focuses on the effects of an external mass media on continuous opinion dynamics with heterogeneous bounds of confidence. We modified the original Deffuant et al. and Hegselmann and Krause models to incorporate both, an external mass media and a heterogeneous distribution of confidence levels. We analysed two cases, one where only two bounds of confidence are taken into account, and other where each individual of the system has her/his own characteristic level of confidence. We found that, in the absence of mass media, diversity of bounds of confidence can improve the capacity of the systems to reach consensus. We show that the persuasion capacity of the external message is optimal for intermediate levels of heterogeneity. Our simulations also show the existence, for certain parameter values, of a counter-intuitive effect in which the persuasion capacity of the mass media decreases if the mass media intensity is too large. We discuss similarities and differences between the two heterogeneous versions of these continuous opinion dynamic models under the influence of mass media.

  12. Anti-tobacco mass media and socially disadvantaged groups: a systematic and methodological review.

    PubMed

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris

    2012-07-01

    Only a limited amount of research has been conducted to explore whether there are socioeconomic status differences in responses to mass media. However, the methodological quality of this evidence has not been assessed, limiting confidence in conclusions that can be drawn regarding study outcomes. A systematic review of the effectiveness of anti-tobacco mass media campaigns with socially disadvantaged groups was conducted, and the methodological quality of included studies was assessed. Medline, The Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, Embase and Web of Science were searched using MeSH and keywords for quantitative studies conducted in Western countries prior to March 2012. A methodological quality assessment and narrative analysis of included studies was undertaken. Seventeen relevant studies (reported in 18 papers) were identified; however, weak study designs and selection bias were common characteristics, limiting strong conclusions about effectiveness. Using predominantly non-cessation related outcome measures reviewed papers indicated mixed results for mass media tobacco control campaign effectiveness among various social groups. Most studies assessed mass media impact on low socioeconomic status groups rather than highly socially disadvantaged groups. Methodological rigour of evaluations in this field must be improved to aid understanding regarding the effectiveness of mass media campaigns in driving cessation among disadvantaged groups. The results of this review indicate a gap in methodologically rigorous research into the effectiveness of mass media campaigns among socially disadvantaged groups, particularly the highly disadvantaged. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. The Effect of Health Beliefs, Media Perceptions, and Communicative Behaviors on Health Behavioral Intention: An Integrated Health Campaign Model on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sun-Wook; Kim, Jarim; Lee, Yeunjae

    2016-11-18

    Social media have recently gained attention as a potential health campaign tool. This study examines this line of expectation concerning the role social media may play in health campaigns by testing an integrated health campaign model that combines insights from research on social media-specific perceptions and communicative behaviors in order to predict health behaviors. Specifically, this study aims to (a) develop a more holistic social media campaign model for predicting health behaviors in the social media context, (b) investigate how social media channel-related perceptions affect preventive health behaviors, and (c) investigate how communicative behaviors mediate perceptions and behavioral intention. The study conducted an online survey of 498 females who followed the Purple Ribbon Twitter campaign (@pprb), a cervical cancer prevention campaign. The results indicated that information acquisition mediated perceived risk's effect on intention. Information acquisition also mediated the relationships between intention and information selection and information transmission. On the other hand, social media-related perceptions indirectly impacted behavioral intention through communicative behaviors. The findings' theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  14. Sociotechnical challenges and progress in using social media for health.

    PubMed

    Munson, Sean A; Cavusoglu, Hasan; Frisch, Larry; Fels, Sidney

    2013-10-22

    Social media tools that connect patients, caregivers, and health providers offer great potential for helping people access health advice, receive and give social support, manage or cope with chronic conditions, and make day-to-day health decisions. These systems have seen widespread adoption, but often fail to support the goals as fully as designers and users would like. Through Ackerman's lens of the "sociotechnical gap" and computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) as a science of the artificial, we review contemporary sociotechnical challenges and progress for using social media to support health. These challenges include a tension between privacy and sharing, policy information credibility, accessibility, and tailoring in social spaces. Those studying, building, deploying, and using social media systems to further health goals will benefit from approaching this work by borrowing from Ackerman's framing of CSCW. In particular, this requires acknowledgment that technical systems will not fully meet our social goals, and then adopting design and educational approaches that are appropriate to fill this gap, building less-nuanced systems as partial solutions and tools for advancing our understanding, and by working with the CSCW research community to develop and pursue key lines of inquiry.

  15. Sociotechnical Challenges and Progress in Using Social Media for Health

    PubMed Central

    Cavusoglu, Hasan; Frisch, Larry; Fels, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    Social media tools that connect patients, caregivers, and health providers offer great potential for helping people access health advice, receive and give social support, manage or cope with chronic conditions, and make day-to-day health decisions. These systems have seen widespread adoption, but often fail to support the goals as fully as designers and users would like. Through Ackerman’s lens of the “sociotechnical gap” and computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) as a science of the artificial, we review contemporary sociotechnical challenges and progress for using social media to support health. These challenges include a tension between privacy and sharing, policy information credibility, accessibility, and tailoring in social spaces. Those studying, building, deploying, and using social media systems to further health goals will benefit from approaching this work by borrowing from Ackerman’s framing of CSCW. In particular, this requires acknowledgment that technical systems will not fully meet our social goals, and then adopting design and educational approaches that are appropriate to fill this gap, building less-nuanced systems as partial solutions and tools for advancing our understanding, and by working with the CSCW research community to develop and pursue key lines of inquiry. PMID:24148206

  16. Increasing help-seeking and referrals for individuals at risk for suicide by decreasing stigma: the role of mass media.

    PubMed

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Reidenberg, Daniel J; Till, Benedikt; Gould, Madelyn S

    2014-09-01

    Increasing help-seeking and referrals for at-risk individuals by decreasing stigma has been defined as Aspirational Goal 10 in the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force's 2014 prioritized research agenda. This article reviews the research evidence on the impact of mass media awareness campaigns on reducing stigma and increasing help-seeking. The review will focus on both beneficial and iatrogenic effects of suicide preventive interventions using media campaigns to target the broad public. A further focus is on collaboration between public health professionals and news media in order to reduce the risk of copycat behavior and enhance help-seeking behavior. Examples of multilevel approaches that include both mass media interventions and individual-level approaches to reduce stigma and increase referrals are provided as well. Multilevel suicide prevention programs that combine various approaches seem to provide the most promising results, but much more needs to be learned about the best possible composition of these programs. Major research and practice challenges include the identification of optimal ways to reach vulnerable populations who likely do not benefit from current awareness strategies. Caution is needed in all efforts that aim to reduce the stigma of suicidal ideation, mental illness, and mental health treatment in order to avoid iatrogenic effects. The article concludes with specific suggestions for research questions to help move this line of suicide research and practice forward.

  17. The path to quit: how awareness of a large-scale mass-media smoking cessation campaign promotes quit attempts.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Amanda; Cullen, Jennifer; Mowery, Paul; McCausland, Kristen; Vallone, Donna

    2011-11-01

    Although awareness of mass-media smoking cessation campaigns is hypothesized to affect quit behavior through changes in cessation-related attitudes, intentions, and motivation (cognitions), this has yet to be formally tested. Structural equation modeling was used to examine whether changes in cessation-related cognitions mediate the relationship between awareness of a national mass-media smoking cessation campaign, the EX campaign, and quit attempts in a cohort of 3,571 current smokers drawn from eight U.S. Designated Market Areas and followed over an approximate six-month period. Models were examined in the total sample and within racial/ethnic, gender, age, and educational strata. Data suggest that there are both a direct effect of confirmed awareness of EX on quit attempts as well as an indirect effect mediated by positive changes in cessation-related cognitions. Results are not uniform across subgroups; stratified analyses reveal that awareness of EX is significantly associated with positive changes in cessation-related cognitions and quit attempts only in Blacks, males, and those with less than a high-school education. Those developing health communication mass-media campaigns need to consider how media messages might differentially impact U.S. subpopulations in order to elicit desired behavioral change across target subgroups.

  18. Tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns: research needs for Articles 11 and 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Wakefield, Melanie; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up.

  19. Exploring the Effect of Mass Media on Perceptions of Infant Feeding.

    PubMed

    Bylaska-Davies, Paula

    2015-09-01

    This qualitative study explored women's perceptions of mass media and infant feeding. Mass media is a universal means of communication with potential to impact social norms. Data obtained from interviews with women (n = 20) were compared with text and visual representation from Internet sites (n = 12) on parenting and infant feeding. Themes from interviews reflected information represented on Internet sites. Participants offered suggestions for future media messages, such as public service announcements of breastfeeding. Participants emphasized that public opinion needs to be altered, and breastfeeding in public would then be viewed as the norm.

  20. Understanding the characteristics of effective mass media campaigns for back pain and methodological challenges in evaluating their effects.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Rachelle; Gross, Douglas P; Werner, Erik L; Hayden, Jill A

    2008-01-01

    Workshop at the Low Back Pain Forum VIII: Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain held in Amsterdam in June 2006. The aim of the workshop was to 1) describe and compare characteristics and outcomes of back pain media campaigns that have taken place internationally; 2) examine general theories of health behavior change from the mass media literature to determine whether it is possible to develop a theoretical framework to explain the observed outcomes; 3) describe the outcome of discussion and expert consensus around lessons learned from these campaigns that may inform the planning and evaluation of future campaigns; and 4) identify priorities for future research. Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views about back pain have now been performed in several countries. Although these types of campaigns are an established strategy for delivering preventive health messages, there is limited empirical understanding of the characteristics of effective (or ineffective) health campaigns. We reviewed the content and outcome of back pain mass media campaigns conducted in Australia, Norway, and Canada using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Review Group data collection checklist. We also reviewed models of health behavior change that could be used to guide the design, planning, and evaluation of future campaigns. The draft article was reviewed by a group of international back pain experts before forming the basis for discussion at the workshop. Expert comments and those of workshop participants were synthesized and incorporated into the final manuscript. The outcome of discussion and expert consensus around lessons learned from these campaigns are described. Our article may help to inform the planning and evaluation of future campaigns and identify priorities for future research.

  1. Mass Media: The Ether Pervading the Clausewitzian Trinity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    situationally dependent and not mutually exclusive. “Manufacturing Consent”19 Media academicians Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman, summarizing their...Mermin, Shaw, Hallin et. al. throughout his discussion. 19 Term coined by: Walter Lippman according to Edwards S. Herman and Noam Chomsky ...20 Noam Chomsky , Necessary Illusions: Thought

  2. The Impact of Mass Media in the Pacific Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casmir, Fred L.

    In many developing nations, governments have invested in media technologies to propel their nations into the twentieth century. These measures have taken an increasing social, financial, and cultural toll. Questions surround the right of developed nations to impose their commercially oriented values on those who lack the means to achieve such…

  3. Mass Media, Education and the Transmission of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruise O'Brien, Rita

    1980-01-01

    Recounts the increase in radio and television stations in developing nations since 1960 and relates this increase to the power of the media in transmission of foreign values to children. Concludes that the educational system must take more responsibility for inculcating local culture and values. (DB)

  4. Using TV talk show for public health media advocacy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Haq, Zaeem Ul; Sood, Suruchi; Yansen, Shana; Javeed, Sara; Ali, Nabeela

    2010-06-01

    Much of the focus of public health communication has been on bringing about individual change with relatively little attention to changing public policy through mass media. We conceptualized using TV talk shows as a tool to influence district level health policy. A series of TV talk shows was recorded to present the maternal and newborn health situation and promises of public representatives and health officials from 10 project districts. The shows were aired on national circuit. Panellists were interviewed after the airing to know how much were they influenced by this advocacy intervention. Both public representatives and health officials remembered the issue of maternal and newborn health, the project and their participation in the show. Two third of the participants felt more accountable after having given on-camera commitments while half of them informed there were policy discussions or progress in implementation of decisions to improve maternal and newborn health after attending the show. The participants felt a sense of accountability after appearing on TV screen to make pledges on improving the health situation in their district. They appreciated this advocacy initiative and expressed their desire to participate in such shows in future as well. The cost of production and airing of the show was $1800 per episode. TV talk show is an effective media intervention having low costs, and can be used for public health advocacy in developing countries.

  5. Social Media and Nurses: Insights for Promoting Health for Individual and Professional Use.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jennifer; Fraser, Robert; Ash, Peter

    2014-09-30

    Social media use can have a significant impact on the health of nurses, both at the individual level and in the workplace. There are positive and negative consequences of social media use for nurses, including potential health consequences. This article provides a brief overview of social media and then explores nursing health and social media and risks for nurses. Social media use also extends to healthcare organizations; with implications for consumers of healthcare delivery. A variety of emerging best practices can guide social media use for nurses. The authors also discuss suggestions for using social media carefully, and future directions for research.

  6. A Descriptive Analysis of Health-Related Infomercials: Implications for Health Education and Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Susan C.; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Thomsen, Steve R.; Olsen, Astrid M.

    2003-01-01

    Media literacy education helps individuals become discriminating consumers of health information. Informed consumers are less likely to purchase useless health products if informed of misleading and deceptive advertising methods. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of health-related TV infomercials. An instrument…

  7. Media mix for awareness and health promotion in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Nasrin; Arbatani, Taher Roshandel; Khajeheian, Datis; Zangi, Mahdi; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of death due to malignancy. The media as a source of information about cancer especially lung cancer could make substantial contribution to help physicians and patients in terms of prevention, treatment and follow up. This study aimed to obtain in depth understanding of the role of media in the context of clinical knowledge and recognize its effect on behavior of patients. Using lung cancer patients' records admitted to Masih Daneshvari Hospital, we conducted a structured interview with them via telephone to collect information. The transcript of interviews was prepared. The transcript was then coded and analyzed using MaxQDA based on "theme method". Due to the structured basis of the study, the primary frameworks were considered as conceptual categories in coding. The majority of lung cancer patients did not receive any information before the awareness about their disease unless having a family with a history of cancer. Following awareness of disease, they mostly received their information from physicians. In spite of the large amount of medical information available in the media, insufficient use of media by cancer patients indicated the absence of appropriate communication between the media and patients. Television was the mass media commonly used by patients and as a result of no access to Internet and medical books as well as lack of proficiency in English language they were deprived of specialized resources of information. Mass media should focus on raising awareness about prevention and treatment of lung cancer. This study can be a preliminary step in health communication research and may be used by researchers in terms of methodology and vision.

  8. Health care and social media platforms in hospitals.

    PubMed

    McCarroll, Michele L; Armbruster, Shannon D; Chung, Jae Eun; Kim, Junghyun; McKenzie, Alissa; von Gruenigen, Vivian E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to illustrate user characteristics of a hospital's social media structure using analytics and user surveys. A 1-year retrospective analysis was conducted along with an Internet survey of users of the hospital's Facebook, Twitter, and blog. Of the survey respondents (n = 163), 95.7% are female and 4.3% are male; most are ages 50-59 years (31.5%) and 40-49 years (27.8%); and 93.2% are Caucasian. However, the hospital system database revealed 55% female and 37% minority population, respectively. Of the survey respondents, 61.4% reported having a bachelor's degree or higher, whereas only 11.7% reported having a high school degree/equivalent or lower. However, within the hospital patient databases, 93% of patients have a high school degree/equivalent or lower and only 3% have a bachelor's degree or higher in our women's services population. Social media were used to seek personal health information 68.7% (n = 112), to learn about hospital programming 27.6% (n = 45), and to seek family health information 25.2% (n = 41). Respondents younger than 49 years of age were more likely to seek personal health information using social media compared to those 50 years of age and older (p = .02). Respondents with a bachelor's degree or higher education were statistically less likely to search for physician information compared to those less educated individuals (p = .04). We conclude that social media may play an important role in personal health information, especially for young female respondents; however, the survey provides strong evidence that further research is needed to ensure that social network sites provided by hospitals are reaching the full spectrum of health system patients.

  9. Guns, Culture or Mental Health? Framing Mass Shootings as a Public Health Crisis.

    PubMed

    DeFoster, Ruth; Swalve, Natashia

    2017-08-25

    In recent years, public health scholars and policymakers have been calling for increased research on the public health implications of gun violence. However, scientific research on this issue has been stifled by a 1996 budget rider that eliminated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) funding for gun research. In this study, we examined newspaper coverage of three mass shootings that took place over a 20-year period before and after the passage of this budget rider. We found that sources and frames provided by news media to contextualize gun violence shifted markedly over time, progressing from episodic and individual-level frames to broader thematic societal-level concerns, with increased discussion of mental health but limited discourse explicitly related to public health.

  10. Social Media in Health Care: How Close Is Too Close?

    PubMed

    Desai, Dolly G; Ndukwu, Jovita O; Mitchell, Jordan P

    2015-01-01

    Social media use is increasing personally and professionally across numerous industries worldwide. The purpose of this article is to explore the utilization of social media in the health care field; specifically, how the treatment of a physician's Facebook friends would differ from that of a patient the physician did not know prior to treatment. While there are several benefits that come with incorporating social media into health care, as well as into the physician-patient relationship, there are also immense risks. The present study surveyed physicians to assess their opinions on the boundaries of an appropriate patient-physician relationship on social media. Fifty-six of 70 physicians responded with their attitudes on the difference between adding a patient as a friend and adding a friend as a patient, as well as the difference in care between the two. The results of the study showed that most physicians would not be opposed to taking on their Facebook friends as patients; however, the care they provide could potentially be radically different between their Facebook friend and an average patient. This means that patients should take extra care before asking their Facebook physician friends for formal care when they are in need.

  11. Correlates of health-related social media use among adults.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Crookston, Benjamin T; West, Joshua H

    2013-01-30

    Sixty percent of Internet users report using the Internet to look for health information. Social media sites are emerging as a potential source for online health information. However, little is known about how people use social media for such purposes. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to establish the frequency of various types of online health-seeking behaviors, and (2) to identify correlates of 2 health-related online activities, social networking sites (SNS) for health-related activities and consulting online user-generated content for answers about health care providers, health facilities, or medical treatment. The study consisted of a telephone survey of 1745 adults who reported going online to look for health-related information. Four subscales were created to measure use of online resources for (1) using SNS for health-related activities; (2) consulting online rankings and reviews of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments; (3) posting a review online of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments, and (4) posting a comment or question about health or medical issues on various social media. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Respondents consulted online rankings or reviews (41.15%), used SNS for health (31.58%), posted reviews (9.9%1), and posted a comment, question, or information (15.19%). Respondents with a chronic disease were nearly twice as likely to consult online rankings (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% CI 1.66-2.63, P<.001). Lower odds of consulting online reviews were associated with less formal education (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.37-0.65, P<.001) and being male (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.87, P<.001). Respondents with higher incomes were 1.5 times as likely to consult online rankings or reviews (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.10-2.24, P=.05), than respondents with a regular provider (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.52-2.78, P<.001), or living in an urban/suburban location (OR 1

  12. Online, Tuned In, Turned On: Multimedia Approaches to Fostering Critical Media Health Literacy for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begoray, Deborah L.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Wilmot, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The commercial media is an influential sociocultural force and transmitter of health information especially for adolescents. Instruction in critical media health literacy, a combination of concepts from critical health literacy and critical media literacy, is a potentially effective means of raising adolescents' awareness about commercial media…

  13. Online, Tuned In, Turned On: Multimedia Approaches to Fostering Critical Media Health Literacy for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begoray, Deborah L.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Wilmot, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The commercial media is an influential sociocultural force and transmitter of health information especially for adolescents. Instruction in critical media health literacy, a combination of concepts from critical health literacy and critical media literacy, is a potentially effective means of raising adolescents' awareness about commercial media…

  14. Spinor fields with zero mass in unbounded isotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Hillion, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Dirac equation for massless fields in unbounded media has solutions similar to the focus wave mode solutions of Maxwell's equations leading to infinite dynamical invariants. We define the splash wave mode solutions as a weighted superposition of the focus wave modes, and discuss the conditions to be fulfilled by the weight functions to make the dynamical invariants bounded. We leave open the physical interpretation of these solutions.

  15. Women and mass media: a critical and analytical study of the portrayal of Sudanese women in printed media.

    PubMed

    Badri, A E; Osama, S

    1995-06-01

    This study examines how Sudanese women are portrayed in the mass media. Data are obtained from a content analysis of historical records of Sudanese daily newspapers and women's magazines and from surveys among female editors in print media. The following types of newspapers are reviewed: independent newspapers; papers for the Al-Umma Party, a communist party, a Bathist party, a Muslim Nationalist Islamic Front Party, and a National Union Democratic Party; and a current military government paper. Women's magazines are published by women. Articles focus on women as the main newsmakers, women's life issues, female authors, a female focus but a male author, and famous Sudanese women. 16 content themes are identified. Women were not extensively featured or photographed in either newspapers or magazines. The Al-Umma Party paper and Al-Sudan Al-Hadith paper (an independent paper) were the only two newspapers with at least 10 photos of women. Women were pictured as professionals, educated persons, and leaders. There were 17 female editors. These editors preferred an image of women as leaders, followed by productive workers. Only 11.76% believed that women's dual roles as producers and reproducers should be portrayed. Female editors did not want a special women's page. 52.94% (the largest percentage) preferred targeting women with substantial leadership abilities. 17.65% desired the portrayal of women as workers and housewives. 58.82% did not think that the mass media image changed behavior or attitudes, because most Sudanese women are illiterate. Women's issues in both newspapers and women's magazines were devoted to women's work, achievements, and needs. The authors recommend removal of obstacles to women's equal participation in the mass media and press and research on the effect of media images on women's self-perception and behavior.

  16. The Communicative Arts: An Introduction to Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Charles S.

    All areas of mass communication are surveyed. Man's earliest efforts as a communicator are considered, and what is known about the development of speech and writing is explored. Various theories (including mathematical ones) are reviewed which attempt to explain the processes of both personal and mass communication. Separate chapters focus on the…

  17. The Communicative Arts: An Introduction to Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Charles S.

    All areas of mass communication are surveyed. Man's earliest efforts as a communicator are considered, and what is known about the development of speech and writing is explored. Various theories (including mathematical ones) are reviewed which attempt to explain the processes of both personal and mass communication. Separate chapters focus on the…

  18. Differences in the perception of a mass media information campaign on drug and alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The two-month mass media campaign in Belgium on drug and alcohol consumption "Alcohol and other drugs. The facts and fictions" initiated in January 2008 has been evaluated shortly after by a phone survey. This article reports some indicators on the public awareness of the campaign, and the differences in the perception according to age groups and education levels. About 1,000 respondents (n = 1,002) accepted to participate in the campaign evaluation. Response rate is 37.1%. Global perception of the campaign - measured by the capacity to identify the campaign adequately - is 18.8%. This perception varies between age groups and education levels: 30% of the youngest age group (14-35 yrs) have seen the campaign, 13% of people aged 56 and over (p<0.001). The lower the education level, the lower the probability to have seen the campaign (11% in the lowest group, 25% in the highest one, p<0.001). Among the respondents who have seen the campaign, newspapers are the most often cited media for the oldest age groups. Inversely, young people have mainly identified the campaign on street boards or on post cards. The privileged type of media is also function of the education level. People belonging to the lowest educational level report more often to have seen the campaign on TV (85% vs 51% in the highest group, p<0.01), while the reverse is true for seeing the campaign via the newspapers or the street boards. The results indicate that there are socio-economic variations in the perception of the campaign. In health promotion, reaching lower socio-economic groups still remains a real challenge. Channels for such campaigns have to be carefully chosen to reach their target groups and ask to be complemented with community based interventions.

  19. Research in Mass Media and Face-to-Face Communication: Bridging the Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Robert K.; McCain, Thomas A.

    Taking the viewpoint of the receiver, this paper explores some differences between interpersonal transactions people have with each other and with the mass media. After addressing an orientation held by many communication scholars that the process of mass communication and interpersonal communication differ only in degree, the paper focuses on a…

  20. Mass Media, Youth, and the Prevention of Substance Abuse: Towards an Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallack, Lawrence

    1985-01-01

    Presents a series of principles which foster an integrated approach to prevention, and places the role of mass communications in that framework. Television programming, advertising, and mass media campaigns can all be used in an effort to change the message environment in which individuals behave. (Author)