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Sample records for mass media influence

  1. Mass media influences on sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jane D

    2002-02-01

    The mainstream mass media (television, magazines, movies, music, and the Internet) provide increasingly frequent portrayals of sexuality. We still know relatively little about how this content is used and how it affects sexual beliefs and behaviors. The few available studies suggest that the media do have an impact because the media keep sexual behavior on public and personal agendas, media portrayals reinforce a relatively consistent set of sexual and relationship norms, and the media rarely depict sexually responsible models. More longitudinal research, especially with early adolescents is needed to learn more about how media content is attended to, interpreted, and incorporated into developing sexual lives.

  2. Mass media influence spreading in social networks with community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candia, Julián; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2008-07-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across a society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considering inhomogeneous mass media fields, we study the conditions for successful message spreading and find a novel phase diagram in the multidimensional parameter space. These findings show that social modularity effects are of paramount importance for designing successful, cost-effective advertising campaigns.

  3. Inferring Social Influence of Anti-Tobacco Mass Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Qianyi; Zhang, Jiawei; Yu, Philip S; Emery, Sherry; Xie, Junyuan

    2017-07-01

    Anti-tobacco mass media campaigns are designed to influence tobacco users. It has been proved that campaigns will produce users' changes in awareness, knowledge, and attitudes, and also produce meaningful behavior change of audience. Anti-smoking television advertising is the most important part in the campaign. Meanwhile, nowadays, successful online social networks are creating new media environment, however, little is known about the relation between social conversations and anti-tobacco campaigns. This paper aims to infer social influence of these campaigns, and the problem is formally referred to as the Social Influence inference of anti-Tobacco mass mEdia campaigns (Site) problem. To address the Site problem, a novel influence inference framework, TV advertising social influence estimation (Asie), is proposed based on our analysis of two real anti-tobacco campaigns. Asie divides audience attitudes toward TV ads into three distinct stages: 1) cognitive; 2) affective; and 3) conative. Audience online reactions at each of these three stages are depicted by Asie with specific probabilistic models based on the synergistic influences from both online social friends and offline TV ads. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of Asie.

  4. The Influence of Mass Media and Interpersonal Communication on Societal and Personal Risk Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Cynthia-Lou.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal channels, and self-efficacy on risk judgment. Confirms that mass media channels influence social-level risk judgments. Finds that personal-level risk was influenced to some degree by mass media channels and that interpersonal channels and self-efficacy account for some variance on social-level…

  5. Social percolation and the influence of mass media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proykova, Ana; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2002-09-01

    In the marketing model of Solomon and Weisbuch, people buy a product only if their neighbours tell them of its quality, and if this quality is higher than their own quality expectations. Now we introduce additional information from the mass media, which is analogous to the ghost field in percolation theory. The mass media shift the percolative phase transition observed in the model, and decrease the time after which the stationary state is reached.

  6. Mass Media and Interpersonal Influence in Adolescent Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    This study explores the consumer socialization process in adolescents with regard to mass media and interpersonal factors associated with the acquisition of consumer skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Questionnaires were completed by 300 consumer education students in three Grand Forks, North Dakota schools, assessing such variables as "consumer…

  7. The Influence of the Mass Media on Young People as a Problem of Russian Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapesotskii, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the influence of the mass media on the moral state of Russian society discerns negative consequences of that influence, and sees the mass media (particularly television) as involved in the cultural degradation of the population. It argues in favor of state, social, and pedagogical controls to facilitate a more positive role of the…

  8. The Influence of the Mass Media on Young People as a Problem of Russian Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapesotskii, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the influence of the mass media on the moral state of Russian society discerns negative consequences of that influence, and sees the mass media (particularly television) as involved in the cultural degradation of the population. It argues in favor of state, social, and pedagogical controls to facilitate a more positive role of the…

  9. The Influence of the Mass Media on the Life Plans of Rural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillaste, G. G.

    2005-01-01

    Rural students, who live in the villages of Russia, are more resolved than ever to leave their native land. Their decision is influenced by the mass media, which plays a large role in determining their views and the way they relate to the world. In this article, the author examines the influence of the mass media on the life of rural students…

  10. The Influence of the Mass Media on the Life Plans of Rural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillaste, G. G.

    2005-01-01

    Rural students, who live in the villages of Russia, are more resolved than ever to leave their native land. Their decision is influenced by the mass media, which plays a large role in determining their views and the way they relate to the world. In this article, the author examines the influence of the mass media on the life of rural students…

  11. Media, Minds, and Masses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggot, James; Vino, Faith

    This booklet describes the language arts course "Media, Minds, and Masses," written for the Dade County, Fla., public schools. Topics for the course include the workings of contemporary radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and movies; the present status and power of media; the history and development of media; and the influences of…

  12. Nonequilibrium transition induced by mass media in a model for social influence.

    PubMed

    González-Avella, J C; Cosenza, M G; Tucci, K

    2005-12-01

    We study the effect of mass media, modeled as an applied external field, on a social system based on Axelrod's model for the dissemination of culture. The numerical simulations show that the system undergoes a nonequilibrium phase transition between an ordered phase (homogeneous culture) specified by the mass media and a disordered (culturally fragmented) one. The critical boundary separating these phases is calculated on the parameter space of the system, given by the intensity of the mass media influence and the number of options per cultural attribute. Counterintuitively, mass media can induce cultural diversity when its intensity is above some threshold value. The nature of the phase transition changes from continuous to discontinuous at some critical value of the number of options.

  13. Associations between Chinese/Asian versus Western mass media influences and body image disturbances of young Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Todd; Jiang, Chengcheng; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated associations of experiences with mass media imported from Western nations such as the United States versus mass media from China and other Asian countries with eating and body image disturbances of young Chinese women. Participating women (N=456) completed self-report measures of disordered eating, specific sources of appearance dissatisfaction (fatness, facial features, stature), and Western versus Chinese/Asian mass media influences. The sample was significantly more likely to report perceived pressure from, comparisons with, and preferences for physical appearance depictions in Chinese/Asian mass media than Western media. Chinese/Asian media influences also combined for more unique variance in prediction models for all disturbances except stature concerns. While experiences with Western media were related to disturbances as well, the overall impact of Chinese/Asian media influences was more prominent.

  14. Can mass media influence emergency department visits for stroke?

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Corinne; Lindsay, Patrice; Rubini, Frank

    2007-07-01

    Television advertising has been associated with significant increases in the knowledge of the warning signs of stroke among Ontarians aged 45 and older. However, to date there has been little data on the relationship between knowledge of the warning signs of stroke and behavior. Data on presentation to regional and enhanced district stroke center emergency departments were obtained from the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network for a 31-month period between mid 2003 and the beginning of 2006. Public opinion polling was used to track knowledge of the warning signs of stroke among Ontarians aged 45 and older. The public's awareness of the warning signs of stroke increased during 2003 to 2005, decreasing in 2006 after a 5-month advertising blackout. There was a significant increase in the mean number of emergency department visits for stroke over the study period. A campaign effect independent of year was observed for total presentations, presentation within 5 hours of last seen normal, and presentation within 2.5 hours. For TIAs there was a strong campaign effect but no change in the number of presentations by year. Continuous advertising may be required to build and sustain public awareness of the warning signs of stroke. There are many factors that may influence presentation for stroke and awareness of the warning signs may be only one. However, results of this study suggest there may be an important correlation between the advertising and emergency department presentations with stroke, particularly for TIAs.

  15. Children and the Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Shirley

    1970-01-01

    Resume of testimony given at hearings at the White House Conference on Children, September, 1970. Topics considered were the influence of the mass media on children and ways to improve media products. (NH)

  16. Primary care nurses’ experiences of how the mass media influence frontline healthcare in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass media plays an important role in communicating about health research and services to patients, and in shaping public perceptions and decisions about health. Healthcare professionals also play an important role in providing patients with credible, evidence-based and up-to-date information on a wide range of health issues. This study aims to explore primary care nurses’ experiences of how mass media influences frontline healthcare. Methods In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 18 primary care nurses (nine health visitors and nine practice nurses) working in the United Kingdom (UK). Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data was analysed using thematic analysis, with a focus on constant comparative analysis. Results Three themes emerged from the data. First, participants reported that their patients were frequently influenced by controversial health stories reported in the media, which affected their perceptions of, and decisions about, care. This, in turn, impinged upon participants’ workloads as they had to spend additional time discussing information and reassuring patients. Second, participants also recalled times in their own careers when media reports had contributed to a decline in their confidence in current healthcare practices and treatments. Third, the participants in this study suggested a real need for additional resources to support and expand their own media literacy skills, which could be shared with patients. Conclusion In an ever expanding media landscape with greater reporting on health, nurses working in the primary care setting face increasing pressure to effectively manage media stories that dispute current health policies and practices. These primary care nurses were keen to expand their media literacy skills to develop critical autonomy in relation to all media, and to facilitate more meaningful conversations with their patients about their health concerns and choices. PMID:24267614

  17. Primary care nurses' experiences of how the mass media influence frontline healthcare in the UK.

    PubMed

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E; Hilton, Shona

    2013-11-24

    Mass media plays an important role in communicating about health research and services to patients, and in shaping public perceptions and decisions about health. Healthcare professionals also play an important role in providing patients with credible, evidence-based and up-to-date information on a wide range of health issues. This study aims to explore primary care nurses' experiences of how mass media influences frontline healthcare. In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 18 primary care nurses (nine health visitors and nine practice nurses) working in the United Kingdom (UK). Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data was analysed using thematic analysis, with a focus on constant comparative analysis. Three themes emerged from the data. First, participants reported that their patients were frequently influenced by controversial health stories reported in the media, which affected their perceptions of, and decisions about, care. This, in turn, impinged upon participants' workloads as they had to spend additional time discussing information and reassuring patients. Second, participants also recalled times in their own careers when media reports had contributed to a decline in their confidence in current healthcare practices and treatments. Third, the participants in this study suggested a real need for additional resources to support and expand their own media literacy skills, which could be shared with patients. In an ever expanding media landscape with greater reporting on health, nurses working in the primary care setting face increasing pressure to effectively manage media stories that dispute current health policies and practices. These primary care nurses were keen to expand their media literacy skills to develop critical autonomy in relation to all media, and to facilitate more meaningful conversations with their patients about their health concerns and choices.

  18. An examination of the relation of gender, mass media influence, and loneliness to disordered eating among college students.

    PubMed

    Wright, A; Pritchard, M E

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found that mass media influence and loneliness relate to disordered eating behaviors in women, but little is known about this relation in men. The present study examined the relations among disordered eating patterns, gender, mass media influence, and loneliness in male and female college students. Results of a stepwise regression revealed that disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (as measured by the Eating Attitudes Test-26) were predicted by mass media influence, gender, and loneliness, respectively. In the present study both male and female college students appear susceptible to developing disordered eating patterns. Clinicians may wish to address unrealistic comparisons to media and client interpersonal skills when designing treatment plans.

  19. [Mass media influence and risk of developing eating disorders in female students from Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Lazo Montoya, Yessenia; Quenaya, Alejandra; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2015-12-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a public health problem, and their relationship to mass media is still controversial. To assess whether there is an association between models of body image shown in mass media and the risk of developing EDs among female adolescent students from Lima, Peru. Cross-sectional study conducted in three schools located in the district of La Victoria, Lima, Peru. The risk of developing EDs was measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), while mass media influence was measured using the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3), which was categorized into tertiles both in the overall score and its subscales (information, pressure, general internalization, and athletic internalization). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for EDs were estimated. Four hundred and eighty-three students were included, their median age was 14 ? 3 years old. A risk of developing an ED was observed in 13.9% of them. Students who are more influenced by mass media (upper tertile of the SATAQ-3) have a higher probability of having a risk of developing an ED (aPR: 4.24; 95% confidence interval |-CI-|: 2.10-8.56), as well as those who have a greater access to information (PR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.09-3.25), suffer more pressure (PR: 4.97; 95% CI: 2.31-10.69), show a greater general internalization (PR: 5.00; 95% CI: 2.39-10.43), and show a greater level of athletic internalization (PR: 4.35; 95% CI: 2.19-8-66). The greater the influence of mass media, the greater the probability of having a risk of developing an ED among female students from Lima, Peru.

  20. Effects of mass media action on the Axelrod model with social influence.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Arezky H; Moreno, Y

    2010-07-01

    The use of dyadic interaction between agents, in combination with homophily (the principle that "likes attract") in the Axelrod model for the study of cultural dissemination, has two important problems: the prediction of monoculture in large societies and an extremely narrow window of noise levels in which diversity with local convergence is obtained. Recently, the inclusion of social influence has proven to overcome them [A. Flache and M. W. Macy, e-print arXiv:0808.2710]. Here, we extend the Axelrod model with social influence interaction for the study of mass media effects through the inclusion of a superagent which acts over the whole system and has non-null overlap with each agent of the society. The dependence with different parameters as the initial social diversity, size effects, mass media strength, and noise is outlined. Our results might be relevant in several socioeconomic contexts and for the study of the emergence of collective behavior in complex social systems.

  1. Effects of Mass Media and Cultural Drift in a Model for Social Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzitello, Karina I.; Candia, Julián; Dossetti, Víctor

    In the context of an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, we study the interplay and competition between the cultural drift, represented as random perturbations, and mass media, introduced by means of an external homogeneous field. Unlike previous studies [J. C. González-Avella et al., Phys. Rev. E 72, 065102(R) (2005)], the mass media coupling proposed here is capable of affecting the cultural traits of any individual in the society, including those who do not share any features with the external message. A noise-driven transition is found: for large noise rates, both the ordered (culturally polarized) phase and the disordered (culturally fragmented) phase are observed, while, for lower noise rates, the ordered phase prevails. In the former case, the external field is found to induce cultural ordering, a behavior opposite to that reported in previous studies using a different prescription for the mass media interaction. We compare the predictions of this model to statistical data measuring the impact of a mass media vasectomy promotion campaign in Brazil.

  2. Does Health Information in Mass Media Help or Hurt Patients? Investigation of Potential Negative Influence of Mass Media Health Information on Patients' Beliefs and Medication Regimen Adherence.

    PubMed

    Im, Heewon; Huh, Jisu

    2017-03-01

    As an important public health issue, patient medication non-adherence has drawn much attention, but research on the impact of mass media as an information source on patient medication adherence has been scant. Given that mass media often provide confusing and contradicting information regarding health/medical issues, this study examined the potential negative influence of exposure to health information in mass media on patients' beliefs about their illnesses and medications, and medication adherence, in comparison with the effects of exposure to another primary medication information source, physicians. Survey data obtained from patients on blood thinner regimens revealed that the frequency of exposure to health information in mass media was negatively related to accuracy of patients' beliefs about their medication benefits and patient medication adherence. On the other hand, frequency of visits with physicians was positively associated with patients' beliefs about their medication benefits but had no significant relation to medication regimen adherence. The implications of the study findings are discussed, and methodological limitations and suggestion for future research are presented.

  3. Mass Media: A Casebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Richard F., Ed.

    Recognizing that mass media--now at a stage of viewing critically its effects and responsibilities--and society at large are interdependent, this casebook reviews the many facets of the media and mass communication as they relate to both producers and consumers of messages. The 23 chapters include discussions of the media's responsibility toward…

  4. Evolution of the Digital Society Reveals Balance between Viral and Mass Media Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-07-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) enable researchers to study the social universe at a previously unattainable scale. The worldwide impact and the necessity to sustain the rapid growth of OSNs emphasize the importance of unraveling the laws governing their evolution. Empirical results show that, unlike many real-world growing networked systems, OSNs follow an intricate path that includes a dynamical percolation transition. In light of these results, we present a quantitative two-parameter model that reproduces the entire topological evolution of a quasi-isolated OSN with unprecedented precision from the birth of the network. This allows us to precisely gauge the fundamental macroscopic and microscopic mechanisms involved. Our findings suggest that the coupling between the real preexisting underlying social structure, a viral spreading mechanism, and mass media influence govern the evolution of OSNs. The empirical validation of our model, on a macroscopic scale, reveals that virality is 4-5 times stronger than mass media influence and, on a microscopic scale, individuals have a higher subscription probability if invited by weaker social contacts, in agreement with the "strength of weak ties" paradigm.

  5. Effects of mass media action on the Axelrod model with social influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Arezky H.; Moreno, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The use of dyadic interaction between agents, in combination with homophily (the principle that “likes attract”) in the Axelrod model for the study of cultural dissemination, has two important problems: the prediction of monoculture in large societies and an extremely narrow window of noise levels in which diversity with local convergence is obtained. Recently, the inclusion of social influence has proven to overcome them [A. Flache and M. W. Macy, e-print arXiv:0808.2710]. Here, we extend the Axelrod model with social influence interaction for the study of mass media effects through the inclusion of a superagent which acts over the whole system and has non-null overlap with each agent of the society. The dependence with different parameters as the initial social diversity, size effects, mass media strength, and noise is outlined. Our results might be relevant in several socioeconomic contexts and for the study of the emergence of collective behavior in complex social systems.

  6. Mass Media, Interpersonal, and Social Background Influences in Two Canadian American Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, David E.; Caron, Andre H.

    A study investigated the effects of mass media, interpersonal communication, and sociolinguistic background on adults' political, cultural, and economic attitudes and agendas. Data for the study came from two earlier research efforts: one conducted in Minnesota, involved 414 adults who were interviewed concerning their media use, interpersonal…

  7. Association of School Social Networks' Influence and Mass Media Factors with Cigarette Smoking among Asthmatic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. Methods: This study…

  8. Association of School Social Networks' Influence and Mass Media Factors with Cigarette Smoking among Asthmatic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. Methods: This study…

  9. Exploring the Influence of the Mass Media on Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding of Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2012-01-01

    The new Australian Curriculum ignites debate about science content appropriate for primary school children. Abstract genetics concepts such as genes and DNA are still being avoided in primary school, yet research has shown that, by age 10, many students have heard of DNA and/or genes. Scientific concepts appear in the mass media, but primary…

  10. Exploring the Influence of the Mass Media on Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding of Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2012-01-01

    The new Australian Curriculum ignites debate about science content appropriate for primary school children. Abstract genetics concepts such as genes and DNA are still being avoided in primary school, yet research has shown that, by age 10, many students have heard of DNA and/or genes. Scientific concepts appear in the mass media, but primary…

  11. Association of School Social Networks’ Influence and Mass Media Factors With Cigarette Smoking Among Asthmatic Students

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks’ influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. METHODS This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. RESULTS Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. CONCLUSIONS The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students’ cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. PMID:25611937

  12. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    PubMed

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba.

  13. Association of school social networks' influence and mass media factors with cigarette smoking among asthmatic students.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-03-01

    Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students' cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  14. Blood and Bones: The Influence of the Mass Media on Australian Primary School Children's Understandings of Genes and DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2012-06-01

    Previous research showed that primary school children held several misconceptions about genetics of concern for their future lives. Included were beliefs that genes and DNA are separate substances, with genes causing family resemblance and DNA identifying suspects at crime scenes. Responses to this work `blamed' the mass media for these misunderstandings. This study aimed to determine whether that blame had any foundation by examining the media habits and conceptions about genes and DNA of Australian children. With little prior research considering the influence of entertainment mass media on children's academically relevant knowledge, this was an exploratory study with a mixed modes design. Data were collected by detailed media questionnaires and face-to-face interviews with 62 children aged 10-12 years, and subjected to content and thematic analysis. Specific mass media examples children reported using were examined for genetics content. Results indicate 5 h/day of media use, mostly television including crime shows, and that children perceived television to be their main source of information about genetics. Most children (89 %) knew DNA, 60 % knew genes, and more was known about uses of DNA outside the body such as crime solving or resolving family relationships than about its biological nature and function. Half believed DNA is only in blood and body parts used for forensics. These concepts paralleled the themes emerging from the media examples. The results indicate that the mass media is a pervasive teacher of children, and that fundamental concepts could be introduced earlier in schools to establish scientific concepts before misconceptions arise.

  15. Mass Media and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Alan

    Designed to serve as a basic text for general liberal arts courses in mass communication, this book presents essays, largely from recent magazine articles, written from the layman (although there are a few more overtly scholarly articles). It begins with an examination of the media industries in the United States, treating them as complex…

  16. Mass Media and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Alan

    Designed to serve as a basic text for general liberal arts courses in mass communication, this book presents essays, largely from recent magazine articles, written from the layman (although there are a few more overtly scholarly articles). It begins with an examination of the media industries in the United States, treating them as complex…

  17. Parental monitoring of children's media consumption: the long-term influences on body mass index in children.

    PubMed

    Tiberio, Stacey S; Kerr, David C R; Capaldi, Deborah M; Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Nowicka, Paulina

    2014-05-01

    Although children's media consumption has been one of the most robust risk factors for childhood obesity, effects of specific parenting influences, such as parental media monitoring, have not been effectively investigated. To examine the potential influences of maternal and paternal monitoring of child media exposure and children's general activities on body mass index (BMI) in middle childhood. A longitudinal study, taken from a subsample of the Three Generational Study, a predominantly white, Pacific Northwest community sample (overall participation rate, 89.6%), included assessments performed from June 1998 to September 2012. Analyses included 112 mothers, 103 fathers, and their 213 children (55.4% girls) at age 5, 7, and/or 9 years. Participation rates ranged from 66.7% to 72.0% of all eligible Three Generational Study children across the 3 assessments. Parents reported on their general monitoring of their children (whereabouts and activities), specific monitoring of child media exposure, children's participation in sports and recreational activities, children's media time (hours per week), annual income, and educational level. Parental BMI was recorded. Predictions to level and change in child BMI z scores were tested. Linear mixed-effects modeling indicated that more maternal, but not paternal, monitoring of child media exposure predicted lower child BMI z scores at age 7 years (95% CI, -0.39 to -0.07) and less steeply increasing child BMI z scores from 5 to 9 years (95% CI, -0.11 to -0.01). These effects held when more general parental monitoring, and parent BMI, annual income, and educational level were controlled for. The significant negative effect of maternal media monitoring on children's BMI z scores at age 7 years was marginally accounted for by the effect of child media time. The maternal media monitoring effect on children's BMI z score slopes remained significant after adjustment for children's media time and sports and recreational activity. These

  18. People as sensors: mass media and local temperature influence climate change discussion on Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilenko, A.; Molodtsova, T.; Stepchenkova, S.

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether people living under significant temperature anomalies connect their sensory experiences to climate change and the role that media plays in this process. We used Twitter messages containing words "climate change" and "global warming" as the indicator of attention that public pays to the issue. Specifically, the goals were: (1) to investigate whether people immediately notice significant local weather anomalies and connect them to climate change and (2) to examine the role of mass media in this process. Over 2 million tweets were collected for a two-year period (2012 - 2013) and were assigned to 157 urban areas in the continental USA (Figure 1). Geographical locations of the tweets were identified with a geolocation resolving algorithm based the profile of the users. Daily number of tweets (tweeting rate) was computed for 157 conterminous USA urban areas and adjusted for data acquisition errors. The USHCN daily minimum and maximum temperatures were obtained for the station locations closest to the centers of the urban areas and the 1981-2010 30-year temperature mean and standard deviation were used as the climate normals. For the analysis, we computed the following indices for each day of 2012 - 2013 period: standardized temperature anomaly, absolute standardized temperature anomaly, and extreme cold and hot temperature anomalies for each urban zone. The extreme cold and hot temperature anomalies were then transformed into country-level values that represent the number of people living in extreme temperature conditions. The rate of tweeting on climate change was regressed on the time variables, number of climate change publications in the mass media, and temperature. In the majority of regression models, the mass media and temperature variables were significant at the p<0.001 level. Additionally, we did not find convincing evidence that the media acts as a mediator in the relationship between local weather and climate change discourse intensity

  19. Demography and the Mass Media.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    discussion of demography, its history, methodology and limitations, followed by a review of communications theory as it applies to the mass media . The...interrelations among the mass media , the government, and target audiences are demonstrated. (Modified author abstract)

  20. MASS MEDIA AND SOCIAL CHANGE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The relationships between mass media of communication and social change are discussed, and the significance and roles of the mass media in developing and modernized countries are summarized. On the assumption that the contents of the... mass media mirror as well as affect the perspectives and values

  1. Factors influencing public risk-benefit considerations of nanotechnology: Assessing the effects of mass media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shirley S; Scheufele, Dietram A; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing on public perception of benefits and risks of nanotechnology, based on a large-scale nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adult citizens. Results indicate that cognitive processes in the form of news elaboration had a significant positive main effect on benefits outweigh risks perception. The influences of attention to science in newspapers, attention to science news on television, and interpersonal communication about science on public perception of benefits outweigh risks were moderated by elaborative processing, after controlling for socio-demographic variables, religious beliefs, trust in scientists, and scientific knowledge. The findings highlight the importance of elaborative processing when it comes to understanding how the mass media differentially influence public benefits outweigh risks perception of emerging technologies. Specifically, high elaborative processing emphasizes higher levels of perceived benefits outweigh risks than low elaborative processing. This study explores explanations for this phenomenon and offers implications for future research and policy.

  2. Mass Media as Community Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the image of the pernicious effects of mass media, media consumers are not passive receptors of media-generated beliefs and ideas. Educators can help adults become media literate by helping them decode, filter, and interpret the messages they read, see, and hear through content and context analysis. (SK)

  3. Child-feeding practices and the influence of educational level and mass media in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Zaltman, Gerald; Altwood, Juan; Carrillo, Graciela

    1971-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of child-feeding practices and related social phenomena in Costa Rica, a country representative of many maturing, less developed nations. The data were collected for use in developing a remedial nutrition programme and to provide a basis for a later evaluation of that programme. The results show that child-feeding practices are in need of improvement, particularly among mothers with relatively little formal education and especially during the first year of life and during periods of sickness. More mothers, regardless of their educational level, should be encouraged to breast-feed and to do so for longer periods. The data also showed a need to improve the general health environment in large families as a means of reducing infant mortality, especially when the mother is relatively uneducated. Radio is a particularly promising channel of health communication, especially for the relatively uneducated. Ways in which mass communications media could be used for health education should be explored. PMID:5317016

  4. The Mass Media Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Rod, Ed.; Norton, William, Ed.

    This anthology consists of two major sections, "The News Media" and "The Entertainment Media." Both feature essays by critics, working professionals, and professional observers of the media. One aim of the anthology is to show the pervasive effect of the media on us. The section on news media comments on such topics as credibility gap, Vice…

  5. The Mass Media Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Rod, Ed.; Norton, William, Ed.

    This anthology consists of two major sections, "The News Media" and "The Entertainment Media." Both feature essays by critics, working professionals, and professional observers of the media. One aim of the anthology is to show the pervasive effect of the media on us. The section on news media comments on such topics as credibility gap, Vice…

  6. Developing World and Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Organization of Journalists, Prague (Czechoslovakia).

    This volume presents six keynote papers submitted by noted scholars to the Working Group on Mass Media and Developing Nations at the International Scientific Conference of the International Association for Mass Communication Research held at Leipzig, Germany, in September 1974. The following titles are included: "Mass Media and Developing Nations:…

  7. Developing World and Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Organization of Journalists, Prague (Czechoslovakia).

    This volume presents six keynote papers submitted by noted scholars to the Working Group on Mass Media and Developing Nations at the International Scientific Conference of the International Association for Mass Communication Research held at Leipzig, Germany, in September 1974. The following titles are included: "Mass Media and Developing Nations:…

  8. [Eating disorders and mass media].

    PubMed

    Peroutsi, A; Gonidakis, F

    2011-01-01

    During the last 50 years, eating disorders have developed to a complicated and widespread medical and social issue. The latest research results indicate that eating disorders have a quite complicated and multifactorial etiology. According to the multifactorial etiological model, the impact of mass media can be regarded mainly as a precipitating factor. The literature review showed that mass media have a considerable impact on the development and perpetuation of eating disorders. Mass media contribute to the promotion of the thinness ideal as a way to achieve social approval, recognition and success. Mass media also promote dieting and food deprivation, as a successful way of life or as a socially agreeable practice. Furthermore, the literature review showed that mass media remain the main source of information about eating disorders. Considering the above result, mass media could play a major role in the promotion of prevention practices and early diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders.

  9. The Impact of Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Pearl G.

    In order to bring the student's contemporary environment into the classroom for study and to avoid topicality, this book provides general principles by which to evaluate current media offerings, outlines the patterns from which media materials are cut for public consumption, and focuses the student's attention on the mass media themselves. Each of…

  10. The Impact of Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Pearl G.

    In order to bring the student's contemporary environment into the classroom for study and to avoid topicality, this book provides general principles by which to evaluate current media offerings, outlines the patterns from which media materials are cut for public consumption, and focuses the student's attention on the mass media themselves. Each of…

  11. The influence of three mass media campaigns on variables related to adolescent cigarette smoking: results of a field experiment.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, K E; LaPrelle, J; Brown, J D; Koch, G G; Padgett, C A

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper reports findings from a field experiment that evaluated mass media campaigns designed to prevent cigarette smoking by adolescents. METHODS: The campaigns featured radio and television messages on expected consequences of smoking and a component to stimulate personal encouragement of peers not to smoke. Six Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the Southeast United States received campaigns and four served as controls. Adolescents and mothers provided pretest and posttest data in their homes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The radio campaign had a modest influence on the expected consequences of smoking and friend approval of smoking, the more expensive campaigns involving television were not more effective than those with radio alone, the peer-involvement component was not effective, and any potential smoking effects could not be detected. PMID:2014859

  12. Education and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Beatrice Beach; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the strong educational role of mass media in the Soviet Union. Articles cover "Controlling Individual Development and Behavior,""The Educational Potential of the Mass Media,""Some Problems of Ideological Work and the Tasks of Psychology," plus discussion of books, television, the press, films, and the…

  13. Influence of Mass Media on Judgments of Physical Attractiveness: The People's Case Against Farrah Fawcett.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenrick, Douglas T.; Gutierres, Sara

    The way the attractiveness of an average female is rated can be significantly changed by exposing the rater to media females, even for very short periods. In one study, subjects were exposed either to a series of advertisements containing female faces or to a control series of average females. Subsequent ratings of a target female's attractiveness…

  14. Influence of Mass Media on Judgments of Physical Attractiveness: The People's Case Against Farrah Fawcett.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenrick, Douglas T.; Gutierres, Sara

    The way the attractiveness of an average female is rated can be significantly changed by exposing the rater to media females, even for very short periods. In one study, subjects were exposed either to a series of advertisements containing female faces or to a control series of average females. Subsequent ratings of a target female's attractiveness…

  15. Mass media tours Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    In May 1998, representatives of Japan's mass media toured Bangladesh to learn about the country's reproductive health and population programs. The goal of the visit was for the journalists to spread information about the projects to their peers, to government officials, and parliamentarians responsible for allocations of foreign aid. The 1st stage of the visit involved meetings with program officials and organizers. In the 2nd stage, the journalists toured: 1) Matlab, where the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research has been implementing an intensive family planning (FP) program; 2) the Panchdona IP area, where the Integrated Family Development Project is being conducted with funding from the Japanese government; 3) an FP office and satellite clinic; and 4) a site where voluntary organizations are providing FP/maternal-child health care. The journalists also learned about how micro-credit loans operate. Participating journalists reported that they were very impressed with the people of Bangladesh, and that they had gained a new understanding of the relationship between reproductive health and human rights.

  16. Influence of Culture Media on Detection of Carbapenem Hydrolysis by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Ana Carolina; Carvalhaes, Cecília Godoy; Cordeiro-Moura, Jhonatha Rodrigo; Rockstroh, Anna Carolina; Machado, Antonia Maria Oliveira; Gales, Ana Cristina

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of distinct bacterial growth media on detection of carbapenemase hydrolysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. False-negative results were observed for OXA-25-, OXA-26-, and OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates grown on MacConkey agar medium. The other culture media showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting carbapenemase.

  17. You and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franza, August

    This student workbook provides information about mass media and invites students to consider and respond to that information. Students are encouraged to use reading, writing, researching, critical thinking, interpreting, and debating skills in their responses. The book is organized into 8 chapters: (1) "The World of Media"; (2) "Television: Is…

  18. Mass Media in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Brian

    The teacher is provided with a range of practical suggestions for teaching about mass media. Chapters are devoted to the press, magazines, television, advertising, and film. The author argues that the teacher must start from the place of the various media in the lives of the children and not from a desire to instruct the children as to what they…

  19. You and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franza, August

    This student workbook provides information about mass media and invites students to consider and respond to that information. Students are encouraged to use reading, writing, researching, critical thinking, interpreting, and debating skills in their responses. The book is organized into 8 chapters: (1) "The World of Media"; (2) "Television: Is…

  20. Mass Media and Interpersonal Influences on the Acquisition of Consumer Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    To achieve competency as consumers in the marketplace, young people need to acquire specific consumer skills. To determine the influence of such socialization agents as television, family, peers, and school on the acquisition of these skills, 607 middle and high school students in Kentucky and North Carolina completed self-administered…

  1. Mass Media and Political Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewellen, James R.

    1976-01-01

    Research reviews and statistical analysis of a specific study suggest that the mass media play a direct role in the political socialization of adolescents insofar as overt political behavior is concerned. (Author/AV)

  2. Looking at Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sive, Mary Robinson

    1979-01-01

    This article offers a bibliography of recent inexpensive filmstrips, slide sets, and study prints that can expand students' awareness of such issues as psychic manipulation in TV commercials, the intrusion of show biz into news reporting, and the role of the advertiser in determining media content. (Editor/SJL)

  3. Britain's Open University, User of Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, William

    The way that the Open University system in Great Britain operates and the use of the mass media are discussed in detail. A number of problems the adult student is likely to face are identified, along with basic differences between U.S. and British societies that influence the application of an open university approach. Attention is directed to:…

  4. Teaching English through Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafani, Vilma

    2009-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing the importance of using Mass Media in the classroom and finding the ways how to use Printed and Audio-visual Media. It is the result of an in-depth study, surveys and questionnaires thus trying to make the ideas in this article more trustworthy. It is based not only on the literature review but also on long personal…

  5. Coping With the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

    This textbook, one of "The Language of Man" series, has five sections, each including several articles. Introductory articles detail the role of the mass media in our lives; other sections deal with television, movies, newspapers, and the ideas of Marshall McLuhan. The focus of concern is less with aesthetics and more with the social…

  6. Using Mass Media For Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrington, Roger, Ed.

    The nine articles in this collection by members of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges' Task Force on the Uses of Mass Media for Learning are concerned almost entirely with television, since the telecourse is the medium with which the most experience has been gained and which has the most potential for many community…

  7. English and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Andrew

    1969-01-01

    Despite an excess of materials available today on classroom approaches to the mass media, few English teachers have either the training or experience to determine which studies are relevant and worthwhile or how to utilize them in the classroom. A survey of some of this literature, therefore, can help interested teachers make selections…

  8. Ability of a mass media campaign to influence knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about sugary drinks and obesity.

    PubMed

    Boles, Myde; Adams, Adelle; Gredler, Amy; Manhas, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    We examined the impact of a mass media campaign that was designed to educate residents about the amount of added sugars in soda and other sugary drinks, as well as the health impacts of consuming such drinks. The campaign was implemented in Multnomah County (Portland), Oregon in 2011 and included paid and unpaid media on the web, television, billboards, and transit. A telephone survey (n=402) measured campaign awareness, attitudes toward obesity, knowledge about health problems of excessive sugar, and behavioral intentions and behaviors around soda and sugary drink consumption. Nearly 80% of people who were aware of the media campaign intended to reduce the amount of soda or sugary drinks they offered to a child as a result of the campaign ads. Those who were aware of the campaign were more likely to agree that too much sugar causes health problems (97.3% vs. 85.9%). There was no significant change in self-reported soda consumption. Media campaigns about sugary drinks and obesity may be effective for raising awareness about added sugars in beverages, increasing knowledge about health problems associated with excessive sugar consumption, and prompting behavioral intentions to reduce soda and sugary drink consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Imitative suicide by burning charcoal in the southeastern region of Korea: the influence of mass media reporting.

    PubMed

    Huh, Gi Yeong; Jo, Gam Rae; Kim, Kwang Hoon; Ahn, Yong Woo; Lee, Sang Yong

    2009-04-01

    We describe seven cases of imitative suicide, unintentionally affected by mass media reporting of an accidental death by burning charcoal. After the first report on accidental death by burning charcoal, three cases occurred in 3 months in 2007, and another four cases in the same season in 2008 in the southeastern region of Korea. The age range of the victims was 24-35 years. Five cases were attempted inside of cars and two cases were attempted indoors. The reporting and portrayal of the unusual accidental deaths, as well as the reporting of the means used in the suicide may have potentially led younger people exposed to such stimuli to unexpectedly facilitate suicidal acts by the method described in the media.

  10. Agenda setting for smoking control in Japan, 1945-1990: influence of the mass media on national health policy making.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hajime

    2003-01-01

    Agenda setting is regarded as a key process in policymaking. This study first examines the trends in newspaper articles on smoking and health and the debates on the issue in the Diet in Japan for the period 1945-1990. Then relationships of those articles and debates with national administrative actions are analyzed. Although the media helped set the agenda in the Diet before the emergence of the nonsmokers' rights movement, it did not do so thereafter. On the other hand, media reports continued to be associated with various aspects of administrative policy making throughout the study period and played an important role in mobilizing administrative agencies. Effects of mass media on agencies were regarded as largely independent of the debates in the Diet. It is also noted that simple "scientific" reports on the health hazards of smoking had no association either with agency action or with Diet debates. This indicates that issue building, which consists of creating a package of ideas about the facts, the causal theories, the responsibilities, and the feasible solutions, is important when scientific facts are to be dealt with by policymakers.

  11. Women and Society: The Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Linda J.

    Males and females have become vitally concerned with sex-role images in the mass media because of the ubiquitous nature of the media. Mass media, which have heavily penetrated Americans' lives, have the potential for initiating, reinforcing, or denying certain social values. In studies of various media, including magazine advertising, magazine…

  12. Women and Society: The Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Linda J.

    Males and females have become vitally concerned with sex-role images in the mass media because of the ubiquitous nature of the media. Mass media, which have heavily penetrated Americans' lives, have the potential for initiating, reinforcing, or denying certain social values. In studies of various media, including magazine advertising, magazine…

  13. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  14. The Impact of Mass Media Upon Public Opinion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The history of public opinion and mass media is briefly covered to set the background for a closer look at the factors which influence the formation...family church, school and peer groups. The primary mass media instruments, television, radio and the newspaper are examined to determine if a

  15. Mass Media: The Invisible Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glessing, Robert J.; White, William P.

    This anthology for students of media consists of essays and articles grouped under four topics: media forms, media content, media environments, and "the last word." Media forms deals with the nature of these kinds of media: electronic, print, film, music, and comics, graffiti, and clothing. Media content contains articles on the news, advertising,…

  16. Mass Media: The Invisible Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glessing, Robert J.; White, William P.

    This anthology for students of media consists of essays and articles grouped under four topics: media forms, media content, media environments, and "the last word." Media forms deals with the nature of these kinds of media: electronic, print, film, music, and comics, graffiti, and clothing. Media content contains articles on the news, advertising,…

  17. Building brands without mass media.

    PubMed

    Joachimsthaler, E; Aaker, D A

    1997-01-01

    Costs, market fragmentation, and new media channels that let customers bypass advertisements seem to be in league against the old ways of marketing. Relying on mass media campaigns to build strong brands may be a thing of the past. Several companies in Europe, making a virtue of necessity, have come up with alternative brand-building approaches and are blazing a trail in the post-mass-media age. In England, Nestlé's Buitoni brand grew through programs that taught the English how to cook Italian food. The Body Shop garnered loyalty with its support of environmental and social causes. Cadbury funded a theme park tied to its history in the chocolate business. Häagen-Dazs opened posh ice-cream parlors and got itself featured by name on the menus of fine restaurants. Hugo Boss and Swatch backed athletic or cultural events that became associated with their brands. The various campaigns shared characteristics that could serve as guidelines for any company hoping to build a successful brand: senior managers were closely involved with brand-building efforts; the companies recognized the importance of clarifying their core brand identity; and they made sure that all their efforts to gain visibility were tied to that core identity. Studying the methods of companies outside one's own industry and country can be instructive for managers. Pilot testing and the use of a single and continuous measure of brand equity also help managers get the most out of novel approaches in their ever more competitive world.

  18. Mass Media Types: Three Q-Analyses of Mass Media Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.

    The purpose of a mass media study was to (l) identify mass media types (patterns of exposure to mass media content) among seventh graders, high school juniors, and adults in a given geographic area; (2) show similarities and differences in the mass media types isolated for these three age groups; (3) pinpoint demographic variables most strongly…

  19. Mass Media Types: Three Q-Analyses of Mass Media Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.

    The purpose of a mass media study was to (l) identify mass media types (patterns of exposure to mass media content) among seventh graders, high school juniors, and adults in a given geographic area; (2) show similarities and differences in the mass media types isolated for these three age groups; (3) pinpoint demographic variables most strongly…

  20. Students' use of mass media for ideas about romantic relationships was influenced by perceived realism of presentations and parental happiness.

    PubMed

    Westman, Alida S; Lynch, Teresa J; Lewandowski, Lisa; Hunt-Carter, Erin

    2003-06-01

    52 undergraduates between 18 and 24 years of age (34 women) answered a questionnaire about their use of mass media for ideas about romantic relationships and indicated how happy their parents' relationship seemed during the students' formative years. If sitcoms, dramas, magazine articles, or books were seen as realistic or presenting an ideal for which to strive in real life, students used ideas about romantic relationships presented more frequently, and they also more frequently explored sitcoms and dramas for ideas, but not magazines or books. If the parental relationship was seen as happy, students were more likely to use TV and magazines but not books for ideas; they evaluated sitcoms as more and books as less realistic.

  1. The mass media and disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    Past investigations by myself and others on the role of the mass media in disasters indicate that news people typically find themselves in situations of uncertainty, ambiguity, and conflicting information; the communication and transportation services that these people use in covering a story become inoperative. However, the media are expected to make sense of the disaster situation almost immediately. the difficulties of doing so were reflected by the ABC Goodyear Blimp footage of the collapsed Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, California, broadcast nationally on the evening of October 17, 1989. The televised picture showed the disastrous results of the Loma Prieta earthquake, but for an hour or more the announcer could not correctly identify what was being shown. He did not seem to realize that the upper deck of the freeway had collapsed on the lower deck, crushing vechiles and people. 

  2. Influence of age, body mass index, and blood pressure on the carotid intima-media thickness in normotensive and hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Honzikova, Natasa; Labrova, Ruzena; Fiser, Bohumil; Maderova, Eva; Novakova, Zuzana; Zavodna, Eva; Semrad, Borivoj

    2006-10-01

    We investigated whether body mass index and blood pressure have an additive influence on the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). In 27 patients treated for hypertension (47.2+/-8.7 years) and 23 normotensive subjects (44.1+/-8.1 years), 24-h recording of blood pressure was performed. The carotid IMT was determined by ultrasonography and baroreflex sensitivity by a spectral method from 5-min recordings of blood pressure. Significant differences between hypertensive and normotensive subjects were observed for carotid IMT (0.60+/-0.08 vs. 0.51+/-0.07 mm; p<0.001) and baroreflex sensitivity (3.5+/-1.8 vs. 5.6+/-2.1 ms/mm Hg; p<0.001). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (p<0.01) showed that carotid IMT was positively correlated with age (p<0.001) and body mass index (p<0.05) in normotensive subjects. The increased carotid IMT in hypertensive patients was not additively influenced by either age or body mass index. Baroreflex sensitivity decreased with age (p<0.01) and with carotid IMT (p<0.05) in normotensive subjects only. Multiregression analysis showed that an additive influence of age and body mass index on the development of carotid IMT is essential only in normotensive subjects. In hypertensive subjects the influence of blood pressure predominates, as documented by a comparison of the carotid IMT between hypertensive and normotensive subjects.

  3. Student Musings on Life without Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardenne, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Discusses comments from hundreds of students over a dozen years in response to an assignment in which they are asked to avoid all forms of mass media for four of five days and record their reactions in diaries. Discusses media as companion, media easing routine tasks, media as addiction, antidote to silence, alternate activities, and fear of…

  4. Mass Media Orientations among Hispanic Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; Heeter, Carrie

    1983-01-01

    A five-city survey of 464 fifth- and tenth-grade southwestern Mexican American boys and girls focused on media consumption. Findings paralleled other boy-girl and age group mass media experience comparisons. Students used media about nine hours per school day. Spanish-language media were little liked and seldom used. (MH)

  5. Cluster-size entropy in the Axelrod model of social influence: Small-world networks and mass media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandica, Y.; Charmell, A.; Villegas-Febres, J.; Bonalde, I.

    2011-10-01

    We study the Axelrod's cultural adaptation model using the concept of cluster-size entropy Sc, which gives information on the variability of the cultural cluster size present in the system. Using networks of different topologies, from regular to random, we find that the critical point of the well-known nonequilibrium monocultural-multicultural (order-disorder) transition of the Axelrod model is given by the maximum of the Sc(q) distributions. The width of the cluster entropy distributions can be used to qualitatively determine whether the transition is first or second order. By scaling the cluster entropy distributions we were able to obtain a relationship between the critical cultural trait qc and the number F of cultural features in two-dimensional regular networks. We also analyze the effect of the mass media (external field) on social systems within the Axelrod model in a square network. We find a partially ordered phase whose largest cultural cluster is not aligned with the external field, in contrast with a recent suggestion that this type of phase cannot be formed in regular networks. We draw a q-B phase diagram for the Axelrod model in regular networks.

  6. Cluster-size entropy in the Axelrod model of social influence: small-world networks and mass media.

    PubMed

    Gandica, Y; Charmell, A; Villegas-Febres, J; Bonalde, I

    2011-10-01

    We study the Axelrod's cultural adaptation model using the concept of cluster-size entropy S(c), which gives information on the variability of the cultural cluster size present in the system. Using networks of different topologies, from regular to random, we find that the critical point of the well-known nonequilibrium monocultural-multicultural (order-disorder) transition of the Axelrod model is given by the maximum of the S(c)(q) distributions. The width of the cluster entropy distributions can be used to qualitatively determine whether the transition is first or second order. By scaling the cluster entropy distributions we were able to obtain a relationship between the critical cultural trait q(c) and the number F of cultural features in two-dimensional regular networks. We also analyze the effect of the mass media (external field) on social systems within the Axelrod model in a square network. We find a partially ordered phase whose largest cultural cluster is not aligned with the external field, in contrast with a recent suggestion that this type of phase cannot be formed in regular networks. We draw a q-B phase diagram for the Axelrod model in regular networks.

  7. Media and Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, William H.

    The public information media provides information on current events (news), entertainment (programming), and opinions offered by trusted public sources (e.g., business, academic or religious spokespersons, journalists, and government officials). Consequently, it is a major force in shaping a populace's attitudes toward significant social issues and of great interest to intervention planners. The chapter attempts to provide modelers and intervention analysts alike with sufficient understanding of media mechanisms and current research that they can begin contributing to, and benefiting from this important area of study.

  8. How did policy actors use mass media to influence the Scottish alcohol minimum unit pricing debate? Comparative analysis of newspapers, evidence submissions and interviews

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To explore how policy actors attempted to deliberately frame public debate around alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in the UK by comparing and contrasting their constructions of the policy in public (newspapers), semi-public (evidence submissions) and private (interviews). Methods: Content analysis was conducted on articles published in ten national newspapers between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2012. Newsprint data were contrasted with alcohol policy documents, evidence submissions to the Scottish Parliament's Health and Sport Committee and 36 confidential interviews with policy stakeholders (academics, advocates, industry representatives, politicians and civil servants). Findings: A range of policy actors exerted influence both directly (through Parliamentary institutions and political representatives) and indirectly through the mass media. Policy actors were acutely aware of mass media's importance in shaping public opinion and used it tactically to influence policy. They often framed messages in subtly different ways, depending on target audiences. In general, newspapers presented the policy debate in a “balanced” way, but this arguably over-represented hostile perspective and suggested greater disagreement around the evidence base than is the case. Conclusions: The roles of policy actors vary between public and policy spheres, and how messages are communicated in policy debates depends on perceived strategic advantage. PMID:26045639

  9. How did policy actors use mass media to influence the Scottish alcohol minimum unit pricing debate? Comparative analysis of newspapers, evidence submissions and interviews.

    PubMed

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona

    2015-04-01

    Aims: To explore how policy actors attempted to deliberately frame public debate around alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in the UK by comparing and contrasting their constructions of the policy in public (newspapers), semi-public (evidence submissions) and private (interviews). Methods: Content analysis was conducted on articles published in ten national newspapers between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2012. Newsprint data were contrasted with alcohol policy documents, evidence submissions to the Scottish Parliament's Health and Sport Committee and 36 confidential interviews with policy stakeholders (academics, advocates, industry representatives, politicians and civil servants). Findings: A range of policy actors exerted influence both directly (through Parliamentary institutions and political representatives) and indirectly through the mass media. Policy actors were acutely aware of mass media's importance in shaping public opinion and used it tactically to influence policy. They often framed messages in subtly different ways, depending on target audiences. In general, newspapers presented the policy debate in a "balanced" way, but this arguably over-represented hostile perspective and suggested greater disagreement around the evidence base than is the case. Conclusions: The roles of policy actors vary between public and policy spheres, and how messages are communicated in policy debates depends on perceived strategic advantage.

  10. The Mass Media of Entertainment and Human Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorney, Roderic; Steele, Gary

    Urgently needed for human survival is a means of influencing large numbers of people to put into rapid action measures which could neutralize such menances as pollution, overpopulation, and violence. Though the cumulative effect of the mass media is not fully established, media entertainment may be the most influential institution in our society.…

  11. The Mass Media of Entertainment and Human Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorney, Roderic; Steele, Gary

    Urgently needed for human survival is a means of influencing large numbers of people to put into rapid action measures which could neutralize such menances as pollution, overpopulation, and violence. Though the cumulative effect of the mass media is not fully established, media entertainment may be the most influential institution in our society.…

  12. Mass Media, Education, and a Better Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Jay W.

    In an examination of the conflict between the mass media and public education, the author concludes that a pressing need exists for better understanding and cooperation between the two and calls for action which involves them both. The overcommunication of the media and the under-utilization of the media toward constructive ends are examined.…

  13. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  14. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  15. Exploring the potential for a mass media campaign to influence support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the point of sale.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jane A; Davis, K C; Kamyab, K; Farrelly, M C

    2015-02-01

    This study explores whether exposure to advertisements that focus on the negative effects of tobacco industry advertising and promotion at the point of sale (anti-POS advertising) influence: (i) attitude toward POS advertising; (ii) perceived impact of POS advertising on youth smoking; and (iii) support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the POS among adult non-smokers in New York. Data are from a split-sample, experimental study, using an online media tracking survey with embedded TV, radio and print advertising. Exposure to anti-POS advertising was associated with higher odds of holding a negative attitude toward POS advertising (OR 2.43, P < 0.001) and support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the POS (OR 1.77, P < 0.05), but not with perceived impact of POS tobacco advertisements on youth smoking. Findings suggest the possibility that a mass media campaign could be used to influence public attitude toward POS advertising and support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the POS.

  16. Mass media and smoking cessation: a critical review.

    PubMed Central

    Flay, B R

    1987-01-01

    Evaluations of 40 mass media programs/campaigns designed to influence cigarette smoking were reviewed. Information/motivation programs/campaigns generally produced changes in awareness, knowledge, and attitudes. Extensive national campaigns also produced meaningful behavioral change. Programs/campaigns designed to promote some specific smoking-related action produced mixed results, depending in large part on the type of promotion involved. Mass media cessation clinics were found to be effective, with media plus social support being more effective than viewing plus printed material, and either combination being more effective than viewing alone. It was concluded that mass media health promotion programs can be more effective than many academics may have thought, but that the knowledge necessary to ensure such success is seriously lacking. Research studies, rather than simple evaluations, are needed to improve our knowledge base and build a science of mass media health promotion. PMID:3541650

  17. Mass Media and the Fear of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Linda; Gilbert, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the research on mass media effects on perceptions of crime danger, personal fear of crime, and reactions to crime risk. Discovers that mass media effects involve a number of variables and moderators. These include audience characteristics, degree and type of coverage, and location. (MJP)

  18. Mass Media Criticism as Transformational Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Janice Hocker

    Most messages from the mass media operate on the collective unconscious of a culture. The ethical consequence of such identification through unawareness is the transfer of decision making from consumers to image makers. The mass media critic can serve as a mediator of the ethical problems created by such a mode of identification. As mediating…

  19. The Three Paradigms of Mass Media Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James; And Others

    A study examined the mass media research literature to determine if there was a dominant paradigm in the field. The mass media research published in eight communication journals from 1965 to 1989 was content analyzed to identify paradigm, orientation (focus and theory), data (type, source, and sample), methodology (type and manipulation), and…

  20. Mass Media and Communication. Second, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Charles S., Ed.

    This revised and enlarged second edition contains sections focusing on a number of mass media: newspapers, the American magazine, motion pictures, broadcasting media, and book publishing. Other section topics include the structure and development of mass communication, public opinion, international communication, the motivation of assent, the…

  1. The Mass Media: An Integrated Unit. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Barry

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to a critical study of the mass media is presented in this journal insert, which also provides a format for planning an integrated unit. The main section of the insert focuses on seven questions and their answers concerning: (1) selection of the topic, (2) justifying a mass media curriculum, (3) entry experience, (4)…

  2. Environmental professionals and the mass media

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfeld, C.

    1983-01-01

    Environmental professionals frequently attempt to use the mass media as vehicles for public information and education campaigns; the mass media, on the other hand, frequently engage in ''the use of subject matter and literary treatment calculated to arouse excited interest and emotional response.'' It is not then surprising that environmental professionals and others have given the media mixed reviews in terms of media performance in constructing the environment as a social problem. Yet it is difficult to see how pervasive public pro-environmental reportage by the mass media. The continuing challenge to environmental professional-media relations is one of facilitating a sober consideration of ways that will help enhance environmental quality and energy conservation without jeopardizing other human needs. 61 references.

  3. Observations on the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Roger J.; Payden, William R.

    Thirty-three articles present observations on how the media operate and how the media have affected society to date. The articles deal with a wide variety of topics, including the editorial page; political cartooning; daily-newspaper starts and suspensions from 1960 to 1969; journalistic ethics; well-known journalists, such as John Dunlap, James…

  4. Observations on the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Roger J.; Payden, William R.

    Thirty-three articles present observations on how the media operate and how the media have affected society to date. The articles deal with a wide variety of topics, including the editorial page; political cartooning; daily-newspaper starts and suspensions from 1960 to 1969; journalistic ethics; well-known journalists, such as John Dunlap, James…

  5. Mass media makes a difference.

    PubMed

    El-bakly, S; Hess, R W

    1994-09-01

    of mass media for family planning promotion provides valuable lessons for others.

  6. Can mass media interventions reduce child mortality?

    PubMed

    Head, Roy; Murray, Joanna; Sarrassat, Sophie; Snell, Will; Meda, Nicolas; Ouedraogo, Moctar; Deboise, Laurent; Cousens, Simon

    2015-07-04

    Many people recognise that mass media is important in promoting public health but there have been few attempts to measure how important. An ongoing trial in Burkina Faso (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01517230) is an attempt to bring together the very different worlds of mass media and epidemiology: to measure rigorously, using a cluster-randomised design, how many lives mass media can save in a low-income country, and at what cost. Application of the Lives Saved Tool predicts that saturation-based media campaigns could reduce child mortality by 10-20%, at a cost per disability-adjusted life-year that is as low as any existing health intervention. In this Viewpoint we explain the scientific reasoning behind the trial, while stressing the importance of the media methodology used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AAAS: The Mass Media Science Fellows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Gail

    1981-01-01

    Describes activities of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Mass Media Fellows Program, which began in 1975 to improve the reporting on current events in science and technology. (CS)

  8. Physical activity interventions using mass media, print media, and information technology.

    PubMed

    Marcus, B H; Owen, N; Forsyth, L H; Cavill, N A; Fridinger, F

    1998-11-01

    Media-based physical activity interventions include a variety of print, graphic, audiovisual, and broadcast media programs intended to influence behavior change. New information technology allows print to be delivered in personalized, interactive formats that may enhance efficacy. Media-based interventions have been shaped by conceptual models from health education, Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, and Social Marketing frameworks. We reviewed 28 studies of media-based interventions of which seven were mass media campaigns at the state or national level and the remaining 21 were delivered through health care, the workplace, or in the community. Recall of mass-media messages generally was high, but mass-media campaigns had very little impact on physical activity behavior. Interventions using print and/or telephone were effective in changing behavior in the short term. Studies in which there were more contacts and interventions tailored to the target audience were most effective. A key issue for research on media-based physical activity interventions is reaching socially disadvantaged groups for whom access, particularly to new forms of communication technology, may be limited. There is a clear need for controlled trials comparing different forms and intensities of media-based physical activity interventions. Controlled studies of personalized print, interactive computer-mediated programs, and web-based formats for program delivery also are needed. The integration of media-based methods into public and private sector service delivery has much potential for innovation.

  9. Mass Media Campaigns’ Influence on Prehospital Behavior for Acute Coronary Syndromes: An Evaluation of the Australian Heart Foundation’s Warning Signs Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Janet E; Stub, Dion; Ngu, Philip; Cartledge, Susie; Straney, Lahn; Stewart, Michelle; Keech, Wendy; Patsamanis, Harry; Shaw, James; Finn, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the awareness of a recent mass media campaign, and its influence on knowledge and prehospital times, in a cohort of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients admitted to an Australian hospital. Methods and Results We conducted 199 semistructured interviews with consecutive ACS patients who were aged 35 to 75 years, competent to provide consent, and English speaking. Questions addressed the factors known to predict prehospital delay, awareness of the campaign, and whether it increased knowledge and influenced actions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between campaign awareness and a 1-hour delay in deciding to seek medical attention (patient delay) and a 2-hour delay in presenting to hospital (prehospital delay). The median age was 62 years (IQR=53 to 68 years), and 68% (n=136) were male. Awareness of the campaign was reported by 127 (64%) patients, with most of these patients stating the campaign (1) increased their understanding of what is a heart attack (63%), (2) increased their awareness of the signs and symptoms of heart attack (68%), and (3) influenced their actions in response to symptoms (43%). After adjustment for other predictors, awareness of the campaign was significantly associated with patient delay time of ≤1 hour (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.25, 95% CI: 1.03 to 4.91, P=0.04) and prehospital delay time ≤2 hours (AOR=3.11, 95% CI: 1.36 to 7.08, P=0.007). Conclusions Our study showed reasonably high awareness of the warning signs campaign, which was significantly associated with shorter prehospital decision-making and faster presentation to hospital. PMID:26150478

  10. Basic Books in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Eleanor

    References to information on the background, structure, function, contents, and effects of mass communications are provided in this annotated booklist. Material is included on theory, popular culture, the Black press, communications technology, the underground press and film, and mass media violence and the entries are arranged according to the…

  11. Basic Books in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Eleanor

    References to information on the background, structure, function, contents, and effects of mass communications are provided in this annotated booklist. Material is included on theory, popular culture, the Black press, communications technology, the underground press and film, and mass media violence and the entries are arranged according to the…

  12. Effective Utilization of the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Norma Haston

    The question of whether or not the mass media can successfully be used as a vehicle for creative social and individual change is discussed and brief descriptions are given of successful and unsuccessful campaigns that attempted to improve public attitudes toward certain health problems. Ten recommendations are made for using the mass media…

  13. Effects of the Mass Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Walter

    The mass media are considered to be television, radio, movies, and newspapers. They may generate changes in cognition and comprehension. They do effect emotional arousal, sex and behavior identification, and changes in allocation of time, consumer purchase, and voting behavior. The only data which show a clear relationship between the mass media…

  14. Effects of the Mass Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Walter

    The mass media are considered to be television, radio, movies, and newspapers. They may generate changes in cognition and comprehension. They do effect emotional arousal, sex and behavior identification, and changes in allocation of time, consumer purchase, and voting behavior. The only data which show a clear relationship between the mass media…

  15. Misrepresentation of health risks by mass media.

    PubMed

    Bomlitz, Larisa J; Brezis, Mayer

    2008-06-01

    Mass media are a leading source of health information for general public. We wished to examine the relationship between the intensity of media coverage for selected health topics and their actual risk to public health. Mass media reports in the United States on emerging and chronic health hazards (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bioterrorism, West Nile Fever, AIDS, smoking and physical inactivity) were counted for the year 2003, using LexisNexis database. The number of media reports for each health risk was correlated with the corresponding death rate as reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The number of media reports inversely correlated with the actual number of deaths for the health risks evaluated. SARS and bioterrorism killed less than a dozen people in 2003, but together generated over 100 000 media reports, far more than those covering smoking and physical inactivity, which killed nearly a million Americans. Emerging health hazards are over-reported in mass media by comparison to common threats to public health. Since premature mortality in industrialized societies is most often due to well-known risks such as smoking and physical inactivity, their under-representation on public agendas may cause suboptimal prioritization of public health resources.

  16. Blood and Bones: The Influence of the Mass Media on Australian Primary School Children's Understandings of Genes and DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that primary school children held several misconceptions about genetics of concern for their future lives. Included were beliefs that genes and DNA are separate substances, with genes causing family resemblance and DNA identifying suspects at crime scenes. Responses to this work "blamed" the mass media for these…

  17. Blood and Bones: The Influence of the Mass Media on Australian Primary School Children's Understandings of Genes and DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that primary school children held several misconceptions about genetics of concern for their future lives. Included were beliefs that genes and DNA are separate substances, with genes causing family resemblance and DNA identifying suspects at crime scenes. Responses to this work "blamed" the mass media for these…

  18. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Laura J; Bunn, Janice Y; Flynn, Brian S; Pirie, Phyllis L; Worden, John K; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-08-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory. The authors enrolled 2,030 adolescent smokers into the cohort (n = 987 experimental; n = 1,043 comparison) and assessed them via annual telephone surveys for 3 years. Although the condition by time interaction was not significant, the proportion of adolescents smoking in the past month was significantly lower in the experimental than comparison condition at 3-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline smoking status. The media campaign did not impact targeted mediating variables. A media campaign based on social cognitive constructs produced a modest overall effect on smoking prevalence among adolescents, but the role of theory-based constructs is unclear.

  19. Bibliographic Instruction and Mass Media News Literacy: A Theoretical Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework for understanding mass media news influence; explores the concepts of agenda setting, priming, framing, asymmetrical selection, binary oppositionalism, and institutional hegemony in a survey of literature in journalism and communications; and outlines a teaching strategy that highlights one news event and compares…

  20. Children's Reactions to Dreams Conveyed in Mass Media Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    Explores children's ability to understand formal features of television and film by investigating their reactions to a televised dream. Indicates that children are able to recognize dreams in mass media programing and that prior knowledge of an upcoming dream can influence children's interpretations of and emotional reactions to dreamed events in…

  1. Mass Media: The Hidden Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nystrom, Christine L.

    1975-01-01

    The article states that television has become a potent influence on learning because it suggests, through commercials and programs, that problems can be resolved instantly, and thus shapes viewers' perceptions of reality. (CD)

  2. Using mass media to reduce adolescent involvement in drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Romer, D

    1994-06-01

    Drug trafficking among adolescents is a newly recognized high-risk behavior that seems to be involving large numbers of youths. Strategies to prevent and/or alter this behavior must be developed and evaluated. In view of the high exposure of adolescents to the mass media, interventionists seeking to reduce adolescent risk behavior have increasingly employed the media in their efforts to reduce adolescent risk behaviors in general. However, not all risk behaviors may be amendable to change as a result of this approach. Therefore, before utilizing this approach to address adolescent drug trafficking, it is important to investigate previous efforts targeting related risk behaviors. Mass media campaigns against the use of drugs have been common in the US and seem to have played a role in reducing consumption of both legal and illegal drugs. The most effective messages seem to focus on the risks of drug use and the social disapproval that attends use. The mass media may increase the influence of these antidrug messages by changing the social climate surrounding drug use. The mass media may be a particularly effective way to reach adolescents and their parents in communities in which adolescent drug trafficking is prevalent and to unite the institutions that could influence adolescents against involvement in the drug trade. However, intervention efforts must also contend with the economic incentives of the drug trade in poor, central-city communities.

  3. Mass media antismoking campaigns: a powerful tool for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Siegel, M

    1998-07-15

    Cigarette advertising and promotion have been shown to influence smoking in young persons, but the powerful effect of the mass media on behavior can also be used to promote health. Several states have earmarked a portion of their cigarette excise tax revenues to fund mass media antismoking campaigns, which have been effective in reducing cigarette consumption and in helping persons quit smoking. Despite their successes, the campaigns have been hindered by tobacco industry-supported attempts to cut their funding or restrict their scope. The most aggressive campaigns, which attack the tobacco industry and challenge social norms about tobacco use and promotion, are the most controversial but also the most effective. Mass media antismoking campaigns are a promising tool for health promotion, but only if sustained funding can be guaranteed and the development of the advertisements can be protected from intrusion by political forces.

  4. Dissemination of High Value Mass Media International News to the College Student Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, John R.; Hunt, Gary

    The "two-step flow" theory of mass communication posits that people are less influenced by the mass media themselves than by those who watch the mass media. Hypotheses were that the two-step flow would predominate in the dissemination of four major news events among college students and that the students' most frequent "source" of knowledge for…

  5. The Mass Media in a Violent World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnet, Mary

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a symposium on the impact of the representation of violence in the mass media on youth and adults. The symposium participants agreed on a working definition of violence as "the use of means of action which are harmful to the physical, psychic, or moral…

  6. The Mass Media Role in Terrorist Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tim; Clavier, David E.

    Terrorists seek recognition for their cause by using violence to create public fear which will force the government into repressive counter-measures. The mass media play a vital role in this strategy. News reports of terrorism may magnify the climate of fear, thereby augmenting the public's overreaction. Moreover, broadcast of terrorist acts may…

  7. Mass Media and Socialization: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Verna, Mary Ellen

    Given the growing interest in the area of socialization and mass media, this bibliography of articles and books is intended to simplify reference to the literature and to stimulate research. Three primary sources are used: "Psychological Abstracts (1950-1972),""Sociological Abstracts (1953-1972)," and the "Cumulative Book…

  8. The Finns as Users of Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapasalo, Jukka

    This report is a compilation of data on mass media consumption by Finns. It describes the results of a survey conducted using 1162 Finnish-speaking respondents, 12 years of age or older. It also compares these results with those collected from earlier studies. Radio is in 98% of Finnish homes and is listened to 1 hour and 45 minutes per day, a…

  9. The Mass Media Role in Terrorist Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tim; Clavier, David E.

    Terrorists seek recognition for their cause by using violence to create public fear which will force the government into repressive counter-measures. The mass media play a vital role in this strategy. News reports of terrorism may magnify the climate of fear, thereby augmenting the public's overreaction. Moreover, broadcast of terrorist acts may…

  10. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  11. Social Studies: Media, Minds, and Masses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggot, James; Vino, Faith

    This secondary course of study teaches the student to investigate and analyze the impact of mass communication on contemporary society. Media affects the individual and society politically, socially, and economically. Knowledge and understanding of the operation, impact, history and development of radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and…

  12. Will Media Influence Learning? Reframing the Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    Addresses Clark's position that media do not influence learning (EJ 294 173). The need to consider the capabilities of media as they interact with the cognitive and social processes by which knowledge is constructed is posited. This approach is examined within the context of two major media-based projects. Implications for theory, research, and…

  13. Measuring the Influence of Mainstream Media on Twitter Users

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Form Approved OMB NO. 0704...Mainstream Media on Twitter Users This thesis is based on a research project that has been conducted at Clark Atlanta University (CAU) under the supervision...of Professors Roy George and Peter Molnar. The aim of the project is to construct a framework for measuring the influence of mass media on Twitter

  14. MASS MEDIA SIMULATION PROGRAM USER’S MANUAL,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The mass media simulation herein described allows a researcher to estimate the extent of exposure of a population to themes carried in mass media over...a period of time. The simulation program accepts input data about the mass media and their content, about the audience population, and about their

  15. Mass Media Representation of Teaching: A Behaviour Analysis Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Sandy; Mackie, Stirling

    Although psychological studies of the mass media have been dominated by cognitivist and psychodynamic concepts, a study of the mass media using a behavior analysis method may be used to analyze the content of the mass media. By applying that analysis to fictional teacher-learner interactions an interpretation of those relationships can be made and…

  16. Mass media, secular trends, and the future of cardiovascular disease health promotion: an interpretive analysis.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, J R; Viswanath, K; Hertog, J

    1999-12-01

    Mass media roles in promoting cardiovascular health in the context of lessons learned from major U.S. community studies, changing media technology, and emergent models of media-community partnerships are discussed. Three principal issues are explored: (1) implications of the current expansion, convergence, and harmonization of mass media technology;(2) recent trends in media coverage of heart disease and population practices; and (3) implications for the future relationship between the media and public health in cardiovascular health promotion. It is concluded that classic campaign models focusing on individual-level change have evolved to recognize environmental-level influences on behavior. Emergent public health campaign models have moved toward "agenda-building," in which the focus is on a more unified approach to influencing public and community agendas for social, behavioral, and policy change. Recent developments among the commercial mass media may offer new opportunities for public health partnerships to promote cardiovascular health.

  17. The mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Brown, Jane D; Kenneavy, Kristin

    2006-03-01

    This study compared influences from the mass media (television, music, movies, magazines) on adolescents' sexual intentions and behaviors to other socialization contexts, including family, religion, school, and peers. A sample of 1011 Black and White adolescents from 14 middle schools in the Southeastern United States completed linked mail surveys about their media use and in-home Audio-CASI interviews about their sexual intentions and behaviors. Analysis of the sexual content in 264 media vehicles used by respondents was also conducted. Exposure to sexual content across media, and perceived support from the media for teen sexual behavior, were the main media influence measures. Media explained 13% of the variance in intentions to initiate sexual intercourse in the near future, and 8-10% of the variance in light and heavy sexual behaviors, which was comparable to other contexts. Media influences also demonstrated significant associations with intentions and behaviors after all other factors were considered. All contextual factors, including media, explained 54% of the variance in sexual intentions and 21-33% of the variance in sexual behaviors. Adolescents who are exposed to more sexual content in the media, and who perceive greater support from the media for teen sexual behavior, report greater intentions to engage in sexual intercourse and more sexual activity. Mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual socialization, and media influences should be considered in research and interventions with early adolescents to reduce sexual activity.

  18. An Unseen Hand: The Mass Media and Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Mike

    This paper examines the role of mass media in the British education policy process, in particular, how the mass media steer education policy and inhibit certain issues from becoming the subject of policy. The paper describes how media professionals comprise an interest group competing with others to affect education policy; how they and other…

  19. The Controversy over "Mass Media Violence" and the Study of Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grixti, Joe

    1985-01-01

    How the large number of empirical tests and arguments that have been conducted to prove that mass media violence directly influences behavior have failed to discredit contrary arguments is discussed. (Author/RM)

  20. Mass media and rational domination: a critical review of a dominant paradigm.

    PubMed

    Moemeka, A

    1988-01-01

    The mass media exert powerful influences on the way people perceive, think about, and ultimately act in their world. Despite agreement on this fact, communication scholars are divided into 2 opposing camps. The functionalists view the mass media as instruments for providing the framework for the education and enlightenment of the masses socially, economically, and politically. In contrast, the conflict and critical theorists see the mass media as instruments for rational domination and manipulation of the masses through ideological control. Because the mass media are part of the social system and their operators belong to the ruling elite class, they invariably support the ideology of the power structure through justifying the sociopolitical status quo. It is axiomatic that the mass media are capable of diverting people's attention and consciousness away from sociopolitical issues by filling their leisure time with escapist forms of entertainment. The political structure is fully aware of the potential of the mass media to effect cognitive changes among individuals and to structure their thinking. As long as social, political, and economic status determine who is important and who is not, the media will continue to be instruments of control. However, this control function can be weakened when media infrastructure and administration are decentralized and closer to the masses. Then, solutions to the problems of the masses are the priority targets of media contents. The democratic-participant media theory calls for the right of access to the mass media for citizens and the rights of the masses to be served by the media according to their own self-determined needs.

  1. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  2. How does the emotive content of televised anti-smoking mass media campaigns influence monthly calls to the NHS Stop Smoking helpline in England?

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Sol; Langley, Tessa; Szatkowski, Lisa; Sims, Michelle; Gilmore, Anna; McNeill, Ann; Lewis, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different types of televised mass media campaign content on calls to the English NHS Stop Smoking helpline. Method We used UK government-funded televised tobacco control campaigns from April 2005 to April 2010, categorised as either “positive” (eliciting happiness, satisfaction or hope) or “negative” (eliciting fear, guilt or disgust). We built negative binomial generalised additive models (GAMs) with linear and smooth terms for monthly per capita exposure to each campaign type (expressed as Gross Ratings Points, or GRPs) to determine their effect on calls in the same month. We adjusted for seasonal trends, inflation-adjusted weighted average cigarette prices and other tobacco control policies. Results We found non-linear associations between exposure to positive and negative emotive campaigns and quitline calls. The rate of calls increased more than 50% as exposure to positive campaigns increased from 0 to 400 GRPs (rate ratio: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.25–2.01). An increase in calls in response to negative emotive campaigns was only apparent after monthly exposure exceeded 400 GRPs. Conclusion While positive campaigns were most effective at increasing quitline calls, those with negative emotive content were also found to impact on call rates but only at higher levels of exposure. PMID:25197004

  3. Children and the influence of the media.

    PubMed

    Derksen, D J; Strasburger, V C

    1994-12-01

    Violence, increased sexual activity, and antisocial behaviors involving children and adolescents are being blamed on the media. American children and adolescents spend 21 to 23 hours per week viewing television. Children will see 200,000 violent acts on television by age 18 and view over 14,000 sexual situations and innuendoes per year. The primary care physician can play a crucial role in reducing the potential negative influence of the media on children.

  4. Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people.

    PubMed

    Carson, Kristin V; Ameer, Faisal; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Hnin, Khin; van Agteren, Joseph Em; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Brinn, Malcolm P; Esterman, Adrian J; Chang, Anne B; Smith, Brian J

    2017-06-02

    Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE and Embase in June 2016. This is an update of a review first published in 1998. Randomized trials, controlled trials without randomization and interrupted time-series studies that assessed the effect of mass media campaigns (defined as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, social media, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact) in influencing the smoking behaviour (either objective or self-reported) of young people under the age of 25 years. We define smoking behaviour as the presence or absence of tobacco smoking or other tobacco use, or both, and the frequency of tobacco use. Eligible comparators included education or no intervention. Two review authors independently extracted information relating to the characteristics and the content of media interventions, participants, outcomes, methods of the study and risks of bias. We combined studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. We assessed the risks of bias for each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, alongside additional domains to account for the nature of the intervention. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to outcomes using GRADE. We identified eight eligible studies reporting information about mass media smoking

  5. Covering Science as a Mass Media Fellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.

    2006-03-01

    I remember my first unpleasant biology lab dissection in high school. I am not sure if the experience was worse for me or for the unfortunate fetal pig we dissected that day. The sights and smells of that fateful morning forever put me on a path toward the physical sciences, and probably have a lot to do with my ending up as a graduate student in atmospheric chemistry instead of at some medical school cutting up dead bodies. So imagine my horror after encountering the leg of a dead horse as I walked into a bioengineering laboratory to report on a story about artificial joint research. Subjecting myself to such biological horrors, though, was part of my duties as an AGU-sponsored American Association for the Advancement of Science Mass Media Fellow. The program places graduate students and recent graduates from scientific fields in major media outlets throughout the country. The aim of the program is to give science-trained individuals a taste of a career in science journalism as well as to help scientists develop better communication skills.

  6. Mass media in Peru promotes "responsible parenthood".

    PubMed

    Brace, J; Pareja, R

    1985-01-01

    This article describes a media campaign being carried out in Peru under the auspices of the Ministry of Health. The overall theme of the campaign is Responsible Parenthood, specifically in the areas of family planing, oral rehydration, and immunization. The mass media campaign was based on the results of extensive audience research data that identified knowledge and beliefs in these areas. The research identified 2 target audiences for family planning messages: those who want no more children and those who are using traditional contraceptive methods. In addition to quantitative audience surveys, focus group discussions were held. These groups revealed important information about contraceptive habits, male attitudes toward family planning, and the folk vocabulary used for family planning activities. They further suggested that the quality of services given in health centers affects future use of that service and that the most credible source of information about family planning is considered to be a mature female doctor, herself a mother. Pretesting of television spots for the campaign was valuable for identifying unacceptable or ineffective images. It was also learned that radio and telvision spots cannot be the same; rather, they require unique content.

  7. Mass Media Content as a Dependent Variable: Five Media Sociology Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.; Mayfield, Elizabeth Kay

    To better understand the effects of the media on audiences, five media sociology theoretical approaches to the study of influences on media were investigated by looking at tests of the approaches in three journals over the last 10 years. The mirror approach predicted that the media would accurately represent reality, but, while accurate, the media…

  8. Mass Media Content as a Dependent Variable: Five Media Sociology Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.; Mayfield, Elizabeth Kay

    To better understand the effects of the media on audiences, five media sociology theoretical approaches to the study of influences on media were investigated by looking at tests of the approaches in three journals over the last 10 years. The mirror approach predicted that the media would accurately represent reality, but, while accurate, the media…

  9. Political Education through the Mass Media? A Survey Of Indonesian University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamad, Ibnu; Ichtiat, Helmi Qodrat; Zulham

    2001-01-01

    Surveys Indonesian university students to determine how effective the mass media was as an agent of political education in influencing the students' political activities. Notes that the relationship between media consumption and political participation was low. Suggests that several decades of government suppression of so-called "practical…

  10. Adolescents and the Mass Media: From "Leave It to Beaver" to "Beverly Hills 90210."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the effect of the mass media, particularly the influence of violence and sex, on adolescents, noting the paucity of research on the subject. The article recommends a compromise between censorship and free expression. It examines how teachers and parents can help by discussing media messages with students. (SM)

  11. The Influence of Media Violence on Youth.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Craig A; Berkowitz, Leonard; Donnerstein, Edward; Huesmann, L Rowell; Johnson, James D; Linz, Daniel; Malamuth, Neil M; Wartella, Ellen

    2003-12-01

    about social behavior, and by reducing individuals' normal negative emotional responses to violence (i.e., desensitization). Certain characteristics of viewers (e.g., identification with aggressive characters), social environments (e.g., parental influences), and media content (e.g., attractiveness of the perpetrator) can influence the degree to which media violence affects aggression, but there are some inconsistencies in research results. This research also suggests some avenues for preventive intervention (e.g., parental supervision, interpretation, and control of children's media use). However, extant research on moderators suggests that no one is wholly immune to the effects of media violence. Recent surveys reveal an extensive presence of violence in modern media. Furthermore, many children and youth spend an inordinate amount of time consuming violent media. Although it is clear that reducing exposure to media violence will reduce aggression and violence, it is less clear what sorts of interventions will produce a reduction in exposure. The sparse research literature suggests that counterattitudinal and parental-mediation interventions are likely to yield beneficial effects, but that media literacy interventions by themselves are unsuccessful. Though the scientific debate over whether media violence increases aggression and violence is essentially over, several critical tasks remain. Additional laboratory and field studies are needed for a better understanding of underlying psychological processes, which eventually should lead to more effective interventions. Large-scale longitudinal studies would help specify the magnitude of media-violence effects on the most severe types of violence. Meeting the larger societal challenge of providing children and youth with a much healthier media diet may prove to be more difficult and costly, especially if the scientific, news, public policy, and entertainment communities fail to educate the general public about the real

  12. Physical activity in the mass media: an audience perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ben J; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M F

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception study was conducted involving in-depth interviews with 46 adults in New South Wales, Australia. The sample was stratified by gender, age group, area of residence and body mass index. Most respondents could only recall media coverage of physical activity with prompting. Television was the primary channel of exposure, with reality television the dominant source, followed by news programs and sports coverage. The messages most readily recalled were the health risks of inactivity, especially obesity, and the necessity of keeping active. Physical activity was regarded as a matter of personal volition, or for children, parental responsibility. Respondents believed that the media had given physical activity inadequate attention, focused too heavily on risks and not provided practical advice. In Australia, there is a need to counter the framing of physical activity by reality television, and engage the media to generate understanding of the socioecological determinants of inactivity. Physical activity campaigns should deliver positive and practical messages.

  13. Mass Media Forces in Our society. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelker, Francis H.; Voelker, Ludmila A.

    The primary purpose of this book is to help the public become more aware and critical in their selection and appraisal of the media. Part 1 consists of a single essay by Theodore Peterson that gives a historical perspective on the development of the mass media in the United States. Part 2 deals with the print and electronic media: magazines, photo…

  14. An Integrated Approach to Studying Mass Media Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latourette, Deb; And Others

    Based on the premise that multimethod approaches that integrate quantitative and qualitative research methods are best suited to contextual studies of media audiences, two studies of mass media use and meaning were conducted with college undergraduates. Research grew out of a classroom assignment wherein students avoided all media products (films,…

  15. Mass Media Forces in Our society. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelker, Francis H.; Voelker, Ludmila A.

    The primary purpose of this book is to help the public become more aware and critical in their selection and appraisal of the media. Part 1 consists of a single essay by Theodore Peterson that gives a historical perspective on the development of the mass media in the United States. Part 2 deals with the print and electronic media: magazines, photo…

  16. Interaction with Mass Media: The Importance of Rhythm and Tempo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Stresses that understanding the impact of interaction with mass media requires conceptualizing media as an institutionalized social form. A critical feature of this process is the grammatical character of media interaction in the form of rhythm and tempo, because these rhythms and tempos become established in everyday routine. (SKC)

  17. The Role of the Mass Media in Parenting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, A. Rae

    Although there has been an explosion of information and advice about child rearing in the mass media, little attention has been given to the nature or extent of the media's impact on parents or to ways in which media could be used more effectively. Based on an analysis of books, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, film, videotapes, software,…

  18. Culture in Education and Mass Media: Conformation or Confrontation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosa, Ali Abdullah

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the concept of culture in light of the technological revolution that has crossed traditional geopolitical boundaries. Topics include the function of education; the function of mass media; and a comparison of how educational and mass media institutions affect culture. (Author/LRW)

  19. Use of the Mass Media for Education in Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Sushma

    1995-01-01

    Explains how mass media, radio, and television have been playing an important role in the formal education of Ethiopian children for a quarter of a century. Describes the chronological development and future plans for the use of mass media in education. States that Ethiopia may serve as an example for other Third World countries. (PA)

  20. Fashion Alienation: Older Adults and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Susan B.; Chandler, Joan L.

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 209 adults over age 50 regarding use of mass media for fashion information. Results showed an inverse relationship between frequency of use of mass media for fashion information and fashion alienation. Frustration was expressed with regard to finding suitable clothes in stores and keeping up with fashion changes. (JAC)

  1. New Ideas and Fertility Limitation: The Role of Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Axinn, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the mass media as a social change that shapes individual behavior primarily via ideational mechanisms. We construct a theoretical framework drawing on social demography and social psychology to explain how mass media may affect behavior via attitudinal change. Empirical analyses of 1,091 couples in the Chitwan Valley…

  2. New Ideas and Fertility Limitation: The Role of Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Axinn, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the mass media as a social change that shapes individual behavior primarily via ideational mechanisms. We construct a theoretical framework drawing on social demography and social psychology to explain how mass media may affect behavior via attitudinal change. Empirical analyses of 1,091 couples in the Chitwan Valley…

  3. Imaging Teachers: In Fact and in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Xae Alicia; Rios, Diana I.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of mass media on public images of teachers and students is considered in a dialogue between two educational and mass media researchers. Stereotypes in films, such as teacher-savior and student-failure, and abundant reports about Latino dropout rates and low academic achievement impact teachers and the public, who accept negative images…

  4. Patterns of Mass Media Exposure among Seventh Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.

    In a study to identify types of mass media consumers, a Q-type factor analysis was run on respondent exposure to 90 categories of content within seven mass media (television, radio, recordings, motion pictures, newspapers, magazines, and books). The respondents were 116 seventh graders in Waterloo, Iowa, who were asked to keep daily diaries of…

  5. Fashion Alienation: Older Adults and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Susan B.; Chandler, Joan L.

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 209 adults over age 50 regarding use of mass media for fashion information. Results showed an inverse relationship between frequency of use of mass media for fashion information and fashion alienation. Frustration was expressed with regard to finding suitable clothes in stores and keeping up with fashion changes. (JAC)

  6. The Literate Adolescent in an Age of Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Jack R.; Plattor, Emma E.

    Some uses of the mass media for educating the adolescent are discussed, and the fact that teachers have generally neglected using mass media devices is emphasized. Multisensory stimuli are seen to enhance the excitement and drama of the written page and to be essential to a concept of literacy broad enough to encompass all aspects of critical and…

  7. Audiovisual Mass Media and Education. TTW 27/28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Stapele, Peter, Ed.; Sutton, Clifford C., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The 15 articles in this special issue focus on learning about the audiovisual mass media and education, especially television and film, in relation to various pedagogical and didactical questions. Individual articles are: (1) "Audiovisual Mass Media for Education in Pakistan: Problems and Prospects" (Ahmed Noor Kahn); (2) "The Role of the…

  8. FUNCTIONAL ORIENTATION OF WISCONSIN FARM WOMEN TOWARDS MASS MEDIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOSTIAN, LLOYD R.; ROSS, JOHN E.

    THE STUDY WAS SET UP IN 1963 CHIEFLY TO IDENTIFY THE FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS MASS MEDIA AND THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE TO THE AUDIENCE (A SAMPLE OF WISCONSIN FARM WOMEN). THE FARM WOMEN WERE IN CONTACT WITH MASS MEDIA AN AVERAGE OF SIX OR SEVEN HOURS DAILY. BASED ON EARLIER DATA (1957) IT APPEARED THAT THE PROPORTION OF HOMES WITH TELEVISION, WOMEN'S…

  9. Mass Communication: An Introduction; Theory and Practice of Mass Media in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, John R.

    From the perspectives of historical, contemporary, and future interpretations of mass communication, this introduction to the theory and practice of mass media in society treats both the social context of mass communication and the hardware components that make it operable. The book discusses all mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio,…

  10. Mass Communication: An Introduction; Theory and Practice of Mass Media in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, John R.

    From the perspectives of historical, contemporary, and future interpretations of mass communication, this introduction to the theory and practice of mass media in society treats both the social context of mass communication and the hardware components that make it operable. The book discusses all mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio,…

  11. Opportunities for improving the nation's health through collaboration with the mass media.

    PubMed Central

    Arkin, E B

    1990-01-01

    Understanding the mass media is a prerequisite to gaining the cooperation of those who control access to media time and space to improve the coverage of health issues about which the public needs, and often wants, to know. To address the complexities of the mass media and how they influence the public's health, a group of Public Health Service agencies, foundations, and research institutions collaborated to review recent changes in the mass media and public health sectors and to recommend steps for increased interaction. These included broadening strategies to include paid advertising, media advocacy, and other tactics beyond public service campaigns; increasing awareness within the public health sector of the media's perspective on health; working collaboratively with media professionals and organizations, including the minority media; and developing guidelines for public-private sector partnerships. These recommendations, and factors affecting the roles of the media and public health communities in informing the public about health, are described in this paper. A complete discussion of these recommendations and related issues can be found in "Mass Media and Health," edited by Caroline McNeil and Elaine Bratic Arkin, a forthcoming publication of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Public Health Service. PMID:2113678

  12. Mass media entertainment for AIDS communication in Zaire.

    PubMed

    Convisser, J

    1992-01-01

    Health communicators use entertainment and mass media to prevent HIV transmission. Population Services International operates an AIDS Mass Media Project as an adjunct to its Condom Social Marketing Project. It collaborates with the Government of Zaire's National AIDS Program. Its 1st target is urban youth because most AIDS cases in Zaire were infected as teenagers, urban youth have access to television (TV), and they take part in high risk sexual behavior. The project uses various AIDS songs to reach this group. A 6-month posttest shows that the 1st song was so effective that 65% heard it and that 93% of them recalled the major AIDS messages and 85% said that they changed their behavior. The project distributes a video of the 1990 World AIDS Day concert. Research in Zaire and other African countries shows that the threat AIDS poses to children's health strongly motivates parents' behavior. Thus the 2nd target is the 20-30 year old group--young and prospective parents. The project boasts a 4-part TV series about a groom who does not reveal his AIDS status to his young bride until after their wedding night. 2 scenes stress the benefits of condoms. After its 1st airing, 66% of the 20-30 year old group in Kinshasa watched all 4 parts of the series. Of these, about 75% said they would change their behavior. Most people in Zaire change behavior by using condoms. Indeed, during the mass media campaign, condom sales grew 1000% which saved almost 7200 lives. The project also features comic strips informing working men and women and teenagers about AIDS and distributes an inexpensive notebook listening AIDS facts and myths for school children. The project uses regional radio stations to broadcast 28 AIDS feature programs, 22 radio spots, 8 AIDS radio dramas, and 2 songs to high priority rural areas. These AIDS radio efforts have indeed influenced AIDS knowledge and attitudes.

  13. Dynamic Effective Mass of Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Johnson, David L.; Ingale, Rohit A.; Valenza, John J.; Gland, Nicolas; Makse, Hernán A.

    2009-02-01

    We develop the concept of frequency dependent effective mass, Mtilde (ω), of jammed granular materials which occupy a rigid cavity to a filling fraction of 48%, the remaining volume being air of normal room condition or controlled humidity. The dominant features of Mtilde (ω) provide signatures of the dissipation of acoustic modes, elasticity, and aging effects in the granular medium. We perform humidity controlled experiments and interpret the data in terms of a continuum model and a “trap” model of thermally activated capillary bridges at the contact points. The results suggest that attenuation of acoustic waves in granular materials can be influenced significantly by the kinetics of capillary condensation between the asperities at the contacts.

  14. The Media Mural Project: Empowering Youth in New Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damsen, Jess

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the pedagogy, practice and outcomes of a digital art program developed to enable high school and middle school students to become active participants in new forms of grassroots public media. Students and their teachers become producers and controllers of art-based videos and associated digital dialogue which is distributed…

  15. Americans' Views of Fathers' Competency as Parents through a Mass Media Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Portrayals of fathers in the mass media influence parents' views of the importance of fathers to the well-being of children and of fathers' competence as parents. Awareness of how these portrayals influence parents is crucial to the effectiveness of professionals as they seek to improve child well-being through their work with parents,…

  16. Americans' Views of Fathers' Competency as Parents through a Mass Media Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Portrayals of fathers in the mass media influence parents' views of the importance of fathers to the well-being of children and of fathers' competence as parents. Awareness of how these portrayals influence parents is crucial to the effectiveness of professionals as they seek to improve child well-being through their work with parents,…

  17. Mass Media and Rural Out-Migration in the Context of Social Change: Evidence from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This work examines the influence of mass media on rural out-migration using historical and contemporary data from a setting experiencing massive social and economic development in the last half-century. Data come from the Chitwan Valley Family Study, an ongoing study of an agrarian region in rural Nepal. Media are hypothesized to affect migration by inducing attitudinal and behavioral changes similar to those of other determinants of migration. As their influence differs from other determinants in important ways, media represent a unique form of influence that should be taken into account. I find that movie and television exposure are significant determinants of out-migration in historical contexts, although television exposure was important in more contemporary contexts. Differences in these effects probably indicate the timing of the spread of each type of media and changing preferences among media consumers. PMID:23894210

  18. Mass Media and Rural Out-Migration in the Context of Social Change: Evidence from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Martin

    2013-06-01

    This work examines the influence of mass media on rural out-migration using historical and contemporary data from a setting experiencing massive social and economic development in the last half-century. Data come from the Chitwan Valley Family Study, an ongoing study of an agrarian region in rural Nepal. Media are hypothesized to affect migration by inducing attitudinal and behavioral changes similar to those of other determinants of migration. As their influence differs from other determinants in important ways, media represent a unique form of influence that should be taken into account. I find that movie and television exposure are significant determinants of out-migration in historical contexts, although television exposure was important in more contemporary contexts. Differences in these effects probably indicate the timing of the spread of each type of media and changing preferences among media consumers.

  19. Adolescent and parent perceptions of media influence on adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M

    2004-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents and their parents to examine the extent to which adolescents identify--without prompting--media as a source of influence on sexual behavior. Adolescents seemed indifferent to media influence (e.g., media influence was mentioned in only one adolescent focus group), but their parents expressed significant concern about media influence. Future research should investigate the extent to which influences exist outside of adolescents' consciousness. For now, parents and sexuality educators may need to convince adolescents that concerns about the media are valid before trying to change media-influenced behavior.

  20. The Mass Media and Urban Development: An Historical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jowett, Garth S.

    The mass media in the United States have played a major role in the emergence of a mass society resulting from the interaction of urbanization, industrialization, and modernization and have thus become an integral part of the total social fabric. Society's culture and social structure shape its system of mass communication so that the development,…

  1. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  2. Interdisciplinary Study of the Mass Media. A Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Trevor R.; And Others

    A course titled "Interdisciplinary Research in Mass Communication," drawing on law, business, economics, and communication, was offered at Stanford. This syllabus presents the seven topics considered in the course: the citizen's need to know, the new communication media, privacy, media concentration, access, advertising and consumerism,…

  3. The Rest of the Elephant: Perspectives on the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John D.; Porter, William E.

    This book presents an analytical introduction to the study of the mass media. Aspects of media that have received little attention--audiences, economics, working processes and ethics--are treated in the four sections of the book. Section one covers symbiosis between the medium and the audience. Section two discusses the way in which business and…

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Mass Media Ethics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Byung; Padgett, George

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…

  5. Media Casebook; An Introductory Reader in American Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Peter M., Ed.; And Others

    Each selection in this anthology offers a single example of a major problem or characteristic of the American mass media. The anthology has four sections: development, responsibility, media, and coverage. Development in journalism is shown by comparing accounts of Presidential conventions over a 125-year period. Articles about responsibility deal…

  6. The Mass Media: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    This guide to materials available in the McLennan Library is intended to assist students in locating information and literature necessary for sociological studies of the mass media (excluding film). It does not deal with the more technical aspects of the media or the "how to" literature. The annotations are arranged under the following headings:…

  7. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  8. Media Casebook; An Introductory Reader in American Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Peter M., Ed.; And Others

    Each selection in this anthology offers a single example of a major problem or characteristic of the American mass media. The anthology has four sections: development, responsibility, media, and coverage. Development in journalism is shown by comparing accounts of Presidential conventions over a 125-year period. Articles about responsibility deal…

  9. The Rest of the Elephant: Perspectives on the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John D.; Porter, William E.

    This book presents an analytical introduction to the study of the mass media. Aspects of media that have received little attention--audiences, economics, working processes and ethics--are treated in the four sections of the book. Section one covers symbiosis between the medium and the audience. Section two discusses the way in which business and…

  10. Mass Media and the Law; Freedom and Restraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David G., Ed.; Hutchinson, Earl R., Ed.

    The papers and articles collected in this volume examine the relationship between government, business conglomerates, and the mass media and discuss the effect of this relationship on the flow of information. Separate sections are devoted to: the "right to know"; the effect of media barons on the flow of news; the "right of access"; the sometimes…

  11. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  12. The Media Environment: Mass Communications in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Robert H.; Steinberg, Charles S.

    The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with an informational frame of reference that will permit the formation of critical judgments concerning America's mass media institutions. The book covers the broad spectrum of the communications media in terms of their impact on American society. Such topics are discussed as social aspects of…

  13. A media maniac's guide to removable mass storage media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempster, Linda S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses at a high level, the many individual technologies available today in the removable storage arena including removable magnetic tapes, magnetic floppies, optical disks and optical tape. Tape recorders represented below discuss logitudinal, serpantine, logitudinal serpantine,and helical scan technologies. The magnetic floppies discussed will be used for personal electronic in-box applications.Optical disks still fill the role for dense long-term storage. The media capacities quoted are for native data. In some cases, 2 KB ASC2 pages or 50 KB document images will be referenced.

  14. Mass Communication Functions in a Media-Rich Developing Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Steven H.; Izcaray, Fausto

    1975-01-01

    Discusses media-centered communication research models and applies them to a field setting in Venezuela in an attempt to assess the extent to which social processes depend on mass communication. See CS 703 632 for subscription information. (MH)

  15. Mass Communication Functions in a Media-Rich Developing Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Steven H.; Izcaray, Fausto

    1975-01-01

    Discusses media-centered communication research models and applies them to a field setting in Venezuela in an attempt to assess the extent to which social processes depend on mass communication. See CS 703 632 for subscription information. (MH)

  16. Using mass media within health-promoting practice: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, D

    2000-10-01

    For some time health professionals have recognized the growing importance of utilizing mass media strategies as part of their health-promoting practice. The ever-evolving climate of technology and increasing reliance on mass communications has further reinforced the position of mass media initiatives. The enormous potential for mass media resources to reach certain audiences and influence their health-related behaviours has become particularly well established. Despite these facts, however, it is argued that the nursing profession has been less than pro-active in acknowledging, accommodating and adopting such practices. Consequently, the incorporation of health-related mass media initiatives into nursing's health-promotional role remains an elusive exercise. The maintenance of such a position, it is claimed, is potentially damaging for the profession as a whole. In light of this state of affairs, this paper seeks to review the literature surrounding the nature and processes of mass media strategies, their relevance to health promotion and nursing, how they are currently utilized and how they can be incorporated further into nursing practice. In conclusion, it is argued that nursing should seek to become a more active user of mass communication/media technology--especially in relation to its health-promotional practices.

  17. Media influence on the body image of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Z; Sullivan, E A; Davies, P S W; Hill, R J

    2006-01-01

    To study the media messages portrayed to children, 925 students, from 9 to up to 14 years of age, completed "The Sociocultural Influences Questionnaire." The media section is the focus of this paper, and the responses from three questions were selected to examine the media's influence to be slimmer, increase weight, or increase muscle size. While the girls and boys exhibited different levels of agreement with each media influence, both genders disagreed that media messages were implying they should gain weight. This is in agreement with the belief that the media perpetuates the ideal of thinness and there is a negative stigma associated with being overweight.

  18. Readings in Mass Communication; Concepts and Issues in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Michael C.; Smythe, Ted Curtis

    The aim of this book of readings is to provide college students with a wide variety of articles on the rapid changes and problems of today's mass media. The problems of access, control, protection of sources, and relevance are considered crucial to the changing role of the media. Changes in the structure of both traditional media and new…

  19. Elites, Masses, and Media Blacklists: The Dixie Chicks Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown the influence of ownership on media content in routine contexts, but none has quantitatively tested it in the context of a crisis. Recently the country musicians the Dixie Chicks were blacklisted from the radio for criticizing the president in wartime. I use this event to test the role of media ownership in a crisis.…

  20. Elites, Masses, and Media Blacklists: The Dixie Chicks Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown the influence of ownership on media content in routine contexts, but none has quantitatively tested it in the context of a crisis. Recently the country musicians the Dixie Chicks were blacklisted from the radio for criticizing the president in wartime. I use this event to test the role of media ownership in a crisis.…

  1. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  2. Native Americans and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Ray

    Presenting testimony from various sources, this report describes growing resentment in the American Indian community of Anglo media misinterpretation and exploitation of Indian culture and Indian people. The full text of the Navajo Nation's plan for a Navajo Communications Board (established by the Advisory Committee of the Navajo Tribal Council)…

  3. Education and The Mass Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, John J., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph deals with the utilization of modern communicational media as aids to instruction and learning in the English classroom and contains studies pointing the way toward expanding student experience through multimedia instruction. Chapters include "Magazines," which presents objectives for magazine study, discusses students' reading…

  4. Mass media and heterogeneous bounds of confidence in continuous opinion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, M.; Buendía, G. M.

    2015-02-01

    This work focuses on the effects of an external mass media on continuous opinion dynamics with heterogeneous bounds of confidence. We modified the original Deffuant et al. and Hegselmann and Krause models to incorporate both, an external mass media and a heterogeneous distribution of confidence levels. We analysed two cases, one where only two bounds of confidence are taken into account, and other where each individual of the system has her/his own characteristic level of confidence. We found that, in the absence of mass media, diversity of bounds of confidence can improve the capacity of the systems to reach consensus. We show that the persuasion capacity of the external message is optimal for intermediate levels of heterogeneity. Our simulations also show the existence, for certain parameter values, of a counter-intuitive effect in which the persuasion capacity of the mass media decreases if the mass media intensity is too large. We discuss similarities and differences between the two heterogeneous versions of these continuous opinion dynamic models under the influence of mass media.

  5. Do mass media affect Medicare beneficiaries' use of diabetes services?

    PubMed

    Schade, Charles P; McCombs, Marc

    2005-07-01

    Appropriate secondary preventive care for people with diabetes can reduce complications and premature death, yet many people with diabetes do not get these services. Mass media may influence individual health behavior. In 1999, the West Virginia Medical Institute (WVMI) began a long-term radio and television campaign to educate West Virginia Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes about the importance of foot exams, eye exams, HbA1c testing, and influenza and pneumonia immunizations using messages with an "Ask your doctor about..." formula. To assess campaign efficacy, WVMI commissioned a telephone survey of 1500 randomly selected beneficiaries likely to have diabetes in two groups of counties with differing exposure to the messages. The survey asked whether the beneficiary had heard the messages and responded to them, by message topic. Nearly everyone (90%) in both survey groups said they had seen or heard the diabetes ads. However, high-exposure group members were about 1.2 times more likely to recall hearing most messages than low-exposure group members, and were 1.2 to 1.8 times more likely to say that they did what the messages suggested. Media campaigns with preventive health messages targeted to Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes can reach them and may induce appropriate responses.

  6. Creating Metaphors to Analyze Media and Apply Mass Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourland-Davis, Pamela G.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses having students in an undergraduate mass communication theory class create metaphors of their own relationships with mass media. Highlights literature in the field related to critical thinking and teaching methods. Describes application of the assignment. Notes that this assignment provides the professor with a means to evaluate…

  7. Mass Society/Culture/Media: An Eclectic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry B.

    Instructors of courses in mass society, culture, and communication start out facing three types of difficulties: the historical orientation of learning, the parochialism of various disciplines, and negative intellectually elitist attitudes toward mass culture/media. Added to these problems is the fact that many instructors have little or no…

  8. Evaluation of accuracy of health studies reported in mass media.

    PubMed

    Motl, Susannah E; Timpe, Erin M; Eichner, Samantha F

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate communication of clinical research in the written media for completeness and accuracy. Observational assessment. United States. Not applicable. Content of media articles discussing randomized controlled trials was assessed by three reviewers on the basis of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) criteria modified for the mass media. Reports from October 1 through December 31, 2002, published in the top two U.S. daily newspapers (USA Today and Wall Street Journal), weekly news magazines (Time and Newsweek), and daily news Web sources (CNN.com and MSNBC.com) and the corresponding published RCTs were analyzed. Total score and score in 10 specific content areas, leading to classification of coverage as poor, fair, or excellent. A total of 60 media reports discussing results of 25 RCTs appeared in these media during the study period. All reports were categorized as fair, and no content area was rated excellent. Several content areas received poor rankings in all and/or most media, including reporting of adverse effects, outcomes data, and statistical tests used. Media reports written by newswire services were rated more highly than were those prepared by nonnewswire services, but only 1 of 10 criteria had statistically significant differences. Mass media reports of RCTs are often incomplete. This type of reporting may misinform the lay public and may lead to questions about the applicability of the results to individual patients.

  9. Mass Shootings: The Role of the Media in Promoting Generalized Imitation.

    PubMed

    Meindl, James N; Ivy, Jonathan W

    2017-03-01

    Mass shootings are a particular problem in the United States, with one mass shooting occurring approximately every 12.5 days. Recently a "contagion" effect has been suggested wherein the occurrence of one mass shooting increases the likelihood of another mass shooting occurring in the near future. Although contagion is a convenient metaphor used to describe the temporal spread of a behavior, it does not explain how the behavior spreads. Generalized imitation is proposed as a better model to explain how one person's behavior can influence another person to engage in similar behavior. Here we provide an overview of generalized imitation and discuss how the way in which the media report a mass shooting can increase the likelihood of another shooting event. Also, we propose media reporting guidelines to minimize imitation and further decrease the likelihood of a mass shooting.

  10. Violence and mass media: are laws and regulations effective?

    PubMed

    Wulff, Christian

    2007-10-01

    In Germany, there are several laws and legal and administrative regulations restricting presentation and propagation of violence in mass media. They have proven to be partly effective. Whilst control and supervision of public media is feasible, the containment of what is distributed over the internet proves to be very difficult. It is well recognized that laws and regulations can be only one part of protection for children and youngsters; school, kindergarten and above all the parents must be educated and held responsible for creating media competence in children and adolescents.

  11. Examination of the mass media process and personal factors affecting the assessment of mass media-disseminated health information.

    PubMed

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çakır, Tülin; Avşar, Zakir; Üzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the mass media and personal characteristics leading to health communication inequality as well as the role of certain factors in health communication's mass media process. Using both sociodemographic variables and Maletzke's model as a basis, we investigated the relationship between selected components of the mass communication process, the receiving of reliable health information as a result of health communication, and the condition of its use. The study involved 1853 people in Turkey and was structured in two parts. The first part dealt with questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the use of the mass media and the public's ability to obtain health information from it, the public's perception of the trustworthiness of health information, and the state of translating this information into health-promoting behaviours. In the second part, questions related to the mass communication process were posed using a five-point Likert scale. This section tried to establish structural equation modelling using the judgements prepared on the basis of the mass media model. Through this study, it has been observed that sociodemographic factors such as education and age affect individuals' use of and access to communication channels; individuals' trust in and selection of health information from the programme content and their changing health behaviours (as a result of the health information) are related to both their perception of the mass communication process and to sociodemographic factors, but are more strongly related to the former.

  12. Mass Media and HIV/AIDS in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Guan, Jihui; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Lu, Yao

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to mass media related to HIV/AIDS has been linked to attitudinal and behavioral changes. This study aims to identify the source(s) of HIV information for the general Chinese population and examine their association with HIV transmission knowledge and stigmatizing attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Method A total of 3,716 market workers in Fuzhou, China participated in a face-to-face survey. Multiple regression models were used to describe correlations among respondents' HIV/STD information sources, HIV transmission knowledge, and stigmatizing attitude towards PLWHA. Results Mass media sources, such as TV programs, newspapers and magazines, were more frequently identified as the channels for HIV information than interpersonal sources, such as friends and service providers. Exposure to multiple sources of HIV information (where at least one source is mass media) was significantly related to HIV knowledge and less stigmatizing attitude towards PLWHA. Discussion Mass media in China has been a major source of HIV information to the public. Enhancing the content and penetration of HIV/AIDS campaigns within various channels of the media can be an important strategy in disseminating HIV knowledge and reducing HIV related discrimination. PMID:19657923

  13. Determining the effects of media portrayals of alcohol: going beyond short term influence.

    PubMed

    Baillie, R K

    1996-05-01

    The presentation of alcohol by the mass media has been a rich source of research into the potential influence of media messages upon their audience. This paper reviews the existing literature in this field. It is noted that research has concentrated on attempts to measure the strength of media 'effects', employing techniques which have so far produced few fruitful results. The impact of media output on alcohol also has implications for the evaluation of alcohol-related health education campaigns, which utilize newspapers and television as an information source for members of the public. The role of the media in setting the public and policy agenda is examined as a potentially more fertile source in evaluating media influence. A number of policy and research implications are highlighted.

  14. Social perception of droughts in the mass media (southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, T. Leon; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    In the Mediterranean environment, drought is one of the extreme phenomena that has most direct consequences and complexity. It also has a direct social impact through the mass media, whose analysis, typology and characterization should be a priority in strategies to plan and mitigate effects. The appearance of droughts is slow, their occurrence is often not recognized until human activity and the environment have already been significantly affected, and drought effects persist for a long time after the drought has ended. The spatial distribution of droughts is highly complex, and significant variation in drought conditions is common between different locations. This makes it difficult to identify similar regions, especially in areas of climate transition, where the atmospheric influences are complex. This is the situation in the Iberian Peninsula (particularly the south of the peninsula), which straddles both temperate and sub-tropical climates and in which precipitation is highly variable and spatial variability is substantial. In this study we analyzed rainfall anomalies (Standardized Precipitation Index) over the last 50 years at 4 representative meteorological stations in southern Spain, two on the coast (Málaga and Algarrobo) and two at the headwaters of river basins regulated by dams (Antequera and Periana). The aims of the study were to: i) analyze the types of drought, and their frequency and intensity; and ii) establish the dynamics and evolution of the social perception of droughts in the context of global change, brought about by the communications media. The results showed the SPI was a useful tool for identifying dry anomalies that may feature in our field of study of meteorological and hydrological drought, depending on its duration. Meteorological drought impact on the eco-geomorphological system is common and has had a particular development since the 80's. Hydrological droughts are those that have had the greatest effect on water reserves

  15. Mass Media Influence on Adolescent Consumer Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    Questionnaires completed by 607 middle school and high school students provided data about the learning of selected advertising-related cognitions among adolescents and on the short-term effect of these cognitions and other communication variables on adolescent consumption behavior. Among the findings were the following: susceptibility to…

  16. Traditional Forms of Communication and the Mass Media in India. Communication and Society, 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Madhu

    Oral folklore and folk drama are emphasized in this report, which focuses on the use of folk media to convey developmental messages through mass media agencies. Discussion covers the relationship between folk and mass media, experiments in India to integrate the two media, problems encountered in the integration process, and folk media's potential…

  17. Traditional Forms of Communication and the Mass Media in India. Communication and Society, 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Madhu

    Oral folklore and folk drama are emphasized in this report, which focuses on the use of folk media to convey developmental messages through mass media agencies. Discussion covers the relationship between folk and mass media, experiments in India to integrate the two media, problems encountered in the integration process, and folk media's potential…

  18. Mass Communication as Political Rhetoric: A Critique of Representation and Commodity Theories of Mass Media Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that contemporary rhetorical theory and research can use important insights into the nature of mass media language that representation and commodity theories cannot incorporate. Suggests that, by recognizing the rhetorical aspects of media language, scholars can legitimize the research and the dialogue that are required for the…

  19. Mass Communication as Political Rhetoric: A Critique of Representation and Commodity Theories of Mass Media Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that contemporary rhetorical theory and research can use important insights into the nature of mass media language that representation and commodity theories cannot incorporate. Suggests that, by recognizing the rhetorical aspects of media language, scholars can legitimize the research and the dialogue that are required for the…

  20. Dynamic effective mass of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Ingale, Rohit; Valenza, John; Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Gland, Nicolas; Makse, Hernan

    2009-03-01

    We report an experimental and theoretical investigation of the frequency-dependent effective mass, M(φ), of loose granular particles which occupy a rigid cavity to a filling fraction of 48%, the remaining volume being air of differing humidities. We demonstrate that this is a sensitive and direct way to measure those properties of the granular medium that are the cause of the changes in acoustic properties of structures containing grain-filled cavities. Specifically, we apply this understanding to the case of the flexural resonances of a rectangular bar with a grain-filled cavity within it. The dominant features of M(φ) are a sharp resonance and a broad background, which we analyze within the context of simple models. We find that: a) These systems may be understood in terms of a height-dependent and diameter-dependent effective sound speed (˜130 m/s) and an effective viscosity (˜2x10^4 Poise). b) There is a dynamic Janssen effect in the sense that, at any frequency, and depending on the method of sample preparation, approximately one-half of the effective mass is borne by the side walls of the cavity and one-half by the bottom. c) On a fundamental level, dissipation is dominated by adsorbed films of water at grain-grain contacts in our experiments.

  1. Predicting heat and mass transfer in fractured porous media (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, S.; Cortis, A.; Emmanuel, S.

    2010-12-01

    Fractures are abundant in the subsurface and affect many relevant single- and multi-phase transport processes such as gas and oil extraction, contaminant transport, or geothermal reservoir engineering. However, making reliable predictions of heat and mass transfer in fractured porous media is an outstanding challenge due to its multi-scale nature and the orders-of-magnitude varations in transport rates. Direct high-resolution simulations provide fundamental insights into the local advective and diffusive transport processes in fractured porous media. However, this approach is intractable for inverse simulations because of its high computational requirements. Continuous Time Random Walks on the other hand are a viable alternative and general way to model heat and mass transfer in structurally complex and multi-scale geological media, particularly for inverse problems. But they do not offer the same insights into local transport processes as direct numerical simulations. Here we combine both approaches to simulate the detailed transport processes occurring during heat and mass transfer in fractured porous media and analyse how these affect the breakthrough curves used to calibrate the Continuous Time Random Walks. We show that heat transport in fractured porous media can be anomalous, i.e. characterised by early breakthrough and long tailing, like it is well known for solute transport. We also demonstrate that a careful analysis of the solute breakthrough curves can yield insights into the heterogeneity of the fracture pattern and the transport occurring between fracture and matrix as well as within the matrix and fractures.

  2. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Loken, Barbara; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-10-09

    Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages.

  3. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A.; Loken, Barbara; Hornik, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages. PMID:20933263

  4. Impact of Porous Media and NAPL Spatial Variability at the Pore Scale on Interphase Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copty, N. K.; Agaoglu, B.; Scheytt, T.

    2015-12-01

    Sherwood number expressions are often used to model NAPL dissolution in porous media. Such expressions are generally derived from meso-scale experiments and expressed in terms of fluid and porous medium properties averaged over some representative volume. In this work a pore network model is used to examine the influence of porous media and NAPL pore scale variability on interphase mass transfer. The focus was on assessing the impact of (i) NAPL saturation, (ii) interfacial area (iii) NAPL spatial distribution at the pore scale, (iv) grain size heterogeneity and (v) REV or domain size on the apparent interphase mass transfer. Variability of both the mass transfer coefficient that explicitly accounts for the interfacial area and the mass transfer coefficient that lumps the interfacial area was examined. It was shown that pore scale NAPL distribution and its orientation relative to the flow direction have significant impact on flow bypassing and the interphase mass transfer coefficient. This results in a complex non-linear relationship between interfacial area and the REV-based interphase mass transfer rate. In other words, explicitly accounting for the interfacial area does not eliminate the variability of the mass transfer coefficient. Moreover, grain size heterogeneity can also lead to a decrease in the interphase mass transfer. It was also shown that, even for explicitly defined flow patterns, changing the domain size over which the mass transfer process is average influences the extent of NAPL bypassing and dilution and, consequently, the interphase mass transfer.

  5. The interaction of financial news between mass media and new media: Evidence from news on Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Zuochao; Liu, Lanbiao; Shen, Dehua

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate both the contemporaneous and the lead-lag relationships between the mass media news and the new media news of the financial news on the constitute stocks of the CSI 300. The empirical results show that: (1) there exists a strong correlation between these two types of news; (2) the granger causality direction from new media news to mass media news is increasingly obvious, while the reverse direction has a downward trend; (3) new media is playing a increasingly important role in the stock market and exhibits a trend to substitutes the mass media.

  6. Mass media approaches to reducing cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed Central

    Bellicha, T; McGrath, J

    1990-01-01

    A key function of a basic and clinical biomedical research organization is to communicate the findings of clinical investigations so that people may apply the results to improve their health and well-being. To help communicate results from cardiovascular disease research, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has established a series of national health education programs. The authors describe a model for two of the five programs and discuss the role of communication media in supporting national goals for education programs. The research basis for the programs is reviewed, together with the process by which the Institute develops information materials for mass media, notably public service announcements. A description of two national health education campaigns, hypertension and cholesterol, illustrates how market research is used to identify appropriate target audiences, develop messages, and select channels of communication. Lessons learned about the role of mass media in a national health education campaign are summarized. PMID:2113682

  7. Desensitizing Children's Emotional Reactions to the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses effectiveness of two desensitization strategies for reducing children's emotional reactions to mass media. Examines children having passive exposure, modeled exposure, or no exposure to lizards before watching a horror movie involving lizards. Finds that modeled exposure decreases emotional reactions and negative interpretations, whereas…

  8. Authority and Mass Media as Variables in Rumor Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Reed H.; And Others

    This paper offers the hypothesis that in times of low collective excitement rumors in a complex society whose content is beyond normal social discourse (a spectral rumor, for instance) will increasingly exhibit one or the other, or both, of two legitimizing agents--authority and mass media--as a means of gaining greater plausibility and…

  9. The Ideal of Conversation in the Study of Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schudson, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Examines the "ideal of conversation," and demonstrates that most actual conversation rarely achieves the "ideal." Argues that the rise of mass media is responsible for making ideal conversation more realizable, however, by making talk between men and women, and adults and children, more egalitarian and spontaneous. (PD)

  10. The Mass Media: Aspen Institute Guide to Communication Industry Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Christopher H.; Haight, Timothy R.

    Intended to provide a single reference source for the most significant statistics describing communication industry trends in the United States since 1900, this book is a collection and assessment of the currently available quantitative descriptive information on mass media industries. The core of the book is its more than 300 tables of data on…

  11. The Mass Media: Aspen Institute Guide to Communication Industry Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Christopher H.; Haight, Timothy R.

    Intended to provide a single reference source for the most significant statistics describing communication industry trends in the United States since 1900, this book is a collection and assessment of the currently available quantitative descriptive information on mass media industries. The core of the book is its more than 300 tables of data on…

  12. Mass Media; A Worktext in the Processes of Modern Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz, Ann Christine; And Others

    This workbook introduces key concepts and issues related to the mass media. Students perform activities related to these concepts and issues to understand the part they play in their own lives. The usual format consists of a probe, a lab, a focus, an interface, an investigation, and a simulation. For example, one probe is "What are some qualities…

  13. The Role of the Mass Media in Shaping Public Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Michael J.

    This discussion of agenda setting reviews early theories of mass communication and traces the beginnings of agenda setting theory to the 1968 United States presidential campaign, during which researchers found a high correlation between what the media were saying about issues and what the people thought were important issues. The results of more…

  14. Desensitizing Children's Emotional Reactions to the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses effectiveness of two desensitization strategies for reducing children's emotional reactions to mass media. Examines children having passive exposure, modeled exposure, or no exposure to lizards before watching a horror movie involving lizards. Finds that modeled exposure decreases emotional reactions and negative interpretations, whereas…

  15. Mass Media: A Cornucopia of Ideas for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A.

    The collection of readings deals with some important developments affecting the use of the mass media in adult education. These include cablecasting as a means of urging citizens to become involved in community problems, films as spurs to social action, and television programs that employ the soap opera format for educational ends. Also presented…

  16. Mass Media Use by College Students during Hurricane Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how college students prepare for the threat of natural disasters. This study surveyed college students' preferences in mass media use prior to an approaching hurricane. The convenience sample (n = 76) were from a university located in the hurricane-prone area of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Interestingly,…

  17. Mass Media Values and the Future of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulliam, John D.

    The paper focuses on the impact of mass media, especially television, on the educational process and outlines implications for the future. Studies point out that children view an average of 8,000 hours of television annually between ages three and five. Positive effects include increase in the vocabulary of young children, a better appreciation of…

  18. Mining the Popular Culture: The Mass Media and Freshman Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, M. W.

    The study of mass media and popular culture in a composition class allows students and teachers together to develop a critical awareness of television and advertising. Jerzy Kosinski's book, "Being There," a novel about the impact of television, is a beginning point for the study of television. Using that book as if it were a collection of events,…

  19. The Mass Media and Modern Society. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, William L.; And Others

    The focus throughout this second edition is on the 1970's and the impact of mass communication on contemporary society. Analyzing the ways in which communication affects and is, in turn, affected by society, the book examines the social, economic, and intellectual environments in which the media operate. Two intellectual factors which have had the…

  20. Mass Media and Environmental Cognition in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara K. W.

    A postal survey on a random cluster sample of 1,032 secondary school students in Hong Kong was conducted to investigate how much students know about the environment and how their environmental cognition is shaped by the use of mass media. Results indicated that students were very knowledgeable on both general and local environmental issues. The…

  1. Mass Media Values and the Future of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulliam, John D.

    The paper focuses on the impact of mass media, especially television, on the educational process and outlines implications for the future. Studies point out that children view an average of 8,000 hours of television annually between ages three and five. Positive effects include increase in the vocabulary of young children, a better appreciation of…

  2. The New Mass Media and the Shaping of Amazigh Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almasude, Amar

    This paper describes the Imazighen of North Africa, known in the West as Berbers; threats to their language and culture from schooling and the dominant Arabo-Islamic culture; and recent effects of mass media. As the indigenous people of North Africa, the Imazighen have been invaded frequently during the last 3000 years, but only the Arabs…

  3. Black Families and the Mass Media. Occasional Paper No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroman, Carolyn A.

    The paper examines the role the mass media play in the functioning of black families. Emphasis is on the perspectives and images of black families that are presented via commercial television, newspapers, and magazines. Divided into four parts, the paper discusses the following: (1) the theoretical framework around which the paper is centered,…

  4. Political Socialization and Mass Media Use: A Reverse Causality Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Alexis S.

    A reverse causality model treating mass media use for public affairs information as a result rather than as a cause of political behavior was tested utilizing surveys of 190 Mexican-American, 176 black, and 225 white adults. The criterion variable used in each sample was frequency of television and newspaper use for public affairs information. The…

  5. The Role of Mass Media in Health Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Donald J.; Quesada, Gustavo M.

    This paper reviews the research that has been done on mass media effects in health communication: breakthroughs in treatment, rising costs of medical care, innovations in the organization of health care, governmental involvement, the rise in malpractice litigation, and so on. The conceptual framework employed proposes a continuum of audience…

  6. Mass Communication and National Development in China: Media Roles Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul Siu-nam

    1994-01-01

    Examines the development of mass media in China since 1949. Suggests that the rapid growth of television at a time when China is experiencing its fastest economic growth may indicate a mutual reinforcing relationship. Argues that television and entertainment may play an important role in economic growth since they may help build consensus and…

  7. The Role of the Mass Media in Shaping Public Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Michael J.

    This discussion of agenda setting reviews early theories of mass communication and traces the beginnings of agenda setting theory to the 1968 United States presidential campaign, during which researchers found a high correlation between what the media were saying about issues and what the people thought were important issues. The results of more…

  8. Mass Media Use by College Students during Hurricane Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how college students prepare for the threat of natural disasters. This study surveyed college students' preferences in mass media use prior to an approaching hurricane. The convenience sample (n = 76) were from a university located in the hurricane-prone area of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Interestingly,…

  9. Mining the Popular Culture: The Mass Media and Freshman Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, M. W.

    The study of mass media and popular culture in a composition class allows students and teachers together to develop a critical awareness of television and advertising. Jerzy Kosinski's book, "Being There," a novel about the impact of television, is a beginning point for the study of television. Using that book as if it were a collection of events,…

  10. The Mass Media and Modern Society. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, William L.; And Others

    The focus throughout this second edition is on the 1970's and the impact of mass communication on contemporary society. Analyzing the ways in which communication affects and is, in turn, affected by society, the book examines the social, economic, and intellectual environments in which the media operate. Two intellectual factors which have had the…

  11. The Role of Audiovisual Mass Media News in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2011-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the role of audio/visual mass media news in language learning. In this regard, the two important issues regarding the selection and preparation of TV news for language learning are the content of the news and the linguistic difficulty. Content is described as whether the news is specialized or universal. Universal…

  12. A Tale of Two Industries: Mass Media and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nartowski, Andrzej S.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that the commercialization of higher education leads to governance; governance leads to the flow of money; and governance plus money lead to quality. Suggests that it is time to rethink the missions of mass media and higher education in contemporary society and to revise the idea that the right to education is of less importance than the…

  13. [Effect of mass communication media in food purchasing at the family level].

    PubMed

    Moya de Sifontes, M Z; Dehollain, P L

    1986-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mass media advertisement of food products (TV, radio and the press), particularly in pre-school and school-age children, as well as the concomitant impact these age groups have on the family food buying patterns. To test the hypothesis that the impact of mass media advertising on foods varied in the different socioeconomic levels of a community, a stratified sample of all children below 13 years of age, who attended the Francisco Fajardo school in the central coast of Venezuela, was drawn. Mass media contact, food and nutrition knowledge and other socioeconomic characteristics were related to the family's food-buying patterns. More specifically, the age, working status and educational level of the mother in regard to beliefs concerning the nutritional value of advertized food products, were related. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed, tested and applied to the housewife or whoever performed this role within the family. Findings revealed that families of low socioeconomic status are prone to be most influenced by mass media food product advertising. This is reflected not only in food purchasing practices but also in food consumption patterns at the family level. Chocolate drinks, cereals, jello, sausages, and ice cream are the most popular products among pre-school and school-aged children, without social class distinction. Furthermore, results revealed that the degree of exposure to mass communication media--television, radio and newspapers--is a determining factor in children's food preferences at all socioeconomic levels, and that television is the media exerting the greatest influence.

  14. Physical Activity in the Mass Media: An Audience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ben J.; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception…

  15. Physical Activity in the Mass Media: An Audience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ben J.; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception…

  16. Media influences on children and adolescents: violence and sex.

    PubMed

    Earles, K A; Alexander, Randell; Johnson, Melba; Liverpool, Joan; McGhee, Melissa

    2002-09-01

    The portrayal of violence, sex, and drugs/alcohol in the media has been known to adversely affect the behavior of children and adolescents. There is a strong association between perceptions of media messages and observed behavior, especially with children. Lately, there has been more of a focus in the public health/medical field on media influences of youth and the role of the pediatrician and/or healthcare worker in addressing this area of growing concern. There is a need to explicitly explore the influences of media violence, sex, and drugs/alcohol on youth within the context of the Social Learning Theory. Implications of these influences are discussed, and recommendations for pediatricians and/or health care workers who interact with children and adolescents are described. Pediatricians and health care workers should incorporate media exposure probes into the developmental history of their patients and become knowledgeable about the effects of medial influences on youth.

  17. Media influences on children and adolescents: violence and sex.

    PubMed Central

    Earles, K. A.; Alexander, Randell; Johnson, Melba; Liverpool, Joan; McGhee, Melissa

    2002-01-01

    The portrayal of violence, sex, and drugs/alcohol in the media has been known to adversely affect the behavior of children and adolescents. There is a strong association between perceptions of media messages and observed behavior, especially with children. Lately, there has been more of a focus in the public health/medical field on media influences of youth and the role of the pediatrician and/or healthcare worker in addressing this area of growing concern. There is a need to explicitly explore the influences of media violence, sex, and drugs/alcohol on youth within the context of the Social Learning Theory. Implications of these influences are discussed, and recommendations for pediatricians and/or health care workers who interact with children and adolescents are described. Pediatricians and health care workers should incorporate media exposure probes into the developmental history of their patients and become knowledgeable about the effects of medial influences on youth. PMID:12392043

  18. The Relationship Between Sexual Content on Mass Media and Social Media: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Vandenbosch, Laura; van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether exposure to sexual reality television content and Internet pornography (IP) is related to sexual self-presentation on social media. Based on a two-wave panel survey among 1,765 adolescents aged 13-17 years, we found that watching sexual reality television content stimulated adolescents to produce and distribute sexual images of themselves on social media. In turn, sexual self-presentation on social media led adolescents to watch sexual reality television content more frequently. These relationships were similar among boys and girls. No reciprocal relationship between exposure to IP and boys' and girls' sexual self-presentation on social media was found. The results suggest that sexual content in mainstream mass media may predict adolescents' sexually oriented behavior on social media and vice versa. Moreover, adolescents seem to differentiate between types of sexual content (i.e., mainstream versus more explicit sexual content) when incorporating sexual media content in their sexual behavior online.

  19. Fashion alienation: older adults and the mass media.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, S B; Chandler, J L

    1984-01-01

    A self-administered questionnaire including questions related to fashion alienation, frequency of use of mass media for fashion information, and demographics was completed by 209 "50-plus" aged consumers in Northern California. Fashion alienation was measured using ten separate statements related to 1) degree of identification with fashion symbols in the media and 2) feelings of social and economic estrangement from fashion. Two of the statements produced significant regression models. In both statements, age was positively related to fashion alienation, and there was an inverse relationship between frequency of use of media for fashion information and fashion alienation. The data provide implications for a conceptual distinction between information and meaning processing with regard to fashion.

  20. The mass murderer history: modern classifications, sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics, suicidal dimensions, and media contagion of mass murders.

    PubMed

    Auxemery, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Multicide and other mass killings are sufficiently dramatic to excite great interest from clinicians, criminologists and behavioral scientists. This paper revisits the history of the mass murderer, an entity that has progressively distinguished itself from the serial killer. The functional difference between mass and serial homicide is quite obvious, particularly in setting, time, victim status and modus operandi. Classification of these acts requires a number of parameters. The causes of mass murders are multiple and complex: although they rarely seem to be related to psychotic mental pathologies, they are always an expression of suffering that manifests itself in a psychological crisis that is both homicidal and suicidal. Several research teams have studied the sociodemographic and etiopathogenic characteristics of mass murderers and, in particular, the perpetrators of school killings. In addition to prevalent personality traits, these actions often jointly include suicides and homicides, which are brought together in the same psychic crisis. In keeping with the theory of little identity support, previous crimes influenced some mass murderers. Suicides and mass-murders are likely to be imitated. The media appears to play a crucial role in preventing the occurrence of imitation or copycat tragedies. The WHO recommendation regarding how to transcribe suicide and by extension, homicide, in the media is necessary.

  1. Mass media interventions for reducing mental health-related stigma.

    PubMed

    Clement, Sarah; Lassman, Francesca; Barley, Elizabeth; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Williams, Paul; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Slade, Mike; Rüsch, Nicolas; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-07-23

    Mental health-related stigma is widespread and has major adverse effects on the lives of people with mental health problems. Its two major components are discrimination (being treated unfairly) and prejudice (stigmatising attitudes). Anti-stigma initiatives often include mass media interventions, and such interventions can be expensive. It is important to know if mass media interventions are effective. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on reducing stigma (discrimination and prejudice) related to mental ill health compared to inactive controls, and to make comparisons of effectiveness based on the nature of the intervention (e.g. number of mass media components), the content of the intervention (e.g. type of primary message), and the type of media (e.g. print, internet). We searched eleven databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2011); MEDLINE (OvidSP),1966 to 15 August 2011; EMBASE (OvidSP),1947 to 15 August 2011; PsycINFO (OvidSP), 1806 to 15 August 2011; CINAHL (EBSCOhost) 1981 to 16 August 2011; ERIC (CSA), 1966 to 16 August 2011; Social Science Citation Index (ISI), 1956 to 16 August 2011; OpenSIGLE (http://www.opengrey.eu/), 1980 to 18 August 2012; Worldcat Dissertations and Theses (OCLC), 1978 to 18 August 2011; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/mrct_about.asp), 1973 to 18 August 2011; and Ichushi (OCLC), 1903 to 11 November 2011. We checked references from articles and reviews, and citations from included studies. We also searched conference abstracts and websites, and contacted researchers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or interrupted time series studies of mass media interventions compared to inactive controls in members of the general public or any of its constituent groups (excluding studies in which all participants were people with mental health problems), with mental health as a subject of the intervention and

  2. Mass media interventions to reduce youth smoking prevalence.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Laura J; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Connolly, Scott W; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2010-07-01

    Mass media interventions for reduction of youth cigarette smoking have been recommended based on a broad array of evidence, although few randomized community trials have been reported. Four matched pairs of independent media markets were identified; one member of each pair was randomized to receive the intervention. School surveys were conducted in all markets, in 2001 before (n=19,966) and in 2005 after (n=23,246) the interventions were completed. Grade 7-12 students from public schools in these eight medium-sized metropolitan areas participated in the summative evaluations; Grades 4-12 students were targeted to receive mass media interventions in four of these markets. Four simultaneous campaigns consisting of specially developed messages based on behavioral theory and targeted to defined age groups of racially and ethnically diverse young people were placed in popular TV, cable, and radio programming using purchased time for 4 years. Prevalence of youth smoking and psychosocial mediators of smoking. No significant impacts of these interventions on smoking behaviors or mediators were found for the overall samples. A positive effect was found for one mediator in subgroups. Among Hispanic participants a marginally favorable effect on smoking prevalence and significant effects on mediators were found. General awareness of smoking prevention TV messages was slightly higher over time in the intervention areas. Mass media interventions alone were unable to induce an incremental difference in youth smoking prevalence, probably because of a relatively strong tobacco control environment that included a substantial national smoking prevention media campaign. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mass Media Interventions to Reduce Youth Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Laura J.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Connolly, Scott W.; Ramirez, Amelie G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mass media interventions for reduction of youth cigarette smoking have been recommended based on a broad array of evidence, although few randomized community trials have been reported. Design Four matched pairs of independent media markets were identified; one member of each pair was randomized to receive the intervention. School surveys were conducted in all markets, in 2001 before (n=19,966) and in 2005 after (n=23,246) the interventions were completed. Setting/Participants Grade 7–12 students from public schools in these eight medium sized metropolitan areas participated in the summative evaluations; grades 4–12 students were targeted to receive mass media interventions in four of these markets. Intervention Four simultaneous campaigns consisting of specially developed messages based on behavioral theory and targeted to defined age groups of racially and ethnically diverse young people were placed in popular TV, cable, and radio programming using purchased time for 4 years. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of youth smoking and psychosocial mediators of smoking. Results No significant impacts of these interventions on smoking behaviors or mediators were found for the overall samples. A positive effect was found for one mediator in subgroups. Among Hispanic participants a marginally favorable effect on smoking prevalence, and significant effects on mediators were found. General awareness of smoking prevention TV messages was slightly higher over time in the intervention areas. Conclusions Mass media interventions alone were unable to induce an incremental difference in youth smoking prevalence, likely due to a relatively strong tobacco control environment that included a substantial national smoking prevention media campaign. PMID:20537841

  4. Opinion dynamics: Kinetic modelling with mass media, application to the Scottish independence referendum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudin, Laurent; Salvarani, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    We consider a kinetic model describing some mechanisms of opinion formation in the framework of referendums, where the individuals, who can interact between themselves and modify their opinion by means of spontaneous self-thinking, are moreover under the influence of mass media. We study, at the numerical level, both the transient and the asymptotic regimes. In particular, we point out that a plurality of media, with different orientations, is a key ingredient to allow pluralism and prevent consensus. The forecasts of the model are compared to some surveys related to the Scottish independence referendum of 2014.

  5. Do mass media campaigns improve physical activity? a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass media campaigns are frequently used to influence the health behaviors of various populations. There are currently no quantitative meta-analyses of the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. Methods We searched six electronic databases from their inception to August 2012 and selected prospective studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. We excluded studies that did not have a proper control group or did not report the uncertainties of the effect estimates. Two reviewers independently screened the title/abstracts and full articles. We used random-effects models to pool effect estimates across studies for 3 selected outcomes. Results Nine prospective cohorts and before-after studies that followed-up 27,601 people over 8 weeks to 3 years met the inclusion criteria. Based on the pooled results from these studies, mass media campaigns had a significant effect on promoting moderate intensity walking (pooled relative risk (RR) from 3 studies=1.53, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.25 to 1.87), but did not help participants achieve sufficient levels of physical activity [4 studies pooled RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.14)]. The apparent effect of media campaigns on reducing sedentary behavior (pooled RR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.30) was lost when a relatively low-quality study with large effects was excluded in a sensitivity analysis. In subgroup analyses, campaigns that promoted physical activity as a ‘social norm’ seemed to be more effective in reducing sedentary behavior. Conclusion Mass media campaigns may promote walking but may not reduce sedentary behavior or lead to achieving recommended levels of overall physical activity. Further research is warranted on different campaign types and in low- and middle- income countries. PMID:23915170

  6. Role of the media in influencing trajectories of youth smoking.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie; Flay, Brian; Nichter, Mark; Giovino, Gary

    2003-05-01

    This paper summarizes results of empirical studies on cigarette advertising and promotions, antismoking advertising, product placement in movies, on television and in music media and news coverage about smoking. In addition, we provide an overview of some of the theoretical literature relevant to the study of media uses and effects. Finally, we discuss empirical findings in the context of these theories to draw some conclusions about media influences on smoking and identify issues for further research. We conclude that (a) the media both shape and reflect social values about smoking; (b) the media provide new information about smoking directly to audiences; (c) the media act as a source of observational learning by providing models which teenagers may seek to emulate; (d) exposure to media messages about smoking also provides direct reinforcement for smoking or not smoking; (e) the media promote interpersonal discussion about smoking; (f) the media can influence "intervening" behaviors that may make teenage smoking less likely; and (g) antismoking media messages can also set the agenda for other change at the community, state or national level. We outline priorities for further research which emphasize the need for longitudinal studies, multi-level studies, an awareness of the probably dynamic relationship between tobacco advertising and antismoking advertising, the importance of determining appraisal of tobacco industry youth smoking prevention efforts and the dearth of research on news coverage about smoking.

  7. Adolescent and Parent Perceptions of Media Influence on Adolescent Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents…

  8. Adolescent and Parent Perceptions of Media Influence on Adolescent Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents…

  9. Evaluation of a Canadian back pain mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Gross, Douglas P; Russell, Anthony S; Ferrari, Robert; Battié, Michele C; Schopflocher, Donald; Hu, Richard; Waddell, Gordon; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2010-04-15

    Quasi-experimental before-and-after design with control group. We evaluated a back pain mass media campaign's impact on population back pain beliefs, work disability, and health utilization outcomes. Building on previous campaigns in Australia and Scotland, a back pain mass media campaign (Don't Take it Lying Down) was implemented in Alberta, Canada. A variety of media formats were used with radio ads predominating because of budget constraints. Changes in back pain beliefs were studied using telephone surveys of random samples from intervention and control provinces before campaign onset and afterward. The Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) was used along with specific questions about the importance of staying active. For evaluating behaviors, we extracted data from governmental and workers' compensation databases between January 1999 and July 2008. Outcomes included indicators of number of visits to health care providers, use of diagnostic imaging, and compensation claim incidence and duration. Analysis included time series analysis and ANOVA testing of the interaction between province and time. Belief surveys were conducted with a total of 8566 subjects over the 4-year period. Changes on BBQ scores were not statistically significant, however, the proportion of subjects agreeing with the statement, "If you have back pain you should try to stay active" increased in Alberta from 56% to 63% (P = 0.008) with no change in the control group (consistently approximately 60%). No meaningful or statistically significant effects were seen on the behavioral outcomes. A Canadian media campaign appears to have had a small impact on public beliefs specifically related to campaign messaging to stay active, but no impact was observed on health utilization or work disability outcomes. Results are likely because of the modest level of awareness achieved by the campaign and future campaigns will likely require more extensive media coverage.

  10. Teachers Must Not Pass along Popular "Myths" Regarding the Supposed Omnipotence of the Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David L.

    2006-01-01

    High school teachers must not use that time devoted to the study of the mass media to "beat up" on the press or to "frighten" students with stories which exaggerate the power of the mass media industries. At the same time the potential enormous impact of the contemporary mass media must not be ignored. This means that teachers must not overstate…

  11. The Effective Use of Mass Media in Sociology Education: Confronting the Competing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Nancy Wendlandt

    1983-01-01

    Literature that deals with both sociological analyses of mass media and teaching techniques that utilize mass media products is discussed. Methods of using the mass media in college-level sociology courses are outlined, and examples of each are provided. (RM)

  12. Teachers Must Not Pass along Popular "Myths" Regarding the Supposed Omnipotence of the Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David L.

    2006-01-01

    High school teachers must not use that time devoted to the study of the mass media to "beat up" on the press or to "frighten" students with stories which exaggerate the power of the mass media industries. At the same time the potential enormous impact of the contemporary mass media must not be ignored. This means that teachers must not overstate…

  13. Historical Background of the Mass Media Declaration. New Communication Order 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The Unesco Mass Media Declaration, which seeks to establish fundamental principles concerning the contribution of the mass media to strengthening peace and international understanding, is presented in the paper. Part one provides a brief history of the Mass Media Declaration, with annexed information on resolutions, meetings, and amendments…

  14. Historical Background of the Mass Media Declaration. New Communication Order 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The Unesco Mass Media Declaration, which seeks to establish fundamental principles concerning the contribution of the mass media to strengthening peace and international understanding, is presented in the paper. Part one provides a brief history of the Mass Media Declaration, with annexed information on resolutions, meetings, and amendments…

  15. [The perils of risk communication and the role of the mass media].

    PubMed

    Rossmann, C; Brosius, H-B

    2013-01-01

    Based on theories and empirical results from communication science, the present paper provides an overview of the role of mass media in risk communication. It is guided by the following questions: How do risk issues find their way into the media and how does the media depict them? How do mass-mediated risk messages affect people's perception of risks, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior? What potential does the media have in disseminating health risk information in campaigns? Hence, the present paper aims to provide a basis for the appropriate use of mass media in health risk communication so as to make use of the potential of mass media without neglecting its limits.

  16. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    PubMed

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating.

  17. The decline of natural sciences in the culture of mass media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elías, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    This study sets out to determine if the interest in and study of natural sciences is declining in western countries as scientists currently contend. Part one demonstrates how survey results reveal a decline of interest in scientific news in the EU. Part two explores the decline of interest further through examining data such as the number of students interested in scientific subjects and scientific careers. I explore the hypothesis that the lack of interest in scientific subjects is influenced by the culture of the mass media, and the manner in which the media covers scientific items. I examine a range of media outlets, from reality TV shows and TV series, to movies and the press. Many aspects of this paper have been discussed in depth in my book published in 2008: La razón estrangulada (Reason Strangled: the Crisis of Science in Contemporary Society).

  18. The Mass Media and Alcohol Education: A New Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFoe, James R.; Breed, Warren

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how the media portray alcohol and drinking and how to change media performance. Presents some findings in abbreviated form for several media and suggests a model for working with the media in the interests of alcohol education. (Author)

  19. Mass Media in Society: The Need of Research. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication, Number 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    More and better research should be undertaken, nationally and internationally, on the effect of mass media upon society. Prior to such research, there needs to be an awareness of the realities of society today and of broadcasting structure. There should also be an understanding of the research that has already been done and of the gaps in that…

  20. Promoting responsible drinking? A mass media campaign affects implicit but not explicit alcohol-related cognitions and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Klapproth, Florian; Müller, Barbara C N

    2015-09-01

    Rigorous tests are not usually applied to determine whether mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are useful, that is whether they lead to responsible drinking or not. In two experiments, we investigated the effectiveness of a mass media campaign that runs in Germany since 2009. This campaign used posters, which emphasized negative alcohol-related outcome expectancies and challenged the positive expectancies. Based on models of alcohol use, we investigated the influence of the campaign on alcohol-related outcome expectancies, implicit and explicit attitudes, and drinking intentions. In Experiment 1, we investigated alcohol-related outcome expectancies via ratings and response latencies among 81 young adult light drinkers. Employing an affective priming task, Experiment 2 was designed to assess implicit attitudes before and after mass media campaign exposure among 83 young adult light drinkers. In both experiments, the effects of the posters were investigated before and after poster exposure as well as compared to a control group. Experiment 1 revealed that the campaign affected only the implicit associations of young adult drinkers, whereas explicit outcome expectancies remained unaffected. Experiment 2 showed that implicit attitudes towards alcohol were turned into more negative ones, but explicit attitudes as well as drinking intentions were not influenced. The mass media campaign was deemed effective even though its influence occurred on an implicit level. This research highlights the need for experimental investigations of mass media campaigns. Reasons that the findings were obtained on an implicit but not on an explicit level are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Mass media and behavior change: hand in hand.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, Johns Hopkins University's Population communication Services has conducted evaluations of mass media campaigns in developing countries which communications personnel have designed to change health and sex behavior. The mass media campaigns involved relaying health and family planning information via radio, television, and pamphlets. The evaluations showed that these campaigns were an effective technique to promote behavior change, e.g. they have boosted demand for contraceptives, condom sales, clinic visits, and inquiries to hotlines. A 6-part television drama incorporating health and family planning into its storyline stimulated behavior change in Pakistan in 1991. 36% of people surveyed after the drama series said they would limit the number of children they would have. 44% planned to improve communication with their spouse. An amusing television promotion in Brazil which ran for 6 months in the late 1980s prompted 58% of new clinic patients in 1 town to seek a vasectomy. 1 clinic experienced an 81% increase in vasectomies. A 6-month campaign to promote condom use in Colombia in 1988-89 resulted in a 75% rise in condom sales. In the mid 1980, a 6-9 month mass media popular music campaign (2 songs and videos disseminated via television, radio, and print materials) in Mexico and Latin America strove to encourage youth to be responsible for their sexual behavior. During the campaign, an adult counseling center received an 800% increase in letters (50-450 letters/month). 4 radio and 5 television spots promoting health and family planning in Kwara State, Nigeria in 1984-87 increased family planning acceptors 500% from 258 to 1526 in the 7 existing clinics. Other successful campaigns took place in the Philippines, Zimbabwe, Indonesia, Turkey, Bolivia and Honduras.

  2. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  3. Predictors of perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations: sociodemographic factors and mass media exposures.

    PubMed

    Han, Paul K J; Moser, Richard P; Klein, William M P; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Dunlavy, Andrea C; Hesse, Bradford W

    2009-12-01

    Cancer prevention recommendations reaching the public today are often ambiguous-that is, of uncertain reliability, credibility, or adequacy-yet little is known about the factors that influence public perceptions of this ambiguity. We used data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, conducted by the U.S. National Cancer Institute, to explore how sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported mass media exposures relate to perceptions of ambiguity regarding recommendations for the prevention of colon, skin, and lung cancer. Various sociodemographic characteristics (age, education, race) and mass media exposures (television, radio, Internet, health news) were found to be associated with perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations, and many of these associations varied by cancer type. These findings have important implications for future health communication research and practice.

  4. The influence of the media on the incidence of violence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, R A

    1997-12-01

    There has been much debate as to whether the media have a direct influence on the incidence of interpersonal violence and violent behaviour. The producers of cinema and television programmers and newspaper editors deny this influence and maintain that they merely reflect the current existence of violence in society.

  5. Heat and mass transfer in unsaturated porous media. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, S.W.; Malstaff, G.

    1982-02-01

    A preliminary study of heat and water transport in unsaturated porous media is reported. The project provides background information regarding the feasibility of seasonal thermal energy storage in unconfined aquifers. A parametric analysis of the factors of importance, and an annotated bibliography of research findings pertinent to unconfined aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) are presented. This analysis shows that heat and mass transfer of water vapor assume dominant importance in unsaturated porous media at elevated temperature. Although water vapor fluxes are seldom as large as saturated medium liquid water fluxes, they are important under unsaturated conditions. The major heat transport mechanism for unsaturated porous media at temperatures from 50 to 90/sup 0/C is latent heat flux. The mechanism is nonexistent under saturated conditions but may well control design of unconfined aquifer storage systems. The parametric analysis treats detailed physical phenomena which occur in the flow systems study and demonstrates the temperature and moisture dependence of the transport coefficients of importance. The question of design of an unconfined ATES site is also addressed by considering the effects of aquifer temperature, depth to water table, porous medium flow properties, and surface boundary conditions. Recommendations are made for continuation of this project in its second phase. Both scientific and engineering goals are considered and alternatives are presented.

  6. Cuban Mass Media: Organization, Control and Functions. Journalism Monographs Number Seventy-Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, John Spicer

    The mass media as interdependent parts of a larger social system both control and are controlled by other subsystems. The various combinations of control, in turn, determine the functions the media system will serve. In the 1960's, the Cuban mass media underwent frequent change that reflected the volatility of the revolutionary process. Today,…

  7. [Dehiberations over the semantics of mass communication media].

    PubMed

    Martines, R

    1975-09-12

    The radio, cinema and T.V. have developed their own idiolects and aesthetic standards. These in turn have influenced social relationships and education. Their effect is the reduction of society to a common mass, in which no attentuon is paid to individual motive forces.

  8. The role of media literacy in shaping adolescents' understanding of and responses to sexual portrayals in mass media.

    PubMed

    Pinkleton, Bruce E; Austin, Erica Weintraub; Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes; Cohen, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    This study was a theory-based, pretest-posttest quasi-experiment conducted in the field (N = 922) to determine whether and how a media literacy curriculum addressing sexual portrayals in the media would influence adolescents' decision-making processes regarding sex. Results of the evaluation, based on the Message Interpretation Process Model, indicated that participants who received media literacy training better understood that media influence teens' decision making about sex and were more likely to report that sexual depictions in the media are inaccurate and glamorized. In addition, participants who received media literacy lessons were more likely than were control group participants to believe that other teens practice abstinence and reported a greater ability to resist peer pressure. An interaction effect existed between gender and condition on attitudes toward abstinence, suggesting that the lessons helped girls and boys in somewhat different ways. Overall, the results indicated that media literacy strengthened key aspects of participants' logic-oriented decision-making process.

  9. Non-Fickian mass transport in fractured porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Sergei A.; Chugunov, Vladimir A.; Hashida, Toshiyuki

    2011-02-01

    The paper provides an introduction to fundamental concepts of mathematical modeling of mass transport in fractured porous heterogeneous rocks. Keeping aside many important factors that can affect mass transport in subsurface, our main concern is the multi-scale character of the rock formation, which is constituted by porous domains dissected by the network of fractures. Taking into account the well-documented fact that porous rocks can be considered as a fractal medium and assuming that sizes of pores vary significantly (i.e. have different characteristic scales), the fractional-order differential equations that model the anomalous diffusive mass transport in such type of domains are derived and justified analytically. Analytical solutions of some particular problems of anomalous diffusion in the fractal media of various geometries are obtained. Extending this approach to more complex situation when diffusion is accompanied by advection, solute transport in a fractured porous medium is modeled by the advection-dispersion equation with fractional time derivative. In the case of confined fractured porous aquifer, accounting for anomalous non-Fickian diffusion in the surrounding rock mass, the adopted approach leads to introduction of an additional fractional time derivative in the equation for solute transport. The closed-form solutions for concentrations in the aquifer and surrounding rocks are obtained for the arbitrary time-dependent source of contamination located in the inlet of the aquifer. Based on these solutions, different regimes of contamination of the aquifers with different physical properties can be readily modeled and analyzed.

  10. Exposure to the mass media and weight concerns among girls.

    PubMed

    Field, A E; Cheung, L; Wolf, A M; Herzog, D B; Gortmaker, S L; Colditz, G A

    1999-03-01

    To assess the influence of the media on girls' weight concerns, weight control/loss behaviors, and perceptions of body weight and shape. Cross-sectional survey completed in school. The questionnaire assessed body weight, dissatisfaction with body weight and shape, exposure to fashion magazines, the impact of media on feelings about weight and shape, attributes of and preferences for body types, and whether subjects had gone on a diet to lose weight or initiated exercise because of an article in a magazine. Mandatory physical education class in public elementary, junior high, and high schools. Subjects included 548 5th- through 12th-grade girls in a working-class suburb in the northeastern United States. Perceived influence of fashion magazines on body dissatisfaction, idea of the perfect body shape, dieting to lose weight, and initiating an exercise program. Pictures in magazines had a strong impact on girls' perceptions of their weight and shape. Of the girls, 69% reported that magazine pictures influence their idea of the perfect body shape, and 47% reported wanting to lose weight because of magazine pictures. There was a positive linear association between the frequency of reading women's magazines and the prevalence of having dieted to lose weight because of a magazine article, initiating an exercise program because of a magazine article, wanting to lose weight because of pictures in magazines, and feeling that pictures in magazines influence their idea of the perfect body shape. In multivariate logistic regression models controlling for weight status (overweight vs not overweight), school level (elementary vs junior high school, elementary vs high school), and race/ethnic group, girls who were frequent readers of fashion magazines were two to three times more likely than infrequent readers to diet to lose weight because of a magazine article (odds ratio [OR] = 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-3.75); to exercise to lose weight because of a magazine

  11. Mass media, online social network, and organ donation: old mistakes and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Aykas, A; Uslu, A; Şimşek, C

    2015-05-01

    Contrary to TV programs projecting awareness about organ donation in society, concrete evidence exists about adverse influence of negative broadcasts on organ donation rates. We sought to determine the effect of mass media on public opinion toward organ donation and the efficacy of public campaigns and novel social media attempts on donation rates. We conducted a systematic review of relevant literature and national campaign results. Hoaxes about brain death and organ transplantation adversely affect organ donation rates in both Western and Eastern societies. Scientifically controversial and exaggerated press conferences and institutional advertisements create mistrust in doctors, thus reducing organ donation. The overall effect of public education campaigns in promoting organ donation is a temporary 5% gain. Increments in organ donation rates is expected with novel applications of social media (Facebook effect). Communication, based on mutual trust, must be established between medicine and the media. Continuing education programs with regard to public awareness on organ donation should be conducted over social media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of mass media coverage on timing and annual receipt of influenza vaccination among Medicare elderly.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Holland, Margaret L; Bhattacharya, Jay; Phelps, Charles E; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2010-10-01

    To measure the association between mass media coverage on flu-related topics and influenza vaccination, regarding timing and annual vaccination rates, among the nationally representative community-dwelling elderly. Years 1999, 2000, and 2001 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Cross-sectional survival analyses during each of three influenza vaccination seasons between September 1999 and December 2001. The outcome variable was daily vaccine receipt. We measured daily media coverage by counting the number of television program transcripts and newspaper/wire service articles, including keywords of influenza/flu and vaccine/shot shortage/delay. All models' covariates included three types of media, vaccine supply, and regional/individual factors. Influenza-related reports in all three media sources had a positive association with earlier vaccination timing and annual vaccination rate. Four television networks' reports had most consistent positive effects in all models, for example, shifting the mean vaccination timing earlier by 1.8-4.1 days (p<.001) or increasing the annual vaccination rate by 2.3-7.9 percentage points (p<.001). These effects tended to be greater when reported in a headline rather than in text only and if including additional keywords, for example, vaccine shortage/delay. Timing and annual receipt of influenza vaccination appear to be influenced by media coverage, particularly by headlines and specific reports on shortage/delay. Copyright © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Modeling the Adoption of Innovations in the Presence of Geographic and Media Influences

    PubMed Central

    Toole, Jameson L.; Cha, Meeyoung; González, Marta C.

    2012-01-01

    While there is a large body of work examining the effects of social network structure on innovation adoption, models to date have lacked considerations of real geography or mass media. In this article, we show these features are crucial to making more accurate predictions of a social contagion and technology adoption at a city-to-city scale. Using data from the adoption of the popular micro-blogging platform, Twitter, we present a model of adoption on a network that places friendships in real geographic space and exposes individuals to mass media influence. We show that homophily both among individuals with similar propensities to adopt a technology and geographic location is critical to reproducing features of real spatiotemporal adoption. Furthermore, we estimate that mass media was responsible for increasing Twitter's user base two to four fold. To reflect this strength, we extend traditional contagion models to include an endogenous mass media agent that responds to those adopting an innovation as well as influencing agents to adopt themselves. PMID:22276119

  14. Modeling the adoption of innovations in the presence of geographic and media influences.

    PubMed

    Toole, Jameson L; Cha, Meeyoung; González, Marta C

    2012-01-01

    While there is a large body of work examining the effects of social network structure on innovation adoption, models to date have lacked considerations of real geography or mass media. In this article, we show these features are crucial to making more accurate predictions of a social contagion and technology adoption at a city-to-city scale. Using data from the adoption of the popular micro-blogging platform, Twitter, we present a model of adoption on a network that places friendships in real geographic space and exposes individuals to mass media influence. We show that homophily both among individuals with similar propensities to adopt a technology and geographic location is critical to reproducing features of real spatiotemporal adoption. Furthermore, we estimate that mass media was responsible for increasing Twitter's user base two to four fold. To reflect this strength, we extend traditional contagion models to include an endogenous mass media agent that responds to those adopting an innovation as well as influencing agents to adopt themselves.

  15. The Use of Mass Media in Religiously Motivated Adult Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Robert W.; Jaberg, Eugene C.

    Beginning with definitions of the mass communication process, this paper reviews mass media adult education literature from a variety of sources (social scientists, religious educators, experimental public affairs broadcasting projects, and others) relevant to the use of mass media in connection with group programs stimulated by religious…

  16. Educational Expertise, Advocacy, and Media Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malin, Joel R.; Lubienski, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The efforts of many advocacy organizations to advance their preferred policies despite conflicting evidence of the effectiveness of these policies raise questions about factors that shape successful policy promotion. While many may like to think that expertise on an issue in question is an essential prerequisite for influence in public policy…

  17. Influence of microbial biofilms on reactive transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Robin; Cunningham, Al.

    2012-05-01

    Microbial biofilms form in natural and engineered systems and can significantly affect the hydrodynamics in porous media. Subsurface remediation, enhanced oil recovery, abatement of saltwater intrusion, filtration, deep-subsurface sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide, and biofouling of injection or recovery wells are examples of proposed or implemented beneficial porous media biofilm applications. The thickness of the desired biofilm depends on a number of factors including desirable groundwater flow velocity and residence time of contaminated groundwater within the biofilm barrier as well as the prevailing hydraulic gradient. In order to better understand the influence of biofilms on reactive transport in porous media and ultimately improve biofilm-based porous media technologies, bench and mesoscale studies have been ongoing in our laboratories. This manuscript summarizes some of our past, current, and future efforts in this area and gives an outlook and overview of research and development needs.

  18. Ethnicity and the Mass Media in Canada: An Annotated Bibliography = Bibliographie annotee sur les ethnies et les media au Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karim, Karim H.; Sansom, Gareth

    This bibliography lists 135 publications dealing with the portrayal and employment of Canadians of all ethnic backgrounds in mainstream Canadian media. A broad definition of mass media encompassing all widely distributed communicative materials, including educational textbooks and forms of hate material, is used for the purposes of the…

  19. Simple, inexpensive media for mass production of three entomophthoralean fungi.

    PubMed

    Leite, Luis G; Alves, Sérgio B; Batista Filho, Antonio; Roberts, Donald W

    2005-03-01

    The entomophthoralean fungi Batkoa sp., Furia sp. and Neozygites floridana have been suggested for biocontrol of insect pests: the first two for control of spittlebug pests of pasture and sugarcane, and the third for mites of agricultural importance. To develop these agents as biopesticides and bioacaricides, it is important to have available culture media that maximize production at low cost. The research reported here evaluates, in different combinations and concentrations, the effect of four complex sources of nitrogen on production of mycelium or hyphal bodies in liquid media of all three species. Yeast extract allowed the highest production of Batkoa sp., with a concentration of 0.5% being the most suitable for vegetative (mycelial) growth. The combination of 0.33% each of yeast extract + beef extract + skim milk allowed the highest production of Furia sp. Mycelium. The combination of yeast extract + skim milk (0.5% of each) allowed the second highest production of Furia sp., and was the most suitable for mass production due to the lower cost. The combination of 1 %each of yeast extract + peptone + skim milk was the most suitable for production of N. floridana hyphal bodies.

  20. Induced Monoculture in Axelrod Model with Clever Mass Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Arezky H.; Del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Vázquez, G. J.

    A new model is proposed, in the context of Axelrod's model for the study of cultural dissemination, to include an external vector field (VF) which describes the effects of mass media on social systems. The VF acts over the whole system and it is characterized by two parameters: a nonnull overlap with each agent in the society and a confidence value of its information. Beyond a threshold value of the confidence, there is induced monocultural globalization of the system lined up with the VF. Below this value, the multicultural states are unstable and certain homogenization of the system is obtained in opposite line up according to that we have called negative publicity effect. Three regimes of behavior for the spread process of the VF information as a function of time are reported.

  1. Evaluation of a mass media campaign on smoking and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Campion, P; Owen, L; McNeill, A; McGuire, C

    1994-10-01

    Two surveys were conducted among pregnant women throughout England, before (n = 625) and after (n = 607) a mass media campaign on smoking and pregnancy targeted at women aged 15-24 years, in the social grade C2DE. The majority of the post-campaign sample recalled having seen at least one of the campaign's series of press advertisements. There was a significant increase among this sample in those considering smoking to be very dangerous to the unborn child, in those understanding the term passive smoking and in those considering passive smoking to be very dangerous. During the campaign there was a 14% increase in the number of calls to a cessation helpline from pregnant women. Over the campaign there were no significant changes in smoking prevalence and consumption among pregnant women or partners or in the numbers of partners offering suggestions to pregnant women about their smoking behaviour.

  2. Framing and sources: a study of mass media coverage of climate change in Peru during the V ALCUE.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Studies about mass media framing have found divergent levels of influence on public opinion; moreover, the evidence suggests that issue attributes can contribute to this difference. In the case of climate change, studies have focused exclusively on developed countries, suggesting that media influence perceptions about the issue. This study presents one of the first studies of media coverage in a developing country. It examines newspapers' reporting in Peru during the Fifth Latin America, Caribbean and European Union Summit in May 2008. The study focuses on the frames and the sources to provide an initial exploratory assessment of the coverage. The results show that the media relied mostly on government sources, giving limited access to dissenting voices such as environmentalists. Additionally, a prominence of "solutions" and "effects" frames was found, while "policy" and "science" frames were limited. The results could serve as a reference point for more comprehensive studies.

  3. Influence of Culture Media on Microbial Fingerprints Using Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mlynáriková, Katarína; Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Růžička, Filip; Ježek, Jan; Hároniková, Andrea; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has a broad range of applications across numerous scientific fields, including microbiology. Our work here monitors the influence of culture media on the Raman spectra of clinically important microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans). Choosing an adequate medium may enhance the reproducibility of the method as well as simplifying the data processing and the evaluation. We tested four different media per organism depending on the nutritional requirements and clinical usage directly on a Petri dish. Some of the media have a significant influence on the microbial fingerprint (Roosvelt-Park Institute Medium, CHROMagar) and should not be used for the acquisition of Raman spectra. It was found that the most suitable medium for microbiological experiments regarding these organisms was Mueller-Hinton agar. PMID:26610516

  4. Influence of Culture Media on Microbial Fingerprints Using Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mlynáriková, Katarína; Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Růžička, Filip; Ježek, Jan; Hároniková, Andrea; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, Veronika

    2015-11-24

    Raman spectroscopy has a broad range of applications across numerous scientific fields, including microbiology. Our work here monitors the influence of culture media on the Raman spectra of clinically important microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans). Choosing an adequate medium may enhance the reproducibility of the method as well as simplifying the data processing and the evaluation. We tested four different media per organism depending on the nutritional requirements and clinical usage directly on a Petri dish. Some of the media have a significant influence on the microbial fingerprint (Roosvelt-Park Institute Medium, CHROMagar) and should not be used for the acquisition of Raman spectra. It was found that the most suitable medium for microbiological experiments regarding these organisms was Mueller-Hinton agar.

  5. Media's influence on the drive for muscularity in undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Cramblitt, Brooke; Pritchard, Mary

    2013-12-01

    Although research has found that body ideals presented by the media influence women's body dissatisfaction, less is known about media's influence on men's body satisfaction. An online survey examining media use, the drive for muscularity, and internalization of appearance and body shape ideals was given to a sample of 311 participants comprised of both men and women. Results indicated (a) the more time men and women reported watching television, the higher their reported drive for muscularity (b) total hours of viewing sports-related, image-focused, and entertainment television related to increased drive for muscularity in women (c) drive for muscularity in men related to watching image-focused television and reading men's health magazines, and (d) internalization of athletic attitudes towards appearance mediated the relationship between total television watched and drive for muscularity in both genders. Clinicians may wish to utilize these findings when treating men and women suffering from drive for muscularity and body dysmorphia.

  6. The mass media alone are not effective change agents.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, J M

    1991-01-01

    Social mobilization programs for immunization have been used by African leaders, however, coverage from 20% to 70% in capitals like Mogadishu, Maputo, and Dakar were the result of short campaigns rather than the consequence of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) improvement. One-party states relied on their network of cadres issuing decrees from the top down to enforce completion of these immunization campaigns. Sometimes resistance developed against these programs, as the military mobilized people (e.g., Somalia). These efforts became rather superficial once the temporary pressure evaporated. In Mogadishu coverage increased from 22% to 70% in 1985, and within a year it dropped back to 8% above the original level. Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo where they used regular mini campaigns had better results. Research data from Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia were analyzed. In 1983 in Kenya 73% of health workers never advised their clients, and 82% were incompetent to do so. Data also showed that clinics provided the bulk of information to women aged 15-45 in lower income groups, but they rarely consulted village health workers. Radio and TV programs were not reaching people because radio ownership was not universal (47% in Zambia and 30% in Zimbabwe), and batteries were often not available. In addition, most people turned to the radio for entertainment. In 1989, vaccination coverage was 19% in Luanda, Angola, but only 5% of 232 respondents to an evaluation could name the immunizable diseases. An identical percentage was familiar with these diseases in a Zambian study in 1986. Media experts proposed dramas to raise interest, but innovative mass media programs of dissemination of the message advocated in the 1960s did not prove effective to bring about KAP changes. Training of health and paramedical personnel by mass organizations as initiated in Ethiopia may prove to be worthwhile.

  7. How social media influence college students' smoking attitudes and intentions.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Woohyun; Yang, JungHwan; Cho, Eunji

    2016-11-01

    Building on the influence of presumed influence (IPI) model, this study examines how smoking- related messages on social media influence college students' smoking. We surveyed 366 college students from three U.S. Midwestern universities in 2012 and examined the effects of expression and reception of smoking-related messages on smoking using path analysis. We found that the expression and reception of prosmoking messages not only directly affected smoking but also had indirect effects on smoking through (1) perceived peer expression of prosmoking messages and (2) perceived peer smoking norms. For antismoking messages, only reception had a significant indirect influence on smoking through (1) perceived peer reception of antismoking messages and (2) perceived peer smoking norms. In conclusion, social media function as an effective communication channel for generating, sharing, receiving, and commenting on smoking-related content and are thus influential on college students' smoking.

  8. [The efficiency of mass media utilization in preventive health programs and mental health promotion].

    PubMed

    Devault, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews articles pertaining to mental health prevention and promotion programs that have used mass media as a component of their program. The programs are analyzed according to four roles that media can play in health promotion programs: promotion, education, complementarity, and support. The relationship between the function assigned to the media and the effects of the programs in changing knowledge, attitudes, or behaviour is explored. When mass media are used alone, they seem to be powerful in recruiting people into groups or social services and in enhancing knowledge and changing attitudes. But when it comes to changing behaviour, mass media by themselves have limited impact. This type of change is more likely to occur when media are combined with face-to-face intervention. Finally, some issues involved in improving the use of mass media in mental health are discussed.

  9. Influences of Media Violence: A Brief Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Feilitzen, Cecilia

    This document compiles and classifies research findings on the influences of media violence, particularly its effects on children's and young people's aggression or violent behavior; the review draws on many studies with different theories and methods. The research findings are presented in the following areas: (1) imitation; (2) aggression…

  10. Demonstrating the influence of compression on artery wall mass transport.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Barry M; Walsh, Michael T

    2010-04-01

    The development of restenosis within the coronary arteries after a stenting procedure has been addressed with the development of the drug eluting stent device. However, in recent times the superiority of the drug eluting stent over bare metal stents has been brought into question. A lack of knowledge regarding the behavior of drug transport from the drug eluting devices contributes to this uncertainty. Questions arise as to whether drug eluting stents deliver sufficient amounts of therapeutic agents into the artery wall to suppress restenosis. Published investigations in this area have focused primarily on trends associated with how variations in stenting conditions affect mass transport behavior. However, experimentally validated numerical models that simulate mass transport within the artery wall are lacking. A novel experimental model was developed to validate computational predictions of species diffusion into a porous medium and an investigation into how stent strut compression influences mass transport was conducted. The study revealed that increased compressive forces on a porous media reduced the ability of species to diffuse through that media, and in relation to drug eluting stents will contribute to a reduction in therapeutic levels of drugs within the wall.

  11. The influence of the media environment on physical activity: looking for the big picture.

    PubMed

    Maibach, Edward

    2007-01-01

    The Influence of the Media Environment on Physical Activity: Looking for the Big Picture Media consumption is expected to continue to increase well into the future. With this in mind the author suggests opportunities to influence the media environment for the purposes of promoting physical activity. A research agenda focused on media consumption, media content, commercial considerations, promoting physical activity through the media, partnerships with industry, positioning, dissemination of proven methods, and environmental change is proposed.

  12. [Messages about physical activity and nutrition offered by Quebec mass media?].

    PubMed

    Renaud, Lise; Lagaé, Marie Claude; Caron-Bouchard, Monique

    2009-01-01

    As social elements of our environment, mass media are regarded as determinants of individual and population beliefs, social norms and habits. Since it is recognized that they influence population health, this study aims to obtain a better portrait of Quebec media content regarding physical activity and nutrition messages on a public health level. First, we analyzed the content of fictional television shows (n = 1 3) and advertisements broadcast during those shows (n = 68). Second, we reviewed the content of La Presse newspaper and of French television Société Radio-Canada from 1986 to 2005 with regard to physical activity and nutrition messages. Our results indicate a difference between how men and women are portrayed on French television, with women more often being shown as underweight and men as at or above healthy body weight. The results also show that during the 20-year period of the reviewed content, there were fewer messages about physical activity than about nutrition. To be successful in their goal of improving population health, mass media should address both subjects together in their messages.

  13. Using Videos To Teach Mass Media and Society from a Critical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna Lee

    2000-01-01

    Explores using videos to teach mass media and society from a critical sociological perspective. Discusses the content of the course from focusing on analysis of corporate capitalism and media producers to analyzing popular media texts on gender, race, the working class, and sexuality. Addresses the evaluation of the course. (CMK)

  14. A Frustrated Fourth Estate: Portugal's Post-Revolutionary Mass Media. Journalism Monographs Number Eighty-Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Warren K.; Traquina, Nelson

    1984-01-01

    To explain how and why the Portuguese mass media constitute a frustrated Fourth Estate, this monograph summarizes the history and development of Portuguese media. The first section summarized the history of media legislation that has confronted Portuguese journalists and stunted the development of journalistic tradition. The second section…

  15. A Look at the Mass Media Situation in the Philippines: Implications for Education and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guioguio, Reynaldo V.

    Mass media in the Philippines at present show two seemingly opposite trends: a small but noticeable increase in the number of provincial newspapers, and a reduction in the number of radio stations in certain areas. Two general features of the media situation, the private ownership of the media and the need for progressive public service…

  16. Public Education about Globalization: The Role of the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the media treatment of the 1996 Australian election to illustrate the power of the media to disseminate corporate propaganda and to persuade the public to accept the political and economic changes of globalization. (SK)

  17. Images of Education: The Mass Media's Version of America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, George R.

    Offering insights and ideas for school leaders, the news media, and the public to consider, this book examines how the print and electronic media portray one of the crucial news stories of our time: the education of 50 million American youngsters. The book maintains that, while the school-media connection should be "a natural" for both…

  18. Potential Interrelationships Between Library and Other Mass Media Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edwin B.

    The function of libraries is to make it easy for the people in their community to obtain information from other people or environments that may be distant is space, time or imagination. To perform this function libraries require communication media. Storage media are essential, but duplication and transmission media can improve the service of…

  19. A Comparison of Agenda Setting in the United States by the Mass Media and Political Parties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hampden H., III

    A review of research on the roles played by the mass media and the political parties during the agenda-setting stage of political activity in the United States indicates that the mass media have assumed some of the informing and issue-initiating functions generally understood to be performed by political parties. It seems desirable to develop an…

  20. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  1. Deference, Denial, and Beyond: A Repertoire Approach to Mass Media and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymes, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines two general research approaches, within the education world, to these mass-mediated formations: "Deference" and "Denial." Researchers who recognize the social practices that give local meaning to mass media formations and ways of speaking do not attempt to recontextualize youth media in their own social…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Mass Media Development in Less-Developed Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Hemant

    A study was conducted to examine the causal predictors of mass media development in 105 underdeveloped countries for various lengths of time to determine if there were consistent relationships among the dependent and independent variables regardless of the time lag. The study also sought to determine how mass media developed during the 29-year…

  3. The Educational Use of Mass Media. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 491.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courrier, Kathleen, Ed.

    This 7-chapter volume presents 11 papers dealing with the issues commonly encountered by educators and decision-makers in less developed countries when they consider the use of mass media to further their country's education and development. Individual topics and their authors are (1) "Marshalling, Managing, and Evaluating the Mass Media for…

  4. Developmental Play: A New Approach to the Role of Mass Media in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Keith P.; Hagahmed, Gamaleldin O.

    Most of the "talk" about the role of mass media in the Third World is generated by politicians rather than by professional communicators. The "Developmental Play Model" treats media experience as an encounter with the "self" and considers the "self" as an integral part of the mass communication process. The…

  5. A Communication Model for Teaching a Course in Mass Media and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumley, Wilma; Stricklin, Michael

    Many professors of mass media and society courses have relied on a teaching model implying that students are sponges soaking up information. A more appropriate model invites concern with an active audience, transaction, the interpersonal mass media mix, a general systems approach, and process and change--in other words, utilization of current and…

  6. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  7. The Mass Media in Cooperative Extension: A Review of Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everly, Jack C.

    A brief account is given of current evaluative and research activity by Cooperative Extension personnel as they try to assess the role of mass media in environmental education and a growing range of other areas. Attention is given to principles of mass media rural extension, as well as to basic communication theory, the overall usefulness of mass…

  8. Deference, Denial, and Beyond: A Repertoire Approach to Mass Media and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymes, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines two general research approaches, within the education world, to these mass-mediated formations: "Deference" and "Denial." Researchers who recognize the social practices that give local meaning to mass media formations and ways of speaking do not attempt to recontextualize youth media in their own social…

  9. High Context Messaging in Chinese English-Language Mass Media: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, James A.

    This article describes high context messaging in Chinese English-language mass media. A case study analysis of said mass media, during the 1996 Taiwan sovereignty/reunification controversy related to People's Liberation Army exercises in the Taiwan Straits, is done as a means of focusing on one singular event. The exercises were staged to dampen…

  10. The Educational Use of Mass Media. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 491.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courrier, Kathleen, Ed.

    This 7-chapter volume presents 11 papers dealing with the issues commonly encountered by educators and decision-makers in less developed countries when they consider the use of mass media to further their country's education and development. Individual topics and their authors are (1) "Marshalling, Managing, and Evaluating the Mass Media for…

  11. A Communication Model for Teaching a Course in Mass Media and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumley, Wilma; Stricklin, Michael

    Many professors of mass media and society courses have relied on a teaching model implying that students are sponges soaking up information. A more appropriate model invites concern with an active audience, transaction, the interpersonal mass media mix, a general systems approach, and process and change--in other words, utilization of current and…

  12. Mass Media Fellow Westley spends summer publishing in Newsweek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifert, Harvey

    If you are a subscriber to Newsweek, you probably remember these stories from the past few months: “Vaccine Revolution,” “Aliens Invade America!,” “A Gymnast's Long Fall,” “Is AIDS Forever?,” and a cover story, “Science Finds God.” They all had something in common, aside from their science focus: at the end of each article was the credit line, “With Marian Westley.” In addition, a story titled “A Long, Wacky Summer,” on recent weather patterns, carried Marian Westley's byline. Who, you may have wondered, is this Marian Westley, who reports with equal aplomb on matters as diverse as epidemiology, meteorology, the predations of nonnative plant species, and the interface between scientists and theologians? Actually, Westley is a graduate student in biological oceanography at the University of Hawaii and a member of AGU. She spent the summer of 1998 as the AAAS/AGU Mass Media Fellow at Newsweek in New York.

  13. Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Olusesan S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Adebimpe, Wasiu O; Omisore, Akin G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. Objectives To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16. Results Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%). Most (64.0%) respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332), electronic mail (89.0%, n=356), and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298). Most of the respondents (73.5%) opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths’ sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%), 37 (16.4%), 31 (13.7%), and 10 (4.4%) practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0%) always used condoms, whereas 90 (40.0%) never used condoms during sexual activity; 33 (14.6%) had had sex with commercial sex workers. Further analysis showed that those who were yet to marry (single) were less likely to be sexually experienced than those who were married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.008–0.679), and those who said accessing

  14. The relationship between audience mentality and attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in the mass media.

    PubMed

    Lignowska, Izabella; Borowiec, Agnieszka; Slonska, Zofia

    2016-09-01

    Health promoters who use the mass media to encourage people to change their health behaviours usually underestimate the importance of audience's mental predispositions, which may determine their susceptibility to such influences. This paper presents research findings that show how some elements of an audience's mentality are related to their attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in the mass media (HLPMM). The research project, undertaken between 2007 and 2009, comprised: a qualitative study using in-depth interviews (N=30); a self-administered survey on a purposive sample (N=237) and a computer-assisted personal interview or interviewing (CAPI) survey on a representative sample of Polish adult population (N=934). The findings from the first two studies were used to construct a scale to investigate the attitude towards HLPMM. This scale was applied in a nation wide survey and, as a result, four dimensions of the attitude were identified: (1) appraisal of the idea of HLPMM; (2) appraisal of HLPMM practice; (3) propensity to receive media messages promoting healthy lifestyle and (4) propensity to avoid such messages. Moreover, the survey results confirmed the hypotheses whereby a higher degree of individualism, a higher degree of authoritarianism, a weaker demanding orientation and generalised trust are related to a more positive attitude towards HLPMM. The aforementioned relationships indicate that producers of media messages promoting a healthy lifestyle need to take account of their audience's mentality, since knowledge of mental predispositions of the target audience may help them make the message more suitable for specific recipients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Mass media and sexual health behaviour of college students in Nigeria: a study of Lagos State University.

    PubMed

    Onipede, Wusu

    2009-12-01

    This paper examines the effects of mass media on the sexual health behaviour of single college students in Nigeria. Simple random sampling procedure was adopted. A total of 300 pre-coded questionnaires were administered in study population. Data analysis reveals that the respondents are more frequently exposed to the internet (75%), TV (77%) and radio (75%). More frequent exposure to print, home video and internet media are significantly related to rising level of sexual activities among female respondents. Frequent exposure to radio (over 3 times) and internet (4 times) are more likely to influence condom use positively among male respondents. Among their female counterparts, more frequent internet utilization (almost twice) is more likely to raise the level of condom use. Thus, an international accord on the content of the mass media, especially on their moral implications for the younger generation is imperative.

  16. Formative research to develop a mass media campaign to increase physical activity and nutrition in a multiethnic state.

    PubMed

    Maddock, Jay E; Silbanuz, Alice; Reger-Nash, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Poor nutrition and physical inactivity are the second leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Mass media campaigns have tremendous promise for reaching large segments of the population to influence these behaviors. There is still insufficient evidence in the literature, however, to recommend mass marketing campaigns for physical activity and nutrition. Successful mass media campaigns should have a formative research base that includes conducting preproduction research with the target audience, using theory as a conceptual foundation of the campaign, segmenting the audience into meaningful subgroups, and using a message approach that is targeted to and likely will be effective with the audience segment. In this study, these formative research steps were addressed to develop a mass media campaign based on the Theory of Planned Behavior to increase physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption in 35-55-year-old adults in the state of Hawaii. For the walking campaign, our results identified time, a control belief, as the major barrier. For fruits and vegetable, the data suggested social norm (if others around me ate them) and control (if they were available). These data then were used to develop a mass media campaign based on these principals.

  17. Educating women for HIV prevention: does exposure to mass media make them more knowledgeable?

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta; Abdullah, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Mass media is an important vehicle for health promotion in developing countries. In Bangladesh multiple media campaigns are being carried out to educate people about HIV/AIDS. We examined the extent of HIV/AIDS knowledge and the association of exposure to mass media among women in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) provides data for this article. We found that media exposure (combined index of television, radio, and newspaper) was a highly significant predictor of women's knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Other significant predictors of HIV knowledge include women's education, age, employment, and urban residence.

  18. Racism in the Mass Media--Perpetuating the Stereotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewels, Francisco J.

    1978-01-01

    Racism in the media cannot fairly reflect society's multiracial nature, with no preference for or special treatment of any particular race. Whether intentional or not, the effects are equally devastating for those discriminated against. This article explains how racism in media works and what can be done about it. (NQ)

  19. Social Effects of Mass Media Advertising on the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ruth B.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…

  20. Statistical Literacy Social Media Project for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundlach, Ellen; Maybee, Clarence; O'Shea, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a social media assignment used to teach and practice statistical literacy with over 400 students each semester in large-lecture traditional, fully online, and flipped sections of an introductory-level statistics course. Following the social media assignment, students completed a survey on how they approached the assignment.…

  1. Student Mass Media Projects: Combining Content and Context Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papademas, Diana

    1983-01-01

    Described is a sociology of communications and media course in which college students look at and analyze major media institutions in order to understand communications in society. The strategy of developing students' analytic, synthesis, and critical thinking skills is applicable to other programs and courses. (RM)

  2. The Status of Mass Media Coverage of Campaign '80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.

    Some of the similarities and differences in the news media coverage of the United States presidential campaign of 1980 are discussed in this paper. Among the differences related are the loss of the symbolic power of tbe primary elections, which forced the media to look for significant trends elsewhere; the mixture of politics with the…

  3. Mass Media and the School: Descartes or McLuhan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Pierre

    1980-01-01

    Compares the world of learning with the world of the media, with emphasis on the areas of common interest. Discusses areas of potential cooperation, including local audiovisual centers, adaptation of new media to educational content, computer technology, telematics, and accumulation of audiovisual stock on topics pertinent to education. (DB)

  4. Mass Media Use by Activist and Non-Activist Publics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Mark A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine if environmental activists differed from nonactivists in their use of the various media; specifically in their use of the media to obtain information on environmental issues. Based on a review of environmental literature, it was hypothesized that activists (1) would spend more time using newspapers and less time…

  5. Mass Media Portrayals of Suicide: Informing the Australian Policy Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, R. Warwick; Putnis, Peter; Pirkis, Jane

    Research on the news media's reporting on suicide and mental illness is understudied in Australia despite the controversial nature of much coverage and its possible consequences for a variety of audiences. This paper critiques the underlying assumptions of most international research in this area, which follows a media imitation or contagion…

  6. Mass Media and the Debate about Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Thomas M.

    Many factors contribute to the difficulties the media have in dealing with science, engineering, and technology. These difficulties were pointed up in the media coverage of the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant, which reflected confusion and lack of understanding and which combined with other factors (including the movie…

  7. Mass Media and the Debate about Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Thomas M.

    Many factors contribute to the difficulties the media have in dealing with science, engineering, and technology. These difficulties were pointed up in the media coverage of the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant, which reflected confusion and lack of understanding and which combined with other factors (including the movie…

  8. Using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use: a review.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jane Appleyard; Duke, Jennifer C; Davis, Kevin C; Kim, Annice E; Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    This review synthesizes the published literature on using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use, with particular focus on effects within population subgroups and the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO conducted in March of 2014 yielded 397 studies with 34 suitable for inclusion. Included were quantitative studies that evaluate an antitobacco media campaign intended to influence youth cognitions or behavior or explore the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics among youth. An automated search and assessment of suitability for inclusion was done. Study outcomes were compared and synthesized. Antitobacco media campaigns can be effective across racial/ethnic populations, although the size of the campaign effect may differ by race/ethnicity. Evidence is insufficient to determine whether campaign outcomes differ by socioeconomic status (SES) and population density. Youth are more likely to recall and think about advertising that includes personal testimonials; a surprising narrative; and intense images, sound, and editing. Evidence in support of using a health consequences message theme is mixed; an industry manipulation theme may be effective in combination with a health consequences message. Research is insufficient to determine whether advertising with a secondhand smoke or social norms theme influences youth tobacco use. Our recommendation is to develop antitobacco campaigns designed to reach all at-risk youth, which can be effective across racial/ethnic populations. Research priorities include assessing campaign influence among lower SES and rural youth, disentangling the effects of message characteristics, and assessing the degree to which this body of evidence may have changed as a result of changes in youth culture and communication technology.

  9. [How much can we trust health related information provided by mass media in Argentina?].

    PubMed

    Izcovich, Ariel; Criniti, Juan Martín; Popoff, Federico; González Malla, Carlos; Catalano, Hugo N

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the certainty and accuracy of the healthcare information provided by the mass media in Argentina, a group of senior medical students, blind to the study objectives, identified healthcare related statements transmitted through mass media. These findings were challenged against the recommendations of a group of physicians trained in evidence-based decision making (EBDM). We compared the strength and direction of the mass media recommendations with those of experts on EBDM. Eighty one recommendations/questions were identified and answered by the experts on EBDM, 15 with high, 18 with moderate, 30 with low and 18 with very low quality of evidence. Only 53% (CI95% 42-64%) of the mass media recommendations agreed with the expert recommendation in direction (for or against) and 28% (CI95% 18-39%) were classified as inappropriate (significant discrepancies both in direction and strength). Subgroup analysis revealed that 71% (CI95% 56-86%) of there commendations made by professionals in mass media agreed with experts in direction and 17% (IC95% 6-33%) were classified as inappropriate, OR = 0.35 (CI95% 0.1-1.1) compared to recommendations in mass media by non-professionals. We conclude that the healthcare information provided by mass media in Argentina is unreliable; this fact can probably have a negative impact in the health system performance and physician-patient relationship.

  10. Media in the Future Tense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Molly J.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide teachers with a rationale for teaching the mass media. It also contains a discussion of different methods to be used in teaching the media. The influence of the media on contemporary society is examined and the importance of the mass media in the educational process is stressed. In addition, the paper…

  11. What do obstetricians think about media influences on their patients?

    PubMed

    Handfield, Bronny; Turnbull, Sue; Bell, Robin J

    2006-10-01

    Patients are playing an increasingly active role in decision-making about their care and are becoming increasingly informed about their health. Traditionally, sources of information about pregnancy and birth were family and friends and, in more recent times, antenatal classes. Evidence suggests that the media, particularly the Internet, is an increasingly influential source of information about illness and health. The aim of this study was to survey Australian Fellows of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) about their perceptions of sources of patient information about pregnancy and birth, particularly the media and the Internet. A two-page survey with a reply paid envelope was sent to all Australian Fellows of RANZCOG. Most questions only allowed a selection of prespecified categorical options. Some questions allowed open-ended replies that were assessed using thematic analysis. RANZCOG fellows thought that family and friends were the most important source of information for patients about pregnancy and birth followed by formal antenatal education, although they ranked the influence of the Internet above that of free-to-air television. Responses suggested that women in both the public and the private sectors were accessing the Internet. Fellows felt that their patients are actively involved in decisions about their care during pregnancy and birth and that the media influences their knowledge and attitudes. The Internet appears to have an increasingly important role in providing women with information. Obstetricians need to be aware of what their patients are accessing on the Internet.

  12. Factors behind change in knowledge after a mass media campaign targeting periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, C; Söderfeldt, B; Andersson, P; Halling, A; Renvert, S

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in knowledge before and after a mass media campaign, in relation to social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. The study was based on a questionnaire in a cohort design, sent out to 900 randomly sampled people aged 50-75 in Sweden. The response rate to the questionnaire before and after the campaign was 70% and 65% respectively. Sixty-four percent answered both questionnaires. Two questions addressed knowledge, while 10 questions aimed to measure social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. Data were analysed for bivariate relations as to change in knowledge and social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. Data were also analysed in multiple regression analysis with knowledge before, knowledge after and knowledge differences as dependent variables. The results showed that there were a number of independent variables with influence on the dependent variables. Of the social attributes, secondary education gave almost 10% (P < 0.001) better knowledge both before and after the campaign. Among care system attributes, high care utilization was related to knowledge both before and after the campaign. The most important factors for knowledge about periodontitis were education, care utilization and perceived importance of oral health. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that mass media might increase knowledge about periodontitis as a health promotion strategy.

  13. The impact of a mass media campaign on personal risk perception, perceived self-efficacy and on other behavioural predictors.

    PubMed

    Agha, S

    2003-12-01

    To determine whether an AIDS prevention mass media campaign influenced risk perception, self-efficacy and other behavioural predictors. We used household survey data collected from 2,213 sexually experienced male and female Kenyans aged 15-39. Respondents were administered a questionnaire asking them about their exposure to branded and generic mass media messages concerning HIV/AIDS and condom use. They were asked questions concerning their personal risk perception, self-efficacy, condom effectiveness, condom availability, and their embarrassment in obtaining condoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the impact of exposure to mass media messages on these predictors of behaviour change. Those exposed to branded advertising messages were significantly more likely to consider themselves at higher risk of acquiring HIV and to believe in the severity of AIDS. Exposure to branded messages was also associated with a higher level of personal self-efficacy, a greater belief in the efficacy of condoms, a lower level of perceived difficulty in obtaining condoms and reduced embarrassment in purchasing condoms. Moreover, there was a dose-response relationship: a higher intensity of exposure to advertising was associated with more positive outcomes. Exposure to generic advertising messages was less frequently associated with positive health beliefs and these relationships were also weaker. Branded mass media campaigns that promote condom use as an attractive lifestyle choice are likely to contribute to the development of perceptions that are conducive to the adoption of condom use.

  14. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  15. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  16. Reduction of Perceived Social Distance as an Explanation for Media's Influence on Personal Risk Perceptions: A Test of the Risk Convergence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Jiyeon; Nabi, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The risk convergence model proposes reduction of perceived social distance to a mediated personality as a mechanism through which the mass media can influence audiences' personal risk perceptions. As an initial test of the model, this study examined whether 5 audience variables known to facilitate media effects on personal risk…

  17. Reduction of Perceived Social Distance as an Explanation for Media's Influence on Personal Risk Perceptions: A Test of the Risk Convergence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Jiyeon; Nabi, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The risk convergence model proposes reduction of perceived social distance to a mediated personality as a mechanism through which the mass media can influence audiences' personal risk perceptions. As an initial test of the model, this study examined whether 5 audience variables known to facilitate media effects on personal risk…

  18. The Mass Media and Latinos: Policy and Research Agendas for the Next Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subervi-Velez, Federico A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses policy and research needs related to the mass media and Latinos in five areas: emergency communications planning that considers limited-English-speaking populations, access to telecommunications and information technology, culturally sensitive children's television programming, bias in news and entertainment media, and teaching and…

  19. Mass Media and Racial Crisis: A Study of the New Bethel Church Incident in Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Donald I.

    1972-01-01

    Based on responses from 1130 interviews in black and white neighborhoods, perceptions of what occurred relating to an incident in Detroit were linked to reports from mass media. Different media combinations were associated differently with how whites and blacks relying on these sources perceived the incident. (Author)

  20. Integrating Mass Media Instruction: "Connecting" NIE and TV Programs for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Barbara

    More high school students watch television regularly than read newspapers. Newspapers in Education coordinators should be involved in teaching their students critical viewing skills. The essential concepts that students need to learn are to: (1) understand what mass media and popular culture mean; (2) understand how the media shape attitudes and…

  1. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  2. The Mass Media, Public Opinion, and Public Policy Analysis: Linkage Explorations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strouse, James C.

    The purpose of this book is to explore the effects of public opinion on governmental policy making, with a special focus on the role of the mass media in this process. Specific areas covered include political campaigning, the President and the press, blacks and the media, and cable television. Topics of discussion in the ten chapters are: linkage…

  3. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  4. Social Class, Temporal Orientation, and Mass Media Use within the Family System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Amy B.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the impact of social class on the relationship between ideologies of time and mass media use within the family system. Finds that families from different social strata have distinct beliefs about the value and use of time, beliefs that shape their media-related behaviors. (RS)

  5. Voters and the Mass Media: Information-Seeking, Political Interest, and Issue Agendas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Maxwell; Weaver, David

    A study to determine the agenda-setting role of the mass media concerning the political interests of the general public during the 1976 presidential campaign is reported. Agenda-setting refers to the transfer of concerns from the media to the general public. The concept is concerned with cognitions rather than attitudes. It has been stated that…

  6. Mass Media: The Image, Role, and Social Conditions of Women. No. 84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceulemans, Mieke; Fauconnier, Guido

    A UNESCO-sponsored study was conducted to systematize, analyze, and evaluate the research about the interrelationships between mass media and the status of women on the basis of currently available international literature. The study sought to determine which aspects of women's media roles have been frequently researched, on which continents and…

  7. Mass Media and the Ego-Centric Predicament/The Trivialization of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambus, John

    The discussion in this paper is based on three conclusions drawn from a professional lifetime in the media: that limited to a choice from among information, persuasion, or entertainment, the purpose of the mass media is entertainment; that given a choice between technology and content, technology such as cable TV predominates; and that faced with…

  8. The Guiding Light: Mass Media and National Ideology Formation and Propagation in Third World Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, John A.

    This paper discusses the evolution of development journalism into development communication, concentrating in the process on what has happened to government-media relationships and traditional freedom of the press notions as Third World presses are subjected to guidance policies and rampant authoritarianism. It looks at the use of mass media in…

  9. Mass Media Use and Political Knowledge. Journalism Monographs Number Sixty-One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmgreen, Philip

    A study was conducted to test identical models of the political learning process with data concerning national and local issues. These models hypothesized ways in which political learning from mass media is affected by such factors as strength of information flow, political system level, individual media exposure, interpersonal discussion,…

  10. Survey of the Mass Media: Curriculum Guide for Stow Senior High School 1971-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Judith; And Others

    An outline guide for a survey of major mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio, television, movies, books, and advertising--is presented. The course intends to help students develop critical judgement of the media by improving viewing, reading, and listening skills. The objectives include: (1) presentation of the characteristics of each major…

  11. A History of Research on Children and the Mass Media: An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadowcraft, Jeanne M.; McDonald, Daniel G.

    Histories of media research commonly assume that models of mass media effects have progressed from direct or hypodermic effect models to indirect or multi-step models. Recently, however, B. Reeves and E. Wartella have objected to this assumption. To evaluate their alternative hypotheses, 163 studies from over 88 sources, representing nearly a…

  12. Educational Leadership in the Era of Mass Media: State, Consequences and Repercussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavish, Tali; Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the relationships between school head teachers and mass media on various aspects of their role: emotional-personal, behavioural-managerial and perception. It also examines the sociocultural experience in which these head teacher-media interactions take place, that is, the adjustment of the school system,…

  13. Mass Media: The Image, Role, and Social Conditions of Women. No. 84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceulemans, Mieke; Fauconnier, Guido

    A UNESCO-sponsored study was conducted to systematize, analyze, and evaluate the research about the interrelationships between mass media and the status of women on the basis of currently available international literature. The study sought to determine which aspects of women's media roles have been frequently researched, on which continents and…

  14. Educational Leadership in the Era of Mass Media: State, Consequences and Repercussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavish, Tali; Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the relationships between school head teachers and mass media on various aspects of their role: emotional-personal, behavioural-managerial and perception. It also examines the sociocultural experience in which these head teacher-media interactions take place, that is, the adjustment of the school system,…

  15. Transparency and accountability in mass media campaigns about organ donation: a response to Morgan and Feeley.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2013-11-01

    We respond to Morgan and Feeley's critique on our article "Mass Media in Organ Donation: Managing Conflicting Messages and Interests." We noted that Morgan and Feeley agree with the position that the primary aims of media campaigns are: "to educate the general public about organ donation process" and "help individuals make informed decisions" about organ donation. For those reasons, the educational messages in media campaigns should not be restricted to "information from pilot work or focus groups" but should include evidence-based facts resulting from a comprehensive literature research. We consider the controversial aspects about organ donation to be relevant, if not necessary, educational materials that must be disclosed in media campaigns to comply with the legal and moral requirements of informed consent. With that perspective in mind, we address the validity of Morgan and Feeley's claim that media campaigns have no need for informing the public about the controversial nature of death determination in organ donation. Scientific evidence has proven that the criteria for death determination are inconsistent with the Uniform Determination of Death Act and therefore potentially harmful to donors. The decision by campaign designers to use the statutory definition of death without disclosing the current controversies surrounding that definition does not contribute to improved informed decision making. We argue that if Morgan and Feeley accept the important role of media campaigns to enhance informed decision making, then critical controversies should be disclosed. In support of that premise, we will outline: (1) the wide-spread scientific challenges to brain death as a concept of death; (2) the influence of the donor registry and team-huddling on the medical care of potential donors; (3) the use of authorization rather than informed consent for donor registration; (4) the contemporary religious controversy; and (5) the effects of training desk clerks as organ

  16. An exploratory review of HIV prevention mass media campaigns targeting men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HIV infection in both high- and low-income settings. Mass media campaigns have been used as a means of communicating HIV health promotion messages to large audiences of MSM. There is no consensus on which designs are most appropriate to evaluate the process and outcomes of such interventions. Methods An exploratory review was conducted to assess research examining awareness, acceptability, effects on HIV testing, disclosure and sexual risk, and cost-effectiveness of HIV mass media campaigns targeting MSM. We searched for quantitative and qualitative studies published between 1990 and May 2011 via the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psych Info, ISI Web of Science, OpenGrey and COPAC, and contacting experts. No exclusions were made on the basis of study design or methods because our primary aim was to map evidence. We appraised study quality and present a narrative synthesis of findings. Results Sixteen reports from 12 studies were included. All were from high-income countries and most examined multi-media interventions. Half of the studies were single cross-sectional surveys. Three repeat cross-sectional studies collected data pre and post the campaign launch. The remaining three studies monitored routine data. Three studies included a nested qualitative component. Campaign coverage was the most commonly reported outcome (9 studies). Imagery, tone of language, content and relevance were identified in the qualitative research as factors influencing campaign acceptability. HIV testing rates (or intention to test) were reported by five studies. Two studies reported that testing rates were higher among men who had seen the campaigns compared to men who had not, but this may reflect confounding. Findings were less consistent regarding reductions in sexual risk behaviours (4 studies). None of the studies examined cost-effectiveness. Conclusions Campaigns aim to provide MSM

  17. Furnishing Music: An Analysis of Mass Media in Terms of Music Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrom, David

    1975-01-01

    Author presented for consideration the position that the importance of mass media music (FM, AM, juke box, TV, film, etc.) might not be so much in its music as in the musical systems represented by that music. (Author/RK)

  18. Exploring adolescent views of body image: the influence of media.

    PubMed

    Spurr, Shelley; Berry, Lois; Walker, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present findings from two parallel qualitative studies that used focus groups to explore adolescent views of psychological wellness and healthy bodies. Nine focus groups were held with 46 adolescents aged 16-19 years from two Mid-Western Canadian high schools. Both studies were designed with an interpretive humanist perspective and then a 6-step thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Common themes emerging in the focus group discussions in both studies included the negative impact of media on adolescent body image and pressure to conform to the Western views of physical appearance. These findings illustrate the need for nurses to understand the influence of the media on adolescents' views of their body image and to incorporate protocols for assessment, education, and counseling of adolescents on the healthy usage of media into their pediatric clinical practice. Through consistent participation in the development and implementation of health policies, nurses play a critical role in supporting adolescents to develop healthy views of body image.

  19. Reaching "an audience that you would never dream of speaking to": influential public health researchers' views on the role of news media in influencing policy and public understanding.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Simon; Haynes, Abby; Derrick, Gemma; Sturk, Heidi; Hall, Wayne D; St George, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    While governments and academic institutions urge researchers to engage with news media, traditional academic values of public disengagement have inhibited many from giving high priority to media activity. In this interview-based study, the authors report on the views about news media engagement and strategies used by 36 peer-voted leading Australian public health researchers in 6 fields. The authors consider their views about the role and importance of media in influencing policy, their reflections on effective or ineffective media communicators, and strategies used by these researchers about how to best retain their credibility and influence while engaging with the news media. A willingness and capacity to engage with the mass media was seen as an essential attribute of influential public health researchers.

  20. Fluid and porous media property effects on dense nonaqueous phase liquid migration and contaminant mass flux.

    PubMed

    Totten, C T; Annable, M D; Jawitz, J W; Delfinot, J J

    2007-03-01

    The effects of fluid and porous media properties on dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) migration and associated contaminant mass flux generation were evaluated. Relationships between DNAPL mass and solute mass flux were generated by measuring steady-state mass flux following stepwise injection of perchloroethylene (PCE) into flow chambers packed with homogeneous porous media. The effects of fluid properties including density and interfacial tension (IFT), and media properties including grain size and wettability were evaluated by varying the density contrast and interfacial tension properties between PCE and water, and by varying the porous media mean grain diameter and wettability characteristics. Contaminant mass flux was found to increase as grain size decreased, suggesting enhanced lateral and vertical DNAPL spreading with higher fluid entry pressure. Mass flux showed a slight increase as the DNAPL approached neutral buoyancy, likely due to enhanced vertical spreading above the injection point. DNAPL spatial distribution and contaminant mass flux were only minimally affected by IFT and by intermediate-level wettability changes, but were dramatically affected by wettability reversal. The relationship between DNAPL loading and flux generation became more linear as grain size decreased and density contrast between fluids decreased. These results imply that capillary flow characteristics of the porous media and fluid properties will control mass flux generation from source zones.

  1. The mass media and the cancer patient--some views.

    PubMed

    Rimer, I

    1984-01-01

    A study by the National Cancer Institute indicates extensive newspaper coverage of the subject of cancer. Some of the media presentations on cancer are highly emotional in nature, such as the PBS special, "Joan Robinson: One Woman's Story." Other more optimistic stories may have a negative impact on patients facing more advanced stages of the disease. Yet the media appear to be gradually stripping the mystery from cancer and preparing patients to deal with their treatment and physicians more intelligently and more assertively. Breast and lung cancers are the two sites that get the most attention from the press. Unfortunately, colon and rectum cancers rank quite low in press attention. The American Cancer Society (ACS) has studied public attitudes toward these cancers and is preparing programs to reach the public about them. This paper will deal with these topics and make some observations on the impact of media coverage on cancer patients.

  2. Anti-tobacco mass media and socially disadvantaged groups: a systematic and methodological review.

    PubMed

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris

    2012-07-01

    Only a limited amount of research has been conducted to explore whether there are socioeconomic status differences in responses to mass media. However, the methodological quality of this evidence has not been assessed, limiting confidence in conclusions that can be drawn regarding study outcomes. A systematic review of the effectiveness of anti-tobacco mass media campaigns with socially disadvantaged groups was conducted, and the methodological quality of included studies was assessed. Medline, The Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, Embase and Web of Science were searched using MeSH and keywords for quantitative studies conducted in Western countries prior to March 2012. A methodological quality assessment and narrative analysis of included studies was undertaken. Seventeen relevant studies (reported in 18 papers) were identified; however, weak study designs and selection bias were common characteristics, limiting strong conclusions about effectiveness. Using predominantly non-cessation related outcome measures reviewed papers indicated mixed results for mass media tobacco control campaign effectiveness among various social groups. Most studies assessed mass media impact on low socioeconomic status groups rather than highly socially disadvantaged groups. Methodological rigour of evaluations in this field must be improved to aid understanding regarding the effectiveness of mass media campaigns in driving cessation among disadvantaged groups. The results of this review indicate a gap in methodologically rigorous research into the effectiveness of mass media campaigns among socially disadvantaged groups, particularly the highly disadvantaged. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Body image and eating disturbance in India: media and interpersonal influences.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Hemal; Thompson, J Kevin

    2004-03-01

    The current study was designed to examine the relationships among the variables of body mass index (BMI), interpersonal teasing, media internalization, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness in samples of young adult and middle school females from India. Ninety-six adolescent and 93 adult females from Bombay, India, completed measures of body dissatisfaction, restriction, teasing history, and internalization of media images. Correlational and path analytic procedures were used to examine the data. Path analyses indicated that teasing and internalization mediated the effect of BMI on body dissatisfaction and in certain cases influenced drive for thinness. These findings replicate and extend previous work with U.S., Australian, and Swedish samples, suggesting that there are similar potential risk factors, cross-culturally, that may explain the development of eating and shape-related problems. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 198-203, 2004.

  4. Exploring the Effect of Mass Media on Perceptions of Infant Feeding.

    PubMed

    Bylaska-Davies, Paula

    2015-09-01

    This qualitative study explored women's perceptions of mass media and infant feeding. Mass media is a universal means of communication with potential to impact social norms. Data obtained from interviews with women (n = 20) were compared with text and visual representation from Internet sites (n = 12) on parenting and infant feeding. Themes from interviews reflected information represented on Internet sites. Participants offered suggestions for future media messages, such as public service announcements of breastfeeding. Participants emphasized that public opinion needs to be altered, and breastfeeding in public would then be viewed as the norm.

  5. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting.

    PubMed

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study's objective was to explore national news media's reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles.

  6. Mass Media: The Ether Pervading the Clausewitzian Trinity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    situationally dependent and not mutually exclusive. “Manufacturing Consent”19 Media academicians Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman, summarizing their...Mermin, Shaw, Hallin et. al. throughout his discussion. 19 Term coined by: Walter Lippman according to Edwards S. Herman and Noam Chomsky ...20 Noam Chomsky , Necessary Illusions: Thought

  7. The Impact of Mass Media in the Pacific Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casmir, Fred L.

    In many developing nations, governments have invested in media technologies to propel their nations into the twentieth century. These measures have taken an increasing social, financial, and cultural toll. Questions surround the right of developed nations to impose their commercially oriented values on those who lack the means to achieve such…

  8. Mass Media, Education and the Transmission of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruise O'Brien, Rita

    1980-01-01

    Recounts the increase in radio and television stations in developing nations since 1960 and relates this increase to the power of the media in transmission of foreign values to children. Concludes that the educational system must take more responsibility for inculcating local culture and values. (DB)

  9. Do universal media literacy programs have an effect on weight and shape concern by influencing media internalization?

    PubMed

    Wade, Tracey D; Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-02-02

    The current study examined whether media internalization, found to mediate the relationship between selected prevention programs and outcomes, mediated the impact of two universal prevention programs that targeted risk factors for eating disorders and obesity, namely weight concern, and shape concern. Students randomized to a media literacy (Media Smart) program (N = 269, 65% females, mean age 12.97 years) and a healthy lifestyle (Life Smart) program (N = 347, 69% females, mean age 13.07 years) were included in the analyses. There were four waves of data (baseline, end of intervention, 6- and 12-month follow-up). Latent growth curve modeling was used to explore whether group assignment influenced levels of media internalization, and whether that in turn influenced change over time of our two outcome variables. Being randomly allocated to Media Smart as opposed to Life Smart resulted in less growth of both outcome variables through the influence on decreasing levels of media internalization. Findings provided support for the suggestion that media literacy programs exert an impact on outcomes related to eating disorder risk through changes to media internalization. Future research should examine whether these mechanisms of change differ between girls and boys.

  10. Influence of biofilms on transport properties in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davit, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial activity and biofilm growth in porous media can drastically modify transport properties such as permeability, longitudinal and transverse dispersion or effective reaction rates. Understanding these effects has proven to be a considerable challenge. Advances in this field have been hindered by the difficulty of modeling and visualizing these multi-phase non-linear effects across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. To address these issues, we are developing a strategy that combines imaging techniques based on x-ray micro-tomography with homogenization of pore-scale transport equations. Here, we review recent progress in x-ray imaging of biofilms in porous media, with a particular focus on the contrast agents that are used to differentiate between the fluid and biofilm phases. We further show how the 3D distribution of the different phases can be used to extract specific information about the biofilm and how effective properties can be calculated via the resolution of closure problems. These closure problems are obtained using the method of volume averaging and must be adapted to the problem of interest. In hydrological systems, we show that a generic formulation for reactive solute transport is based on a domain decomposition approach at the micro-scale yielding macro-scale models reminiscent of multi-rate mass transfer approaches.

  11. Spinor fields with zero mass in unbounded isotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Hillion, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Dirac equation for massless fields in unbounded media has solutions similar to the focus wave mode solutions of Maxwell's equations leading to infinite dynamical invariants. We define the splash wave mode solutions as a weighted superposition of the focus wave modes, and discuss the conditions to be fulfilled by the weight functions to make the dynamical invariants bounded. We leave open the physical interpretation of these solutions.

  12. Women and mass media: a critical and analytical study of the portrayal of Sudanese women in printed media.

    PubMed

    Badri, A E; Osama, S

    1995-06-01

    This study examines how Sudanese women are portrayed in the mass media. Data are obtained from a content analysis of historical records of Sudanese daily newspapers and women's magazines and from surveys among female editors in print media. The following types of newspapers are reviewed: independent newspapers; papers for the Al-Umma Party, a communist party, a Bathist party, a Muslim Nationalist Islamic Front Party, and a National Union Democratic Party; and a current military government paper. Women's magazines are published by women. Articles focus on women as the main newsmakers, women's life issues, female authors, a female focus but a male author, and famous Sudanese women. 16 content themes are identified. Women were not extensively featured or photographed in either newspapers or magazines. The Al-Umma Party paper and Al-Sudan Al-Hadith paper (an independent paper) were the only two newspapers with at least 10 photos of women. Women were pictured as professionals, educated persons, and leaders. There were 17 female editors. These editors preferred an image of women as leaders, followed by productive workers. Only 11.76% believed that women's dual roles as producers and reproducers should be portrayed. Female editors did not want a special women's page. 52.94% (the largest percentage) preferred targeting women with substantial leadership abilities. 17.65% desired the portrayal of women as workers and housewives. 58.82% did not think that the mass media image changed behavior or attitudes, because most Sudanese women are illiterate. Women's issues in both newspapers and women's magazines were devoted to women's work, achievements, and needs. The authors recommend removal of obstacles to women's equal participation in the mass media and press and research on the effect of media images on women's self-perception and behavior.

  13. How do culture media influence in vitro perivascular cell behavior?

    PubMed

    Huber, Birgit; Volz, Ann-Cathrin; Kluger, Petra Juliane

    2015-12-01

    Perivascular cells are multilineage cells located around the vessel wall and important for wall stabilization. In this study, we evaluated a stem cell media and a perivascular cell-specific media for the culture of primary perivascular cells regarding their cell morphology, doubling time, stem cell properties, and expression of cell type-specific markers. When the two cell culture media were compared to each other, perivascular cells cultured in the stem cell medium had a more elongated morphology and a faster doubling rate and cells cultured in the pericyte medium had a more typical morphology, with several filopodia, and a slower doubling rate. To evaluate stem cell properties, perivascular cells, CD146(-) cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were differentiated into the adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. It was seen that perivascular cells, as well as CD146(-) cells and MSCs, cultured in stem cell medium showed greater differentiation than cells cultured in pericyte-specific medium. The expression of pericyte-specific markers CD146, neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β), myosin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) could be found in both pericyte cultures, as well as to varying amounts in CD146(-) cells, MSCs, and endothelial cells. The here presented work shows that perivascular cells can adapt to their in vitro environment and cell culture conditions influence cell functionality, such as doubling rate or differentiation behavior. Pericyte-specific markers were shown to be expressed also from cells other than perivascular cells. We can further conclude that CD146(+) perivascular cells are inhomogeneous cell population probably containing stem cell subpopulations, which are located perivascular around capillaries.

  14. The Communicative Arts: An Introduction to Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Charles S.

    All areas of mass communication are surveyed. Man's earliest efforts as a communicator are considered, and what is known about the development of speech and writing is explored. Various theories (including mathematical ones) are reviewed which attempt to explain the processes of both personal and mass communication. Separate chapters focus on the…

  15. The Communicative Arts: An Introduction to Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Charles S.

    All areas of mass communication are surveyed. Man's earliest efforts as a communicator are considered, and what is known about the development of speech and writing is explored. Various theories (including mathematical ones) are reviewed which attempt to explain the processes of both personal and mass communication. Separate chapters focus on the…

  16. Research in Mass Media and Face-to-Face Communication: Bridging the Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Robert K.; McCain, Thomas A.

    Taking the viewpoint of the receiver, this paper explores some differences between interpersonal transactions people have with each other and with the mass media. After addressing an orientation held by many communication scholars that the process of mass communication and interpersonal communication differ only in degree, the paper focuses on a…

  17. Mass Media, Youth, and the Prevention of Substance Abuse: Towards an Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallack, Lawrence

    1985-01-01

    Presents a series of principles which foster an integrated approach to prevention, and places the role of mass communications in that framework. Television programming, advertising, and mass media campaigns can all be used in an effort to change the message environment in which individuals behave. (Author)

  18. Finnish Concepts of the Mass Media in 1965 and 1975. Report No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapasalo, Jukka

    The results of a survey conducted in 1975 were compared with the findings of three previous studies of Finnish public awareness of mass media to determine any changes or trends which might have occurred between the years 1967 and 1975. Data were reported in categories based on the public concept of (1) the most important mass medium, (2) the…

  19. Influence of media characteristics on energy dissipation in filter backwashing.

    PubMed

    Turan, Mustafa; Sabah, Eyup; Gulsen, Hakki; Celik, Mehmet S

    2003-09-15

    Effective cleaning of granular filters during backwashing processes needs maximum turbulence and maximum shear in the fluid particle field. The energy dissipation in a backwashed filter as a particulate fluidized bed arises due to the suspending and random motions of particles and turbulent fluctuations in the bed. Size, density, and sphericity of the filter materials greatly influence the fluidization behavior of the media. In this study, a new model is proposed for predicting the energy dissipation parameters namely the hydrodynamic shear stress (tau(a)), the velocity gradient (G(a)), the turbulence dissipation coefficient (C(a)), and the turbulence parameter (C(a)0.5/Re) in backwashing of filters for different types of filter materials (sand, anthracite, and glass ball). The hydrodynamic shear stress is the dominant mechanism of filter cleaning and appears to increase with increasing the density and size of the filter media particles. Using the basic set of data, a step by step procedure is developed to compute the velocity gradient G(a), the turbulence dissipation coefficient C(a), the hydrodynamic shear stress tau(a), and the turbulent parameter (C(a)0.5/ Re).

  20. The Effects of Immigration and Media Influence on Body Image Among Pakistani Men.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Sheeba; Hyland, Lynda

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the role of media influence and immigration on body image among Pakistani men. Attitudes toward the body were compared between those living in Pakistan ( n = 56) and those who had immigrated to the United Arab Emirates ( n = 58). Results of a factorial analysis of variance demonstrated a significant main effect of immigrant status. Pakistani men living in the United Arab Emirates displayed poorer body image than those in the Pakistan sample. Results also indicated a second main effect of media influence.Those highly influenced by the media displayed poorer body image. No interaction effect was observed between immigrant status and media influence on body image. These findings suggest that media influence and immigration are among important risk factors for the development of negative body image among non-Western men. Interventions designed to address the negative effects of the media and immigration may be effective at reducing body image disorders and other related health problems in this population.

  1. Past lessons and new uses of the mass media in reducing tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Erickson, A C; McKenna, J W; Romano, R M

    1990-01-01

    A review of mass media response to the smoking issue over the past 25 years reveals that sustained involvement of the broadcast and print media has served significantly to heighten public awareness and reduce smoking rates in the total U.S. population. Public service advertising has been an integral part of the smoking control movement from its outset, but today's intensely competitive media environment has forced health promoters to look beyond public service announcements in the development of total communication programs. Media advocacy--using the media to sharpen public awareness and mold public policy to serve the public interest, a technique derived from political campaigns--is emerging as a powerful tool in the smoking control movement. Its emphasis is on changing the entire social context of tobacco use in America, rather than the smoking behavior of people. Because media advocates' success pivots on their access to the media, they must be able both to create news and to react quickly to breaking news and unexpected events. The opportunistic, risk-taking nature of media advocacy requires that most efforts be waged at the State and local levels. An increasing number of State health departments and other organizations are using paid advertising to improve the frequency and reach of nonsmoking messages. Research verifies that paid media campaigns increase the target audience's exposure to smoking control messages, but planning and making efficient media purchases require sophistication and, of course, the necessary funds. Irrefutable medical evidence linking smoking to disease and addiction, combined with the powerful social force of the nonsmokers' rights movement, offer hope that a smoke-free society is an achievable goal. Success,however, will only be realized if tobacco control activists make use of the full range of mass media technologies to sustain and nourish this momentum.

  2. Beyond War Stories: Clifford G. Christians' Influence on the Teaching of Media Ethics, 1976-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Lee Anne

    Clifford Glenn Christians' work in the area of media ethics education from 1976 through 1984 has influenced the way media ethics is taught to many college students today. This time period includes, among his other accomplishments, Christians' work on an extensive survey of how media ethics was taught in the late 1970s, his work on the Hastings…

  3. Beyond War Stories: Clifford G. Christians' Influence on the Teaching of Media Ethics, 1976-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Lee Anne

    Clifford Glenn Christians' work in the area of media ethics education from 1976 through 1984 has influenced the way media ethics is taught to many college students today. This time period includes, among his other accomplishments, Christians' work on an extensive survey of how media ethics was taught in the late 1970s, his work on the Hastings…

  4. Analysis of Social Media Influencers and Trends on Online and Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Chien-wen; Kuo, Chin-Jin; Ly, Pham Thi Minh

    2017-01-01

    Although educational practitioners have adopted social media to their online or mobile communities, little attention has been paid to investigate the social media messages related to online or mobile learning. The purpose of this research is to identify social media influencers and trends by mining Twitter posts related to online learning and…

  5. Computers, Mass Media, and Schooling: Functional Equivalence in Uses of New Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Debra A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a study of 156 California eighth grade students which contrasted their recreational and intellectual computer use in terms of academic performance and use of other media. Among the conclusions were that recreational users watched television heavily and performed poorly in school, whereas intellectual users watched less television,…

  6. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting

    PubMed Central

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study’s objective was to explore national news media’s reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles. PMID:28119907

  7. Exposure to the "Dark Side of Tanning" Skin Cancer Prevention Mass Media Campaign and Its Association with Tanning Attitudes in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M.; Cust, Anne E.; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C.; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The "Dark Side of Tanning" (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of…

  8. Exposure to the "Dark Side of Tanning" Skin Cancer Prevention Mass Media Campaign and Its Association with Tanning Attitudes in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M.; Cust, Anne E.; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C.; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The "Dark Side of Tanning" (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of…

  9. Responses to a Decentralization Crisis, "Pulse of the Parent" #1; First in a Series of Reports of Parent Opinion Prepared by the Mass Media Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Gladys Engel; And Others

    Discussed are some decision-making influences on the attitudes of New York City parents toward school decentralization. The Mass Media Committee of the Center for Urban Education maintains a representative panel of parents from whom information about communication experiences and responses to educational issues can be gathered. Telephone…

  10. AIDS-related information exposure in the mass media and discussion within social networks among married women in Bombay, India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, N

    1999-08-01

    Married women are at high risk of acquiring HIV infection in India and health education remains the most feasible preventive tool in their context. In a survey conducted among 350 married women in Bombay, it was found that a majority had acquired information about AIDS from the mass media, especially television. Although 87% of women who knew of AIDS had been exposed to AIDS-related information in the mass media in the past four weeks, only 57% had discussed it within their social networks. Those with more exposure to AIDS information in the mass media were significantly more likely to discuss AIDS within social networks. The women were most likely to discuss AIDS with their husbands as a general social issue, followed by friends and family members and least likely to talk to husbands about AIDS as a personal issue relating to their sexual relationship. Increased frequency and duration of AIDS messages on television will have a positive influence on AIDS knowledge in this group.

  11. Increasing evidence for the efficacy of tobacco control mass media communication programming in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Sandra; Prasad, Vinayak; Kaur, Jagdish; Turk, Tahir

    2011-08-01

    Antitobacco mass media campaigns have had good success at changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to smoking in high-income countries provided they are sustained. Mass media campaigns should be a critical component of tobacco control programs in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Mounting evidence shows that graphic campaigns and those that evoke negative emotions run over long periods of time have achieved the most influence. These types of campaigns are now being implemented in low- and middle-income countries. The authors provide 3 case studies of first-ever graphic warning mass media campaigns in China, India, and Russia, 3 priority high-burden countries in the global Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. In each of these countries, message testing of core messages provided confidence in messages, and evaluations demonstrated message uptake. The authors argue that given the initial success of these campaigns, governments in low- and middle-income countries should consider resourcing and sustaining these interventions as key components of their tobacco control strategies and programs.

  12. Association between mass media and body weight concern among Jordanian adolescents' residents of Amman: the role of gender and obesity.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Allehdan, Sabika; Agraib, Lana; Ghazzawi, Hadeel A; Al-Mannai, Mariam A; Musaiger, AbdulRahman O

    2016-11-01

    Body image in the mass media promotes an unrealistic picture of body shape that leads to body dissatisfaction among adolescentsQuery. Therefore, the study presented in this paper aimed to assess the association between mass media and adolescents' weight concerns and perceptions of body weight and shape. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on school adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years during the academic year 2013-2014. Multistage stratified sampling method was used. The number of participants in the study was 795 students: 400 boys and 395 girls. All participants have a common behavior in rarely reading magazines, but they spend more than 2 h in watching television or less than 3 h using the internet. However, most of obese/non-obese adolescents, boys or girls, have shown high influence (p < 0.05) of reading magazines on the subject of dieting to lose weight. While obese students read more magazines on dieting to lose weight, other mass media did not show the same results on weight concerns and body shape among Jordanian adolescents.

  13. The influence of wanting to look like media figures on adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Taveras, Elsie M; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Field, Alison E; Frazier, A Lindsay; Colditz, Graham A; Gillman, Matthew W

    2004-07-01

    To examine the association of adolescents' wanting to look like figures in the media with physical activity levels. Cross-sectional mailed survey of 11,606 boys and girls, between the ages of 9 and 16 years, participating in the Growing Up Today Study in 1997. Participants reported detailed information on physical activities over the previous year, and the degree to which they were trying to look like same-sex images in television, movies, and magazines. We performed linear regression modeling to assess the independent effects of wanting to look like figures in the media on physical activity levels. Mean total weekly physical activity levels were 12.4 hours in girls and 15.2 hours in boys. 3019 (46%) girls and 1360 (27%) boys reported making at least some effort to look like figures in the media. Adjusted for age, body mass index, sexual maturity rating, and race/ethnicity, total physical activity levels were higher by 0.7 (95% CI 0.5-0.9) and 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.6) hours per week in girls and boys, respectively, for every 1 (out of 5) category increase in wanting to look like figures in the media. Adjustment for intrapersonal and social confounders modestly attenuated the associations. Wanting to look like figures in the media was associated with higher physical activity levels among older children and adolescents, independent of other personal and social influences. These data suggest that television, movie, and magazine industries should be encouraged to cultivate and reinforce realistic and healthy norms of physical activity and body image.

  14. Social Media and eBusiness: Cultural Impacts on the Influence Process in Consumer Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Hong; Xu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Social media has been used as an important tool by firms to influence consumers’ attitude and behavior. Influence occurs in consumer communities in social media because community members have the control of discovering, producing, sharing, and distributing information and because the spread out of their experiences and opinions in the format of electronic word-of-mouth forms emerging conformance. Prior research has explored how the influence occurring in online social media communities impacts consumers’ attitude and behavior (e.g., product attitude and purchase decision, effectual thinking and behavior, brand trust and brand loyalty). But because social media has the ability of global reach, cross-border factors should not be neglected in studying the influence process. As such, this paper adopts national cultural dimensions identified by Hofstede (1984), individualism/collectivism and power distance particularly, the index of cultural distance, and the social influence theory to explore how culture impacts the influence occurring in consumer communities in social media.

  15. Characterization of individual particles in gaseous media by mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.

    1990-01-01

    An introduction is given to a system for particle analysis by mass spectrometry (PAMS) which employs particle-beam techniques to measure mass spectra on a continuous real-time basis. The system is applied to particles of both organic and inorganic compounds, and the measurements give the chemical characteristics of particles in mixtures and indicate source apportionment. The PAMS system can be used for process control and studying heterogeneous/catalytic reactions in particles, and can be fitted to study the real-time attributes of PAMS.

  16. Setting the agenda: Different strategies of a Mass Media in a model of cultural dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Sebastián; Balenzuela, Pablo; Dorso, Claudio O.

    2016-09-01

    Day by day, people exchange opinions about news with relatives, friends, and coworkers. In most cases, they get informed about a given issue by reading newspapers, listening to the radio, or watching TV, i.e., through a Mass Media (MM). However, the importance of a given new can be stimulated by the Media by assigning newspaper's pages or time in TV programs. In this sense, we say that the Media has the power to "set the agenda", i.e., it decides which new is important and which is not. On the other hand, the Media can know people's concerns through, for instance, websites or blogs where they express their opinions, and then it can use this information in order to be more appealing to an increasing number of people. In this work, we study different scenarios in an agent-based model of cultural dissemination, in which a given Mass Media has a specific purpose: To set a particular topic of discussion and impose its point of view to as many social agents as it can. We model this by making the Media has a fixed feature, representing its point of view in the topic of discussion, while it tries to attract new consumers, by taking advantage of feedback mechanisms, represented by adaptive features. We explore different strategies that the Media can adopt in order to increase the affinity with potential consumers and then the probability to be successful in imposing this particular topic.

  17. The influence of media characters on children's food choices.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Jennifer A; Schiffman, Jennifer M; Hanson, Katherine G

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the role of media characters in influencing children's food choices; the first focused on children's self-reported preference, whereas the second focused on actual choice. The results of the experiments suggest that popular characters can make a difference in encouraging children to select one food over another. In the first experiment, children were more likely to indicate a preference for one food over another when one was associated with characters that they liked and with whom they were familiar. This effect was particularly strong when a sugary or salty snack branded by a favored character was competing with a healthier option branded by an unknown character or no character. Alternatively, when children were asked to choose between a healthy food and a sugary or salty snack, branding of the healthy food with a favored character did not significantly change appeal of that healthy snack. However, when foods within the same category (i.e., 2 vegetables, 2 fruits, or 2 grains) were asked to compete against each other, character branding strongly influenced children's food choice. Findings from the second experiment suggest that children are more willing to try more pieces of a healthy food if a favored character, in comparison with an unknown character, is promoting that food.

  18. Relations among media influence, body image, eating concerns, and sexual orientation in men: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-09-01

    The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Subcontinuum mass transport of condensed hydrocarbons in nanoporous media

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Kerstin; Coasne, Benoit; Pellenq, Roland; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2015-01-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional reservoirs, the so-called shale gas, has exploded recently, reliable predictions of resource availability and extraction are missing because conventional tools fail to account for their ultra-low permeability and complexity. Here, we use molecular simulation and statistical mechanics to show that continuum description—Darcy's law—fails to predict transport in shales nanoporous matrix (kerogen). The non-Darcy behaviour arises from strong adsorption in kerogen and the breakdown of hydrodynamics at the nanoscale, which contradict the assumption of viscous flow. Despite this complexity, all permeances collapse on a master curve with an unexpected dependence on alkane length. We rationalize this non-hydrodynamic behaviour using a molecular description capturing the scaling of permeance with alkane length and density. These results, which stress the need for a change of paradigm from classical descriptions to nanofluidic transport, have implications for shale gas but more generally for transport in nanoporous media. PMID:25901931

  20. Subcontinuum mass transport of condensed hydrocarbons in nanoporous media.

    PubMed

    Falk, Kerstin; Coasne, Benoit; Pellenq, Roland; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2015-04-22

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional reservoirs, the so-called shale gas, has exploded recently, reliable predictions of resource availability and extraction are missing because conventional tools fail to account for their ultra-low permeability and complexity. Here, we use molecular simulation and statistical mechanics to show that continuum description--Darcy's law--fails to predict transport in shales nanoporous matrix (kerogen). The non-Darcy behaviour arises from strong adsorption in kerogen and the breakdown of hydrodynamics at the nanoscale, which contradict the assumption of viscous flow. Despite this complexity, all permeances collapse on a master curve with an unexpected dependence on alkane length. We rationalize this non-hydrodynamic behaviour using a molecular description capturing the scaling of permeance with alkane length and density. These results, which stress the need for a change of paradigm from classical descriptions to nanofluidic transport, have implications for shale gas but more generally for transport in nanoporous media.

  1. Subcontinuum mass transport of condensed hydrocarbons in nanoporous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Kerstin; Coasne, Benoit; Pellenq, Roland; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2015-04-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional reservoirs, the so-called shale gas, has exploded recently, reliable predictions of resource availability and extraction are missing because conventional tools fail to account for their ultra-low permeability and complexity. Here, we use molecular simulation and statistical mechanics to show that continuum description--Darcy's law--fails to predict transport in shales nanoporous matrix (kerogen). The non-Darcy behaviour arises from strong adsorption in kerogen and the breakdown of hydrodynamics at the nanoscale, which contradict the assumption of viscous flow. Despite this complexity, all permeances collapse on a master curve with an unexpected dependence on alkane length. We rationalize this non-hydrodynamic behaviour using a molecular description capturing the scaling of permeance with alkane length and density. These results, which stress the need for a change of paradigm from classical descriptions to nanofluidic transport, have implications for shale gas but more generally for transport in nanoporous media.

  2. The influence of media role models on gay, lesbian, and bisexual identity.

    PubMed

    Gomillion, Sarah C; Giuliano, Traci A

    2011-01-01

    The current investigation examined the influence of the media on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) identity using both survey and in-depth interview approaches. In Study 1, 126 GLB survey respondents (11 unreported) in Texas indicated that the media influenced their self-realization, coming out, and current identities by providing role models and inspiration. In Study 2, 15 interviewees (6 women and 9 men) revealed that media role models serve as sources of pride, inspiration, and comfort. Our findings suggest that increasing the availability of GLB role models in the media may positively influence GLB identity.

  3. Mass media can help improve treatment of childhood diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rao, K V; Mishra, V K; Retherford, R D

    1998-08-01

    The Government of India has identified oral rehydration therapy (ORT) promotion as a priority child survival strategy. Since two-thirds of mothers in India are illiterate, radio and television have been important vehicles for educating mothers about the need to increase a child's fluid intake and continue feeding during episodes of diarrhea, to use prepackaged oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home-made solution (RHS), and to recognize symptoms that require treatment at a health facility. The effects of exposure to electronic media messages about childhood diarrhea on mothers' knowledge and use of ORT were investigated through data from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey. the data set included 38,161 women who gave birth in the 4 years preceding the survey and 4558 children born 1-47 months before the survey who were sick with diarrhea at any time during the 2 weeks before the interview. 43% of mothers were aware of ORS. Only 18% of infants received ORS and 19% were given RHS during the recent diarrhea episode; 69% received neither ORS or RHS. Moreover, children with diarrhea were twice as likely to receive decreased amounts of breast milk and other fluids than to be given increased amounts. The low use of ORS is especially alarming since 61% of children with diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks were taken to a health facility for treatment. 94% of these children were given antibiotics or other unnecessary drugs. Both knowledge and use of ORS were significantly higher among mothers with regular (weekly) exposure to electronic media, even after controls for potential confounding factors. These findings indicate a need to strengthen education programs in this area for both mothers and health care providers.

  4. The impact of mass media health communication on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior of u.s. Hispanic population.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Mass media health communication has enormous potential to drastically alter how health-related information is disseminated and obtained by different populations. However, there is little evidence regarding the influence of media channels on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behaviors among the Hispanic population. The Pew 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey was used to test the hypothesis that the amount of mass media health communication (i.e., quantity of media-based health information received) is more likely to influence Hispanic adults' health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior compared to health literacy and language proficiency variables. Results indicated that quantity of media-based health information is positively associated with health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior above and beyond the influence of health literacy and English and Spanish language proficiency. In a context where physician-patient dynamics are increasingly shifting from a passive patient role model to a more active patient role model, media-based health information can serve as an influential cue to action, prompting Hispanic individuals to make certain health-related decisions and to seek more health advice and information from a health provider. Study implications are discussed.

  5. Ethics and the Press: Readings in Mass Media Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, John C., Ed.; Barney, Ralph D., Ed.

    This collection of 35 articles addresses the topic of the ethical considerations and implications involved in reporting the news. Included in this book are such articles as: "Ethics and Journalism" by John Merrill, "Quality in Mass Communications" by Wilbur Schramm, "The American Press: Some Truths About Truths" by…

  6. Ethics and the Press: Readings in Mass Media Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, John C., Ed.; Barney, Ralph D., Ed.

    This collection of 35 articles addresses the topic of the ethical considerations and implications involved in reporting the news. Included in this book are such articles as: "Ethics and Journalism" by John Merrill, "Quality in Mass Communications" by Wilbur Schramm, "The American Press: Some Truths About Truths" by…

  7. Importance of the Mass Media Education: Western Cultural Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littunen, Yrjo

    1978-01-01

    Discusses features in the Western cultural background which may be relevant to changes in international opinion. Notes problems of freedom of information and cultural processes caused by mass communication among nations, including the high violence content of United States television programs compared with those of Canada and Europe. (MF)

  8. The Role of Mass Media in Iranian Youth’s Premarital Sexual Relationships: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taleghani, Fariba; Merghati Khoie, Effat al Sadat; Noroozi, Mahnaz; Tavakoli, Mahgol; Gholami, Ali

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Youth’s sexual behaviors have various consequences such as unwanted pregnancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections. Little information is available about the impact of mass media in the development of premarital sexual relationships. This study aimed to explore the role of mass media on premarital sexual relationships among Iranian youth. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with 26 single boys and girls aged 18-24 years who were living in Isfahan, Iran and have already been started their sexual relationships. Also, 12 other participants who were involved in such an experience were recruited in this study. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and the observation of youth’s sexual interactions in different fields. Conventional content analysis method was used for data analysis. Results: Three main categories were developed: “foreigner media as the role model”, “the ease of access to sexual contents and materials” and “the ease of interactions and relationships with the opposite sex”. Conclusion: The prominent role of mass media in the formation of premarital sexual relationships was described in this study. This issue needs to be taken into consideration by policy makers for taking necessary actions for reducing the impact of mass media on the youth’s engagement in premarital sexual relationships. PMID:28097182

  9. The "Secret Seduction" of the Press? Aspects of Characteristics of PR Influencing Media Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Romy

    As yet, little research exists in Germany on the influence of public relations on news coverage, although for years American studies have shown that public relations widely determine media content. A study in Germany examined the qualities of news coverage as influenced by public relations efforts. Local media coverage (201 articles) in Munich…

  10. The Influence of Friends and Family vs The Simpsons: Scottish Adolescents' Media Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, John W.; Blain, Neil; Cowan, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Increased emphasis on celebrity, and the growing cultural importance of the Internet, help drive continuing anxiety about the influence of the media on the young. Though recent empirical studies of celebrity and media influence on adolescents have produced mixed findings, there has been a tendency by researchers to test for celebrity and media…

  11. The Influence of Friends and Family vs The Simpsons: Scottish Adolescents' Media Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, John W.; Blain, Neil; Cowan, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Increased emphasis on celebrity, and the growing cultural importance of the Internet, help drive continuing anxiety about the influence of the media on the young. Though recent empirical studies of celebrity and media influence on adolescents have produced mixed findings, there has been a tendency by researchers to test for celebrity and media…

  12. Tobacco Use and Mass Media Utilization in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Achia, Thomas N. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Media utilization has been identified as an important determinant of tobacco use. We examined the association between self-reported tobacco use and frequency of mass media utilization by women and men in nine low-to middle-income sub-Saharan African countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Data for the study came from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Liberia, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe over the period 2006–2011. Each survey population was a cross-sectional sample of women aged 15–49 years and men aged 15–59 years, with information on tobacco use and media access being obtained by face-to-face interviews. An index of media utilization was constructed based on responses to questions on the frequency of reading newspapers, frequency of watching television and frequency of listening to the radio. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were considered as potentially confounding covariates. Logistic regression models with country and cluster specific random effects were estimated for the pooled data. Results The risk of cigarette smoking increased with greater utilization to mass media. The use of smokeless tobacco and tobacco use in general declined with greater utilization to mass media. The risk of tobacco use was 5% lower in women with high media utilization compared to those with low media utilization [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.82–1.00]. Men with a high media utilization were 21% less likely to use tobacco compared to those with low media utilization [AOR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.73–0.85]. In the male sample, tobacco use also declined with the increased frequency of reading newspapers (or magazines), listening to radio and watching television. Conclusions Mass media campaigns, conducted in the context of comprehensive tobacco control programmes, can reduce the prevalence of tobacco smoking in sub-Saharan Africa. The reach, intensity, duration and

  13. Tobacco use and mass media utilization in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O

    2015-01-01

    Media utilization has been identified as an important determinant of tobacco use. We examined the association between self-reported tobacco use and frequency of mass media utilization by women and men in nine low-to middle-income sub-Saharan African countries. Data for the study came from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Liberia, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe over the period 2006-2011. Each survey population was a cross-sectional sample of women aged 15-49 years and men aged 15-59 years, with information on tobacco use and media access being obtained by face-to-face interviews. An index of media utilization was constructed based on responses to questions on the frequency of reading newspapers, frequency of watching television and frequency of listening to the radio. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were considered as potentially confounding covariates. Logistic regression models with country and cluster specific random effects were estimated for the pooled data. The risk of cigarette smoking increased with greater utilization to mass media. The use of smokeless tobacco and tobacco use in general declined with greater utilization to mass media. The risk of tobacco use was 5% lower in women with high media utilization compared to those with low media utilization [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.82-1.00]. Men with a high media utilization were 21% less likely to use tobacco compared to those with low media utilization [AOR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.73-0.85]. In the male sample, tobacco use also declined with the increased frequency of reading newspapers (or magazines), listening to radio and watching television. Mass media campaigns, conducted in the context of comprehensive tobacco control programmes, can reduce the prevalence of tobacco smoking in sub-Saharan Africa. The reach, intensity, duration and type of messages are important aspects of the campaigns but need to also

  14. Women's reactions to sexually aggressive mass media depictions.

    PubMed

    Krafka, C; Linz, D; Donnerstein, E; Penrod, S

    1997-04-01

    This study examines the potential harm of sexually explicit and/or violent films to women viewers. More specifically, it investigates the idea that the visual media contribute to a cultural climate that is supportive of attitudes facilitating violence against women, diminish concern for female victims (desensitization), and have a negative impact on women's views of themselves. In this study, women viewed 1 film per day for 4 consecutive days from one of these 3 categories: 1) sexually explicit but nonviolent; 2) sexually explicit, sexually violent; and 3) mildly sexually explicit, graphically violent. They then served as jurors in a simulated rape trial. The study found that exposure to both types of violent stimuli produced desensitization and ratings of the stimuli as less degrading to women. Moreover, women exposed to the mildly sexually explicit, graphically violent images were less sensitive toward the victim in the rape trial compared with the other film viewers. However, no differences were found between the film groups and the no-exposure control group with regard to women¿s self-perception.

  15. A model of mechanisms underlying the influence of media on health behaviour norms.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Lise; Bouchard, Caroline; Caron-Bouchard, Monique; Dubé, Laurette; Maisonneuve, Danielle; Mongeau, Lyne

    2006-01-01

    Media-based interventions are common in health promotion, yet their conceptual underpinnings tend to be based on a simple linear model of direct influence on individuals' health behaviour. Recent studies have suggested that the processes through which media influence health behaviours are actually far more complex. This paper presents a conceptual model of how the medias influence the emergence and maintenance of the social norms that can contribute to shaping health behaviours. Through positive (amplifying) and negative (dampening) loops, a total of six potential influence pathways are proposed, and the role of opinion leaders and specialists is specified. Future directions for empirical tests of the model are identified.

  16. Impact of increasing social media use on sitting time and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Alley, Stephanie; Wellens, Pauline; Schoeppe, Stephanie; de Vries, Hein; Rebar, Amanda L; Short, Camille E; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-10-28

    Issue addressed: Sedentary behaviours, in particular sitting, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and poorer mental health status. In Australia, 70% of adults sit for more than 8h per day. The use of social media applications (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) is on the rise; however, no studies have explored the association of social media use with sitting time and body mass index (BMI).Methods: Cross-sectional self-report data on demographics, BMI and sitting time were collected from 1140 participants in the 2013 Queensland Social Survey. Generalised linear models were used to estimate associations of a social media score calculated from social media use, perceived importance of social media, and number of social media contacts with sitting time and BMI.Results: Participants with a high social media score had significantly greater sitting times while using a computer in leisure time and significantly greater total sitting time on non-workdays. However, no associations were found between social media score and sitting to view TV, use motorised transport, work or participate in other leisure activities; or total workday, total sitting time or BMI.Conclusions: These results indicate that social media use is associated with increased sitting time while using a computer, and total sitting time on non-workdays.So what?: The rise in social media use may have a negative impact on health by contributing to computer sitting and total sitting time on non-workdays. Future longitudinal research with a representative sample and objective sitting measures is needed to confirm findings.

  17. Reach of mass media among tobacco users in India: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Rooban, T; Madan Kumar, P D; Ranganathan, K

    2010-07-01

    Tobacco use is a health hazard and its use is attributed to a lack of knowledge regarding the ill effects of tobacco. To identify the exposure of different mass media among a representative cohort population in the Indian subcontinent and compare the reach of the different mass media among tobacco users and nonusers using the "reach of HIV information" as a model. Secondary Data Analysis of Indian National Family Health Survey-3. Any tobacco use, gender, source of HIV information. Use of mass media. Of the study group, 27% of males and 54.4% of females never read newspaper or magazine; 29.3% of males and 52.6% of females never heard radio; 12.4% of males and 25% of females never see television; and 79.3% of males and 93.46% of females did not see a movie at least once a month. The most common source of information of HIV was television among males (71.8%) and females (81%), whereas the least common source was leaders among males (0.8%) and females (0.2%). Television is the single largest media used by both genders and was a major source of HIV information dissemination. A well-designed tobacco control program similar to HIV awareness program will help to curb tobacco use. The reach of different media among Indian tobacco users is presented and HIV model of information dissemination may prove to be effective in tobacco control.

  18. Mass media campaign improves cervical screening across all socio-economic groups.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jenny O; Mullins, Robyn M; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-10-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data were obtained from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry for each Pap test registered during 2005 and categorized into SES quintiles using the Index of Socio-Economic Advantage/Disadvantage. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the impact of the campaign on the weekly number of Pap tests and whether the media campaign had a differential effect by SES, after adjusting for the number of workdays per week, age group and time since previous test. Cervical screening increased 27% during the campaign period and was equally effective in encouraging screening across all SES groups, including low-SES women. Mass media campaigns can prompt increased rates of cervical screening among all women, not just those from more advantaged areas. Combining media with additional strategies targeted at low-SES women may help lessen the underlying differences in screening rates across SES.

  19. Finding health and AIDS information in the mass media: an exploratory study among Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Walsh-Childers, K; Treise, D; Swain, K A; Dai, S

    1997-12-01

    Western health officials believe the incidence of HIV infection in the People's Republic of China is much higher than has been reported, but knowledge about the disease remains low. This paper describes a preliminary study of Chinese college students' AIDS knowledge and beliefs and of the acceptability of mass media for AIDS education. Focus group interviews of 73 Xiamen University students showed that the students used radio more consistently than any other media and viewed magazines as the best media source of health information. However, they expressed a general distrust of the health information media offer. They possessed quite a bit of accurate information about AIDS but also harbored many inaccurate beliefs. Most felt that their personal risk from AIDS was very low because they felt distanced--either geographically or morally--from those at risk. Disturbing numbers felt that fate, not individual behavior, determines whether or not a person contracts HIV. The paper discusses the study's implications for future research.

  20. [Illustration of military medicine on the pages of mass printed media during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2014-12-01

    The article analyses some of illustrations dedicated to the military medical topics on the pages of some Russian magazines and newspapers (magazine "Ogonek" newspaper "Petrograd's paper" and its annexes), its place among the images of the war, formed in the mass consciousness by periodical subjects. It is concluded that with the beginning of the First World War medical illustrations were finally approved as a recognizable symbol of the war. Mass printed media played a significant role in its entrenchment.

  1. Investigation of coupled heat and mass transfer in heterogeneous porous media using numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illangasekare, T. H.; Frippiat, C. C.; Zyvoloski, G. A.

    2007-12-01

    A significant body of knowledge exists on separates processes of thermal and mass transport in granular and fractured subsurface formations. However, the need to simulate these processes in a fully coupled way has become necessary to deal with problems associated with long-term-storage of nuclear waste, and the development of new technologies for subsurface remediation. Another emerging area for research is associated with the development of technologies for in situ extraction of underground resources. Numerical models that couple thermal and mass transport processes will play a crucial role in understanding the fundamental processes associated with these new technologies, as well as in making predictions on how complex subsurface systems are expected to behave. It is our hypothesis that heat transport will have a significant impact on distributions of solute concentration, through temperature-dependent dissolution and precipitation, and temperature-dependent rate-limited diffusive transfer of solutes in fractured or highly heterogeneous media. A number of issues related to the validity of existing numerical tools that capture these processes, and their application to field systems through up-scaling need to be investigated. With this overall goal in mind, in this preliminary study, we explore the effect of the variability of subsurface properties on heat and mass transport using simulations conducted using an existing multiphase model. The finite-element code FEHM (Finite-Element Heat and Mass transport code) used in this study was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This code allows for the coupled simulation of flow, heat and mass transport, accounting for density effects and dissolution and/or precipitation reactions. Our analysis is based on two- and three-dimensional simulations using synthetic data sets. Heterogeneous facies distributions are generated according to Markov Chain transition probability models. A distributed source of constant

  2. Translating psychological science: Highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings: Comment on Kaslow (2015).

    PubMed

    Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    In her presidential address, N. J. Kaslow (see record 2015-33530-002) argued that psychologists have a responsibility to translate psychological science to the public and identifies various platforms for doing so. In this comment on her article, I advocate that psychology as a field immediately heed her call in the area of psychological science highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings. I point out the psychological science documenting media contagion for suicide and mass shootings, the World Health Organization's (2008) guidelines for media in reporting suicide deaths to prevent that contagion, and discuss ways-based on Dr. Kaslow's suggestions-that psychologists can disseminate psychological science to prevent similar tragedies in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Peggy; Lloyd, Gareth P; Viswanath, K; Smith, Tenbroeck; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Vernon, Sally W; Turner, Gina; Hesse, Bradford W; Crammer, Corinne; von Wagner, Christian; Backinger, Cathy L

    2009-01-01

    People often seek and receive cancer information from mass media (including television, radio, print media, and the Internet), and marketing strategies often inform cancer information needs assessment, message development, and channel selection. In this article, we present the discussion of a 2-hour working group convened for a cancer communications workshop held at the 2008 Society of Behavioral Medicine meeting in San Diego, CA. During the session, an interdisciplinary group of investigators discussed the current state of the science for mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention. We discussed current research, new research areas, methodologies and theories needed to move the field forward, and critical areas and disciplines for future research.

  4. Mass media as a sexual super peer for early maturing girls.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jane D; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the possibility that the mass media (television, movies, music, and magazines) serve as a kind of super peer for girls who enter puberty sooner than their age-mates. Multiple studies have demonstrated significant associations between earlier pubertal timing and earlier transition to first sex. Does puberty also stimulate interest in sexual media content that is seen as giving permission to engage in sexual behavior? White and African-American female adolescents (n = 471; average age 13.7 years) recruited from public middle schools in central North Carolina completed two self-administered surveys in their homes about their pubertal status, interest in and exposure to various media, and perceptions of sexual media content. Earlier maturing girls reported more interest than later maturing girls in seeing sexual content in movies, television, and magazines, and in listening to sexual content in music, regardless of age or race. Earlier maturing girls were also more likely to be listening to music and reading magazines with sexual content, more likely to see R-rated movies, and to interpret the messages they saw in the media as approving of teens having sexual intercourse. The mass media may be serving as a kind of sexual super peer, especially for earlier maturing girls. Given the lack of sexual health messages in most media adolescents attend to, these findings give cause for concern. The media should be encouraged to provide more sexually healthy content, and youth service providers and physicians should be aware that earlier maturing girls may be interested in sexual information.

  5. Mass media campaigns and organ donation: managing conflicting messages and interests.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2012-05-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely and successfully used to change health decisions and behaviors for better or for worse in society. In the United States, media campaigns have been launched at local offices of the states' department of motor vehicles to promote citizens' willingness to organ donation and donor registration. We analyze interventional studies of multimedia communication campaigns to encourage organ-donor registration at local offices of states' department of motor vehicles. The media campaigns include the use of multifaceted communication tools and provide training to desk clerks in the use of scripted messages for the purpose of optimizing enrollment in organ-donor registries. Scripted messages are communicated to customers through mass audiovisual entertainment media, print materials and interpersonal interaction at the offices of departments of motor vehicles. These campaigns give rise to three serious concerns: (1) bias in communicating information with scripted messages without verification of the scientific accuracy of information, (2) the provision of misinformation to future donors that may result in them suffering unintended consequences from consenting to medical procedures before death (e.g, organ preservation and suitability for transplantation), and (3) the unmanaged conflict of interests for organizations charged with implementing these campaigns, (i.e, dual advocacy for transplant recipients and donors). We conclude the following: (1) media campaigns about healthcare should communicate accurate information to the general public and disclose factual materials with the least amount of bias; (2) conflicting interests in media campaigns should be managed with full public transparency; (3) media campaigns should disclose the practical implications of procurement as well as acknowledge the medical, legal, and religious controversies of determining death in organ donation; (4) organ-donor registration must satisfy the criteria of informed

  6. Labor and the Mass Media: A Case Study and Survey of Secondary Literature. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Elizabeth A.

    Predicated on the assumption that organized labor has long been misrepresented by the mass media, and bolstered by a literature review, a case study analyzed in detail labor news coverage from the "Columbus Dispatch" for the month of April 1994. A total of 37 articles were gathered that related to labor issues--articles on the ongoing…

  7. Mass Media Campaigns in a Hostile Environment: Advertising as Anti-Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallack, Lawrence M.

    1983-01-01

    Charges that mass media campaigns have not been effective in dealing with such public health problems as drinking, smoking, and drugs. Reasons for this lack of effectiveness are discussed in terms of a hostile environment of antihealth advertising. Three conditions for success (monopolization, canalization, and supplementation) are discussed. (JAC)

  8. Sex, Pornography, and the Mass Media: How Should Social Studies Teachers Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Many people fear that the current explosion in mass media technology is negatively affecting individuals and society via-a-vis considerations related to the accessibility of pornographic materials. The way this accessibility affects young people is of particular concern. In this article, the author addresses these concerns from the legal and…

  9. Visible Minorities in Mass Media Advertising. Minorites Perceptibles dans la Publicite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owaisi, Lateef; And Others

    A study was conducted in Canada to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the presence of minority group members in mass media advertising. Television commercials, store catalogues, newspapers, and magazines were surveyed during a two week period in 1977. Additional surveys were conducted with advertising agencies and firms, the Association of…

  10. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  11. The Electric Humanities; Patterns for Teaching Mass Media and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Don; Warren, Brent

    For generations teachers have tried to teach the approved "classics" of our culture. Today, with the mass media claiming so much of students' time and interest, this approach is more than ever doomed to failure. A better plan is to focus on popular culture: comic books, popular fiction (westerns, horror tales, and science fiction), movies, and…

  12. Language Policy-Making in Multilingual Education: Mass Media and the Framing of Medium of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, James W.

    2015-01-01

    In some settings, medium of instruction (MOI) policies in multilingual education break out into public debates in mass media involving politicians, business leaders, government officials, parents, and school children. These public discussions of MOI often index struggles over the distribution of political power and economic resources, and issues…

  13. The Electric Humanities; Patterns for Teaching Mass Media and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Don; Warren, Brent

    For generations teachers have tried to teach the approved "classics" of our culture. Today, with the mass media claiming so much of students' time and interest, this approach is more than ever doomed to failure. A better plan is to focus on popular culture: comic books, popular fiction (westerns, horror tales, and science fiction), movies, and…

  14. Differential Patterns of Information Acquisition from the Mass Media: The Effects of Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genova, B.K.L.

    The purpose of this study was to compare subjects' degree of interest with educational level to determine the better predictor of knowledge acquired from the mass media. Interest in and knowledge about two topics (impeachment and the National Football League strike) were determined from a 1974 survey of 253 adults. Knowledge was measured in terms…

  15. Improving Safe Blood Donation in Nigeria: The Roles of the Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriji, Christian Chigozi

    2015-01-01

    The study discusses improving safe blood donation in Nigeria and the roles of the mass media in achieving same in Nigerian hospitals. In this regard, it answers the questions: What is blood? What is blood donation? And is safe blood donation adequate in Nigeria? Beyond the relevant answers given on the above questions, it also explains the roles…

  16. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  17. The Role of Mass Media and Intergroup Relations in the Process of Newcomers' Assimilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Jae Chul

    This paper reviews the group-related literature of intergroup relations and combines it with the existing theory of communications. Noting that communication scholars have recently entered this realm of intergoup relations and searched for the role of mass media in the process of ethnic newcomers' socialization, the paper conceptualizes…

  18. Mass Media Public Policy Implications of the Political Economy of Rawls and Nozick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Richard P.

    The political economic ideas of philosophers John Rawls and Robert Nozick are compared in this paper, and their implications for mass media public policy are explored. The paper first examines the position of each philosopher, noting the major principles set forth in their works, historical antecedents for their ideas, and possible applications to…

  19. The Press and America: An Interpretative History of the Mass Media. 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Edwin

    This book presents a history of journalism in the United States. The opening chapters discuss the European roots of American journalism and cover the time-span ending with the Civil War; the primary concern is an exposition of the principles of the American press. The remaining chapters examine the mass media--newspapers, television, radio,…

  20. Population-Based Evaluation of the "Livelighter" Healthy Weight and Lifestyle Mass Media Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) "LiveLighter" (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ("why" change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier…

  1. Caricatural Imagery in the Mass Media. Research Report, Vol. 9, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streicher, Lawrence H.

    Caricature and its distortion of reality as developed in the mass press are discussed in relation to the appearance of caricatural elements in other media, such as radio and television. High frequency of appearances of these distorted roles and situations might lead to viewers' perceptual rigidity in typing of characters in general, but might have…

  2. Traveling and Residential Mobility as Correlates of Mass Media News Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillinghast, William Arthur

    The effect of physical mobility on news consumption and on preference for a particular news medium for different geographic news was investigated in this study. A survey of 652 residents of Lansing, Michigan, linked levels of mass media news usage to the extent of residential mobility and to national and foreign traveling indexes. Demographic…

  3. Science, Politics, and the Mass Media: On Biased Communication of Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    1994-01-01

    Based on the study of two issues, forest death from acid rain and the size of whale stocks, this article shows how the constraints of commercial mass media can be contrary to the task of enlightenment. (42 references) (Author/MKR)

  4. Language Policy-Making in Multilingual Education: Mass Media and the Framing of Medium of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, James W.

    2015-01-01

    In some settings, medium of instruction (MOI) policies in multilingual education break out into public debates in mass media involving politicians, business leaders, government officials, parents, and school children. These public discussions of MOI often index struggles over the distribution of political power and economic resources, and issues…

  5. Print and Broadcast Mass Media Factors as Predictors of Nigerian Teachers' Political Awareness and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, A. Olaoluwakotansibe

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the use of print and broadcast mass media could predict the level of awareness and participation of secondary school teachers in political activities and its implications on the quality of Nigerian education system. Eight hundred and two secondary school teachers from South West states of Nigeria served as…

  6. Instrumental Unit Supplement for the Development of Mass Media Packages Concerned with Environmental Political Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Robert; Garcia, Joyce

    The unit supplement provides skill development activities for high school students in mass media techniques. It is intended to be used with a social studies curriculum unit entitled "Unit on Political Decision Making and Action Strategy Over a Local Environmental Problem," (ED 118 526). Teacher directions for using the supplement as a single unit…

  7. An Update on Sino-U.S. Relations as Seen through the Chinese Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Jong Geun; Shelby, Maurice E.

    To determine the extent to which Chinese mass media reflected official policy concerning U.S.-Sino relations during the six year period after the 1979 normalization of relations, a study examined Chinese newspapers and evaluated their treatment of U.S. actions. News stories, editorials, columns, and features in the Foreign Broadcasting Information…

  8. Achieving Scientific Literacy through the Mass Media and Other Communication Technologies: A NASA Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Bradford L.

    A qualitative research approach was used to investigate the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) educational efforts in achieving scientific literacy through mass media and other communication technologies. Six in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with various NASA education and public affairs officers throughout the…

  9. Selected College Students' Knowledge and Perceptions of Biotechnology Issues Reported in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.; Dunsford, Deborah W.

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural communications students (n=330) were surveyed to determine their knowledge of and attitudes toward biotechnology issues reported in the mass media. Although students achieved only 30% correct responses, 84% perceived their knowledge level to be average to high. Most were somewhat accepting of genetic modification for plants but less…

  10. Selected College Students' Knowledge and Perceptions of Biotechnology Issues Reported in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.; Dunsford, Deborah W.

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural communications students (n=330) were surveyed to determine their knowledge of and attitudes toward biotechnology issues reported in the mass media. Although students achieved only 30% correct responses, 84% perceived their knowledge level to be average to high. Most were somewhat accepting of genetic modification for plants but less…

  11. Women's Visions/Visions of Women: Brain Research and Its Implications for the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Billie J.

    Recent research which focuses on organizational differences in the brains of males and females has an important impact on the way women are portrayed in the male-dominated mass media. Generalizations from highly speculative research findings conclude that information is gathered and problems are solved differently by men and women. Most…

  12. Sex, Pornography, and the Mass Media: How Should Social Studies Teachers Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Many people fear that the current explosion in mass media technology is negatively affecting individuals and society via-a-vis considerations related to the accessibility of pornographic materials. The way this accessibility affects young people is of particular concern. In this article, the author addresses these concerns from the legal and…

  13. Youth Audience Segmentation Strategies for Smoking-Prevention Mass Media Campaigns Based on Message Appeal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Connolly, Scott W.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-01-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American,…

  14. Mass Media Strategies Targeting High Sensation Seekers: What Works and Why

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine strategies for using the mass media effectively in drug prevention campaigns targeting high sensation seekers. Methods: Both experimental lab and field studies were used to develop a comprehensive audience segmentation strategy targeting high sensation seekers. Results: A 4-pronged targeting strategy employed in an…

  15. Population-Based Evaluation of the "Livelighter" Healthy Weight and Lifestyle Mass Media Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) "LiveLighter" (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ("why" change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier…

  16. Preventing Interpersonal Violence among Youth: An Introduction to School, Community, and Mass Media Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    The United States is a violent nation. This report reviews current school, community, and mass media strategies; describes promising programs now in operation; and offers recommendations for how police and other criminal justice professionals can get involved. By introducing the basic concepts and strategies of violence prevention, the report…

  17. An Action Assembly Approach to Predicting Emotional Responses to Frightening Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Glenn G.

    1986-01-01

    Assesses the validity of a 20-item scale that purportedly measures long term memory records--in this case, frightening mass media. Evidence for validity emerged in that subjects' scale scores were related to negative emotion, negative cognitions, and skin conductance during film clips of scary movies. (NKA)

  18. Youth Audience Segmentation Strategies for Smoking-Prevention Mass Media Campaigns Based on Message Appeal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Connolly, Scott W.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-01-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American,…

  19. Print and Broadcast Mass Media Factors as Predictors of Nigerian Teachers' Political Awareness and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, A. Olaoluwakotansibe

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the use of print and broadcast mass media could predict the level of awareness and participation of secondary school teachers in political activities and its implications on the quality of Nigerian education system. Eight hundred and two secondary school teachers from South West states of Nigeria served as…

  20. Mass Media and Society: A Content Analysis of the "Window-To-The-Field" Course Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Donald R.

    A content analysis was performed on 3,134 questions from 62 examinations given in the mass communications and society courses in colleges throughout the United States. The questions were analyzed and categorized on the basis of three general groups: geographical reference, media reference, and topic reference. The findings revealed the following:…

  1. Women's Visions/Visions of Women: Brain Research and Its Implications for the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Billie J.

    Recent research which focuses on organizational differences in the brains of males and females has an important impact on the way women are portrayed in the male-dominated mass media. Generalizations from highly speculative research findings conclude that information is gathered and problems are solved differently by men and women. Most…

  2. An Update on Sino-U.S. Relations as Seen through the Chinese Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Jong Geun; Shelby, Maurice E.

    To determine the extent to which Chinese mass media reflected official policy concerning U.S.-Sino relations during the six year period after the 1979 normalization of relations, a study examined Chinese newspapers and evaluated their treatment of U.S. actions. News stories, editorials, columns, and features in the Foreign Broadcasting Information…

  3. A Mass Media Profile of Agricultural Scientists at Texas A&M University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedrick, William E.

    The way in which agricultural scientists of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station research staff pereive aspects of the uses and importance of the mass media in communicating their research work was surveyed. The profile developed from the 65 responses to the survey shows that agricultural scientists place only moderate importance on mass…

  4. Mass Media Exposure as a Dimension of the Teen-Age Innovator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Reed H.; Nelson, Orval

    A study sought to determine whether female innovative teens have mass media behavior similar to that of adult innovators. Research indicates that adult innovators (adult who are the first to adopt new ideas and products and who comprise 16% of the population) are more ventursome, better educated, more socially integrated, and have greater contact…

  5. Science, Politics, and the Mass Media: On Biased Communication of Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    1994-01-01

    Based on the study of two issues, forest death from acid rain and the size of whale stocks, this article shows how the constraints of commercial mass media can be contrary to the task of enlightenment. (42 references) (Author/MKR)

  6. 52 Genetic Loci Influencing Myocardial Mass

    PubMed Central

    van der Harst, Pim; van Setten, Jessica; Verweij, Niek; Vogler, Georg; Franke, Lude; Maurano, Matthew T.; Wang, Xinchen; Leach, Irene Mateo; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Hayward, Caroline; Sorice, Rossella; Meirelles, Osorio; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Polašek, Ozren; Tanaka, Toshiko; Arking, Dan E.; Ulivi, Sheila; Trompet, Stella; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Smith, Albert V.; Dörr, Marcus; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Magnani, Jared W.; Fabiola Del Greco, M.; Zhang, Weihua; Nolte, Ilja M.; Silva, Claudia T.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Tragante, Vinicius; Esko, Tõnu; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Adriaens, Michiel E.; Andersen, Karl; Barnett, Phil; Bis, Joshua C.; Bodmer, Rolf; Buckley, Brendan M.; Campbell, Harry; Cannon, Megan V.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chen, Lin Y.; Delitala, Alessandro; Devereux, Richard B.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B.; Haugen, Eric; Heinig, Matthias; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hillege, Hans L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hubner, Norbert; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Iorio, Annamaria; Kähönen, Mika; Kellis, Manolis; Kolcic, Ivana; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kors, Jan A.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Lage, Kasper; Launer, Lenore J.; Levy, Daniel; Lundby, Alicia; Macfarlane, Peter W.; May, Dalit; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Nappo, Stefania; Naitza, Silvia; Neph, Shane; Nord, Alex S.; Nutile, Teresa; Okin, Peter M.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Oostra, Ben A.; Penninger, Josef M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Pers, Tune H.; Perz, Siegfried; Peters, Annette; Pinto, Yigal M.; Pfeufer, Arne; Pilia, Maria Grazia; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Prins, Bram P.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rice, Ken M.; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schafer, Sebastian; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Sehmi, Jobanpreet; Silljé, Herman H.W.; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Sinner, Moritz F.; Slowikowski, Kamil; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Spector, Timothy D.; Spiering, Wilko; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Trinh, Bosco; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van den Boogaard, Malou; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Visscher, Peter M.; Vitart, Veronique; Völker, Uwe; Waldenberger, Melanie; Weichenberger, Christian X.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.; Yang, Jian; Bezzina, Connie R.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Snieder, Harold; Wright, Alan F.; Rudan, Igor; Boyer, Laurie A.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Ciullo, Marina; Sanna, Serena; Lehtimäki, Terho; Wilson, James F.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Alonso, Alvaro; Gasparini, Paolo; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kääb, Stefan; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Felix, Stephan B.; Heckbert, Susan R.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Hicks, Andrew A.; Chambers, John C.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Visel, Axel; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Isaacs, Aaron; Samani, Nilesh J.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Myocardial mass is a key determinant of cardiac muscle function and hypertrophy. Myocardial depolarization leading to cardiac muscle contraction is reflected by the amplitude and duration of the QRS complex on the electrocardiogram (ECG). Abnormal QRS amplitude or duration reflect changes in myocardial mass and conduction, and are associated with increased risk of heart failure and death. OBJECTIVES This meta-analysis sought to gain insights into the genetic determinants of myocardial mass. METHODS We carried out a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 4 QRS traits in up to 73,518 individuals of European ancestry, followed by extensive biological and functional assessment. RESULTS We identified 52 genomic loci, of which 32 are novel, that are reliably associated with 1 or more QRS phenotypes at p < 1 × 10−8. These loci are enriched in regions of open chromatin, histone modifications, and transcription factor binding, suggesting that they represent regions of the genome that are actively transcribed in the human heart. Pathway analyses provided evidence that these loci play a role in cardiac hypertrophy. We further highlighted 67 candidate genes at the identified loci that are preferentially expressed in cardiac tissue and associated with cardiac abnormalities in Drosophila melanogaster and Mus musculus. We validated the regulatory function of a novel variant in the SCN5A/SCN10A locus in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, our findings provide new insights into genes and biological pathways controlling myocardial mass and may help identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:27659466

  7. Relationships between self-esteem, media influence and drive for thinness.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Sofia; Pritchard, Mary

    2012-12-01

    The media is a powerful societal tool for expressing expectations about how men and women should look. As a result, over the past several years, women have shown an increase in body dissatisfaction (Cash, Morrow, Hrabosky, & Perry, 2004). The present study examined the relationships between drive for thinness, self-esteem, and media influence among men and women. Two hundred ninety-four college students completed the Texas Social Behavior Inventory (Helmreich & Stapp, 1974), Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Scale-3 (Thompson, van den Berg, Roehrig, Guarda, & Hienberg, 2004), self-constructed questionnaire influence of media models, and the drive for Thinness Subscale (DT) from the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3; (Garner, 2004)). We expected to find an association between drive for thinness and media influence and between drive for thinness and self-esteem for both men and women. Finally, we expected that the use of media, social pressures and media internalization would be predictors of drive for thinness. We found a relationship between media influence and drive for thinness. There was also a relationship between self-esteem and drive for thinness. For both men and women, media models were the primary predictor for drive for thinness. However, for women the secondary predictor was social pressures; whereas for men the secondary predictor was internalization. Such findings show the importance of examining the impact of media sources on men and women in order to entangle gender differences.

  8. Diffusive counter dispersion of mass in bubbly media.

    PubMed

    Goldobin, Denis S; Brilliantov, Nikolai V

    2011-11-01

    We consider a liquid bearing gas bubbles in a porous medium. When gas bubbles are immovably trapped in a porous matrix by surface-tension forces, the dominant mechanism of transfer of gas mass becomes the diffusion of gas molecules through the liquid. Essentially, the gas solution is in local thermodynamic equilibrium with vapor phase all over the system, i.e., the solute concentration equals the solubility. When temperature and/or pressure gradients are applied, diffusion fluxes appear and these fluxes are faithfully determined by the temperature and pressure fields, not by the local solute concentration, which is enslaved by the former. We derive the equations governing such systems, accounting for thermodiffusion and gravitational segregation effects, which are shown not to be neglected for geological systems-marine sediments, terrestrial aquifers, etc. The results are applied for the treatment of non-high-pressure systems and real geological systems bearing methane or carbon dioxide, where we find a potential possibility of the formation of gaseous horizons deep below a porous medium surface. The reported effects are of particular importance for natural methane hydrate deposits and the problem of burial of industrial production of carbon dioxide in deep aquifers.

  9. The Influence of Media on Young Children's Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartella, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Ellen Wartella, PhD, a leading scholar of the role of media in children's development, responds to questions about the role of media in the lives of very young children. She discusses how technology is having an impact on parents and children and provides some context for how parents and caregivers can make informed decisions about using media…

  10. The Influence of Media on Young Children's Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartella, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Ellen Wartella, PhD, a leading scholar of the role of media in children's development, responds to questions about the role of media in the lives of very young children. She discusses how technology is having an impact on parents and children and provides some context for how parents and caregivers can make informed decisions about using media…

  11. For Fit's Sake: A Norms-Based Approach to Healthy Behaviors Through Influence of Presumed Media Influence.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shirley S; Lee, Edmund W J; Ng, Kaijie; Leong, Grace S H; Tham, Tiffany H M

    2016-09-01

    Based on the influence of presumed media influence (IPMI) model as the theoretical framework, this study examines how injunctive norms and personal norms mediate the influence of healthy lifestyle media messages on public intentions to engage in two types of healthy lifestyle behaviors-physical activity and healthy diet. Nationally representative data collected from 1,055 adults in Singapore demonstrate partial support for the key hypotheses that make up the extended IPMI model, highlighting the importance of a norms-based approach in health communication. Our results indicate that perceived media influence on others indirectly shaped public intentions to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors through personal norms and attitude, providing partial theoretical support for the extended IPMI model. Practical implications for health communicators in designing health campaigns media messages to motivate the public to engage in healthy lifestyle are discussed.

  12. Chemotherapy and information-seeking behaviour: characteristics of patients using mass-media information sources.

    PubMed

    Muusses, Linda D; van Weert, Julia C M; van Dulmen, Sandra; Jansen, Jesse

    2012-09-01

    Fulfilling patients' information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well-being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving chemotherapy for the first time use and which factors (background characteristics, psychological factors, information needs and source reliability) explain the use of different mass-media information sources. Three hundred forty-five patients receiving chemotherapy in ten hospitals in the Netherlands completed a questionnaire. Use of 16 sources (mass-media and interpersonal) was measured with a five-point Likert scale. Regression analyses were conducted to test whether use of the three most frequently used mass-media sources could be explained by socio-demographic, medical and psychological factors, unfulfilled information needs and perceived reliability of the source. Treatment guide, brochures and Internet were the most frequently used mass-media sources. Medical specialists, nurses, and family and/or friends were the most common interpersonal sources. Using the treatment guide was found to be associated with treatment goal, unfulfilled information needs and source reliability. Using brochures was associated with cancer-related stress responses, coping style and source reliability. Using Internet was associated with age, education, coping style and source reliability. This study developed a model to explain the use of mass-media information sources by patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. The use of different information sources is associated with different factors, indicating that each source offers specific opportunities to tailor information to the patient's needs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Media formulation influences chemical effects on neuronal growth and morphology.

    PubMed

    Harrill, Joshua A; Robinette, Brian L; Freudenrich, Theresa M; Mundy, William R

    2015-06-01

    Screening for developmental neurotoxicity using in vitro, cell-based systems has been proposed as an efficient alternative to performing in vivo studies. One tool currently used for developmental neurotoxicity screening is automated high-content imaging of neuronal morphology. While high-content imaging (HCI) has been demonstrated to be useful in detection of potential developmental neurotoxicants, comparison of results between laboratories or assays can be complicated due to methodological differences. In order to determine whether high-content imaging-based developmental neurotoxicity assays can be affected by differences in media formulation, a systematic comparison of serum-supplemented (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media (DMEM) + 10% serum) and serum-free (Neurobasal A + B27) culture media on neuronal morphology was performed using primary rat cortical neurons. Concentration-response assays for neuritogenesis, axon and dendrite outgrowth, and synaptogenesis were performed in each media type using chemicals with previously demonstrated effects. Marked qualitative and quantitative differences in the characteristics of neurons cultured in the two media types were observed, with increased neuronal growth and less basal cell death in Neurobasal A + B27. Media formulation also affected assay sensitivity and selectivity. Increases in assay sensitivity were observed in Neurobasal A + B27 media as compared to serum-supplemented DMEM. In some instances, a greater difference between effective concentrations for cell death and neurodevelopmental-specific endpoints was also observed in Neurobasal A + B27 media as compared to serum-supplemented DMEM. These data show that media formulation must be considered when comparing data for similar endpoints between studies. Neuronal culture maintained in Neurobasal A + B27 media had several features advantageous for HCI applications including less basal cell death, less cell clustering and neurite fasciculation, and a tendency

  14. Media as social influence: racial differences in the effects of peers and media on adolescent alcohol cognitions and consumption.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Pomery, Elizabeth A; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2010-12-01

    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents' alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in the favorability of the adolescents' drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence.

  15. Media as Social Influence: Racial Differences in the Effects of Peers and Media on Adolescent Alcohol Cognitions and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A.; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents’ alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in: the favorability of the adolescents’ drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence, and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence. PMID:21198226

  16. The Effects of Musical Elements in Mass Media and Internet on the Social Development of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celasin, Cenk

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, musical elements in mass media and internet mostly intended to children and adolescents, were examined in the context of the dimensions of the social development of them in a general approach, through scientific literature and written, audio, visual and audio-visual documents regarding mass media and internet. Purpose of…

  17. 47 CFR 1.1153 - Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. 1.1153 Section 1.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Payment § 1.1153 Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. Radio...

  18. 47 CFR 1.1153 - Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. 1.1153 Section 1.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. Radio (47 CFR, Part 73) Fee...

  19. 47 CFR 1.1153 - Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. 1.1153 Section 1.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Payment § 1.1153 Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. Radio...

  20. 47 CFR 1.1153 - Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. 1.1153 Section 1.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. Radio (47 CFR, Part 73) Fee...