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Sample records for masses trilinear couplings

  1. Measurements of trilinear gauge boson couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.

    1997-10-01

    Direct measurements of the trilinear gauge boson couplings by the D0 collaboration at Fermilab are reported. Limits on the anomalous couplings were obtained at a 95% CL from four diboson production processes: W{gamma} production with the W boson decaying to e{nu} or {mu}{nu}, WW production with both of the W bosons decaying to e{nu} or {mu}{nu}, WW/WZ production with one W boson decaying to e{nu} and the other W or Z boson decaying to two jets, and Z{gamma} production with the Z boson decaying to ee, {mu}{mu}, or {nu}{nu}. Limits were also obtained from a combined fit to W{gamma}, WW {yields} dileptons and WW/WZ {yields} e{nu}jj data samples.

  2. Trilinear gauge boson couplings in the gauge—Higgs unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Yuki; Maru, Nobuhito

    2016-07-01

    We examine trilinear gauge boson couplings (TGCs) in the context of the SU(3)_W⊗ U(1)' gauge-Higgs unification scenario. The TGCs play important roles in probes of the physics beyond the standard model, since they are highly restricted by the experiments. We discuss the mass spectrum of the neutral gauge boson with brane-localized mass terms carefully and find that the TGCs and ρ parameter may deviate from standard model predictions. Finally, we put a constraint on these observables and discuss the possible parameter space.

  3. Trilinear neutral gauge boson couplings in effective theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larios, F.; Pérez, M. A.; Tavares-Velasco, G.; Toscano, J. J.

    2001-06-01

    We list all the lowest dimension effective operators inducing off-shell trilinear neutral gauge boson couplings ZZγ, Zγγ, and ZZZ within the effective Lagrangian approach, both in the linear and nonlinear realizations of SU(2)L × U(1)Y gauge symmetry. In the linear scenario we find that these couplings can be generated only by dimension-8 operators necessarily including the Higgs boson field, whereas in the nonlinear case they are induced by dimension-6 operators. We consider the impact of these couplings on some precision measurements such as the magnetic and electric dipole moments of fermions, as well as the Z boson rare decay Z-->νν¯γ. If the underlying new physics is of a decoupling nature, it is not expected that trilinear neutral gauge boson couplings may affect considerably any of these observables. On the contrary, it is just in the nonlinear scenario where these couplings have the more promising prospects of being perceptible through high precision experiments.

  4. CP Violation in Trilinear Neutral Gauge Boson Couplings Via the Anomalous tcZ Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyotl, A.; Tavares-Velasco, G.

    2008-07-01

    Trilinear Neutral Gauge Boson Couplings (TNGBCs), namely ZZZ, ZZγ, and Zγγ may be highly sensitive to any new physics effects as their amplitude is extremely suppressed in any renormalizable theory such as the standard model (SM), where these class of couplings arise up to the one-loop level. Even more, in the SM, CP-odd TNGBCs are more suppressed than CP-even ones as the former are absent at the one loop level. This opens up the window to examine CP-violating effects on TNGBCs induced by new sources of CP-violation. Along these lines, we analyze the possible CP-violation on TNGBCS induced by the most general renormalizable tcZ coupling.

  5. Measurements of the Trilinear Gauge Boson Couplings from Diboson Production at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Sekaric, Jadranka

    2009-10-01

    The most recent measurements of the trilinear gauge boson couplings from the diboson production at the D0 experiment has been presented. The analyzed final states are Z{gamma} {yields} {nu}{nu}{gamma}, WW {yields} l{nu}l{prime}{nu}, and WW+WZ {yields} l{nu}jj. We also present results obtained combining all final states involving the W boson. These results represent the most stringent limits set to date at the hadron collider.

  6. Precision gaugino mass measurements as a probe of large trilinear soft terms at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Baer, Howard; Nagata, Natsumi; Serce, Hasan

    2016-08-01

    In supersymmetric models with radiatively driven naturalness, Higgsino-like electroweak-inos are expected to lie in a mass range 100-300 GeV, the lighter the more natural. Such states can be pair produced at high rates at the International Linear e+e- Collider where their masses are nearly equal to the value of the superpotential μ parameter while their mass splittings depend on the gaugino masses M1 and M2. The gaugino masses in turn depend on trilinear soft terms—the A parameters, which are expected to lie in the multi-TeV range owing to the 125 GeV Higgs mass—via two-loop contributions to renormalization group running. We examine the extent to which the International Linear e+e- Collider is sensitive to large A terms via precision electroweak-ino mass measurement. Extraction of gaugino masses at the percent level or below should allow for interesting probes of large trilinear soft supersymmetry breaking terms under the assumption of unified gaugino masses.

  7. Measurement of the WW production cross section with dilepton final states in pp collisions at square root(s) = 1.96 TeV and limits on anomalous trilinear gauge couplings.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-11-01

    We provide the most precise measurement of the WW production cross section in pp collisions to date at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV, and set limits on the associated trilinear gauge couplings. The WW-->lnul'nu (l, l' = e, mu) decay channels are analyzed in 1 fb(-1) of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measured cross section is sigma(pp --> WW) = 11.5+/-2.1(stat+syst)+/-0.7(lumi) pb. One- and two-dimensional 95% C.L. limits on trilinear gauge couplings are provided. PMID:20365916

  8. Measurement of trilinear gauge boson couplings /WWV, (/V≡Z,γ) in e+e- collisions at 189 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DELPHI Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, Z.; Alderweireld, T.; Alekseev, G. D.; Alemany, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Åsman, B.; Augustin, J.-E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barker, G.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Belokopytov, Y.; Belous, K.; Benekos, N. C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bilenky, M. S.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H. M.; Bol, L.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Boudinov, E.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Bracko, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenner, R. A.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.-M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Castillo Gimenez, M. V.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cortina, E.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.; Crawley, H. B.; Crennell, D.; Croix, J.; Crosetti, G.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.-P.; Espirito Santo, M.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferro, F.; Firestone, A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A. G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Galloni, A.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, E. N.; Gele, D.; Geralis, T.; Ghodbane, N.; Gil, I.; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Gouz, Y.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hansen, J.; Harris, F. J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Hernandez, J. J.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Hertz, O.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Hughes, G. J.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, J. N.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, P.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E. C.; Keranen, R.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Khokhlov, Y.; Khomenko, B. A.; Khovanski, N. N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.; Kinvig, A.; Kjaer, N. J.; Klapp, O.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kostioukhine, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kriznic, E.; Krumstein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kurowska, J.; Lamsa, J. W.; Laugier, J.-P.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Loken, J. G.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Mahon, J. R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Cubbin, M.; Mc Kay, R.; Mc Nulty, R.; Mc Pherson, G.; Merle, E.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W. T.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W. A.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, M. R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L. M.; Murray, W. J.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F. L.; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Nemecek, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Nygren, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A. G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Pavel, T.; Pegoraro, M.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H. T.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Ratoff, P. N.; Read, A. L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, N. G.; Regler, M.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P. B.; Resvanis, L. K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosinsky, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sajot, G.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwanda, C.; Schwemling, P.; Schwering, B.; Schwickerath, U.; Scuri, F.; Seager, P.; Sedykh, Y.; Segar, A. M.; Sekulin, R.; Shellard, R. C.; Siebel, M.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A. N.; Smadja, G.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G. R.; Solovianov, O.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Spiriti, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stanescu, C.; Stanitzki, M.; Stevenson, K.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.; Tchikilev, O.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tinti, N.; Tkatchev, L. G.; Tobin, M.; Todorova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Tortosa, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Ullaland, O.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; Van Dam, P.; Van den Boeck, W.; Van Doninck, W. K.; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vlasov, E.; Vodopyanov, A. S.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J. H.; Wilkinson, G. R.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zoller, P.; Zumerle, G.; Zupan, M.

    2001-03-01

    Measurements of the trilinear gauge boson couplings /WWγ and /WWZ are presented using the data taken by DELPHI in 1998 at a centre-of-mass energy of 189 GeV and combined with DELPHI data at 183 GeV. Values are determined for Δg1Z and Δκγ, the differences of the /WWZ charge coupling and of the /WWγ dipole coupling from their Standard Model values, and for λγ, the /WWγ quadrupole coupling. A measurement of the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moment of the /W is extracted from the results for Δκγ and λγ. The study uses data from the final states /jjlν, /jjjj, /lX, /jjX and /γX, where /j represents a quark jet, /l an identified lepton and /X missing four-momentum. The observations are consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model.

  9. Measuring the trilinear couplings of MSSM neutral Higgs bosons at high-energy e+e- colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osland, P.; Pandita, P. N.

    1999-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of multiple production of the lightest CP-even Higgs boson (h) of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) at high-energy e+e- colliders. We consider the production of the heavier CP-even Higgs boson (H) via Higgs-strahlung e+e--->ZH, in association with the CP-odd Higgs boson (A) in e+e--->AH, or via the fusion mechanism e+e--->νeν¯eH, with H subsequently decaying through H-->hh, thereby resulting in a pair of lighter Higgs bosons (h) in the final state. These processes can enable one to measure the trilinear Higgs couplings λHhh and λhhh, which can be used to theoretically reconstruct the Higgs potential. We delineate the regions of the MSSM parameter space in which these trilinear Higgs couplings could be measured at a future e+e- collider. In our calculations, we include in detail the radiative corrections to the Higgs sector of the MSSM, especially the mixing in the squark sector.

  10. Trilinearity deviation ratio: a new metric for chemometric analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, David K; Parsons, Brendon A; Anderson, Todd J; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-04-29

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) is a well-established instrumental platform for complex samples. However, chemometric data analysis is often required to fully extract useful information from the data. We demonstrate that retention time shifting from one modulation to the next, Δ(2)tR, is not sufficient alone to quantitatively describe the trilinearity of a single GC×GC-TOFMS run for the purpose of predicting the performance of the chemometric method parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). We hypothesize that analyte peak width on second dimension separations, (2)Wb, also impacts trilinearity, along with Δ(2)tR. The term trilinearity deviation ratio, TDR, which is Δ(2)tR normalized by (2)Wb, is introduced as a quantitative metric to assess accuracy for PARAFAC of a GC×GC-TOFMS data cube. We explore how modulation ratio, MR, modulation period, PM, temperature programming rate, Tramp, sampling phase (in-phase and out-of-phase), and signal-to-noise ratio, S/N, all play a role in PARAFAC performance in the context of TDR. Use of a PM in the 1-2 s range provides an optimized peak capacity for the first dimension separation (500-600) for a 30 min run, with an adequate peak capacity for the second dimension separation (12-15), concurrent with an optimized two-dimensional peak capacity (6000-7500), combined with sufficiently low TDR values (0-0.05) to facilitate low quantitative errors with PARAFAC (0-0.5%). In contrast, use of a PM in the 5s or greater range provides a higher peak capacity on the second dimension (30-35), concurrent with a lower peak capacity on the first dimension (100-150) for a 30 min run, and a slightly reduced two-dimensional peak capacity (3000-4500), and furthermore, the data are not sufficiently trilinear for the more retained second dimension peaks in order to directly use PARAFAC with confidence.

  11. Measuring the trilinear neutral Higgs boson couplings in the minimal supersymmetric standard model at e+e‑ colliders in the light of the discovery of a Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosa, Charanjit K.; Pandita, P. N.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the measurement of the trilinear couplings of the neutral Higgs bosons in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) at a high energy e+e‑ linear collider in the light of the discovery of a Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We identify the state observed at the LHC with the lightest Higgs boson (h0) of the MSSM, and impose the constraints following from this identification, as well as other experimental constraints on the MSSM parameter space. In order to measure trilinear neutral Higgs couplings, we consider different processes where the heavier Higgs boson (H0) of the MSSM is produced in electron-positron collisions, which subsequently decays into a pair of lighter Higgs boson. We identify the regions of the MSSM parameter space where it may be possible to measure the trilinear couplings of the Higgs boson at a future electron-positron collider. A measurement of the trilinear Higgs couplings is a crucial step in the construction of the Higgs potential, and hence in establishing the phenomena of spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge theories.

  12. Measurement of trilinear gauge boson couplings from at {\\boldmath$\\sqrt{s}=1.96$} TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Abolins, Maris A.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Aguilo, Ernest; Ahsan, Mahsana; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls /Northeastern U.

    2009-07-01

    We present a direct measurement of trilinear gauge boson couplings at gammaWW and ZWW vertices in WW and WZ events produced in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We consider events with one electron or muon, missing transverse energy, and at least two jets. The data were collected using the D0 detector and correspond to 1.1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. Considering two different relations between the couplings at the gammaWW and ZWW vertices, we measure these couplings at 68% C.L. to be kappa{sub gamma} = 1.07{sub -0.29}{sup +0.26}, lambda = 0.00{sub -0.06}{sup +0.06}, and g{sub 1}{sup Z} = 1.04{sup -0.09}{sup +0.09} in a scenario respecting SU(2){sub L}[direct-product]U(1){sub Y} gauge symmetry and kappa = 1.04{sub -0.11}{sup +0.11} and lambda=0.00{sub -0.06}{sup +0.06} in an 'equal couplings' scenario.

  13. Measurements of CP-conserving trilinear gauge boson couplings WWV (V≡ γ,Z) in e+e- collisions at LEP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G. J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kerzel, U.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kostioukhine, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Libby, J.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nemecek, S.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.; DELPHI Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The data taken by Delphi at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV are used to place limits on the CP-conserving trilinear gauge boson couplings Δ gZ1, λ γ and Δ κ γ associated to W + W - and single W production at Lep2. Using data from the jj ℓ ν, jjjj, jjX and ℓ X final states, where j, ℓ and X represent a jet, a lepton and missing four-momentum, respectively, the following limits are set on the couplings when one parameter is allowed to vary and the others are set to their Standard Model values of zero: begin{array}{l}Δ g^Z_1=-0.025^{+0.033}_{-0.030}, noalign{}λ_γ =0.002^{+0.035}_{-0.035}qquadand noalign{}Δkappa_γ =0.024^{+0.077}_{-0.081}. Results are also presented when two or three parameters are allowed to vary. All observations are consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model and supersede the previous results on these gauge coupling parameters published by Delphi.

  14. Limits on Anomalous Trilinear Gauge Couplings in $Z\\gamma$ Events from $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2011-03-01

    Using Z{gamma} candidate events collected by the CDF detector at the Tevatron Collider, we search for potential anomalous (non-standard-model) couplings between the Z boson and the photon. At the hard scatter energies typical of the Tevatron, standard model Z{gamma} couplings are too weak to be detected by current experiments; hence any evidence of couplings indicates new physics. Measurements are performed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 fb{sup -1} in the Z {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay channel and 5.1 fb{sup -1} in the Z {yields} l{sup +}l{sup -} (l = {mu}, e) decay channels. The combination of these measurements provides the most stringent limits to date on Z{gamma} trilinear gauge couplings. Using an energy scale of {Lambda} = 1.5 TeV to allow for a direct comparison with previous measurements, we find limits on the CP-conserving parameters that describe Z{gamma} couplings to be |h{sub 3}{sup {gamma},Z}| < 0.017 and |h{sub 4}{sup {gamma},Z}| < 0.0006. These results are consistent with standard model predictions.

  15. Neutral Higgs Boson Pair-Production and Trilinear Self-Couplings in the Mssm at Ilc and Clic Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A.; Hernández-Ruíz, M. A.; Sampayo, O. A.

    We study pair-production as well as the triple self-couplings of the neutral Higgs bosons of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) at the future International Linear e+e- Collider (ILC) and Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The analysis is based on the reactions e+e--> b bar b hih_i, t bar t hih_i with hi = h, H, A. We evaluate the total cross-section for both bbar bhih_i, tbar thih_i and calculate the total number of events considering the complete set of Feynman diagrams at tree-level. We vary the triple couplings κλhhh, κλHhh, κλhAA, κλHAA, κλhHH and κλHHH within the range κ = -1 and +2. The numerical computation is done for the energies expected at the ILC with a center-of-mass energy 500, 1000, 1600 GeV and a luminosity 1000 fb-1. The channels e+e--> b bar b hih_i and e+e--> t bar t hih_i are also discussed to a center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV and luminosities of 1000 fb-1 and 5000 fb-1.

  16. Measurement of the Zγ → ν ν ‾ γ production cross section in pp collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV and limits on anomalous ZZγ and Zγγ trilinear gauge boson couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Neveu, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; de Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. 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V.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Myagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; de La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro de Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. 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V.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Piparo, D.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. 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W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Paneva, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; MacNeill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes de Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Kumar, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Woods, N.

    2016-09-01

    An inclusive measurement of the Zγ → ν ν ‾ γ production cross section in pp collisions at √{ s} = 8TeV is presented, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.6 fb-1 collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. This measurement is based on the observation of events with large missing energy and with a single photon with transverse momentum above 145GeV and absolute pseudorapidity in the range | η | < 1.44. The measured Zγ → ν ν ‾ γ production cross section, 52.7 ± 2.1 (stat) ± 6.4 (syst) ± 1.4 (lumi) fb, agrees well with the standard model prediction of 50.0-2.2+2.4 fb. A study of the photon transverse momentum spectrum yields the most stringent limits to date on the anomalous ZZγ and Zγγ trilinear gauge boson couplings.

  17. An Excel macro for generating trilinear plots.

    PubMed

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2007-01-01

    This computer note describes a method for creating trilinear plots in Microsoft Excel. Macros have been created in MS Excel's internal language: Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). A simple form has been set up to allow the user to input data from an Excel worksheet. The VBA macro is used to convert the triangular data (which consist of three columns of percentage data) into X-Y data. The macro then generates the axes, labels, and grid for the trilinear plot. The X-Y data are plotted as scatter data in Excel. By providing this macro in Excel, users can create trilinear plots in a quick, inexpensive manner.

  18. Metastability bounds on flavor-violating trilinear soft terms in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-hyeon

    2011-03-01

    The vacuum stability bounds on flavor-violating trilinear soft terms are revisited from the viewpoint that one should not ban a standard-model-like false vacuum as long as it is long-lived on a cosmological time scale. The vacuum transition rate is evaluated numerically by searching for the bounce configuration. Like stability, a metastability bound does not decouple even if sfermion masses grow. Apart from being more generous than stability, the new bounds are largely independent of Yukawa couplings except for the stop trilinears. With vacuum longevity imposed on otherwise arbitrary LR insertions, it is found that a super flavor factory has the potential to probe sparticle masses up to a few TeV through B and {tau} physics whereas the MEG experiment might cover a far wider range. In the stop sector, metastability is more restrictive than any existing experimental constraint such as from electroweak precision data. Also discussed are dependency on other parameters and reliability under radiative corrections.

  19. Trilinear hamiltonian with trapped ions and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shiqian; Maslennikov, Gleb; Hablutzel, Roland; Matsukevich, Dzmitry

    2016-05-01

    The model of three harmonic oscillators coupled by the trilinear Hamiltonian of the form a† bc + ab†c† can describe wide range of physical processes. We experimentally realize such interaction between three modes of motion in the system of 3 trapped Yb ions. We discuss several application of this coupling, including implementation of the quantum absorption refrigerator, simulation of the interaction between light and atoms described by a Tavis-Cummings model, simulation of the non-degenerate parametric down conversion process in the fully quantum regime and studies of a simple model of Hawking radiation.

  20. Differential memory in the trilinear model magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James; Mitchell, Horage G.; Palmadesso, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The previously proposed concept of 'differential memory' is quantitatively demonstrated using an idealized analytical model of particle dynamics in the magnetotail geometry. In this model (the 'trilinear' tail model) the magnetotail is divided into three regions. The particle orbits are solved exactly in each region, thus reducing the orbit integration to an analytical mapping. It is shown that the trilinear model reproduces the essential phase space features of the earlier model (Chen and Palmadesso, 1986), possessing well-defined entry and exit regions, and stochastic, integrable (regular), and transient orbits, occupying disjoint phase space regions. Different regions have widely separated characteristic time scales corresponding to different types of particle motion. Using the analytical model, the evolution of single-particle distribution functions is calculated.

  1. Quantum properties of field modes in trilinear optical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobný, Gabriel; Jex, Igor

    1992-07-01

    We consider a trilinear Hamiltonian in boson operators describing various physical processes such as frequency conversion, Raman or Brillouin scattering, or the interaction of N two-level atoms with a single-mode radiation field. Due to the fact that two independent integrals of motion can be found, the solution of the dynamics of the system is reduced to the diagonalization of a finite matrix (as was already shown by Walls and Barakat [Phys. Rev. A 1, 446 (1970)]). Performing a numerical diagonalization, we analyze the statistical properties of the field modes (sub-Poissonian statistics, anticorrelation, squeezing). We also pay attention to the appearance of collapses and revivals in the mean photon number of the modes. The relation of this model to the model of two coupled modes with an intensity-dependent coupling constant is pointed out.

  2. Multiway partial least-squares coupled to residual trilinearization: a genuine multidimensional tool for the study of third-order data. Simultaneous analysis of procaine and its metabolite p-aminobenzoic acid in equine serum.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Patricia C; Durán-Merás, Isabel; García-Reiriz, Alejandro; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; de la Peña, Arsenio Muñoz; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2007-09-15

    A new third-order multivariate calibration approach, based on the combination of multiway-partial least-squares with a separate procedure called residual trilinearization (N-PLS/RTL), is presented and applied to multicomponent analysis using third-order data. The proposed chemometric algorithm is able to predict analyte concentrations in the presence of unexpected sample components, which require strict adherence to the second-order advantage. Results for the determination of procaine and its metabolite p-aminobenzoic acid in equine serum are discussed, based on kinetic fluorescence excitation-emission four-way measurements and application of the newly developed multiway methodology. Since the analytes are also the reagent and product of the hydrolysis reaction followed by fast-scanning fluorescence spectroscopy, the classical approach based on parallel factor analysis is challenged by strong linear dependencies and multilinearity losses. In comparison, N-PLS/RTL appears an appealing genuine multiway alternative that avoids the latter complications, yielding analytical results that are statistically comparable to those rendered by related unfolded algorithms, which are also able to process four-way data. Prediction was made on validation samples with a qualitative composition similar to the calibration set and also on test samples containing unexpected equine serum components.

  3. Small neutrino masses and gauge coupling unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucenna, Sofiane M.; Fonseca, Renato M.; González-Canales, Félix; Valle, José W. F.

    2015-02-01

    The physics responsible for gauge coupling unification may also induce small neutrino masses. We propose a novel gauge-mediated radiative seesaw mechanism for calculable neutrino masses. These arise from quantum corrections mediated by new S U (3 )C⊗S U (3 )L⊗U (1 )X (3-3-1) gauge bosons and the physics driving gauge coupling unification. Gauge couplings unify for a 3-3-1 scale in the TeV range, making the model directly testable at the LHC.

  4. Environmental dependence of masses and coupling constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim

    2008-02-15

    We construct a class of scalar field models coupled to matter that lead to the dependence of masses and coupling constants on the ambient matter density. Such models predict a deviation of couplings measured on the Earth from values determined in low-density astrophysical environments, but do not necessarily require the evolution of coupling constants with the redshift in the recent cosmological past. Additional laboratory and astrophysical tests of {delta}{alpha} and {delta}(m{sub p}/m{sub e}) as functions of the ambient matter density are warranted.

  5. Measurement of the Wγ → μvγ Cross-Section, Limits on Anomalous Trilinear Vector Boson Couplings, and the Radiation Amplitude Zero in p$\\bar{p}$ Collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Askew, Andrew Warren

    2004-11-01

    This thesis details the measurement of the p$\\bar{p}$ → Wγ + X → μvγ + X cross section at √s = 1.96 TeV using the D0 detector at Fermilab, in 134.5 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. From the photon ET spectrum limits on anomalous couplings of the photon to the W are obtained. At 95% confidence level, limits of -1.05 < Δκ < 1.04 for λ = 0 and -0.28 < λ < 0.27 for Δκ = 0 are obtained on the anomalous coupling parameters. The charge signed rapidity difference from the data is displayed, and its significance discussed.

  6. Four mass coupled oscillator guitar model.

    PubMed

    Popp, John E

    2012-01-01

    Coupled oscillator models have been used for the low frequency response (50 to 250 Hz) of a guitar. These 2 and 3 mass models correctly predict measured resonance frequency relationships under various laboratory boundary conditions, but did not always represent the true state of a guitar in the players' hands. The model presented has improved these models in three ways, (1) a fourth oscillator includes the guitar body, (2) plate stiffnesses and other fundamental parameters were measured directly and effective areas and masses used to calculate the responses, including resonances and phases, directly, and (3) one of the three resultant resonances varies with neck and side mass and can also be modeled as a bar mode of the neck and body. The calculated and measured resonances and phases agree reasonably well.

  7. Four mass coupled oscillator guitar model.

    PubMed

    Popp, John E

    2012-01-01

    Coupled oscillator models have been used for the low frequency response (50 to 250 Hz) of a guitar. These 2 and 3 mass models correctly predict measured resonance frequency relationships under various laboratory boundary conditions, but did not always represent the true state of a guitar in the players' hands. The model presented has improved these models in three ways, (1) a fourth oscillator includes the guitar body, (2) plate stiffnesses and other fundamental parameters were measured directly and effective areas and masses used to calculate the responses, including resonances and phases, directly, and (3) one of the three resultant resonances varies with neck and side mass and can also be modeled as a bar mode of the neck and body. The calculated and measured resonances and phases agree reasonably well. PMID:22280705

  8. Spectroscopy of masses and couplings during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Emami, Razieh

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we extend the idea of Quasi Single Field inflation [1] to the case of multiple isocurvaton fields with masses of order of Hubble, which are coupled kinetically to the inflaton field and have some interactions among themselves. We consider the effects of these massive modes in both the size and the shape of the bispectrum. We show that the shape of the bispectrum in the squeezed limit is dominated by the lightest field and is the same as in Quasi Single Field inflation. This is a generic feature of multiple isocurvaton fields and is independent of the details of the interactions among the massive fields. When the isocurvaton fields have similar masses, we can potentially distinguish two different shapes in the squeezed limit so that the shape of the bispectrum can act as a particle detector. However, in the presence of hierarchy among the massive fields, the dominant effect is due to the lightest field.

  9. Sensitivity of optical mass sensor enhanced by optomechanical coupling

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yong

    2015-03-23

    Optical mass sensors based on cavity optomechanics employ radiation pressure force to drive mechanical resonator whose mechanical susceptibility can be described by nonlinear optical transmission spectrum. In this paper, we present an optical mass sensor based on a two-cavity optomechanical system where the mechanical damping rate can be decreased by adjusting a pump power so that the mass sensitivity which depends on the mechanical quality factor has been enhanced greatly. Compared with that of an optical mass sensor based on single-cavity optomechanics, the mass sensitivity of the optical mass sensor is improved by three orders of magnitude. This is an approach to enhance the mass sensitivity by means of optomechanical coupling, which is suitable for all mass sensor based on cavity optomechanics. Finally, we illustrate the accurate measurement for the mass of a few chromosomes, which can be achieved based on the current experimental conditions.

  10. Self-excited coupled-microcantilevers for mass sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Daichi; Yabuno, Hiroshi; Higashino, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Sohei

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports ultrasensitive mass detection based on the relative change in the amplitude ratio of the first mode oscillation using self-excited coupled microcantilevers. The method proposed and demonstrated using the macrocantilevers in the previous study can measure eigenstate shifts caused by objects with high accuracy without being affected by the viscous damping effect of measurement environments. In this study, moving towards the use of this method for small mass measurements, we established the self-excited coupled microcantilevers and we have achieved in measurements of very small mass (about 1 ng) with 1% order of error.

  11. Higgs self-coupling measurements at a 100 TeV hadron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Alan J.; Dolan, Matthew J.; Englert, Christoph; Ferreira de Lima, Enoque Danilo; Spannowsky, Michael

    2015-02-03

    An important physics goal of a possible next-generation high-energy hadron collider will be precision characterisation of the Higgs sector and electroweak symmetry breaking. A crucial part of understanding the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking is measuring the Higgs self-interactions. We study dihiggs production in proton-proton collisions at 100 TeV centre of mass energy in order to estimate the sensitivity such a machine would have to variations in the trilinear Higgs coupling around the Standard Model expectation. We focus on the bb¯γγ final state, including possible enhancements in sensitivity by exploiting dihiggs recoils against a hard jet. In conclusion, we find that it should be possible to measure the trilinear self-coupling with 40% accuracy given 3/ab and 12% with 30/ab of data.

  12. Higgs self-coupling measurements at a 100 TeV hadron collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Alan J.; Dolan, Matthew J.; Englert, Christoph; de Lima, Danilo Enoque Ferreira; Spannowsky, Michael

    2015-02-01

    An important physics goal of a possible next-generation high-energy hadron collider will be precision characterisation of the Higgs sector and electroweak symmetry breaking. A crucial part of understanding the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking is measuring the Higgs self-interactions. We study dihiggs production in proton-proton collisions at 100 TeV centre of mass energy in order to estimate the sensitivity such a machine would have to variations in the trilinear Higgs coupling around the Standard Model expectation. We focus on the final state, including possible enhancements in sensitivity by exploiting dihiggs recoils against a hard jet. We find that it should be possible to measure the trilinear self-coupling with 40% accuracy given 3/ab and 12% with 30/ab of data.

  13. Beyond Principal Component Analysis: A Trilinear Decomposition Model and Least Squares Estimation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Tuan Dinh; Mocks, Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Sufficient conditions are derived for the consistency and asymptotic normality of the least squares estimator of a trilinear decomposition model for multiway data analysis. The limiting covariance matrix is computed. (Author/SLD)

  14. Thermodynamically coupled mass transport processes in a saturated clay

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1984-11-01

    Gradients of temperature, pressure, and fluid composition in saturated clays give rise to coupled transport processes (thermal and chemical osmosis, thermal diffusion, ultrafiltration) in addition to the direct processes (advection and diffusion). One-dimensional transport of water and a solute in a saturated clay subjected to mild gradients of temperature and pressure was simulated numerically. When full coupling was accounted for, volume flux (specific discharge) was controlled by thermal osmosis and chemical osmosis. The two coupled fluxes were oppositely directed, producing a point of stagnation within the clay column. Solute flows were dominated by diffusion, chemical osmosis, and thermal osmosis. Chemical osmosis produced a significant flux of solute directed against the gradient of solute concentration; this effect reduced solute concentrations relative to the case without coupling. Predictions of mass transport in clays at nuclear waste repositories could be significantly in error if coupled transport processes are not accounted for. 14 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  15. New bounds on trilinear R-parity violation from lepton flavor violating observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiner, H. K.; Nickel, K.; Staub, F.; Vicente, A.

    2012-07-01

    Many extensions of the leptonic sector of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) are known, most of them leading to observable flavor violating effects. It has recently been shown that the 1-loop contributions to lepton flavor violating three-body decays li→3lj involving the Z0 boson may be dominant, that is, much more important than the usual photonic penguins. Other processes like μ-e conversion in nuclei and flavor violating τ decays into mesons are also enhanced by the same effect. This is for instance also the case in the MSSM with trilinear R-parity violation. The aim of this work is to derive new bounds on the relevant combinations of R-parity violating couplings and to compare them with previous results in the literature. For heavy supersymmetric spectra the limits are improved by several orders of magnitude. For completeness, also constraints coming from flavor violating Z0-decays and tree-level decay channels l→liljlk are presented for a set of benchmark points.

  16. Neutrino mass in GUT constrained supersymmetry with R-parity violation in light of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Gozdz, Marek; Kaminski, Wieslaw A.; Simkovic, Fedor

    2004-11-01

    The neutrino masses are generated in grand unified theory (GUT) constrained supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. The neutrinos acquire masses via tree-level neutrino-neutralino mixing as well as via one-loop radiative corrections. The theoretical mass matrix is compared with the phenomenological one, which is reconstructed by using neutrino oscillation and neutrinoless double beta decay data. This procedure allows to obtain significantly stronger constraints on R-parity breaking parameters than those existing in the literature. The implication of normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy on the sneutrino expectation values, lepton-Higgs bilinear and trilinear R-parity breaking couplings is also discussed.

  17. Sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chenchen; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-06-17

    A sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry is disclosed. The sheathless interface includes a separation capillary for performing CE separation and an emitter capillary for electrospray ionization. A portion of the emitter capillary is porous or, alternatively, is coated to form an electrically conductive surface. A section of the emitter capillary is disposed within the separation capillary, forming a joint. A metal tube, containing a conductive liquid, encloses the joint.

  18. Large mass hierarchies from strongly-coupled dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athenodorou, Andreas; Bennett, Ed; Bergner, Georg; Elander, Daniel; Lin, C.-J. David; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Besides the Higgs particle discovered in 2012, with mass 125 GeV, recent LHC data show tentative signals for new resonances in diboson as well as diphoton searches at high center-of-mass energies (2 TeV and 750 GeV, respectively). If these signals are confirmed (or other new resonances are discovered at the TeV scale), the large hierarchies between masses of new bosons require a dynamical explanation. Motivated by these tentative signals of new physics, we investigate the theoretical possibility that large hierarchies in the masses of glueballs could arise dynamically in new strongly-coupled gauge theories extending the standard model of particle physics. We study lattice data on non-Abelian gauge theories in the (near-)conformal regime as well as a simple toy model in the context of gauge/gravity dualities. We focus our attention on the ratio R between the mass of the lightest spin-2 and spin-0 resonances, that for technical reasons is a particularly convenient and clean observable to study. For models in which (non-perturbative) large anomalous dimensions arise dynamically, we show indications that this mass ratio can be large, with R>5. Moreover,our results suggest that R might be related to universal properties of the IR fixed point. Our findings provide an interesting step towards understanding large mass ratios in the non-perturbative regime of quantum field theories with (near) IR conformal behaviour.

  19. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS COUPLED ON-LINE WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ELEMENTAL SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel interface to connect a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) detector is reported here. The interface was built using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) system. In this interface, the CE capillary was placed co...

  20. Inductively Coupled Plasma Zoom-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Elise A.; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2016-03-01

    A zoom-time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been coupled to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source. Zoom-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (zoom-TOFMS) combines two complementary types of velocity-based mass separation. Specifically, zoom-TOFMS alternates between conventional, constant-energy acceleration (CEA) TOFMS and energy-focused, constant-momentum acceleration (CMA) (zoom) TOFMS. The CMA mode provides a mass-resolution enhancement of 1.5-1.7× over CEA-TOFMS in the current, 35-cm ICP-zoom-TOFMS instrument geometry. The maximum resolving power (full-width at half-maximum) for the ICP-zoom-TOFMS instrument is 1200 for CEA-TOFMS and 1900 for CMA-TOFMS. The CMA mode yields detection limits of between 0.02 and 0.8 ppt, depending upon the repetition rate and integration time—compared with single ppt detection limits for CEA-TOFMS. Isotope-ratio precision is shot-noise limited at approximately 0.2% relative-standard deviation (RSD) for both CEA- and CMA-TOFMS at a 10 kHz repetition rate and an integration time of 3-5 min. When the repetition rate is increased to 43.5 kHz for CMA, the shot-noise limited, zoom-mode isotope-ratio precision is improved to 0.09% RSD for the same integration time.

  1. Mass eigenstates in bimetric theory with matter coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt-May, Angnis

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the ghost-free bimetric action extended by a recently proposed coupling to matter through a composite metric. The equations of motion for this theory are derived using a method which avoids varying the square-root matrix that appears in the matter coupling. We make an ansatz for which the metrics are proportional to each other and find that it can solve the equations provided that one parameter in the action is fixed. In this case, the proportional metrics as well as the effective metric that couples to matter solve Einstein's equations of general relativity including a matter source. Around these backgrounds we derive the quadratic action for perturbations and diagonalize it into generalized mass eigenstates. It turns out that matter only interacts with the massless spin-2 mode whose equation of motion has exactly the form of the linearized Einstein equations, while the field with Fierz-Pauli mass term is completely decoupled. Hence, bimetric theory, with one parameter fixed such that proportional solutions exist, is degenerate with general relativity up to linear order around these backgrounds.

  2. The Successive Projections Algorithm for interval selection in trilinear partial least-squares with residual bilinearization.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Adriano de Araújo; Alcaraz, Mirta Raquel; Goicoechea, Hector C; Araújo, Mario Cesar U

    2014-02-01

    In this work the Successive Projection Algorithm is presented for intervals selection in N-PLS for three-way data modeling. The proposed algorithm combines noise-reduction properties of PLS with the possibility of discarding uninformative variables in SPA. In addition, second-order advantage can be achieved by the residual bilinearization (RBL) procedure when an unexpected constituent is present in a test sample. For this purpose, SPA was modified in order to select intervals for use in trilinear PLS. The ability of the proposed algorithm, namely iSPA-N-PLS, was evaluated on one simulated and two experimental data sets, comparing the results to those obtained by N-PLS. In the simulated system, two analytes were quantitated in two test sets, with and without unexpected constituent. In the first experimental system, the determination of the four fluorophores (l-phenylalanine; l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; 1,4-dihydroxybenzene and l-tryptophan) was conducted with excitation-emission data matrices. In the second experimental system, quantitation of ofloxacin was performed in water samples containing two other uncalibrated quinolones (ciprofloxacin and danofloxacin) by high performance liquid chromatography with UV-vis diode array detector. For comparison purpose, a GA algorithm coupled with N-PLS/RBL was also used in this work. In most of the studied cases iSPA-N-PLS proved to be a promising tool for selection of variables in second-order calibration, generating models with smaller RMSEP, when compared to both the global model using all of the sensors in two dimensions and GA-NPLS/RBL. PMID:24456589

  3. Fission Yield Measurements by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Irina Glagolenko; Bruce Hilton; Jeffrey Giglio; Daniel Cummings; Karl Grimm; Richard McKnight

    2009-11-01

    Correct prediction of the fission products inventory in irradiated nuclear fuels is essential for accurate estimation of fuel burnup, establishing proper requirements for spent fuel transportation and storage, materials accountability and nuclear forensics. Such prediction is impossible without accurate knowledge of neutron induced fission yields. Unfortunately, the accuracy of the fission yields reported in the ENDF/B-VII.0 library is not uniform across all of the data and much of the improvement is desired for certain isotopes and fission products. We discuss our measurements of cumulative fission yields in nuclear fuels irradiated in thermal and fast reactor spectra using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

  4. Quantitative aspects of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bulska, Ewa; Wagner, Barbara

    2016-10-28

    Accurate determination of elements in various kinds of samples is essential for many areas, including environmental science, medicine, as well as industry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a powerful tool enabling multi-elemental analysis of numerous matrices with high sensitivity and good precision. Various calibration approaches can be used to perform accurate quantitative measurements by ICP-MS. They include the use of pure standards, matrix-matched standards, or relevant certified reference materials, assuring traceability of the reported results. This review critically evaluates the advantages and limitations of different calibration approaches, which are used in quantitative analyses by ICP-MS. Examples of such analyses are provided.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. PMID:27644971

  5. Quantitative aspects of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulska, Ewa; Wagner, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Accurate determination of elements in various kinds of samples is essential for many areas, including environmental science, medicine, as well as industry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a powerful tool enabling multi-elemental analysis of numerous matrices with high sensitivity and good precision. Various calibration approaches can be used to perform accurate quantitative measurements by ICP-MS. They include the use of pure standards, matrix-matched standards, or relevant certified reference materials, assuring traceability of the reported results. This review critically evaluates the advantages and limitations of different calibration approaches, which are used in quantitative analyses by ICP-MS. Examples of such analyses are provided. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  6. Cold Mass Issues in the MICE Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2011-01-19

    I have identified two potential issues in the design of the attachments to the MICE coupling magnet cold mass. One of these attachment issues may extend into the cold mass. Both issues came to light during the analysis of what happened to the spectrometer solenoids. We must not make the same mistakes that were made on the spectrometer solenoids. The two questions that result from the identified issues are; 1) Are the superconducting low temperature superconducting leads between the coupling coil and the lower end of the high temperature superconducting (LTS) leads robust enough not quench and burn out? In the spectrometer solenoid one part of the LTS lead was not robust enough to prevent quenching and a burn out of the LTS lead and ; 2) Will there be problems with the quench protection resistors and diodes when the magnet quenches as a result of an HTS lead burning out or a disconnect of the magnet from its power supply? The second question is very important because the coupling coil has a large stored energy and inductance. As result, when current flows through the diodes and the resistors, both can be over heated. We observed resistor overheating in spectrometer magnet 2. This heating probably happened when the HTS lead the LTS lead burned out during the tests of magnet 2A and 2B respectively. (See MICE Note 324.) The answer to the first question is simple and straightforward. This is the issue that is primarily dealt with in MICE Note 324. If the resistance across the coil sub-divisions is high enough, the whole magnet will turn normal through quench-back. Making the resistance across a coil sub-division high enough is not simple.

  7. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Uranium Error Propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Maclean, S; Shepley, D; Shaw, R K

    2001-07-01

    The Hazards Control Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP/MS) technology to analyze uranium in urine. The ICP/MS used by the Hazards Control Department is a Perkin-Elmer Elan 6000 ICP/MS. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program requires that the total error be assessed for bioassay measurements. A previous evaluation of the errors associated with the ICP/MS measurement of uranium demonstrated a {+-} 9.6% error in the range of 0.01 to 0.02 {micro}g/l. However, the propagation of total error for concentrations above and below this level have heretofore been undetermined. This document is an evaluation of the errors associated with the current LLNL ICP/MS method for a more expanded range of uranium concentrations.

  8. Coupling Electrochemistry with Probe Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi; Liu, Pengyuan; Held, Michael A; Dewald, Howard D; Chen, Hao

    2016-04-18

    A new coupling of electrochemistry with mass spectrometry (MS) using probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is presented. Due to the high salt tolerance of PESI, the detection of electrochemical reaction products in room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) is realized for the first time. Furthermore, PESI-MS allows the analysis of electrochemical reaction products on different or multiple electrode surfaces. In addition, peptides and proteins fractionated through isoelectric focusing (IEF) in the presence of an external electric field can also be directly analyzed by using PESI-MS, suggesting a new and rapid characterization means for the IEF technique. This study reveals the versatility of EC/PESI-MS, which could have an impact in electrochemistry and bioanalysis fields.

  9. Paper-Based Electrochemical Cell Coupled to Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao-Min; Perry, Richard H.

    2015-08-01

    On-line coupling of electrochemistry (EC) to mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful approach for identifying intermediates and products of EC reactions in situ. In addition, EC transformations have been used to increase ionization efficiency and derivatize analytes prior to MS, improving sensitivity and chemical specificity. Recently, there has been significant interest in developing paper-based electroanalytical devices as they offer convenience, low cost, versatility, and simplicity. This report describes the development of tubular and planar paper-based electrochemical cells (P-EC) coupled to sonic spray ionization (SSI) mass spectrometry (P-EC/SSI-MS). The EC cells are composed of paper sandwiched between two mesh stainless steel electrodes. Analytes and reagents can be added directly to the paper substrate along with electrolyte, or delivered via the SSI microdroplet spray. The EC cells are decoupled from the SSI source, allowing independent control of electrical and chemical parameters. We utilized P-EC/SSI-MS to characterize various EC reactions such as oxidations of cysteine, dopamine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and diphenyl sulfide. Our results show that P-EC/SSI-MS has the ability to increase ionization efficiency, to perform online EC transformations, and to capture intermediates of EC reactions with a response time on the order of hundreds of milliseconds. The short response time allowed detection of a deprotonated diphenyl sulfide intermediate, which experimentally confirms a previously proposed mechanism for EC oxidation of diphenyl sulfide to pseudodimer sulfonium ion. This report introduces paper-based EC/MS via development of two device configurations (tubular and planar electrodes), as well as discusses the capabilities, performance, and limitations of the technique.

  10. Paper-Based Electrochemical Cell Coupled to Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-Min; Perry, Richard H

    2015-10-01

    On-line coupling of electrochemistry (EC) to mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful approach for identifying intermediates and products of EC reactions in situ. In addition, EC transformations have been used to increase ionization efficiency and derivatize analytes prior to MS, improving sensitivity and chemical specificity. Recently, there has been significant interest in developing paper-based electroanalytical devices as they offer convenience, low cost, versatility, and simplicity. This report describes the development of tubular and planar paper-based electrochemical cells (P-EC) coupled to sonic spray ionization (SSI) mass spectrometry (P-EC/SSI-MS). The EC cells are composed of paper sandwiched between two mesh stainless steel electrodes. Analytes and reagents can be added directly to the paper substrate along with electrolyte, or delivered via the SSI microdroplet spray. The EC cells are decoupled from the SSI source, allowing independent control of electrical and chemical parameters. We utilized P-EC/SSI-MS to characterize various EC reactions such as oxidations of cysteine, dopamine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and diphenyl sulfide. Our results show that P-EC/SSI-MS has the ability to increase ionization efficiency, to perform online EC transformations, and to capture intermediates of EC reactions with a response time on the order of hundreds of milliseconds. The short response time allowed detection of a deprotonated diphenyl sulfide intermediate, which experimentally confirms a previously proposed mechanism for EC oxidation of diphenyl sulfide to pseudodimer sulfonium ion. This report introduces paper-based EC/MS via development of two device configurations (tubular and planar electrodes), as well as discusses the capabilities, performance, and limitations of the technique.

  11. Paper-Based Electrochemical Cell Coupled to Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-Min; Perry, Richard H

    2015-10-01

    On-line coupling of electrochemistry (EC) to mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful approach for identifying intermediates and products of EC reactions in situ. In addition, EC transformations have been used to increase ionization efficiency and derivatize analytes prior to MS, improving sensitivity and chemical specificity. Recently, there has been significant interest in developing paper-based electroanalytical devices as they offer convenience, low cost, versatility, and simplicity. This report describes the development of tubular and planar paper-based electrochemical cells (P-EC) coupled to sonic spray ionization (SSI) mass spectrometry (P-EC/SSI-MS). The EC cells are composed of paper sandwiched between two mesh stainless steel electrodes. Analytes and reagents can be added directly to the paper substrate along with electrolyte, or delivered via the SSI microdroplet spray. The EC cells are decoupled from the SSI source, allowing independent control of electrical and chemical parameters. We utilized P-EC/SSI-MS to characterize various EC reactions such as oxidations of cysteine, dopamine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and diphenyl sulfide. Our results show that P-EC/SSI-MS has the ability to increase ionization efficiency, to perform online EC transformations, and to capture intermediates of EC reactions with a response time on the order of hundreds of milliseconds. The short response time allowed detection of a deprotonated diphenyl sulfide intermediate, which experimentally confirms a previously proposed mechanism for EC oxidation of diphenyl sulfide to pseudodimer sulfonium ion. This report introduces paper-based EC/MS via development of two device configurations (tubular and planar electrodes), as well as discusses the capabilities, performance, and limitations of the technique. PMID:26311335

  12. Capillary Electrophoresis-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Michalke, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    During the recent years, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been fully established as a powerful tool in separation sciences as well as in element speciation. This road of success is based on the rapid analysis time, low sample requirements, high separation efficiency, and low operating costs of CE. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is known for superior detection and multielement capability. Consequently, the combination of both instruments is approved for analysis of complex sample types at low element concentrations which require high detection power. Also the diversity of potential applications brings CE-ICP-MS coupling into central focus of element speciation. The key to successful combination of ICP-MS as an (multi-)element selective detector for CE is the availability of a suitable and effective interface.Therefore, this chapter summarizes the most important and basic principles about coupling of capillary electrophoresis to ICP-MS. Specifically, the major requirements for interfacing are described and technical solutions are given. Such solutions include the closing of the electrical circuit from CE at the nebulization, the adoption of flow rates for efficient nebulization, the reduction of a suction flow through the capillary, caused by the nebulizer, and maintaining the high separation resolution from CE across the interface for ICP-MS detection. Additionally, detailed information is presented to determine and quantify the siphoning suction through the CE capillary by the nebulizer. Finally, two applications, namely, the manganese and selenium speciation in cerebrospinal fluid are shown as examples, providing the relevant operational parameter. PMID:27645737

  13. Extra vectorlike matter and the lightest Higgs scalar boson mass in low-energy supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Stephen P.

    2010-02-01

    The lightest Higgs scalar boson mass in supersymmetry can be raised significantly by extra vectorlike quark and lepton supermultiplets with large Yukawa couplings but dominantly electroweak-singlet masses. I consider models of this type that maintain perturbative gauge coupling unification. The impact of the new particles on precision electroweak observables is found to be moderate, with the fit to Z-pole data as good or better than that of the standard model even if the new Yukawa couplings are as large as their fixed-point values and the extra vectorlike quark masses are as light as 400 GeV. I study the size of corrections to the lightest Higgs boson mass, taking into account the fixed-point behavior of the scalar trilinear couplings. I also discuss the decay branching ratios of the lightest new quarks and leptons and general features of the resulting collider signatures.

  14. Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoshan

    1995-07-07

    The inductively coupled plasma is an electrodeless discharge in a gas (usually Ar) at atmospheric pressure. Radio frequency energy generated by a RF power source is inductively coupled to the plasma gas through a water cooled load coil. In ICP-MS the {open_quotes}Fassel{close_quotes} TAX quartz torch commonly used in emission is mounted horizontally. The sample aerosol is introduced into the central flow, where the gas kinetic temperature is about 5000 K. The aerosol is vaporized, atomized, excited and ionized in the plasma, and the ions are subsequently extracted through two metal apertures (sampler and skimmer) into the mass spectrometer. In ICP-MS, the matrix effects, or non-spectroscopic interferences, can be defined as the type of interferences caused by dissolved concomitant salt ions in the solution. Matrix effects can be divided into two categories: (1) signal drift due to the deposition of solids on the sampling apertures; and/or (2) signal suppression or enhancement by the presence of the dissolved salts. The first category is now reasonably understood. The dissolved salts, especially refractory oxides, tend to deposit on the cool tip of the sampling cone. The clogging of the orifices reduces the ion flow into the ICP-MS, lowers the pressure in the first stage of ICP-MS, and enhances the level of metal oxide ions. Because the extent of the clogging increases with the time, the signal drifts down. Even at the very early stage of the development of ICP-MS, matrix effects had been observed. Houk et al. found out that the ICP-MS was not tolerant to solutions containing significant amounts of dissolved solids.

  15. Uranium quantification in semen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Todor I; Ejnik, John W; Guandalini, Gustavo; Xu, Hanna; Hoover, Dennis; Anderson, Larry; Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A; Centeno, Jose A

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report uranium analysis for human semen samples. Uranium quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No additives, such as chymotrypsin or bovine serum albumin, were used for semen liquefaction, as they showed significant uranium content. For method validation we spiked 2g aliquots of pooled control semen at three different levels of uranium: low at 5 pg/g, medium at 50 pg/g, and high at 1000 pg/g. The detection limit was determined to be 0.8 pg/g uranium in human semen. The data reproduced within 1.4-7% RSD and spike recoveries were 97-100%. The uranium level of the unspiked, pooled control semen was 2.9 pg/g of semen (n=10). In addition six semen samples from a cohort of Veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU) in the 1991 Gulf War were analyzed with no knowledge of their exposure history. Uranium levels in the Veterans' semen samples ranged from undetectable (<0.8 pg/g) to 3350 pg/g. This wide concentration range for uranium in semen is consistent with known differences in current DU body burdens in these individuals, some of whom have retained embedded DU fragments.

  16. Gold fingerprinting by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watling, R. John; Herbert, Hugh K.; Delev, Dianne; Abell, Ian D.

    1994-02-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been applied to the characterization of the trace element composition "fingerprint" of selected gold samples from Western Australia and South Africa. By comparison of the elemental associations it is possible to relate gold to a specific mineralizing event, mine or bullion sample. This methodology facilitates identification of the provenance of stolen gold or gold used in salting activities. In this latter case, it is common for gold from a number of sources to be used in the salting process. Consequently, gold in the prospect being salted will not come from a single source and identification of multiple sources for this gold will establish that salting has occurred. Preliminary results also indicate that specific elemental associations could be used to identify the country of origin of gold. The technique has already been applied in 17 cases involving gold theft in Western Australia, where it is estimated that up to 2% of gold production is "relocated" each year as a result of criminal activities.

  17. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-03-02

    We used an electrostatic size classification technique to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Moreover, we counted size-segregated particles with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized bymore » the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10-5 to 10-11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer theory was

  18. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-05-01

    An electrostatic size classification technique was used to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Size-segregated particles were counted with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized by the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10- 5 to 10- 11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer theory was applied, but

  19. A propulsion-mass tensor coupling in relativistic rocket motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Hector Hugo

    1998-01-01

    Following earlier speculations about antigravity machines and works on the relativistic dynamics of constant and variable rest mass point particles, a mass tensor is found in connection with the closed system consisting of the rocket driven spaceship and its propellant mass, provided a ``solidification'' point other than the system center of mass is considered. Therefore, the mass tensor form depends on whether the system is open or closed, and upon where the ``solidification'' point is located. An alternative propulsion principle is subsequently derived from the tensor mass approach. The new principle, the covariant equivalent of Newton's Third Law for the physical interpretation of the relativistic rocket motion, reads: A spaceship undergoes a propulsion effect when the whole system mass 4-ellipsoid warps.

  20. Estimating impacts of land use on groundwater quality using trilinear analysis.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ying; Zhang, Jia En; Cui, Lihua

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater is connected to the landscape above and is thus affected by the overlaying land uses. This study evaluated the impacts of land uses upon groundwater quality using trilinear analysis. Trilinear analysis is a display of experimental data in a triangular graph. Groundwater quality data collected from agricultural, septic tank, forest, and wastewater land uses for a 6-year period were used for the analysis. Results showed that among the three nitrogen species (i.e., nitrate and nitrite (NO(x)), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and total organic nitrogen (TON)), NO(x) had a high percentage and was a dominant species in the groundwater beneath the septic tank lands, whereas TON was a major species in groundwater beneath the forest lands. Among the three phosphorus species, namely the particulate phosphorus (PP), dissolved ortho phosphorus (PO4(3-)) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), there was a high percentage of PP in the groundwater beneath the septic tank, forest, and agricultural lands. In general, Ca was a dominant cation in the groundwater beneath the septic tank lands, whereas Na was a dominant cation in the groundwater beneath the forest lands. For the three major anions (i.e., F(-), Cl(-), and SO4(2-)), F(-) accounted for <1% of the total anions in the groundwater beneath the forest, wastewater, and agricultural lands. Impacts of land uses on groundwater Cd and Cr distributions were not profound. This study suggests that trilinear analysis is a useful technique to characterize the relationship between land use and groundwater quality.

  1. Mass sensing based on deterministic and stochastic responses of elastically coupled nanocantilevers.

    PubMed

    Gil-Santos, Eduardo; Ramos, Daniel; Jana, Anirban; Calleja, Montserrat; Raman, Arvind; Tamayo, Javier

    2009-12-01

    Coupled nanomechanical systems and their entangled eigenstates offer unique opportunities for the detection of ultrasmall masses. In this paper we show theoretically and experimentally that the stochastic and deterministic responses of a pair of coupled nanocantilevers provide different and complementary information about the added mass of an analyte and its location. This method allows the sensitive detection of minute quantities of mass even in the presence of large initial differences in the active masses of the two cantilevers. Finally, we show the fundamental limits in mass detection of this sensing paradigm.

  2. Capillary LC Coupled with High-Mass Measurement Accuracy Mass Spectrometry for Metabolic Profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Jie; Sorensen, Christina M.; Zhang, Qibin; Jiang, Hongliang; Jaitly, Navdeep; Livesay, Eric A.; Shen, Yufeng; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2007-08-15

    We have developed an efficient and robust high-pressure capillary LC-MS method for the identification of large numbers of metabolites in biological samples using both positive and negative ESI modes. Initial efforts focused on optimizing the separations conditions for metabolite extracts using various LC stationary phases in conjunction with multiple mobile phase systems, as applied to the separation of 45 metabolite standards. The optimal mobile and stationary phases of those tested were determined experimentally (in terms of peak shapes, theoretical plates, retention of small, polar compounds, etc.), and both linear and exponential gradients were applied in the study of metabolite extracts from the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. Finally, an automated dual-capillary LC system was constructed and evaluated for the effectiveness and reproducibility of the chromatographic separations using the above samples. When coupled with a commercial LTQ-Orbitrap MS, ~900 features were reproducibly detected from Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 metabolite extracts. In addition, 12 compounds were tentatively identified, based on accurate mass, isotopic distribution, and MS/MS information.

  3. RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: Dimensionless coupling of bulk scalars at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchemin, P.-H.; Azuelos, G.; Burgess, C. P.

    2004-10-01

    We identify the lowest-dimension interaction which is possible between standard model brane fields and bulk scalars in six dimensions. The lowest-dimension interaction is unique and involves a trilinear coupling between the standard model Higgs boson and the bulk scalar. Because this interaction has a dimensionless coupling, it depends only logarithmically on ultraviolet mass scales and heavy physics need not decouple from it. We compute its influence on Higgs physics at ATLAS and identify how large a coupling can be detected at the LHC. Besides providing a potentially interesting signal in Higgs-boson searches, such couplings provide a major observational constraint on 6D large-extra-dimensional models with scalars in the bulk.

  4. Determination of plutonium in urine: evaluation of electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrzak, R.; Kaplan, E.

    1996-11-01

    Mass spectroscopy has the distinct advantage of detecting atoms rather than radioactive decay products for nuclides of low specific activity. Electrothermal vaporization (ETV) is an efficient means of introducing small volumes of prepared samples into an inductively coupled mass spectrometer to achieve the lowest absolute detection limits. The operational characteristics and capabilities of electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled mass spectrometer mass spectroscopy were evaluated. We describe its application as a detection method for determining Pu in urine, in conjunction with a preliminary separation technique to avoid matrix suppression of the signal.

  5. Quantization of scalar fields coupled to point masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero G, J. Fernando; Juárez-Aubry, Benito A.; Margalef-Bentabol, Juan; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S.

    2015-12-01

    We study the Fock quantization of a compound classical system consisting of point masses and a scalar field. We consider the Hamiltonian formulation of the model by using the geometric constraint algorithm of Gotay, Nester and Hinds. By relying on this Hamiltonian description, we characterize in a precise way the real Hilbert space of classical solutions to the equations of motion and use it to rigorously construct the Fock space of the system. We finally discuss the structure of this space, in particular the impossibility of writing it in a natural way as a tensor product of Hilbert spaces associated with the point masses and the field, respectively.

  6. Do WMAP data favor neutrino mass and a coupling between Cold Dark Matter and Dark Energy?

    SciTech Connect

    Bonometto, S. A.; La Vacca, G.; Kristiansen, J. R.; Mainini, R.; Colombo, L. P. L.

    2010-06-23

    We fit WMAP5 and related data by allowing for a CDM-DE coupling and non-zero neutrino masses, simultaneously. We find a significant correlation between these parameters, so that simultaneous higher coupling and {nu}-masses are allowed. Furthermore, models with a significant coupling and {nu}-mass are statistically favoured in respect to a cosmology with no coupling and negligible neutrino mass (our best fits are: C{approx}1/2 m{sub p}, m{sub {nu}{approx}0}.12 eV per flavor). We use a standard Monte Carlo Markov Chain approach, by assuming DE to be a scalar field self-interacting through Ratra-Peebles or SUGRA potentials.

  7. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry and the European Discovery of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houk, R. S.

    2000-05-01

    The background and initial experimental results in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are juxtaposed with similar events from the voyages of Christopher Columbus, particularly with the first voyage.

  8. Aspect of Fermion Mass Hierarchy within Flavor Democracy for Yukawa Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Katsuichi; Yamamoto, Katsuji

    We discuss the fermion mass hierarchy by including vector-like fermions which are accommodated in E6 GUTs within flavor democracy for Yukawa couplings. In this framework, all Yukawa couplings for the standard Higgs doublet have the same strength, and all Yukawa couplings for the singlet Higgs have the same strength (New ansatz). In addition, singlet Higgs and right-handed neutrinos exist. Under this condition, the mass hierarchy mt ≫ mb ˜ mτ as well as mt ≫ mc, mu can be naturally explained.

  9. Interactive effects of mass proportions and coupling properties on external loading in simulated forefoot impact landings.

    PubMed

    Gittoes, Marianne J R; Kerwin, David G

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to gain insight into the individual and interactive effects of segmental mass proportions and coupling properties on external loading in simulated forefoot landings. An evaluated four-segment wobbling mass model replicated forefoot drop landings (height: 0.46 m) performed by two subjects. A comparison of the peak impact forces (GFzmax) produced during the evaluated landing and further simulated landings performed using modified (+/-5% perturbation) mass proportions and coupling properties was made. Independent segmental mass proportion changes, particularly in the upper body, produced a prominent change in GFzmax of up to 0.32 bodyweight (BW) whereas independent mass coupling stiffness and damping alterations had less effect on GFzmax (change in GFzmax of up to 0.18 BW). When combining rigid mass proportion reductions with damping modifications, an additional GFzmax attenuation of up to 0.13 BW was produced. An individual may be predisposed to high loading and traumatic and overuse injury during forefoot landings owing to their inherent inertia profile. Subject-specific neuromuscular modifications to mass coupling properties may not be beneficial in overriding the increased forces associated with larger rigid mass proportions. PMID:19827473

  10. Leptogenesis in a neutrino mass model coupled with inflaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Daijiro

    2016-09-01

    We propose a scenario for the generation of baryon number asymmetry based on the inflaton decay in a radiative neutrino mass model extended with singlet scalars. In this scenario, lepton number asymmetry is produced through the decay of non-thermal right-handed neutrinos caused from the inflaton decay. Since the amount of non-thermal right-handed neutrinos could be much larger than the thermal ones, the scenario could work without any resonance effect for rather low reheating temperature. Sufficient baryon number asymmetry can be generated for much lighter right-handed neutrinos compared with the Davidson-Ibarra bound.

  11. MICROSCALE FLOW INJECTION AND MICROBORE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATORGRAPHY COUPLED WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY VIA A HIGH-EFFICIENCY NEBULIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high-effeciency nebulizer has been used for coupling microscale flow injection and microbore high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The microscale flow injection system was configured to minimize band broadening between...

  12. Vectorlike W± -boson coupling at TeV and third family fermion masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, She-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    In the third fermion family and gauge symmetry of the Standard Model, we study the quark-quark, lepton-lepton and quark-lepton four-fermion operators in an effective theory at high energies. These operators have nontrivial contributions to the Schwinger-Dyson equations for fermion self-energy functions and the W±-boson coupling vertex. As a result, the top-quark mass is generated via the spontaneous symmetry breaking of ⟨t ¯t ⟩-condensate and the W±-boson coupling becomes approximately vectorlike at TeV scale. The bottom-quark, tau-lepton and tau-neutrino masses are generated via the explicit symmetry breaking of W±-contributions and quark-lepton interactions. Their masses and Yukawa couplings are functions of the top-quark mass and Yukawa coupling. We qualitatively show the hierarchy of fermion masses and Yukawa couplings of the third fermion family. We also discuss the possible collider signatures due to the vectorlike (parity-restoration) feature of W±-boson coupling at high energies.

  13. Coupling of Ultrafast LC with Mass Spectrometry by DESI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yi; Liu, Yong; Helmy, Roy; Chen, Hao

    2014-10-01

    Recently we reported a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) interface to combine liquid chromatography (LC) with mass spectrometry (MS) using a new LC eluent splitting strategy through a tiny orifice on LC capillary tube [ J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 25, 286 (2014)]. The interface introduces negligible dead volume and back pressure, thereby allowing "near real-time" MS detection, fast LC elution, and online MS-directed purification. This study further evaluates the LC/DESI-MS performance with focus of using ultra-fast LC. Using a monolithic C18 column, metabolites in urine can be separated within 1.6 min and can be online collected for subsequent structure elucidation (e.g., by NMR, UV, IR) in a recovery yield up to 99%. Using a spray solvent with alkaline pH, negative ions could be directly generated for acidic analytes (e.g., ibuprofen) in acidic LC eluent by DESI, offering a novel protocol to realize "wrong-way around" ionization for LC/MS analysis. In addition, DESI-MS is found to be compatible with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) for the first time.

  14. Exact Mass-Coupling Relation for the Homogeneous Sine-Gordon Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2016-05-01

    We derive the exact mass-coupling relation of the simplest multiscale quantum integrable model, i.e., the homogeneous sine-Gordon model with two mass scales. The relation is obtained by comparing the perturbed conformal field theory description of the model valid at short distances to the large distance bootstrap description based on the model's integrability. In particular, we find a differential equation for the relation by constructing conserved tensor currents, which satisfy a generalization of the Θ sum rule Ward identity. The mass-coupling relation is written in terms of hypergeometric functions.

  15. Microfluidics-to-Mass Spectrometry: A review of coupling methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Yi, Lian; Mukhitov, Nikita; Schrell, Adrian M.; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Roper, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices offer great advantages in integrating sample processes, minimizing sample and reagent volumes, and increasing analysis speed, while mass spectrometry detection provides high information content, is sensitive, and can be used in quantitative analyses. The coupling of microfluidic devices to mass spectrometers is becoming more common with the strengths of both systems being combined to analyze precious and complex samples. This review summarizes select achievements published between 2010 – July 2014 in novel coupling between microfluidic devices and mass spectrometers. The review is subdivided by the types of ionization sources employed, and the different microfluidic systems used. PMID:25458901

  16. Electrochemical generation of selegiline metabolites coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mielczarek, Przemyslaw; Smoluch, Marek; Kotlinska, Jolanta H; Labuz, Krzysztof; Gotszalk, Teodor; Babij, Michal; Suder, Piotr; Silberring, Jerzy

    2015-04-10

    The metabolic pathways of selegiline (a drug used for the treatment of early-stage Parkinson's disease) were analyzed by electrochemical oxidation with application of the flow electrochemical cell consisting of three electrodes (ROXY™, Antec, the Netherlands). Two types of working electrodes were applied: glassy carbon (GC) and boron-doped diamond (BDD). The potential applied at working electrode and composition of the solvent were optimized for the best conditions for oxidation and identification processes. All products were directly analyzed on-line by mass spectrometry. For further characterization of electrochemical oxidation products, the novel approach involving reversed phase chromatography linked to mass spectrometry with dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI-MS) was used. In this manuscript, we report a novel technique for simulation of drug metabolism by electrochemical system (EC) connected to liquid chromatography (LC) and dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) mass spectrometry (MS) for direct on-line detection of electrochemical oxidation products. Here, we linked LC/DBDI-MS system with an electrochemical flow cell in order to study metabolic pathways via identification of drug metabolites generated electrochemically. The DBDI source has never been used before for identification of psychoactive metabolites generated in an electrochemical flow cell. Our knowledge on the biological background of xenobiotics metabolism and its influence on human body is constantly increasing, but still many mechanisms are not explained. Nowadays, metabolism of pharmaceuticals is mainly studied using liver cells prepared from animals or humans. Cytochrome P450, present in microsomes, is primarily responsible for oxidative metabolism of xenobiotics. It was also shown, that breakdown of popular medicines may be successfully simulated by electrochemistry under appropriate conditions. The presented experiments allow for comparison of these two entirely

  17. On the mass-coupling relation of multi-scale quantum integrable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    We determine exactly the mass-coupling relation for the simplest multi-scale quantum integrable model, the homogenous sine-Gordon model with two independent mass-scales. We first reformulate its perturbed coset CFT description in terms of the perturbation of a projected product of minimal models. This representation enables us to identify conserved tensor currents on the UV side. These UV operators are then mapped via form factor perturbation theory to operators on the IR side, which are characterized by their form factors. The relation between the UV and IR operators is given in terms of the sought-for mass-coupling relation. By generalizing the Θ sum rule Ward identity we are able to derive differential equations for the mass-coupling relation, which we solve in terms of hypergeometric functions. We check these results against the data obtained by numerically solving the thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations, and find a complete agreement.

  18. SU-F-BRD-03: Determination of Plan Robustness for Systematic Setup Errors Using Trilinear Interpolation

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, MK; Volken, W; Frei, D; Terribilini, D; Dal Pra, A; Schmuecking, M; Manser, P

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Treatment plan evaluations in radiotherapy are currently ignoring the dosimetric impact of setup uncertainties. The determination of the robustness for systematic errors is rather computational intensive. This work investigates interpolation schemes to quantify the robustness of treatment plans for systematic errors in terms of efficiency and accuracy. Methods: The impact of systematic errors on dose distributions for patient treatment plans is determined by using the Swiss Monte Carlo Plan (SMCP). Errors in all translational directions are considered, ranging from −3 to +3 mm in mm steps. For each systematic error a full MC dose calculation is performed leading to 343 dose calculations, used as benchmarks. The interpolation uses only a subset of the 343 calculations, namely 9, 15 or 27, and determines all dose distributions by trilinear interpolation. This procedure is applied for a prostate and a head and neck case using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy with 2 arcs. The relative differences of the dose volume histograms (DVHs) of the target and the organs at risks are compared. Finally, the interpolation schemes are used to compare robustness of 4- versus 2-arcs in the head and neck treatment plan. Results: Relative local differences of the DVHs increase for decreasing number of dose calculations used in the interpolation. The mean deviations are <1%, 3.5% and 6.5% for a subset of 27, 15 and 9 used dose calculations, respectively. Thereby the dose computation times are reduced by factors of 13, 25 and 43, respectively. The comparison of the 4- versus 2-arcs plan shows a decrease in robustness; however, this is outweighed by the dosimetric improvements. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the use of trilinear interpolation to determine the robustness of treatment plans can remarkably reduce the number of dose calculations. This work was supported by Varian Medical Systems. This work was supported by Varian Medical Systems.

  19. Mid Pleistocene foraminiferal mass extinction coupled with phytoplankton evolution.

    PubMed

    Kender, Sev; McClymont, Erin L; Elmore, Aurora C; Emanuele, Dario; Leng, Melanie J; Elderfield, Henry

    2016-06-17

    Understanding the interaction between climate and biotic evolution is crucial for deciphering the sensitivity of life. An enigmatic mass extinction occurred in the deep oceans during the Mid Pleistocene, with a loss of over 100 species (20%) of sea floor calcareous foraminifera. An evolutionarily conservative group, benthic foraminifera often comprise >50% of eukaryote biomass on the deep-ocean floor. Here we test extinction hypotheses (temperature, corrosiveness and productivity) in the Tasman Sea, using geochemistry and micropalaeontology, and find evidence from several globally distributed sites that the extinction was caused by a change in phytoplankton food source. Coccolithophore evolution may have enhanced the seasonal 'bloom' nature of primary productivity and fundamentally shifted it towards a more intra-annually variable state at ∼0.8 Ma. Our results highlight intra-annual variability as a potential new consideration for Mid Pleistocene global biogeochemical climate models, and imply that deep-sea biota may be sensitive to future changes in productivity.

  20. Mid Pleistocene foraminiferal mass extinction coupled with phytoplankton evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kender, Sev; McClymont, Erin L.; Elmore, Aurora C.; Emanuele, Dario; Leng, Melanie J.; Elderfield, Henry

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the interaction between climate and biotic evolution is crucial for deciphering the sensitivity of life. An enigmatic mass extinction occurred in the deep oceans during the Mid Pleistocene, with a loss of over 100 species (20%) of sea floor calcareous foraminifera. An evolutionarily conservative group, benthic foraminifera often comprise >50% of eukaryote biomass on the deep-ocean floor. Here we test extinction hypotheses (temperature, corrosiveness and productivity) in the Tasman Sea, using geochemistry and micropalaeontology, and find evidence from several globally distributed sites that the extinction was caused by a change in phytoplankton food source. Coccolithophore evolution may have enhanced the seasonal `bloom' nature of primary productivity and fundamentally shifted it towards a more intra-annually variable state at ~0.8 Ma. Our results highlight intra-annual variability as a potential new consideration for Mid Pleistocene global biogeochemical climate models, and imply that deep-sea biota may be sensitive to future changes in productivity.

  1. Mode-shape-based mass detection scheme using mechanically diverse, indirectly coupled microresonator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glean, Aldo A.; Judge, John A.; Vignola, Joseph F.; Ryan, Teresa J.

    2015-02-01

    We explore vibration localization in arrays of microresonators used for ultrasensitive mass detection and describe an algorithm for identifying the location and amount of added mass using measurements of a vibration mode of the system. For a set of sensing elements coupled through a common shuttle mass, the inter-element coupling is shown to be proportional to the ratio of the element masses to the shuttle mass and to vary with the frequency mistuning between any two sensing elements. When any two elements have sufficiently similar frequencies, mass adsorption on one element can result in measurable changes to multiple modes of the system. We describe the effects on system frequencies and mode shapes due to added mass, in terms of mass ratio and frequency spacing. In cases in which modes are not fully localized, frequency-shift-based mass detection methods may give ambiguous results. The mode-shape-based detection algorithm presented uses a single measured mode shape and corresponding natural frequency to identify the location and amount of added mass. Mass detection in the presence of measurement noise is numerically simulated using a ten element sensor array. The accuracy of the detection scheme is shown to depend on the amplitude with which each element vibrates in the chosen mode.

  2. Mid Pleistocene foraminiferal mass extinction coupled with phytoplankton evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kender, Sev; McClymont, Erin L.; Elmore, Aurora C.; Emanuele, Dario; Leng, Melanie J.; Elderfield, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between climate and biotic evolution is crucial for deciphering the sensitivity of life. An enigmatic mass extinction occurred in the deep oceans during the Mid Pleistocene, with a loss of over 100 species (20%) of sea floor calcareous foraminifera. An evolutionarily conservative group, benthic foraminifera often comprise >50% of eukaryote biomass on the deep-ocean floor. Here we test extinction hypotheses (temperature, corrosiveness and productivity) in the Tasman Sea, using geochemistry and micropalaeontology, and find evidence from several globally distributed sites that the extinction was caused by a change in phytoplankton food source. Coccolithophore evolution may have enhanced the seasonal ‘bloom' nature of primary productivity and fundamentally shifted it towards a more intra-annually variable state at ∼0.8 Ma. Our results highlight intra-annual variability as a potential new consideration for Mid Pleistocene global biogeochemical climate models, and imply that deep-sea biota may be sensitive to future changes in productivity. PMID:27311937

  3. Coupling of Thermal Mass with Night Ventilation in Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endurthy, Akhilesh Reddy

    Passive cooling designs & technologies offer great promise to lower energy use in buildings. Though the working principles of these designs and technologies are well understood, simplified tools to quantitatively evaluate their performance are lacking. Cooling by night ventilation, which is the topic of this research, is one of the well known passive cooling technologies. The building's thermal mass can be cooled at night by ventilating the inside of the space with the relatively lower outdoor air temperatures, thereby maintaining lower indoor temperatures during the warmer daytime period. Numerous studies, both experimental and theoretical, have been performed and have shown the effectiveness of the method to significantly reduce air conditioning loads or improve comfort levels in those climates where the night time ambient air temperature drops below that of the indoor air. The impact of widespread adoption of night ventilation cooling can be substantial, given the large fraction of energy consumed by air conditioning of buildings (about 12-13% of the total electricity use in U.S. buildings). Night ventilation is relatively easy to implement with minimal design changes to existing buildings. Contemporary mathematical models to evaluate the performance of night ventilation are embedded in detailed whole building simulation tools which require a certain amount of expertise and is a time consuming approach.

  4. Mid Pleistocene foraminiferal mass extinction coupled with phytoplankton evolution.

    PubMed

    Kender, Sev; McClymont, Erin L; Elmore, Aurora C; Emanuele, Dario; Leng, Melanie J; Elderfield, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between climate and biotic evolution is crucial for deciphering the sensitivity of life. An enigmatic mass extinction occurred in the deep oceans during the Mid Pleistocene, with a loss of over 100 species (20%) of sea floor calcareous foraminifera. An evolutionarily conservative group, benthic foraminifera often comprise >50% of eukaryote biomass on the deep-ocean floor. Here we test extinction hypotheses (temperature, corrosiveness and productivity) in the Tasman Sea, using geochemistry and micropalaeontology, and find evidence from several globally distributed sites that the extinction was caused by a change in phytoplankton food source. Coccolithophore evolution may have enhanced the seasonal 'bloom' nature of primary productivity and fundamentally shifted it towards a more intra-annually variable state at ∼0.8 Ma. Our results highlight intra-annual variability as a potential new consideration for Mid Pleistocene global biogeochemical climate models, and imply that deep-sea biota may be sensitive to future changes in productivity. PMID:27311937

  5. Design and Analyisi of a Self-centered Cold Mass Support for the MICE Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Li, S. Y.; Guo, Xing Long; Zheng, Shi Xian; Green, Michael A.

    2011-05-04

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) consists of eighteen superconducting solenoid coils in seven modules, which are magnetically hooked together since there is no iron to shield the coils and the return flux. The RF coupling coil (RFCC) module consists of a superconducting coupling solenoid mounted around four conventional conducting 201.25 MHz closed RF cavities. The coupling coil will produce up to a 2.2 T magnetic field on the centerline to keep the beam within the RF cavities. The peak magnetic force on the coupling magnet from other magnets in MICE is up to 500 kN in longitudinal direction, which will be transferred to the base of the RF coupling coil (RFCC) module through a cold mass support system. A self-centered double-band cold mass support system with intermediate thermal interruption is applied to the coupling magnet, and the design is introduced in detail in this paper. The thermal and structural analysis on the cold mass support assembly has been carried out using ANSYS. The present design of the cold mass support can satisfy with the stringent requirements for the magnet center and axis azimuthal angle at 4.2 K and fully charged.

  6. Coupled Gravity and Elevation Measurement of Ice Sheet Mass Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, K. C.; Baumgartner, F.

    2005-01-01

    During June 2003, we measured surface gravity at six locations about a glaciological measurement site located on the South-central Greenland Ice. We operated a GPS unit for 90 minutes at each site -the unit was operated simultaneously with a base station unit in Sondrestrom Fjord so as to enable differential, post-processing of the data. We installed an aluminum, accumulation-rate-pole at each site. The base section of the pole also served as the mount for the GPS antenna. Two gravimeters were used simultaneously at each site. Measurements were repeated at each site with at time lapse of at least 50 minutes. We measured snow physical properties in two shallow pits The same measurement sites were occupied in 1981 and all were part of a hexagonal network of geodetic and glaciological measurements established by The Ohio State University in 1980. Additional gravity observations were acquired at three of the sites in 1993 and 1995. Gravity data were collected in conjunction with Doppler satellite measurements of position and elevation in 1981 and global positioning system measurements subsequently. The use of satellite navigation techniques permitted reoccupation of the same sites in each year to within a few 10 s of meters or better. After detrending the gravity data, making adjustments for tides and removing the residual effects of local spatial gradients in gravity, we observe an average secular decrease in gravity of about 0.01 milligal/year, but with tenths of milligal variations about the mean trend. The trend is consistent with a nearly linear increase in surface elevation of between 7 to 10 c d y r (depending on location) as measured by repeated airborne laser altimeter, surface Doppler satellite and GPS elevation measurements. Differences between the residual gravity anomalies after free air correction may be attributable to local mass changes. This project is a collaboration between the Byrd Polar Research Center of the Ohio State University and the Arctic

  7. Mass spectrometry based on a coupled Cooper-pair box and nanomechanical resonator system

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nanomechanical resonators (NRs) with very high frequency have a great potential for mass sensing with unprecedented sensitivity. In this study, we propose a scheme for mass sensing based on the NR capacitively coupled to a Cooper-pair box (CPB) driven by two microwave currents. The accreted mass landing on the resonator can be measured conveniently by tracking the resonance frequency shifts because of mass changes in the signal absorption spectrum. We demonstrate that frequency shifts induced by adsorption of ten 1587 bp DNA molecules can be well resolved in the absorption spectrum. Integration with the CPB enables capacitive readout of the mechanical resonance directly on the chip. PMID:22039926

  8. Evaluation of Inductively Couple Plasma-time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Laser Ablation Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Bajic; D.B. Aeschliman; D.P. Baldwin; R.S. Houk

    2003-09-30

    The purpose of this trip to LECO Corporation was to test the non-matrix matched calibration method and the principal component analysis (PCA) method on a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOFMS) system. An LA-ICP-TOFMS system allows for multielement single-shot analysis as well as spatial analysis on small samples, because the TOFMS acquires an entire mass spectrum for all ions extracted simultaneously from the ICP. The TOFMS system differs from the double-focusing mass spectrometer, on which the above methods were developed, by having lower sensitivity and lower mass resolution.

  9. Mass spectrometry based on a coupled Cooper-pair box and nanomechanical resonator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cheng; Chen, Bin; Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2011-10-01

    Nanomechanical resonators (NRs) with very high frequency have a great potential for mass sensing with unprecedented sensitivity. In this study, we propose a scheme for mass sensing based on the NR capacitively coupled to a Cooper-pair box (CPB) driven by two microwave currents. The accreted mass landing on the resonator can be measured conveniently by tracking the resonance frequency shifts because of mass changes in the signal absorption spectrum. We demonstrate that frequency shifts induced by adsorption of ten 1587 bp DNA molecules can be well resolved in the absorption spectrum. Integration with the CPB enables capacitive readout of the mechanical resonance directly on the chip.

  10. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in metabolomics research: mass analyzers in ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupling.

    PubMed

    Forcisi, Sara; Moritz, Franco; Kanawati, Basem; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Lehmann, Rainer; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2013-05-31

    The present review gives an introduction into the concept of metabolomics and provides an overview of the analytical tools applied in non-targeted metabolomics with a focus on liquid chromatography (LC). LC is a powerful analytical tool in the study of complex sample matrices. A further development and configuration employing Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is optimized to provide the largest known liquid chromatographic resolution and peak capacity. Reasonably UHPLC plays an important role in separation and consequent metabolite identification of complex molecular mixtures such as bio-fluids. The most sensitive detectors for these purposes are mass spectrometers. Almost any mass analyzer can be optimized to identify and quantify small pre-defined sets of targets; however, the number of analytes in metabolomics is far greater. Optimized protocols for quantification of large sets of targets may be rendered inapplicable. Results on small target set analyses on different sample matrices are easily comparable with each other. In non-targeted metabolomics there is almost no analytical method which is applicable to all different matrices due to limitations pertaining to mass analyzers and chromatographic tools. The specifications of the most important interfaces and mass analyzers are discussed. We additionally provide an exemplary application in order to demonstrate the level of complexity which remains intractable up to date. The potential of coupling a high field Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (ICR-FT/MS), the mass analyzer with the largest known mass resolving power, to UHPLC is given with an example of one human pre-treated plasma sample. This experimental example illustrates one way of overcoming the necessity of faster scanning rates in the coupling with UHPLC. The experiment enabled the extraction of thousands of features (analytical signals). A small subset of this compositional space could be mapped into a mass

  11. Raising the Higgs mass with Yukawa couplings for isotriplets in vectorlike extensions of minimal supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Stephen P.

    2010-09-01

    Extra vectorlike matter with both electroweak-singlet masses and large Yukawa couplings can significantly raise the lightest Higgs boson mass in supersymmetry through radiative corrections. I consider models of this type that involve a large Yukawa coupling between weak isotriplet and isodoublet chiral supermultiplets. The particle content can be completed to provide perturbative gauge coupling unification, in several different ways. The impact on precision electroweak observables is shown to be acceptably small, even if the new particles are as light as the current experimental bounds of order 100 GeV. I study the corrections to the lightest Higgs boson mass, and discuss the general features of the collider signatures for the new fermions in these models.

  12. 3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process.

    PubMed

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist V; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-04-01

    A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer describing oven roasting of meat has been developed from first principles. The proposed mechanism for the mass transfer of water is modified and based on a critical literature review of the effect of heat on meat. The model equations are based on a conservation of mass and energy, coupled through Darcy's equations of porous media - the water flow is mainly pressure-driven. The developed model together with theoretical and experimental assessments were used to explain the heat and water transport and the effect of the change in microstructure (permeability, water binding capacity and elastic modulus) that occur during the meat roasting process. The developed coupled partial differential equations were solved by using COMSOL Multiphysics®3.5 and state variables are predicted as functions of both position and time. The proposed mechanism was partially validated by experiments in a convection oven where temperatures were measured online.

  13. Quark masses and strong coupling constant in 2 +1 flavor QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maezawa, Y.; Petreczky, P.

    2016-08-01

    We present a determination of the strange, charm, and bottom quark masses as well as the strong coupling constant in 2 +1 flavor lattice QCD simulations using highly improved staggered quark action. The ratios of the charm quark mass to the strange quark mass and the bottom quark mass to the charm quark mass are obtained from the meson masses calculated on the lattice and found to be mc/ms=11.877 (91 ) and mb/mc=4.528 (57 ) in the continuum limit. We also determine the strong coupling constant and the charm quark mass using the moments of pseudoscalar charmonium correlators: αs(μ =mc)=0.3697 (85 ) and mc(μ =mc)=1.267 (12 ) GeV . Our result for αs corresponds to the determination of the strong coupling constant at the lowest energy scale so far and is translated to the value αs(μ =MZ,nf=5 )=0.11622 (84 ).

  14. Tribological behavior of a friction couple functioning with selective mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Filip

    2016-06-01

    Experimental researches on different lubricated friction couples, have confirmed that it is useful to investigate thermodynamic processes which are unstable in lubricant and on the friction couples surfaces in the first stage of the friction process. This presupposes that, in operating conditions, physical-chemical processes which are favourable to friction, such as: polymerization, formation of colloids, formation of other active substances at the contact surfaces and of other compounds with low resistance to shear take place. Friction in such conditions takes place with selective mass transfer, and it is used there where the friction of the mixed and adherence layers is not safe enough, or the durability of the friction couples is not assured. The selective mass transfer allows the transfer of some elements of the materials in contact from one surface to the other, covering them with a thin, superficial layer, with superior properties at minimal friction and wear. The aim of this paper is to analyse the physical-chemical factors and the proper processes for achieving the selective mass transfer for the couple steel/bronze, which in optimal conditions, forms a thin layer of copper on the contact surfaces areas. Also, it presents some studies and researches concerning the tribological behaviour of the surfaces of a friction couple with linear contact (roll/roll) which operates with selective mass transfer, tested on Amsler tribometer.

  15. Self-excited coupled cantilevers for mass sensing in viscous measurement environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuno, Hiroshi; Seo, Yasuhiro; Kuroda, Masaharu

    2013-08-01

    The eigenstate shift in two nearly identical and weakly coupled cantilevers provides a means to realize much higher-sensitivity mass detection compared with the eigenfrequency shift approach. We propose using self-excited oscillations for eigenstate detection without using frequency response or resonance curve normally used in conventional methods. Mass sensing thus becomes possible even in high-viscosity environments, where the peak of the frequency response curve is ambiguous or does not exist. The feedback control method is theoretically clarified to produce self-excited oscillation and the validity of the proposed method is investigated experimentally using macroscale coupled cantilevers.

  16. MASSES OF SUBGIANT STARS FROM ASTEROSEISMOLOGY USING THE COUPLING STRENGTHS OF MIXED MODES

    SciTech Connect

    Benomar, O.; Bedding, T. R.; Stello, D.; White, T. R.; Deheuvels, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2012-02-15

    For a few decades now, asteroseismology, the study of stellar oscillations, has enabled us to probe the interiors of stars with great precision. It allows stringent tests of stellar models and can provide accurate radii, masses, and ages for individual stars. Of particular interest are the mixed modes that occur in subgiant solar-like stars since they can place very strong constraints on stellar ages. Here, we measure the characteristics of the mixed modes, particularly the coupling strength, using a grid of stellar models for stars with masses between 0.9 and 1.5 M{sub Sun }. We show that the coupling strength of the l = 1 mixed modes is predominantly a function of stellar mass and appears to be independent of metallicity. This should allow an accurate mass evaluation, further increasing the usefulness of mixed modes in subgiants as asteroseismic tools.

  17. The Helium Cooling System and Cold Mass Support System for theMICE Coupling Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Wu, H.; Li, L.K.; Green, M.A.; Liu, C.S.; Li, L.Y.; Jia, L.X.; Virostek, S.P.

    2007-08-27

    The MICE cooling channel consists of alternating threeabsorber focus coil module (AFC) and two RF coupling coil module (RFCC)where the process of muon cooling and reacceleration occurs. The RFCCmodule comprises a superconducting coupling solenoid mounted around fourconventional conducting 201.25 MHz closed RF cavities and producing up to2.2T magnetic field on the centerline. The coupling coil magnetic fieldis to produce a low muon beam beta function in order to keep the beamwithin the RF cavities. The magnet is to be built using commercialniobium titanium MRI conductors and cooled by pulse tube coolers thatproduce 1.5 W of cooling capacity at 4.2 K each. A self-centering supportsystem is applied for the coupling magnet cold mass support, which isdesigned to carry a longitudinal force up to 500 kN. This report willdescribe the updated design for the MICE coupling magnet. The cold masssupport system and helium cooling system are discussed indetail.

  18. Iron-Isotopic Fractionation Studies Using Multiple Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, A. D.; Zhang, C.; Barling, J.; Roe, J. E.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of Fe biogeochemistry has stimulated interest in Fe isotope fractionation. Recent studies using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and a "double spike" demonstrate the existence of biogenic Fe isotope effects. Here, we assess the utility of multiple-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry(MC-ICP-MS) with a desolvating sample introduction system for Fe isotope studies, and present data on Fe biominerals produced by a thermophilic bacterium. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Direct analysis of samples by mass spectrometry: From elements to bio-molecules using laser ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Perdian, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods that are able to analyze solid samples or biological materials with little or no sample preparation are invaluable to science as well as society. Fundamental research that has discovered experimental and instrumental parameters that inhibit fractionation effects that occur during the quantification of elemental species in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is described. Research that determines the effectiveness of novel laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric methods for the molecular analysis of biological tissues at atmospheric pressure and at high spatial resolution is also described. A spatial resolution is achieved that is able to analyze samples at the single cell level.

  20. Use of Generalized Mass in the Interpretation of Dynamic Response of BENDING-TORSION Coupled Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESLIMY-ISFAHANY, S. H. R.; BANERJEE, J. R.

    2000-11-01

    The interpretation of mode shapes and dynamic response of bending-torsion coupled beams is assessed by using the concept of generalized mass. In the first part of this investigation, the free vibratory motion of bending-torsion coupled beams is studied in detail. The conventional method of interpreting the normal modes of vibration consisting of bending displacements and torsional rotations is shown to be inadequate and replaced by an alternative method which is focussed on the constituent parts of the generalized mass arising from bending and torsional displacements. Basically, the generalized mass in a particular mode is identified and examined in terms of bending, torsion and bending-torsion coupling effects. It is demonstrated that the contribution of individual components in the expression of the generalized mass of a normal mode is a much better indicator in characterizing a coupled mode. It is also shown that the usually adopted criteria of plotting bending displacement and torsional rotations to describe a coupled mode can be deceptive and misleading. In the second part of the investigation, attention is focussed on the dynamic response characteristics of bending-torsion coupled beams when subjected to random bending or torsional loads. A normal mode approach is used to establish the total response. The input random excitation is assumed to be stationary and ergodic so that with the linearity assumption, the output spectrum of the response is obtained by using the frequency response function. The contribution of each normal mode to the overall response is isolated. Particular emphasis is placed on bending-induced torsional response and torsion-induced bending response. A number of case studies involving different types of bending-torsion coupled beams with Cantilever end conditions are presented. The limitations of existing methods of modal interpretation are highlighted, and an insight into the mode selection for response analysis is provided.

  1. Top-down silicon microcantilever with coupled bottom-up silicon nanowire for enhanced mass resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal-Álvarez, Gabriel; Agustí, Jordi; Torres, Francesc; Abadal, Gabriel; Barniol, Núria; Llobet, Jordi; Sansa, Marc; Fernández-Regúlez, Marta; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; San Paulo, Álvaro; Gottlieb, Oded

    2015-04-01

    A stepped cantilever composed of a bottom-up silicon nanowire coupled to a top-down silicon microcantilever electrostatically actuated and with capacitive or optical readout is fabricated and analyzed, both theoretically and experimentally, for mass sensing applications. The mass sensitivity at the nanowire free end and the frequency resolution considering thermomechanical noise are computed for different nanowire dimensions. The results obtained show that the coupled structure presents a very good mass sensitivity thanks to the nanowire, where the mass depositions take place, while also presenting a very good frequency resolution due to the microcantilever, where the transduction is carried out. A two-fold improvement in mass sensitivity with respect to that of the microcantilever standalone is experimentally demonstrated, and at least an order-of-magnitude improvement is theoretically predicted, only changing the nanowire length. Very close frequency resolutions are experimentally measured and theoretically predicted for a standalone microcantilever and for a microcantilever-nanowire coupled system. Thus, an improvement in mass sensing resolution of the microcantilever-nanowire stepped cantilever is demonstrated with respect to that of the microcantilever standalone.

  2. Laser vaporization/ionization interface for coupling microscale separation techniques with mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Yu-chen

    1999-06-29

    The present invention provides a laser-induced vaporization and ionization interface for directly coupling microscale separation processes to a mass spectrometer. Vaporization and ionization of the separated analytes are facilitated by the addition of a light-absorbing component to the separation buffer or solvent.

  3. In situ calibration of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission and mass spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Braymen, Steven D.

    1996-06-11

    A method and apparatus for in situ addition calibration of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer or mass spectrometer using a precision gas metering valve to introduce a volatile calibration gas of an element of interest directly into an aerosol particle stream. The present situ calibration technique is suitable for various remote, on-site sampling systems such as laser ablation or nebulization.

  4. Laser vaporization/ionization interface for coupling microscale separation techniques with mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, Y.C.

    1999-06-29

    The present invention provides a laser-induced vaporization and ionization interface for directly coupling microscale separation processes to a mass spectrometer. Vaporization and ionization of the separated analytes are facilitated by the addition of a light-absorbing component to the separation buffer or solvent. 8 figs.

  5. Determination of Arsenic in Sinus Wash and Tap Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnell, Anna M.; Nahan, Keaton; Holloway, Dawone; Vonderheide, Anne P.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element to which humans are primarily exposed through food and water; it occurs as a result of human activities and naturally from the earth's crust. An experiment was developed for a senior level analytical laboratory utilizing an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) for the analysis of arsenic in household…

  6. DETERMINATION OF BROMATE IN DRINKING WATERS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromate is a disinfection by-product in drinking water, formed during the ozonation of source water containing bromide. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is combined with an ion chromatograph for the analysis of bromate in drinking waters. Three chromatographic colu...

  7. UV and IR laser ablation for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Koppenaal, D.W.; Farmer, O.T.

    1993-06-01

    Laser ablation particle plume compositions are characterized using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). This study evaluates the mass response characteristics peculiar to ICP/MS detection as a function of laser fluence and frequency. Evaluation of the ICP/MS mass response allows deductions to be made concerning how representative the laser ablation produced particle plume composition is relative to the targeted sample. Using a black glass standard, elemental fractionation was observed, primarily for alkalis and other volatile elements. The extent of elemental fractionation between the target sample and the sampled plume varied significantly as a function of laser fluences and IR and UV laser frequency.

  8. A Single-band Cold Mass Support System for the MICE Superconducting Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong; Wang, Li; Liu, X.K.; Liu, C.S.; Li, L.K.; Xu, Feng Yu; Jia, Lin X.; Green, Michael A.

    2008-04-02

    The cooling channel of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) consists of eighteen superconducting solenoid coils, which are magnetically hooked together and contained in seven modules. The operations of a pair of MICE superconducting coupling magnets are affected directly by the other solenoid coils in the MICE channel. In order to meet the stringent requirement for the magnet center and axis azimuthal angle at 4.2 K, a self-centered tension-band cold mass support system with intermediate thermal interruption was applied for the MICE superconducting coupling magnet. The physical center of the magnet does not change as it is cooled down from 300 K to 4.2 K using this support system. This paper analyzed and calculated force loads on the coupling magnet under various operation modes of the MICE cooling channel. The performance parameters of a single-band cold mass support system were calculated also.

  9. Current medical research with the application of coupled techniques with mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Summary The most effective methods of analysis of organic compounds in biological fluids are coupled chromatographic techniques. Capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allows the most efficient separation, identification and quantification of volatile metabolites in biological fluids. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is especially suitable for the analysis of non-volatile and/or thermally unstable compounds. A major drawback of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is that no standard spectral libraries such as NIST and Wiley for GC-MS are available to facilitate the identification of unknown compounds. Moreover, the identification of potential new compounds, especially new biomarkers in LC-MS, is much more challenging than in GC-MS. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry (CE-MS) has been widely used to characterize metabolomes. Capillary electrophoresis is a powerful technique for the separation of charged metabolites, offering high analyte resolution. The advantages of CE-MS are applicability for hydrophilic metabolites, robust separation efficiency and short duration of analysis. This review provides an overview of current chromatographic methods – gas chromatography – mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry – and their applications in current medical research. The focus is on the description of metabonomics research, strategies for biomarkers identification, medical diagnoses of diseases and research of drugs. PMID:21525822

  10. Tri-linear color multi-linescan sensor with 200 kHz line rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrey, Olaf; Brockherde, Werner; Nitta, Christian; Bechen, Benjamin; Bodenstorfer, Ernst; Brodersen, Jörg; Mayer, Konrad J.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present a newly developed linear CMOS high-speed line-scanning sensor realized in a 0.35 μm CMOS OPTO process for line-scan with 200 kHz true RGB and 600 kHz monochrome line rate, respectively. In total, 60 lines are integrated in the sensor allowing for electronic position adjustment. The lines are read out in rolling shutter manner. The high readout speed is achieved by a column-wise organization of the readout chain. At full speed, the sensor provides RGB color images with a spatial resolution down to 50 μm. This feature enables a variety of applications like quality assurance in print inspection, real-time surveillance of railroad tracks, in-line monitoring in flat panel fabrication lines and many more. The sensor has a fill-factor close to 100%, preventing aliasing and color artefacts. Hence the tri-linear technology is robust against aliasing ensuring better inspection quality and thus less waste in production lines.

  11. Optical emission spectroscopy studies of the influence of laserablated mass on dry inductively coupled plasma conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocan, A.C.; Mao, X.L.; Borisov, Oleg V.; Russo, R.E.

    1997-07-01

    The amount of ablated mass can influence the temperature andexcitation characteristics of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) andmust be taken into account to ensure accurate chemical analysis. The ICPelectron number density was investigated by using measurements of the Mgionic to atomic resonant-line ratios during laser ablation of an aluminummatrix. The ICP excitation temperature was measured by using selected Felines during laser ablation of an iron matrix. A Nd:YAG laser (3 ns pulseduration) at 266 nm was used for these ablation-sampling studies. Laserenergy, power density, and repetition rate were varied in order to changethe quantity of ablated mass into the ICP. Over the range of laseroperating conditions studied herein, the ICP was not significantlyinfluenced by the quantity of solid sample. Therefore, analyticalmeasurements can be performed accurately and fundamental studies of laserablation processes (such as ablation mass roll-off, fractionalvaporization) can be investigated using inductively coupled plasma-atomicemission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).

  12. Higgs mass and unified gauge coupling in the NMSSM with vector matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Buttazzo, Dario; Hall, Lawrence J.; Marzocca, David

    2016-07-01

    We consider the NMSSM extended to include one vector-like family of quarks and leptons. If (some of) these vector-like matter particles, as the Higgs doublets, have Yukawa couplings to the singlet S that exceed unity at about the same scale Λ ≲ 103 TeV, this gives the order 40% enhancement of the tree level Higgs boson mass required in the MSSM to reach 125 GeV. It is conceivable that the Yukawa couplings to the singlet S, although naively blowing up close to Λ, will not spoil gauge coupling unification. In such a case the unified coupling α X could be interestingly led to a value not far from unity, thus providing a possible explanation for the number of generations. The characteristic signal is an enhanced resonant production of neutral spin zero particles at LHC, that could even explain the putative diphoton resonance hinted by the recent LHC data at 750 GeV.

  13. Speciation of arsenic in marine food (Anemonia sulcata) by liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and organic mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Acuña, M; García-Barrera, T; García-Sevillano, M A; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2013-03-22

    Arsenic species have been investigated in Anemonia sulcata, which is frequently consumed food staple in Spain battered in wheat flour and fried with olive oil. Speciation in tissue extracts was carried out by anion/cation exchange chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-(AEC/CEC)-ICP-MS). Three methods for the extraction of arsenic species were investigated (ultrasonic bath, ultrasonic probe and focused microwave) and the optimal one was applied. Arsenic speciation was carried out in raw and cooked anemone and the dominant species are dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) followed by arsenobetaine (AB), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)), tetramethylarsonium ion (TETRA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO). In addition, arsenocholine (AsC), glyceryl phosphorylarsenocholine (GPAsC) and dimethylarsinothioic acid (DMAS) were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). These results are interesting since GPAsC has been previously reported in marine organisms after experimental exposure to AsC, but not in natural samples. In addition, this paper reports for the first time the identification of DMAS in marine food.

  14. Speciation of arsenic in marine food (Anemonia sulcata) by liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and organic mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Acuña, M; García-Barrera, T; García-Sevillano, M A; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2013-03-22

    Arsenic species have been investigated in Anemonia sulcata, which is frequently consumed food staple in Spain battered in wheat flour and fried with olive oil. Speciation in tissue extracts was carried out by anion/cation exchange chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-(AEC/CEC)-ICP-MS). Three methods for the extraction of arsenic species were investigated (ultrasonic bath, ultrasonic probe and focused microwave) and the optimal one was applied. Arsenic speciation was carried out in raw and cooked anemone and the dominant species are dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) followed by arsenobetaine (AB), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)), tetramethylarsonium ion (TETRA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO). In addition, arsenocholine (AsC), glyceryl phosphorylarsenocholine (GPAsC) and dimethylarsinothioic acid (DMAS) were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). These results are interesting since GPAsC has been previously reported in marine organisms after experimental exposure to AsC, but not in natural samples. In addition, this paper reports for the first time the identification of DMAS in marine food. PMID:23422896

  15. Coupled Fluids-Radiation Analysis of a High-Mass Mars Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Allen, Gary; Tang, Chun; Brown, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The NEQAIR line-by-line radiation code has been incorporated into the DPLR Navier-Stokes flow solver such that the NEQAIR subroutines are now callable functions of DPLR. The coupled DPLR-NEQAIR code was applied to compute the convective and radiative heating rates over high-mass Mars entry vehicles. Two vehicle geometries were considered - a 15 m diameter 70-degree sphere cone configuration and a slender, mid-L/D vehicle with a diameter of 5 m called an Ellipsled. The entry masses ranged from 100 to 165 metric tons. Solutions were generated for entry velocities ranging from 6.5 to 9.1 km/s. The coupled fluids-radiation solutions were performed at the peak heating location along trajectories generated by the Traj trajectory analysis code. The impact of fluids-radiation coupling is a function of the level of radiative heating and the freestream density and velocity. For the high-mass Mars vehicles examined in this study, coupling effects were greatest for entry velocities above 8.5 km/s where the surface radiative heating was reduced by up 17%. Generally speaking, the Ellipsled geometry experiences a lower peak radiative heating rate but a higher peak turbulent convective heating rate than the MSL-based vehicle.

  16. Splitting mass spectra and muon g - 2 in Higgs-anomaly mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wen; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2016-11-01

    We propose a scenario where only the Higgs multiplets have direct couplings to a supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking sector. The standard model matter multiplets as well as the gauge multiples are sequestered from the SUSY breaking sector; therefore, their masses arise via anomaly mediation at the high energy scale with a gravitino mass of ∼ 100TeV. Due to renormalization group running effects from the Higgs soft masses, the masses of the third generation sfermions become O (10)TeV at the low energy scale, while the first and second generation sfermion masses are O (0.1- 1)TeV, avoiding the tachyonic slepton problem and flavor changing neutral current problem. With the splitting mass spectrum, the muon g - 2 anomaly is explained consistently with the observed Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV. Moreover, the third generation Yukawa couplings are expected to be unified in some regions. New contributions to the Higgs boson mass: if there is an additional contribution to the Higgs boson mass, the SUSY particles are not necessarily heavy. In this case, the anomaly of the muon g - 2 is explained by the contributions from the fairly light SUSY particles. For instance, SUSY models with vector-like matter multiplets [14-17], the large trilinear coupling of the stop [18,19], or an extra gauge interaction [20] can accommodate both the observed Higgs boson mass and muon g - 2 anomaly.

  17. Analysis of reduced monoclonal antibodies using size exclusion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongcheng; Gaza-Bulseco, Georgeen; Chumsae, Chris

    2009-12-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) has been widely used to detect antibody aggregates, monomer, and fragments. SEC coupled to mass spectrometry has been reported to measure the molecular weights of antibody; antibody conjugates, and antibody light chain and heavy chain. In this study, separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain by SEC and direct coupling to a mass spectrometer was further studied. It was determined that employing mobile phases containing acetonitrile, trifluoroacetic acid, and formic acid allowed the separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain after reduction by SEC. In addition, this mobile phase allowed the coupling of SEC to a mass spectrometer to obtain a direct molecular weight measurement. The application of the SEC-MS method was demonstrated by the separation of the light chain and the heavy chain of multiple recombinant monoclonal antibodies. In addition, separation of a thioether linked light chain and heavy chain from the free light chain and the free heavy chain of a recombinant monoclonal antibody after reduction was also achieved. This optimized method provided a separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain based on size and allowed a direct measurement of molecular weights by mass spectrometry. In addition, this method may help to identify peaks eluting from SEC column directly.

  18. Separation of actinides using capillary extraction chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dominic S; Montoya, Velma M

    2009-08-01

    Trace levels of actinides have been separated on capillary extraction chromatography columns. Detection of the actinides was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, which was coupled with the extraction chromatography system. In this study, we compare 30-cm long, 4.6 mm i.d. columns to capillary columns (750 microm i.d.) with lengths from 30 cm up to 150 cm. The columns that were tested were packed with TRU resin. We were able to separate a mixture of five actinides ((232)Th, (238)U, (237)Np, (239)Pu, and (241)Am). This work has application to rapid bioassay as well as automated separations of actinide materials.

  19. Speciation of volatile selenium species in plants using gas chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meija, Juris; Montes-Bayón, Maria; Caruso, Joseph A; Leduc, Danika L; Terry, Norman

    2004-01-01

    Gas chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC/ICP-MS) coupled with solid phase micro-extraction can provide a simple, extremely selective and sensitive technique for the analysis of volatile sulfur and selenium compounds in the headspace of growing plants. In this work, the technique was used to evaluate the volatilization of selenium in wild-type and genetically-modified Brassica juncea seedlings. By converting toxic inorganic selenium in the soil to less toxic, volatile organic selenium, B. juncea might be useful in bioremediation of selenium contaminated soil.

  20. The climatic mass balance of Svalbard glaciers: a 10-year simulation with a coupled atmosphere-glacier mass balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aas, Kjetil S.; Dunse, Thorben; Collier, Emily; Schuler, Thomas V.; Berntsen, Terje K.; Kohler, Jack; Luks, Bartłomiej

    2016-05-01

    In this study we simulate the climatic mass balance of Svalbard glaciers with a coupled atmosphere-glacier model with 3 km grid spacing, from September 2003 to September 2013. We find a mean specific net mass balance of -257 mm w.e. yr-1, corresponding to a mean annual mass loss of about 8.7 Gt, with large interannual variability. Our results are compared with a comprehensive set of mass balance, meteorological, and satellite measurements. Model temperature biases of 0.19 and -1.9 °C are found at two glacier automatic weather station sites. Simulated climatic mass balance is mostly within about 100 mm w.e. yr-1 of stake measurements, and simulated winter accumulation at the Austfonna ice cap shows mean absolute errors of 47 and 67 mm w.e. yr-1 when compared to radar-derived values for the selected years 2004 and 2006. Comparison of modeled surface height changes from 2003 to 2008, and satellite altimetry reveals good agreement in both mean values and regional differences. The largest deviations from observations are found for winter accumulation at Hansbreen (up to around 1000 mm w.e. yr-1), a site where sub-grid topography and wind redistribution of snow are important factors. Comparison with simulations using 9 km grid spacing reveal considerable differences on regional and local scales. In addition, 3 km grid spacing allows for a much more detailed comparison with observations than what is possible with 9 km grid spacing. Further decreasing the grid spacing to 1 km appears to be less significant, although in general precipitation amounts increase with resolution. Altogether, the model compares well with observations and offers possibilities for studying glacier climatic mass balance on Svalbard both historically as well as based on climate projections.

  1. Nanomanipulation-coupled nanospray mass spectrometry as an approach for single cell analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Mandy; Hamilton, Jason; Verbeck, Guido F.

    2014-12-01

    Electrospray mass spectrometry is now a widely used technique for observing cell content of various biological tissues. However, electrospray techniques (liquid chromatography and direct infusion) often involve lysing a group of cells and extracting the biomolecules of interest, rather than a sensitive, individual cell method to observe local chemistry. Presented here is an approach of combining a nanomanipulator workstation with nanospray mass spectrometry, which allows for extraction of a single cell, followed by rapid mass analysis that can provide a detailed metabolic profile. Triacylglycerol content was profiled with this tool coupled to mass spectrometry to investigate heterogeneity between healthy and tumorous tissues as well as lipid droplet containing adipocytes in vitro as proof of concept. This selective approach provides cellular resolution and complements existing bioanalytical techniques with minimal invasion to samples. In addition, the coupling of nanomanipulation and mass spectrometry holds the potential to be used in a great number of applications for individual organelles, diseased tissues, and in vitro cell cultures for observing heterogeneity even amongst cells and organelles of the same tissue.

  2. Thermal conductivity of highly asymmetric binary mixtures: how important are heat/mass coupling effects?

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jeff; Bresme, Fernando

    2014-06-28

    The coupling of mass and heat fluxes is responsible for the Soret effect in fluid mixtures containing particles of dissimilar mass and/or size. We investigate using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations the relevance of these coupling effects in determining the thermal transport in fluids consisting of binary mixtures where the individual components feature significant mass, 1 : 8, or size, 1 : 3, asymmetries. We quantify the thermal transport by using both boundary driven molecular dynamics simulations (NEMD) and the equilibrium Green-Kubo (GK) approach and investigate the impact of different heat flux definitions, relevant in kinetic theory and experiments, in the quantification of the thermal conductivity. We find that the thermal conductivities obtained from the different definitions agree within numerical accuracy, suggesting that the Soret coefficient does not lead to significant changes in the thermal conduction, even for the large asymmetries considered here, which lead to significant Soret coefficients (∼10(-2) K(-1)). The asymmetry in size and mass introduces large differences in the specific enthalpy of the individual components that must be carefully considered to compute accurate thermal conductivities using the GK approach. Neglecting the enthalpic contributions, results in large overestimations of the thermal conductivity, typically between 20% and 50%. Further, we quantify the time dependent behavior of the internal energy and mass flux correlation functions and propose a microscopic mechanism for the heat transport in these asymmetric mixtures.

  3. Observation of Coupled Vortex Lattices in a Mass-Imbalance Bose and Fermi Superfluid Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xing-Can; Chen, Hao-Ze; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xiang-Pei; Wang, Xiao-Qiong; Jiang, Xiao; Deng, Youjin; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Quantized vortices play an essential role in diverse superfluid phenomena. In a Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture, especially of two mass-imbalance species, such macroscopic quantum phenomena are particularly rich due to the interplay between the Bose and Fermi superfluidity. However, generating a Bose-Fermi two-species superfluid, producing coupled vortex lattices within, and further probing interspecies interaction effects remain challenging. Here, we experimentally realize a two-species superfluid with dilute gases of lithium-6 and potassium-41, having a mass ratio of about seven. By rotating the superfluid mixture, we simultaneously produce coupled vortex lattices of the two species and thus present a definitive visual evidence for the double superfluidity. Moreover, we report several unconventional behaviors, due to the Bose-Fermi interaction, on the formation and decay of two-species vortices.

  4. Online Coupling of Flow-Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Nanoparticle Surface Coating Thickness and Aggregation State

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...

  5. In situ calibration of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission and mass spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Braymen, S.D.

    1996-06-11

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for in situ addition calibration of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer or mass spectrometer using a precision gas metering valve to introduce a volatile calibration gas of an element of interest directly into an aerosol particle stream. The present in situ calibration technique is suitable for various remote, on-site sampling systems such as laser ablation or nebulization. 5 figs.

  6. Reduction of plyatomic ion interferences in indictively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with cryogenic desolvation

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, L.C.

    1993-09-01

    A desolvation scheme for introducing aqueous and organic samples into an argon inductively coupled plasma is described; the aerosol generated by nebulizer is heated (+140 C) and cooled ({minus}80 C) repeatedly, and the dried aerosol is then injected into the mass spectrometer. Polyatomic ions are greatly suppressed. This scheme was validated with analysis of seawater and urine reference samples. Finally, the removal of organic solvents by cryogenic desolvation was studied.

  7. How might a statistical cloud scheme be coupled to a mass-flux convection scheme?

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Stephen A.; Pincus, Robert; Hannay, Cecile; Xu, Kuan-man

    2004-09-27

    The coupling of statistical cloud schemes with mass-flux convection schemes is addressed. Source terms representing the impact of convection are derived within the framework of prognostic equations for the width and asymmetry of the probability distribution function of total water mixing ratio. The accuracy of these source terms is quantified by examining output from a cloud resolving model simulation of deep convection. Practical suggestions for inclusion of these source terms in large-scale models are offered.

  8. Improving the Mass-Limited Performance of Routine NMR Probes using Coupled Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Brian; Lim, Victor; Taber, Bob; Zens, Albert

    2016-07-01

    We report a method to convert, on demand, a general use dual-broadband probe to a high performance mass-limited probe for both high band and low band nuclei. This technology uses magnetic coupling of inductors to achieve this capability. The method offers a cost effective way of increasing the performance of routine NMR probes without having to change probes or increase the overall foot print of the spectrometer.

  9. Elemental Bioimaging by Means of Fast Scanning Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wehe, Christoph A; Thyssen, Georgina M; Herdering, Christina; Raj, Indra; Ciarimboli, Giuliano; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2015-08-01

    One of the most common setups for elemental bioimaging, the hyphenation of a laser ablation (LA) system and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), was expanded by adding full scan mass spectrometric information as another dimension of information. While most studies deal with the analysis of typically not more than up to 10 isotopes per scan cycle, a fast scanning quadrupole mass analyzer was utilized to record the full mass spectrum of interest in this work. Mass-to-charge ratios from 6 to 250 were observed within one cycle. Besides the x- and y-position on the ablated sample and the intensity, the m/z-ratio served as fourth variable for each pixel of the obtained data, closing thereby the gap between "inorganic" and "organic" mass spectrometric imaging techniques. The benefits of this approach include an improved control of interferences, the discovery of unexpected elemental distributions, the possibility to plot isotopic ratios, and to integrate the intensities of a certain number of mass channels recorded for each isotope, thus virtually increasing sensitivity. The respective data are presented for dried droplets as well as embedded animal and human tissue slices. Limits of detection were calculated and found to be in accordance with counting statistics. A dedicated software macro was developed for data manipulation prior to common evaluation and image creation. PMID:25947196

  10. Elemental Bioimaging by Means of Fast Scanning Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehe, Christoph A.; Thyssen, Georgina M.; Herdering, Christina; Raj, Indra; Ciarimboli, Giuliano; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2015-08-01

    One of the most common setups for elemental bioimaging, the hyphenation of a laser ablation (LA) system and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), was expanded by adding full scan mass spectrometric information as another dimension of information. While most studies deal with the analysis of typically not more than up to 10 isotopes per scan cycle, a fast scanning quadrupole mass analyzer was utilized to record the full mass spectrum of interest in this work. Mass-to-charge ratios from 6 to 250 were observed within one cycle. Besides the x- and y-position on the ablated sample and the intensity, the m/z-ratio served as fourth variable for each pixel of the obtained data, closing thereby the gap between "inorganic" and "organic" mass spectrometric imaging techniques. The benefits of this approach include an improved control of interferences, the discovery of unexpected elemental distributions, the possibility to plot isotopic ratios, and to integrate the intensities of a certain number of mass channels recorded for each isotope, thus virtually increasing sensitivity. The respective data are presented for dried droplets as well as embedded animal and human tissue slices. Limits of detection were calculated and found to be in accordance with counting statistics. A dedicated software macro was developed for data manipulation prior to common evaluation and image creation.

  11. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, N.C.; Limbach, P.A.; Shomo, R.E. II; Marshall, A.G. ); Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E. )

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF{sup {minus}}{sub 6} fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H){sup +} ions) of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with {ital tetra}-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol{sup ( )} sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon{sup ( )}. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  12. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Nicholas C.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Shomo, Ronald E., II; Marshall, Alan G.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Delmore, James E.

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF-6 fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis [e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H)+ ions] of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with tetra-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol■ sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon■. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  13. A DISTINCTIVE DISK-JET COUPLING IN THE LOWEST-MASS SEYFERT, NGC 4395

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M.; Reynolds, Mark T.; Gueltekin, Kayhan; Gallo, Elena; Maitra, Dipankar

    2013-09-10

    Simultaneous observations of X-rays and radio luminosities have been well studied in accreting stellar-mass black holes. These observations are performed in order to understand how mass accretion rates and jetted outflows are linked in these individual systems. Such contemporaneous studies in supermassive black holes (SMBH) are harder to perform, as viscous times scale linearly with mass. However, as NGC 4395 is the lowest known mass Seyfert galaxy, we have used it to examine the simultaneous X-ray (Swift) and radio (Very Large Array) correlation in a SMBH in a reasonably timed observing campaign. We find that the intrinsic X-ray variability is stronger than the radio variability, and that the fluxes are only weakly or tentatively coupled, similar to prior results obtained in NGC 4051. If the corona and the base of the jet are one and the same, this may suggest that the corona in radio-quiet active galactic nucleus filters disk variations, only transferring the strongest and/or most sustained variations into the jet. Further, when both NGC 4395 and NGC 4051 are placed on the stellar-mass L{sub X} -L{sub R} plane, they appear to reside on the steeper L{sub X} -L{sub R} track. This suggests that SMBHs also follow two distinct tracks just as stellar-mass black holes do, and supports the idea that the same physical disk-jet mechanisms are at play across the mass scale.

  14. Rotation planar chromatography coupled on-line with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Llave, Jonathan J; De Apadoca, Marilyn F; Ford, Michael J

    2004-01-15

    The coupling of a rotation planar preparative thin-layer chromatography system on-line with mass spectrometry is demonstrated using a simple plumbing scheme and a self-aspirating heated nebulizer probe of a corona discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. The self-aspiration of the heated nebulizer delivers approximately 20 microL/min of the 3.0 mL/min eluate stream to the mass spectrometer, eliminating the need for an external pump in the system. The viability of the coupling is demonstrated with a three-dye mixture composed of fat red 7B, solvent green 3, and solvent blue 35 separated and eluted from a silica gel-coated rotor using toluene. The real-time characterization of the dyes eluting from the rotor is illustrated in positive ion full-scan mode. Other self-aspirating ion source systems including atmospheric pressure photoionization, electrospray ionization, and inductively coupled plasma ionization, for example, might be configured and used in a similar manner coupled to the chromatograph to expand the types of analytes that could be ionized, detected, and characterized effectively. PMID:14719901

  15. Rotation planar chromatography coupled on-line with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Llave, Jonathan J; De Apadoca, Marilyn F; Ford, Michael J

    2004-01-15

    The coupling of a rotation planar preparative thin-layer chromatography system on-line with mass spectrometry is demonstrated using a simple plumbing scheme and a self-aspirating heated nebulizer probe of a corona discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. The self-aspiration of the heated nebulizer delivers approximately 20 microL/min of the 3.0 mL/min eluate stream to the mass spectrometer, eliminating the need for an external pump in the system. The viability of the coupling is demonstrated with a three-dye mixture composed of fat red 7B, solvent green 3, and solvent blue 35 separated and eluted from a silica gel-coated rotor using toluene. The real-time characterization of the dyes eluting from the rotor is illustrated in positive ion full-scan mode. Other self-aspirating ion source systems including atmospheric pressure photoionization, electrospray ionization, and inductively coupled plasma ionization, for example, might be configured and used in a similar manner coupled to the chromatograph to expand the types of analytes that could be ionized, detected, and characterized effectively.

  16. Hydromechanical coupling in fractured rock masses: mechanisms and processes of selected case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangerl, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Hydromechanical (HM) coupling in fractured rock play an important role when events including dam failures, landslides, surface subsidences due to water withdrawal or drainage, injection-induced earthquakes and others are analysed. Generally, hydromechanical coupling occurs when a rock mass contain interconnected pores and fractures which are filled with water and pore/fracture pressures evolves. In the on hand changes in the fluid pressure can lead to stress changes, deformations and failures of the rock mass. In the other hand rock mass stress changes and deformations can alter the hydraulic properties and fluid pressures of the rock mass. Herein well documented case studies focussing on surface subsidence due to water withdrawal, reversible deformations of large-scale valley flanks and failure as well as deformation processes of deep-seated rock slides in fractured rock masses are presented. Due to pore pressure variations HM coupling can lead to predominantly reversible rock mass deformations. Such processes can be considered by the theory of poroelasticity. Surface subsidence reaching magnitudes of few centimetres and are caused by water drainage into deep tunnels are phenomenas which can be assigned to processes of poroelasticity. Recently, particular focus was given on large tunnelling projects to monitor and predict surface subsidence in fractured rock mass in oder to avoid damage of surface structures such as dams of large reservoirs. It was found that surface subsidence due to tunnel drainage can adversely effect infrastructure when pore pressure drawdown is sufficiently large and spatially extended and differential displacements which can be amplified due to topographical effects e.g. valley closure are occurring. Reversible surface deformations were also ascertained on large mountain slopes and summits with the help of precise deformation measurements i.e. permanent GPS or episodic levelling/tacheometric methods. These reversible deformations are often

  17. Mass transport in low permeability rocks under the influence of coupled thermomechanical and hydrochemical effects - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.F.

    1984-10-01

    The present paper gives a general overview of mass transport in low permeability rocks under the coupled thermomechanical and hydrochemical effects associated with a nuclear waste repository. A classification of coupled processes is given. Then an ess is presented. example of a coupled process is presented. Discussions of coupled processes based on a recent LBL Panel meeting are summarized. 5 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Strong coupling and bounds on the spin-2 mass in massive gravity.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Clare; Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2013-07-12

    The de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley theory of a single massive spin-2 field has a cutoff much below its Planck scale because the extra modes from the massive spin-2 multiplet involve higher derivative self-interactions, controlled by a scale convoluted from its mass. Generically, these correct the propagator by environmental effects. The resulting effective cutoff depends on the environmental parameters and the spin-2 "graviton" mass. Requiring the theory to be perturbative down to O(1) mm, we derive bounds on the mass, corresponding to ≳O(1) meV for the generic case, assuming the coupling to be given by the standard Newton's constant, and somewhat weaker bounds in cases with fine-tuning. Thus, the theory of a single massive spin-2 can really only be viewed as a theory describing the full nonlinear propagation of a massive spin-2 field on a fixed background and not as an approximation to general relativity.

  19. Strong coupling and bounds on the spin-2 mass in massive gravity.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Clare; Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2013-07-12

    The de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley theory of a single massive spin-2 field has a cutoff much below its Planck scale because the extra modes from the massive spin-2 multiplet involve higher derivative self-interactions, controlled by a scale convoluted from its mass. Generically, these correct the propagator by environmental effects. The resulting effective cutoff depends on the environmental parameters and the spin-2 "graviton" mass. Requiring the theory to be perturbative down to O(1) mm, we derive bounds on the mass, corresponding to ≳O(1) meV for the generic case, assuming the coupling to be given by the standard Newton's constant, and somewhat weaker bounds in cases with fine-tuning. Thus, the theory of a single massive spin-2 can really only be viewed as a theory describing the full nonlinear propagation of a massive spin-2 field on a fixed background and not as an approximation to general relativity. PMID:23889386

  20. Radionuclide determination in environmental samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lariviere, Dominic; Taylor, Vivien F.; Evans, R. Douglas; Cornett, R. Jack

    2006-08-01

    The determination of naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has gained recognition over the last fifteen years, relative to radiometric techniques, as the result of improvement in instrumental performance, sample introduction equipment, and sample preparation. With the increase in instrumental sensitivity, it is now possible to measure ultratrace levels (fg range) of many radioisotopes, including those with half-lives between 1 and 1000 years, without requiring very complex sample pre-concentration schemes. However, the identification and quantification of radioisotopes in environmental matrices is still hampered by a variety of analytical issues such as spectral (both atomic and molecular ions) and non-spectral (matrix effect) interferences and instrumental limitations (e.g., abundance sensitivity). The scope of this review is to highlight recent analytical progress and issues associated with the determination of radionuclides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The impact of interferences, instrumental limitations (e.g., degree of ionization, abundance sensitivity, detection limits) and low sample-to-plasma transfer efficiency on the measurement of radionuclides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry will be described. Solutions that overcome these issues will be discussed, highlighting their pros and cons and assessing their impact on the measurement of environmental radioactivity. Among the solutions proposed, mass and chemical resolution through the use of sector-field instruments and chemical reactions/collisions in a pressurized cell, respectively, will be described. Other methods, such as unique sample introduction equipment (e.g., laser ablation, electrothermal vaporisation, high efficiency nebulization) and instrumental modifications/optimizations (e.g., instrumental vacuum, radiofrequency power, guard electrode) that improve sensitivity and performance

  1. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luong, E.

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

  2. Speciation of cisplatin in environmental water samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, Janja; Martinčič, Anže; Milačič, Radmila; Ščančar, Janez

    2015-06-01

    Cisplatin is still widely used for treatment of numerous types of tumours. Different speciation methods have been applied to study behaviour of the intact drug and its individual biotransformation species in various clinical samples. These methods are mainly based on electrophoresis, size exclusion (SEC) or ion chromatography (IC) techniques coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), which is a common technique for separation of polar substances, was rarely applied for separation of cisplatin and its hydrolysed metabolites. There is also a lack of information available on the occurrence of cisplatin and its hydrolysed complexes in the environmental waters. In the present study the concentrations of Pt were determined in hospital wastewaters by ICP-MS. A procedure for separation of cisplatin and its aqueous hydrolysed complexes by the use of HILIC column was optimized. Quantification of separated Pt species was performed by isotope dilution (ID)-ICP-MS procedure. Low limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were obtained for cisplatin and its hydrolysed complexes ranging from 0.0273 to 0.1726 ng Pt/mL and from 0.0909 to 0.5753 ng Pt/mL, respectively. Good repeatability of the procedure with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than ±2.3% was obtained. The column recoveries, which ranged from 95 to 101%, indicated that the procedure developed enabled quantitative speciation analysis of aqueous cisplatin complexes. The ZIC-HILIC-ID-ICP-MS procedure was successfully applied in speciation of cisplatin in spiked hospital wastewater samples.

  3. Quantitative Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles by Coupling Thin Layer Chromatography with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Neng; Zhu, Zhenli; Jin, Lanlan; Guo, Wei; Gan, Yiqun; Hu, Shenghong

    2015-06-16

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) determination has recently attracted considerable attention because of the continuing boom of nanotechnology. In this study, a novel method for separation and quantitative characterization of NPs in aqueous suspension was established by coupling thin layer chromatography (TLC) with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of various sizes were used as the model system. It was demonstrated that TLC not only allowed separation of gold nanoparticles from ionic gold species by using acetyl acetone/butyl alcohol/triethylamine (6:3:1, v/v) as the mobile phase, but it also achieved the separation of differently sized gold nanoparticles (13, 34, and 47 nm) by using phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH = 6.8), Triton X-114 (0.4%, w/v), and EDTA (10 mM) as the mobile phase. Various experimental parameters that affecting TLC separation of AuNPs, such as the pH of the phosphate buffer, the coating of AuNPs, the concentrations of EDTA and Triton X-114, were investigated and optimized. It was found that separations of AuNPs by TLC displayed size dependent retention behavior with good reproducibility, and the retardation factors (R(f) value) increased linearly with decreasing nanoparticle size. The analytical performance of the present method was evaluated under optimized conditions. The limits of detection were in the tens of pg range, and repeatability (RSD, n = 7) was 6.3%, 5.9%, and 8.3% for 30 ng of 13 nm AuNPs, 34 nm AuNPs, and 47 nm AuNPs, respectively. The developed TLC-LA-ICP-MS method has also been applied to the analysis of spiked AuNPs in lake water, river water, and tap water samples.

  4. Neutrino masses in lepton number violating mSUGRA

    SciTech Connect

    Kom, Steve C. H.

    2008-11-23

    In SUSY models which violate R-parity, there exist trilinear lepton number violating (LNV) operators which can lead to neutrino masses. If these operators are defined at the unification scale, the renormalization group flow becomes important and generally leads to one neutrino mass much heavier than the others. We study, in a minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) set-up with two trilinear LNV operators and three charged lepton mixing angles, numerically how these parameters may be arranged to be compatible with neutrino oscillation data, and discuss some phenomenological observations.

  5. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xingjun; Deng, Yunpeng; Hu, Di

    2016-04-08

    This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG). The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range.

  6. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xingjun; Deng, Yunpeng; Hu, Di

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG). The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range. PMID:27070616

  7. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xingjun; Deng, Yunpeng; Hu, Di

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG). The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range. PMID:27070616

  8. Determination of oxidized phosphatidylcholines by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sala, Pia; Pötz, Sandra; Brunner, Martina; Trötzmüller, Martin; Fauland, Alexander; Triebl, Alexander; Hartler, Jürgen; Lankmayr, Ernst; Köfeler, Harald C

    2015-04-14

    A novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach for analysis of oxidized phosphatidylcholines by an Orbitrap Fourier Transform mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was developed. This method depends on three selectivity criteria for separation and identification: retention time, exact mass at a resolution of 100,000 and collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment spectra in a linear ion trap. The process of chromatography development showed the best separation properties with a silica-based Kinetex column. This type of chromatography was able to separate all major lipid classes expected in mammalian samples, yielding increased sensitivity of oxidized phosphatidylcholines over reversed phase chromatography. Identification of molecular species was achieved by exact mass on intact molecular ions and CID tandem mass spectra containing characteristic fragments. Due to a lack of commercially available standards, method development was performed with copper induced oxidation products of palmitoyl-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine, which resulted in a plethora of lipid species oxidized at the arachidonoyl moiety. Validation of the method was done with copper oxidized human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) prepared by ultracentrifugation. In these LDL samples we could identify 46 oxidized molecular phosphatidylcholine species out of 99 possible candidates.

  9. Scandium analysis in silicon-containing minerals by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Drouin, Elisabeth; Constantin, Marc; Bazin, Claude; Larivière, Dominic

    2016-04-01

    This article reports on the development of a new method for the accurate and precise determination of the amount of scandium, Sc, in silicon-containing minerals, based on the use of tandem quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). The tandem quadrupole instrument enables new mass filtering configurations, which can reduce polyatomic interferences during the determination of Sc in mineral matrices. He and O2 were used and compared as collision and reaction gases for the removal of interferences at m/z 45 and 61. Using helium gas was ineffective to overcome all of the spectral interferences observed at m/z 45 and particularly for Si-based interferences. However, conversion of Sc+ ions into ScO+ ions (after bombardment with O2 in the octopole reaction system coupled with the use of the instrument in MS/MS mass-shift mode) provided interference-free conditions and sufficiently low limits of detection, down to 3 ng L- 1, to accurately detect Sc. The accuracy of the proposed methodology was assessed by analyzing five different reference materials (BX-N, OKA-2, NIM-L, SY-3 and GH).

  10. Identification of Microalgae by Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Multiple Nanomatrices.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lung-Hsiang; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Shih, Chi-Yu; Hsiung, Tung-Ming; Chang, Jeng; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Chiu, Tai-Chia; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a simple method to identify microalgae by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using three different substrates: HgSe, HgTe, and HgTeSe nanostructures. The fragmentation/ionization processes of complex molecules in algae varied according to the heat absorption and transfer efficiency of the nanostructured matrices (NMs). Therefore, the mass spectra obtained for microalgae showed different patterns of m/z values for different NMs. The spectra contained both significant and nonsignificant peaks. Constructing a Venn diagram with the significant peaks obtained for algae when using HgSe, HgTe, and HgTeSe NMs in m/z ratio range 100-1000, a unique relationship among the three sets of values was obtained. This unique relationship of sets is different for each species of microalgae. Therefore, by observing the particular relationship of sets, we successfully identified different algae such as Isochrysis galbana, Emiliania huxleyi, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Nannochloris sp., Skeletonema cf. costatum, and Tetraselmis chui. This simple and cost-effective SALDI-MS analysis method coupled with multi-nanomaterials as substrates may be extended to identify other microalgae and microorganisms in real samples. Graphical Abstract Identification of microalgae by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry coupled with three different mercury-based nanosubstrates. PMID:26842733

  11. Mass-corrections for the conservative coupling of flow and transport on collocated meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluga, Christian; Wohlmuth, Barbara; Rüde, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Buoyancy-driven flow models demand a careful treatment of the mass-balance equation to avoid spurious source and sink terms in the non-linear coupling between flow and transport. In the context of finite-elements, it is therefore commonly proposed to employ sufficiently rich pressure spaces, containing piecewise constant shape functions to obtain local or even strong mass-conservation. In three-dimensional computations, this usually requires nonconforming approaches, special meshes or higher order velocities, which make these schemes prohibitively expensive for some applications and complicate the implementation into legacy code. In this paper, we therefore propose a lean and conservatively coupled scheme based on standard stabilized linear equal-order finite elements for the Stokes part and vertex-centered finite volumes for the energy equation. We show that in a weak mass-balance it is possible to recover exact conservation properties by a local flux-correction which can be computed efficiently on the control volume boundaries of the transport mesh. We discuss implementation aspects and demonstrate the effectiveness of the flux-correction by different two- and three-dimensional examples which are motivated by geophysical applications.

  12. Epileptogenic zone localization and seizure control in coupled neural mass models.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen; Zhou, Weidong; Zhang, Yanli; Geng, Shujuan

    2015-12-01

    Exact localization of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is the first priority for ensuring epilepsy treatments and reducing side effects. The results of traditional visual methods for localizing the origin of seizures are far from satisfactory in some cases. Signal processing methods could extract substantial information that may complement visual inspection of EEG signals. In this study, EZ localization is changed into a driver identification problem, and a nonlinear interdependence measure, the weighted rank interdependence, is proposed and used as a driver indicator because it can detect coupling information, especially directionality, from EEG signals. A proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is then explored, using simulations, to establish its suitability for seizure control. The seizure control we propose rests on identifying the EZ using nonlinear interdependence measures of directed functional connectivity. Two directionally coupled neural mass models are employed for simulation investigation. Two parameters can adjust the sensitivity and completeness of the weighted rank interdependence for different applications, and their effect is discussed in the context of neural mass models. Simulation results demonstrate that use of the weighted rank interdependence for EZ identification can be applied to different EZ types, and the approach achieves an overall identification rate of 98.84 % for several EZ types. Simulations also indicate that PID control can effectively regulate synchronization between neural masses. PMID:26585963

  13. Computation of D-brane instanton induced superpotential couplings: Majorana masses from string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, Mirjam; Richter, Robert; Weigand, Timo

    2007-10-15

    We perform a detailed conformal field theory analysis of D2-brane instanton effects in four-dimensional type IIA string vacua with intersecting D6-branes. In particular, we explicitly compute instanton induced fermion two-point couplings which play the role of perturbatively forbidden Majorana mass terms for right-handed neutrinos or MSSM {mu} terms. These results can readily be extended to higher-dimensional operators. In concrete realizations of such nonperturbative effects, the Euclidean D2-brane has to wrap a rigid, supersymmetric cycle with strong constraints on the zero-mode structure. Their implications for type IIA compactifications on the T{sup 6}/(Z{sub 2}xZ{sub 2}) orientifold with discrete torsion are analyzed. We also construct a local supersymmetric GUT-like model allowing for a class of Euclidean D2-branes whose fermionic zero modes meet all the constraints for generating Majorana masses in the phenomenologically allowed regime. Together with perturbatively realized Dirac masses, these nonperturbative couplings give rise to the seesaw mechanism.

  14. Experimental heat and mass transfer of the separated and coupled rotating desiccant wheel and heat wheel

    SciTech Connect

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie; Satake, Akira; Yoshie, Ryuichiro; Mitamura, Tiruaki; Baba, Seizo

    2010-07-15

    The experimental evaluation of the separated and coupled rotating desiccant wheel and heat wheel is reported. The study aims to investigate the performance of the desiccant wheel and of the heat wheel both when operated separately and jointly. The performance evaluation of the desiccant wheel is based on its moisture removal capacity (MRC), moisture removal regeneration (MRR), and moisture mass balance (MMB). In addition, the study used the total energy balance (TEB), sensible coefficient of performance (COP{sub Sensible}), latent coefficient of performance (COP{sub Latent}) and, total coefficient of performance (COP{sub Total}). The performance of the heat wheel is based on its effectiveness. The COP{sub Sensible}, COP{sub Latent} and, COP{sub Total} are used in the performance evaluation of the coupled desiccant wheel and heat wheel. The general results of the study show that the MRC, MRR and MMB coupled with the TEB, COP{sub Latent}, COP{sub Sensible} and COP{sub Total} predict adequately the performance of the desiccant wheel. In addition, the coupled operation of the desiccant wheel and heat wheel, contributed to the reduction of the external thermal energy requirement for the regeneration of the desiccant wheel. This study can be applied in other researches seeking evaluation of the desiccant wheel, heat wheel, and their combined operation. Moreover, the data presented here are significant for the desiccant wheel benchmarking and for evaluation of the desiccant wheel models. (author)

  15. Separation of actinides using capillary extraction chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dominic S

    2008-01-01

    Trace levels of actinides have been separated on extraction chromatography columns. Detection of the actinides was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), which was coupled with the extraction chromatography system. In this study we compare 30 cm long, 4.6 mm ID columns to capillary columns (750 {micro}m ID) with lengths from 30 cm up to 150 cm. The columns that were tested were packed with TRU resin. We were able to separate a mixture of five actinides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}pU, {sup 241}Am). This work has application to rapid bioassay as well as for automated separations of actinide materials.

  16. Yukawa coupling and anomalous magnetic moment of the muon: An update for the LHC era

    SciTech Connect

    Crivellin, Andreas; Girrbach, Jennifer; Nierste, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    We study the interplay between a soft muon Yukawa coupling generated radiatively with the trilinear A-terms of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. In the absence of a tree-level muon Yukawa coupling the lightest smuon mass is predicted to be in the range between 600 GeV and 2200 GeV at 2{sigma}, if the bino mass M{sub 1} is below 1 TeV. Therefore, a detection of a smuon (in conjunction with a sub-TeV bino) at the LHC would directly imply a nonzero muon Yukawa coupling in the MSSM superpotential. Inclusion of slepton flavor mixing could in principle lower the mass of one smuonlike slepton below 600 GeV. However, the experimental bounds on radiative lepton decays instead strengthen the lower mass bound, with larger effects for smaller M{sub 1}, We also extend the analysis to the electron case and find that a light selectron close to the current experimental search limit may prove the MSSM electron Yukawa coupling to be nonzero.

  17. a Measurement of Charged Triple Gauge Couplings with Delphi at Lep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2003-02-01

    The data taken by DELPHI at centre of mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV is used to place preliminary limits on the Trilinear Gauge Boson Couplings (TGCs) associated to W+W- production at LEP2. The preliminary values of the parameters Δ gz1 , λγ and Δκγ were extracted from data with jjlv, jjjj and jjX final states, where j, l and X represent a jet, a lepton and missing energy respectively. These preliminary results are the first results from DELPHI with the inclusion of a complete set of O(αem) corrections to the W pair cross-section. All results were found to be in agreement with Standard Model predictions.

  18. Time-resolved studies of particle effects in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Perdian, D.; Bajic, S.; Baldwin, D.; Houk, R.

    2007-11-13

    Time resolved signals in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are studied to determine the influence of experimental parameters on ICP-induced fractionation effects. Differences in sample composition and morphology, i.e., ablating brass, glass, or dust pellets, have a profound effect on the time resolved signal. Helium transport gas significantly decreases large positive signal spikes arising from large particles in the ICP. A binder for pellets also reduces the abundance and amplitude of spikes in the signal. MO{sup +} ions also yield signal spikes, but these MO{sup +} spikes generally occur at different times from their atomic ion counterparts.

  19. Chemical recoveries of technetium-99 for various procedures using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ihsanullah; East, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    The procedure for the determination of {sup 99}Tc inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was based on the modification of a variety of available separation techniques. Standard Ru and Rh solutions were used for checking decontaminations and instrument response respectively. Technetium-99 and {sup 95m}Tc tracers were applied as yield monitors using ICP-MS and gamma-ray spectrometry respectively. Percent recoveries are reported for a variety of radiochemical separation procedures for water (58-83%), seaweed (10-76%), and for soil matrices (19-79%).

  20. Anomalous coupling, top-mass and parton-shower effects in W + W - production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellm, J.; Gieseke, S.; Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.; Plätzer, S.; Reuschle, C.; von Soden-Fraunhofen, J. F.

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the process ppto {W}+{W}-to {e}+{ν}_e{μ}-{overline{ν}}_{μ } at NLO QCD, including also effective field theory (EFT) operators mediating the ggW + W - interaction, which first occur at dimension eight. We further combine the NLO and EFT matrix elements produced by G oS am with the H erwig7/M atchbox framework, which offers the possibility to study the impact of a parton shower. We assess the effects of the anomalous couplings by comparing them to top-mass effects as well as uncertainties related to variations of the renormalisation, factorisation and hard shower scales.

  1. The effect of stiffness and mass on coupled oscillations in a phononic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Baboly, M. Ghasemi; Su, M. F.; Alaie, S.; Goettler, D. F.; Leseman, Z. C.; Reinke, C. M.; El-Kady, I.

    2013-11-15

    Insight into phononic bandgap formation is presented using a first principles-type approach where phononic lattices are treated as coupled oscillators connected via massless tethers. The stiffness of the tethers and the mass of the oscillator are varied and their influences on the bandgap formation are deduced. This analysis is reinforced by conducting numerical simulations to examine the modes bounding the bandgap and highlighting the effect of the above parameters. The analysis presented here not only sheds light on the origins of gap formation, but also allows one to define design rules for wide phononic gaps and maximum gap-to-midgap ratios.

  2. Screening for low molecular weight compounds in fish meal solubles by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple analytical method using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was developed to screen for low molecular weight compounds in enzyme treated and untreated Alaskan pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) stickwater (SW) generated from processing fish meal with po...

  3. In-Situ Organic Compound Analysis of the Meteorite Surface by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Coupled with an Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naraoka, H.; Hashiguchi, M.

    2016-08-01

    It-situ analysis of organic compounds on the meteorite surface was performed by desorption electrospray ionization coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry. Indigenous peaks of meteorite origin were discriminated from the background.

  4. Radionuclide detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: A comparison of atomic and radiation detection method

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Wyse, E.J.; Koppenaal, D.W.

    1991-04-01

    Radionuclide detection by mass spectrometric techniques offers inherent advantages over conventional radiation detection methods. Since radionuclides decay at variable rates (half-lives) and via various nuclear transformations (i.e. emission of alpha, beta, and/or gamma radiation) their determination via radiation detection depends not only on decay systematics but also on detector technology. Radionuclide detection by direct atom measurement, however, is dependent only on technique sensitivity and is indifferent to decay mode. Evaluation of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) indicates this method to be superior conventional radiation detection techniques for many radionuclides. This work discusses factors which influence detection by both methods. Illustrative applications of ICP/MS to the ultra-trace determination of several radionuclides, including {sup 129}I, are presented. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Enhancement of effective electromechanical coupling factor by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave device structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Teshigahara, Akihiko; Iwaki, Takao; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a drastic enhancement of the effective coupling factor K\\text{e}2 by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave (SAW) device structures such as the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure. This phenomenon occurs when the piezoelectric layer exhibits a high acoustic wave velocity. The mass loading decreases the SAW velocity and causes SAW energy confinement close to the top surface where an interdigital transducer is placed. It is shown that this phenomenon is obvious even when an amorphous SiO2 film is deposited on the top surface for temperature compensation. This K\\text{e}2 enhancement was also found in various combinations of electrode, piezoelectric layer, and/or substrate materials. The existence of this phenomenon was verified experimentally using the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure.

  6. Exciton effective mass enhancement in coupled quantum wells in electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, J.; Muljarov, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a calculation of exciton states in semiconductor coupled quantum wells in the presence of electric and magnetic fields applied perpendicular to the QW plane. The exciton Schrödinger equation is solved in real space in three-dimensions to obtain the Landau levels of both direct and indirect excitons. Calculation of the exciton energy levels and oscillator strengths enables mapping of the electric and magnetic field dependence of the exciton absorption spectrum. For the ground state of the system, we evaluate the Bohr radius, optical lifetime, binding energy and dipole moment. The exciton mass renormalization due to the magnetic field is calculated using a perturbative approach. We predict a non-monotonous dependence of the exciton ground state effective mass on magnetic field. Such a trend is explained in a classical picture, in terms of the ground state tending from an indirect to a direct exciton with increasing magnetic field.

  7. Characterization of dihydrostreptomycin-related substances by liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pendela, Murali; Hoogmartens, Jos; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2009-06-01

    Dihydrostreptomycin sulphate (DHS) is a water-soluble, broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic. For quantitative analysis, the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) prescribes an ion-pairing liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (LC/UV) method using a C18 stationary phase. Several unknown compounds were detected in commercial samples. Hence, for characterization of these unknown peaks in a commercial DHS sample, the Ph. Eur. method was coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). However, since the Ph. Eur. method uses a non-volatile mobile phase, each peak eluted was collected and desalted before introduction into the mass spectrometer. The desalting procedure was applied to remove the non volatile salt, buffer and ion-pairing reagent in the collected fraction. In total, 20 impurities were studied and 14 of them were newly characterized. Five impurities which are already reported in the literature were also traced in this LC/UV method. PMID:19449319

  8. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Chaturvedi, Krishna; Sharma, Bechan; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) across a broad range 3.0-10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected in these accessions. In-gel protein expression patterns revealed three protein spots as upregulated and three other as downregulated. Using trypsin in-gel digestion, these differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) which showed 45% amino acid homology of chickpea seed storage proteins with Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27144024

  9. Characterisation of lipid fraction of marine macroalgae by means of chromatography techniques coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ragonese, Carla; Tedone, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Torre, Germana; Cichello, Filomena; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2014-02-15

    In this work the characterisation of the lipid fraction of several species of marine macro algae gathered along the eastern coast of Sicily is reported. Two species of green marine algae (Chloropyceae), two species of red marine algae (Rhodophyceae) and four species of brown marine algae (Pheophyceae) were evaluated in terms of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, pigments and phospholipids profile. Advanced analytical techniques were employed to fully characterise the lipid profile of these Mediterranean seaweeds, such as GC-MS coupled to a novel mass spectra database supported by the simultaneous use of linear retention index (LRI) for the identification of fatty acid profile; LC-MS was employed for the identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs), carotenoids and phospholipids; the determination of accurate mass was carried out on carotenoids and phospholipids. Quantitative data are reported on fatty acids and triacylglycerols as relative percentage of total fraction. PMID:24128566

  10. Laser Microdissection and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled for Multimodal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Matthias; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the coupling of ambient laser ablation surface sampling, accomplished using a laser capture microdissection system, with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for high spatial resolution multimodal imaging. A commercial laser capture microdissection system was placed in close proximity to a modified ion source of a mass spectrometer designed to allow for sampling of laser ablated material via a transfer tube directly into the ionization region. Rhodamine 6G dye of red sharpie ink in a laser etched pattern as well as cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section were identified and imaged from full scan mass spectra. A minimal spot diameter of 8 m was achieved using the 10X microscope cutting objective with a lateral oversampling pixel resolution of about 3.7 m. Distinguishing between features approximately 13 m apart in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section was demonstrated in a multimodal fashion including co-registered optical and mass spectral chemical images.

  11. GaAs coupled micro resonators with enhanced sensitive mass detection.

    PubMed

    Chopard, Tony; Lacour, Vivien; Leblois, Therese

    2014-12-02

    This work demonstrates the improvement of mass detection sensitivity and time response using a simple sensor structure. Indeed, complicated technological processes leading to very brittle sensing structures are often required to reach high sensitivity when we want to detect specific molecules in biological fields. These developments constitute an obstacle to the early diagnosis of diseases. An alternative is the design of coupled structures. In this study, the device is based on the piezoelectric excitation and detection of two GaAs microstructures vibrating in antisymmetric modes. GaAs is a crystal which has the advantage to be micromachined easily using typical clean room processes. Moreover, we showed its high potential in direct biofunctionalisation for use in the biological field. A specific design of the device was performed to improve the detection at low mass and an original detection method has been developed. The principle is to exploit the variation in amplitude at the initial resonance frequency which has in the vicinity of weak added mass the greatest slope. Therefore, we get a very good resolution for an infinitely weak mass: relative voltage variation of 8%/1 fg. The analysis is based on results obtained by finite element simulation.

  12. Effects of Large Wing-Tip Masses on Oscillatory Stability of Wing Bending Coupled with Airplane Pitch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Donald T.

    1959-01-01

    An examination of oscillatory stability for a straight-winged airplane with large concentrated wing-tip masses was made using wing-bending and airplane-pitching degrees of freedom and considering only quasi-steady aerodynamic forces. It was found that instability caused by coupling of airplane pitching and wing bending occurred for large ratios of effective wing-tip mass to total airplane mass and for coupled wing-bending frequencies near or below the uncoupled pitching frequency. Boundaries for this instability are given in terms of two quantities: (1) the ratio of effective tip mass to airplane mass, which can be estimated, and (2) the ratio of the coupled bending frequency to the uncoupled pitch frequency, which can be measured in flight. These boundaries are presented for various values of several airplane parameters.

  13. [Nonradioactive iodine-labeled antibodies-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Xi; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Zhuang, Zhi-Xia; Cui, Wei-Gang

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, the system of nonradioactive iodine-labeled-antibodies linking inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for immunoassay was reported. The goat-anti-Escherichia coli and goat anti rabbit were considered as simulant antigen and antibody respectively in order to establish a new method of immunoassay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry which has the advantage of high sensitivity, low detection limit and preferable linearity range. During the experiment, the N-bromosuccinimide, a mild oxidant, was used to oxidize the non-radioactive iodine (127 I) that labeled the protein. The method of nonradioactive iodine labeled protein was established and the best labeling condition was explored. The compound of I was purified by Sephadex G50 column chromatography, then the stability and activity were examined. The results showed that the labeling program was simple, reaction time was within two minutes, the labeling yield achieved 63.12% and none of I shed from the compound after 96 hours. The simulant antigen and antibody reacted on polystyrene microtiter plate and the I was detected by ICP-MS, the detection limit of the method was 0.12 mg x L(-1), relative standard deviation (n = 9) was less than 3% and the linearly dependent coefficient was 0.998 7. This system can also be used in analysis of other protein, nucleic acid and so on.

  14. Separation Of Uranium And Plutonium Isotopes For Measurement By Multi Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Martinelli, R E; Hamilton, T F; Williams, R W; Kehl, S R

    2009-03-29

    Uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) isotopes in coral soils, contaminated by nuclear weapons testing in the northern Marshall Islands, were isolated by ion-exchange chromatography and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The soil samples were spiked with {sup 233}U and {sup 242}Pu tracers, dissolved in minerals acids, and U and Pu isotopes isolated and purified on commercially available ion-exchange columns. The ion-exchange technique employed a TEVA{reg_sign} column coupled to a UTEVA{reg_sign} column. U and Pu isotope fractions were then further isolated using separate elution schemes, and the purified fractions containing U and Pu isotopes analyzed sequentially using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MCICP-MS). High precision measurements of {sup 234}U/{sup 235}U, {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U, {sup 236}U/{sup 235}U, and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu in soil samples were attained using the described methodology and instrumentation, and provide a basis for conducting more detailed assessments of the behavior and transfer of uranium and plutonium in the environment.

  15. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md. Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4–5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper. PMID:26819896

  16. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4-5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper.

  17. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4-5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper. PMID:26819896

  18. Laser-ablation sampling for inductively coupled plasma distance-of-flight mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W.; Dennis, Elise; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma distance-of-flight mass spectrometer (ICP-DOFMS) has been coupled with laser-ablation (LA) sample introduction for the elemental analysis of solids. ICP-DOFMS is well suited for the analysis of laser-generated aerosols because it offers both high-speed mass analysis and simultaneous multi-elemental detection. Here, we evaluate the analytical performance of the LA-ICP-DOFMS instrument, equipped with a microchannel plate-based imaging detector, for the measurement of steady-state LA signals, as well as transient signals produced from single LA events. Steady-state detection limits are 1 mg g1, and absolute single-pulse LA detection limits are 200 fg for uranium; the system is shown capable of performing time-resolved single-pulse LA analysis. By leveraging the benefits of simultaneous multi-elemental detection, we also attain a good shot-to-shot reproducibility of 6% relative standard deviation (RSD) and isotope-ratio precision of 0.3% RSD with a 10 s integration time.

  19. Holomorphic Yukawa couplings in heterotic string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blesneag, Stefan; Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Candelas, Philip; Lukas, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We develop techniques, based on differential geometry, to compute holomorphic Yukawa couplings for heterotic line bundle models on Calabi-Yau manifolds defined as complete intersections in projective spaces. It is shown explicitly how these techniques relate to algebraic methods for computing holomorphic Yukawa couplings. We apply our methods to various examples and evaluate the holomorphic Yukawa couplings explicitly as functions of the complex structure moduli. It is shown that the rank of the Yukawa matrix can decrease at specific loci in complex structure moduli space. In particular, we compute the up Yukawa coupling and the singlet-Higgs-lepton trilinear coupling in the heterotic standard model described in ref. [32].

  20. Structural Design and Analysis for a Double-Band Cold Mass Support of Mice Coupling Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Liu, X. K.; Wang, L.; Li, S. Y.; Guo, X. L.; Pan, H.; Xu, F. Y.; Green, M. A.

    2010-04-01

    The cooling channel of Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) consists of eighteen superconducting solenoid coils, which are magnetically hooked together. A pair of coupling magnets operating at 4 K is applied to produce up to 2.6 T magnetic field on the magnet centerline to keep muon beam within the RF cavity windows. The peak magnetic force on the coupling magnet from other magnets in the MICE channel is up to 500 kN in longitudinal direction, and the requirements for magnet center and axis azimuthal angle at 4 K are stringent. A self-centered double-band cold mass support system with intermediate thermal interruption is applied for the coupling magnet. The physical center of the magnet does not change as it is cooled down from 300 K to 4.2 K with this support system. In this paper the design parameters of the support system are discussed. The integral analysis of the support system using FEA method was carried out to determine the tension forces in bands when various loads are applied. The magnet centre displacement and concentricity deviation form the axis of the warm bore are obtained, and the peak tension in support bands is also determined according to the simulation results.

  1. Inverse model of fully coupled fluid flow and stress in fractured rock masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-12-01

    In order to reflect the real behavior of the seepage field and deformation field during the environment change and construction process£¬the basic equations and FEM methods for fully coupled analysis of fluid flow and stress are developed£¬based on the assumptions of small deformation and incompressible water flow in complicated fractured rock masses. Both the equivalent continuum media model and the discrete media model are adopted. And the modified initial flow method is used to deal with the free surface of unconfined seepage. Due to the difficulty in determining the parameters of water flow field, stress field and their coupling relations, an inverse model is presented for the fully coupled problem in which both the data of water head and displacement are taken into consideration. Objective function is defined based on sensitivity analysis of parameters, and the relative values of water head, displacement on parameters are adopted in the establishment of objective function. A hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed as optimization method. The probability of crossover and mutation is determined according to chromosome fitness and a concept of self- adaptive probability is given. In addition, simplex method is also applied to increase the ability of local search, the operation of accelerated cycle is used in order to decrease optimization time.

  2. Determination of rare earth elements in tomato plants by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques.

    PubMed

    Spalla, S; Baffi, C; Barbante, C; Turetta, C; Turretta, C; Cozzi, G; Beone, G M; Bettinelli, M

    2009-10-30

    In recent years identification of the geographical origin of food has grown more important as consumers have become interested in knowing the provenance of the food that they purchase and eat. Certification schemes and labels have thus been developed to protect consumers and genuine producers from the improper use of popular brand names or renowned geographical origins. As the tomato is one of the major components of what is considered to be the healthy Mediterranean diet, it is important to be able to determine the geographical origin of tomatoes and tomato-based products such as tomato sauce. The aim of this work is to develop an analytical method to determine rare earth elements (RRE) for the control of the geographic origin of tomatoes. The content of REE in tomato plant samples collected from an agricultural area in Piacenza, Italy, was determined, using four different digestion procedures with and without HF. Microwave dissolution with HNO3 + H2O2 proved to be the most suitable digestion procedure. Inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICPQMS) and inductively coupled plasma sector field plasma mass spectrometry (ICPSFMS) instruments, both coupled with a desolvation system, were used to determine the REE in tomato plants in two different laboratories. A matched calibration curve method was used for the quantification of the analytes. The detection limits (MDLs) of the method ranged from 0.03 ng g(-1) for Ho, Tm, and Lu to 2 ng g(-1) for La and Ce. The precision, in terms of relative standard deviation on six replicates, was good, with values ranging, on average, from 6.0% for LREE (light rare earth elements) to 16.5% for HREE (heavy rare earth elements). These detection limits allowed the determination of the very low concentrations of REE present in tomato berries. For the concentrations of REE in tomato plants, the following trend was observed: roots > leaves > stems > berries.

  3. Coupled porohyperelastic mass transport (PHEXPT) finite element models for soft tissues using ABAQUS.

    PubMed

    Vande Geest, Jonathan P; Simon, B R; Rigby, Paul H; Newberg, Tyler P

    2011-04-01

    Finite element models (FEMs) including characteristic large deformations in highly nonlinear materials (hyperelasticity and coupled diffusive/convective transport of neutral mobile species) will allow quantitative study of in vivo tissues. Such FEMs will provide basic understanding of normal and pathological tissue responses and lead to optimization of local drug delivery strategies. We present a coupled porohyperelastic mass transport (PHEXPT) finite element approach developed using a commercially available ABAQUS finite element software. The PHEXPT transient simulations are based on sequential solution of the porohyperelastic (PHE) and mass transport (XPT) problems where an Eulerian PHE FEM is coupled to a Lagrangian XPT FEM using a custom-written FORTRAN program. The PHEXPT theoretical background is derived in the context of porous media transport theory and extended to ABAQUS finite element formulations. The essential assumptions needed in order to use ABAQUS are clearly identified in the derivation. Representative benchmark finite element simulations are provided along with analytical solutions (when appropriate). These simulations demonstrate the differences in transient and steady state responses including finite deformations, total stress, fluid pressure, relative fluid, and mobile species flux. A detailed description of important model considerations (e.g., material property functions and jump discontinuities at material interfaces) is also presented in the context of finite deformations. The ABAQUS-based PHEXPT approach enables the use of the available ABAQUS capabilities (interactive FEM mesh generation, finite element libraries, nonlinear material laws, pre- and postprocessing, etc.). PHEXPT FEMs can be used to simulate the transport of a relatively large neutral species (negligible osmotic fluid flux) in highly deformable hydrated soft tissues and tissue-engineered materials. PMID:21428686

  4. Recent developments in inductively coupled plasma source magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, A. N.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Christensen, J. C.; Jones, C. E.; Hall, C. M.; Yi, Wen; Teagle, D.; Walder, A. J.

    This paper describes advances in isotopic measurements that have been made with an inductively coupled plasma source magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometer and presents results of new experiments aimed at further evaluating the instrument's capability. It is shown using standard solutions that trace element ratios such as Rb/Sr can be measured precisely without isotope dilution by comparison with reference solutions of known composition. Similarly, using a new wide flight tube, Pb isotopic compositions and U/Pb ratios can be accurately measured simultaneously without isotope dilution. The effects of deliberately inducing changes in the running conditions (RF power) are shown to be significant for measuring trace element ratios but not for mass bias and interference corrected isotopic compositions. Finally, it is demonstrated that precise and accurate isotopic compositions of elements as refractory as W can be determined relatively easily by solution nebulization and even by direct laser ablation of complex silicates. Isobaric interferences in such experiments are negligible. These experiments serve to highlight the remarkable potential that this new field offers for hitherto difficult isotopic measurements in nuclear, earth, environmental and medical sciences. Isotopic measurements can be made that are reproducible at high precision through a range of running conditions, even in the presence of isobaric interferences. The ability to correct for mass discrimination accurately using a second element of similar mass, the very high sensitivity for elements that are otherwise difficult to ionize, the demonstrated capability for laser ablation work and the ability to measure through a wide mass range simultaneously give this instrument major advantages over other more traditional techniques of isotopic measurement.

  5. Coupling Charge Reduction Mass Spectrometry to Liquid Chromatography for Complex Mixture Analysis.

    PubMed

    Stutzman, John R; Crowe, Matthew C; Alexander, James N; Bell, Bruce M; Dunkle, Melissa N

    2016-04-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) of solution mixtures often generates complex mass spectra, even following liquid chromatography (LC), due to analyte multiple charging. Multiple charge state distributions can lead to isobaric interferences, mass spectral congestion, and ambiguous ion identification. As a consequence, data interpretation increases in complexity. Several charge reduction mass spectrometry (MS) approaches have been previously developed to reduce the average charge state of gaseous ions; however, all of these techniques have been restricted to direct infusion MS. In this study, synthetic polyols and surfactants separated by liquid chromatography and ionized by positive mode ESI have been subjected to polonium-210 α-particle radiation to reduce the average charge state to singly charged cations prior to mass analysis. LC/MS analysis of 5000 molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG5000) generated an average charge state of 5.88+; whereupon, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/charge reduction/mass spectrometry (LC/CR/MS) analysis of PEG 5000 generated an average charge state of 1.00+. The PEG5000 results demonstrated a decrease in spectral complexity and enabled facile interpretation. Other complex solution mixtures representing specific MS challenges (i.e., competitive ionization and isobaric ion overlap) were explored and analyzed with LC/CR/MS to demonstrate the benefits of coupling LC to CR/MS. For example, polyol information related to initiator, identity/relative amount of monomer, and estimated molecular weight was characterized in random and triblock ethylene oxide/propylene oxide polyols using LC/CR/MS. LC/CR/MS is a new analytical technique for the analysis of complex mixtures. PMID:26971559

  6. Recent developments in inductively coupled plasma source magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Halliday, A.N.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Christensen, J.C.; Jones, C.E.; Hall, C.M.; Yi, Wen; Teagle, D.; Walder, A.J.; Freedman, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes advances in isotopic measurements that have been made with an inductively coupled plasma source magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometer and presents results of new experiments aimed at further evaluating the instrument`s capability. It is shown using standard solutions that trace element ratios such as Rb/Sr can be measured precisely without isotope dilution by comparison with reference solutions of known composition. Similarly, using a new wide flight tube, Pb isotopic compositions and U/Pb ratios can be accurately measured simultaneously without isotope dilution. The effects of deliberately inducing changes in the running conditions (RF power) are shown to be significant for measuring trace element ratios but not for mass bias and interference corrected isotopic compositions. Finally, it is demonstrated that precise and accurate isotopic compositions of elements as refractory as W can be determined relatively easily by solution nebulization and even by direct laser ablation of complex silicates. Isobaric interferences in such experiments are negligible. These experiments serve to highlight the remarkable potential that this new field offers for hitherto difficult isotopic measurements in nuclear, earth, environmental and medical sciences. Isotopic measurements can be made that are reproducible at high precision through a range of running conditions, even in the presence of isobaric interferences. The ability to correct for mass discrimination accurately using a second element of similar mass, the very high sensitivity for elements that are otherwise difficult to ionize, the demonstrated capability for laser ablation work and the ability to measure through a wide mass range simultaneously give this instrument major advantages over other more traditional techniques of isotopic measurement.

  7. Two episodes of microbial change coupled with Permo/Triassic faunal mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shucheng; Pancost, Richard D; Yin, Hongfu; Wang, Hongmei; Evershed, Richard P

    2005-03-24

    Microbial expansion following faunal mass extinctions in Earth history can be studied by petrographic examination of microbialites (microbial crusts) or well-preserved organic-walled microbes. However, where preservation is poor, quantification of microbial communities can be problematic. We have circumvented this problem by adopting a lipid biomarker-based approach to evaluate microbial community changes across the Permo/Triassic (P/Tr) boundary at Meishan in South China. We present here a biomarker stratigraphic record showing episodic microbial changes coupled with a high-resolution record of invertebrate mass extinction. Variation in the microbial community structure is characterized by the 2-methylhopane (2-MHP) index (a ratio of the abundance of cyanobacterial biomarkers to more general bacterial biomarkers). Two episodes of faunal mass extinction were each preceded by minima in the 2-MHP index, followed by strong maxima, likely reflecting microbial responses to the catastrophic events that caused the extinction and initiated ecosystem changes. Hence, both cyanobacterial biomarker and invertebrate fossil records provide evidence for two episodes of biotic crisis across the P/Tr boundary.

  8. Representative sampling using single-pulse laser ablation withinductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Haichen; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2001-04-02

    Single pulse laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was assessed for accurate chemical analysis. Elemental fractionation (e.g. Pb/U), the quantity of ablated mass (crater volume), ICP-MS intensity and the particle contribution (spike signal) during single pulse ablation of NIST 610 glass were investigated. Pb/U fractionation significantly changed between the first and second laser pulse and showed strong irradiance dependence. The Pb/U ratio obtained by the first pulse was usually higher than that of the second pulse, with the average value close to the representative level. Segregation during laser ablation is proposed to explain the composition change between the first and second pulse. Crater volume measurements showed that the second pulse produced significantly more ablated mass. A roll-off of the crater depth occurred at {approx}750 GW/cm{sup 2}. The absolute ICP-MS intensity from the second pulse showed no correlation with crater depth. Particle induced spikes on the transit signal showed irradiance and elemental species dependence.

  9. Dynamical mass generation in QED with magnetic fields: Arbitrary field strength and coupling constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Eduardo; Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Raya, Alfredo

    2008-05-01

    We study the dynamical generation of masses for fundamental fermions in quenched quantum electrodynamics, in the presence of magnetics fields of arbitrary strength, by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the fermion self-energy in the rainbow approximation. We employ the Ritus eigenfunction formalism which provides a neat solution to the technical problem of summing over all Landau levels. It is well known that magnetic fields catalyze the generation of fermion mass m for arbitrarily small values of electromagnetic coupling α. For intense fields it is also well known that m∝eB. Our approach allows us to span all regimes of parameters α and eB. We find that m∝eB provided α is small. However, when α increases beyond the critical value αc which marks the onslaught of dynamical fermion masses in vacuum, we find m∝Λ, the cutoff required to regularize the ultraviolet divergences. Our method permits us to verify the results available in literature for the limiting cases of eB and α. We also point out the relevance of our work for possible physical applications.

  10. Miniaturized system of a gas chromatograph coupled with a Paul ion trap mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortt, B. J.; Darrach, M. R.; Holland, Paul M.; Chutjian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Miniature gas chromatography (GC) and miniature mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation has been developed to identify and quantify the chemical compounds present in complex mixtures of gases. The design approach utilizes micro-GC components coupled with a Paul quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Inherent to the system are high sensitivity, good dynamic range, good QIT resolution, low GC flow-rates to minimize vacuum requirements and the need for consumables; and the use of a modular approach to adapt to volatile organic compounds dissolved in water or present in sediment. Measurements are reported on system response to gaseous species at concentrations varying over four orders of magnitude. The ability of the system to deal with complicated mixtures is demonstrated, and future improvements are discussed. The GC/QIT system described herein has a mass, volume and power that are, conservatively, one-twentieth of those of commercial off-the-shelf systems. Potential applications are to spacecraft cabin-air monitoring, robotic planetary exploration and trace-species detection for residual gas analysis and environmental monitoring.

  11. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the analysis of biological samples and pharmaceutical drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossipov, K.; Seregina, I. F.; Bolshov, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is widely used in the analysis of biological samples (whole blood, serum, blood plasma, urine, tissues, etc.) and pharmaceutical drugs. The shortcomings of this method related to spectral and non-spectral interferences are manifested in full measure in determination of the target analytes in these complex samples strongly differing in composition. The spectral interferences are caused by similarity of masses of the target component and sample matrix components. Non-spectral interferences are related to the influence of sample matrix components on the physicochemical processes taking place during formation and transportation of liquid sample aerosols into the plasma, on the value and spatial distribution of plasma temperature and on the transmission of the ion beam from the interface to mass spectrometer detector. The review is devoted to analysis of different mechanisms of appearance of non-spectral interferences and to ways for their minimization or elimination. Special attention is paid to the techniques of biological sample preparation, which largely determine the mechanisms of the influence of sample composition on the results of element determination. The ways of lowering non-spectral interferences by instrumental parameter tuning and application of internal standards are considered. The bibliography includes 189 references.

  12. [Analysis of Trace Inorganic Elements in Castor Oil by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Tan-ping; Xie, Hua-lin; Nie, Xi-du

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in castor oil after direct dilution with ethanol by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established. The sample was diluted by ethanol before ICP-MS determination. The condensation and deposition of high concentrations of carbon in mass cone interface and ion lens, which will decrease the sensitivity of element analysis, were avoided effectively by introducing O2 to plasma. The mass spectral interferences were eliminated by octopole reaction system (ORS). The matrix effects were calibrated to using Sc, Ge, Rh and Ir as internal standard elements. Au standard solution, which could form amalgam alloy with Hg, was dropped to eliminate the memory effect of Hg. The results show that the correlation coefficient for analyte is no less than 0.999 5, the detection limits is in the range of 0.06 - 20.1 ng x L(-1), the recovery is in the range of 990.4% - 110.2%, and the RSD is less than 4.8%. This method was very fast, simple and accurate to simultaneously analyze multi-elements in castor oil.

  13. Study of fluorocarbon plasma in 60 and 100 MHz capacitively coupled discharges using mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushakov, Andrey; Volynets, Vladimir; Jeong, Sangmin; Sung, Dougyong; Ihm, Yongho; Woo, Jehun; Han, Moonhyeong

    2008-09-15

    The signals of positive ions and radicals formed in the fluorocarbon plasma of the capacitively coupled plasma reactor were measured using a quadrupole mass spectrometry and optical emission actinometry. The plasma was produced at 60 and 100 MHz frequencies for the same reactor configuration and gas mixtures. Experiments were performed at 25 mTorr with a SiO{sub 2} wafer on the grounded electrode. Mass spectra of ions were measured in C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/O{sub 2}/Ar and C{sub 4}F{sub 6}/O{sub 2}/Ar gas mixtures at 500-1500 W generator powers. For 60 and 100 MHz discharges production of fluorocarbon ions and radicals is discussed. It was found that the production of heavy species increases with frequency. The high mass signals such as C{sub 3}F{sub 3}{sup +}, C{sub 2}F{sub 4}{sup +}, C{sub 2}F{sub 5}{sup +}, C{sub 3}F{sub 5}{sup +}, C{sub 4}F{sub 7}{sup +} decrease when CHF{sub 3} is added to the gas mixture. However, the signals of CF{sub x}{sup +} (x=1,2,3) do not change significantly. These results are compared to the results of polymer film deposition on the wafer. It was suggested to control the polymerization film formation by adding small amount of CHF{sub 3} to the process mixture.

  14. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of acrylamide in typical Spanish products.

    PubMed

    Bermudo, E; Moyano, E; Puignou, L; Galceran, M T

    2008-07-15

    This paper describes the use of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of acrylamide in several typical foods produced and consumed in Spain. Christmas sweets, olives, traditionally made potato crisps, pastry products, sweet fritters ("churros") and one of Spain's most famous dishes, Spanish omelette, were selected. Using the mass spectra information provided by an ion trap analyzer in combination with the accurate mass measurements from time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometry a co-extractive interference present in some potato products was identified as valine. A porous graphitic carbon column, which enabled the co-extractive and acrylamide to be separated, and ion trap or triple quadrupole analyzers, depending on the acrylamide concentration, were used to determine this genotoxic compound in foodstuffs. The highest values were found in potato products, sweet fritters, Christmas sweets and pastry products, with values ranging between 70 and 2000 microg/g. Spanish omelette presented relatively low levels, similar to those obtained for dried fruits.

  15. Gravitational waveforms from unequal-mass binaries with arbitrary spins under leading order spin-orbit coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Tessmer, Manuel

    2009-12-15

    This paper generalizes the structure of gravitational waves from orbiting spinning binaries under leading order spin-orbit coupling, as given in the work by Koenigsdoerffer and Gopakumar [Phys. Rev. D 71, 024039 (2005)] for single-spin and equal-mass binaries, to unequal-mass binaries and arbitrary spin configurations. The orbital motion is taken to be quasicircular and the fractional mass difference is assumed to be small against one. The emitted gravitational waveforms are given in analytic form.

  16. Association between Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms of African American Married Couples: Mediating and Moderating Roles of Couples' Behavioral Closeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, Thulitha; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined (a) associations between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms in African American husbands and wives, (b) transactional associations between husbands and wives in this relationship, and (c) mediating and moderating role of couples' behavioral closeness in this association. Data came from a sample of 450 African…

  17. Breast mass segmentation in digital mammography based on pulse coupled neural network and level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Weiying; Ma, Yide; Li, Yunsong

    2015-05-01

    A novel approach to mammographic image segmentation, termed as PCNN-based level set algorithm, is presented in this paper. Just as its name implies, a method based on pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) in conjunction with the variational level set method for medical image segmentation. To date, little work has been done on detecting the initial zero level set contours based on PCNN algorithm for latterly level set evolution. When all the pixels of the input image are fired by PCNN, the small pixel value will be a much more refined segmentation. In mammographic image, the breast tumor presents big pixel value. Additionally, the mammographic image with predominantly dark region, so that we firstly obtain the negative of mammographic image with predominantly dark region except the breast tumor before all the pixels of an input image are fired by PCNN. Therefore, in here, PCNN algorithm is employed to achieve mammary-specific, initial mass contour detection. After that, the initial contours are all extracted. We define the extracted contours as the initial zero level set contours for automatic mass segmentation by variational level set in mammographic image analysis. What's more, a new proposed algorithm improves external energy of variational level set method in terms of mammographic images in low contrast. In accordance with the gray scale of mass region in mammographic image is higher than the region surrounded, so the Laplace operator is used to modify external energy, which could make the bright spot becoming much brighter than the surrounded pixels in the image. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed method performs on a known public database namely MIAS, rather than synthetic images. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach can potentially obtain better masses detection results in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Ultimately, this algorithm could lead to increase both sensitivity and specificity of the physicians' interpretation of

  18. Assessment of the analytical capabilities of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, H.E.; Garbarino, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    A thorough assessment of the analytical capabilities of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was conducted for selected analytes of importance in water quality applications and hydrologic research. A multielement calibration curve technique was designed to produce accurate and precise results in analysis times of approximately one minute. The suite of elements included Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn. The effects of sample matrix composition on the accuracy of the determinations showed that matrix elements (such as Na, Ca, Mg, and K) that may be present in natural water samples at concentration levels greater than 50 mg/L resulted in as much as a 10% suppression in ion current for analyte elements. Operational detection limits are presented.

  19. Inductively Coupled Plasma: Fundamental Particle Investigations with Laser Ablation and Applications in Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Saetveit, Nathan Joe

    2008-01-01

    Particle size effects and elemental fractionation in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are investigated with nanosecond and femtosecond laser ablation, differential mobility analysis, and magnetic sector ICP-MS. Laser pulse width was found to have a significant influence on the LA particle size distribution and the elemental composition of the aerosol and thus fractionation. Emission from individual particles from solution nebulization, glass, and a pressed powder pellet are observed with high speed digital photography. The presence of intact particles in an ICP is shown to be a likely source of fractionation. A technique for the online detection of stimulated elemental release from neural tissue using magnetic sector ICP-MS is described. Detection limits of 1 μg L-1 or better were found for P, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in a 60 μL injection in a physiological saline matrix.

  20. Stable isotope dilution analysis of hydrologic samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, J.R.; Taylor, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is employed in the determination of Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, Ba, Ti, and Pb in nonsaline, natural water samples by stable isotope dilution analysis. Hydrologic samples were directly analyzed without any unusual pretreatment. Interference effects related to overlapping isobars, formation of metal oxide and multiply charged ions, and matrix composition were identified and suitable methods of correction evaluated. A comparability study snowed that single-element isotope dilution analysis was only marginally better than sequential multielement isotope dilution analysis. Accuracy and precision of the single-element method were determined on the basis of results obtained for standard reference materials. The instrumental technique was shown to be ideally suited for programs associated with certification of standard reference materials.

  1. Analysis of iodine in food samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Todor I; Gray, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    This work shows a method for the determination of iodine in a variety of food samples and reference materials using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following alkaline extraction. Optimisation of the addition of organic carbon showed that a minimum of 3% 2-propanol was necessary for a constant ratio of iodine to internal standard. The limit of quantification (LOQ), calculated as 30σ for the method, was 36 ng g(-1) in solid food samples. For method validation, seven standard reference materials (SRM) and 21 fortified food samples were used. The precision (%RSD) of the measurements was in the 2-7% range. Accuracies for the SRMs were 85-105%, while the fortified food samples showed 81-119% recoveries, including a number of samples fortified at 50% of the LOQ.

  2. Determination of total iodine in food samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Benkhedda, Karima; Robichaud, André; Turcotte, Stéphane; Béraldin, Franca J; Cockell, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    A method was developed and validated for the extraction and determination of total iodine (I) in food composite samples, representing different foods available on the Canadian market, by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Prior to analysis, samples were digested in a closed microwave system using a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid. The detection limit for iodine determination was 29 nglg and precisions of 10 and 1.3% were obtained for 10 replicate measurements of 100 and 1000 ng/g standards, respectively. The method was validated using Certified Reference Materials and spike recovery measurements in food samples and was applied for the determination of iodine in a variety of food composite samples from the Canadian Total Diet Study. The high sample throughput of ICP-MS makes the method suitable for analysis of large numbers of food samples with varying matrixes, such as for Total Diet Studies.

  3. Phytochemical analysis of Hibiscus caesius using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ain, Quratul; Naveed, Muhammad Na; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Farman, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman

    2015-09-01

    Various species in genus Hibiscus are traditionally known for their therapeutic attributes. The present study focused on the phytochemical analysis of a rather unexplored species Hibiscus caesius (H. caesius), using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The analysis revealed five major compounds in the aqueous extract, viz. vanillic acid, protocatechoic acid, quercetin, quercetin glucoside and apigenin, being reported for the first time in H. caesius. Literature suggests that these compounds have important pharmacological traits such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and hepatoprotective etc. however, this requires further pharmacological investigations at in vitro and in vivo scale. The above study concluded the medicinal potential of H. caesius.

  4. Pulsed radio-frequency discharge inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for oxide analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Yin, Zhibin; Hang, Wei; Li, Bin; Huang, Benli

    2016-08-01

    A direct solid sampling technique has been developed based on a pulsed radio-frequency discharge (RFD) in mixture of N2 and Ar environment at atmospheric pressure. With an averaged input power of 65 W, a crater with the diameter of 80 μm and depth of 50 μm can be formed on sample surface after discharge for 1 min, suggesting the feasibility of the pulsed RFD for sampling nonconductive solids. Combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), this technique allows to measure elemental composition of solids directly with relative standard deviation (RSD) of ~ 20%. Capability of quantitative analysis was demonstrated by the use of soil standards and artificial standards. Good calibration linearity and limits of detection (LODs) in range of 10- 8-10- 9 g/g were achieved for most elements.

  5. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of isotope ratios in depleted uranium contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Michael D

    2003-09-01

    Laser ablation of pressed soil pellets was examined as a means of direct sample introduction to enable inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) screening of soils for residual depleted uranium (DU) contamination. Differentiation between depleted uranium, an anthropogenic contaminant, and naturally occurring uranium was accomplished on the basis of measured 235U/238U isotope ratios. The amount of sample preparation required for laser ablation is considerably less than that typically required for aqueous sample introduction. The amount of hazardous laboratory waste generated is diminished accordingly. During the present investigation, 235U/238U isotope ratios measured for field samples were in good agreement with those derived from gamma spectrometry measurements. However, substantial compensation was required to mitigate the effects of impaired pulse counting attributed to sample inhomogeneity and sporadic introduction of uranium analyte into the plasma.

  6. Osmium isotopic ratio measurements by inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, G.P. III; Bazan, J.M.; Date, A.R.

    1987-04-01

    The isotopic composition of nanogram quantities of osmium was measured by using an inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometer. Sensitivity was enhanced a factor of approx.100 by the use of an osmium tetraoxide vapor generator rather than nebulization of solution. For samples less than or equal to5 ng, the ratios /sup 190/Os//sup 192/Os, /sup 189/Os//sup 192/Os, and /sup 188/Os//sup 192/Os were determined to better than +/- 0.5% (1sigma/sub m/) precision. For the minor isotopes, the ratios /sup 187/Os//sup 192/Os and /sup 186/Os//sup 192/Os were determined to +/-1%, and /sup 184/Os//sup 192/Os (4 x 10/sup -4/) was determined to approx.10%. Isotope ratios for common osmium are reported.

  7. Accurate determination of silver nanoparticles in animal tissues by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veverková, Lenka; Hradilová, Šárka; Milde, David; Panáček, Aleš; Skopalová, Jana; Kvítek, Libor; Petrželová, Kamila; Zbořil, Radek

    2014-12-01

    This study examined recoveries of silver determination in animal tissues after wet digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The composition of the mineralization mixture for microwave assisted digestion was optimized and the best recoveries were obtained for mineralization with HNO3 and addition of HCl promptly after digestion. The optimization was performed on model samples of chicken meat spiked with silver nanoparticles and a solution of ionic silver. Basic calculations of theoretical distribution of Ag among various silver-containing species were implemented and the results showed that most of the silver is in the form of soluble complexes AgCl2- and AgCl32 - for the optimized composition of the mineralization mixture. Three animal tissue certified reference materials were then analyzed to verify the trueness and precision of the results.

  8. [Study on the determination of 14 inorganic elements in coffee by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Nie, Xi-Du; Fu, Liang

    2013-07-01

    Samples of coffee were digested by microwave digestion, and inorganic elements amounts of Na, Mg, P, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo and Pb in sample solutions were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). HNO3 + H2O2 was used to achieve the complete decomposition of the organic matrix in a closed-vessel microwave oven. The working parameters of the instrument were optimized. The results showed that the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 3.84% for all the elements, and the recovery was found to be 92.00% -106.52% by adding standard recovery experiment. This method was simple, sensitive and precise and can perform simultaneous multi-elements determination of coffee, which could satisfy the sample examination request and provide scientific rationale for determining inorganic elements of coffee.

  9. Heavy metals in aromatic spices by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bua, Daniel Giuseppe; Annuario, Giovanni; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    Objective of this study was to determine the content of Cd, Hg, As and Pb in common spices traded in the Italian market, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were compared with the maximum limits established by the national Legislative Decree (LD) no. 107 implementing the Council Directive 88/388/EEC and by international organisations, such as Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO). Food safety for spices was assessed considering the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) and the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), respectively, for Cd and Hg and the 95% lower confidence limit of the benchmark dose of 1% extra risk (BMDL01) for As and Pb. Investigated elements in all samples were within the maximum limits as set by the national and international normative institutions. Nevertheless, the heavy metal content of some spices exceeded the PTWI, TWI and BMDL01, which needs attention when considering consumer's health.

  10. Phytochemical analysis of Hibiscus caesius using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ain, Quratul; Naveed, Muhammad Na; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Farman, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman

    2015-09-01

    Various species in genus Hibiscus are traditionally known for their therapeutic attributes. The present study focused on the phytochemical analysis of a rather unexplored species Hibiscus caesius (H. caesius), using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The analysis revealed five major compounds in the aqueous extract, viz. vanillic acid, protocatechoic acid, quercetin, quercetin glucoside and apigenin, being reported for the first time in H. caesius. Literature suggests that these compounds have important pharmacological traits such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and hepatoprotective etc. however, this requires further pharmacological investigations at in vitro and in vivo scale. The above study concluded the medicinal potential of H. caesius. PMID:26408882

  11. Determination of elemental content off rocks by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichte, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of analysis for rocks and soils is presented using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It is based on a lithium borate fusion and the free-running mode of a Nd/YAG laser. An Ar/N2 sample gas improves sensitivity 7 ?? for most elements. Sixty-three elements are characterized for the fusion, and 49 elements can be quantified. Internal standards and isotopic spikes ensure accurate results. Limits of detection are 0.01 ??g/g for many trace elements. Accuracy approaches 5% for all elements. A new quality assurance procedure is presented that uses fundamental parameters to test relative response factors for the calibration.

  12. Unravelling plant molecular machineries through affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dedecker, Maarten; Van Leene, Jelle; De Jaeger, Geert

    2015-04-01

    Rather than functioning independently, proteins tend to work in concert with each other and with other macromolecules to form macromolecular complexes. Affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (AP-MS) can lead to a better understanding of the cellular functions of these complexes. With the development of easy purification protocols and ultra-sensitive MS, AP-MS is currently widely used for screening co-complex membership in plants. Studying complexes in their developmental context through the isolation of specific organs and tissues has now become feasible. Besides, the tagged protein can be employed for probing other interactions like protein-DNA and protein-RNA interactions. With the tools at hand, protein-centred interaction studies will greatly improve our knowledge of how plant cells wire their functional components in relation to their function. PMID:25603557

  13. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of isotope ratios in depleted uranium contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Michael D

    2003-09-01

    Laser ablation of pressed soil pellets was examined as a means of direct sample introduction to enable inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) screening of soils for residual depleted uranium (DU) contamination. Differentiation between depleted uranium, an anthropogenic contaminant, and naturally occurring uranium was accomplished on the basis of measured 235U/238U isotope ratios. The amount of sample preparation required for laser ablation is considerably less than that typically required for aqueous sample introduction. The amount of hazardous laboratory waste generated is diminished accordingly. During the present investigation, 235U/238U isotope ratios measured for field samples were in good agreement with those derived from gamma spectrometry measurements. However, substantial compensation was required to mitigate the effects of impaired pulse counting attributed to sample inhomogeneity and sporadic introduction of uranium analyte into the plasma. PMID:14611049

  14. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and its Application in Life Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gu-feng; Wang, Hong-mei

    2001-08-01

    Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has made much progress since its birth in the late 1990s. This paper will give a rather systematic overview on the use of this technique in new devices and technologies related to plasma source, sample-introducing device and detecting spectrometer etc. In this overview, an emphasis will be put on the evaluation of the ICP-MS technique in combination with a series of physical, chemical and biological techniques, such as laser ablation (LA), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), along with their representative high accuracy and high sensitivity. Finally, comprehensive and fruitful applications of the ICP-MS and its combinative techniques in the detection of trace metallic elements and isotopes in complex biological and environmental samples will be revealed.

  15. A coupled DEM-DFN approach to rock mass strength characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harthong, Barthelemy; Scholtes, Luc; Donze, Frederic

    2013-04-01

    An enhanced version of the discrete element method (DEM) has been specifically developed for the analysis of fractured rock masses [Scholtes L, Donze F, 2012]. In addition to the discrete representation of the intact medium which enables the description of the localized stress-induced damage caused by heterogeneities inherent to rocks, structural defects can be explicitly taken into account in the modeling to represent pre-existing fractures or discontinuities of size typically larger than the discrete element size. From laboratory scale simulations to slope stability case studies, the capability of this approach to simulate the progressive failure mechanisms occurring in jointed rock are presented is assessed on the basis of referenced experiments and in situ observations. For instance, the challenging wing crack extension, typical of brittle material fracturing, can be successfully reproduced under both compressive and shear loading path, as a result of the progressive coalescence of micro-cracks induced by stress concentration at the tips of pre-existing fractures. In this study, the dedicated DEM is coupled to a discrete fracture network (DFN) model to assess the influence of DFN properties on the mechanical behavior of fractured rock masses where progressive failure can occur. The DFN model assumes the distribution of fractures barycentres to be fractal and the distribution of fracture sizes to follow a power-law distribution [Davy P, Le Goc P, Darcel C, Bour O, de Dreuzy JR, Munier R, 2010]. The proposed DEM/DFN model is used to characterize the influence of clustering and size distribution of pre-existing fractures on the strength of fractured rock masses. The results show that the mechanical behaviour of fractured rock masses is mainly dependent on the fracture intensity. However, for a given fracture intensity, the strength can exhibit a 50 per cent variability depending on the size distribution of the pre-existing fractures. This difference can be

  16. Rapid determination of uranium isotopes in urine by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Dai, X; Collins, R; Kramer-Tremblay, S

    2011-08-01

    Following a radiological or nuclear emergency involving uranium exposure, rapid analytical methods are needed to analyze the concentration of uranium isotopes in human urine samples for early dose assessment. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique, with its high sample throughput and high sensitivity, has advantages over alpha spectrometry for uranium urinalysis after minimum sample preparation. In this work, a rapid sample preparation method using an anion exchange chromatographic column was developed to separate uranium from the urine matrix. A high-resolution sector field ICP-MS instrument, coupled with a high sensitivity desolvation sample introduction inlet, was used to determine uranium isotopes in the samples. The method can analyze up to 24 urine samples in two hours with the limits of detection of 0.0014, 0.10, and 2.0 pg mL(-1) for (234)U, (235)U, and (238)U, respectively, which meet the requirement for isotopic analysis of uranium in a radiation emergency.

  17. Determination of selenium urinary metabolites by high temperature liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terol, A; Ardini, F; Basso, A; Grotti, M

    2015-02-01

    The coupling of high temperature liquid chromatography (HTLC) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for the determination of selenium metabolites in urine samples is reported for the first time. In order to achieve "ICPMS-friendly" chromatographic conditions, the retention on a graphite stationary phase of the major selenium urinary metabolites using only plain water with 2% methanol as the mobile phase was investigated. Under the optimal conditions (T=80°C, Ql=1.2 mL min(-1)), methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-d-galactopyranoside (selenosugar 1), methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-d-glucosopyranoside (selenosugar 2) and trimethylselenonium ion were efficiently separated in less than 7 min, without any interferences due to other common selenium species (selenite, selenate, selenocystine and selenomethionine) or detectable effect of the urine matrix. The limits of detection were 0.3-0.5 ng Se mL(-1), and the precision of the analytical procedure was better than 3% (RSD%, n=5). The HTLC-ICPMS method was applied to the analysis of urine samples from two volunteers before and after ingestion of Brazil nuts or selenium supplements. The developed procedure proved to be adequate for the analytical task, providing results consistent with previous studies. PMID:25582485

  18. Rapid determination of uranium isotopes in urine by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Dai, X; Collins, R; Kramer-Tremblay, S

    2011-08-01

    Following a radiological or nuclear emergency involving uranium exposure, rapid analytical methods are needed to analyze the concentration of uranium isotopes in human urine samples for early dose assessment. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique, with its high sample throughput and high sensitivity, has advantages over alpha spectrometry for uranium urinalysis after minimum sample preparation. In this work, a rapid sample preparation method using an anion exchange chromatographic column was developed to separate uranium from the urine matrix. A high-resolution sector field ICP-MS instrument, coupled with a high sensitivity desolvation sample introduction inlet, was used to determine uranium isotopes in the samples. The method can analyze up to 24 urine samples in two hours with the limits of detection of 0.0014, 0.10, and 2.0 pg mL(-1) for (234)U, (235)U, and (238)U, respectively, which meet the requirement for isotopic analysis of uranium in a radiation emergency. PMID:21709502

  19. Determination of the rare-earth elements in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichte, F.E.; Meier, A.L.; Crock, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    A method of analysis of geological materials for the determination of the rare-earth elements using the Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric technique (ICP-MS) has been developed. Instrumental parameters and factors affecting analytical results have been first studied and then optimized. Samples are analyzed directly following an acid digestion, without the need for separation or preconcentration with limits of detection of 2-11 ng/g, precision of ?? 2.5% relative standard deviation, and accuracy comparable to inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. A commercially available ICP-MS instrument is used with modifications to the sample introduction system, torch, and sampler orifice to reduce the effects of high salt content of sample solutions prepared from geologic materials. Corrections for isobaric interferences from oxide ions and other diatomic and triatomic ions are made mathematically. Special internal standard procedures are used to compensate for drift in metahmetal oxide ratios and sensitivity. Reference standard values are used to verify the accuracy and utility of the method.

  20. Hydrogen measurement during steam oxidation using coupled thermogravimetric analysis and quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Parkison, Adam J.; Nelson, Andrew Thomas

    2016-01-11

    An analytical technique is presented with the goal of measuring reaction kinetics during steam oxidation reactions for three cases in which obtaining kinetics information often requires a prohibitive amount of time and cost. The technique presented relies on coupling thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with a quantitative hydrogen measurement technique using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). The first case considered is in differentiating between the kinetics of steam oxidation reactions and those for simultaneously reacting gaseous impurities such as nitrogen or oxygen. The second case allows one to independently measure the kinetics of oxide and hydride formation for systems in which both ofmore » these reactions are known to take place during steam oxidation. The third case deals with measuring the kinetics of formation for competing volatile and non-volatile oxides during certain steam oxidation reactions. In order to meet the requirements of the coupled technique, a methodology is presented which attempts to provide quantitative measurement of hydrogen generation using QMS in the presence of an interfering fragmentation species, namely water vapor. This is achieved such that all calibrations and corrections are performed during the TGA baseline and steam oxidation programs, making system operation virtually identical to standard TGA. Benchmarking results showed a relative error in hydrogen measurement of 5.7–8.4% following the application of a correction factor. Lastly, suggestions are made for possible improvements to the presented technique so that it may be better applied to the three cases presented.« less

  1. Sulfur analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giner Martínez-Sierra, J.; Galilea San Blas, O.; Marchante Gayón, J. M.; García Alonso, J. I.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years the number of applications of sulfur (S) analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector has increased significantly. In this article we describe in some depth the application of ICP-MS for S analysis with emphasis placed on the sulfur-specific detection by hyphenated techniques such as LC, GC, CE and LA coupled on-line to ICP-MS. The different approaches available for sulfur isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS are also detailed. Particular attention has been paid to the quantification of peptides/proteins and the analysis of metallopeptides/metalloproteins via sulfur by LC-ICP-MS. Likewise, the speciation analysis of metal-based pharmaceuticals and metallodrugs and non-metal selective detection of pharmaceuticals via S are highlighted. Labeling procedures for metabolic applications are also included. Finally, the measurement of natural variations in S isotope composition with multicollector ICP-MS instruments is also covered in this review.

  2. Characterization of crude oil biomarkers using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mogollón, Noroska Gabriela Salazar; Prata, Paloma Santana; Dos Reis, Jadson Zeni; Neto, Eugênio Vaz Dos Santos; Augusto, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Oil samples from Recôncavo basin (NE Brazil), previously analyzed by traditional techniques such as gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, were evaluated using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry along with simplified methods of samples preparation to evaluate the differences and advantages of these analytical techniques to better understand the development of the organic matter in this basin without altering the normal distribution of the compounds in the samples. As a result, the geochemical parameters calculated by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry described better the origin, maturity, and biodegradation of both samples probably by increased selectivity, resolution, and sensitivity inherent of the multidimensional technique. Additionally, the detection of the compounds such as, the C(14α-) homo-26-nor-17α-hopane series, diamoretanes, nor-spergulanes, C19 -C26 A-nor-steranes and 4α-methylsteranes resolved and detected by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry were key to classify and differentiate these lacustrine samples according to their maturity and deposition conditions.

  3. Multivariate analysis of progressive thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2010-09-01

    Thermal decomposition of poly dimethyl siloxane compounds, Sylgard{reg_sign} 184 and 186, were examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. The technique involves sequentially heating a sample of the material of interest with subsequent analysis in a commercial GC/MS system. The decomposition chromatograms were analyzed using multivariate analysis tools including principal component analysis (PCA), factor rotation employing the varimax criterion, and multivariate curve resolution. The results of the analysis show seven components related to offgassing of various fractions of siloxanes that vary as a function of temperature. Thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique for analyzing chemical mixtures. It has great potential in numerous analytic areas including materials analysis, sports medicine, in the detection of designer drugs; and biological research for metabolomics. Data analysis is complicated, far from automated and can result in high false positive or false negative rates. We have demonstrated a step-wise TD/GC-MS technique that removes more volatile compounds from a sample before extracting the less volatile compounds. This creates an additional dimension of separation before the GC column, while simultaneously generating three-way data. Sandia's proven multivariate analysis methods, when applied to these data, have several advantages over current commercial options. It also has demonstrated potential for success in finding and enabling identification of trace compounds. Several challenges remain, however, including understanding the sources of noise in the data, outlier detection, improving the data pretreatment and analysis methods, developing a software tool for ease of use by the chemist, and demonstrating our belief that

  4. Origin of Self-preservation Effect for Hydrate Decomposition: Coupling of Mass and Heat Transfer Resistances.

    PubMed

    Bai, Dongsheng; Zhang, Diwei; Zhang, Xianren; Chen, Guangjin

    2015-10-01

    Gas hydrates could show an unexpected high stability at conditions out of thermodynamic equilibrium, which is called the self-preservation effect. The mechanism of the effect for methane hydrates is here investigated via molecular dynamics simulations, in which an NVT/E method is introduced to represent different levels of heat transfer resistance. Our simulations suggest a coupling between the mass transfer resistance and heat transfer resistance as the driving mechanism for self-preservation effect. We found that the hydrate is initially melted from the interface, and then a solid-like water layer with temperature-dependent structures is formed next to the hydrate interface that exhibits fractal feature, followed by an increase of mass transfer resistance for the diffusion of methane from hydrate region. Furthermore, our results indicate that heat transfer resistance is a more fundamental factor, since it facilitates the formation of the solid-like layer and hence inhibits the further dissociation of the hydrates. The self-preservation effect is found to be enhanced with the increase of pressure and particularly the decrease of temperature. Kinetic equations based on heat balance calculations is also developed to describe the self-preservation effect, which reproduces our simulation results well and provides an association between microscopic and macroscopic properties.

  5. Atomic Mineral Characteristics of Indonesian Osteoporosis by High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Zairin; Sumitro, Sutiman Bambang; Hidayat, Mohammad; Rahim, Agus Hadian; Sabarudin, Akhmad; Umemura, Tomonari

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research indicates that negative calcium balance is associated with low bone mass, rapid bone loss, and high fracture rates. However, some studies revealed that not only calcium is involved in bone strengthening as risk factor of fracture osteoporosis. Thus, in this report, the difference of metallic and nonmetallic elements in osteoporosis and normal bones was studied by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). The influence of these elements on bone metabolic processes is also discussed. Inclusion criteria of bone samples consist of postmenopausal woman, trabecular bone fracture, normal and osteoporosis BMD value, and no history of previous disease. The results showed that the concentration of B, Al, S, V, Co, Mo, Te, Ba, La, Ni, As, and Ca/P ratio is higher in osteoporosis than normal. These atomic minerals have negative role to imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation activity. Conversely, concentrations of Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cr, Pd, Ag, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Pb, and Se are lower in osteoporosis than in normal bones. Among these atoms, known to have important roles in bone structure, we found involvement of atomic mineral and calcium which are considerable to contribute to osteoporotic phenomena. PMID:22654598

  6. Continuum flow sampling mass spectrometer for elemental analysis with an inductively coupled plasma ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The sampling of ions from an atmospheric pressure inductively coupled plasma for mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a supersonic nozzle and skimmer is shown to follow similar behavior found for neutral beam studies and of ion extraction from other plasmas and flames. The dependence of count rates for metal oxide and doubly charged ions on ICP operating parameters, and sampling interface configuration are discussed for this instrument. A simple method is described for the approximate measurement of the ion energy distribution in ICP-MS. The average ion kinetic energy, kinetic energy spread, and maximum kinetic energy are evaluated from a plot of ion signal as a function of retarding voltage applied to the quadrupole mass analyzer. The effects of plasma operating parameters on ion signals and energies are described. The interference on the ionization of cobalt by five salts, NaCl, MgCl/sub 2/, NH/sub 4/I, NH/sub 4/Br and NH/sub 4/Cl, in an ICP is first considered theoretically and subsequently the theoretical trends are established experimentally by ICP-MS. The interference trends are found to be in the order of the most easily ionized element in the matrix salt, i.e., Na > Mg > I > Br > Cl.

  7. Slug-flow microextraction coupled with paper spray mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of complex samples.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jiewei; Wang, Wenwen; Yang, Yunyun; Wang, Xiaowei; Chen, Baowei; Yao, Zhong-Ping; Luan, Tiangang

    2016-10-12

    Analysis of trace compounds in small-volume complex samples is of importance for forensic, clinical, pharmaceutical, environmental, and life science investigation. In this study, we reported the coupling of slug-flow microextraction with paper spray mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of trace analytes in small volume of complicated biological samples such as whole blood, milk, and body fluid, etc. The method is performed by applying a disposable glass capillary for rapid extraction of a small amount of complex samples using a small amount of organic solvent; the loaded organic solvent was then spotted onto a paper triangle and dried out; subsequently, a high voltage and some spray solvent were applied onto the paper triangle for mass spectrometric analysis. By using the proposed method, high sensitivity and satisfactory precision for quantitative analysis of trace macrolide antibiotics in whole bloods and milks as well as perfluorinated compounds in individual small organisms have been successfully achieved. In addition, investigation of bioaccumulation of perfluorinated compounds in individual small organisms has been reached.

  8. Studies of selenium and xenon in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bricker, T.

    1994-07-27

    Since its development, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been a widely used analytical technique. ICP-MS offers low detection limits, easy determination of isotope ratios, and simple mass spectra from analyte elements. ICP-MS has been successfully employed for many applications including geological, environmental, biological, metallurgical, food, medical, and industrial. One specific application important to many areas of study involves elemental speciation by using ICP-MS as an element specific detector interfaced to liquid chromatography. Elemental speciation information is important and cannot be obtained by atomic spectrometric methods alone which measure only the total concentration of the element present. Part 1 of this study describes the speciation of selenium in human serum by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and detection by ICP-MS. Although ICP-MS has been widely sued, room for improvement still exists. Difficulties in ICP-MS include noise in the background, matrix effects, clogging of the sampling orifice with deposited solids, and spectral interference caused by polyatomic ions. Previous work has shown that the addition of xenon into the central channel of the ICP decreases polyatomic ion levels. In Part 2 of this work, a fundamental study involving the measurement of the excitation temperature is carried out to further understand xenon`s role in the reduction of polyatomic ions. 155 refs.

  9. Thin layer chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for direct analysis of raw samples.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Xin, Gui-zhong; So, Pui-Kin; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2015-10-01

    Conventional mass spectrometric analysis of raw samples commonly requires sample pretreatment and chromatographic separation using high performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography, which could be time-consuming and laborious. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was developed for direct analysis of raw samples. The sorbent material of the TLC plate was found to be able to retain the interfering compounds and allow interested analytes to be extracted, ionized and detected by ESI-MS with much reduced matrix interference. Our results showed that this method could be effectively applied in direct analysis of samples containing common interfering compounds, e.g., salts and detergents, and rapid detection and quantitation of target analytes in raw samples. Offline and online separation and detection of different components in mixture samples, e.g., plant extracts, using TLC-ESI-MS were also demonstrated. Overall, this study revealed that TLC-ESI-MS could be a simple, rapid and efficient method for analysis of raw samples. PMID:26362806

  10. Origin of Self-preservation Effect for Hydrate Decomposition: Coupling of Mass and Heat Transfer Resistances.

    PubMed

    Bai, Dongsheng; Zhang, Diwei; Zhang, Xianren; Chen, Guangjin

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrates could show an unexpected high stability at conditions out of thermodynamic equilibrium, which is called the self-preservation effect. The mechanism of the effect for methane hydrates is here investigated via molecular dynamics simulations, in which an NVT/E method is introduced to represent different levels of heat transfer resistance. Our simulations suggest a coupling between the mass transfer resistance and heat transfer resistance as the driving mechanism for self-preservation effect. We found that the hydrate is initially melted from the interface, and then a solid-like water layer with temperature-dependent structures is formed next to the hydrate interface that exhibits fractal feature, followed by an increase of mass transfer resistance for the diffusion of methane from hydrate region. Furthermore, our results indicate that heat transfer resistance is a more fundamental factor, since it facilitates the formation of the solid-like layer and hence inhibits the further dissociation of the hydrates. The self-preservation effect is found to be enhanced with the increase of pressure and particularly the decrease of temperature. Kinetic equations based on heat balance calculations is also developed to describe the self-preservation effect, which reproduces our simulation results well and provides an association between microscopic and macroscopic properties. PMID:26423519

  11. Origin of Self-preservation Effect for Hydrate Decomposition: Coupling of Mass and Heat Transfer Resistances

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Dongsheng; Zhang, Diwei; Zhang, Xianren; Chen, Guangjin

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrates could show an unexpected high stability at conditions out of thermodynamic equilibrium, which is called the self-preservation effect. The mechanism of the effect for methane hydrates is here investigated via molecular dynamics simulations, in which an NVT/E method is introduced to represent different levels of heat transfer resistance. Our simulations suggest a coupling between the mass transfer resistance and heat transfer resistance as the driving mechanism for self-preservation effect. We found that the hydrate is initially melted from the interface, and then a solid-like water layer with temperature-dependent structures is formed next to the hydrate interface that exhibits fractal feature, followed by an increase of mass transfer resistance for the diffusion of methane from hydrate region. Furthermore, our results indicate that heat transfer resistance is a more fundamental factor, since it facilitates the formation of the solid-like layer and hence inhibits the further dissociation of the hydrates. The self-preservation effect is found to be enhanced with the increase of pressure and particularly the decrease of temperature. Kinetic equations based on heat balance calculations is also developed to describe the self-preservation effect, which reproduces our simulation results well and provides an association between microscopic and macroscopic properties. PMID:26423519

  12. Origin of Self-preservation Effect for Hydrate Decomposition: Coupling of Mass and Heat Transfer Resistances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Dongsheng; Zhang, Diwei; Zhang, Xianren; Chen, Guangjin

    2015-10-01

    Gas hydrates could show an unexpected high stability at conditions out of thermodynamic equilibrium, which is called the self-preservation effect. The mechanism of the effect for methane hydrates is here investigated via molecular dynamics simulations, in which an NVT/E method is introduced to represent different levels of heat transfer resistance. Our simulations suggest a coupling between the mass transfer resistance and heat transfer resistance as the driving mechanism for self-preservation effect. We found that the hydrate is initially melted from the interface, and then a solid-like water layer with temperature-dependent structures is formed next to the hydrate interface that exhibits fractal feature, followed by an increase of mass transfer resistance for the diffusion of methane from hydrate region. Furthermore, our results indicate that heat transfer resistance is a more fundamental factor, since it facilitates the formation of the solid-like layer and hence inhibits the further dissociation of the hydrates. The self-preservation effect is found to be enhanced with the increase of pressure and particularly the decrease of temperature. Kinetic equations based on heat balance calculations is also developed to describe the self-preservation effect, which reproduces our simulation results well and provides an association between microscopic and macroscopic properties.

  13. Probing Protein Surface with a Solvent Mimetic Carbene Coupled to Detection by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Gabriela E.; Mundo, Mariana R.; Craig, Patricio O.; Delfino, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Much knowledge into protein folding, ligand binding, and complex formation can be derived from the examination of the nature and size of the accessible surface area (SASA) of the polypeptide chain, a key parameter in protein science not directly measurable in an experimental fashion. To this end, an ideal chemical approach should aim at exerting solvent mimicry and achieving minimal selectivity to probe the protein surface regardless of its chemical nature. The choice of the photoreagent diazirine to fulfill these goals arises from its size comparable to water and from being a convenient source of the extremely reactive methylene carbene (:CH2). The ensuing methylation depends primarily on the solvent accessibility of the polypeptide chain, turning it into a valuable signal to address experimentally the measurement of SASA in proteins. The superb sensitivity and high resolution of modern mass spectrometry techniques allows us to derive a quantitative signal proportional to the extent of modification (EM) of the sample. Thus, diazirine labeling coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection can shed light on conformational features of the native as well as non-native states, not easily addressable by other methods. Enzymatic fragmentation of the polypeptide chain at the level of small peptides allows us to locate the covalent tag along the amino acid sequence, therefore enabling the construction of a map of solvent accessibility. Moreover, by subsequent MS/MS analysis of peptides, we demonstrate here the feasibility of attaining amino acid resolution in defining the target sites.

  14. Isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Kimura, Takaumi

    2010-12-15

    Information on plutonium isotope ratios in individual particles is of great importance for nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and so on. Although secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is successfully utilized for the analysis of individual uranium particles, the isobaric interference of americium-241 to plutonium-241 makes difficult to obtain accurate isotope ratios in individual plutonium particles. In the present work, an analytical technique by a combination of chemical separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is developed and applied to isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles. The ICP-MS results for individual plutonium particles prepared from a standard reference material (NBL SRM-947) indicate that the use of a desolvation system for sample introduction improves the precision of isotope ratios. In addition, the accuracy of the (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratio is much improved, owing to the chemical separation of plutonium and americium. In conclusion, the performance of the proposed ICP-MS technique is sufficient for the analysis of individual plutonium particles. PMID:21111176

  15. Slug-flow microextraction coupled with paper spray mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of complex samples.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jiewei; Wang, Wenwen; Yang, Yunyun; Wang, Xiaowei; Chen, Baowei; Yao, Zhong-Ping; Luan, Tiangang

    2016-10-12

    Analysis of trace compounds in small-volume complex samples is of importance for forensic, clinical, pharmaceutical, environmental, and life science investigation. In this study, we reported the coupling of slug-flow microextraction with paper spray mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of trace analytes in small volume of complicated biological samples such as whole blood, milk, and body fluid, etc. The method is performed by applying a disposable glass capillary for rapid extraction of a small amount of complex samples using a small amount of organic solvent; the loaded organic solvent was then spotted onto a paper triangle and dried out; subsequently, a high voltage and some spray solvent were applied onto the paper triangle for mass spectrometric analysis. By using the proposed method, high sensitivity and satisfactory precision for quantitative analysis of trace macrolide antibiotics in whole bloods and milks as well as perfluorinated compounds in individual small organisms have been successfully achieved. In addition, investigation of bioaccumulation of perfluorinated compounds in individual small organisms has been reached. PMID:27662769

  16. A new sheathless electrospray interface for coupling of capillary electrophoresis to ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bendahl, Lars; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Olsen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    A simple laboratory-made sheathless electrospray interface for coupling of capillary electrophoresis to ion-trap mass spectrometry (CE/MS) was developed. The interface was machined in-house and it was designed to be freely interchangeable with the commercially available ionization sources for the mass spectrometer. Sharpened fused-silica capillaries were coated with nickel by a simple electrodeless plating procedure and were used as all-in-one columns/emitters. The electrodeless plating produced a 2-5- micro m thick smooth nickel layer that lasted for more than 8 h of continuous electrospraying. The performance of the CE/MS interface was examined by using four cationic imipramine derivatives as test substances. Relative detection limits were calculated on the basis of the extracted ion electrophorograms and were in the range 6-130 nmol/L, corresponding to absolute detection limits in the range of 20-400 amol. The system was applied for analysis of impurities in an impure imipramine N-oxide preparation, and two of the impurities could be identified on the basis of online-MS(MS) spectra recorded in scan-dependent mode. PMID:12478579

  17. Isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Kimura, Takaumi

    2010-12-15

    Information on plutonium isotope ratios in individual particles is of great importance for nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and so on. Although secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is successfully utilized for the analysis of individual uranium particles, the isobaric interference of americium-241 to plutonium-241 makes difficult to obtain accurate isotope ratios in individual plutonium particles. In the present work, an analytical technique by a combination of chemical separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is developed and applied to isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles. The ICP-MS results for individual plutonium particles prepared from a standard reference material (NBL SRM-947) indicate that the use of a desolvation system for sample introduction improves the precision of isotope ratios. In addition, the accuracy of the (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratio is much improved, owing to the chemical separation of plutonium and americium. In conclusion, the performance of the proposed ICP-MS technique is sufficient for the analysis of individual plutonium particles.

  18. Sulfur-based absolute quantification of proteins using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Seok; Heun Kim, Sook; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yim, Yong-Hyeon

    2015-10-01

    An element-based reductive approach provides an effective means of realizing International System of Units (SI) traceability for high-purity biological standards. Here, we develop an absolute protein quantification method using double isotope dilution (ID) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with microwave-assisted acid digestion for the first time. We validated the method and applied it to certify the candidate protein certified reference material (CRM) of human growth hormone (hGH). The concentration of hGH was determined by analysing the total amount of sulfur in hGH. Next, the size-exclusion chromatography method was used with ICP-MS to characterize and quantify sulfur-containing impurities. By subtracting the contribution of sulfur-containing impurities from the total sulfur content in the hGH CRM, we obtained a SI-traceable certification value. The quantification result obtained with the present method based on sulfur analysis was in excellent agreement with the result determined via a well-established protein quantification method based on amino acid analysis using conventional acid hydrolysis combined with an ID liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The element-based protein quantification method developed here can be generally used for SI-traceable absolute quantification of proteins, especially pure-protein standards.

  19. Plutonium determination in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: A review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liguo; Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Pan, Shaoming; Wang, Zhongtang; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-05-01

    Knowing the concentration and isotopic ratio of Pu in seawater is of critical importance for assessing Pu contamination and investigating oceanic processes. In recent decades, the concentration of (239+240)Pu in seawater, particularly for surface seawater, has presented an exponential decreasing trend with time; thus determination of Pu in seawater has become a challenge nowadays. Here, we have summarized and critically discussed a variety of reported analytical methods for Pu determination in seawater sample based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analytical technique for rapid ultra-trace detection of Pu. Generally, pretreatments for seawater sample include co-precipitation, valence adjustment and chemical separation and purification procedures, all of which are comprehensively reviewed. Overall, the selected anion-exchange, extraction resins and operation condition are important for decontamination of interference from matrix elements and achieving satisfactory chemical yields. In addition, other mass spectrometric and radiometric detections are briefly addressed and compared with the focus on assessing ICP-MS. Finally, we discuss some issues and prospects in determination and application of Pu isotopes in seawater samples for future research. PMID:26946007

  20. Controlled Dissolution of Surface Layers for Elemental Analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lorge, Susan Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Determining the composition of thin layers is increasingly important for a variety of industrial materials such as adhesives, coatings and microelectronics. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are some of the techniques that are currently employed for the direct analysis of the sample surface. Although these techniques do not suffer from the contamination problems that often plague sample dissolution studies, they do require matrix matched standards for quantification. Often, these standards are not readily available. Despite the costs of clean hoods, Teflon pipette tips and bottles, and pure acids, partial sample dissolution is the primary method used in the semiconductor industry to quantify surface impurities. Specifically, vapor phase decomposition (VPD) coupled to ICP-MS or total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) provides elemental information from the top most surface layers at detection sensitivities in the 107-1010atoms/cm2 range. The ability to quantify with standard solutions is a main advantage of these techniques. Li and Houk applied a VPD-like technique to steel. The signal ratio of trace element to matrix element was used for quantification. Although controlled dissolution concentrations determined for some of the dissolved elements agreed with the certified values, concentrations determined for refractory elements (Ti, Nb and Ta) were too low. LA-ICP-MS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements indicated that carbide grains distributed throughout the matrix were high in these refractory elements. These elements dissolved at a slower rate than the matrix element, Fe. If the analyte element is not removed at a rate similar to the matrix element a true

  1. Minimal nonsupersymmetric S O (10 ) model: Gauge coupling unification, proton decay, and fermion masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. S.; Khan, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present a minimal renormalizable nonsupersymmetric S O (10 ) grand unified model with a symmetry breaking sector consisting of Higgs fields in the 5 4H+12 6H+1 0H representations. This model admits a single intermediate scale associated with Pati-Salam symmetry along with a discrete parity. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, the unification of gauge couplings, and proton lifetime estimates are studied in detail in this framework. Including threshold corrections self-consistently obtained from a full analysis of the Higgs potential, we show that the model is compatible with the current experimental bound on proton lifetime. The model generally predicts an upper bound of few times 1035 yr for proton lifetime, which is not too far from the present Super-Kamiokande limit of τp≳1.29 ×1034 yr . With the help of a Pecci-Quinn symmetry and the resulting axion, the model provides a suitable dark matter candidate while also solving the strong C P problem. The intermediate scale, MI≈(1013- 1014) GeV which is also the B -L scale, is of the right order for the right-handed neutrino mass which enables a successful description of light neutrino masses and oscillations. The Yukawa sector of the model consists of only two matrices in family space and leads to a predictive scenario for quark and lepton masses and mixings. The branching ratios for proton decay are calculable with the leading modes being p →e+π0 and p →ν ¯π+. Even though the model predicts no new physics within the reach of the LHC, the next-generation proton decay detectors and axion search experiments have the capability to reach a verdict on this minimal scenario.

  2. Alleviation of interferences and reduction of sample memory in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G.

    1991-06-27

    A simple variation sample preparation and introduction allows the measurement of chlorine isotope ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Dissolution of the sample in D{sub 2}O rather than H{sub 2}O attenuates the major polyatomic ion {sup 36}ArH{sup +} and frees m/z = 37 for determination of {sup 37}Cl{sup +}. The isotope ratio {sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl in a 50 mg L{sup {minus}1} solution of Cl as LiCl is determined with a relative standard deviation (RDS) of 0.21%. A method for the determination of boron is a variety of biological samples is described. Sample material is fused with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and boron is separated from matrix components by using Amberlite IRA-743 boron selective ion-exchange resin. Boron is eluted with 1% HNO{sub 3} and samples are introduced to an ICP-mass spectrometer with a direct injection nebulizer (DIN). Xenon is added at 10 or 37 mL min{sup {minus}1} to the aerosol gas flow of an argon ICP-mass spectrometer. Addition of Xe substantially reduces polyatomic ions such as N{sub 2}{sup +}, HN{sub 2}{sup +}, NO{sup +}, ArH{sup +}, ClO{sup +}, ArC{sup +}, ClOH{sup +}, ArN{sup +}, and ArO{sup +} and facilitates the measurement of Si, K, V, Cr, and Fe. Isotope ratios are determined with RSDs from 0.6% to 1.6%. 210 refs., 14 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Frisch, E.; Johnson, C.G.

    1962-05-15

    A detachable coupling arrangement is described which provides for varying the length of the handle of a tool used in relatively narrow channels. The arrangement consists of mating the key and keyhole formations in the cooperating handle sections. (AEC)

  4. Characterization of a Second-generation Focal-plane Camera Coupled to an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mattauch-Herzog Geometry Mass Spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, G D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes, James H.; Sperline, Roger P.; Denton, M BONNER.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2006-07-01

    A second-generation Faraday-strip array detector has been coupled to an inductively coupled plasma Mattauch- Herzog geometry mass spectrograph, thereby offering simultaneous acquisition of a range of mass-to-charge ratios. The second-generation device incorporates narrower, more closely spaced collectors than the earlier system. Furthermore, the new camera can acquire signal on all collectors at a frequency greater than 2 kHz and has the ability to independently adjust the gain level of each collector. Each collector can also be reset independently. With these improvements, limits of detection in the hundreds of picograms per liter for metals in solution have been obtained. Some additional features, such as a broader linear dynamic range (over 7 orders of magnitude), greater resolving power (up to 600), and improved isotope ratio accuracy were attained. In addition, isotope ratio precision as low as 0.018% RSD was achieved.

  5. Comprehensive screening of veterinary drugs in honey by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Staub Spörri, Aline; Jan, Philippe; Cognard, Emmanuelle; Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In the context of multi-residue screening in honey, a complete methodology was developed for 200 veterinary drugs comprising a sample preparation step and an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, specific analytical strategies were developed for two compounds, streptomycin and chloramphenicol, using UHPLC and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Methodologies were then applied to real honey samples obtained from the Swiss market. PMID:24499104

  6. Mass prediction of proton-rich nuclides with the Coulomb displacement energies in the relativistic point-coupling model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, BaoHua; Zhao, PengWei; Meng, Jie

    2011-02-01

    The masses, one- and two-proton separation energies of proton-rich nuclei with Z = 20-55, are computed using the measured masses of mirror neutron-rich nuclei and the Coulomb displacement energies calculated from the relativistic point-coupling model. The implications for the proton drip lines, candidates for two-proton emitters, as well as the impact on the astrophysical rp-process are discussed.

  7. Shock tube coupled to the time-of-flight mass spectrometer via a molecular beam sampling system.

    PubMed

    Krizancic, I; Haluk, M; Cho, S H; Trass, O

    1979-07-01

    A method for continuous mass spectrometric analysis of high-temperature reacting gas mixtures is described. The apparatus consists of a unique combination of three devices: the shock tube, the time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and the supersonic molecular beam. The driven section of the shock tube constitutes the reservoir of a supersonic molecular beam by which gas is continuously extracted from the reaction zone and introduced through a two-stage high-capacity vacuum system into the ionization region of the mass spectrometer. The shock tube and the mass spectrometer are coupled at right angles to one another. This configuration avoids excessive pressure buildup in the mass spectrometer system. The apparatus has an estimated mass resolution of 100 amu, a frequency range of 10-100 kHz, and can be operated over a wide range of shock conditions during the complete high-temperature pulse. PMID:18699630

  8. Coupling of a gas chromatograph to a simultaneous-detection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrograph for speciation of organohalide and organometallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, James H.; Schilling, G; Sperline, Roger; Denton, M Bonner B.; Young, Erick T.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2004-06-01

    A gas chromatograph (GC) has been coupled to an inductively coupled plasma Mattauch-Herzog geometry mass spectrograph (ICP-MHMS) equipped with a novel detector array. In its current state of development the detector array, termed the focal plan camera (FPC), permits the simultaneous monitoring of up to 15 m/z values. A heated line was used to transfer the capillary-column effluent from the GC to the ICP torch, though due to instrument operating conditions, the transfer line was terminated 50 mm ahead of the ICP torch. Minimal tailing was observed, with the most severe effect seen for high-boiling analytes. With the coupling, absolute limits of detection are in the tens to hundreds of femtogram regime for organometallic species and in the single pictogram regime for halogenated hydrocarbons.

  9. Determination of iodine in seafood by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, K; Dahl, L; Eckhoff, K

    2001-01-01

    A method was developed for determination of total iodine content in different standard reference materials (SRMs) and seafood products by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). If iodine is present as iodide and nitric acid is used in the wet digestion system, the observed signal is not stable when iodine is measured by ICP/MS at m/z 127. To stabilize the iodine signal, 3% ammonia solution (1 + 1, v/v) was added to the digest. The limit of quantitation of the method, defined as 6 times the standard deviation in the blank solution (n = 20) was estimated to be 15 mg/kg (using 0.2 g dry mass and a dilution factor of 50). The precision, expressed as repeatability of the iodine concentration, varied between 3.2 and 12% in SRMs, with concentrations of 4.70-0.17 mg/kg dry matter. The described method was compared with a method using tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction. Both methods showed good precision and trueness by analyses of SRMs. The 2 methods were used to determine iodine in seafood from the Barents Sea, the Norwegian Sea, and the North Sea. The results showed great variation between different fish species as well as between individuals within a species. The lowest values of iodine were recorded in muscle of ling (Molva molva) with a mean of 0.07 mg/kg fresh weight and a variation between 0.03 and 0.11 mg/kg fresh weight. The highest values were found in cod (Gadus morhua) from the Barents Sea, with a mean of 2.5 mg/kg and a variation between 0.7 and 12.7 mg/kg fresh weight.

  10. Environmental forensics in groundwater coupling passive sampling and high resolution mass spectrometry for screening.

    PubMed

    Soulier, Coralie; Coureau, Charlotte; Togola, Anne

    2016-09-01

    One of the difficulties encountered when monitoring groundwater quality is low and fluctuating concentration levels and complex mixtures of micropollutants, including emerging substances or transformation products. Combining passive sampling techniques with analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) should improve environmental metrology. Passive samplers accumulate compounds during exposure, which improves the detection of organic compounds and integrates pollution fluctuations. The Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) were used in this study to sequester polar to semi-polar compounds. The methodology described here improves our knowledge of environmental pollution by highlighting and identifying pertinent compounds to be monitored in groundwater. The advantage of combining these two approaches is demonstrated on two different sites impacted by agricultural and/or urban pollution sources where groundwater was sampled for several months. Grab and passive sampling were done and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF). Various data processing approaches were used (target, suspect and non-target screening). Target screening was based on research from compounds listed in a homemade database and suspect screening used a database compiled using literature data. The non-target screening was done using statistical tools such as principal components analysis (PCA) with direct connections between original chromatograms and ion intensity. Trend plots were used to highlight relevant compounds for their identification. The advantage of using POCIS to improve screening of polar organic compounds was demonstrated. Compounds undetected in water samples were detected with these tools. The subsequent data processing identified sentinel molecules, molecular clusters as compounds never revealed in these sampling sites, and molecular fingerprints. Samples were compared and multidimensional

  11. Enhancement of ion transmission and reduction of background and interferences in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ke

    1992-06-09

    An inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) (four stages of differential pumping) is described. The large sampling orifice (1.31 mm dia.) improves signals for metal ions and resists plugging. The ion lens deflects ions off center and then back on center into the differential pumping orifice; there is no photon stop in the center. Ion trajectories calculations SIMION show that only those ions that leave the skimmer on center are transmitted, whereas most other lenses used in ICP-MS transmit only ions that leave the skimmer off axis. Background with the Daly detector is 4 counts s{sup {minus}1}. This ICP-MS yields low levels of many troublesome polyatomic ions. Signals from refractory metal oxide ions are about 1% of the corresponding metal ion signals. Grounding the first electrode of the ion lens reduces matrix effects to {approx_lt} 20% loss in signal for Co{sup +}, Y{sup +} or Cs{sup +} in presence of 10 mM Sr, Tm or Pb. This latter lens setting causes only 30% loss in sensitivity compared to biassing the first lens. Matrix effects can also be mitigated by re-adjusting the voltage on the first lens with matrix present. Floating the metal cones at various potentials can improve the ion transmission by a factor of at least four to six. Also, floating the cones extends the upper end of linearity. Net result is more sensitivity and higher ion beam intensity than with a grounded skimmer and sampler. Furthermore, mass discrimination can be reduced.

  12. Enhancement of ion transmission and reduction of background and interferences in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ke.

    1992-06-09

    An inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) (four stages of differential pumping) is described. The large sampling orifice (1.31 mm dia.) improves signals for metal ions and resists plugging. The ion lens deflects ions off center and then back on center into the differential pumping orifice; there is no photon stop in the center. Ion trajectories calculations SIMION show that only those ions that leave the skimmer on center are transmitted, whereas most other lenses used in ICP-MS transmit only ions that leave the skimmer off axis. Background with the Daly detector is 4 counts s{sup {minus}1}. This ICP-MS yields low levels of many troublesome polyatomic ions. Signals from refractory metal oxide ions are about 1% of the corresponding metal ion signals. Grounding the first electrode of the ion lens reduces matrix effects to {approx lt} 20% loss in signal for Co{sup +}, Y{sup +} or Cs{sup +} in presence of 10 mM Sr, Tm or Pb. This latter lens setting causes only 30% loss in sensitivity compared to biassing the first lens. Matrix effects can also be mitigated by re-adjusting the voltage on the first lens with matrix present. Floating the metal cones at various potentials can improve the ion transmission by a factor of at least four to six. Also, floating the cones extends the upper end of linearity. Net result is more sensitivity and higher ion beam intensity than with a grounded skimmer and sampler. Furthermore, mass discrimination can be reduced.

  13. Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer – Operational Performance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Watrous; Anthony Appelhans; Robert Hague; John Olson; Tracy Houghton

    2013-06-01

    The INL made an assessment of the commercially available inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICPMS) for actinide analysis; emphasizing low detection limits for plutonium. INL scientists subsequently determined if plutonium was present on a swipe, at a 10 million atom decision level. This report describes the evaluation of ICPMS instruments and the operational testing of a new process for the dissolution, separation and analysis via ICPMS of swipes for plutonium and uranium. The swipe dissolution, plutonium and uranium isolation, separation and purification are wet chemistry methods following established procedures. The ICPMS is a commercially available multi-collector magnetic sector mass spectrometer that utilizes five ion counting detectors operating simultaneously. The instrument includes a sample introduction system allowing for sample volumes of < 1 mL to be reproducibly injected into the instrument with minimal waste of the sample solution, while maximizing the useable signal. The performance of the instrument was measured using SRM 996 (244Pu spike) at concentrations of 12 parts per quadrillion (ppq, fg/mL) and with SRM 4350B Columbia River Sediment samples spiked onto swipes at the 10 million atom level. The measured limit of detection (LOD, defined as 3s) for 239Pu is 310,000 atoms based upon the instrument blank data. The limit of quantification (LOQ defined as 10 s) for 239Pu is 105,000 atoms. The measured limit of detection for 239Pu from the SRM 4350B spiked onto a swipe was 2.7 million atoms with the limit of quantification being 9.0 million atoms.

  14. Minimalist coupled evolution model for stellar X-ray activity, rotation, mass loss, and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.; Owen, James E.

    2016-05-01

    Late-type main-sequence stars exhibit an X-ray to bolometric flux ratio that depends on {tilde{R}o}, the ratio of rotation period to convective turnover time, as {tilde{R}o}^{-ζ } with 2 ≤ ζ ≤ 3 for {tilde{R}o} > 0.13, but saturates with |ζ| < 0.2 for {tilde{R}o} < 0.13. Saturated stars are younger than unsaturated stars and show a broader spread of rotation rates and X-ray activity. The unsaturated stars have magnetic fields and rotation speeds that scale roughly with the square root of their age, though possibly flattening for stars older than the Sun. The connection between faster rotators, stronger fields, and higher activity has been established observationally, but a theory for the unified time-evolution of X-ray luminosity, rotation, magnetic field and mass loss that captures the above trends has been lacking. Here we derive a minimalist holistic framework for the time evolution of these quantities built from combining a Parker wind with new ingredients: (1) explicit sourcing of both the thermal energy launching the wind and the X-ray luminosity via dynamo produced magnetic fields; (2) explicit coupling of X-ray activity and mass-loss saturation to dynamo saturation (via magnetic helicity build-up and convection eddy shredding); (3) use of coronal equilibrium to determine how magnetic energy is divided into wind and X-ray contributions. For solar-type stars younger than the Sun, we infer conduction to be a subdominant power loss compared to X-rays and wind. For older stars, conduction is more important, possibly quenching the wind and reducing angular momentum loss. We focus on the time evolution for stars younger than the Sun, highlighting what is possible for further generalizations. Overall, the approach shows promise towards a unified explanation of all of the aforementioned observational trends.

  15. Coupling capillary electrochromatography with mass spectrometry by using a liquid-junction nano-spray interface.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Giovanni; Fanali, Salvatore

    2010-06-18

    Capillary electrochromatography (CEC) was coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) for the separation of some selected pesticides and drug enantiomers. CEC separations were carried out in fused silica capillaries packed with either 5microm RP(18) silica or 5microm silica modified vancomycin particles. The capillary column was connected with the MS utilizing a laboratory-made liquid-junction interface equipped with a 50microm I.D. capillary-tip positioned at a few mm from the orifice of the MS. The CEC-MS set-up was operated without external pressure assistance during the electrochromatographic run commonly used to avoid bubble formation. However a hydrostatic pressure of a few kPa was applied only to the liquid-junction interface to optimize the ion-spray due to the low I.D. of the capillary-tip. In order to optimize the CEC-MS method, several experimental parameters were studied, namely the inlet pressure, the hydrostatic pressure into the liquid-junction interface, the type of sheath-liquid and the mobile phase. The application of an inlet pressure influenced only analyte retention times that were shortened by increasing the pressure. On the contrary the hydrostatic pressure applied to the interface increased the flow rate into the tip also increasing the ion-signal recorded in the mass spectrometry. The ion-signal raised almost linearly by increasing the outlet pressure till 3.5kPa and then decreased. The separation of the selected pesticides was not influenced at all changing the hydrostatic pressure on the interface. Some basic enantiomeric compounds of pharmaceutical interest were successfully separated by CEC achieving good resolution. They were detected by MS with limit of detection in a range of 0.24-0.60microg/mL.

  16. Environmental forensics in groundwater coupling passive sampling and high resolution mass spectrometry for screening.

    PubMed

    Soulier, Coralie; Coureau, Charlotte; Togola, Anne

    2016-09-01

    One of the difficulties encountered when monitoring groundwater quality is low and fluctuating concentration levels and complex mixtures of micropollutants, including emerging substances or transformation products. Combining passive sampling techniques with analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) should improve environmental metrology. Passive samplers accumulate compounds during exposure, which improves the detection of organic compounds and integrates pollution fluctuations. The Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) were used in this study to sequester polar to semi-polar compounds. The methodology described here improves our knowledge of environmental pollution by highlighting and identifying pertinent compounds to be monitored in groundwater. The advantage of combining these two approaches is demonstrated on two different sites impacted by agricultural and/or urban pollution sources where groundwater was sampled for several months. Grab and passive sampling were done and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF). Various data processing approaches were used (target, suspect and non-target screening). Target screening was based on research from compounds listed in a homemade database and suspect screening used a database compiled using literature data. The non-target screening was done using statistical tools such as principal components analysis (PCA) with direct connections between original chromatograms and ion intensity. Trend plots were used to highlight relevant compounds for their identification. The advantage of using POCIS to improve screening of polar organic compounds was demonstrated. Compounds undetected in water samples were detected with these tools. The subsequent data processing identified sentinel molecules, molecular clusters as compounds never revealed in these sampling sites, and molecular fingerprints. Samples were compared and multidimensional

  17. Radiative corrections to the Higgs boson couplings in the triplet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Mayumi; Kanemura, Shinya; Kikuchi, Mariko; Yagyu, Kei

    2013-01-01

    We calculate a full set of one-loop corrections to the Higgs boson coupling constants as well as the electroweak parameters. We compute the decay rate of the standard model-like Higgs boson (h) into diphoton. Renormalized Higgs couplings with the weak gauge bosons hVV (V=W and Z) and the trilinear coupling hhh are also calculated at the one-loop level in the on-shell scheme. Magnitudes of the deviations in these quantities are evaluated in the parameter regions where the unitarity and vacuum stability bounds are satisfied and the predicted W boson mass at the one-loop level is consistent with the data. We find that there are strong correlations among deviations in the Higgs boson couplings hγγ, hVV and hhh. For example, if the event number of the pp→h→γγ channel deviates by +30% (-40%) from the standard model prediction, deviations in the one-loop corrected hVV and hhh vertices are predicted to be about -0.1% (-2%) and -10% (+150%), respectively. The model can be discriminated from the other models by accurately measuring these coupling constants in future collider experiments.

  18. Serum/plasma methylmercury determination by isotope dilution gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Douglas C; Faarinen, Mikko; Österlund, Heléne; Rodushkin, Ilia; Christensen, Morten

    2011-09-01

    A method for the determination of methylmercury in plasma and serum samples was developed. The method uses isotope dilution with (198)Hg-labeled methylmercury, extraction into dichloromethane, back-extraction into water, aqueous-phase ethylation, purge and trap collection, thermal desorption, separation by gas chromatography, and mercury isotope specific detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. By spiking 2 mL sample with 1.2 ng tracer, measurements in a concentration interval of (0.007-2.9) μg L(-1) could be performed with uncertainty amplification factors <2. A limit of quantification of 0.03 μg L(-1) was estimated at 10 times the standard deviation of concentrations measured in preparation blanks. Within- and between-run relative standard deviations were <10% at added concentration levels of 0.14 μg L(-1), 0.35 μg L(-1) and 2.8 μg L(-1), with recoveries in the range 82-110%. Application of the method to 50 plasma/serum samples yielded a median (mean; range) concentration of methylmercury of 0.081 (0.091; <0.03-0.19) μg L(-1). This is the first time methylmercury has been directly measured in this kind of specimen, and is therefore the first estimate of a reference range.

  19. Determination of plastic additives in packaging by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María-Teresa

    2015-10-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method for the determination of several plastic additives in multilayer packaging based on solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to variable wavelength (VWD) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detectors is presented. The proposed method allows the simultaneous determination of fourteen additives belonging to different families such as antioxidants, slip agents and light stabilizers, as well as two oxidation products in only 9min. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and intermediate precision. The instrumental method showed satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision at concentrations closed to LOQ with RSDs less than 7 and 20%, respectively, and LODs until 5000 times more sensitive than other GC-FID and HPLC-VWD methods previously reported. Also, focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) was optimized and evaluated to extract plastic additives from packaging. Extraction results obtained by FUSLE and SLE were compared to those obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). All extraction methods showed excellent extraction efficiency for slip agents, however quantitative recovery of all analytes was achieved only by SLE with just 5ml of hexane for 10h. Finally, the selected method was applied to the analysis of packaging samples where erucamide, Irgafos 168, oxidized Irgafos 168, Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010 were detected and quantified. PMID:26319625

  20. Determination of trace elements in granites by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Q; Jing, H; Gregoire, D C

    2000-03-01

    Proposed is a simple and reliable method for the dissolution of granite and the determination of 38 elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. One hundred milligrams of sample are digested with 1 ml of HF and 0.5 ml of HNO(3) in screw top PTFE-lined stainless steel bombs at 190 degrees C for 12 h. Insoluble residues are dissolved using 8 ml of 40% HNO(3) (v/v) heated to 110 degrees C for 3 h. Six granite standard reference materials (GSR-1, JG-2, G-2, NIM-G, SG-3, SG-1a) were studied. Analytical calibration was accomplished using aqueous standard solutions. Rhodium was used as an internal standard to correct for matrix effects and instrument drift. We report data for: Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Cs, Ba, Hf, Ta, W, Pb, Th, U and 14 of the rare earth elements. The recoveries for most of these elements in granite ranged from 90 to 110%.

  1. Coupling ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry: constraints and possible applications.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Aller, Marta; Gurny, Robert; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2013-05-31

    The introduction of columns packed with porous sub-2μm particles and the extension of the upper pressure limit of HPLC instrumentation to 1300bar (ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography, UHPLC) has opened new frontiers in resolution and speed of analysis. However, certain constraints appear when coupling UHPLC technology with mass spectrometry (MS). First, the most significant limitation is related to the narrow peaks that are produced by UHPLC that require a fast duty cycle, which is only available on the latest generations of MS devices. Thus, certain analyzers are more readily compatible with UHPLC (e.g., QqQ or TOF/MS) than others (e.g., ion trap or FT-MS). Second, due to the reduction of the column volume, extra-column band broadening can become significant, leading to a reduction in the kinetic performance of the UHPLC-MS configuration. Third, as the mobile phase linear velocity is higher in UHPLC, the electrospray ionization source must also be able to provide high sensitivity at flow rates of up to 1mL/min. Despite these limitations, the UHPLC-MS/MS platform has successfully been employed over the last decade for various types of applications, including those related to bioanalysis, drug metabolism, multi-residue screening, metabolomics, biopharmaceuticals and polar compounds.

  2. Suppression of analyte signal by various concomitant salts in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, J.A.; Houk, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The interference on the ionization of cobalt by five salts, NaCl, MgCl/sub 2/, NH/sub 4/I, NH/sub 4/Br, and NH/sub 4/Cl, in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is first looked at theoretically, and subsequently the theoretical trends are established experimentally by mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The interference trends are found to be in the order of the most easily ionized element in the matrix salt, i.e., Na > Mg > I > Br > Cl. Quantitatively the theoretical values for the amount of salt needed to produce a particular interference are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the experimentally determined values. The results reported here indicate that ICP-MS is somewhat more susceptible to ionization suppression effects than ICP atomic emission spectrometry. It is also found that the most easily ionized element in the salt dominates the matrix ion spectrum observed from the ICP in the order mentioned above. Total ion current measurements by ICP-MC at solute levels above 1% are complicated by orifice plugging and transport loss of the salt and analyte in the desolvation system for the ultrasonic nebulizer used. 27 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Determination of total iodine in foods and dietary supplements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Darryl; Zywicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed and validated for the determination of total iodine in a wide variety of food products and dietary supplements. The method involves a unique sample digestion with a KOH solution in an oven or by using an open-vessel microwave system. After digestion, a stabilizer is added and the solution is taken to volume, then filtered and analyzed either directly or after dilution. The amount of iodine is determined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was validated by experiments to determine its precision, accuracy, linearity, specificity, ruggedness, and robustness. The LOQ of this method is 25-50 microg/kg. The method demonstrated an average RSD of 2.27% during analysis of milk powder and 4.30% during analysis of a dietary supplement tablet reference material. The accuracy of the method as determined with these same reference materials was 100 and 94.2%, respectively. The method has been used successfully on commodity foods, processed foods, dairy products, pet food, infant formula, animal feed, mineral premixes, and a variety of dietary supplements.

  4. Iodine speciation in biological samples by capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Michalke, B; Schramel, P

    1999-09-01

    A hyphenation of capillary electrophoresis (CE) to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed for the speciation of iodine. The separation method used a buffer sandwich of phosphate (pH 2.3), NaOH, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and borate buffer (pH 8.3) for stacking, aiming at sufficient separation of iodide, iodate, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These four iodine species were separated within 15 min and subsequently detected during a pressure-driven detection step (baseline-separated) at 19.5, 29.1, 36.6 and 42.2 s. The detection limits were determined at 0.08 microg I/L (iodide), 0.3 microg I/L (iodate), 3.5 microg I/L (thyroxine) and 2.5 microg I/L (triiodothyronine). This method was applied on iodine speciation in human serum ("healthy" and after thyroid gland operation) and urine. The serum from the healthy person contained iodide (13 microg I/L), T4 (61 microg I/L) and T3 (7.5 microg I/L), whereas the serum from the thyroid-operated person lacked T3. As no "free" I-hormones are known in serum, the role of the thyroid hormone binding globulin (TBG) was investigated. We found that spiked T4 or T3 immediately bound to TBG. Investigations on human urine showed only a peak for iodide.

  5. Improving sensitivity for microchip electrophoresis interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using parallel multichannel separation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Xu, Zigang; Wang, Yuanchao; Ye, Meiying

    2016-08-26

    We reported sensitivity enhancement using multichannel parallel separation for microchip electrophoresis hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MCE-ICP-MS) in this study. By using 2-20 array lanes for parallel separation, the sensitivity of the MCE-ICP-MS system was proportionally improved by 2-20 folds. No significantly adverse effect of parallel separation on column efficiency and resolution was observed. Rapid separation of Hg(2+) and methylmercuric (MeHg) ion within 36s under an electric field of 800Vcm(-1) was achieved in the 2-cm twenty-channels with a background electrolyte of 5mmolL(-1) borate buffer (pH 9.2). Detection limits of Hg(2+) and MeHg by the proposed system were decreased to 6.8-7.1ngL(-1). Good agreement between determined values and certified values of a certified reference fish was obtained with recoveries ranged between 94-98%. All results prove its advantages including high sensitivity, high efficiency and low operation cost, which are beneficial to routine analysis of metal speciation in environmental, biological and food fields. PMID:27488720

  6. Progress toward a search for spin-mass couplings of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Julian; Swiatlowski, Jerlyn; Rios, Cesar; Montcrieffe, Caitlin; Kimball, Derek Jackson

    2012-06-01

    We report progress in our experiment to use a dual-isotope rubidium magnetometer to search for a long-range coupling between proton spins and the mass of the Earth. The valence electron dominates magnetic interactions and serves as a precise co-magnetometer for the nuclei in a simultaneous measurement of Rb-85 and Rb-87 spin precession frequencies, enabling accurate subtraction of magnetic perturbations. Both Rb nuclei have valence protons, but in Rb-87 the proton spin is parallel to the nuclear spin and magnetic moment while for Rb-85 the proton spin is anti-parallel to the nuclear spin and magnetic moment. Thus anomalous interactions of the proton spin produce a differential shift between the Rb spin-precession frequencies, whereas many sources of systematic error produce common-mode shifts of the spin-precession frequencies which can be controlled through auxiliary measurements. We discuss optimization of the magnetometer sensitivity, methods to control systematic effects due to light shifts, collisions, and the gyro-compass effect, and preliminary data.

  7. Progress toward a search for spin-mass couplings of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiatlowski, Jerlyn; Valdez, Julian; Lacey, Ian; Montcrieffe, Caitlin; Kimball, Derek Jackson

    2011-11-01

    We report progress in our development of a dual-isotope rubidium magnetometer to be used to search for a long-range coupling between proton spins and the mass of the Earth. The valence electron dominates magnetic interactions and serves as a precise co-magnetometer for the nuclei in a simultaneous measurement of Rb-85 and Rb-87 spin precession frequencies, enabling accurate subtraction of magnetic perturbations. Both Rb nuclei have valence protons, but in Rb-87 the proton spin is parallel to the nuclear spin and magnetic moment while for Rb-85 the proton spin is anti-parallel to the nuclear spin and magnetic moment. Thus anomalous interactions of the proton spin produce a differential shift between the Rb spin-precession frequencies, whereas many sources of systematic error produce common-mode shifts of the spin-precession frequencies which can be controlled through auxiliary measurements. We discuss our optimization of the magnetometer sensitivity and methods to control systematic effects due to light shifts, collisions, and the gyro-compass effect.

  8. Antimony speciation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using solid phase extraction cartridges.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhai; Cai, Qiantao; Guo, Zhong-Xian; Yang, Zhaoguang; Khoo, Soo Beng

    2002-10-01

    A novel and simple method for inorganic antimony speciation is described based on selective solid phase extraction (SPE) separation of antimony(III) and highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection of total antimony and antimony(V) in the aqueous phase of the sample. Non-polar SPE cartridges, such as the Isolute silica-based octyl (C8) sorbent-containing cartridge, selectively retained the Sb(III) complex with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), while the uncomplexed Sb(V) remained as a free species in the solution and passed through the cartridge. The Sb(III) concentration was calculated as the difference between total antimony and Sb(V) concentrations. The detection limit was 1 ng L(-1) antimony. Factors affecting the separation and detection of antimony species were investigated. Acidification of samples led to partial or complete retention of Sb(V) on C8 cartridge. Foreign ions tending to complex with Sb(III) or APDC did not interfere with the retention behavior of the Sb(III)-APDC complex. This method has been successfully applied to antimony speciation of various types of water samples.

  9. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: An emerging method for analysis of long-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.R.; Noyce, J.R.; Lardy, M.M.

    1993-12-31

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a relatively new technique that can analyze for most of the elements in the periodic table at parts per billion (ng/mL) to parts per trillion (pg/mL). Already in use several years for trace analysis of stable isotopes, ICP-MS is becoming a powerful, complementary method to the counting of decay radiations for the analysis of radionuclides. Most radionuclides with half-lives longer than approximately 1x10{sup 3} years can be quantitatively detected on ICP-MS instruments that have an electrothermal vaporization unit for the injection of sample aliquants. Radionuclides with half-lives greater than approximately 1x10{sup 4} years can be measured routinely with greater sensitivity and more quickly by ICP-MS than by radiation counting. Examples from the literature of applying ICP-MS to radionuclides are the bioassay of uranium in urine, measurement of {sup 237}Np in soil and silt, and analysis for {sup 99}Tc in sea water, seaweed, and marine sediment. This paper discusses the instrumentation, advantages and limitations, and present and potential applications of ICP-MS for radionuclide measurements.

  10. Fundamental and methodological investigations for the improvement of elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass soectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, Christopher Hysjulien

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation describes a variety of studies meant to improve the analytical performance of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS. The emission behavior of individual droplets and LA generated particles in an ICP is studied using a high-speed, high frame rate digital camera. Phenomena are observed during the ablation of silicate glass that would cause elemental fractionation during analysis by ICP-MS. Preliminary work for ICP torch developments specifically tailored for the improvement of LA sample introduction are presented. An abnormal scarcity of metal-argon polyatomic ions (MAr{sup +}) is observed during ICP-MS analysis. Evidence shows that MAr{sup +} ions are dissociated by collisions with background gas in a shockwave near the tip of the skimmer cone. Method development towards the improvement of LA-ICP-MS for environmental monitoring is described. A method is developed to trap small particles in a collodion matrix and analyze each particle individually by LA-ICP-MS.

  11. Determination of metals in Brazilian soils by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rui M; dos Santos, Jéssica A; Silva, Jessee A S; do Prado, Thiago G; da Fonseca, Adriel Ferreira; Chaves, Eduardo S; Frescura, Vera L A

    2015-08-01

    The concentration of metals in Brazilian soil under no-tillage (NT) and an area under native vegetation (NV) was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The applied method was based on microwave-assisted acid digestion using HNO3, HCl, H2O2, and HF. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing two certified reference materials (BCR-142 and RS-3). The relative standard deviation for all target elements was below 8% indicating an adequate precision and the limit of detection ranged from 0.03 μg g(-1) (Cd) to 24.0 μg g(-1) (Fe). The concentrations of Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn in the different layers (0-10, 10-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm) were determined in two types of soils, located in Paraná State in Brazil. The soil layers analysis revealed a different behavior of metals concentrations in soil samples under NT and NV. The obtained results showed a clear impact of anthropogenic action with respect to specific metals due to many years of uncontrolled application rates of limestone and phosphate fertilizers.

  12. Determination of Phytochelatins in Rice by Stable Isotope Labeling Coupled with Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Cai, Wen-Jing; Yu, Lei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-07-01

    A highly sensitive method was developed for the detection of phytochelatins (PCs) in rice by stable isotope labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (IL-LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. A pair of isotope-labeling reagents [ω-bromoacetonylquinolinium bromide (BQB) and BQB-d(7)] were used to label PCs in plant sample and standard PCs, respectively, and then combined prior to LC/MS analysis. The heavy labeled standards were used as the internal standards for quantitation to minimize the matrix and ion suppression effects in MS analysis. In addition, the ionization efficiency of PCs was greatly enhanced through the introduction of a permanent charged moiety of quaternary ammonium of BQB into PCs. The detection sensitivities of PCs upon BQB labeling improved by 14-750-fold, and therefore, PCs can be quantitated using only 5 mg of plant tissue. Furthermore, under cadmium (Cd) stress, we found that the contents of PCs in rice dramatically increased with the increased concentrations and treatment time of Cd. It was worth noting that PC5 was first identified and quantitated in rice tissues under Cd stress in the current study. Taken together, this IL-LC-ESI-MS/MS method demonstrated to be a promising strategy in detection of PCs in plants with high sensitivity and reliability. PMID:26073168

  13. Determination of plastic additives in packaging by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María-Teresa

    2015-10-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method for the determination of several plastic additives in multilayer packaging based on solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to variable wavelength (VWD) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detectors is presented. The proposed method allows the simultaneous determination of fourteen additives belonging to different families such as antioxidants, slip agents and light stabilizers, as well as two oxidation products in only 9min. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and intermediate precision. The instrumental method showed satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision at concentrations closed to LOQ with RSDs less than 7 and 20%, respectively, and LODs until 5000 times more sensitive than other GC-FID and HPLC-VWD methods previously reported. Also, focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) was optimized and evaluated to extract plastic additives from packaging. Extraction results obtained by FUSLE and SLE were compared to those obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). All extraction methods showed excellent extraction efficiency for slip agents, however quantitative recovery of all analytes was achieved only by SLE with just 5ml of hexane for 10h. Finally, the selected method was applied to the analysis of packaging samples where erucamide, Irgafos 168, oxidized Irgafos 168, Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010 were detected and quantified.

  14. [Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry by use of organic solvents].

    PubMed

    Cao, S; Chen, H; Zeng, X

    2000-08-01

    Matrix effects arising from ethanol, propanol, glycerol, acetic acid, ethylenediamine and triethanolamine in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry have been studied. Addition of ethanol, propanol, glycerol, acetic acid, ethylenediamine and triethanolamine into solution has an enhancement effect on the signal intensity of analyte with ionization potential between 9 and 11 eV. The ethylenediamine and triethanolamine have higher enhancement effect on the signal intensity of Hg than that of ethanol, propanol, glycerol and acetic acid. Addition of ethylenediamine and triethanolamine into solution has a suppression effect on the signal intensity of Pb and Sr. The mechanism of the enhancement or suppression was investigated. The signal enhancement of Hg in the presence of ethylenediamine and triethanolamine is not caused by improved degree of ionization of Hg and nebulization efficiency. The suppression effects of Pb and Sr in the presence of ethylenediamine and triethanolamine are due to decrease of atomization efficiency of these elements. A method for the determination of Hg in the biological standard samples by ICP-MS was developed.

  15. Pulsed microdischarge with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for elemental analysis on solid metal samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Yin, Zhibin; Cheng, Xiaoling; Hang, Wei; Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Benli

    2015-05-01

    Pulsed microdischarge employed as source for direct solid analysis was investigated in N2 environment at atmospheric pressure. Compared with direct current (DC) microdischarge, it exhibits advantages with respect to the ablation and emission of the sample. Comprehensive evidence, including voltage-current relationship, current density (j), and electron density (ne), suggests that pulsed microdischarge is in the arc regime while DC microdischarge belongs to glow. Capability in ablating metal samples demonstrates that pulsed microdischarge is a viable option for direct solid sampling because of the enhanced instantaneous energy. Using optical spectrometer, only common emission lines of N2 can be acquired in DC mode, whereas primary atomic and ionic lines of the sample are obtained in the case of pulsed mode. Calculations show a significant difference in N2 vibrational temperatures between DC and pulsed microdischarge. Combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), pulsed microdischarge exhibits much better performances in calibration linearity and limits of detection (LOD) than those of DC discharge in direct analysis of samples of different matrices. To improve transmission efficiency, a mixture of Ar and N2 was employed as discharge gas as well as carrier gas in follow-up experiments, facilitating that LODs of most elements reached ng/g. PMID:25851038

  16. Quantitative determination of trisiloxane surfactants in beehive environments based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Mullin, Christopher A

    2013-08-20

    Organosilicone surfactants are increasingly being applied to agricultural agro-ecosystems as spray adjuvants, and were recently shown to impact the learning ability of honey bees. Here we developed a method for analyzing three trisiloxane surfactants (single polyethoxylate (EO) chain and end-capped with methyl, acetyl, or hydroxyl groups; TSS-CH3, TSS-COCH3, or TSS-H) in beehive matrices based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) approach from less than 2 g of honey, pollen, or beeswax. Recoveries for each oligomer (2-13 EO) were between 66 and 112% in all matrices. Average method detection limits (MDL) were 0.53, 0.60, 0.56 ng/g in honey, 0.63, 0.81, 0.78 ng/g in pollen, and 0.51, 0.69, 0.63 ng/g in beeswax. Five honey, 10 pollen, and 10 beeswax samples were analyzed. Trisiloxane surfactants were detected in every beeswax and 60% of the pollen samples. Total trisiloxane surfactant concentrations were up to 390 and 39 ng/g in wax and pollen. The described method is proved suitable for analyzing trisiloxane surfactants in beehive samples. The presence of trisiloxane surfactants in North American beehives calls for renewed effort to investigate the consequence of these adjuvants to bee health and the ongoing global bee decline.

  17. Quantitative analysis of tRNA modifications by HPLC-coupled mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dan; Chan, Clement T.Y.; Gu, Chen; Lim, Kok Seong; Chionh, Yok Hian; McBee, Megan E.; Russell, Brandon S.; Babu, I. Ramesh; Begley, Thomas J.; Dedon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional modification of RNA is an important determinant of RNA quality control, translational efficiency, RNA-protein interactions, and stress response. This is illustrated by the observation of toxicant-specific changes in the spectrum of tRNA modifications in a stress response mechanism involving selective translation of codon-biased mRNA for critical proteins. To facilitate systems-level studies of RNA modifications, we developed a liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique for the quantitative analysis of modified ribonucleosides in tRNA or other RNA species. The protocol includes tRNA purification by HPLC, enzymatic hydrolysis, reversed-phase HPLC resolution of the ribonucleosides, and identification and quantification of individual ribonucleosides by LC-MS using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring. This approach enables quantification of modified ribonucleosides in several micrograms of tRNA, or other RNA, in a 15-minute LC-MS run. By comparison, traditional methods for detecting modified ribonucleosides are labor and time intensive, require larger RNA quantities, are modification-specific, or require radioactive labeling. PMID:24625781

  18. Toward Sensitive and Accurate Analysis of Antibody Biotherapeutics by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    An, Bo; Zhang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Remarkable methodological advances in the past decade have expanded the application of liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of biotherapeutics. Currently, LC/MS represents a promising alternative or supplement to the traditional ligand binding assay (LBA) in the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and toxicokinetic studies of protein drugs, owing to the rapid and cost-effective method development, high specificity and reproducibility, low sample consumption, the capacity of analyzing multiple targets in one analysis, and the fact that a validated method can be readily adapted across various matrices and species. While promising, technical challenges associated with sensitivity, sample preparation, method development, and quantitative accuracy need to be addressed to enable full utilization of LC/MS. This article introduces the rationale and technical challenges of LC/MS techniques in biotherapeutics analysis and summarizes recently developed strategies to alleviate these challenges. Applications of LC/MS techniques on quantification and characterization of antibody biotherapeutics are also discussed. We speculate that despite the highly attractive features of LC/MS, it will not fully replace traditional assays such as LBA in the foreseeable future; instead, the forthcoming trend is likely the conjunction of biochemical techniques with versatile LC/MS approaches to achieve accurate, sensitive, and unbiased characterization of biotherapeutics in highly complex pharmaceutical/biologic matrices. Such combinations will constitute powerful tools to tackle the challenges posed by the rapidly growing needs for biotherapeutics development. PMID:25185260

  19. Determination of Phytochelatins in Rice by Stable Isotope Labeling Coupled with Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Cai, Wen-Jing; Yu, Lei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-07-01

    A highly sensitive method was developed for the detection of phytochelatins (PCs) in rice by stable isotope labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (IL-LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. A pair of isotope-labeling reagents [ω-bromoacetonylquinolinium bromide (BQB) and BQB-d(7)] were used to label PCs in plant sample and standard PCs, respectively, and then combined prior to LC/MS analysis. The heavy labeled standards were used as the internal standards for quantitation to minimize the matrix and ion suppression effects in MS analysis. In addition, the ionization efficiency of PCs was greatly enhanced through the introduction of a permanent charged moiety of quaternary ammonium of BQB into PCs. The detection sensitivities of PCs upon BQB labeling improved by 14-750-fold, and therefore, PCs can be quantitated using only 5 mg of plant tissue. Furthermore, under cadmium (Cd) stress, we found that the contents of PCs in rice dramatically increased with the increased concentrations and treatment time of Cd. It was worth noting that PC5 was first identified and quantitated in rice tissues under Cd stress in the current study. Taken together, this IL-LC-ESI-MS/MS method demonstrated to be a promising strategy in detection of PCs in plants with high sensitivity and reliability.

  20. Thin layer chromatography coupled to paper spray ionization mass spectrometry for cocaine and its adulterants analysis.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, Thays C; Tosato, Flavia; Souza, Lindamara M; Santos, Heloa; Merlo, Bianca B; Ortiz, Rafael S; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Filgueiras, Paulo R; França, Hildegardo S; Augusti, Rodinei; Romão, Wanderson; Vaz, Boniek G

    2016-05-01

    Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a simple and inexpensive type of chromatography that is extensively used in forensic laboratories for drugs of abuse analysis. In this work, TLC is optimized to analyze cocaine and its adulterants (caffeine, benzocaine, lidocaine and phenacetin) in which the sensitivity (visual determination of LOD from 0.5 to 14mgmL(-1)) and the selectivity (from the study of three different eluents: CHCl3:CH3OH:HCOOHglacial (75:20:5v%), (C2H5)2O:CHCl3 (50:50v%) and CH3OH:NH4OH (100:1.5v%)) were evaluated. Aiming to improve these figures of merit, the TLC spots were identified and quantified (linearity with R(2)>0.98) by the paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PS-MS), reaching now lower LOD values (>1.0μgmL(-1)). The method developed in this work open up perspective of enhancing the reliability of traditional and routine TLC analysis employed in the criminal expertise units. Higher sensitivity, selectivity and rapidity can be provided in forensic reports, besides the possibility of quantitative analysis. Due to the great simplicity, the PS(+)-MS technique can also be coupled directly to other separation techniques such as the paper chromatography and can still be used in analyses of LSD blotter, documents and synthetic drugs. PMID:26970868

  1. Determination of metals in marine species by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Karl X.; Swami, Kamal

    2007-10-01

    A microwave digestion method suitable for determination of multiple elements in marine species was developed, with the use of cold vapor atomic spectrometry for the detection of Hg, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for all of the other elements. An optimized reagent mixture composed of 2 ml of HNO 3, 2 ml of H 2O 2 and 0.3 ml of HF used in microwave digestion of about 0.15 g (dry weight) of sample was found to give the best overall recoveries of metals in two standard reference materials. In the oyster tissue standard reference material (SRM 1566b), recoveries of Na, Al, K, V, Co, Zn, Se, Sr, Ag, Cd, Ni, and Pb were between 90% and 110%; Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, As, and Ba recoveries were between 85% and 90%; Hg recovery was 81%; and Ca recovery was 64%. In a dogfish certified reference material (DORM-2), the recoveries of Al, Cr, Mn, Se, and Hg were between 90% and 110%; Ni, Cu, Zn, and As recoveries were about 85%; and Fe recovery was 112%. Method detection limits of the elements were established. Metal concentrations in flounder, scup, and blue crab samples collected from coastal locations around Long Island and in the Hudson River estuary were determined.

  2. Impact of plant shoot architecture on leaf cooling: a coupled heat and mass transfer model.

    PubMed

    Bridge, L J; Franklin, K A; Homer, M E

    2013-08-01

    Plants display a range of striking architectural adaptations when grown at elevated temperatures. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, these include elongation of petioles, and increased petiole and leaf angles from the soil surface. The potential physiological significance of these architectural changes remains speculative. We address this issue computationally by formulating a mathematical model and performing numerical simulations, testing the hypothesis that elongated and elevated plant configurations may reflect a leaf-cooling strategy. This sets in place a new basic model of plant water use and interaction with the surrounding air, which couples heat and mass transfer within a plant to water vapour diffusion in the air, using a transpiration term that depends on saturation, temperature and vapour concentration. A two-dimensional, multi-petiole shoot geometry is considered, with added leaf-blade shape detail. Our simulations show that increased petiole length and angle generally result in enhanced transpiration rates and reduced leaf temperatures in well-watered conditions. Furthermore, our computations also reveal plant configurations for which elongation may result in decreased transpiration rate owing to decreased leaf liquid saturation. We offer further qualitative and quantitative insights into the role of architectural parameters as key determinants of leaf-cooling capacity.

  3. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry in proteomics, metabolomics and metallomics studies.

    PubMed

    Mounicou, Sandra; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    The potential of inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and its complementarity to soft- ionization MS techniques are discussed in the context of the analysis for biomolecules. ICP-MS offers detection limits in the attomolar range, regardless of the molecular environment of the target element. The sensitivity is hardly affected by the sample matrix, chromatographic mobile phase, or co-eluted compounds. The abundance sensitivity over six decades and the linear dynamic range over nine decades make simultaneous multi-isotopic analysis routinely possible. The manuscript discusses the state-of-the-art of ICP-MS for the detection of proteins in gel electrophoresis and of peptides in 2D high-performance liquid chromatography. The possibilities of quantification to the degree of some post-translational modifications are highlighted. Attention is also paid to the role of ICP-MS in protein quantification via metal-coded labeling and to the use of differentially-labeled antibodies for the multiplexed biomarker analysis. The key role of ICP-MS in the emerging area of metallomics is briefly discussed.

  4. Depleted uranium analysis in blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todorov, T.I.; Xu, H.; Ejnik, J.W.; Mullick, F.G.; Squibb, K.; McDiarmid, M.A.; Centeno, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report depleted uranium (DU) analysis in whole blood samples. Internal exposure to DU causes increased uranium levels as well as change in the uranium isotopic composition in blood specimen. For identification of DU exposure we used the 235U/238U ratio in blood samples, which ranges from 0.00725 for natural uranium to 0.002 for depleted uranium. Uranium quantification and isotopic composition analysis were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For method validation we used eight spiked blood samples with known uranium concentrations and isotopic composition. The detection limit for quantification was determined to be 4 ng L-1 uranium in whole blood. The data reproduced within 1-5% RSD and an accuracy of 1-4%. In order to achieve a 235U/238U ratio range of 0.00698-0.00752% with 99.7% confidence limit a minimum whole blood uranium concentration of 60 ng L??1 was required. An additional 10 samples from a cohort of veterans exposed to DU in Gulf War I were analyzed with no knowledge of their medical history. The measured 235U/ 238U ratios in the blood samples were used to identify the presence or absence of DU exposure within this patient group. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Suppression of seizures based on the multi-coupled neural mass model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuzhen; Ren, Kaili; Su, Fei; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Wang, Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders, which affects approximately 1% of population in the world. In order to effectively control the seizures, we propose a novel control methodology, which combines the feedback linearization control (FLC) with the underlying mechanism of epilepsy, to achieve the suppression of seizures. The three coupled neural mass model is constructed to study the property of the electroencephalographs (EEGs). Meanwhile, with the model we research on the propagation of epileptiform waves and the synchronization of populations, which are taken as the foundation of our control method. Results show that the proposed approach not only yields excellent performances in clamping the pathological spiking patterns to the reference signals derived under the normal state but also achieves the normalization of the pathological parameter, where the parameters are estimated from EEGs with Unscented Kalman Filter. The specific contribution of this paper is to treat the epilepsy from its pathogenesis with the FLC, which provides critical theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of neurological disorders. PMID:26520086

  6. Impact of plant shoot architecture on leaf cooling: a coupled heat and mass transfer model

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, L. J.; Franklin, K. A.; Homer, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Plants display a range of striking architectural adaptations when grown at elevated temperatures. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, these include elongation of petioles, and increased petiole and leaf angles from the soil surface. The potential physiological significance of these architectural changes remains speculative. We address this issue computationally by formulating a mathematical model and performing numerical simulations, testing the hypothesis that elongated and elevated plant configurations may reflect a leaf-cooling strategy. This sets in place a new basic model of plant water use and interaction with the surrounding air, which couples heat and mass transfer within a plant to water vapour diffusion in the air, using a transpiration term that depends on saturation, temperature and vapour concentration. A two-dimensional, multi-petiole shoot geometry is considered, with added leaf-blade shape detail. Our simulations show that increased petiole length and angle generally result in enhanced transpiration rates and reduced leaf temperatures in well-watered conditions. Furthermore, our computations also reveal plant configurations for which elongation may result in decreased transpiration rate owing to decreased leaf liquid saturation. We offer further qualitative and quantitative insights into the role of architectural parameters as key determinants of leaf-cooling capacity. PMID:23720538

  7. Suppression of seizures based on the multi-coupled neural mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuzhen; Ren, Kaili; Su, Fei; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Wang, Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders, which affects approximately 1% of population in the world. In order to effectively control the seizures, we propose a novel control methodology, which combines the feedback linearization control (FLC) with the underlying mechanism of epilepsy, to achieve the suppression of seizures. The three coupled neural mass model is constructed to study the property of the electroencephalographs (EEGs). Meanwhile, with the model we research on the propagation of epileptiform waves and the synchronization of populations, which are taken as the foundation of our control method. Results show that the proposed approach not only yields excellent performances in clamping the pathological spiking patterns to the reference signals derived under the normal state but also achieves the normalization of the pathological parameter, where the parameters are estimated from EEGs with Unscented Kalman Filter. The specific contribution of this paper is to treat the epilepsy from its pathogenesis with the FLC, which provides critical theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of neurological disorders.

  8. Using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for calibration transfer between environmental CRMs.

    PubMed

    Turk, G C; Yu, L L; Salit, M L; Guthrie, W F

    2001-06-01

    Multielement analyses of environmental reference materials have been performed using existing certified reference materials (CRMs) as calibration standards for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The analyses have been performed using a high-performance methodology that results in comparison measurement uncertainties that are significantly less than the uncertainties of the certified values of the calibration CRM. Consequently, the determined values have uncertainties that are very nearly equivalent to the uncertainties of the calibration CRM. Several uses of this calibration transfer are proposed, including, re-certification measurements of replacement CRMs, establishing traceability of one CRM to another, and demonstrating the equivalence of two CRMs. RM 8704, a river sediment, was analyzed using SRM 2704, Buffalo River Sediment, as the calibration standard. SRM 1632c, Trace Elements in Bituminous Coal, which is a replacement for SRM 1632b, was analyzed using SRM 1632b as the standard. SRM 1635, Trace Elements in Subbituminous Coal, was also analyzed using SRM 1632b as the standard.

  9. High Resolution Studies of the Origins of Polyatomic Ions in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Jill Wisnewski

    2006-01-01

    The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is an atmospheric pressure ionization source. Traditionally, the plasma is sampled via a sampler cone. A supersonic jet develops behind the sampler, and this region is pumped down to a pressure of approximately one Torr. A skimmer cone is located inside this zone of silence to transmit ions into the mass spectrometer. The position of the sampler and skimmer cones relative to the initial radiation and normal analytical zones of the plasma is key to optimizing the useful analytical signal [1]. The ICP both atomizes and ionizes the sample. Polyatomic ions form through ion-molecule interactions either in the ICP or during ion extraction [l]. Common polyatomic ions that inhibit analysis include metal oxides (MO+), adducts with argon, the gas most commonly used to make up the plasma, and hydride species. While high resolution devices can separate many analytes from common interferences, this is done at great cost in ion transmission efficiency--a loss of 99% when using high versus low resolution on the same instrument [2]. Simple quadrupole devices, which make up the bulk of ICP-MS instruments in existence, do not present this option. Therefore, if the source of polyatomic interferences can be determined and then manipulated, this could potentially improve the figures of merit on all ICP-MS devices, not just the high resolution devices often utilized to study polyatomic interferences.

  10. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging of metals in experimental and clinical Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Boaru, Sorina Georgiana; Merle, Uta; Uerlings, Ricarda; Zimmermann, Astrid; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Willheim, Claudia; Eder, Elisabeth; Ferenci, Peter; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the liver does not properly release copper into bile, resulting in prominent copper accumulation in various tissues. Affected patients suffer from hepatic disorders and severe neurological defects. Experimental studies in mutant mice in which the copper-transporting ATPase gene (Atp7b) is disrupted revealed a drastic, time-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper that is accompanied by formation of regenerative nodes resembling cirrhosis. Therefore, these mice represent an excellent exploratory model for Wilson's disease. However, the precise time course in hepatic copper accumulation and its impact on other trace metals within the liver is yet poorly understood. We have recently established novel laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry protocols allowing quantitative metal imaging in human and murine liver tissue with high sensitivity, spatial resolution, specificity and quantification ability. By use of these techniques, we here aimed to comparatively analyse hepatic metal content in wild-type and Atp7b deficient mice during ageing. We demonstrate that the age-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper is strictly associated with a simultaneous increase in iron and zinc, while the intrahepatic concentration and distribution of other metals or metalloids is not affected. The same findings were obtained in well-defined human liver samples that were obtained from patients suffering from Wilson's disease. We conclude that in Wilson's disease the imbalances of hepatic copper during ageing are closely correlated with alterations in intrahepatic iron and zinc content.

  11. Arsenic speciation in soil using high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, D.A.; Yaeger, J.S.; Parish, K.J.; Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Gowdy, M.J.; Mohrman, G.B.; Besmer, M.G.

    1996-08-01

    A method has been developed to identify and quantify As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic compounds in soil samples from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) by high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP/MS). The soils were extracted using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) and sonication. The percentages of As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic species extracted from soil samples were 30, 50, and 100 respectively. The arsenic species were not altered during the extraction process. They were separated by reversed-phase, ion-pairing, HPLC using a microbore Inertsil-ODS{trademark} column. The HPLC column effluent was introduced into an ICP/MS system using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN). Detection limits of less than 1 pg were readily obtained for each arsenic species. Internal standards are recommended to increase accuracy and precision. Soil samples spiked with arsenic oxide, sodium arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), and chlorovinyl arsenious acid (CVAA) were extracted, identified and quantified with the HPLC/ICP/MS system. The soil samples were analyzed in support of the analytical needs of a thermal desorption treatability study being conducted at the RMA.

  12. Thin layer chromatography coupled to paper spray ionization mass spectrometry for cocaine and its adulterants analysis.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, Thays C; Tosato, Flavia; Souza, Lindamara M; Santos, Heloa; Merlo, Bianca B; Ortiz, Rafael S; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Filgueiras, Paulo R; França, Hildegardo S; Augusti, Rodinei; Romão, Wanderson; Vaz, Boniek G

    2016-05-01

    Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a simple and inexpensive type of chromatography that is extensively used in forensic laboratories for drugs of abuse analysis. In this work, TLC is optimized to analyze cocaine and its adulterants (caffeine, benzocaine, lidocaine and phenacetin) in which the sensitivity (visual determination of LOD from 0.5 to 14mgmL(-1)) and the selectivity (from the study of three different eluents: CHCl3:CH3OH:HCOOHglacial (75:20:5v%), (C2H5)2O:CHCl3 (50:50v%) and CH3OH:NH4OH (100:1.5v%)) were evaluated. Aiming to improve these figures of merit, the TLC spots were identified and quantified (linearity with R(2)>0.98) by the paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PS-MS), reaching now lower LOD values (>1.0μgmL(-1)). The method developed in this work open up perspective of enhancing the reliability of traditional and routine TLC analysis employed in the criminal expertise units. Higher sensitivity, selectivity and rapidity can be provided in forensic reports, besides the possibility of quantitative analysis. Due to the great simplicity, the PS(+)-MS technique can also be coupled directly to other separation techniques such as the paper chromatography and can still be used in analyses of LSD blotter, documents and synthetic drugs.

  13. A thin chip microsprayer system coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for glycopeptide screening.

    PubMed

    Bindila, Laura; Froesch, Martin; Lion, Niels; Vukelić, Zeljka; Rossier, Joël S; Girault, Hubert H; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Zamfir, Alina D

    2004-01-01

    A thin polymer microchip was coupled with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) 9.4 T mass spectrometer and the method was optimized in negative ion mode for glycopeptide screening. The interface between the polymer microchip and FTICR mass spectrometer consists of an in-laboratory conceived and designed mounting system that exhibits robust and controllable alignment of the chip toward the inlet of the mass spectrometer. The particular attribute of the polymer chip coupled to the FTICR mass spectrometer, to achieve an increase in ionization efficiency and sensitivity under the premise of high mass accuracy of detection, is highlighted by the large number of major and minor glycopeptide structures detected and identified in highly heterogeneous mixtures obtained from urine matrices. Glycoforms expressing various saccharide chain lengths ranging from tri- to dodecasaccharide, bearing up to three sialic acid moieties, could be detected and assigned based on the accuracy of the mass measurement (average mass deviation below 6 ppm) of their molecular ions. -Thin chipESI-FTICRMS is a potent novel system for glycomic screening of complex mixtures, as demonstrated for identification of singly sialylated O-glycosylated amino acids and peptides from urine matrices, and could be considered for general applicability in the glycoanalytical field.

  14. Multi-elemental analysis of aqueous geochemical samples by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Adams, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Typically, quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to determine as many as 57 major, minor, and trace elements in aqueous geochemical samples, including natural surface water and groundwater, acid mine drainage water, and extracts or leachates from geological samples. The sample solution is aspirated into the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) which is an electrodeless discharge of ionized argon gas at a temperature of approximately 6,000 degrees Celsius. The elements in the sample solution are subsequently volatilized, atomized, and ionized by the ICP. The ions generated are then focused and introduced into a quadrupole mass filter which only allows one mass to reach the detector at a given moment in time. As the settings of the mass analyzer change, subsequent masses are allowed to impact the detector. Although the typical quadrupole ICP-MS system is a sequential scanning instrument (determining each mass separately), the scan speed of modern instruments is on the order of several thousand masses per second. Consequently, typical total sample analysis times of 2–3 minutes are readily achievable for up to 57 elements.

  15. Ultracentrifugation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for metal-protein equilibrium studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Holcombe, James A.

    2012-10-01

    The coupling of separation by preparative ultracentrifugation and metal detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been explored for metal-protein equilibrium determinations. This study characterizes the stoichiometry as well as apparent (Kapp) and intrinsic (Kint) binding affinities of the metal-protein association for a model protein. In particular, the affinity of Cu2 + for the high affinity binding site in bovine serum albumin (BSA) is determined. Once equilibrium is established between Cu2 + and BSA, preparative ultracentrifugation moves the metalloprotein away from the meniscus, leaving unbound equilibrium copper in the protein free solution. Since the initial (total) concentrations of purified BSA and Cu2 + can be determined, the free copper concentration at equilibrium can also be determined by taking a small aliquot above the sedimenting boundary for analysis using ICP-MS. This analysis allows for the determination of free Cu2 + ion, which is identical to the equilibrium concentration prior to ultracentrifugation. From these data Kapp and Kint were determined at two different conditions, 100 mM Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) at pH 9.53 and pH 7.93. log Kapp values of 17.6 and 14.6 were determined at pH 9.53 and pH 7.93, respectively. Furthermore, pH-independent log Kint values of - 1.43 and - 1.04 were determined at pH 9.53 and 7.93, respectively. While the log Kint at pH 9.53 was in good agreement with literature values obtained from alternative methods, Kint at pH 7.93 was about 2.5 × larger than previously reported. BSA undergoes a structural rearrangement between pH 7-9, and the generally accepted pH-dependency of protein tertiary structure may be responsible for the variations in the "intrinsic" binding constant. The Cu-BSA binding affinity was also monitored in 100 mM Tris 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution at pH 7.93 in order to determine the effect of a denaturant on metal binding. Results for both log

  16. The coupling of direct analysis in real time ionization to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for ultrahigh-resolution mass analysis.

    PubMed

    Rummel, Julia L; McKenna, Amy M; Marshall, Alan G; Eyler, John R; Powell, David H

    2010-03-01

    Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) is an ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry that provides rapid and sensitive analyses with little or no sample preparation. DART has been reported primarily for mass analyzers of low to moderate resolving power such as quadrupole ion traps and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers. In the current work, a custom-built DART source has been successfully coupled to two different Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometers for the first time. Comparison of spectra of the isobaric compounds, diisopropyl methylphosphonate and theophylline, acquired by 4.7 T FT-ICR MS and TOF MS, demonstrates that the TOF resolving power can be insufficient for compositionally complex samples. 9.4 T FT-ICR MS yielded the highest mass resolving power yet reported with DART ionization for 1,2-benzanthracene and 9,10-diphenylanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exhibit a spatial dependence in ionization mechanisms between the DART source and the mass spectrometer. The feasibility of analyzing a variety of samples was established with the introduction and analysis of food products and crude oil samples. DART FT-ICR MS provides complex sample analysis that is rapid, highly selective and information-rich, but limited to relatively low-mass analytes.

  17. Computation with Inverse States in a Finite Field FP: The Muon Neutrino Mass, the Unified Strong-Electroweak Coupling Constant, and the Higgs Mass

    SciTech Connect

    DAI,YANG; BORISOV,ALEXEY B.; BOYER,KEITH; RHODES,CHARLES K.

    2000-08-11

    The construction of inverse states in a finite field F{sub P{sub {alpha}}} enables the organization of the mass scale with fundamental octets in an eight-dimensional index space that identifies particle states with residue class designations. Conformance with both CPT invariance and the concept of supersymmetry follows as a direct consequence of this formulation. Based on two parameters (P{sub {alpha}} and g{sub {alpha}}) that are anchored on a concordance of physical data, this treatment leads to (1) a prospective mass for the muon neutrino of {approximately}27.68 meV, (2) a value of the unified strong-electroweak coupling constant {alpha}* = (34.26){sup {minus}1} that is physically defined by the ratio of the electron neutrino and muon neutrino masses, and (3) a see-saw congruence connecting the Higgs, the electron neutrino, and the muon neutrino masses. Specific evaluation of the masses of the corresponding supersymmetric Higgs pair reveals that both particles are superheavy (> 10{sup 18}GeV). No renormalization of the Higgs masses is introduced, since the calculational procedure yielding their magnitudes is intrinsically divergence-free. Further, the Higgs fulfills its conjectured role through the see-saw relation as the particle defining the origin of all particle masses, since the electron and muon neutrino systems, together with their supersymmetric partners, are the generators of the mass scale and establish the corresponding index space. Finally, since the computation of the Higgs masses is entirely determined by the modulus of the field P{sub {alpha}}, which is fully defined by the large-scale parameters of the universe through the value of the universal gravitational constant G and the requirement for perfect flatness ({Omega} = 1.0), the see-saw congruence fuses the concepts of mass and space and creates a new unified archetype.

  18. The potential of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection for high-performance liquid chromatography combined with accurate mass measurement of organic pharmaceutical compounds.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, B O; Jörnten-Karlsson, M; Michelsen, P; Abou-Shakra, F

    2001-01-01

    Quantification of unknown components in pharmaceutical, metabolic and environmental samples is an important but difficult task. Most commonly used detectors (like UV, RI or MS) require standards of each analyte for accurate quantification. Even if the chemical structure or elemental composition is known, the response from these detectors is difficult to predict with any accuracy. In inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) compounds are atomised and ionised irrespective of the chemical structure(s) incorporating the element of interest. Liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC/ICP-MS) has been shown to provide a generic detection for structurally non-correlated compounds with common elements like phosphorus and iodine. Detection of selected elements gives a better quantification of tested 'unknowns' than UV and organic mass spectrometric detection. It was shown that the ultrasonic nebuliser did not introduce any measurable dead volume and preserves the separation efficiency of the system. ICP-MS can be used in combination with many different mobile phases ranging from 0-100% organic modifier. The dynamic range was found to exceed 2.5 orders of magnitude. The application of LC/ICP-MS to pharmaceutical drugs and formulations has shown that impurities can be quantified below the 0.1 mol-% level.

  19. {sup 99}Tc bioassay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.A.

    1998-05-01

    A means of analyzing {sup 99}Tc in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed. Historically, {sup 99}Tc analysis was based on the radiometric detection of the 293 keV E{sub Max} beta decay product by liquid scintillation or gas flow proportional counting. In a urine matrix, the analysis of{sup 99}Tc is plagued with many difficulties using conventional radiometric methods. Difficulties originate during chemical separation due to the volatile nature of Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} or during radiation detection due to color or chemical quenching. A separation scheme for {sup 99}Tc detection by ICP-MS is given and is proven to be a sensitive and robust analytical alternative. A comparison of methods using radiometric and mass quantitation of {sup 99}Tc has been conducted in water, artificial urine, and real urine matrices at activity levels between 700 and 2,200 dpm/L. Liquid scintillation results based on an external standard quench correction and a quench curve correction method are compared to results obtained by ICP-MS. Each method produced accurate results, however the precision of the ICP-MS results is superior to that of liquid scintillation results. Limits of detection (LOD) for ICP-MS and liquid scintillation detection are 14.67 and 203.4 dpm/L, respectively, in a real urine matrix. In order to determine the basis for the increased precision of the ICP-MS results, the detection sensitivity for each method is derived and measured. The detection sensitivity for the {sup 99}Tc isotope by ICP-MS is 2.175 x 10{sup {minus}7} {+-} 8.990 x 10{sup {minus}9} and by liquid scintillation is 7.434 x 10{sup {minus}14} {+-} 7.461 x 10{sup {minus}15}. A difference by seven orders of magnitude between the two detection systems allows ICP-MS samples to be analyzed for a period of 15 s compared to 3,600 s by liquid scintillation counting with a lower LOD.

  20. Investigation of a measure of robustness in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makonnen, Yoseif; Beauchemin, Diane

    2015-01-01

    In industrial/commercial settings where operators often have minimal expertise in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS), there is a prevalent need for a response factor indicating robust plasma conditions, which is analogous to the Mg II/Mg I ratio in ICP optical emission spectrometry (OES), whereby a Mg II/Mg I ratio of 10 constitutes robust conditions. While minimizing the oxide ratio usually corresponds to robust conditions, there is no specific target value that is widely accepted as indicating robust conditions. Furthermore, tuning for low oxide ratios does not necessarily guarantee minimal matrix effects, as they really address polyatomic interferences. From experiments, conducted in parallel for both MS and OES, there were some element pairs of similar mass and very different ionization potential that were exploited for such a purpose, the rationale being that, if these elements were ionized to the same extent, then that could be indicative of a robust plasma. The Be II/Li I intensity ratio was directly related to the Mg II/Mg I ratio in OES. Moreover, the 9Be+/7Li+ ratio was inversely related to the CeO+/Ce+ and LaO+/La+ oxide ratios in MS. The effects of different matrices (i.e. 0.01-0.1 M Na) were also investigated and compared to a conventional argon plasma optimized for maximum sensitivity. The suppression effect of these matrices was significantly reduced, if not eliminated in the case of 0.01 M Na, when the 9Be+/7Li+ ratio was around 0.30 on the Varian 820 MS instrument. Moreover, a very similar ratio (0.28) increased robustness to the same extent on a completely different ICP-MS instrument (PerkinElmer NEXION). Much greater robustness was achieved using a mixed-gas plasma with nitrogen in the outer gas and either nitrogen or hydrogen as a sheathing gas, as the 9Be+/7Li+ ratio was then around 1.70. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on using a simple analyte intensity ratio, 9Be+/7Li+, to gauge plasma robustness.

  1. Determination of minor elements in steelmaking flue dusts using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coedo, A G; Padilla, I; Dorado, M T

    2005-07-15

    Element determination in solid waste products from the steel industry usually involves the time-consuming step of preparing a solution of the solid. Laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been applied to the analysis of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Sn, elements of importance from the point of view of their impact on the environment, in electric arc furnace flue dust (EAFD). A simple method of sample preparation as pressed pellets using a mixture of cellulose and paraffin as binder material was applied. Calibration standards were prepared spiking multielement solution standards to a 1:1 ZnO+Fe(2)O(3) synthetic matrix. The wet powder was dried and mechanically homogenised. Quantitative analysis were based on external calibration using a set of matrix matched calibration standards with Rh as a internal standard. Results obtained using only one-point for calibration without matrix matched, needing less time for standardization and data processing, are also presented. Data are calculated for flue dust reference materials: CRM 876-1 (EAFD), AG-6203 (EAFD), AG-6201 (cupola dust) and AG-SX3705 (coke ashes), and for two representative electrical arc furnace flue dusts samples from Spanish steelmaking companies: MS-1 and MS-2. For the reference materials, an acceptable agreement with certificate values was achieved, and the results for the MS samples matched with those obtained from conventional nebulization solutions (CN). The analytical precision was found to be better than 7% R.S.D. both within a single pellet and between several pellets of the same sample for all the elements.

  2. Iodine determination in food samples using inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rädlinger, G; Heumann, K G

    1998-06-01

    Two different sample treatment methods are used in connection with inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry for accurate and precise determinations of iodine traces in food samples. 129I-enriched iodate is applied as a spike compound for the isotope dilution step. Extraction of iodine by tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution at high temperatures in a closed vessel is one of the sample treatment methods. The other one is a complete decomposition of the sample with a mixture of perchloric acid and nitric acid using microwave assistance. By analyzing different certified reference materials (three milk powders with different iodine levels, BCR CRM 63, 150, and 151; bovine liver BCR CRM 185), the accuracy of ICP-IDMS with both sample treatment methods could be demonstrated. The relative standard deviation was typically in the range of 0.6-2.8% for iodine concentrations between 0.1 microgram g-1 and 5 micrograms g-1. The detection limit was 8 ng g-1 using sample weights of 0.8 g. In a round robin test, using two different types of infant food samples, the results of the two ICP-IDMS methods and of an ICP-MS method without the isotope dilution technique, but applying the TMAH extraction procedure, agree very well with the mean of results of all participating laboratories also using ICP-MS/TMAH. However, the ICP-IDMS method is faster, more precise, widely independent of matrix effects, and, therefore, relatively accurate, which makes this method especially attractive for use as a routine method.

  3. Determining Solubility and Diffusivity by Using a Flow Cell Coupled to a Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Khodayari, Mehdi; Reinsberg, Philip; Abd-El-Latif, Abd-El-Aziz A; Merdon, Christian; Fuhrmann, Juergen; Baltruschat, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    One of the main challenges in metal-air batteries is the selection of a suitable electrolyte that is characterized by high oxygen solubility, low viscosity, a liquid state and low vapor pressure across a wide temperature range, and stability across a wide potential window. Herein, a new method based on a thin layer flow through cell coupled to a mass spectrometer through a porous Teflon membrane is described that allows the determination of the solubility of volatile species and their diffusion coefficients in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions. The method makes use of the fact that at low flow rates the rate of species entering the vacuum system, and thus the ion current, is proportional to the concentration times the flow rate (c⋅u) and independent of the diffusion coefficient. The limit at high flow rates is proportional to D2/3·c·u1/3 . Oxygen concentrations and diffusion coefficients in aqueous electrolytes that contain Li(+) and K(+) and organic solvents that contain Li(+) , K(+) , and Mg(2+) , such as propylene carbonate, dimethyl sulfoxide tetraglyme, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, have been determined by using different flow rates in the range of 0.1 to 80 μL s(-1) . This method appears to be quite reliable, as can be seen by a comparison of the results obtained herein with available literature data. The solubility and diffusion coefficient values of O2 decrease as the concentration of salt in the electrolyte was increased due to a "salting out" effect. PMID:27017297

  4. Association of body mass index with some fertility markers among male partners of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Hajshafiha, Masoumeh; Ghareaghaji, Rasul; Salemi, Sedigheh; Sadegh-Asadi, Nahid; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2013-01-01

    Background The available evidence on the role of obesity and body mass index (BMI) on male infertility has been controversial or inconclusive to some extent. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BMI on some male-fertility laboratory indicators both among infertile and fertile men in an Iranian population. Methods and materials A total of 159 male patients who had lived as a partner in an infertile couple for at least 1 year, after regular reproductive activity in their married life, and who sought infertility consultation, were investigated. BMI was assessed, and a morning blood sample was taken assessing serum levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol. Semen-analysis parameters were also measured. Results In this study, it was found that the likelihood of oligospermia was increased at higher BMI values. Obese men were found to be 3.5 times more likely to have oligospermia than those with normal BMI. BMI was not found to be associated with mean numeric values of the semen-analysis parameters, including sperm count, sperm morphology, and sperm motility. BMI was not significantly correlated with some hormone levels, such as LH, prolactin, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio. However, a statistically significant association was observed between BMI and estradiol (P < 0.01), sex hormone-binding globulin (P < 0.001), and also the testosterone/estradiol ratio (P < 0.001). A different pattern of associations in this study was observed when the associations between BMI and sexual hormone levels were compared between fertile and subfertile/infertile men. Conclusion The association explored between BMI and some sexual hormones and semen characteristics, as well as different patterns of this association between fertile and subfertile/infertile men, will be of help to broaden our understanding of the effect of obesity on some male reproductive

  5. 3D coupled heat and mass transfer processes at the scale of sedimentary basisn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacace, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Kaiser, B. O.

    2014-12-01

    We use coupled 3D simulations of fluid, heat, and transport based on a 3D structural model of a complex geological setting, the Northeast German Basin (NEGB). The geological structure of the NEGB is characterized by a relatively thick layer of Permian Zechstein salt, structured in differnet diapirs (up to 5000 m thick) and pillows locally reaching nearly the surface. Salt is thermally more conductive than other sediments, hydraulically impervious but highly solvable. Thus salt structures have first order influence on the temperature distribution, the deep flow regime and the salinity of groundawater bearing aquifers. In addition, the post-Permian sedimentary sequence is vertically subdivided into several aquifers and aquitards. The shallow Quaternary to late Tertiary freshwater aquifer is separated from the underlying Mesozoic saline aquifers by an embedded Tertiary clay enriched aquitard (Rupelian Aquitard). An important feature of this aquitard is that hydraulic connections between the upper and lower aquifers exist in areas where the Rupelian Aquitard is missing (hydrogeological windows). By means of 3D numerical simulations we explore the role of heat conduction, pressure, and density driven groundwater flow as well as fluid viscosity-related and salinity-dependent effects on the resulting flow and temperature fields. Our results suggest that the regional temperature distribution within the basin results from interactions between regional pressure forces and thermal diffusion locally enhanced by thermal conductivity contrasts between the different sedimentary rocks with the highly conductive salt. Buoyancy forces triggered by temperature-dependent fluid density variations affect only locally the internal thermal configuration. Locations, geometry, and wavelengths of convective thermal anomalies are mainly controlled by the permeability field and thickness values of the respective geological layers. Numerical results from 3D thermo-haline numerical simulations

  6. Determination of multiple human arsenic metabolites employing high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stice, Szabina; Liu, Guangliang; Matulis, Shannon; Boise, Lawrence H; Cai, Yong

    2016-01-15

    During the metabolism of different arsenic-containing compounds in human, a variety of metabolites are produced with significantly varying toxicities. Currently available analytical methods can only detect a limited number of human metabolites in biological samples during one run due to their diverse characteristics. In addition, co-elution of species is often unnoticeable with most detection techniques leading to inaccurate metabolic profiles and assessment of toxicity. A high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method was developed that can identify thirteen common arsenic metabolites possibly present in human with special attention dedicated to thiolated or thiol conjugated arsenicals. The thirteen species included in this study are arsenite (As(III)), arsino-glutathione (As(GS)3), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), monomethylarsino-glutathione (MMA(III)(GS) 2), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III) (from DMA(III)I)), S-(dimethylarsinic)cysteine (DMA(III) (Cys)), dimethylarsino-glutathione (DMA(III)(GS)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA(V)), dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA(V)), dimethylarsinothioyl glutathione (DMMTA(V)(GS)). The developed method was applied for the analysis of cancer cells that were incubated with darinaparsin (DMA(III)(GS)), a novel chemotherapeutic agent for refractory malignancies, and the arsenic metabolic profile obtained was compared to results using a previously developed method. This method provides a useful analytical tool which is much needed in unequivocally identifying the arsenicals formed during the metabolism of environmental arsenic exposure or therapeutic arsenic administration.

  7. Slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for steelmaking flue dust analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coedo, A. G.; Dorado, T.; Padilla, I.; Maibusch, R.; Kuss, H.-M.

    2000-02-01

    A commercial atomic absorption graphite furnace (AAGF), with a self-made adapter and valve system, was used as a slurry sampling cell for electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS). The system was applied to the determination of As, Sn, Sb, Se, Te, Bi, Cd, V, Ti and Mo in steelmaking flue dusts. Experimental conditions with respect to ETV and ICP-MS operating parameters were optimized. Compared to aqueous solutions, slurry samples were found to present better analyte transport. Microgram amounts of Rh were used to reduce the difference in analyte response in sensitivity for aqueous solutions of the tested analytes. No such increasing effect was observed for slurry samples and aqueous standards. An added quantity of Rh acting as modifier/carrier resulted in an increase for the same analytes in matrix-slurry solutions, even the addition of an extra Rh quantity has resulted in a decrease in the signals. The effect of Triton X-100 (used as a dispersant agent) on analyte intensity and precision was also studied. External calibration from aqueous standards spiked with 100 μg ml -1 Rh was performed to quantified 0.010 g/100 ml slurry samples. Results are presented for a certified reference electrical arc furnace flue dust (EAF): CRM-876-1 (Bureau of Analysis Samples Ltd., Cleveland, UK), a reference sample of coke ashes X-3705 (from AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany), and a representative sample of EAF flue dust from a Spanish steelmaking company (CENIM-1). For the two reference materials an acceptable agreement with certificate values was achieved, and the results for the CENIM sample matched with those obtained from conventional nebulization solution.

  8. Acquisition of a High-resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer for Cosmochemical and Geochemical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    The primary goal of our research in this program is to develop new techniques for the analysis of volatile trace elements in very small samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in preparation for samples returned by the Stardust mission. The instrument that will serve as the basis of our experiments is the ELEMENT2 high-resolution ICP-MS. We have spent the past year designing the laboratory to house this instrument as well as space to store and prepare samples returned by the Stardust mission. Unfortunately, the location that we had initially selected for the instrument turned out to be insufficient for our needs. This was determined almost eight months into the first year of our funding cycle, after extensive work including the production of engineering drawings. However, during this time the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory was selected to lead Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission. As a result of this award LPL purchased a new, 50,000 square foot building. We have acquired 1400 square feet of laboratory space in this new facility. Four-hundred square feet will be used for a class-100 clean room. This area is designated for storage and preparation of extraterrestrial materials. The additional 1000 square feet will house the ELEMENT2 ICP-MS and peripheral devices. This is an enormous amount of space for this instrument, but it provides plenty of room for expansion in the future. The ICP-MS and the clean room facilities have been purchased. The instrument has been delivered. The startup time for this instrument is relatively short and we expect to be collecting our first data by mid-summer.

  9. Conformational analysis of g protein-coupled receptor signaling by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Lee, Su Youn; Chung, Ka Young

    2015-01-01

    Conformational change and protein-protein interactions are two major mechanisms of membrane protein signal transduction, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Upon agonist binding, GPCRs change conformation, resulting in interaction with downstream signaling molecules such as G proteins. To understand the precise signaling mechanism, studies have investigated the structural mechanism of GPCR signaling using X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), or electron paramagnetic resonance. In addition to these techniques, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has recently been used in GPCR studies. HDX-MS measures the rate at which peptide amide hydrogens exchange with deuterium in the solvent. Exposed or flexible regions have higher exchange rates and excluded or ordered regions have lower exchange rates. Therefore, HDX-MS is a useful tool for studying protein-protein interfaces and conformational changes after protein activation or protein-protein interactions. Although HDX-MS does not give high-resolution structures, it analyzes protein conformations that are difficult to study with X-ray crystallography or NMR. Furthermore, conformational information from HDX-MS can help in the crystallization of X-ray crystallography by suggesting highly flexible regions. Interactions between GPCRs and downstream signaling molecules are not easily analyzed by X-ray crystallography or NMR because of the large size of the GPCR-signaling molecule complexes, hydrophobicity, and flexibility of GPCRs. HDX-MS could be useful for analyzing the conformational mechanism of GPCR signaling. In this chapter, we discuss details of HDX-MS for analyzing GPCRs using the β2AR-G protein complex as a model system.

  10. Photochemical vapor generation of lead for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Hualing; Zhang, Ningning; Gong, Zhenbin; Li, Weifeng; Hang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Photochemical vapor generation (PCVG) of lead was successfully achieved with a simplified and convenient system, in which only low molecular weight organic acid and a high-efficiency photochemical reactor were needed. The reactor was used to generate lead volatile species when a solution of lead containing a small amount of low molecular weight organic acid was pumped through. Several factors, including the concentration of acetic acid, the concentration of hydrochloride acid, and the irradiation time of UV light were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, including the addition of 0.90% (v/v) acetic acid and 0.03% (v/v) hydrochloride acid, and irradiation time of 28 s, intense and repeatable signal of lead volatile species was successfully obtained and identified with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). In addition, the effects from inorganic anions and transition metal ions, including Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -, Cu2 +, Fe3 +, Co2 + and Ni2 +, were investigated, which suggests that their suppression to the PCVG of lead was in the order of Cl- < SO42 - < NO3- for anions and Ni2 +, Co2 + < Fe3 + < Cu2 + for transition metal ions. Under optimized conditions, relative standard derivation (RSD) of 4.4% was achieved from replicate measurements (n = 5) of a standard solution of 0.1 μg L- 1 lead. And, the limit of quantitation (LOQ, 10σ) of 0.012 μg L- 1 lead was obtained using this method and the method blank could be easily controlled down to 0.023 μg L- 1. To validate applicability of this method, it was also employed for the determination of lead in tap water, rain water and lake water.

  11. Documenting utility of paddlefish otoliths for quantification of metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Schaffler, James J.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE The otoliths of the inner ear of fishes record the environment of their surrounding water throughout their life. For paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), otoliths have not been routinely used by scientists since their detriments were outlined in the early 1940s. We sought to determine if paddlefish otoliths were useful for resolving elemental information contained within. METHODS Adult paddlefish were collected from two wild, self-sustaining populations in Oklahoma reservoirs in the Arkansas River basin. Juveniles were obtained from a hatchery in the Red River basin of Oklahoma. Otoliths were removed and laser ablation, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to quantify eight elements (Li, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sr, Y, Ba, and Pb) along the core and edge portions, which were analyzed for differences between otolith regions and among paddlefish sources. RESULTS Differences were found among samples for six of the eight elements examined. Otoliths from Red River basin paddlefish born in a hatchery had significantly lower amounts of Mg and Mn, but higher levels of Rb than otoliths from wild paddlefish in the Arkansas River basin. Concentrations of Y, Sr, and Ba were reduced on the edges of adult paddlefish from both reservoirs compared with the cores. CONCLUSIONS This research shows the utility of using an ICP-MS analysis of paddlefish otoliths. Future research that seeks to determine sources of paddlefish production, such as which reservoir tributaries are most important for reproduction or what proportion of the population is composed of wild versus hatchery-produced individuals, appears promising. Published in 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Analysis of metal pollutants in the Houston Ship Channel by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saleh, M A; Wilson, B L

    1999-09-01

    Trace metal pollutants in the surface water of the Houston Ship Channel were determined using inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). Metal concentrations varied according to sampling sites. Barium, cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, silver, beryllium, antimony, lead, and mercury concentrations were relatively similar throughout the channel averaging 83.25, 0.55, 6. 31, 6.66, 0.02, 0.017, 3.61, 0.68, and 0.055 microg/L, respectively. Titanium, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, and selenium concentrations were found to be higher at stations closer to the Galveston Bay (as the water is turning from relatively fresh water to sea water) with concentration ranges of 102.5-351.7, 0.3-25, 0. 3-25, 30-280, 16-77, 6.2-26.5, and 0.0-6.2 microg/L, respectively. Aluminum was found to be much higher at the Buffalo Bayou station (341 microg/L) followed by the San Jacinto station (104 microg/L) with an average of 42 microg/L in the other two stations. Vanadium was found to be unusually high at the Washburn Tunnel station (116 microg/L) and at much lower concentrations in the other three stations, averaging 6.5 microg/L. Iron was also higher at the Buffalo Bayou station (143 microg/L) but was absent at the Lynchburg Ferries station. Arsenic was not found at the Lynchburg and San Jacinto stations. However, arsenic had similar concentrations of 1. 983 and 1.835 microg/L at Buffalo Bayou and Washburn Tunnel, respectively. Cadmium was higher at the Lynchburg Ferries station (3. 3 microg/L) and ranged from 0.3 to 0.96 microg/L in the other locations. Thallium was not found in any of the stations.

  13. Generalization of Ryan's theorem: Probing tidal coupling with gravitational waves from nearly circular, nearly equatorial, extreme-mass-ratio inspirals

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chao; Lovelace, Geoffrey

    2008-03-15

    Extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) and intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals (IMRIs) - binaries in which a stellar-mass object spirals into a massive black hole or other massive, compact body - are important sources of gravitational waves for LISA and LIGO, respectively. Thorne has speculated that the waves from EMRIs and IMRIs encode, in principle, all the details of (i) the central body's spacetime geometry (metric), (ii) the tidal coupling (energy and angular momentum exchange) between the central body and orbiting object, and (iii) the evolving orbital elements. Fintan Ryan has given a first partial proof that this speculation is correct: Restricting himself to nearly circular, nearly equatorial orbits and ignoring tidal coupling, Ryan proved that the central body's metric is encoded in the waves. In this paper we generalize Ryan's theorem. Retaining Ryan's restriction to nearly circular and nearly equatorial orbits, and dropping the assumption of no tidal coupling, we prove that Thorne's conjecture is nearly fully correct: the waves encode not only the central body's metric but also the evolving orbital elements and (in a sense slightly different from Thorne's conjecture) the evolving tidal coupling.

  14. Multi-cavity coupling acoustic metamaterials with low-frequency broad band gaps based on negative mass density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chuanhui; Wu, Jiu Hui; Cao, Songhua; Jing, Li

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies a novel kind of low-frequency broadband acoustic metamaterials with small size based on the mechanisms of negative mass density and multi-cavity coupling. The structure consists of a closed resonant cavity and an open resonant cavity, which can be equivalent to a homogeneous medium with effective negative mass density in a certain frequency range by using the parameter inversion method. The negative mass density makes the anti-resonance area increased, which results in broadened band gaps greatly. Owing to the multi-cavity coupling mechanism, the local resonances of the lower frequency mainly occur in the closed cavity, while the local resonances of the higher frequency mainly in the open cavity. Upon the interaction between the negative mass density and the multi-cavity coupling, there exists two broad band gaps in the range of 0-1800 Hz, i.e. the first-order band gap from 195 Hz to 660 Hz with the bandwidth of 465 Hz and the second-order band gap from 1157 Hz to 1663 Hz with the bandwidth of 506 Hz. The acoustic metamaterials with small size presented in this paper could provide a new approach to reduce the low-frequency broadband noises.

  15. Quantitative and confirmative performance of liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry compared to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Anton; Butcher, Patrick; Maden, Kathryn; Walker, Stephan; Widmer, Miryam

    2011-04-15

    The quantitative and confirmative performance of two different mass spectrometry (MS) techniques (high-resolution MS and tandem MS) was critically compared. Evaluated was a new extraction and clean-up protocol which was developed to cover more than 100 different veterinary drugs at trace levels in a number of animal tissues and honey matrices. Both detection techniques, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) (single-stage Orbitrap instrument operated at 50 000 full width at half maximum) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) (quadrupole technology) were used to validate the method according to the EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EEC. Equal or even a slightly better quantitative performance was observed for the HRMS-based approach. Sensitivity is higher for unit mass resolution MS/MS if only a subset of the 100 compounds has to be monitored. Confirmation of suspected positive findings can be done by evaluating the intensity ratio between different MS/MS transitions, or by accurate mass based product ion traces (no precursor selection applied). MS/MS relies on compound-specific optimized transitions; hence the second, confirmatory transition generally shows relatively high ion abundance (fragmentation efficacy). This is often not the case in single-stage HRMS, since a generic (not compound-optimized) collision energy is applied. Hence, confirmation of analytes present at low levels is superior when performed by MS/MS. Slightly better precision, but poorer accuracy (fortified matrix extracts versus pure standard solution) of ion ratios were observed when comparing data obtained by HRMS versus MS/MS. PMID:21416536

  16. Universally coupled massive gravity, III: dRGT-Maheshwari pure spin-2, Ogievetsky-Polubarinov and arbitrary mass terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, J. Brian

    2016-02-01

    Einstein's equations were derived for a free massless spin-2 field using universal coupling in the 1950-1970s by various authors; total stress-energy including gravity's served as a source for linear free field equations. A massive variant was likewise derived in the late 1960s by Freund, Maheshwari and Schonberg, and thought to be unique. How broad is universal coupling? In the last decade four 1-parameter families of massive spin-2 theories (contravariant, covariant, tetrad, and cotetrad of almost any density weights) have been derived using universal coupling. The (co)tetrad derivations included 2 of the 3 pure spin-2 theories due to de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley; those two theories first appeared in the 2-parameter Ogievetsky-Polubarinov family (1965), which developed the symmetric square root of the metric as a nonlinear group realization. One of the two theories was identified as pure spin-2 by Maheshwari in 1971-1972, thus evading the Boulware-Deser-Tyutin-Fradkin ghost by the time it was announced. Unlike the previous 4 families, this paper permits nonlinear field redefinitions to build the effective metric. By not insisting in advance on knowing the observable significance of the graviton potential to all orders, one finds that an arbitrary graviton mass term can be derived using universal coupling. The arbitrariness of a universally coupled mass/self-interaction term contrasts sharply with the uniqueness of the Einstein kinetic term. One might have hoped to use universal coupling as a tie-breaking criterion for choosing among theories that are equally satisfactory on more crucial grounds (such as lacking ghosts and having a smooth massless limit). But the ubiquity of universal coupling implies that the criterion does not favor any particular theories among those with the Einstein kinetic term.

  17. Methyl mercury in nail clippings in relation to fish consumption analysis with gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: a first orientation.

    PubMed

    Krystek, Petra; Favaro, Paulo; Bode, Peter; Ritsema, Rob

    2012-08-15

    For the identification of human exposure to one of the most toxic compounds, which is methyl mercury (MeHg(+)), fingernail clippings were selected as the matrix of interest. Within this pilot study, six samples from different origins and from people with different food consumption patterns were chosen. Species-analysis of MeHg(+) was performed according to the following procedure: dissolution of the sample material in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), derivatisation of MeHg(+) with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)), extraction into iso-octane and measurement with gas chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS) for the quantification MeHg(+).

  18. Advances in the helium-jet coupled on-line mass separator RAMA. [Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Moltz, D M; Aysto, J; Cable, M D; Parry, R F; Haustein, P E; Wouters, J M; Cerny, J

    1980-01-01

    General improvements to the on-line mass separator RAMA (Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer) have yielded a greater reliability and efficiency for some elements. A new utilitarian helium-jet chamber has been installed to facilitate quick target and degrader foil changes in addition to a new ion source holder. A higher efficiency hollow-cathode, cathode-extraction ion source, for lower melting point elements (< 1200/sup 0/C) has also been designed. Tests with the beta-delayed proton emitter /sup 37/Ca showed a factor of five increase in yield over the old hollow-cathode, anode-extraction source. A differentially-pumped-tape drive system compatible with both ..gamma..-..gamma.. and ..beta..-..gamma.. experiments has been incorporated into the general detection system. All major operating parameters will soon be monitored by a complete stand-alone microprocessor system which will eventually be upgraded to a closed-loop control system.

  19. MEN’S BODY MASS INDEX IN RELATION TO EMBRYO QUALITY AND CLINICAL OUTCOMES IN COUPLES UNDERGOING IN VITRO FERTILIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Colaci, Daniela S.; Afeiche, Myriam; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Wright, Diane L.; Toth, Thomas L.; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between men’s body mass index (BMI), early embryo quality and clinical outcomes in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Fertility clinic in an academic medical center. Patients 114 couples that underwent 172 ART cycles. Interventions None Main outcome measure Fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Results Fertilization rate was higher among obese men than among normal weight men (p-trend=0.04) in conventional IVF cycles. No significant associations were found between men’s BMI and the proportion of poor quality embryos on day 3 (p-trend =0.67), slow embryo cleavage rate (p-trend=0.17), or accelerated embryo cleavage rate (p-trend =0.07). Men’s BMI was unrelated to positive β-hCG rate (p-trend =0.37), clinical pregnancy rate (p-trend =0.91) or live birth rate (p-trend =0.42) per embryo transfer. Among couples undergoing ICSI, the odds of live birth in couples with obese male partners was 84% (95% CI 10%–97%) lower than the odds in couples with men with normal BMI (p-trend=0.04). Conclusion Our data suggest a possible deleterious effect of male obesity on the odds of having a live birth among couples undergoing ICSI. PMID:22884013

  20. Influence of the tip mass and position on the AFM cantilever dynamics: coupling between bending, torsion and flexural modes.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari-Nezhad, F; Saidi, A R; Ziaei-Rad, S

    2009-08-01

    The effects of the geometrical asymmetric related to tip position as a concentrated mass, on the sensitivity of all three vibration modes, lateral excitation (LE), torsional resonance (TR) and vertical excitation (VE), of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) microcantilever have been analyzed. The effects of the tip mass and its position are studied to report the novel results to estimating the vibration behavior of AFM such as resonance frequency and amplitude of the microcantilever. In this way, to achieve more accurate results, the coupled motion in all three modes is considered. In particular, it is investigated that performing the coupled motion in analysis of AFM microcantilever is almost necessary. It is shown that the tip mass and its position have significant effects on vibrational responses. The results show that considering the tip mass decreases the resonance frequencies particularly on high-order modes. However, dislocating of tip position has an inverse effect that causes an increase in the resonance frequencies. In addition, it has been shown that the amplitude of the AFM microcantilever is affected by the influences of tip and its position. These effects are caused by the interaction between flexural and torsional motion due to the moment of inertia of the tip mass. PMID:19559530

  1. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vacri, M. L. di; Nisi, S.; Balata, M.

    2013-08-08

    The measurement of naturally occurring low level radioactivity background in a high voltage (HV) cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP MS) is presented in this work. The measurements were performed at the Chemistry Service of the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The contributions to the radioactive background coming from the different components of the heterogeneous material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy analysis that was performed at the low background facility STELLA (Sub Terranean Low Level Assay) of the LNGS underground lab using HPGe detectors.

  2. Approximate finite element approach to the evaluation of fluid mass coupling effects in dynamic analysis of cylindrical shell structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    By comparisons with existing analytical and experimental results, it is shown that an approximate method can be used in the study of fluid mass coupling effects in the dynamic analysis of concentric circular cylindrical shells. In the approximate method, the fluid is represented by a mass matrix that is determined from a two-dimensional, small-amplitude, incompressible and inviscid fluid flow analysis, and the shell structures are modelled using axisymmetric shell finite elements for nonaxisymmetric deformations. An empirical relation is given to specify the condition under which the present method will be applicable. 18 refs.

  3. Fractionation analysis of manganese in Turkish hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Umran Seven; Gucer, Seref

    2014-11-01

    In this study, an analytical fractionation scheme based on water, diethyl ether, n-hexane, and methanol extractions has been developed to identify manganese-bound fractions. Additionally, in vitro simulated gastric and intestinal digestion, n-octanol extraction, and activated carbon adsorption were used to interpret the manganese-bound structures in hazelnuts in terms of bioaccessibility. The total content of manganese in the samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted digestion, and additional validation was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water fractions were further evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the identification of water-soluble manganese fractions in hazelnut samples. The limits of detection and quantification were 3.6 and 12.0 μg L(-1), respectively, based on peak height.

  4. Determination of arsenic in gold by flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with matrix removal by reductive precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becotte-Haigh, Paul; Tyson, Julian F.; Denoyer, Eric; Hinds, Michael W.

    1996-12-01

    Arsenic was determined in gold by flow injection hydride generation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a batch mode reductive precipitation removal of the interfering gold matrix. A solution of potassium iodide, L-ascorbic acid, and hydrochloric acid was used as the reluctant. The recovery of gold by precipitation and filtration was 99 ± 3%. The detection limit for arsenic in gold was 55 ng g -1 in the solid. The concentration of arsenic that was determined in the Royal Canadian Mint gold sample FAU-10 was 29.7 μg g -1 in the solid; this value was indistinguishable, with 95% confidence, from values determined at the Royal Canadian Mint by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The standard deviation for four replicate determinations of the arsenic in FAU-10 was 0.972 μg g -1 in the solid.

  5. a Search for Low-Mass Short-Lived States Coupling to Positron-Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phlips, Bernard Felix

    Following the discovery of correlated positron -electron peaks in heavy ion experiments, the existence of a previously undetected particle coupling to e ^+e^- was postulated. A new experiment with improved sensitivity was suggested to detect this particle. Monoenergetic positrons would be accelerated onto electrons in a lithium target and the kinematics of the e^+e ^- scattering events measured by energy and position sensitive detectors. The experiment was carried out at Brookhaven National Laboratory where a 3 MV Dynamitron electrostatic accelerator was converted to a positron accelerator. The monoenergetic positrons were provided by a ^{22} Na source in conjunction with a thin single crystal tungsten moderator, and accelerated by the Dynamitron to a tunable energy between 1.0 and 2.5 MeV with keV resolution. The beam was transported through a new beam line to the target chamber where it could be focused down to 1 mm spot size. The energy of the interactions of the positrons with the lithium target was measured by plastic scintillators, and the position of the scattered particles was recorded by a set of four multi-wire proportional chambers capable of sub millimeter resolution. In a first experiment, the positron beam was scanned between 2150 and 2350 keV in 5 keV steps onto a 1.5 mg/cm ^2 lithium target with at least 60 000 coincidences recorded per energy point. The full kinematics of each positron-electron scattering event was reconstructed. The positron-nucleus scattering events were also detected and served as a normalization to eliminate all beam and target effects. A normalized e^+-e ^- scattering excitation function was derived, leading to an upper limit (90% CL) to the cross section for pointlike particles of sigma~ 1-5 mb. This translates to lower limits on the lifetime of tau>= 0.5 to 7 times10^{13} sec. In an extended run, data were acquired on a 2.5 mg/cm^2 lithium target from 1350 keV to 2350 keV in 3.5 keV steps with ~ 300 000 coincidences per

  6. A vector-dyadic development of the equations of motion for N-coupled rigid bodies and point masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    The equations of motion are derived, in vector-dyadic format, for a topological tree of coupled rigid bodies, point masses, and symmetrical momentum wheels. These equations were programmed, and form the basis for the general-purpose digital computer program N-BOD. A complete derivation of the equations of motion is included along with a description of the methods used for kinematics, constraint elimination, and for the inclusion of nongyroscope forces and torques acting external or internal to the system.

  7. Galaxy cluster constraints on the coupling to photons of low-mass scalars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brax, Philippe; Brun, Pierre; Wouters, Denis

    2015-10-01

    We consider a broad class of interactions between radiation and a light scalar field, including both conformal and disformal couplings. Such a scalar field potentially acts on cosmological scales as dark energy and could also appear in modified gravity theories. We study the consequences of these couplings on the mixing between the scalar field and photons in galaxy clusters in the presence of a magnetic field. In particular we focus on the resulting turbulence-induced irregularities in the x-ray and UV bands. We find new bounds on the photon-to-scalar couplings, both conformal and disformal, which complement laboratory experiments and other astrophysical constraints.

  8. Parafac and go/no-go: disentangling CNV return from the P3 complex by trilinear component analysis.

    PubMed

    Verleger, Rolf; Paulick, Claudia; Möcks, Joachim; Smith, Janette L; Keller, Karsten

    2013-03-01

    It has been proposed that the fronto-central difference between go-P3 and no-go P3 is due to motor-related negativity overlapping P3 in the go case and positive relaxation of such negativity overlapping P3 in the no-go case, and that this motor-related activation may be identified by its having the same topography as the preceding CNV. Testing these suggestions meets with the problem of how to validly distinguish between P3 and the assumed overlapping continuing or downsweeping CNV. Distinguishing between overlapping components is a major reason why principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied, but the major criterion of conventional rotations (Varimax and Promax) is avoiding overlap. Trilinear component analysis (TCA) defines components independently of overlap, by their having stable topographies across time and observations. By applying TCA, we expected to obtain equal P3 components in go and no-go, and a preceding CNV component that would continue and overlap P3 with negative polarity in the go case and with positive polarity in the no-go case. We analyzed data from warned go/no-go tasks, separately for blocks with hand movements and eye movements. Different from expectation, TCA of the Hand task yielded three relevant components: parietal P3, only slightly affected by go vs. no-go, an overlapping CNV downturn unaffected by go vs. no-go, and an anterior-positive/posterior-negative bipolar N2-P3 that modeled the go/no-go effect. No convincing TCA solution was obtained in the Eye task. Possibilities and limitations of the TCA method are discussed.

  9. A two-dimensional coupled flow-mass transport model based on an improved unstructured finite volume algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianzhong; Song, Lixiang; Kursan, Suncana; Liu, Yi

    2015-05-01

    A two-dimensional coupled water quality model is developed for modeling the flow-mass transport in shallow water. To simulate shallow flows on complex topography with wetting and drying, an unstructured grid, well-balanced, finite volume algorithm is proposed for numerical resolution of a modified formulation of two-dimensional shallow water equations. The slope-limited linear reconstruction method is used to achieve second-order accuracy in space. The algorithm adopts a HLLC-based integrated solver to compute the flow and mass transport fluxes simultaneously, and uses Hancock's predictor-corrector scheme for efficient time stepping as well as second-order temporal accuracy. The continuity and momentum equations are updated in both wet and dry cells. A new hybrid method, which can preserve the well-balanced property of the algorithm for simulations involving flooding and recession, is proposed for bed slope terms approximation. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm are validated by the reasonable good agreement between numerical and reference results of several benchmark test cases. Results show that the proposed coupled flow-mass transport model can simulate complex flows and mass transport in shallow water.

  10. A two-dimensional coupled flow-mass transport model based on an improved unstructured finite volume algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianzhong; Song, Lixiang; Kursan, Suncana; Liu, Yi

    2015-05-01

    A two-dimensional coupled water quality model is developed for modeling the flow-mass transport in shallow water. To simulate shallow flows on complex topography with wetting and drying, an unstructured grid, well-balanced, finite volume algorithm is proposed for numerical resolution of a modified formulation of two-dimensional shallow water equations. The slope-limited linear reconstruction method is used to achieve second-order accuracy in space. The algorithm adopts a HLLC-based integrated solver to compute the flow and mass transport fluxes simultaneously, and uses Hancock's predictor-corrector scheme for efficient time stepping as well as second-order temporal accuracy. The continuity and momentum equations are updated in both wet and dry cells. A new hybrid method, which can preserve the well-balanced property of the algorithm for simulations involving flooding and recession, is proposed for bed slope terms approximation. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm are validated by the reasonable good agreement between numerical and reference results of several benchmark test cases. Results show that the proposed coupled flow-mass transport model can simulate complex flows and mass transport in shallow water. PMID:25686488

  11. Investigations into the origins of polyatomic ions in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Sally M.

    2010-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is an elemental analytical instrument capable of determining nearly all elements in the periodic table at limits of detection in the parts per quadrillion and with a linear analytical range over 8-10 orders of magnitude. Three concentric quartz tubes make up the plasma torch. Argon gas is spiraled through the outer tube and generates the plasma powered by a looped load coil operating at 27.1 or 40.6 MHz. The argon flow of the middle channel is used to keep the plasma above the innermost tube through which solid or aqueous sample is carried in a third argon stream. A sample is progressively desolvated, atomized and ionized. The torch is operated at atmospheric pressure. To reach the reduced pressures of mass spectrometers, ions are extracted through a series of two, approximately one millimeter wide, circular apertures set in water cooled metal cones. The space between the cones is evacuated to approximately one torr. The space behind the second cone is pumped down to, or near to, the pressure needed for the mass spectrometer (MS). The first cone, called the sampler, is placed directly in the plasma plume and its position is adjusted to the point where atomic ions are most abundant. The hot plasma gas expands through the sampler orifice and in this expansion is placed the second cone, called the skimmer. After the skimmer traditional MS designs are employed, i.e. quadrupoles, magnetic sectors, time-of-flight. ICP-MS is the leading trace element analysis technique. One of its weaknesses are polyatomic ions. This dissertation has added to the fundamental understanding of some of these polyatomic ions, their origins and behavior. Although mainly continuing the work of others, certain novel approaches have been introduced here. Chapter 2 includes the first reported efforts to include high temperature corrections to the partition functions of the polyatomic ions in ICP-MS. This and other objections to preceeding

  12. Potential for using isotopically altered metalloproteins in species-specific isotope dilution analysis of proteins by HPLC coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Chris F; Vidler, Daniel S; Watts, Michael J; Hall, John F

    2005-07-01

    The production and evaluation of an isotopically enriched metalloprotein standard for use as a calibrant in species-specific isotope dilution analysis by HPLC coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is described. Using a model system involving the copper-containing protein rusticyanin (Rc) from the bacterium Acido-thiobacillus ferrooxidans, it was possible to demonstrate the analytical conditions that could be used for the measurement of metalloproteins by on-line IDMS analysis. Rc was chosen because it is a well-characterized protein with an established amino acid sequence and can be produced in suitable quantities using a bacterial recombinant system. Three different forms of the protein were studied by organic and inorganic mass spectrometry: the native form of the protein containing a natural isotopic profile for copper, an isotopically enriched species containing virtually all of its copper as the 65Cu isotope, and the nonmetalated apo form. Incorporation of the copper isotopes into the apo form of the protein was determined using a UV-vis spectrophotometric assay and shown to be complete for each of the copper-containing species. The experimental conditions required to maintain the conformational form of the protein with a nonexchangeable copper center were established using +ve electrospray mass spectrometry. A pH 7.0 buffer was found to afford the most appropriate conditions, and this was then used with HPLC-ICP-MS to verify the stability of the copper center by analysis of mixtures of different isotopic solutions. No exchange of the enriched copper isotope from Rc with an added naturally abundant inorganic copper cation was observed under a neutral pH environment, indicating that species-specific ID-MS analysis of metalloproteins is possible.

  13. Improvements on high-precision measurement of bromine isotope ratios by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Zhen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Zhu, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Tao; Yang, Jing-Hong; Yan, Xiong; Wu, He-Pin; Yang, Tang-Li

    2015-10-01

    A new, feasible procedure for high-precision bromine isotope analysis using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) is described. With a combination of HR mass resolution mode and accurate optimization of the Zoom Optics parameters (Focus Quad: -1.30; Zoom Quad: 0.00), the challenging problem of the isobaric interferences ((40)Ar(38)ArH(+) and (40)Ar(40)ArH(+)) in the measurement of bromine isotopes ((79)Br(+), (81)Br(+)) has been effectively solved. The external reproducibility of the measured (81)Br/(79)Br ratios in the selected standard reference materials ranged from ±0.03‰ to ±0.14‰, which is superior to or equivalent to the best results from previous contributions. The effect of counter cations on the Br(+) signal intensity and the instrumental-induced mass bias was evaluated as the loss of HBr aerosol in nebulizer and potential diffusive isotope fractionations.

  14. Search for a low-mass neutral Higgs boson with suppressed couplings to fermions using events with multiphoton final states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    A search for a Higgs boson with suppressed couplings to fermions, hf, assumed to be the neutral, lower-mass partner of the Higgs boson discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, is reported. Such a Higgs boson could exist in extensions of the standard model with two Higgs doublets, and could be produced via p p ¯→H±hf→W*hfhf→4 γ +X , where H± is a charged Higgs boson. This analysis uses all events with at least three photons in the final state from proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.2 fb-1. No evidence of a signal is observed in the data. Values of Higgs-boson masses between 10 and 100 GeV /c2 are excluded at 95% Bayesian credibility.

  15. Upper bound on the gluino mass in supersymmetric models with extra matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroi, Takeo; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the upper bound on the gluino mass in supersymmetric models with vector-like extra matters. In order to realize the observed Higgs mass of 125 GeV, the gluino mass is bounded from above in supersymmetric models. With the existence of the vector-like extra matters at around TeV, we show that such an upper bound on the gluino mass is significantly reduced compared to the case of minimal supersymmetric standard model. This is due to the fact that radiatively generated stop masses as well the stop trilinear coupling are enhanced in the presence of the vector-like multiplets. In a wide range of parameter space of the model with extra matters, particularly with sizable tan ⁡ β (which is the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs bosons), the gluino is required to be lighter than ∼ 3 TeV, which is likely to be within the reach of forthcoming LHC experiment.

  16. Enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for searching for low-mass inhibitors of enzymes in complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Da Silva, David; Delépée, Raphaël; Maunit, Benoît

    2014-04-01

    In this report, enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles (EMPs) were shown to be an effective affinity-based tool for finding specific interactions between enzymatic targets and the low-mass molecules in complex mixtures using classic MALDI-TOF apparatus. EMPs used in this work act as nonorganic matrix enabling ionization of small molecules without any interference in the low-mass range (enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization MS, ENALDI MS) and simultaneously carry the superficial specific binding sites to capture inhibitors present in a studied mixture. We evaluated ENALDI approach in two complementary variations: 'ion fading' (IF-ENALDI), based on superficial adsorption of inhibitors and 'ion hunting' (IH-ENALDI), based on selective pre-concentration of inhibitors. IF-ENALDI was applied for two sets of enzyme-inhibitor pairs: tyrosinase-glabridin and trypsin-leupeptin and for the real plant sample: Sparrmannia discolor leaf and stem methanol extract. The efficacy of IH-ENALDI was shown for the pair of trypsin-leupeptin. Both ENALDI approaches pose an alternative for bioassay-guided fractionation, the common method for finding inhibitors in the complex mixtures.

  17. Enzyme-Coupled Nanoparticles-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Searching for Low-Mass Inhibitors of Enzymes in Complex Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Da Silva, David; Delépée, Raphaël; Maunit, Benoît

    2014-04-01

    In this report, enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles (EMPs) were shown to be an effective affinity-based tool for finding specific interactions between enzymatic targets and the low-mass molecules in complex mixtures using classic MALDI-TOF apparatus. EMPs used in this work act as nonorganic matrix enabling ionization of small molecules without any interference in the low-mass range (enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization MS, ENALDI MS) and simultaneously carry the superficial specific binding sites to capture inhibitors present in a studied mixture. We evaluated ENALDI approach in two complementary variations: `ion fading' (IF-ENALDI), based on superficial adsorption of inhibitors and `ion hunting' (IH-ENALDI), based on selective pre-concentration of inhibitors. IF-ENALDI was applied for two sets of enzyme-inhibitor pairs: tyrosinase-glabridin and trypsin-leupeptin and for the real plant sample: Sparrmannia discolor leaf and stem methanol extract. The efficacy of IH-ENALDI was shown for the pair of trypsin-leupeptin. Both ENALDI approaches pose an alternative for bioassay-guided fractionation, the common method for finding inhibitors in the complex mixtures.

  18. Determination of the total and extractable mass fractions of cadmium and lead in mineral feed by using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, Emilia; Hoenig, Michel

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes the determination of the total and extractable mass fractions of Cd and Pb in mineral feed test sample distributed by the Community Reference Laboratory for Heavy Metals in Feed and Food (CRL-HM), in the frame of the fifth interlaboratory comparison for the European Union National Reference Laboratories (NRL). The developed in this study protocol for the total and extractable mass fractions of Pb and Cd in mineral feed sample is based on isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID ICP-MS). The applied dual spiking approach reduced by 50% the number of analytical steps. The addition of hydrofluoric acid in the digestion step was found necessary to ensure a full decomposition and complete isotope equilibration. Quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer equipped with collision reaction interface (CRI) was employed for the measurements of Cd and Pb. Two methods for the determination of Cd were applied and compared. In the first one the high molybdenum content was reduced by introduction of matrix separation step followed by standard ICP-MS mode measurement, whereas in the second one CRI mode was used for the determination of Cd without preliminary matrix separation. The estimation of the combined uncertainty was performed according to the ISO guidelines. Uncertainty propagation was used as a tool for validation of proposed analytical procedure. Contributions from the correction for moisture content, sample homogeneity, procedural blank, instrumental background and dead time effects were evaluated in both cases. The largest uncertainty contributors for Cd and Pb is due to the within bottle homogeneity of the mineral feed sample - 50.3% and 90% respectively. The IUPAC data for isotope composition are the second major contributor to the combined uncertainty of the result for the total mass fraction of Cd in mineral feed - 43.3%. However, the ID ICP-MS results achieved from the two series of samples (partial and

  19. VACUUM DISTILLATION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A procedure is presented that uses a vacuum distillation/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system for analysis of problematic matrices of volatile organic compounds. The procedure compensates for matrix effects and provides both analytical results and confidence intervals from...

  20. Coupled effect of flow variability and mass transfer on contaminant transport and attenuation in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Fiori, Aldo; Dagan, Gedeon

    2016-04-01

    The driving mechanism of contaminant transport in aquifers is groundwater flow, which is controlled by boundary conditions and heterogeneity of hydraulic properties. In this work we show how hydrodynamics and mass transfer can be combined in a general analytical manner to derive a physically-based (or process-based) residence time distribution for a given integral scale of the hydraulic conductivity; the result can be applied for a broad class of linear mass transfer processes. The derived tracer residence time distribution is a transfer function with parameters to be inferred from combined field and laboratory measurements. It is scalable relative to the correlation length and applicable for an arbitrary statistical distribution of the hydraulic conductivity. Based on the derived residence time distribution, the coefficient of variation and skewness of contaminant residence time are illustrated assuming a log-normal hydraulic conductivity distribution and first-order mass transfer. We show that for a low Damkohler number the coefficient of variation is more strongly influenced by mass transfer than by heterogeneity, whereas skewness is more strongly influenced by heterogeneity. The derived physically-based residence time distribution for solute transport in heterogeneous aquifers is particularly useful for studying natural attenuation of contaminants. We illustrate the relative impacts of high heterogeneity and a generalised (non-Fickian) multi-rate mass transfer on natural attenuation defined as contaminant mass loss from injection to a downstream compliance boundary.

  1. Distance-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with IonCCD Detection and an Inductively Coupled Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Elise A.; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2016-03-01

    Distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS) is demonstrated for the first time with a commercially available ion detector—the IonCCD camera. Because DOFMS is a velocity-based MS technique that provides spatially dispersive, simultaneous mass spectrometry, a position-sensitive ion detector is needed for mass-spectral collection. The IonCCD camera is a 5.1-cm long, 1-D array that is capable of simultaneous, multichannel ion detection along a focal plane, which makes it an attractive option for DOFMS. In the current study, the IonCCD camera is evaluated for DOFMS with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source over a relatively short field-free mass-separation distance of 25.3-30.4 cm. The combination of ICP-DOFMS and the IonCCD detector results in a mass-spectral resolving power (FWHM) of approximately 900 and isotope-ratio precision equivalent to or slightly better than current ICP-TOFMS systems. The measured isotope-ratio precision in % relative standard deviation (%RSD) was ≥0.008%RSD for nonconsecutive isotopes at 10-ppm concentration (near the ion-signal saturation point) and ≥0.02%RSD for all isotopes at 1-ppm. Results of DOFMS with the IonCCD camera are also compared with those of two previously characterized detection setups.

  2. A numerical model of hydro-thermo-mechanical coupling in a fractured rock mass

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, K.M.

    1996-06-01

    Coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical codes with the ability to model fractured materials are used for predicting groundwater flow behavior in fractured aquifers containing thermal sources. The potential applications of such a code include the analysis of groundwater behavior within a geothermal reservoir. The capability of modeling hydro-thermo systems with a dual porosity, fracture flow model has been previously developed in the finite element code, FEHM. FEHM has been modified to include stress coupling with the dual porosity feature. FEHM has been further developed to implicitly couple the dependence of fracture hydraulic conductivity on effective stress within two dimensional, saturated aquifers containing fracture systems. The cubic law for flow between parallel plates was used to model fracture permeability. The Bartin-Bandis relationship was used to determine the fracture aperture within the cubic law. The code used a Newton Raphson iteration to implicitly solve for six unknowns at each node. Results from a model of heat flow from a reservoir to the moving fluid in a single fracture compared well with analytic results. Results of a model showing the increase in fracture flow due to a single fracture opening under fluid pressure compared well with analytic results. A hot dry rock, geothermal reservoir was modeled with realistic time steps indicating that the modified FEHM code does successfully model coupled flow problems with no convergence problems.

  3. Elemental labelling combined with liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantification of biomolecules: A review

    PubMed Central

    Kretschy, Daniela; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews novel quantification concepts where elemental labelling is combined with flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS) or liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS), and employed for quantification of biomolecules such as proteins, peptides and related molecules in challenging sample matrices. In the first sections an overview on general aspects of biomolecule quantification, as well as of labelling will be presented emphasizing the potential, which lies in such methodological approaches. In this context, ICP-MS as detector provides high sensitivity, selectivity and robustness in biological samples and offers the capability for multiplexing and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Fundamental methodology of elemental labelling will be highlighted and analytical, as well as biomedical applications will be presented. A special focus will lie on established applications underlining benefits and bottlenecks of such approaches for the implementation in real life analysis. Key research made in this field will be summarized and a perspective for future developments including sophisticated and innovative applications will given. PMID:23062431

  4. Optical emission spectroscopy studies of the influence of laser ablated mass on dry inductively coupled plasma conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocan, A. C.; Mao, X. L.; Borisov, Oleg V.; Russo, R. E.

    1998-03-01

    The amount of ablated mass can influence the temperature and excitation characteristics of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and must be taken into account to ensure accurate chemical analysis. The ICP electron number density was investigated by using measurements of the Mg ionic to atomic resonant-line ratios during laser ablation of an aluminum matrix. The ICP excitation temperature was measured by using selected Fe lines during laser ablation of an iron matrix. A Nd:YAG laser (3 ns pulse duration) at 266 nm was used for these ablation-sampling studies. Laser energy, power density, and repetition rate were varied in order to change the quantity of ablated mass into the ICP. Over the range of laser operating conditions studied herein, the ICP was not significantly influenced by the quantity of solid sample. Therefore, analytical measurements can be performed accurately and fundamental studies of laser ablation processes (such as ablation mass roll-off, fractional vaporization) can be investigated using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).

  5. Comparative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long; Zeng, Su-Ling; Zhang, Yu; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Steroidal saponins, which exhibit multiple pharmacological effects, are the major bioactive constituents in herbal medicines from Dioscoreae species. In this study, a sensitive method based on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was established and validated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs including Dioscoreae Nipponica Rhizome (DNR) and Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae Rhizome (DHR), Dioscoreae Spongiosae Rhizome (DSR) and Dioscoreae Rhizome (DR). A total of eleven steroidal saponins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF/MS). Furthermore, seven major steroidal saponins was simultaneous quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ/MS). The qualitative and quantitative analysis results indicated that the chemical composition of DNR, DHR and DSR samples exhibited a high level of global similarity, while the ingredients in DR varied greatly from the other three herbs. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were performed to compare and discriminate the Dioscoreae herbs based on the quantitative data. The results demonstrated the qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins based on HPLC-MS is a feasible method for quality control of Dioscoreae herbs.

  6. Use of a parallel path nebulizer for capillary-based microseparation techniques coupled with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for speciation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2004-06-01

    A low flow, parallel path Mira Mist CE nebulizer designed for capillary electrophoresis (CE) was evaluated as a function of make-up solution flow rate, composition, and concentration, as well as the nebulizer gas flow rate. This research was conducted in support of a project related to the separation and quantification of cobalamin (vitamin B-12) species using microseparation techniques combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. As such, Co signals were monitored during the nebulizer characterization process. Transient effects in the ICP were studied to evaluate the suitability of using gradients for microseparations and the benefit of using methanol for the make-up solution was demonstrated. Co signal response changed significantly as a function of changing methanol concentrations of the make-up solution and maximum signal enhancement was seen at 20% methanol with a 15 μl/min flow rate. Evaluation of the effect of changing the nebulizer gas flow rates showed that argon flows from 0.8 to 1.2 l/min were equally effective. The Mira Mist CE parallel path nebulizer was then evaluated for interfacing capillary microseparation techniques including capillary electrophoresis (CE) and micro high performance liquid chromatography (μHPLC) to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A mixture of four cobalamin species standards (cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and 5' deoxyadenosylcobalamin) and the corrinoid analogue cobinamide dicyanide were successfully separated using both CE-ICP-MS and μHPLC-ICP-MS using the parallel path nebulizer with a make-up solution containing 20% methanol with a flow rate of 15 μl/min.

  7. Analysis of phosphorus herbicides by ion-pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with octapole reaction cell.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki B M; Vonderheide, Anne P; Caruso, Joseph A

    2004-09-24

    A reversed phase ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatographic (RPIP-HPLC) method is developed for the separation of two phosphorus herbicides, Glufosinate and Glyphosate as well as Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the major metabolite of Glyphosate. Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide is used as the ion-pairing reagent in conjunction with an ammonium acetate/acetic acid buffering system at pH 4.7. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is coupled to the chromatographic system to detect the herbicides at m/z = 31P. Historically, phosphorus has been recognized as one of the elements difficult to analyze in argon plasma. This is due to its relatively high ionization potential (10.5 eV) as well as the inherent presence of the polyatomic interferences 14N16O1H+ and 15N16O+ overlapping its only isotope at m/z = 31. An octapole reaction cell is utilized to minimize the isobaric polyatomic interferences and to obtain the highest signal-to-background ratio. Detection limits were found to be in the low ppt range (25-32 ng/l). The developed method is successfully applied to the analysis of water samples collected from the Ohio River and spiked with a standard compounds at a level of 20 microg/l.

  8. A study of the interactions between carboplatin and blood plasma proteins using size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ruimin; Johnson, Willie; Rodriguez, Lorna; Gounder, Murugesan; Hall, Gene S; Buckley, Brian

    2007-04-01

    To study the carboplatin-protein interaction, a sensitive method using size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) was developed. The complexes formed between plasma proteins and carboplatin were monitored and identified with this method. Composite blood plasma samples from patients who were undergoing chemotherapy were analyzed, and carboplatin was found to bind plasma proteins. In addition, blank plasma samples were spiked with carboplatin and were analyzed as a time course study, and the results confirmed that carboplatin formed complexes with plasma proteins, primarily albumin and gamma-globulin. To further substantiate the study, these two proteins were incubated with carboplatin. The binding between carboplatin and these proteins was then characterized qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition to a one-to-one binding of Pt to protein, protein aggregation was observed. The kinetics of the binding process of carboplatin to albumin and gamma-globulin was also studied. The initial reaction rate constant of carboplatin binding to albumin was determined to be 0.74 M(-1) min(-1), while that for gamma-globulin was 1.01 M(-1) min(-1), which are both lower than the rate constant of the cisplatin-albumin reaction previously reported.

  9. Trace rare earth element detection in food and agricultural products based on flow injection walnut shell packed microcolumn preconcentration coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yang, Jia-lin; Jiang, Yan

    2012-03-28

    With the extensive use of rare earth elements (REEs) in agriculture as fertilizer and feed additives, the concentration of REEs has increased in environmental and biological samples and finally impaired human health by food chain accumulation. The determination of trace REEs has gained considerable importance because of their toxicity and increasing occurrence. In this work, walnut shell has been used as the green adsorbent in online preconcentration and detection of REEs in food and agricultural products coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Because of the porous surface and abundant -COO(-) groups on the walnut shell surface, the walnut shell-packed microcolumn provides high adsorption efficiency and high tolerable capacity for coexisting ions. Under the optimized conditions, the adsorption efficiency of the walnut shell packed microcolumn was as high as 98.9% for 15 REEs, and the tolerable concentration ratios were between 2000 and 80,000,000 for 37 kinds of coexisting interfering ions. The enhancement factors achieved were 79-102 for 15 REEs with a sample loading volume of 4.7 mL. The detection limits were in the range of 2-34 pg g(-1). The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate preconcentrations of 2.5 ng L(-1) REEs solution ranged from 0.5 to 2.0%. The present method was successfully applied to selective determination of REEs in 4 environmental and biological certified reference materials and 18 locally collected food and agricultural products.

  10. Electrothermal vaporization coupled with inductively coupled plasma array-detector mass spectrometry for the multielement analysis of Al2O3 ceramic powders

    SciTech Connect

    Peschel, Birgit U.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Wetzel, William C.; Schilling, G D.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Broekaert, Jose AC; Sperline, Roger; Denton, M BONNER.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.

    2006-01-01

    An electrothermal vaporization (ETV) system useful for the analysis of solutions and slurries has been coupled with a sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) equipped with an array detector. The ability of this instrument to record the transient signals produced in ETV-ICP-MS is demonstrated. Detection limits for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ga are in the range of 4-60 pg ?L-1 for aqueous solutions and in the low ?g g-1 range for the analysis of 10 mg mL-1 slurries of Al2O3 powders. The dynamic ranges measured for Fe, Cu and Ga spanned 3-5 orders of magnitude when the detector was operated in the low-gain mode and appear to be limited by the ETV system. Trace amounts of Fe, Cu and Ga could be directly determined in Al2O3 powders at the 2-270 ?g g-1 level without the use of thermochemical reagents. The results well agree with literature values for Fe, whereas deviations of 30-50% at the 2-90 ?g g-1 level for Cu and Ga were found.

  11. Determination of actinides in environmental and biological samples using high-performance chelation ion chromatography coupled to sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Truscott, J B; Jones, P; Fairman, B E; Evans, E H

    2001-08-31

    High-performance chelation ion chromatography, using a neutral polystyrene substrate dynamically loaded with 0.1 mM dipicolinic acid, coupled with sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been successfully used for the separation of the actinides thorium, uranium, americium, neptunium and plutonium. Using this column it was possible to separate the various actinides from each other and from a complex sample matrix. In particular, it was possible to separate plutonium and uranium to facilitate the detection of the former free of spectral interference. The column also exhibited some selectivity for different oxidation states of Np, Pu and U. Two oxidation states each for plutonium and neptunium were found, tentatively identified as Np(V) and Pu(III) eluting at the solvent front, and Np(IV) and Pu(IV) eluting much later. Detection limits were 12, 8, and 4 fg for 237Np, 239Pu, and 241Am, respectively, for a 0.5 ml injection. The system was successfully used for the determination of 239Pu in NIST 4251 Human Lung and 4353 Rocky Flats Soil, with results of 570+/-29 and 2939+/-226 fg g(-1), respectively, compared with a certified range of 227-951 fg g(-1) for the former and a value of 3307+/-248 fg g(-1) for the latter. PMID:11589474

  12. Evaluation of Hydrodynamic Chromatography Coupled with UV-Visible, Fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Detectors for Sizing and Quantifying Colloids in Environmental Media

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Allan; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the analysis of nanoparticles in environmental samples. Using two commercially available columns (Polymer Labs-PDSA type 1 and 2), a set of well characterised calibrants and a new external time marking method, we showed that flow rate and eluent composition have few influence on the size resolution and, therefore, can be adapted to the sample particularity. Monitoring the agglomeration of polystyrene nanoparticles over time succeeded without observable disagglomeration suggesting that even weak agglomerates can be measured using HDC. Simultaneous determination of gold colloid concentration and size using ICP-MS detection was validated for elemental concentrations in the ppb range. HDC-ICP-MS was successfully applied to samples containing a high organic and ionic background. Indeed, online combination of UV-visible, fluorescence and ICP-MS detectors allowed distinguishing between organic molecules and inorganic colloids during the analysis of Ag nanoparticles in synthetic surface waters and TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDC-ICP-MS is a flexible, sensitive and reliable method to measure the size and the concentration of inorganic colloids in complex media and suggest that there may be a promising future for the application of HDC in environmental science. Nonetheless the rigorous measurements of agglomerates and of matrices containing natural colloids still need to be studied in detail. PMID:24587393

  13. Speciation of chromium and its distribution in tea leaves and tea infusion using titanium dioxide nanotubes packed microcolumn coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shizhong; Zhu, Shengping; He, Yuanyuan; Lu, Dengbo

    2014-05-01

    Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TDNTs) were used as a solid phase extraction adsorbent for chromium species by a packed microcolumn coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), including total, suspended and soluble chromium as well as Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in tea leaves and tea infusion. The experimental results indicated that Cr(III) was quantitatively retained on TDNTs in the pH range of 5.0-8.0, while Cr(VI) remained in the solution. The total chromium was determined after reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The concentration of Cr(VI) is calculated by the difference between total chromium and Cr(III). Under optimal conditions, the detection limits of this method were 0.0075ngmL(-1) for Cr(III). The relative standard deviation was 3.8% (n=9, c=1.0ngmL(-1)). This method was applied for the analysis of the speciation of chromium and its distribution and content in tea leaves, tea infusion and a certified reference material of tea leaves with satisfactory results.

  14. Evaluation of hydrodynamic chromatography coupled with UV-visible, fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detectors for sizing and quantifying colloids in environmental media.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Allan; Schaumann, Gabriele E

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the analysis of nanoparticles in environmental samples. Using two commercially available columns (Polymer Labs-PDSA type 1 and 2), a set of well characterised calibrants and a new external time marking method, we showed that flow rate and eluent composition have few influence on the size resolution and, therefore, can be adapted to the sample particularity. Monitoring the agglomeration of polystyrene nanoparticles over time succeeded without observable disagglomeration suggesting that even weak agglomerates can be measured using HDC. Simultaneous determination of gold colloid concentration and size using ICP-MS detection was validated for elemental concentrations in the ppb range. HDC-ICP-MS was successfully applied to samples containing a high organic and ionic background. Indeed, online combination of UV-visible, fluorescence and ICP-MS detectors allowed distinguishing between organic molecules and inorganic colloids during the analysis of Ag nanoparticles in synthetic surface waters and TiO₂ and ZnO nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDC-ICP-MS is a flexible, sensitive and reliable method to measure the size and the concentration of inorganic colloids in complex media and suggest that there may be a promising future for the application of HDC in environmental science. Nonetheless the rigorous measurements of agglomerates and of matrices containing natural colloids still need to be studied in detail.

  15. Speciation of chromium and its distribution in tea leaves and tea infusion using titanium dioxide nanotubes packed microcolumn coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shizhong; Zhu, Shengping; He, Yuanyuan; Lu, Dengbo

    2014-05-01

    Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TDNTs) were used as a solid phase extraction adsorbent for chromium species by a packed microcolumn coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), including total, suspended and soluble chromium as well as Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in tea leaves and tea infusion. The experimental results indicated that Cr(III) was quantitatively retained on TDNTs in the pH range of 5.0-8.0, while Cr(VI) remained in the solution. The total chromium was determined after reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The concentration of Cr(VI) is calculated by the difference between total chromium and Cr(III). Under optimal conditions, the detection limits of this method were 0.0075ngmL(-1) for Cr(III). The relative standard deviation was 3.8% (n=9, c=1.0ngmL(-1)). This method was applied for the analysis of the speciation of chromium and its distribution and content in tea leaves, tea infusion and a certified reference material of tea leaves with satisfactory results. PMID:24360447

  16. Direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization-mass spectrometry of drug residues from latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Kristina; Wiley, Rachel; Waverka, Kristin; Fox, James; Dziekonski, Eric; Verbeck, Guido F

    2013-07-01

    Here, we present a method of extracting drug residues from fingerprints via Direct Analyte-Probed Nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DAPNe-NSI-MS). This instrumental technique provides higher selectivity and lower detection limits over current methods, greatly reducing sample preparation, and does not compromise the integrity of latent fingerprints. This coupled to Raman microscopy is an advantageous supplement for location and identification of trace particles. DAPNe uses a nanomanipulator for extraction and differing microscopies for localization of chemicals of interest. A capillary tip with solvent of choice is placed in a nanopositioner. The surface to be analyzed is placed under a microscope, and a particle of interest is located. Using a pressure injector, the solvent is injected onto the surface where it dissolves the analyte, and then extracted back into the capillary tip. The solution is then directly analyzed via NSI-MS. Analyses of caffeine, cocaine, crystal methamphetamine, and ecstasy have been performed successfully.

  17. Analysis of potassium iodate reduction in tissue homogenates using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Wei; Liu, Liejun; Xu, Jing; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Xiuwei; Wang, Jiangqing; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zexi; Gu, Yunyou

    2015-10-01

    Potassium iodate (KIO3) and potassium iodide (KI) are the major salt iodization agents used worldwide. Unlike iodide (I(-)), iodate (IO3(-)) should be reduced to I(-) before it can be effectively used by the thyroid. In this study, we developed a new method for analyzing IO3(-) and I(-) in tissue homogenates using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). We further applied the method to demonstrate the KIO3 reduction process by tissues in vitro. The effects of KIO3 on the total antioxidative activity (TAA) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) were also investigated here. Finally, we found that IO3(-) can be reduced to I(-) by tissue homogenates and IO3(-) irreversibly decreases the antioxidant capability of tissues. Our studies suggest that KIO3 might have a big effect on the redox balance of tissue and would further result in oxidative stress of organisms.

  18. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  19. Climatic impact of glacial cycle polar motion: Coupled oscillations of ice sheet mass and rotation pole position

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Bruce G.; James, Thomas S.; Mengel, John G.

    1999-01-01

    Precessional motion of Earth's rotation axis relative to its orbit is a well-known source of long-period climatic variation. It is less well appreciated that growth and decay of polar ice sheets perturb the symmetry of the global mass distribution enough that the geographic location of the rotation axis will change by at least 15 km and possibly as much as 100 km during a single glacial cycle. This motion of the pole will change the seasonal and latitudinal pattern of temperatures. We present calculations, based on a diurnal average energy balance, which compare the summer and winter temperature anomalies due to a 1° decrease in obliquity with those due to a 1° motion of the rotation pole toward Hudson Bay. Both effects result in peak temperature perturbations of about 1° Celsius. The obliquity change primarily influences the amplitude of the seasonal cycle, while the polar motion primarily changes the annual mean temperatures. The polar motion induced temperature anomaly is such that it will act as a powerful negative feedback on ice sheet growth. We also explore the evolution of the coupled system composed of ice sheet mass and pole position. Oscillatory solutions result from the conflicting constraints of rotational and thermal stability. A positive mass anomaly on an otherwise featureless Earth is in rotational equilibrium only at the poles or the equator. The two polar equilibria are rotationally unstable, and the equatorial equilibrium, though rotationally stable, is thermally unstable. We find that with a plausible choice for the strength of coupling between the thermal and rotational systems, relatively modest external forcing can produce significant response at periods of 104–106 years, but it strongly attenuates polar motion at longer periods. We suggest that these coupled oscillations may contribute to the observed dominance of 100 kyr glacial cycles since the mid-Pleistocene and will tend to stabilize geographic patterns that are suitable to

  20. Comparing the precision of selenium isotope ratio measurements using collision cell and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Elwaer, Nagmeddin; Hintelmann, Holger

    2008-03-15

    The performance of two different types of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instruments for resolving spectral overlaps on Se isotopes was compared by means of selenium isotopic ratio measurements. Examined were a quadrupole-based, hexapole collisions cell CC-ICP-MS and a double-focusing sector field SF-ICP-MS. Due to the importance of precise and accurate isotope ratio determination in environmental, clinical and nutritional studies, a thorough investigation of the critical instrumental parameters of each technique was performed. A hydride generation system was coupled with SF-ICP-MS to maintain high signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) at high mass resolution. However, 80Se+ was not completely separated from the argon dimer (40)Ar2+ at m/z=80, even in high-resolution mode. The same hydride generation system was coupled to a collision cell instrument and it was found that argon dimers are significantly reduced using a mixture of H2 and He gas with the cell. A lower mass bias of 2.5% per amu was determined for measured Se isotopes using the SF-ICP-MS instrument compared 3.6% observed for the CC-ICP-MS instrument. Under optimized conditions, the precision for Se isotope ratio measurements of both instruments was evaluated and compared measuring NIST-3149 Se standard solution. On average, the uncertainty determined by repeated measurements over the span of three individual measuring sessions in a period of 3 weeks ranged from 0.06% to 0.15% and 0.09% to 0.30% R.S.D. for the various isotope ratios using the CC-ICP-MS and SF-ICP-MS instrument, respectively. The detection limits (3) for total Se were determined by measuring 82Se and found to be 1.7 and 4.0 ng L(-1) for the CC-ICP-MS and SF-ICP-MS, respectively. PMID:18371869

  1. Forensic Chemistry and Ambient Mass Spectrometry: A Perfect Couple Destined for a Happy Marriage?

    PubMed

    Correa, Deleon N; Santos, Jandyson M; Eberlin, Livia S; Eberlin, Marcos N; Teunissen, Sebastiaan F

    2016-03-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry has been demonstrated, via various proof-of-concept studies, to offer a powerful, rather universal, simple, fast, nondestructive, and robust tool in forensic chemistry, producing reliable evidence at the molecular level. Its nearly nondestructive nature also preserves the sample for further inquiries. This feature article demonstrates the applicability of ambient mass spectrometry in forensic chemistry and explains the challenges that need to be overcome for this technique to make the ultimate step from the academic world into forensic institutes worldwide. We anticipate that the many beneficial and matching figures of merit will bring forensic chemistry and ambient mass spectrometry to a long-term relationship, which is likely to get strongly consolidated over the years.

  2. Forensic Chemistry and Ambient Mass Spectrometry: A Perfect Couple Destined for a Happy Marriage?

    PubMed

    Correa, Deleon N; Santos, Jandyson M; Eberlin, Livia S; Eberlin, Marcos N; Teunissen, Sebastiaan F

    2016-03-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry has been demonstrated, via various proof-of-concept studies, to offer a powerful, rather universal, simple, fast, nondestructive, and robust tool in forensic chemistry, producing reliable evidence at the molecular level. Its nearly nondestructive nature also preserves the sample for further inquiries. This feature article demonstrates the applicability of ambient mass spectrometry in forensic chemistry and explains the challenges that need to be overcome for this technique to make the ultimate step from the academic world into forensic institutes worldwide. We anticipate that the many beneficial and matching figures of merit will bring forensic chemistry and ambient mass spectrometry to a long-term relationship, which is likely to get strongly consolidated over the years. PMID:26768158

  3. Rapid characterization of triterpene saponins from Conyza blinii by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Zhang, Xing; Ye, Min; Su, Yan-fang; Dong, Jing; Han, Jian; Yin, Jun; Guo, De-an

    2010-11-30

    Conyza blinii Le'vl is a medicinal herb used for the treatment of inflammation in Chinese folk medicine. Its major bioactive constituents are triterpene saponins, most of which contain 6-8 sugar residues. In this report, electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation behaviors of bisdesmosidic triterpene saponins (conyzasaponin A, B, and C) were studied in both positive and negative ion modes with an ion-trap mass spectrometer. In full scan mass spectrometry, these saponins gave predominant [M-H](-) and [M+Na](+) ions, which determined the molecular weights. In tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n), n = 2-4), the [M-H](-) and [M+Na](+) ions yielded fragments [Y(0α)-H](-) and [B(α)+Na](+), which were diagnostic for the structures of the triterpene skeleton and sugar chains. The structural elucidation was approved by accurate mass data using IT-TOF-MS. An interpretation guideline based on MS(n) (n = 2-4) diagnostic ions was proposed in order to elucidate the chemical structures of unknown triterpene saponins in C. blinii extract. The saponins in C. blinii were separated by liquid chromatography with a methanol/acetonitrile/water solvent system, and then analyzed by ion-trap and IT-TOF mass spectrometers. Based on the interpretation guideline, a total of 35 triterpenoid saponins were tentatively identified. Among them, 15 saponins had been previously reported, and the other 20 saponins were reported from Conyza species for the first time. This study indicates that LC/MS is a powerful technology for the rapid characterization of complicated saponins in herbal extracts.

  4. Coupling of HPLC with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for studying the aging of ultrasmall multifunctional gadolinium-based silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Truillet, Charles; Lux, François; Tillement, Olivier; Dugourd, Philippe; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2013-11-01

    Sub-5 nm multimodal nanoparticles have great potential for theranostic applications due to their easy renal elimination combined with complementary imaging properties and therapeutic facilities. Their potential clinical use requires the full characterization of not only the nanoparticle but also all its possible degradation products. We have recently proposed new ultrasmall gadolinium-based nanoparticles for multimodal imaging and radiosensitization. The aim of this article is to describe an analytical tool to characterize degradation products in a highly diluted medium. We demonstrate that HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) can be used in order to determine precisely the composition of nanoparticles and their degradation fragments during aging.

  5. Combined effect of couple stresses and heat and mass transfer on peristaltic flow with slip conditions in a tube.

    PubMed

    Sobh, Ayman M

    2013-10-01

    In this article, the influence of heat and mass transfer on peristaltic transport of a couple stress fluid in a uniform tube with slip conditions on the wall is studied. The problem can model the blood flow in living creatures. Under long wavelength approximation and zero Reynolds number, exact solutions for the axial velocity component, pressure gradient, and both temperature and concentration fields are derived. The pressure rise is computed numerically and explained graphically. Moreover, effects of various physical parameters of the problem on temperature distribution, concentration field, and trapping are studied and discussed graphically.

  6. Defluorinated Sparfloxacin as a New Photoproduct Identified by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with UV Detection and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Engler, Michael; Rüsing, Guido; Sörgel, Fritz; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    1998-01-01

    Photodegradation of sparfloxacin was observed by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detection and liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Three products were detected. Comparison with an independently synthesized derivative of sparfloxacin revealed the structure of one product which is believed to be 8-desfluorosparfloxacin. The second product is likely to be formed by the splitting off of a fluorine and a cyclopropyl ring. Thus, photodefluorination of quinolone antibacterial agents is found and proved for the first time by LC-MS/MS. PMID:9593143

  7. Assessment of the Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Through Protective Garments Using Manikins and Other Advanced Measurement Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, René M.; Psikuta, Agnes

    The assessment of the coupled heat and mass transfer in protective clothing is very complex as the layers of the system are a combination of fabric and air layers that constantly change with the movements of the wearer. The methods to measure these mechanisms become more and more sophisticated which increases the precision of models to predict the impact of heat and moisture fluxes on the human thermal physiology. The simulation of the human thermoregulatory mechanisms requires the combination of physical models representing the body (manikins) with physiological (mathematical) models. This chapter gives different examples of advanced measurement methods to characterize the thermal properties of fabrics and garments.

  8. Determination of 20 trace elements and arsenic species for a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine Niuhuang Jiedu tablets by direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengfei; Liang, Xiaoli; Xia, Lufeng; Jahouh, Farid; Wang, Rong; Kuang, Yongmei; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Niuhuang Jiedu tablet (NHJDT) is a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine. A direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 20 trace elements (Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, As, Zn, Sr, Ba, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Cr, Se, Co, Mo, Cd, Hg) in NHJDT, as well as in water, gastric fluid and intestinal fluid was established. Meanwhile, a high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method was developed for the determination of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and for the identification of arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) in these extracts. Both methods were fully validated in the respect of linearity, sensitivity, precision, stability and accuracy. The reliability of the ICP-MS method was further evaluated using a certified standard reference material prepared from dried tomato leaves (NIST, SRM 1572a). The analysis showed that some manufacturers formulated lower amount of realgar than required in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) in their preparations. In addition, almost same extraction profiles for total As and inorganic As were found in water and in gastrointestinal fluids, while higher extraction rates for other 19 elements were observed in gastrointestinal fluids. Our findings show that the toxicities of Hg, Cu, Cd and Pb in NHJDP are low, while the real As toxicity in NHJDT should be deeply investigated.

  9. An inexact Newton method for fully-coupled solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with heat and mass transport

    SciTech Connect

    Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.; Walker, H.F.

    1997-02-01

    The solution of the governing steady transport equations for momentum, heat and mass transfer in flowing fluids can be very difficult. These difficulties arise from the nonlinear, coupled, nonsymmetric nature of the system of algebraic equations that results from spatial discretization of the PDEs. In this manuscript the authors focus on evaluating a proposed nonlinear solution method based on an inexact Newton method with backtracking. In this context they use a particular spatial discretization based on a pressure stabilized Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation of the low Mach number Navier-Stokes equations with heat and mass transport. The discussion considers computational efficiency, robustness and some implementation issues related to the proposed nonlinear solution scheme. Computational results are presented for several challenging CFD benchmark problems as well as two large scale 3D flow simulations.

  10. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Green River Shale By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F.; Clarke, D.; Moody, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied to a geological sample for the determination of rare earth elements (REEs) using a specialized nebulizer system. The low flow desolvating nebulizer has been shown to decrease metal oxide formation which leads to a reduction in mass spectral interferences. Traditional nebulizers and spray chambers may be suitable for similar sample types, but reduction of water vapor loading to the plasma can improve REE detection limits for quadrupole-based ICP-MS. The Green River formation holds the largest oil shale deposits in the world and understanding the elemental composition of these samples is important in its study. A certified reference material, USGS Green River Shale (SGR-1), was microwave digested prior to analysis, and recoveries of REEs compared to historical values are discussed.

  11. Magneto-hydrodynamics of coupled fluid-sheet interface with mass suction and blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.

    2016-01-01

    There are large number of studies which prescribe the kinematics of the sheet and ignore the sheet's mechanics. However, the current boundary layer analysis investigates the mechanics of both the electrically conducting fluid and a permeable sheet, which makes it distinct from the other studies in the literature. One of the objectives of the current study is to (i) examine the behaviour of magnetic field effect for both the surface and the electrically conducting fluid (ii) investigate the heat and mass transfer between a permeable sheet and the surrounding electrically conducting fluid across the hydro, thermal and mass boundary layers. Self-similar solutions are obtained by considering the RK45 technique. Analytical solution is also found for the stretching sheet case. The skin friction dual solutions are presented for various types of sheet. The influence of pertinent parameters on the dimensionless velocity, shear stress, temperature, mass concentration, heat and mass transfer rates on the fluid-sheet interface is presented graphically as well as numerically. The obtained results are of potential benefit for studying the electrically conducting flow over various soft surfaces such as synthetic plastics, soft silicone sheet and soft synthetic rubber sheet. These surfaces are easily deformed by thermal fluctuations or thermal stresses.

  12. Time-resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurements with individual, monodisperse drop sample introduction.

    PubMed

    Dziewatkoski, M P; Daniels, L B; Olesik, J W

    1996-04-01

    Individual ion clouds, each produced in the ICP from a single drop of sample, were monitored using time-resolved mass spectrometry and optical emission spectrometry simultaneously. The widths of the ion clouds in the plasma as a function of distance from the point of initial desolvated particle vaporization in the ICP were estimated. The Li(+) cloud width (full width at halfmaximum) varied from 85 to 272 μs at 3 and 10 mm from the apparent vaporization point, respectively. The Sr(+) cloud width varied from 97 to 142 μs at 5 and 10 mm from the apparent vaporization point, respectively. The delays between optical and mass spectrometry signals were used to measure gas velocities in the ICP. The velocity data could then be used to convert ion cloud peak widths in time to cloud sizes in the ICP. Li(+) clouds varied from 2.1 to 6.6 mm (full width at half-maximum) and Sr(+) clouds varied from 2.4 to 3.5 mm at the locations specified above. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from experimental data to be 88, 44, and 24 cm(2)/s for Li(+), Mg(+), and Sr(+), respectively. The flight time of ions from the sampling orifice of the mass spectrometer to the detector were mass dependent and varied from 13 to 21 μs for Mg(+) to 93 to 115 μs for Pb(+).

  13. Comparison of ion coupling strategies for a microengineered quadrupole mass filter.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steven; Syms, Richard R A; O'Prey, Shane; Hong, Guodong; Holmes, Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    The limitations of conventional machining and assembly techniques require that designs for quadrupole mass analyzers with rod diameters less than a millimeter are not merely scale versions of larger instruments. We show how silicon planar processing techniques and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) design concepts can be used to incorporate complex features into the construction of a miniature quadrupole mass filter chip that could not easily be achieved using other microengineering approaches. Three designs for the entrance and exit to the filter consistent with the chosen materials and techniques have been evaluated. The differences between these seemingly similar structures have a significant effect on the performance. Although one of the designs results in severe attenuation of transmission with increasing mass, the other two can be scanned to m/z = 400 without any corruption of the mass spectrum. At m/z = 219, the variation in the transmission of the three designs was found to be approximately four orders of magnitude. A maximum resolution of M/DeltaM = 87 at 10% peak height has been achieved at m/z = 219 with a filter operated at 6 MHz and constructed using rods measuring (508 +/- 5) microm in diameter.

  14. Potential of ion chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry via a liquid interface for beverages authentication.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Francois; Gaillard, Laetitia; Brault, Audrey; Gaultier, Nicolas; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène; Médina, Bernard

    2013-12-27

    New tools for the determination of characteristic parameters for food authentication are requested to prevent food adulteration from which health concerns, unfair competition could follow. A new coupling in the area of compound-specific carbon 13 isotope ratio (δ(13)C) analysis was developed to simultaneously quantify δ(13)C values of sugars and organic acids. The coupling of ion chromatography (IC) together with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) can be achieved using a liquid interface allowing a chemical oxidation (co) of organic matter. Synthetic solutions containing 1 polyol (glycerol), 3 carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and 12 organic acids (gluconic, lactic, malic, tartaric, oxalic, fumaric, citric and isocitric) were used to optimize chromatographic conditions (concentration gradient and 3 types of column) and the studied isotopic range (-32.28 to -10.65‰) corresponds to the values found in food products. Optimum chromatographic conditions are found using an IonPac AS15, an elution flow rate of 0.3mLmin(-1) and a linear concentration gradient from 2 to 76mM (rate 21mMmin(-1)). Comparison between δ(13)C value individually obtained for each compound with the coupling IRMS and elemental analyzer, EA-IRMS, and the ones measured on the mixture of compounds by IC-co-IRMS does not reveal any isotope fractionation. Thus, under these experimental conditions, IC-co-IRMS results are accurate and reproducible. This new coupling was tested on two food matrices, an orange juice and a sweet wine. Some optimization is necessary as the concentration range between sugars and organic acids is too large: an increase in the filament intensity of the IRMS is necessary to simultaneously detect the two compound families. These first attempts confirm the good results obtained on synthetic solutions and the strong potential of the coupling IC-co-IRMS in food authentication area.

  15. Comprehensive identification of walnut polyphenols by liquid chromatography coupled to linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Jorge; Sánchez-González, Claudia; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have demonstrated consistent benefits of walnut consumption on coronary heart disease risk and other chronic diseases. Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) have been described previously as a rich source of polyphenols with a broad array of different structures. However, an accurate screening of its complete phenolic profile is still lacking. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-LTQ-Orbitrap) was applied for a comprehensive identification of phenolic compounds in walnuts. A total of 120 compounds, including hydrolysable and condensed tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified or tentatively identified on the base of their retention times, accurate mass measurements and subsequent mass fragmentation data, or by comparing with reference substances and literature. The peak area of each signal in mass chromatograms was used to provide semiquantitative information for comparison purposes. The most abundant ions were observed for ellagitannins, ellagic acid and its derivatives. Furthermore, the high-resolution MS analysis revealed the presence of eight polyphenols that have never been reported in walnuts: stenophyllanin C, malabathrin A, eucalbanin A, cornusiin B, heterophylliin E, pterocarinin B, reginin A and alienanin B.

  16. Coupling Aggressive Mass Removal with Microbial Reductive Dechlorination for Remediation of DNAPL Source Zones: A Review and Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Christ, John A.; Ramsburg, C. Andrew; Abriola, Linda M.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Löffler, Frank E.

    2005-01-01

    The infiltration of dense non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) into the saturated subsurface typically produces a highly contaminated zone that serves as a long-term source of dissolved-phase groundwater contamination. Applications of aggressive physical–chemical technologies to such source zones may remove > 90% of the contaminant mass under favorable conditions. The remaining contaminant mass, however, can create a rebounding of aqueous-phase concentrations within the treated zone. Stimulation of microbial reductive dechlorination within the source zone after aggressive mass removal has recently been proposed as a promising staged-treatment remediation technology for transforming the remaining contaminant mass. This article reviews available laboratory and field evidence that supports the development of a treatment strategy that combines aggressive source-zone removal technologies with subsequent promotion of sustained microbial reductive dechlorination. Physical–chemical source-zone treatment technologies compatible with posttreatment stimulation of microbial activity are identified, and studies examining the requirements and controls (i.e., limits) of reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes are investigated. Illustrative calculations are presented to explore the potential effects of source-zone management alternatives. Results suggest that, for the favorable conditions assumed in these calculations (i.e., statistical homogeneity of aquifer properties, known source-zone DNAPL distribution, and successful bioenhancement in the source zone), source longevity may be reduced by as much as an order of magnitude when physical–chemical source-zone treatment is coupled with reductive dechlorination. PMID:15811838

  17. Coupling aggressive mass removal with microbial reductive dechlorination for remediation of DNAPL source zones: a review and assessment.

    PubMed

    Christ, John A; Ramsburg, C Andrew; Abriola, Linda M; Pennell, Kurt D; Löffler, Frank E

    2005-04-01

    The infiltration of dense non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) into the saturated subsurface typically produces a highly contaminated zone that serves as a long-term source of dissolved-phase groundwater contamination. Applications of aggressive physical-chemical technologies to such source zones may remove > 90% of the contaminant mass under favorable conditions. The remaining contaminant mass, however, can create a rebounding of aqueous-phase concentrations within the treated zone. Stimulation of microbial reductive dechlorination within the source zone after aggressive mass removal has recently been proposed as a promising staged-treatment remediation technology for transforming the remaining contaminant mass. This article reviews available laboratory and field evidence that supports the development of a treatment strategy that combines aggressive source-zone removal technologies with subsequent promotion of sustained microbial reductive dechlorination. Physical-chemical source-zone treatment technologies compatible with posttreatment stimulation of microbial activity are identified, and studies examining the requirements and controls (i.e., limits) of reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes are investigated. Illustrative calculations are presented to explore the potential effects of source-zone management alternatives. Results suggest that, for the favorable conditions assumed in these calculations (i.e., statistical homogeneity of aquifer properties, known source-zone DNAPL distribution, and successful bioenhancement in the source zone), source longevity may be reduced by as much as an order of magnitude when physical-chemical source-zone treatment is coupled with reductive dechlorination.

  18. Electrospray-Differential Mobility Hyphenated with Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Characterization of Nanoparticles and Their Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiaojie; Liu, Jingyu; Li, Mingdong; El Hadri, Hind; Hackley, Vincent A; Zachariah, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    The novel hyphenation of electrospray-differential mobility analysis with single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ES-DMA-spICPMS) was demonstrated with the capacity for real-time size, mass, and concentration measurement of nanoparticles (NPs) on a particle-to-particle basis. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of this technique was validated through both concentration and mass calibration using NIST gold NP reference materials. A detection limit of 10(5) NPs mL(-1) was determined under current experimental conditions, which is about 4 orders of magnitude lower in comparison to that of a traditional ES-DMA setup using a condensation particle counter as detector. Furthermore, independent and simultaneous quantification of both size and mass of NPs provides information regarding NP aggregation states. Two demonstrative applications include gold NP mixtures with a broad size range (30-100 nm), and aggregated gold NPs with a primary size of 40 nm. Finally, this technique was shown to be potentially useful for real-world samples with high ionic background due to its ability to remove dissolved ions yielding a cleaner background. Overall, we demonstrate the capacity of this new hyphenated technique for (1) clearly resolving NP populations from a mixture containing a broad size range; (2) accurately measuring a linear relationship, which should inherently exist between mobility size and one-third power of ICPMS mass for spherical NPs; (3) quantifying the early stage propagation of NP aggregation with well-characterized oligomers; and (4) differentiating aggregated NPs and nonaggregated states based on the "apparent density" derived from both DMA size and spICPMS mass.

  19. Electrospray-Differential Mobility Hyphenated with Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Characterization of Nanoparticles and Their Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiaojie; Liu, Jingyu; Li, Mingdong; El Hadri, Hind; Hackley, Vincent A; Zachariah, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    The novel hyphenation of electrospray-differential mobility analysis with single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ES-DMA-spICPMS) was demonstrated with the capacity for real-time size, mass, and concentration measurement of nanoparticles (NPs) on a particle-to-particle basis. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of this technique was validated through both concentration and mass calibration using NIST gold NP reference materials. A detection limit of 10(5) NPs mL(-1) was determined under current experimental conditions, which is about 4 orders of magnitude lower in comparison to that of a traditional ES-DMA setup using a condensation particle counter as detector. Furthermore, independent and simultaneous quantification of both size and mass of NPs provides information regarding NP aggregation states. Two demonstrative applications include gold NP mixtures with a broad size range (30-100 nm), and aggregated gold NPs with a primary size of 40 nm. Finally, this technique was shown to be potentially useful for real-world samples with high ionic background due to its ability to remove dissolved ions yielding a cleaner background. Overall, we demonstrate the capacity of this new hyphenated technique for (1) clearly resolving NP populations from a mixture containing a broad size range; (2) accurately measuring a linear relationship, which should inherently exist between mobility size and one-third power of ICPMS mass for spherical NPs; (3) quantifying the early stage propagation of NP aggregation with well-characterized oligomers; and (4) differentiating aggregated NPs and nonaggregated states based on the "apparent density" derived from both DMA size and spICPMS mass. PMID:27479448

  20. Determination of peanut allergens in cereal-chocolate-based snacks: metal-tag inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry immunoassay versus liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Careri, Maria; Elviri, Lisa; Maffini, Monica; Mangia, Alessandro; Mucchino, Claudio; Terenghi, Mattia

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of two methods for the identification and determination of peanut allergens based on europium (Eu)-tagged inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) immunoassay and on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) with a triple quadrupole mass analyzer was carried out on a complex food matrix like a chocolate rice crispy-based snack. The LC/MS/MS method was based on the determination of four different peptide biomarkers selective for the Ara h2 and Ara h3/4 peanut proteins. The performance of this method was compared with that of a non-competitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method with ICP-MS detection of the metal used to tag the antibody for the quantitative peanut protein analysis in food. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantitation of the ICP-MS immunoassay were 2.2 and 5 microg peanuts g(-1) matrix, respectively, the recovery ranged from 86 +/- 18% to 110 +/- 4% and linearity was proved in the 5-50 microg g(-1) range. The LC/MS/MS method allowed us to obtain LODs of 1 and 5 microg protein g(-1) matrix for Ara h3/4 and Ara h2, respectively, thus obtaining significantly higher values with respect to the ELISA ICP-MS method, taking into account the different expression for concentrations. Linearity was established in the 10-200 microg g(-1) range of peanut proteins in the food matrix investigated and good precision (RSD <10%) was demonstrated. Both the two approaches, used for screening or confirmative purposes, showed the power of mass spectrometry when used as a very selective detector in difficult matrices even if some limitations still exist, i.e. matrix suppression in the LC/ESI-MS/MS procedure and the change of the Ag/Ab binding with matrix in the ICP-MS method.

  1. High resolution/accurate mass (HRMS) detection of anatoxin-a in lake water using LDTD-APCI coupled to a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Sinotte, Marc; Deblois, Christian; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    A new innovative analytical method combining ultra-fast analysis time with high resolution/accurate mass detection was developed to eliminate the misidentification of anatoxin-a (ANA-a), a cyanobacterial toxin, from the natural amino acid phenylalanine (PHE). This was achieved by using the laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LDTD-APCI) coupled to the Q-Exactive, a high resolution/accurate mass spectrometer (HRMS). This novel combination, the LDTD-APCI-HRMS, allowed for an ultra-fast analysis time (<15 s/sample). A comparison of two different acquisition modes (full scan and targeted ion fragmentation) was made to determine the most rigorous analytical method using the LDTD-APCI interface. Method development focused toward selectivity and sensitivity improvement to reduce the possibility of false positives and to lower detection limits. The Q-Exactive mass spectrometer operates with resolving powers between 17500 and 140000 FWHM (m/z 200). Nevertheless, a resolution of 17500FWHM is enough to dissociate ANA-a and PHE signals. Mass accuracy was satisfactory with values below 1 ppm reaching precision to the fourth decimal. Internal calibration with standard addition was achieved with the isotopically-labeled (D5) phenylalanine with good linearity (R(2)>0.999). Enhancement of signal to noise ratios relative to a standard triple-quadrupole method was demonstrated with lower detection and quantification limit values of 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L using the Q-Exactive. Accuracy and interday/intraday relative standard deviations were below 15%. The new method was applied to 8 different lake water samples with signs of cyanobacterial blooms. This work demonstrates the possibility of using an ultra-fast LDTD-APCI sample introduction system with an HRMS hybrid instrument for quantitative purposes with high selectivity in complex environmental matrices.

  2. Multidimensional Separation of Natural Products Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Hadamard Transform Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xing; Knochenmuss, Richard; Siems, William F.; Hill, Herbert H.

    2016-05-01

    A high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)was interfaced to an atmospheric drift tube ion mobility time of flight mass spectrometry. The power of multidimensional separation was demonstrated using chili pepper extracts. The ambient pressure drift tube ion mobility provided high resolving powers up to 166 for the HPLC eluent. With implementation of Hadamard transform (HT), the duty cycle for the ion mobility drift tube was increased from less than 1% to 50%, and the ion transmission efficiency was improved by over 200 times compared with pulsed mode, improving signal to noise ratio 10 times. HT ion mobility and TOF mass spectrometry provide an additional dimension of separation for complex samples without increasing the analysis time compared with conventional HPLC.

  3. Applications of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in environmental radiochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grain, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    The state of the art in ICP-MS is now such that there are few discernible differences between radiochemical and mass spectrometric determinations of longlived radionuclides. Indeed, ICP-MS may provide better (more sensitive) data for many radionuclides, depending upon how one wishes to define "long-lived." In lowlevel determinations, sample preparation remains an important part of the analytical procedure, even with ICP-MS, but the speed and isotopic selectivity of the mass spectrometer appear to offer distinct procedural advantages over radiochemical techniques. Therefore, "radioanalytical" ICP-MS applications should continue to grow, especially in the area of radiation protection, but further research (on efficient sample introduction, for example) and method development may be required to get ICP-MS "off the ground" in the geochemical research areas that have traditionally been supported by radiochemistry.

  4. Multidimensional Separation of Natural Products Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Hadamard Transform Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xing; Knochenmuss, Richard; Siems, William F; Hill, Herbert H

    2016-05-01

    A high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)was interfaced to an atmospheric drift tube ion mobility time of flight mass spectrometry. The power of multidimensional separation was demonstrated using chili pepper extracts. The ambient pressure drift tube ion mobility provided high resolving powers up to 166 for the HPLC eluent. With implementation of Hadamard transform (HT), the duty cycle for the ion mobility drift tube was increased from less than 1% to 50%, and the ion transmission efficiency was improved by over 200 times compared with pulsed mode, improving signal to noise ratio 10 times. HT ion mobility and TOF mass spectrometry provide an additional dimension of separation for complex samples without increasing the analysis time compared with conventional HPLC. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26914233

  5. Fast separation and analysis of reduced monoclonal antibodies with capillary zone electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yimeng; Sun, Liangliang; Knierman, Michael D; Dovichi, Norman J

    2016-02-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-MS) was used for analysis of reduced antibodies. We first developed a simple protocol to condition commercial linear-polyacrylamide coated capillaries for use in top-down proteomics. We then suspended reduced antibodies in a solution of 35% acetic acid, 50% acetonitrile in water. Heavy and light chains were baseline resolved within 10 min and with 3-30 µg/mL detection limits using a 0.1% aqueous formic acid background electrolyte. Quintuplicate runs of a two-antibody mixture produced relative standard deviations of ∼1% in migration time and 10% in peak amplitudes. Resolution was further improved for the two-antibody mixture by using 5% acetic acid as the background electrolyte, highlighting the potential of capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for analysis of antibody mixtures. PMID:26653481

  6. Multidimensional Separation of Natural Products Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Hadamard Transform Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xing; Knochenmuss, Richard; Siems, William F; Hill, Herbert H

    2016-05-01

    A high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)was interfaced to an atmospheric drift tube ion mobility time of flight mass spectrometry. The power of multidimensional separation was demonstrated using chili pepper extracts. The ambient pressure drift tube ion mobility provided high resolving powers up to 166 for the HPLC eluent. With implementation of Hadamard transform (HT), the duty cycle for the ion mobility drift tube was increased from less than 1% to 50%, and the ion transmission efficiency was improved by over 200 times compared with pulsed mode, improving signal to noise ratio 10 times. HT ion mobility and TOF mass spectrometry provide an additional dimension of separation for complex samples without increasing the analysis time compared with conventional HPLC. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  7. Calibration of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for the quantitative analysis of solid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, J.

    1999-02-12

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has become the method of choice for elemental and isotopic analysis. Several factors contribute to its success. Modern instruments are capable of routine analysis at part per trillion levels with relative detection limits in part per quadrillion levels. Sensitivities in these instruments can be as high as 200 million counts per second per part per million with linear dynamic ranges up to eight orders of magnitude. With standards for only a few elements, rapid semiquantitative analysis of over 70 elements in an individual sample can be performed. Less than 20 years after its inception ICP-MS has shown to be applicable to several areas of science. These include geochemistry, the nuclear industry, environmental chemistry, clinical chemistry, the semiconductor industry, and forensic chemistry. In this introduction, the general attributes of ICP-MS will be discussed in terms of instrumentation and sample introduction. The advantages and disadvantages of current systems are presented. A detailed description of one method of sample introduction, laser ablation, is given. The paper also gives conclusions and suggestions for future work. Chapter 2, Quantitative analysis of solids by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for calibration, has been removed for separate processing.

  8. Fast quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in plasma using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Li, Xituo; Wang, Yan; Gu, Xue; Dai, Jieyu; Wang, Guiming; Cheng, Yu; Yan, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrates in biosamples are frequently highlighted as the most differential metabolites in many metabolomics studies. A simple, fast, simultaneous quantitative method for 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma has been developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. In order to quantify 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma, various conditions, including columns, chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometry conditions, and plasma preparation methods, were investigated. Different conditions in this quantified analysis were performed and optimized. The reproducibility, precision, recovery, matrix effect, and stability of the method were verified. The results indicated that a methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) mixture could effectively and reproducibly precipitate rat plasma proteins. Cold organic solvents coupled with vortex for 1 min and incubated at -20°C for 20 min were the most optimal conditions for protein precipitation and extraction. The results, according to the linearity, recovery, precision, matrix effect, and stability, showed that the method was satisfactory in the quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma. The quantified analysis of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma performed excellently in terms of sensitivity, high throughput, and simple sample preparation, which met the requirement of quantification in specific expanded metabolomic studies after the global metabolic profiling research.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of chemical constituents in Xingxiong injection by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Duan, Li; Liu, Ke; Bi, Zhi-Ming; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2015-09-01

    Xingxiong injection (XXI) is a widely used Chinese herbal formula prepared by the folium ginkgo extract and ligustrazine for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Compared with the pharmacological studies, chemical analysis and quality control studies on this formula are relatively limited. In the present study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF MS) method was applied to comprehensive analysis of constituents in XXI. According to the fragmentation rules and previous reports, thirty ginkgo flavonoids, four ginkgo terpene lactones, and one alkaloid were identified. A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ MS) method was then applied to quantify ten major constituents in XXI. The method validation results indicated that the developed method had desirable specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The total contents of ginkgo flavonoids were about 22.05-25.51 μg·mL(-1) and the ginkgo terpene lactones amounts were about 4.41-8.70 μg·mL(-1) in six batches of XXI samples, respectively. Furthermore, cosine ratio algorithm and distance measurements were employed to evaluate the similarity of XXI samples, and the results demonstrated a high-quality consistency. This work could provide comprehensive information on the quality control of Xingxiong injection, which be helpful in the establishment of a rational quality control standard.

  10. The Correlation of Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Experimental Data for Vertical Falling Film Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Keyhani, M; Miller, W A

    1999-11-14

    Absorption chillers are gaining global acceptance as quality comfort cooling systems. These machines are the central chilling plants and the supply for cotnfort cooling for many large commercial buildings. Virtually all absorption chillers use lithium bromide (LiBr) and water as the absorption fluids. Water is the refrigerant. Research has shown LiBr to he one of the best absorption working fluids because it has a high affinity for water, releases water vapor at relatively low temperatures, and has a boiling point much higher than that of water. The heart of the chiller is the absorber, where a process of simultaneous heat and mass transfer occurs as the refrigerant water vapor is absorbed into a falling film of aqueous LiBr. The more water vapor absorbed into the falling film, the larger the chiller's capacity for supporting comfort cooling. Improving the performance of the absorber leads directly to efficiency gains for the chiller. The design of an absorber is very empirical and requires experimental data. Yet design data and correlations are sparse in the open literature. The experimental data available to date have been derived at LiBr concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 0.60 mass fraction. No literature data are readily available for the design operating conditions of 0.62 and 0.64 mass fraction of LiBr and absorber pressures of 0.7 and 1.0 kPa.

  11. Gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (GC-API-MS): review.

    PubMed

    Li, Du-Xin; Gan, Lin; Bronja, Amela; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2015-09-01

    Although the coupling of GC/MS with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) has been reported in 1970s, the interest in coupling GC with atmospheric pressure ion source was expanded in the last decade. The demand of a "soft" ion source for preserving highly diagnostic molecular ion is desirable, as compared to the "hard" ionization technique such as electron ionization (EI) in traditional GC/MS, which fragments the molecule in an extensive way. These API sources include atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI), electrospray ionization (ESI) and low temperature plasma (LTP). This review discusses the advantages and drawbacks of this analytical platform. After an introduction in atmospheric pressure ionization the review gives an overview about the history and explains the mechanisms of various atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used in combination with GC such as APCI, APPI, APLI, ESI and LTP. Also new developments made in ion source geometry, ion source miniaturization and multipurpose ion source constructions are discussed and a comparison between GC-FID, GC-EI-MS and GC-API-MS shows the advantages and drawbacks of these techniques. The review ends with an overview of applications realized with GC-API-MS.

  12. A simple and demountable capillary microflow nebulizer with a tapered tip for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Heyong; Yin, Xuefeng; Xu, Zigang; Wang, Xiuzhong; Shen, Hong

    2011-07-15

    A simple and demountable capillary microflow nebulizer (d-CMN) was developed for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a nebulizer body, a fused-silica capillary with a tapered tip and a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) adapter. The gas orifice i.d., the solution capillary tip i.d. and its wall thickness were 200, 30, and 5 μm, respectively. The sensitivities, detection limits, precisions and the long-term stability with the d-CMN were evaluated. The experimental results indicated that its performances at low uptake rates were similar or better than those obtained with the conventional concentric nebulizer at 820 μL/min and the micromist nebulizer at 200 μL/min. The demountable construction of the d-CMN permitted that the blocked or broken solution capillary could be conveniently renewed. The low self-aspiration rate (4.77 μL/min) and the analytical characteristics comparable to commercial microflow nebulizers made the d-CMN a good choice for coupling capillary electrophoresis and microbore high-performance liquid chromatograph to ICP-MS. The proposed d-CMN was successfully applied in the iodine speciation by coupling microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) to ICP-MS. The absolute detection limits for iodide and iodate of 0.20 and 0.29 fg were achieved with satisfactory resolution.

  13. Investigation of falsified documents via direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to nanospray mass spectrometry, fluorescence microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huynh, V; Williams, K C; Golden, T D; Verbeck, G F

    2015-10-01

    Microscopy with direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization mass spectrometry (DAPNe-NSI-MS) is a direct extraction technique that extracts ultra-trace amounts of analyte. It has been proven to extract ink from documents with little to no physical or chemical footprint. In this study, DAPNe has been coupled to Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and NSI-MS to determine if an ink entry from a document was falsified. A handwritten number was altered using a different ink pen to test if the aforementioned techniques could discriminate the original number from the altered number, qualitatively and/or quantitatively. Chemical species from part of the original number, altered number, and a point at which both inks intersect were successfully differentiated by all techniques when using different pens. DAPNe coupled to fluorescence microscopy and Raman spectroscopy was not able to discriminate the forged ink entry when the exact same pen was used to modify the text (due to the same ink formula). However, DAPNe-NSI-MS successfully discerned that the pen was dispensed on different days by quantitating the oxidation process. PMID:26179027

  14. Metal-tag labeling coupled with multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry for absolute quantitation of proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueying; Wang, Xin; Qin, Weijie; Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Jifeng; Wei, Junying; Zhang, Yangjun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2013-09-21

    Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics, consisting of relative and absolute parts, has been used to discover and validate proteins with key functions related to physiological and pathological processes. Currently, stable isotope dilution-multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SID-MRM-MS) is the most commonly used method for the absolute determination of proteins in a biological sample. A prerequisite for this method is obtaining internal standards with isotope labels. Although many approaches have been developed for the labeling and preparation of internal peptides, expensive stable isotope labeling coupled with SID-MRM-MS has limited the application and development of an absolute quantitative method. Recently, a low-cost strategy using metal-tag labeling and MS has been developed for relative quantification of peptides or proteins. The introduction of labeling using metal tags has the merits of allowing multiple labeling and enlarging the mass shift to overcome the overlap of adjacent isotope clusters. However, most papers described MRM-MS for protein absolute quantification based on the metal in its peptides labelled with metal by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) but not on its peptides labelled with metal. In this work, a novel approach based on metal-tag labeling coupled with MRM-MS was established for the absolute quantification of peptides or proteins. The principle of the method is that a bifunctional chelator, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid bearing an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (DOTA-NHS ester), is used to modify the N-termini of signature peptides from a target protein, and the modified peptides then chelate a certain metal, such as thulium, to form metal-tagged peptides (Tm-DOTA-P). Internal peptides are chemically synthesized and labeled with another metal, such as terbium (Tb-DOTA-P), as the internal standard. Both the Tb-DOTA- and Tm-DOTA-labeled peptides in samples can be analysed via

  15. Mass spectrometric behavior of anabolic androgenic steroids using gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. Part I: ionization.

    PubMed

    Raro, M; Portolés, T; Sancho, J V; Pitarch, E; Hernández, F; Marcos, J; Ventura, R; Gómez, C; Segura, J; Pozo, O J

    2014-06-01

    The detection of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is one of the most important topics in doping control analysis. Gas chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry (GC-MS(/MS)) with electron ionization and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry have been traditionally applied for this purpose. However, both approaches still have important limitations, and, therefore, detection of all AAS is currently afforded by the combination of these strategies. Alternative ionization techniques can minimize these drawbacks and help in the implementation of a single method for the detection of AAS. In the present work, a new atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source commercialized for gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight analyzer has been tested to evaluate the ionization of 60 model AAS. Underivatized and trimethylsylil (TMS)-derivatized compounds have been investigated. The use of GC-APCI-MS allowed for the ionization of all AAS assayed irrespective of their structure. The presence of water in the source as modifier promoted the formation of protonated molecules ([M+H](+)), becoming the base peak of the spectrum for the majority of studied compounds. Under these conditions, [M+H](+), [M+H-H2O](+) and [M+H-2·H2O](+) for underivatized AAS and [M+H](+), [M+H-TMSOH](+) and [M+H-2·TMSOH](+) for TMS-derivatized AAS were observed as main ions in the spectra. The formed ions preserve the intact steroid skeleton, and, therefore, they might be used as specific precursors in MS/MS-based methods. Additionally, a relationship between the relative abundance of these ions and the AAS structure has been established. This relationship might be useful in the structural elucidation of unknown metabolites.

  16. Ion-pair chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IPC-ICP-MS) as a method for thiomolybdate speciation in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Lohmayer, Regina; Reithmaier, Gloria Maria Susanne; Bura-Nakić, Elvira; Planer-Friedrich, Britta

    2015-03-17

    Molybdenum precipitates preferentially under reducing conditions; therefore, its occurrence in sediment records is used as an indicator of paleoredox conditions. Although thiomolybdates (MoO4-xSx(2-) with x = 1-4) supposedly are necessary intermediates in the process of molybdenum precipitation under anoxic conditions, there is no information about their abundance in natural environments, because of a lack of element-specific methods with sufficiently low detection limits. Here, we optimized ion-pair chromatographic separation for coupling to an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry detector (IPC-ICP-MS). 2-Propanol (10%-25% gradient) replaced the previously used acetonitrile (25%-75%) as the solvent, to reduce the carbon load into the plasma. In synthetic solutions, formation of thiomolybdates was found to occur spontaneously in the presence of excess sulfide and the degree of thiolation was highest at pH 7. Excess hydroxyl led to a transformation of thiomolybdates to molybdate. Under acidic to neutral conditions, precipitation of molybdenum and hydrolysis of tetrathiomolybdate were observed. Flash-freezing was found to be suitable to stabilize tetrathiomolybdate, with <4% transformation over more than two months. High ionic strengths matrices (>2 mM) negatively affected the detection of molybdate, which eluted mainly in the dead volume, but had no negative effect on higher thiolated molybdates. Detection limits were ∼10 nM. With the newly developed IPC-ICP-MS method, thiomolybdates were found to form spontaneously in euxinic marine waters after adding a molybdate spike and occur naturally in sulfidic geothermal waters.

  17. Direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Masaki; Sakurai, Hiromu; Nishiguchi, Kohei; Utani, Keisuke; Günther, Detlef

    2015-09-01

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique was applied to the direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in ambient air. The ultra-trace semiconductor gases such as arsine (AsH3) and phosphine (PH3) were converted to particles by reaction with ozone (O3) and ammonia (NH3) gases within a gas to particle conversion device (GPD). The converted particles were directly introduced and measured by ICPMS through a gas exchange device (GED), which could penetrate the particles as well as exchange to Ar from either non-reacted gases such as an air or remaining gases of O3 and NH3. The particle size distribution of converted particles was measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and the results supported the elucidation of particle agglomeration between the particle converted from semiconductor gas and the particle of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which was produced as major particle in GPD. Stable time-resolved signals from AsH3 and PH3 in air were obtained by GPD-GED-ICPMS with continuous gas introduction; however, the slightly larger fluctuation, which could be due to the ionization fluctuation of particles in ICP, was observed compared to that of metal carbonyl gas in Ar introduced directly into ICPMS. The linear regression lines were obtained and the limits of detection (LODs) of 1.5 pL L(-1) and 2.4 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, were estimated. Since these LODs revealed sufficiently lower values than the measurement concentrations required from semiconductor industry such as 0.5 nL L(-1) and 30 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, the GPD-GED-ICPMS could be useful for direct and high sensitive analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in air.

  18. Ultra-trace determination of gold nanoparticles in environmental water by surfactant assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction coupled with electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2016-08-01

    A new method by coupling surfactant assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (SA-DLLME) with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) was proposed for the analysis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in environmental water samples. Effective separation of AuNPs from ionic gold species was achieved by using sodium thiosulphate as a complexing agent. Various experimental parameters affecting SA-DLLME of AuNPs, such as the organic solvent, organic solvent volume, pH of the sample, the kind of surfactant, surfactant concentration, vortex time, speed of centrifugation, centrifugation time, and different coating as well as sizes of AuNPs were investigated carefully. Furthermore, the interference of coexisting ions, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and other metal nanoparticles (NPs) were studied. Under the optimal conditions, a detection limit of 2.2 ng L- 1 and an enrichment factor of 152-fold was achieved for AuNPs, and the original morphology of the AuNPs could be maintained during the extraction process. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of AuNPs in environmental water samples, including tap water, the East Lake water, and the Yangtze River water, with recoveries in the range of 89.6-102%. Compared with the established methods for metal NPs analysis, the proposed method has the merits of simple and fast operation, low detection limit, high selectivity, good tolerance to the sample matrix and no digestion or dilution required. It provides an efficient quantification methodology for monitoring AuNPs' pollution in the environmental water and evaluating its toxicity.

  19. Towards silicon speciation in light petroleum products using gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with a dynamic reaction cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chainet, Fabien; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Ponthus, Jeremie; Pécheyran, Christophe; Castro, Joaudimir; Tessier, Emmanuel; Donard, Olivier François Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Silicon speciation has recently gained interest in the oil and gas industry due to the significant poisoning problems caused by silicon on hydrotreatment catalysts. The poisoning effect clearly depends on the structure of the silicon species which must be determined and quantified. The hyphenation of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) allows a specific detection to determine the retention times of all silicon species. The aim of this work is to determine the retention indices of unknown silicon species to allow their characterization by a multi-technical approach in order to access to their chemical structure. The optimization of the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of the ICP-MS using hydrogen as reactant gas successfully demonstrated the resolution of the interferences (14N14N+ and 12C16O+) initially present on 28Si. The linearity was excellent for silicon compounds and instrumental detection limits ranged from 20 to 140 μg of Si/kg depending on the response of the silicon compounds. A continuous release of silicon in the torch was observed most likely due to the use of a torch and an injector which was made of quartz. A non-universal response for silicon was observed and it was clearly necessary to use response coefficients to quantify silicon compounds. Known silicon compounds such as cyclic siloxanes (D3-D16) coming from PDMS degradation were confirmed. Furthermore, more than 10 new silicon species never characterized before in petroleum products were highlighted in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) degradation samples produced under thermal cracking of hydrocarbons. These silicon species mainly consisted of linear and cyclic structures containing reactive functions such as ethoxy, peroxide and hydroxy groups which can be able to react with the alumina surface and hence, poison the catalyst. This characterization will further allow the development of innovative solutions such as trapping silicon compounds or

  20. Comparative Study of Three Methods for Affinity Measurements: Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled with UV Detection and Mass Spectrometry, and Direct Infusion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Gleb G.; Logie, Jennifer; Okhonin, Victor; Renaud, Justin B.; Mayer, Paul M.; Berezovski, Maxim V.

    2012-07-01

    We present affinity capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (ACE-MS) as a comprehensive separation technique for label-free solution-based affinity analysis. The application of ACE-MS for measuring affinity constants between eight small molecule drugs [ibuprofen, s-flurbiprofen, diclofenac, phenylbutazone, naproxen, folic acid, resveratrol, and 4,4'-(propane-1,3-diyl) dibenzoic acid] and β-cyclodextrin is described. We couple on-line ACE with MS to combine the separation and kinetic capability of ACE together with the molecular weight and structural elucidation of MS in one system. To understand the full potential of ACE-MS, we compare it with two other methods: Direct infusion mass spectrometry (DIMS) and ACE with UV detection (ACE-UV). After the evaluation, DIMS provides less reliable equilibrium dissociation constants than separation-based ACE-UV and ACE-MS, and cannot be used solely for the study of noncovalent interactions. ACE-MS determines apparent dissociation constants for all reacting small molecules in a mixture, even in cases when drugs overlap with each other during separation. The ability of ACE-MS to interact, separate, and rapidly scan through m/z can facilitate the simultaneous affinity analysis of multiple interacting pairs, potentially leading to the high-throughput screening of drug candidates.

  1. Comparison of chicken and pheasant ovotransferrin N-glycoforms via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kuan; Wang, Chengjian; Sun, Yujiao; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Linjuan; Wang, Zhongfu

    2014-07-23

    Species-specific ovotransferrin features a highly conservative protein sequence, but it varies in the structure of the attached oligosaccharides, which may contribute to the differences observed in its bioactivity and nutritional value. Herein, chicken ovotransferrin (COT) and pheasant ovotransferrin (POT) isolated by repeated ethanol precipitation of egg white were digested with peptide N-glycosidase F to release N-glycans. The obtained N-glyans were isotopically labeled with aniline and analyzed via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and online hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). Relative quantitation based on isotopic aniline labeling and HILIC-MS/MS analysis revealed in detail the conspicuous difference between COT and POT in the abundance of their N-glycan compositions and isomers. In total, 16 COT N-glycans were observed, including 1 core structure (3.18%), 3 hybrid type (5.42%), and 12 complex type (91.40%), whereas 21 POT N-glycans were found, including 1 truncated structure (1.88%), 1 core structure (6.26%), 3 high mannose type (5.20%), 6 hybrid type (19.14%), and 10 complex type (67.52%). To our knowledge, this study is the first qualitative and quantitative comparison of COT and POT N-glycosylation patterns. These results suggest that POT has a different glycosylation pattern compared to that of COT and thus the effect of its glycosylation pattern on its bioactivity is worthy of further exploration.

  2. Speciation analysis of inorganic tin by on-column complexation ion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Yang, Die; Guo, Xiangquan; Chen, Zuliang

    2014-11-14

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were used as complementary methods to identify Sn-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) complex formation. ESI-MS was used to initially confirm the formation of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) and their MS spectra suggest these tin complexes were stable in solution. On-column complexation of tin with DTPA and the separation of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) was performed on anion-exchange chromatography with an mobile phase containing 20mM NH4NO3 and 3mM DTPA at pH 6.0, and the subsequent detection of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) was achieved by ICP-MS. Linear plots were obtained in a concentration range of 1.0-1000 μg L(-1) with detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 μg L(-1). The developed procedure allows the simultaneous determination of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) in less than 5 min with a RSD between 2.1 and 2.7%. The recoveries of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) were found to be 96.8 and 99.4%, respectively, when the sample was spiked with 20 μg L(-1) standard. Finally, the proposed procedure was used for the determination of tin species in contaminated water.

  3. Improvement of Mitochondria Extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Characterization in Shotgun Proteomics Using Sheathless Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marianne; Gahoual, Rabah; Enkler, Ludovic; Becker, Hubert Dominique; Chicher, Johana; Hammann, Philippe; François, Yannis-Nicolas; Kuhn, Lauriane; Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we describe the characterization of a quantity-limited sample (100 ng) of yeast mitochondria by shotgun bottom-up proteomics. Sample characterization was carried out by sheathless capillary electrophoresis, equipped with a high sensitivity porous tip and coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (CESI-MS-MS) and concomitantly with a state-of-art nano flow liquid chromatography coupled to a similar mass spectrometry (MS) system (nanoLC-MS-MS). With single injections, both nanoLC-MS-MS and CESI-MS-MS 60 min-long separation experiments allowed us to identify 271 proteins (976 unique peptides) and 300 proteins (1,765 unique peptides) respectively, demonstrating a significant specificity and complementarity in identification depending on the physicochemical separation employed. Such complementary, maximizing the number of analytes detected, presents a powerful tool to deepen a biological sample's proteomic characterization. A comprehensive study of the specificity provided by each separating technique was also performed using the different properties of the identified peptides: molecular weight, mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), isoelectric point (pI), sequence coverage or MS-MS spectral quality enabled to determine the contribution of each separation. For example, CESI-MS-MS enables to identify larger peptides and eases the detection of those having extreme pI without impairing spectral quality. The addition of peptides, and therefore proteins identified by both techniques allowed us to increase significantly the sequence coverages and then the confidence of characterization. In this study, we also demonstrated that the two yeast enolase isoenzymes were both characterized in the CESI-MS-MS data set. The observation of discriminant proteotypic peptides is facilitated when a high number of precursors with high-quality MS-MS spectra are generated. PMID:26860395

  4. Improvement of Mitochondria Extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Characterization in Shotgun Proteomics Using Sheathless Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marianne; Gahoual, Rabah; Enkler, Ludovic; Becker, Hubert Dominique; Chicher, Johana; Hammann, Philippe; François, Yannis-Nicolas; Kuhn, Lauriane; Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we describe the characterization of a quantity-limited sample (100 ng) of yeast mitochondria by shotgun bottom-up proteomics. Sample characterization was carried out by sheathless capillary electrophoresis, equipped with a high sensitivity porous tip and coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (CESI-MS-MS) and concomitantly with a state-of-art nano flow liquid chromatography coupled to a similar mass spectrometry (MS) system (nanoLC-MS-MS). With single injections, both nanoLC-MS-MS and CESI-MS-MS 60 min-long separation experiments allowed us to identify 271 proteins (976 unique peptides) and 300 proteins (1,765 unique peptides) respectively, demonstrating a significant specificity and complementarity in identification depending on the physicochemical separation employed. Such complementary, maximizing the number of analytes detected, presents a powerful tool to deepen a biological sample's proteomic characterization. A comprehensive study of the specificity provided by each separating technique was also performed using the different properties of the identified peptides: molecular weight, mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), isoelectric point (pI), sequence coverage or MS-MS spectral quality enabled to determine the contribution of each separation. For example, CESI-MS-MS enables to identify larger peptides and eases the detection of those having extreme pI without impairing spectral quality. The addition of peptides, and therefore proteins identified by both techniques allowed us to increase significantly the sequence coverages and then the confidence of characterization. In this study, we also demonstrated that the two yeast enolase isoenzymes were both characterized in the CESI-MS-MS data set. The observation of discriminant proteotypic peptides is facilitated when a high number of precursors with high-quality MS-MS spectra are generated.

  5. Separation and identification of oligomeric vinylmethoxysiloxanes by gradient elution chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guiying; Wan, Qian-Hong

    2015-05-22

    A high-performance liquid chromatography with online electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) has been used to separate and identify the reaction products resulting from controlled acid-catalyzed hydrolytic polycondensation of vinyltrimethoxysilane (VMS). The reaction products were prepared in the molar ratio of water to VMS (r1) ranging from 0.6 to 1.2, characterized by standard spectroscopic techniques, and subsequently analyzed by HPLC-UV absorbance detection and HPLC-ESI-MS. Linear vinylmethoxysiloxane oligomers with the number of repeat units (n) ranging from 3 to 11 are predominant species at the beginning of the reaction (for r1=0.6). Then they transform into monocyclic (for r1=1.0) and bicyclic (for r1=1.2) species with gradually increasing amount of water in the reaction mixture. The oligomer conversions suggest that structure growth of vinylmetoxysiloxanes proceeds by nonrandom cyclization reactions, which are favored over chain extension under the chosen reaction conditions. Direct ESI-MS, HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC-UV were used to determine the molar mass distributions for the vinylmethoxysiloxane oligomers prepared in three different values of r1. The molar mass averages increase slightly with the amount of water in the reaction mixture and vary somewhat with the method used. Our results indicate that with the combined capability of separation, sensitivity and identification, HPLC-ESI-MS is especially useful to study highly complex silicon-based compounds with hyperbranched, caged or cubic structures as building blocks for hybrid materials. PMID:25890439

  6. Analysis of additives in dairy products by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Ling, Yun; Lin, Yuanhui; Chang, James; Chu, Xiaogang

    2014-04-01

    A new method combining QuEChERS with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap) was developed for the highly accurate and sensitive screening of 43 antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in dairy products. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method for the determination of 42 different analytes in dairy products for the first time. After optimization, the maximum predicted recovery was 99.33% rate for aspartame under the optimized conditions of 10 mL acetionitrile, 1.52 g sodium acetate, 410 mg PSA and 404 mgC18. For the matrices studied, the recovery rates of the other 42 compounds ranged from 89.4% to 108.2%, with coefficient of variation <6.4%. UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap Mass full scan mode acquired full MS data was used to identify and quantify additives, and data-dependent scan mode obtained fragment ion spectra for confirmation. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 1.5ppm, and only need to calibrate once a week. The 43 compounds behave dynamic in the range 0.001-1000 μg kg(-1) concentration, with correlation coefficient >0.999. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.0001-3.6 μg kg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in commercial dairy product samples, and it is very useful for fast screening of different food additives.

  7. Elastic Proton Scattering of Medium Mass Nuclei from Coupled-Cluster Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, G.; MichelN.,

    2012-01-01

    Using coupled-cluster theory and interactions from chiral effective field theory, we compute overlap functions for transfer and scattering of low-energy protons on the target nucleus 40Ca. Effects of three-nucleon forces are included phenomenologically as in-medium two-nucleon interactions. Using known asymptotic forms for one-nucleon overlap functions we derive a simple and intuitive way of computing scattering observables such as elastic scattering phase shifts and cross sections. As a first application and proof of principle, we compute phase shifts and differential interaction cross sections at energies of 9.6 and 12.44 MeV and compare with experimental data. Our computed diffraction minima are in fair agreement with experimental results, while we tend to overestimate the cross sections at large scattering angles.

  8. Precise isotopic analysis of Mo in seawater using multiple collector-inductively coupled mass spectrometry coupled with a chelating resin column preconcentration method.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yusuke; Firdaus, M Lutfi; Norisuye, Kazuhiro; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Irisawa, Keita; Hirata, Takafumi

    2008-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the natural isotopic variation of Mo can provide crucial information about the geochemical circulation of Mo, and the ocean is an important reservoir of Mo. To obtain precise isotopic data on Mo in seawater samples using multiple collector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS), we have developed a preconcentration technique using 8-hydroxyquinoline bonded covalently to a vinyl polymer resin (TSK-8HQ). By optimizing the procedure, Mo in seawater could be effectively separated from matrix elements such as alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals. With this technique, even with a 50-fold enrichment factor, the changes in the 98Mo/95Mo ratio during preconcentration were smaller than twice the standard deviation (SD) in this study. Mass discrimination of Mo isotopes during the measurement was externally corrected for by normalizing 86Sr/88Sr to 0.1194 using an exponential law. We evaluated delta98/95Mo to a precision of +/- 0.08 per thousand (+/-2 SD); this value was found to be less than one-third of previous reported values. Moreover, we were able to determine an accurate ratio for every pair of stable Mo isotopes, which was impossible with previous methods owing to the isobaric interference from the external elements (Zr and Ru). In this study, delta92/98Mo in seawater was first determined so that it had the smallest relative error. We applied the proposed method to four kinds of seawater samples. The Mo compositions were constant among them, with average delta98/95Mo and delta92/98Mo values of 2.45 +/- 0.11 and -4.94 +/- 0.09 per thousand (+/-2 SD), respectively. Our data indicate that seawater is enriched in heavy Mo isotopes than previously reported. PMID:19551942

  9. Manganese species from human serum, cerebrospinal fluid analyzed by size exclusion chromatography-, capillary electrophoresis coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Michalke, Bernhard; Berthele, Achim; Mistriotis, Panos; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, Maria; Halbach, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) at high concentrations can have adverse effects on health, mainly because of its toxicity to the central nervous system. Health impacts of Mn are known mostly from occupational health studies, but the exact mechanisms how Mn, being bound to transferrin (TF) in the blood, enters the brain--are unknown. Mn speciation at the neural barriers can help to obtain more information about the pathways and carriers. This paper summarizes investigations on the size distribution of Mn carriers (e.g. proteins, peptides, carbonic acids) in serum before the neural barriers and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) behind them as a first characterization step of the Mn carriers being involved in moving Mn across the neural barriers. Further identification of Mn-species in CSF was successfully achieved by CZE-inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Serum samples showed Mn mean concentrations of 1.7+/-0.8 microg L(-1). The size distribution of Mn-carriers showed a main peak in the TF/albumin size fitting to the known physiological ligands. However, also an increasing Mn peak at 700 Da with increasing total Mn concentration was seen. Samples of CSF showed Mn mean concentrations of 2.6 microg L(-1)=48 nM. In CSF Mn was found to be mostly bound to low-molecular-mass (LMM)-Mn carriers in the range of 640-680 Da. This is similar to the LMM compound in serum and to Mn-citrate complexes suggested to be present in body fluids. Citrate concentration was 573 microM, thus being in huge excess compared to Mn. CSF was further analyzed by CZE-ICP-DRC-MS. Several Mn-species were monitored and mostly identified. The most abundant Mn-species was Mn-citrate at a concentration of around 0.7 microg Mn L(-1). PMID:18039486

  10. Higgs coupling constants as a probe of new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Okada, Yasuhiro; Senaha, Eibun; Yuan, C.-P.

    2004-12-01

    We study new physics effects on the couplings of weak gauge bosons with the lightest CP-even Higgs boson (h), hZZ, and the trilinear coupling of the lightest Higgs boson, hhh, at the one-loop order, as predicted by the two Higgs doublet model. Those renormalized coupling constants can deviate from the standard model (SM) predictions due to two distinct origins: the tree level mixing effect of Higgs bosons and the quantum effect of additional particles in loop diagrams. The latter can be enhanced in the renormalized hhh coupling constant when the additional particles show the nondecoupling property. Therefore, even in the case where the hZZ coupling is close to the SM value, deviation in the hhh coupling from the SM value can become as large as plus 100%, while that in the hZZ coupling is at most minus 1% level. Such large quantum effect on the Higgs trilinear coupling is distinguishable from the tree level mixing effect, and is expected to be detectable at a future linear collider.

  11. Coupled effects of temperature and mass transport on the isotope fractionation of zinc during electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jay R.; John, Seth G.; Kavner, Abby

    2014-01-01

    The isotopic composition of zinc metal electrodeposited on a rotating disc electrode from a Zn-citrate aqueous solution was investigated as a function of overpotential (electrochemical driving force), temperature, and rotation rate. Zn metal was measured to be isotopically light with respect to Zn+2 in solution, with observed fractionations varying from Δ66/64Znmetal-aqueous = -1.0‰ to -3.9‰. Fractionation varies continuously as a function of a dimensionless parameter described by the ratio of observed deposition rate to calculated mass-transport limiting rate, where larger fractionations are observed at lower deposition rates, lower temperature, and at faster electrode rotation rates. Thus, the large fractionation and its rate dependence is interpreted as a competition between the two kinetic processes with different effective activation energies: mass-transport-limited (diffusion limited) kinetics with a large activation energy, which creates small fractionations close to the predicted diffusive fractionation; and electrochemical deposition kinetics, with a smaller effective activation energy, which creates large fractionations at low deposition rates and high hydrodynamic fluxes of solute to the electrode. The results provide a framework for predicting isotope fractionation in processes controlled by two competing reactions with different kinetic isotope effects. Light isotopes are electroplated. In all cases light stable isotopes of the metals are preferentially electroplated, with mass-dependent behavior evident where three or more isotopes are measured. Fractionation is time-independent, meaning that the fractionation factor does not vary with the extent of reaction. In most of our experiments, we have controlled the extent of reaction such that only a small amount of metal is deposited from the stock solution, thus avoiding significant evolution of the reservoir composition. In such experiments, the observed isotope fractionation is constant as a

  12. Biogeochemical responses following coral mass spawning on the Great Barrier Reef: pelagic-benthic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, C.; Jantzen, C.; Struck, U.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Huettel, M.

    2008-03-01

    This study quantified how the pulse of organic matter from the release of coral gametes triggered a chain of pelagic and benthic processes during an annual mass spawning event on the Australian Great Barrier Reef. Particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations in reef waters increased by threefold to 11-fold the day after spawning and resulted in a stimulation of pelagic oxygen consumption rates that lasted for at least 1 week. Water column microbial communities degraded the organic carbon of gametes of the broadcast-spawning coral Acropora millepora at a rate of >15% h-1, which is about three times faster than the degradation rate measured for larvae of the brooding coral Stylophora pistillata. Stable isotope signatures of POM in the water column reflected the fast transfer of organic matter from coral gametes into higher levels of the food chain, and the amount of POM reaching the seafloor immediately increased after coral spawning and then tailed-off in the next 2 weeks. Short-lasting phytoplankton blooms developed within a few days after the spawning event, indicating a prompt recycling of nutrients released through the degradation of spawning products. These data show the profound effects of coral mass spawning on the reef community and demonstrate the tight recycling of nutrients in this oligotrophic ecosystem.

  13. Measurement of femtogram quantities of protactinium in silicate rock samples by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Regelous, Marcel; Turner, Simon P; Elliott, Tim R; Rostami, Kia; Hawkesworth, Chris J

    2004-07-01

    We describe a new method for the chemical separation and analysis of Pa in silicate rock samples by isotope dilution. Our new technique has the following advantages over previous methods: (a) The initial separation of Pa from the rock matrix is carried out using anionic exchange resin and HCl-HF mixtures, avoiding the need to remove F(-) quantitatively from the sample solution prior to this step, (b) Efficient ionization of Pa is achieved using a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, so that smaller sample sizes and shorter measurement times are required, compared to previous methods using thermal ionization mass spectrometry or alpha spectrometry. (c) Plasma ionization requires less efficient separation of the high field strength elements from Pa, thus reducing reagent volumes, blanks, and sample preparation times. Instrumental mass fractionation can be corrected for using admixed U of known isotopic composition. Using this method, Pa concentrations can be measured to a precision of approximately 0.5% and an accuracy of approximately 1% using only a few tens of femtograms of Pa.

  14. Measurement of femtogram quantities of protactinium in silicate rock samples by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Regelous, Marcel; Turner, Simon P; Elliott, Tim R; Rostami, Kia; Hawkesworth, Chris J

    2004-07-01

    We describe a new method for the chemical separation and analysis of Pa in silicate rock samples by isotope dilution. Our new technique has the following advantages over previous methods: (a) The initial separation of Pa from the rock matrix is carried out using anionic exchange resin and HCl-HF mixtures, avoiding the need to remove F(-) quantitatively from the sample solution prior to this step, (b) Efficient ionization of Pa is achieved using a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, so that smaller sample sizes and shorter measurement times are required, compared to previous methods using thermal ionization mass spectrometry or alpha spectrometry. (c) Plasma ionization requires less efficient separation of the high field strength elements from Pa, thus reducing reagent volumes, blanks, and sample preparation times. Instrumental mass fractionation can be corrected for using admixed U of known isotopic composition. Using this method, Pa concentrations can be measured to a precision of approximately 0.5% and an accuracy of approximately 1% using only a few tens of femtograms of Pa. PMID:15228328

  15. Mass spectrometry of positive ions in capacitively coupled low pressure RF discharges in oxygen with water impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanović, Ilija; Stojanović, Vladimir; Boulmer-Leborgne, Chantal; Lecas, Thomas; Kovacevic, Eva; Berndt, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    A capacitively coupled RF oxygen discharge is studied by means of mass spectroscopy. Mass spectra of neutral and positive species are measured in the mid plane between the electrodes at different distances between plasma and mass-spectrometer orifice. In the case of positive ions, as expected, the largest flux originates from \\text{O}2+ . However, a significant number of impurities are detected, especially for low input powers and larger distances. The most abundant positive ions (besides \\text{O}2+ ) are \\text{N}{{\\text{O}}+}, \\text{NO}2+ , {{\\text{H}}+}≤ft({{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O}\\right) , and {{\\text{H}}+}{{≤ft({{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O}\\right)}2} . In particular, for the case of hydrated hydronium ions {{\\text{H}}+}{{≤ft({{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O}\\right)}n} (n  =  1, 2) a surprisingly large flux (for low pressure plasma conditions) is detected. Another interesting fact concerns the {{\\text{H}}2}{{\\text{O}}+} ions. Despite the relatively high ammount of water impurities {{\\text{H}}2}{{\\text{O}}+} ions are present only in traces. The reaction mechanisms leading to the production of the observed ions, especially the hydrated hydronium ions are discussed.

  16. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantification of quantum dots bioconjugation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-Miranda, Mario; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Costa-Fernández, José M; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2015-11-27

    Hyphenation of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) to an on-line elemental detection (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS) is proposed as a powerful diagnostic tool for quantum dots bioconjugation studies. In particular, conjugation effectiveness between a "model" monoclonal IgG antibody (Ab) and CdSe/ZnS core-shell Quantum Dots (QDs), surface-coated with an amphiphilic polymer, has been monitored here by such hybrid AF4-ICP-MS technique. Experimental conditions have been optimized searching for a proper separation between the sought bioconjugates from the eventual free reagents excesses employed during the bioconjugation (QDs and antibodies). Composition and pH of the carrier have been found to be critical parameters to ensure an efficient separation while ensuring high species recovery from the AF4 channel. An ICP-MS equipped with a triple quadropole was selected as elemental detector to enable sensitive and reliable simultaneous quantification of the elemental constituents, including sulfur, of the nanoparticulated species and the antibody. The hyphenated technique used provided nanoparticle size-based separation, elemental detection, and composition analysis capabilities that turned out to be instrumental in order to investigate in depth the Ab-QDs bioconjugation process. Moreover, the analytical strategy here proposed allowed us not only to clearly identify the bioconjugation reaction products but also to quantify nanoparticle:antibodies bioconjugation efficiency. This is a key issue in future development of analytical and bioanalytical photoluminescent QDs applications. PMID:26493473

  17. Magnetic immunoassay coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen in human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Yiwen; Xiao, Guangyang; Hu, Bin

    2015-04-01

    The absolute quantification of glycoproteins in complex biological samples is a challenge and of great significance. Herein, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized magnetic beads were prepared to selectively capture glycoproteins, while antibody conjugated gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized as element tags to label two different glycoproteins. Based on that, a new approach of magnetic immunoassay-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycoproteins. Taking biomarkers of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as two model glycoproteins, experimental parameters involved in the immunoassay procedure were carefully optimized and analytical performance of the proposed method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) for AFP and CEA were 0.086 μg L- 1 and 0.054 μg L- 1 with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7, c = 5 μg L- 1) of 6.5% and 6.2% for AFP and CEA, respectively. Linear range for both AFP and CEA was 0.2-50 μg L- 1. To validate the applicability of the proposed method, human serum samples were analyzed, and the obtained results were in good agreement with that obtained by the clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. The developed method exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for the simultaneous determination of AFP and CEA, and extended the applicability of metal nanoparticle tags based on ICP-MS methodology in multiple glycoprotein quantifications.

  18. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry as an alternative to cloud point extraction based methods for rapid quantification of silver ions and surface coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K; Linder, Sean W

    2016-01-15

    Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 μg kg(-1) of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 μg kg(-1) of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10-110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low.

  19. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry as an alternative to cloud point extraction based methods for rapid quantification of silver ions and surface coated silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K.; Linder, Sean W.

    2016-01-01

    Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 μg kg−1 of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 μg kg−1 of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10–110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low. PMID:26724893

  20. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry as an alternative to cloud point extraction based methods for rapid quantification of silver ions and surface coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K; Linder, Sean W

    2016-01-15

    Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 μg kg(-1) of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 μg kg(-1) of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10-110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low. PMID:26724893

  1. Membrane-Based Emitter for Coupling Microfluidics with Ultrasensitive Nanoelectrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-06-09

    An integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane-based microfluidic emitter for high performance nanoelectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) has been fabricated and evaluated. The ~100-μm-thick emitter was created by cutting a PDMS membrane that protrudes beyond the bulk substrate. The reduced surface area at the emitter enhances the electric field and reduces wetting of the surface by the electrospray solvent. As such, the emitter provides highly stable electrospray at flow rates as low as 10 nL/min, and is compatible with electrospray solvents containing a large organic component (e.g., 90% methanol). This approach enables facile emitter construction, and provides excellent stability, reproducibility and sensitivity, as well as compatibility with multilayer soft lithography.

  2. Coupled effects of temperature and mass transport on the isotope fractionation of zinc during electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jay R.; John, Seth G.; Kavner, Abby

    2014-01-01

    The isotopic composition of zinc metal electrodeposited on a rotating disc electrode from a Zn-citrate aqueous solution was investigated as a function of overpotential (electrochemical driving force), temperature, and rotation rate. Zn metal was measured to be isotopically light with respect to Zn+2 in solution, with observed fractionations varying from Δ66/64Znmetal-aqueous = -1.0‰ to -3.9‰. Fractionation varies continuously as a function of a dimensionless parameter described by the ratio of observed deposition rate to calculated mass-transport limiting rate, where larger fractionations are observed at lower deposition rates, lower temperature, and at faster electrode rotation rates. Thus, the large fractionation and its rate dependence is interpreted as a competition between the two kinetic processes with different effective activation energies: mass-transport-limited (diffusion limited) kinetics with a large activation energy, which creates small fractionations close to the predicted diffusive fractionation; and electrochemical deposition kinetics, with a smaller effective activation energy, which creates large fractionations at low deposition rates and high hydrodynamic fluxes of solute to the electrode. The results provide a framework for predicting isotope fractionation in processes controlled by two competing reactions with different kinetic isotope effects. Light isotopes are electroplated. In all cases light stable isotopes of the metals are preferentially electroplated, with mass-dependent behavior evident where three or more isotopes are measured. Fractionation is time-independent, meaning that the fractionation factor does not vary with the extent of reaction. In most of our experiments, we have controlled the extent of reaction such that only a small amount of metal is deposited from the stock solution, thus avoiding significant evolution of the reservoir composition. In such experiments, the observed isotope fractionation is constant as a

  3. Langmuir Probe and Mass Spectroscopic Measurements in Inductively Coupled CF4 Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. V. V. S.; Sharma, Surendra; Cruden, B. A.; Meyyappan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Electron and ion energy distribution functions and other plasma parameters such as plasma potential (V(sub p)) , electron temperature (T(sub e)), and electron and ion number densities (n (sub e) and n(sub i)) in low pressure CF4 plasmas have been measured. The experiments were conducted in a GEC cell using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) device powered by a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (rf) power source. The measurements were made at 300 W of input rf power at 10, 30 and 50 mTorr gas pressures. Langmuir probe measurements suggest that n(sub e), n(sub i) and V(sub p) remain constant over 60% of the central electrode area, beyond which they decrease. Within the limits of experimental error (+/- 0.25 eV), T(sub e) remains nearly constant over the electrode area. T(sub e) and V(sub p) increase with a decrease in pressure. n(sub e) and n(sub i) are not affected as significantly as T(sub e) or V(sub p) by variation in the gas pressure. The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurements indicate a highly non-Maxwellian plasma. CF3+ is the most dominant ion product of the plasma, followed by CF2+ and CF+. The concentrations of CF2+ and CF+ are much larger than that is possible from direct electron impact ionization of the parent gas. The cross-section data suggest that the direct electron impact ionization of fragment neutrals and negative ion production by electron attachment may be responsible for increase of the minor ions.

  4. The coupling between flame surface dynamics and species mass conservation in premixed turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trouve, A.; Veynante, D.; Bray, K. N. C.; Mantel, T.

    1994-01-01

    Current flamelot models based on a description of the flame surface dynamics require the closure of two inter-related equations: a transport equation for the mean reaction progress variable, (tilde)c, and a transport equation for the flame surface density, Sigma. The coupling between these two equations is investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNS) with emphasis on the correlation between the turbulent fluxes of (tilde)c, bar(pu''c''), and Sigma, (u'')(sub S)Sigma. Two different DNS databases are used in the present work: a database developed at CTR by A. Trouve and a database developed by C. J. Rutland using a different code. Both databases correspond to statistically one-dimensional premixed flames in isotropic turbulent flow. The run parameters, however, are significantly different, and the two databases correspond to different combustion regimes. It is found that in all simulated flames, the correlation between bar(pu''c'') and (u'')(sub S)Sigma is always strong. The sign, however, of the turbulent flux of (tilde)c or Sigma with respect to the mean gradients, delta(tilde)c/delta(x) or delta(Sigma)/delta(x), is case-dependent. The CTR database is found to exhibit gradient turbulent transport of (tilde)c and Sigma, whereas the Rutland DNS features counter-gradient diffusion. The two databases are analyzed and compared using various tools (a local analysis of the flow field near the flame, a classical analysis of the conservation equation for (tilde)(u''c''), and a thin flame theoretical analysis). A mechanism is then proposed to explain the discrepancies between the two databases and a preliminary simple criterion is derived to predict the occurrence of gradient/counter-gradient turbulent diffusion.

  5. Development and evaluation of high resolution quadrupole mass analyzer and an inductively coupled plasma-Mach disk

    SciTech Connect

    Amad, Ma'an Hazem

    1999-12-10

    By definition a plasma is an electrically conducting gaseous mixture containing a significant concentration of cations and electrons. The Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) is an electrodeless discharge in a gas at atmospheric pressure. This discharge is an excellent one for vaporizing, atomizing, and ionizing elements. The early development of the ICP began in 1942 by Babat and then by Reed in the early 1960s. This was then followed by the pioneering work of Fassel and coworkers in the late 1960s. Commercial ICP spectrometers were introduced in the mid 1970s. A major breakthrough in the area of ICP took place in the early 1980s when the ICP was shown to be an excellent ion source for mass spectrometry.

  6. Identification of gunshot residues in fabric targets using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique and ternary graphs.

    PubMed

    Freitas, João Carlos D; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Negrini Neto, Osvaldo; Viebig, Sônia Bocamino

    2012-03-01

    During criminal investigations involving firearms, the detection of gunshot residues (GSRs) is one of the most important evidences. In the present study, a new method to identify trace evidences of GSRs, deposited around the bullet entrance hole, in different types of fabrics used as targets, is described. The experiments were carried out using a 0.38-inch caliber revolver, and 9-mm and 0.40-inch caliber pistols. Testimonies of 2.25 cm(2) of the fabrics were cut around the bullet entrance and digested with 10% nitric acid. Antimony, barium, and lead were analyzed in the remaining solution using a sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The concentrations of the elements were detected at levels up to few microgram per square centimeter. The use of ternary graphics allowed us to identify specific patterns of distribution for blank samples and the clear distinction between the revolver and pistols used.

  7. Detection of gunshot residue in blowfly larvae and decomposing porcine tissue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Lagoo, Lisa; Schaeffer, Luther S; Szymanski, David W; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2010-05-01

    Blowfly larvae and porcine tissue contaminated with gunshot residue (GSR) were collected during summer and winter months, over a 37-day and a 60-day sampling period, respectively. Wound samples were microwave-digested and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the detection of antimony, barium, and lead. During summer, the 37-day sampling period encompassed all stages of decomposition, except skeletonization. The three elements were detected in larvae only on days 3 and 4 after death but were detected at significant levels in tissue samples throughout the entire sampling period. In winter, no significant decomposition was observed throughout the 60-day sampling. Although temperatures were too low for blowfly activity, the three elements were detected in the tissue samples at relatively constant, significant levels. Hence, GSR determination in tissue was more dependent on decomposition stage rather than time since death.

  8. Determination of bromine and tin compounds in plastics using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    İzgi, Belgin; Kayar, Murat

    2015-07-01

    The polybrominated flame retardants and organotin compounds were screened in terms of bromine and tin content using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in plastics. The calibration standards were prepared using the fused-disk technique, and all samples were investigated under optimal conditions. Using a central composite experimental design, laser parameters, laser energy, pulse rate, scan rate and spot size were identified. The detection limits of the method were 1000 mgkg(-1) and 1600 mgkg(-1) for bromide and tin, whereas the relative standard deviation (%) values of the analysis were 9% and 6% (n=3) for ERM EC681k with 770 ± 70 mgkg(-1) Br and 86 ± 6 mgkg(-1) Sn respectively, and 106-115% of Br and 102-104% of Sn were observed for the tetrabromobisphenol A and butyltin trichloride spike plastics, respectively.

  9. Investigating Uranium Concentrations in Groundwaters in the State of Idaho Using Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tkavadze, Levan; Dunker, Roy E; Brey, Richard R; Dudgeon, John

    2016-11-01

    The determination of uranium concentrations in natural water samples is of great interest due to the environmental consequences of this radionuclide. In this study, 380 groundwater samples from various locations within the state of Idaho were analyzed using two different techniques. The first method was Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA), which gives the total uranium concentrations in water samples. The second analysis method was inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP- MS). This method determines the total uranium concentration as well as the separate isotope concentrations of uranium. The U/U isotopic ratio was also measured for each sample to confirm that there was no depleted or enriched uranium present. The results were compared and mapped separately from each other. The study also found that in some areas of the state, natural uranium concentrations are relatively high. PMID:27682901

  10. Determination of selenium species in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Quijano, M A; Gutiérrez, A M; Pérez-Conde, M C; Cámara, C

    1999-08-23

    A method developed to determine organic and inorganic selenium species in human urine samples is presented in detail. After a simple sample treatment based on elimination of non-charged organic compounds, selenium species were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Spherisorb 5 ODS/AMINO column using two different chromatographic conditions: phosphate buffers at pH 2.8 and 6.0. Detection was carried out using an on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Trimethylselenonium ion and two unknown selenium species in urine samples were found. Selenium species were shown to have stability problems, with the maximum allowed storage time of 1 week.

  11. [Identification of metabolites of nobiletin in rats using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling-Ling; He, Yu-Qi; Guo, Xin; Lu, Yan-Hua; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2011-12-01

    In this study, metabolism of nobiletin in rats was studied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). As a result, seven major metabolites were found in bile, urine and serum of rats. Three phase I products were assigned to be demethyl and di-demethyl products, and other four phase II products were assigned to be glucuronic and sulfonic conjugates. The four phase II metabolites were reported for the first time. Among the metabolites found in the present study, the glucuronic conjugates of demethyl-nobiletin played a predominant role in the metabolic pathway, indicating that its potential role for glucuronidation-related factors, such as gene polymorphism, drug-drug interaction, etc., in changing the active and toxic effect of nobiletin and that it should be paid more attention in further development.

  12. Determination of 24 trace elements in felsic rocks by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after lithium metaborate fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panteeva, S. V.; Gladkochoub, D. P.; Donskaya, T. V.; Markova, V. V.; Sandimirova, G. P.

    2003-02-01

    An improved lithium metaborate fusion technique for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric analysis of felsic rocks is proposed. The method involves the dissolution of fused sample material with HF followed by treatment with HNO 3. The decomposition method developed was used for the determination of trace elements in ancient felsic volcanic rocks and granites of Southern Siberia and further applied to petrologic modeling and the geodynamic setting of the rock origin. Data for geological reference materials STM-1, G-2, GSP-1, AGV-1 and BCR-1 were used for method validation and experimental results obtained agreed well with certified values. Detection limits determined ranged from 0.021 to 0.24 μg/g for Y, Pr, middle and heavy rare earth elements (REE), Ta, U and from 0.44 to 2.07 μg/g for Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ba, light REE, Hf and Th.

  13. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  14. Assessment of lead, cadmium and mercury in seafood marketed in Puglia and Basilicata (Italy) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miedico, Oto; Iammarino, Marco; Pompa, Ciro; Tarallo, Marina; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Lead, cadmium and mercury are non-essential heavy metals that may interfere with biological systems, exhibiting high toxicity to human and marine biota. Due to bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, seafood may concentrate high levels of these contaminants since they are often at the top of aquatic food chain. In this study, 342 seafood samples, subdivided into four categories (bivalve molluscs, cephalopod molluscs, blue-fish and other sea fish), were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, in order to assess the levels of lead, cadmium and mercury. Contamination levels higher than allowable limits were verified. In particular, two bivalve mollusc samples were non-compliant for lead and cadmium, four cephalopod mollusc samples non-compliant for cadmium and 14 samples (4 blue-fish and 10 other sea fish) non-compliant for mercury. This survey confirmed the necessity to perform routinely controls related to this type of food inspection.

  15. Determination of organomercury in biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; Siu, K.W.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-12-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for the determination of organomercury in two marine biological standard reference materials for trace metals (dogfish muscle tissue DORM-1 and lobster hepatopancreas TORT-1). In most parts of this study, the organomercury was extracted as the chloride from the material with toluene and back extracted into an aqueous medium of cysteine acetate. Since the final extracts contained more than 4% sodium, isotope dilution and flow injection analysis were used to respectively counter the effect of concomitant elements and avoid clogging the interface. Comparison of results with gas chromatography shows that the only significant organomercury is methyl-mercury. At least 93% of mercury in DORM-1 and 39% of mercury in TORT-1 exist as methylmercury.

  16. Determination of selenium species in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Quijano, M A; Gutiérrez, A M; Pérez-Conde, M C; Cámara, C

    1999-08-23

    A method developed to determine organic and inorganic selenium species in human urine samples is presented in detail. After a simple sample treatment based on elimination of non-charged organic compounds, selenium species were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Spherisorb 5 ODS/AMINO column using two different chromatographic conditions: phosphate buffers at pH 2.8 and 6.0. Detection was carried out using an on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Trimethylselenonium ion and two unknown selenium species in urine samples were found. Selenium species were shown to have stability problems, with the maximum allowed storage time of 1 week. PMID:18967706

  17. Determination of rare-earth elements in uranium-bearing materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zsolt; Katona, Róbert; Stefánka, Zsolt; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus; Nicholl, Adrian

    2010-03-15

    A novel and simple analytical procedure has been developed for the trace-level determination of lanthanides (rare-earth elements) in uranium-bearing materials by inductively coupled plasma sector-field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). The method involves a selective extraction chromatographic separation of lanthanides using TRU resin followed by ICP-SFMS analysis. The limits of detection of the method proposed is in the low pg g(-1) range, which are approximately two orders of magnitude better than that of without chemical separation. The method was validated by the measurement of reference material and applied for the analysis of uranium ore concentrates (yellow cakes) for nuclear forensic purposes, as a potential application of the methodology. PMID:20152406

  18. Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometric Isotopic Determination of Nuclear Wastes Sources Associated with Hanford Tank Leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, John C.; Dresel, P. Evan; Farmer, Orville T.

    2007-11-01

    The subsurface distribution of a nuclear waste tank leak on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site was sampled by slant drilling techniques in order to characterize the chemical and radiological characteristics of the leaked material and assess geochemical transport properties of hazardous constituents. Sediment core samples recovered from the borehole were subjected to distilled water and acid leaching procedures with the resulting leachates analyzed for isotopic and chemical signatures. High-sensitivity inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) techniques were used for determination of isotopic ratios for Cs, I, Mo. Analysis of the isotopic patterns of I and Mo combined with associated chemical data showed evidence for at least two separate intrusions of nuclear waste into the subsurface. Isotopic data for Cs was inconclusive with respect to a source attribution signature.

  19. Using laser ablation/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to bioimage multiple elements in mouse tumors after hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Jiang, Pei-Shin; Yang, Bing-Shen; Sun, Tian-Ye; Peng, Hsu-Hsia; Wang, Chu-Fang

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we employed laser ablation/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to map the spatial distribution of Gd-doped iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in one tumor slice that had been subjected to magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). The mapping results revealed the high resolution of the elemental analysis, with the distribution of Gd atoms highly correlated with that of the Fe atoms. The spatial distributions of C, P, S, and Zn atoms revealed that the effect of MFH treatment was significantly dependent on the diffusion of the magnetic fluid in the tissue. An observed enrichment of Cu atoms after MFH treatment was probably due to inflammation in the tumor. The abnormal distribution of Ni atoms suggests a probable biochemical reaction in the tumor. Therefore, this LA-ICP-MS mapping technique can provide novel information regarding the spatial distribution of elements in tumors after cancer therapy.

  20. Determination of trace mercury species by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiting; Chen, Jianguo; Jin, Xianzhong; Wei, Danyi

    2009-12-30

    A sensitive method for speciation analysis of inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) and methyl mercury (MeHg(+)) has been developed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after cloud point extraction. The analytes were complexed with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and preconcentrated by a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114. Mercury species were effectively separated by HPLC in less than 6 min. The enhancement factors for 25 mL sample solution were 42 and 21, and the limits of detection were 4 and 10 ng L(-1) for Hg(2+) and MeHg(+), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amount of mercury species in environmental and biological samples.

  1. Multielemental analysis of prehistoric animal teeth by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Galiova, Michaela; Kaiser, Jozef; Fortes, Francisco J.; Novotny, Karel; Malina, Radomir; Prokes, Lubomir; Hrdlicka, Ales; Vaculovic, Tomas; Nyvltova Fisakova, Miriam; Svoboda, Jiri; Kanicky, Viktor; Laserna, Javier J.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) were utilized for microspatial analyses of a prehistoric bear (Ursus arctos) tooth dentine. The distribution of selected trace elements (Sr, Ba, Fe) was measured on a 26 mmx15 mm large and 3 mm thick transverse cross section of a canine tooth. The Na and Mg content together with the distribution of matrix elements (Ca, P) was also monitored within this area. The depth of the LIBS craters was measured with an optical profilometer. As shown, both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS can be successfully used for the fast, spatially resolved analysis of prehistoric teeth samples. In addition to microchemical analysis, the sample hardness was calculated using LIBS plasma ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios of Mg (or Ca). To validate the sample hardness calculations, the hardness was also measured with a Vickers microhardness tester.

  2. Investigation of Phycobilisome Subunit Interaction Interfaces by Coupled Cross-linking and Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Ofir; Trabelcy, Beny; Gerchman, Yoram; Adir, Noam

    2014-01-01

    The phycobilisome (PBS) is an extremely large light-harvesting complex, common in cyanobacteria and red algae, composed of rods and core substructures. These substructures are assembled from chromophore-bearing phycocyanin and allophycocyanin subunits, nonpigmented linker proteins and in some cases additional subunits. To date, despite the determination of crystal structures of isolated PBS components, critical questions regarding the interaction and energy flow between rods and core are still unresolved. Additionally, the arrangement of minor PBS components located inside the core cylinders is unknown. Different models of the general architecture of the PBS have been proposed, based on low resolution images from electron microscopy or high resolution crystal structures of isolated components. This work presents a model of the assembly of the rods onto the core arrangement and for the positions of inner core components, based on cross-linking and mass spectrometry analysis of isolated, functional intact Thermosynechococcus vulcanus PBS, as well as functional cross-linked adducts. The experimental results were utilized to predict potential docking interactions of different protein pairs. Combining modeling and cross-linking results, we identify specific interactions within the PBS subcomponents that enable us to suggest possible functional interactions between the chromophores of the rods and the core and improve our understanding of the assembly, structure, and function of PBS. PMID:25296757

  3. High-repetition rate laser ablation coupled to dielectric barrier discharge postionization for ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bierstedt, Andreas; Riedel, Jens

    2016-07-15

    Most ambient sample introduction and ionization techniques for native mass spectrometry are highly selective for polar agents. To achieve a more general sensitivity for a wider range of target analytes, a novel laser ablation dielectric barrier discharge (LA DBD) ionization scheme was developed. The approach employs a two-step mechanism with subsequent sample desorption and post-ionization. Effective ablation was achieved by the second harmonic output (λ=532nm) of a diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser operating at a high-repetition rate of several kHz and pulse energies below 100μJ. The ejected analyte-containing aerosol was consecutively vaporized and ionized in the afterglow of a DBD plasma jet. Depending on their proton affinity the superexcited helium species in this afterglow produced analyte ions as protonated and ammoniated species, as well as radical cations. The optimization procedure could corroborate underlying conceptual consideration on the ablation, desorption and ionization mechanisms. A successful detection of a variety of target molecules could be shown from the pharmaceutical ibuprofen, urea, the amino acids l-arginine, l-lysine, the polymer polyethylene glycol, the organometallic compound ferrocene and the technical mixture wild mint oil. For a reliable evaluation of the introduced detection procedure spectra from the naturally abundant alkaloid capsaicin in dried capsicum fruits were recorded. PMID:26851554

  4. Coupled dynamics of body mass and population growth in response to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Ozgul, Arpat; Childs, Dylan Z; Oli, Madan K; Armitage, Kenneth B; Blumstein, Daniel T; Olson, Lucretia E; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2010-07-22

    Environmental change has altered the phenology, morphological traits and population dynamics of many species. However, the links underlying these joint responses remain largely unknown owing to a paucity of long-term data and the lack of an appropriate analytical framework. Here we investigate the link between phenotypic and demographic responses to environmental change using a new methodology and a long-term (1976-2008) data set from a hibernating mammal (the yellow-bellied marmot) inhabiting a dynamic subalpine habitat. We demonstrate how earlier emergence from hibernation and earlier weaning of young has led to a longer growing season and larger body masses before hibernation. The resulting shift in both the phenotype and the relationship between phenotype and fitness components led to a decline in adult mortality, which in turn triggered an abrupt increase in population size in recent years. Direct and trait-mediated effects of environmental change made comparable contributions to the observed marked increase in population growth. Our results help explain how a shift in phenology can cause simultaneous phenotypic and demographic changes, and highlight the need for a theory integrating ecological and evolutionary dynamics in stochastic environments. PMID:20651690

  5. Simultaneous determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization- tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Shuang; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Qing; Lv, Qing; Chen, Yun-Xia; Ma, Hui-Juan; Li, Jing-Rui; Ma, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable analytical method based on HPLC/MSIMS has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics. A diversity of cosmetic samples, including powder, lotion, shampoo, and cream were collected. The samples were ultrasonically extracted with aqueous methanol, and the extracts were then subjected to cleanup bySPE using an Oasis HLB cartridge followed by filtration with a 0.20 pm membrane filter. Afterwards, chromatographic separation was performed on an XSelect CSH C18 column (2.1 x 150 mm, 3.5 pm) maintained at 30°C within 15 min by a gradient of acetonitrile-0.1% aqueous formic acid solution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The mass spectrometric detection was carried, out using electrospray positive ionization under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. A good linearity was observed over the concentration range from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL. The intraday and interday precisions, which were investigated by determining all target compounds in cosmetics seven times/day and on 7 consecutive days, were below 5.00%. The mean recoveries at three spiked levels ranged from 80.42 to 100.83% with the RSDs from 0.45 to 9.02%. The LOQs were determined to be between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. The method was sufficiently rapid, reliable, and sensitive for the determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics. PMID:25632431

  6. Simultaneous determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization- tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Shuang; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Qing; Lv, Qing; Chen, Yun-Xia; Ma, Hui-Juan; Li, Jing-Rui; Ma, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable analytical method based on HPLC/MSIMS has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics. A diversity of cosmetic samples, including powder, lotion, shampoo, and cream were collected. The samples were ultrasonically extracted with aqueous methanol, and the extracts were then subjected to cleanup bySPE using an Oasis HLB cartridge followed by filtration with a 0.20 pm membrane filter. Afterwards, chromatographic separation was performed on an XSelect CSH C18 column (2.1 x 150 mm, 3.5 pm) maintained at 30°C within 15 min by a gradient of acetonitrile-0.1% aqueous formic acid solution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The mass spectrometric detection was carried, out using electrospray positive ionization under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. A good linearity was observed over the concentration range from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL. The intraday and interday precisions, which were investigated by determining all target compounds in cosmetics seven times/day and on 7 consecutive days, were below 5.00%. The mean recoveries at three spiked levels ranged from 80.42 to 100.83% with the RSDs from 0.45 to 9.02%. The LOQs were determined to be between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. The method was sufficiently rapid, reliable, and sensitive for the determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics.

  7. Elucidation of Drug Metabolite Structural Isomers Using Molecular Modeling Coupled with Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reading, Eamonn; Munoz-Muriedas, Jordi; Roberts, Andrew D; Dear, Gordon J; Robinson, Carol V; Beaumont, Claire

    2016-02-16

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) in combination with molecular modeling offers the potential for small molecule structural isomer identification by measurement of their gas phase collision cross sections (CCSs). Successful application of this approach to drug metabolite identification would facilitate resource reduction, including animal usage, and may benefit other areas of pharmaceutical structural characterization including impurity profiling and degradation chemistry. However, the conformational behavior of drug molecules and their metabolites in the gas phase is poorly understood. Here the gas phase conformational space of drug and drug-like molecules has been investigated as well as the influence of protonation and adduct formation on the conformations of drug metabolite structural isomers. The use of CCSs, measured from IM-MS and molecular modeling information, for the structural identification of drug metabolites has also been critically assessed. Detection of structural isomers of drug metabolites using IM-MS is demonstrated and, in addition, a molecular modeling approach has been developed offering rapid conformational searching and energy assessment of candidate structures which agree with experimental CCSs. Here it is illustrated that isomers must possess markedly dissimilar CCS values for structural differentiation, the existence and extent of CCS differences being ionization state and molecule dependent. The results present that IM-MS and molecular modeling can inform on the identity of drug metabolites and highlight the limitations of this approach in differentiating structural isomers. PMID:26752623

  8. Quantification of artemisinin in human plasma using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lindegardh, N.; Tarning, J.; Toi, P.V.; Hien, T.T.; Farrar, J.; Singhasivanon, P.; White, N.J.; Ashton, M.; Day, N.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectroscopy method for the quantification of artemisinin in human heparinised plasma has been developed and validated. The method uses Oasis HLB™ μ-elution solid phase extraction 96-well plates to facilitate a high throughput of 192 samples a day. Artesunate (internal standard) in a plasma–water solution was added to plasma (50 μL) before solid phase extraction. Artemisinin and its internal standard artesunate were analysed by liquid chromatography and MS/MS detection on a Hypersil Gold C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) column using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile–ammonium acetate 10 mM pH 3.5 (50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The method has been validated according to published FDA guidelines and showed excellent performance. The within-day, between-day and total precisions expressed as R.S.D., were lower than 8% at all tested quality control levels including the upper and lower limit of quantification. The limit of detection was 0.257 ng/mL for artemisinin and the calibration range was 1.03–762 ng/mL using 50 μL plasma. The method was free from matrix effects as demonstrated both graphically and quantitatively. PMID:19162422

  9. Mass spectrometry coupled to imaging techniques: the better the view the greater the challenge

    PubMed Central

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Fernández, José A.

    2014-01-01

    These are definitively exciting times for membrane lipid researchers. Once considered just as the cell membrane building blocks, the important role these lipids play is steadily being acknowledged. The improvement occurred in mass spectrometry techniques (MS) allows the establishment of the precise lipid composition of biological extracts. However, to fully understand the biological function of each individual lipid species, we need to know its spatial distribution and dynamics. In the past 10 years, the field has experienced a profound revolution thanks to the development of MS-based techniques allowing lipid imaging (MSI). Images reveal and verify what many lipid researchers had already shown by different means, but none as convincing as an image: each cell type presents a specific lipid composition, which is highly sensitive to its physiological and pathological state. While these techniques will help to place membrane lipids in the position they deserve, they also open the black box containing all the unknown regulatory mechanisms accounting for such tailored lipid composition. Thus, these results urges to different disciplines to redefine their paradigm of study by including the complexity revealed by the MSI techniques. PMID:25657625

  10. Electro-Focusing Liquid Extractive Surface Analysis (EF-LESA) Coupled to Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the chemical composition of surfaces by liquid sampling devices interfaced to mass spectrometry is attractive as the sample stream can be continuously monitored at good sensitivity and selectivity. A sampling probe has been constructed that takes discrete liquid samples (typically <100 nL) of a surface. It incorporates an electrostatic lens system, comprising three electrodes, to which static and pulsed voltages are applied to form a conical “liquid tip”, employed to dissolve analytes at a surface. A prototype system demonstrates spatial resolution of 0.093 mm2. Time of contact between the liquid tip and the surface is controlled to standardize extraction. Calibration graphs of different analyte concentrations on a stainless surface have been measured, together with the probe’s reproducibility, carryover, and recovery. A leucine enkephalin-coated surface demonstrated good linearity (R2 = 0.9936), with a recovery of 90% and a limit of detection of 38 fmol per single spot sampled. The probe is compact and can be fitted into automated sample analysis equipment having potential for rapid analysis of surfaces at a good spatial resolution. PMID:24597530

  11. Coupling the Torpedo microplate-receptor binding assay with mass spectrometry to detect cyclic imine neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Aráoz, Rómulo; Ramos, Suzanne; Pelissier, Franck; Guérineau, Vincent; Benoit, Evelyne; Vilariño, Natalia; Botana, Luis M; Zakarian, Armen; Molgó, Jordi

    2012-12-01

    Cyclic imine neurotoxins constitute an emergent family of neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin that are potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We developed a target-directed functional method based on the mechanism of action of competitive agonists/antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors for the detection of marine cyclic imine neurotoxins. The key step for method development was the immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes rich in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the surface of microplate wells and the use of biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin as tracer. Cyclic imine neurotoxins competitively inhibit biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. The microplate-receptor binding assay allowed rapid detection of nanomolar concentrations of cyclic imine neurotoxins directly in shellfish samples. Although highly sensitive and specific for the detection of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as a class, the receptor binding assay cannot identify a given analyte. To address the low selectivity of the microplate-receptor binding assay, the cyclic imine neurotoxins tightly bound to the coated Torpedo nicotinic receptor were eluted with methanol, and the chemical nature of the eluted ligands was identified by mass spectrometry. The immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes on the surface of microplate wells proved to be a high-throughput format for the survey of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors directly in shellfish matrixes with high sensitivity and reproducibility.

  12. Subtyping botulinum neurotoxins by sequential multiple endoproteases in-gel digestion coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxia; Baudys, Jakub; Rees, Jon; Marshall, Kristin M; Kalb, Suzanne R; Parks, Bryan A; Nowaczyk, Louis; Pirkle, James L; Barr, John R

    2012-06-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is one of the most toxic substances known. BoNT is classified into seven distinct serotypes labeled A-G. Among individual serotypes, researchers have identified subtypes based on amino acid variability within a serotype and toxin variants with minor amino acid sequence differences within a subtype. BoNT subtype identification is valuable for tracing and tracking bacterial pathogens. A proteomics approach is useful for BoNT subtyping since botulism is caused by botulinum neurotoxin and does not require the presence of the bacteria or its DNA. Enzymatic digestion and peptide identification using tandem mass spectrometry determines toxin protein sequences. However, with the conventional one-step digestion method, producing sufficient numbers of detectable peptides to cover the entire protein sequence is difficult, and incomplete sequence coverage results in uncertainty in distinguishing BoNT subtypes and toxin variants because of high sequence similarity. We report here a method of multiple enzymes and sequential in-gel digestion (MESID) to characterize the BoNT protein sequence. Complementary peptide detection from toxin digestions has yielded near-complete sequence coverage for all seven BoNT serotypes. Application of the method to a BoNT-contaminated carrot juice sample resulted in the identification of 98.4% protein sequence which led to a confident determination of the toxin subtype.

  13. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: an emerging technology for detecting rare cells in tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Managh, Amy J; Hutchinson, Robert W; Riquelme, Paloma; Broichhausen, Christiane; Wege, Anja K; Ritter, Uwe; Ahrens, Norbert; Koehl, Gudrun E; Walter, Lisa; Florian, Christian; Schlitt, Hans J; Reid, Helen J; Geissler, Edward K; Sharp, Barry L; Hutchinson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Administering immunoregulatory cells to patients as medicinal agents is a potentially revolutionary approach to the treatment of immunologically mediated diseases. Presently, there are no satisfactory, clinically applicable methods of tracking human cells in patients with adequate spatial resolution and target cell specificity over a sufficient period of time. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) represents a potential solution to the problem of detecting very rare cells in tissues. In this article, this exquisitely sensitive technique is applied to the tracking of gold-labeled human regulatory macrophages (Mregs) in immunodeficient mice. Optimal conditions for labeling Mregs with 50-nm gold particles were investigated by exposing Mregs in culture to variable concentrations of label: Mregs incubated with 3.5 × 10(9) particles/ml for 1 h incorporated an average of 3.39 × 10(8) Au atoms/cell without loss of cell viability. Analysis of single, gold-labeled Mregs by LA-ICP-MS registered an average of 1.9 × 10(5) counts/cell. Under these conditions, 100% labeling efficiency was achieved, and label was retained by Mregs for ≥36 h. Gold-labeled Mregs adhered to glass surfaces; after 24 h of culture, it was possible to colabel these cells with human-specific (154)Sm-tagged anti-HLA-DR or (174)Yb-tagged anti-CD45 mAbs. Following injection into immunodeficient mice, signals from gold-labeled human Mregs could be detected in mouse lung, liver, and spleen for at least 7 d by solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and LA-ICP-MS. These promising results indicate that LA-ICP-MS tissue imaging has great potential as an analytical technique in immunology.

  14. Nano Liquid Chromatography Directly Coupled to Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Free Fatty Acid Elucidation in Mussel.

    PubMed

    Rigano, Francesca; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Sciarrone, Danilo; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Recently the miniaturization of liquid chromatography (LC) systems and progresses in mass spectrometry instrumentation have enabled direct introduction of the effluent coming from a nanoLC column into the high-vacuum region of an electron ionization source. In the present research, a nanoLC system was directly coupled to an electron ionization mass spectrometer (EI-MS) without any interface or modification of the ion source. The advantage with respect to atmospheric pressure ionization techniques, normally coupled with LC, is major identification power because of a more extensive and reproducible fragmentation pattern, without any matrix effect or mobile-phase interference. In particular, a nanoLC/EI-MS method was developed for elucidation of the free fatty acid profile in mussel samples, avoiding a previous derivatization step, required when gas chromatographic analysis is involved. A total of 20 fatty acids were reliably identified through the comparison with commercial libraries. A quantitative determination was also carried out by using the response factors approach along with the internal standard method, allowing for quantification of 14 fatty acids. Among them, palmitic acid resulted the most abundant, followed by ω6 arachidonic acid. The quantitative data were compared with those obtained by a well-established technique, such as gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Both nanoLC/EI-MS and GC-FID methods were validated and similar results were obtained in terms of limit of detection and quantification, resulting in the picomole range, and sensitivity as well was not significantly different, as demonstrated by comparing the slope values of the calibration curves (p < 0.05, from a t-test). PMID:26937891

  15. Development of an analytical method for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge by the use of gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Novak, Petra; Zuliani, Tea; Milačič, Radmila; Ščančar, Janez

    2016-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants. As a consequence of their widespread use, they have been released into the environment. PBDEs are lipophilic organic contaminants that enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from urban, agricultural and industrial discharges. Because of their low aqueous solubility and resistance to biodegradation, up to 90% of the PBDEs are accumulated in the sewage sludge during the wastewater treatment. To assess the possibilities for sludge re-use, a reliable determination of the concentrations of these PBDEs is of crucial importance. Six PBDE congeners (BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 100, BDE 153 and BDE 154) are listed as priority substances under the EU Water Framework Directive. In the present work a simple analytical method with minimal sample-preparation steps was developed for a sensitive and reliable determination of the six PBDEs in sewage sludge by the use of gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS). For this purpose an extraction procedure was optimised. Different extracting agents (methanol (MeOH), acetic acid (AcOH)/MeOH mixture (3:1) and 0.1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid (HCl) in MeOH) followed by the addition of a Tris-citrate buffer (co-extracting agent) and iso-octane were applied under different modes of extraction (mechanical shaking, microwave- and ultrasound-assisted extraction). Mechanical shaking or the microwave-assisted extraction of sewage sludge with 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl in MeOH and the subsequent addition of the Tris-citrate buffer and the iso-octane extracted the PBDEs from the complex sludge matrix most effectively. However, due to easier sample manipulation during the extraction step, mechanical shaking was used. The PBDEs in the organic phase were quantified with GC-ICP-MS by applying a standard addition calibration method. The spike recovery test (recoveries between 95 and 104%) and comparative analyses with the species-specific isotope

  16. Effect of increasing paternal body mass index on pregnancy and live birth rates in couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Umul, M; Köse, S A; Bilen, E; Altuncu, A G; Oksay, T; Güney, M

    2015-04-01

    In this study, our purpose was to investigate the possible effect of paternal obesity on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes on the basis of clinical pregnancy outcome. Antropometric measurements of 155 couples, referred to our infertility clinic and who underwent an ICSI cycle, have been evaluated. The study sample were divided into three groups with respect to paternal body mass index (BMI), as normal weight (BMI: 20-24.9), overweight (BMI: 25-29.9) and obese (BMI ≥ 30). Results of conventional semen analysis were also analysed. Clinical pregnancy data, including fertilisation rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate, were evaluated. Paternal obesity was a significant negative factor for sperm concentration and sperm motility (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01 respectively). A significant decrease of clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate was associated with increased paternal BMI (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 respectively). We have not determined a significant difference among groups in terms of fertilisation rate and implantation rate. This study demonstrates that increasing paternal BMI has a negative influence on ICSI success, including clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. There is a need for further studies to point the importance of lifestyle changes in order to overcome the negative influence of paternal obesity on couple's fertility.

  17. Theory of inelastic confinement-induced resonances due to the coupling of center-of-mass and relative motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Simon; Saenz, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    A detailed study of the anharmonicity-induced resonances caused by the coupling of center-of-mass and relative motion is presented for a system of two ultracold atoms in single-well potentials. As has been confirmed experimentally, these inelastic confinement-induced resonances are of interest since they can lead to coherent molecule formation, losses, and heating in ultracold atomic gases. A perturbative model is introduced to describe the resonance positions and the coupling strengths. The validity of the model and the behavior of the resonances for different confinement geometries are analyzed in comparison with exact numerical ab initio calculations. While such resonances have so far only been detected for large positive values of the s -wave scattering length, it is found that they are present also for negative s -wave scattering lengths, i.e., for attractive interactions. The possibility to coherently tune the resonances by a variation of the external confinement geometry might pave the way for coherent molecule association where magnetic Feshbach resonances are inaccessible.

  18. Determination of arsenic species in Solanum Lyratum Thunb using capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Pei-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Qiu, Zong-Qing; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Zhu, Xi; Pokhrel, Ganga Raj; Fu, Yu-Ying; Ye, Hui-Min; Lin, Wen-Xiong; Yang, Gui-Di

    2016-08-01

    A simple and highly efficient interface to couple capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry by a microflow polyfluoroalkoxy nebulizer and a quadruple ion deflector was developed in this study. By using this interface, six arsenic species, including arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, and arsenocholine, were baseline-separated and determined in a single run within 11 min under the optimized separation conditions. The instrumental detection limit was in the range of 0.02-0.06 ng/mL for the six arsenic compounds. Repeatability expressed as the relative standard deviation (n = 5) of both migration time and peak area were better than 2.5 and 4.3% for six arsenic compounds. The proposed method, combined with a closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction procedure, was successfully applied for the determination of arsenic species in the Solanum Lyratum Thunb samples from Anhui province in China with the relative standard deviations (n = 5) ≤4%, method detection limits of 0.2-0.6 ng As/g and a recovery of 98-104%. The experimental results showed that arsenobetaine was the main speciation of arsenic in the Solanum Lyratum Thunb samples from different provinces in China, with a concentration of 0.42-1.30 μg/g. PMID:27378629

  19. Determination of trace-level haloacetic acids in drinking water by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjian; Mou, Shifen; Chen, Dengyun

    2004-06-11

    A new method for the determination of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) with ion chromatography (IC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed. With the very hydrophilic anion-exchange column and steep gradient of sodium hydroxide, the nine HAAs could be well separated in 15 min. After suppression with an ASRS suppressor that was introduced in between IC and ICP-MS, the background was much decreased, the interference caused by sodium ion present in eluent was removed, and the sensitivities of HAAs were greatly improved. The chlorinated and brominated HAAs could be detected as 35ClO and 79Br without interference of the matrix due to the elemental selective ICP-MS. The detection limits for mono-, di-, trichloroacetic acids were between 15.6 and 23.6 microg/l. For the other six bromine-containing HAAs, the detection limits were between 0.34 and 0.99 microg/l. With the pretreatment of OnGuard Ag cartridge to remove high concentration of chloride in sample, the developed method could be applied to the determination of HAAs in many drinking water matrices.

  20. Role of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in cultural heritage research: a review.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Barbara; Monticelli, Damiano; Rampazzi, Laura

    2009-03-01

    Cultural heritage represents a bridge between the contemporary society and the past populations, and a strong collaboration between archaeologists, art historians and analysts may lead to the decryption of the information hidden in an ancient object. Quantitative elemental compositional data play a key role in solving questions concerning dating, provenance, technology, use and the relationship of ancient cultures with the environment. Nevertheless, the scientific investigation of an artifact should be carried out complying with some important constraints: above all the analyses should be as little destructive as possible and performed directly on the object to preserve its integrity. Laser ablation sampling coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) fulfils these requirements exhibiting comparably strong analytical performance in trace element determination. This review intends to show through the applications found in the literature how valuable is the contribution of LA-ICP-MS in the investigation of ancient materials such as obsidian, glass, pottery, human remains, written heritage, metal objects and miscellaneous stone materials. The main issues related to cultural heritage investigation are introduced, followed by a brief description of the features of this technique. An overview of the exploitation of LA-ICP-MS is then presented. Finally, advantages and drawbacks of this technique are critically discussed: the fit for purpose and prospects of the use of LA-ICP-MS are presented. PMID:19200475

  1. Role of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in cultural heritage research: a review.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Barbara; Monticelli, Damiano; Rampazzi, Laura

    2009-03-01

    Cultural heritage represents a bridge between the contemporary society and the past populations, and a strong collaboration between archaeologists, art historians and analysts may lead to the decryption of the information hidden in an ancient object. Quantitative elemental compositional data play a key role in solving questions concerning dating, provenance, technology, use and the relationship of ancient cultures with the environment. Nevertheless, the scientific investigation of an artifact should be carried out complying with some important constraints: above all the analyses should be as little destructive as possible and performed directly on the object to preserve its integrity. Laser ablation sampling coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) fulfils these requirements exhibiting comparably strong analytical performance in trace element determination. This review intends to show through the applications found in the literature how valuable is the contribution of LA-ICP-MS in the investigation of ancient materials such as obsidian, glass, pottery, human remains, written heritage, metal objects and miscellaneous stone materials. The main issues related to cultural heritage investigation are introduced, followed by a brief description of the features of this technique. An overview of the exploitation of LA-ICP-MS is then presented. Finally, advantages and drawbacks of this technique are critically discussed: the fit for purpose and prospects of the use of LA-ICP-MS are presented.

  2. Structural Design and Analysis for a Double-Band Cold Mass Support of the MICE Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A; Wu, Hong; Liu, X. K.; Wang, Li; Li, S. Y.; Guo, XingLong; Pan, Heng; Xu, FengYu

    2009-07-01

    The cooling channel of Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) consists of eighteen superconducting solenoid coils, which are magnetically hooked together. A pair ofcoupling magnets operating at 4 K is applied to produce up to .6 T magnetic field on the magnet centerline to keep muon beam within the RF cavity windows. The peak magnetic force on the coupling magnet from other magnets in the MICE channel is up to 500 kN inlongitudinal direction, and the requirements for magnet center and axis azimuthal angle at 4 K are stringent. A self-centered double-band cold mass support system with intermediatethermal interruption is applied for the coupling magnet. The physical center of the magnet does not change as it is cooled down from 300 K to 4.2 K with this support system. In this paper the design parameters of the support system are discussed. The integral analysis of the support system using FEA method was carried out to etermine the tension forces in bands when various loads are applied. The magnet centre displacement and concentricity deviation form the axis of the warm bore are obtained, and the peak tension in support bands is also determined according to the simulation results.

  3. Complexation studies with lanthanides and humic acid analyzed by ultrafiltration and capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kautenburger, Ralf; Beck, Horst Philipp

    2007-08-01

    For the long-term storage of radioactive waste, detailed information about geo-chemical behavior of radioactive and toxic metal ions under environmental conditions is necessary. Humic acid (HA) can play an important role in the immobilisation or mobilisation of metal ions due to complexation and colloid formation. Therefore, we investigate the complexation behavior of HA and its influence on the migration or retardation of selected lanthanides (europium and gadolinium as homologues of the actinides americium and curium). Two independent speciation techniques, ultrafiltration and capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) have been compared for the study of Eu and Gd interaction with (purified Aldrich) HA. The degree of complexation of Eu and Gd in 25 mg l(-1) Aldrich HA solutions was determined with a broad range of metal loading (Eu and Gd total concentration between 10(-6) and 10(-4) mol l(-1)), ionic strength of 10 mM (NaClO4) and different pH-values. From the CE-ICP-MS electropherograms, additional information on the charge of the Eu species was obtained by the use of 1-bromopropane as neutral marker. To detect HA in the ICP-MS and separate between HA complexed and non complexed metal ions in the CE-ICP-MS, we have halogenated the HA with iodine as ICP-MS marker. PMID:17459403

  4. Validation of the at-sea inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Esser, B K; Volpe, A M.

    1998-09-28

    The ability of ICPMS to rapidly, precisely and accurately determine ultratrace metal concentrations and isotopic compositions in the marine environment will allow real-time water mass tracking using diagnostic trace metals and field determination of long-lived radionuclides. The LLNL system is designed to operate in three analytical modes: l A real-time analysis mode with rapid cycle times for mapping trace metal distributions in dynamic environments l An in-line pre-concentration/matrix elimination mode for mapping a broader range of trace metal distributions with greater sensitivity and precision in the coastal ocean l An off-line pre-concentration mode for achieving the sensitivity required to determine long-lived radionuclide concentrations and isotopic compositions. To validate these operational modes a representative set of real-world samples is required to demonstrate that the system works across the salinity and trace metal concentration range expected in the dynamically changing marine environment. Samples collected over a short period, along a transect that spans the salinity gradient from river to coastal ocean is preferable in terms of expected salinity and trace metal concentration range, and in assessing data quality by allowing interpretation of the data in the context of known oceanographic and physical processes. Laboratory validation of the ICPMS capability is twofold. The first part involves collection of a representative set of estuarine samples across a salinity gradient using trace metal sampling techniques. Then, trace metal concentrations and isotopic compositions of the collected samples were determined using the ICPMS instrument in the field van.

  5. Fast HPLC-DAD quantification of nine polyphenols in honey by using second-order calibration method based on trilinear decomposition algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Wu, Hai-Long; Wang, Jian-Yao; Tu, De-Zhu; Kang, Chao; Zhao, Juan; Chen, Yao; Miu, Xiao-Xia; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the use of second-order calibration for development of HPLC-DAD method to quantify nine polyphenols in five kinds of honey samples. The sample treatment procedure was simplified effectively relative to the traditional ways. Baselines drift was also overcome by means of regarding the drift as additional factor(s) as well as the analytes of interest in the mathematical model. The contents of polyphenols obtained by the alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) method have been successfully used to distinguish different types of honey. This method shows good linearity (r>0.99), rapidity (t<7.60 min) and accuracy, which may be extremely promising as an excellent routine strategy for identification and quantification of polyphenols in the complex matrices.

  6. Magnetic solid phase extraction coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the speciation of mercury in environmental water and human hair samples.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shishuai; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Deng, Wenchao; Zheng, Qi; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, γ-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPTS) modified Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was successfully prepared, and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The sorption performance of the prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@γ-MPTS MNPs towards methylmercury (CH3Hg(+)) and inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) was investigated. It was found that CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+) could be simultaneously retained on the prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@γ-MPTS MNPs, and the quantitative elution of CH3Hg(+) and total mercury (THg) was achieved by using 1.5 mol L(-1) HCl containing 0.01% and 3% thiourea (m/v), respectively. And the levels of Hg(2+) were obtained by subtracting CH3Hg(+) from THg. Based on the above facts, a method of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the speciation of CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+). Various experimental parameters affecting MSPE of CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+) such as pH, eluent, sample volume, and co-existing ions have been studied. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for CH3Hg(+) and THg were 1.6 and 1.9 ng L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated by analysis of a Certified Reference Material NRCC DORM-2 dogfish muscle, and the determined values are in good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method has also been successfully applied for the speciation of CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+) in environmental water and human hair samples.

  7. DETERMINATION OF 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2010-07-26

    A new method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples has been developed that provides enhanced uranium removal to facilitate assay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in large soil samples for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by ICP-MS. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via {sup 238}U peak tailing. The method provides enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then transferring Pu to DGA resin for additional purification. The decontamination factor for removal of uranium from plutonium for this method is greater than 1 x 10{sup 6}. Alpha spectrometry can also be applied so that the shorter-lived {sup 238}Pu isotope can be measured successfully. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu and {sup 238}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

  8. Investigation of pharmaceuticals in processed animal by-products by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Ibáñez, María; Serrano, Roque; Boix, Clara; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore; Hannisdal, Rita; Alm, Martin; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2016-07-01

    There is an on-going trend for developing more sustainable salmon feed in which traditionally applied marine feed ingredients are replaced with alternatives. Processed animal products (PAPs) have been re-authorized as novel high quality protein ingredients in 2013. These PAPs may harbor undesirable substances such as pharmaceuticals and metabolites which are not previously associated with salmon farming, but might cause a potential risk for feed and food safety. To control these contaminants, an analytical strategy based on a generic extraction followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) using quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer (QTOF MS) was applied for wide scope screening. Quality control samples, consisting of PAP commodities spiked at 0.02, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg with 150 analytes, were injected in every sample batch to verify the overall method performance. The methodology was applied to 19 commercially available PAP samples from six different types of matrices from the EU animal rendering industry. This strategy allows assessing possible emergent risk exposition of the salmon farming industry to 1005 undesirables, including pharmaceuticals, several dyes and relevant metabolites. PMID:27058915

  9. On-line double isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantitative analysis of solid materials.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Beatriz; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio; Malherbe, Julien; García-Fonseca, Sergio; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-12-01

    We report on the determination of trace elements in solid samples by the combination of on-line double isotope dilution and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The proposed method requires the sequential analysis of the sample and a certified natural abundance standard by on-line IDMS using the same isotopically-enriched spike solution. In this way, the mass fraction of the analyte in the sample can be directly referred to the certified standard so the previous characterization of the spike solution is not required. To validate the procedure, Sr, Rb and Pb were determined in certified reference materials with different matrices, including silicate glasses (SRM 610, 612 and 614) and powdered samples (PACS-2, SRM 2710a, SRM 1944, SRM 2702 and SRM 2780). The analysis of powdered samples was carried out both by the preparation of pressed pellets and by lithium borate fusion. Experimental results for the analysis of powdered samples were in agreement with the certified values for all materials. Relative standard deviations in the range of 6-21% for pressed pellets and 3-21% for fused solids were obtained from n=3 independent measurements. Minimal sample preparation, data treatment and consumption of the isotopically-enriched isotopes are the main advantages of the method over previously reported approaches.

  10. Identification of novel isomeric pectic oligosaccharides using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to traveling-wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leijdekkers, Antonius G M; Huang, Jie-Hong; Bakx, Edwin J; Gruppen, Harry; Schols, Henk A

    2015-03-01

    Separation and characterization of complex mixtures of pectic oligosaccharides still remains challenging and often requires the use of multiple analytical techniques, especially when isomeric structures are present. In this work, it is demonstrated that the coupling of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) to traveling-wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TWIMMS) enabled the simultaneous separation and characterization of complex mixtures of various isomeric pectic oligosaccharides. Labeling of oligosaccharides with 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ) improved MS-ionization efficiency of the oligosaccharides and reduced the complexity of the product ion mass spectra, without losing resolution of the HILIC separation. In addition, labeling enabled quantification of oligosaccharides on molar basis using in-line fluorescence detection. Isomeric structures were distinguished using TWIMMS. The 3-AQ-HILIC-TWIMMS method was used to characterize a series of isomeric sugar beet rhamnogalacturonan I derived oligosaccharides carrying a glucuronic acid substituent. Thereby, some novel structural features were identified for the first time: glucuronic acid was attached to O-3 or to O-2 of galacturonic acid residues and a single galacturonic acid residue within an oligomer could contain both an acetyl group and a glucuronic acid substituent.

  11. Coupled Space- and Velocity-Focusing in Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry-a Comprehensive Theoretical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi-Hong; Lai, Yin-Hung; Wang, Yi-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    A comprehensive theoretical calculation that couples space- and velocity-focusing is developed for optimizing the design of a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Conventional designs for ion sources of TOF mass spectrometers deviate from the optimal condition because the velocity- and space-focusing conditions are considered separately for two ions with simplified equations. The result of a reexamination taking into account all essential ions reveals that the conventional ion source design, especially the length of the ion extraction region, results in poor resolving power. The comprehensive calculation demonstrates that the resolving power increases when the length of the extraction region is shorter than that of the conventional ion source. A numerical analysis indicates that the resolving power dramatically increases when the effective extraction potential compensates for the initial kinetic energy spread of ions. With typically used extraction potentials, the newly optimized ion source improves the resolving power by more than two orders of magnitude compared with the conventional design. This new theoretical interpretation can also be used to predict the optimal extraction potential and extraction delay in conventional ion sources to substantially improve the resolving power. This comprehensive calculation method is effective not only for designing new high-resolution instruments but also for optimizing commercial products.

  12. Retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López, Antonio; Yusà, Vicent; Millet, Maurice; Coscollà, Clara

    2016-04-01

    A new methodology for the retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air was developed, using liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), including two systematic workflows (i) post-run target screening (suspect screening) and (ii) non-target screening. An accurate-mass database was built and used for the post-run screening analysis. The database contained 240 pesticide metabolites found in different matrixes such as air, soil, water, plants, animals and humans. For non-target analysis, a "fragmentation-degradation" relationship strategy was selected. The proposed methodology was applied to 31 air samples (PM10) collected in the Valencian Region (Spain). In the post-target analysis 34 metabolites were identified, of which 11 (3-ketocarburan, carbofuran-7-phenol, carbendazim, desmethylisoproturon, ethiofencarb-sulfoxide, malaoxon, methiocarb-sulfoxide, N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-L-alanine, omethoate, 2-hydroxy-terbuthylazine, and THPAM) were confirmed using analytical standards. The semiquantitative estimated concentration ranged between 6.78 and 198.31 pg m(-3). Likewise, two unknown degradation products of malaoxon and fenhexamid were elucidated in the non-target screening. PMID:26838378

  13. Retrospective analysis of pesticide metabolites in urine using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López, Antonio; Dualde, Pablo; Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara

    2016-11-01

    A comprehensive retrospective analysis of pesticide metabolites in urine was developed, using liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) that includes both post-run target (suspect screening) and non-target screening. An accurate-mass database comprising 263 pesticide metabolites was built and used for the post-run screening analysis. For non-target analysis, a "fragmentation-degradation" relationship strategy was selected. The proposed methodology was applied to 49 real urine samples from pregnant women. In the post-target analysis 26 pesticide metabolites were tentatively identified, 8 of which (2-diethylamino-6-methyl-pyrimidinol; 3-ketocarbofuran; 4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinamine; 4-hydroxy-2-isporopyl-6-methylpyrimidine; diethyl malate; diethyl maleate; N-(2-Ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-2-hydroxyacetamide and propachlor oxanilic acid ) were confirmed using analytical standards. Likewise, one unknown degradation product, methyl-N-phenylcarbamate was elucidated in the non-target screening. Finally, the real urine samples were grouped according to their origin applying a metabolomic approach. PMID:27591649

  14. [High-sensitivity analysis of purines in alcoholic beverages using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Kakigi, Yasuhiro; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we established a high-sensitivity analytical method for purines in alcoholic beverages using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The alcoholic beverages were hydrolyzed with perchloric acid (60%) and subjected to strong cation exchange solid-phase extraction (Bond Elut SCX). The four purine bases (hypoxanthine, adenine, xanthine, guanine) in the extracted solution were separated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography with TSKgel Amide-80 as a separation column, 10 mM ammonium formate (pH 2.0) as mobile phase A, and acetonitrile/100 mM ammonium formate (pH 2.0) (90/10) as mobile phase B. The detection of purine bases was performed by tandem mass spectrometry with ESI. The linearity of this analytical method was not less than 0.996, and the repeatability was not more than 8.4% for each purine base. The recovery was in the range of 60-105%, and the detection limit was not more than 0.005 mg/100 mL. This established method is expected to be useful for quality control and surveillance of purines in alcoholic beverages.

  15. A relevant coupled particle-tracking solution for network reaction and multirate mass transfer under heterogeneous conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, Christopher; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Considering complex physical and reactive processes is necessary to a trustable plume behavior prediction. However, complexity is often synonym of inefficiency and numerical problem for existing model. We present an efficient particle method to simulate plumes evolution moved by advection-dispersion and affected by network reactions and multirate-mass transfer processes under heterogeneous spatial conditions. The stochastic approach is based on the derivation of the probability that a particle being at a certain position, specie and mobility zone will move into another specie and/or zone. Transport processes are fully coupled with reactions. The particle method is free of numerical dispersion and overcomes the inherent numerical problems stemming from the incorporation of heterogeneities into reactive transport codes based on Eulerian approaches. Even if the method aims to be universal, we show that analytical solutions can be provided for the simpler cases, which may improve consequently the model efficiency. Illustratively, we apply our method to model the sequential degradation of chlorinated solvents (PCE ⇒ TCE ⇒ DCE ⇒ VC ⇒ 0) into a finely discretized field and show how spatially variable coefficients of hydraulic permeability, bio-decay and mass transfer affect the spatial and temporal behavior of the four reactive plumes.

  16. An improved thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry coupling using a surface sampling probe electrospray ion trap system

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Michael J; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2004-01-01

    A combined surface sampling probe/electrospray emitter coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer was used for the direct read out of unmodified reversed-phase C18 thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The operation of the surface sampling electrospray ionization interface in positive and negative ionization modes was demonstrated through the direct analysis of TLC plates on which a commercial test mix comprised of four dye compounds viz., rhodamine B, fluorescein, naphthol blue black, and fast green FCF, and an extract of the caffeine-containing plant Ilex vomitoria, were spotted and developed. Acquisition of full-scan mass spectra and automated collection of MS/MS product ion spectra while scanning a development lane along the surface of a TLC plate demonstrated the advantages of using an ion trap in this combination. Details of the sampling system, benefits of analyzing a developed lane in both positive ion and negative ion modes, levels of detection while surface scanning, surface scan speed effects, and the utility of three-dimensional data display, are also discussed.

  17. Trace analysis of energetic materials via direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Kristina; Dake, Jeffrey; Sisco, Edward; Verbeck, Guido F

    2013-09-10

    Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) has proven to be a useful forensic tool for the trace analysis of energetic materials. While other techniques for detecting trace amounts of explosives involve extraction, derivatization, solvent exchange, or sample clean-up, DART-MS requires none of these. Typical DART-MS analyses directly from a solid sample or from a swab have been quite successful; however, these methods may not always be an optimal sampling technique in a forensic setting. For example, if the sample were only located in an area which included a latent fingerprint of interest, direct DART-MS analysis or the use of a swab would almost certainly destroy the print. To avoid ruining such potentially invaluable evidence, another method has been developed which will leave the fingerprint virtually untouched. Direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DAPNe-NSI-MS) has demonstrated excellent sensitivity and repeatability in forensic analyses of trace amounts of illicit drugs from various types of surfaces. This technique employs a nanomanipulator in conjunction with bright-field microscopy to extract single particles from a surface of interest and has provided a limit of detection of 300 attograms for caffeine. Combining DAPNe with DART-MS provides another level of flexibility in forensic analysis, and has proven to be a sufficient detection method for trinitrotoluene (TNT), RDX, and 1-methylaminoanthraquinone (MAAQ).

  18. High-precision measurement of variations in calcium isotope ratios in urine by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.L.L.; Gordon, G.W.; Arrua, R.C.; Skulan, J.L.; Anbar, A.D.; Bullen, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new chemical separation method to isolate Ca from other matrix elements in biological samples, developed with the long-term goal of making high-precision measurement of natural stable Ca isotope variations a clinically applicable tool to assess bone mineral balance. A new two-column procedure utilizing HBr achieves the purity required to accurately and precisely measure two Ca isotope ratios (44Ca/42Ca and 44Ca/43Ca) on a Neptune multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) in urine. Purification requirements for Sr, Ti, and K (Ca/Sr > 10000; Ca/Ti > 10000000; and Ca/K > 10) were determined by addition of these elements to Ca standards of known isotopic composition. Accuracy was determined by (1) comparing Ca isotope results for samples and standards to published data obtained using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), (2) adding a Ca standard of known isotopic composition to a urine sample purified of Ca, and (3) analyzing mixtures of urine samples and standards in varying proportions. The accuracy and precision of δ44/42Ca measurements of purified samples containing 25 μg of Ca can be determined with typical errors less than ±0.2‰ (2σ).

  19. Investigations on the direct introduction of cigarette smoke for trace elements analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Michael J.; Naworal, John D.; Walker, Kathleen; Connell, Chris T.

    2003-11-01

    Direct introduction of mainstream cigarette smoke into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been investigated with respect to its feasibility for on-line analysis of trace elements. An automated apparatus was designed and built interfacing a smoking machine with an ICP-MS for smoke generation, collection, injection and analysis. Major and minor elements present in the particulate phase and the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke of 2R4F reference cigarettes have been qualitatively identified by examination of their full mass spectra. This method provides a rapid-screening analysis of the transfer of trace elements into mainstream smoke during cigarette combustion. A full suite of elements present in the whole cigarette smoke has been identified, including As, B, Ba, Br, Cd, Cl, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Tl and Zn. Of these elements, the major portions of B, Ba, Cs, Cu, K, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, Rb, Sn, Tl and Zn are present in the particulate phase, whereas the major portion of Hg is present in the gas phase. As, Br, Cd, Cl, I and Sb exist in a distribution between the gas phase and the particulate phase. Depending on the element, the precision of measurement ranges from 5 to 25% in terms of relative standard deviation of peak height and peak area, based on the fourth puff of 2R4F mainstream cigarette smoke analyzed in five smoking replicates.

  20. Direct and Sensitive Detection of CWA Simulants by Active Capillary Plasma Ionization Coupled to a Handheld Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Etter, Raphael; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-07-01

    An active capillary plasma ionization (ACI) source was coupled to a handheld mass spectrometer (Mini 10.5; Aston Labs, West Lafayette, IN, USA) and applied to the direct gas-phase detection and quantification of chemical warfare agent (CWA) related chemicals. Complementing the discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) of the Mini 10.5 mass spectrometer with an additional membrane pump, a quasi-continuous sample introduction through the ACI source was achieved. Nerve agent simulants (three dialkyl alkylphosphonates, a dialkyl phosporamidate, and the pesticide dichlorvos) were detected at low gas-phase concentrations with limits of detection ranging from 1.0 μg/m(3) to 6.3 μg/m(3). Our results demonstrate a sensitivity enhancement for portable MS-instrumentation by using an ACI source, enabling direct, quantitative measurements of volatile organic compounds. Due to its high sensitivity, selectivity, low power consumption (<80 W) and weight (<13 kg), this instrumentation has the potential for direct on-site CWA detection as required by military or civil protection. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  1. Direct and Sensitive Detection of CWA Simulants by Active Capillary Plasma Ionization Coupled to a Handheld Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Etter, Raphael; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-07-01

    An active capillary plasma ionization (ACI) source was coupled to a handheld mass spectrometer (Mini 10.5; Aston Labs, West Lafayette, IN, USA) and applied to the direct gas-phase detection and quantification of chemical warfare agent (CWA) related chemicals. Complementing the discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) of the Mini 10.5 mass spectrometer with an additional membrane pump, a quasi-continuous sample introduction through the ACI source was achieved. Nerve agent simulants (three dialkyl alkylphosphonates, a dialkyl phosporamidate, and the pesticide dichlorvos) were detected at low gas-phase concentrations with limits of detection ranging from 1.0 μg/m(3) to 6.3 μg/m(3). Our results demonstrate a sensitivity enhancement for portable MS-instrumentation by using an ACI source, enabling direct, quantitative measurements of volatile organic compounds. Due to its high sensitivity, selectivity, low power consumption (<80 W) and weight (<13 kg), this instrumentation has the potential for direct on-site CWA detection as required by military or civil protection. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27020924

  2. Bioimaging of metals in brain tissue by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and metallomics.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Matusch, Andreas; Palm, Christoph; Salber, Dagmar; Morton, Kathryn A; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-02-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been developed and established as an emerging technique in the generation of quantitative images of metal distributions in thin tissue sections of brain samples (such as human, rat and mouse brain), with applications in research related to neurodegenerative disorders. A new analytical protocol is described which includes sample preparation by cryo-cutting of thin tissue sections and matrix-matched laboratory standards, mass spectrometric measurements, data acquisition, and quantitative analysis. Specific examples of the bioimaging of metal distributions in normal rodent brains are provided. Differences to the normal were assessed in a Parkinson's disease and a stroke brain model. Furthermore, changes during normal aging were studied. Powerful analytical techniques are also required for the determination and characterization of metal-containing proteins within a large pool of proteins, e.g., after denaturing or non-denaturing electrophoretic separation of proteins in one-dimensional and two-dimensional gels. LA-ICP-MS can be employed to detect metalloproteins in protein bands or spots separated after gel electrophoresis. MALDI-MS can then be used to identify specific metal-containing proteins in these bands or spots. The combination of these techniques is described in the second section.

  3. Direct and Sensitive Detection of CWA Simulants by Active Capillary Plasma Ionization Coupled to a Handheld Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Etter, Raphael; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-07-01

    An active capillary plasma ionization (ACI) source was coupled to a handheld mass spectrometer (Mini 10.5; Aston Labs, West Lafayette, IN, USA) and applied to the direct gas-phase detection and quantification of chemical warfare agent (CWA) related chemicals. Complementing the discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) of the Mini 10.5 mass spectrometer with an additional membrane pump, a quasi-continuous sample introduction through the ACI source was achieved. Nerve agent simulants (three dialkyl alkylphosphonates, a dialkyl phosporamidate, and the pesticide dichlorvos) were detected at low gas-phase concentrations with limits of detection ranging from 1.0 μg/m3 to 6.3 μg/m3. Our results demonstrate a sensitivity enhancement for portable MS-instrumentation by using an ACI source, enabling direct, quantitative measurements of volatile organic compounds. Due to its high sensitivity, selectivity, low power consumption (<80 W) and weight (<13 kg), this instrumentation has the potential for direct on-site CWA detection as required by military or civil protection.

  4. Retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López, Antonio; Yusà, Vicent; Millet, Maurice; Coscollà, Clara

    2016-04-01

    A new methodology for the retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air was developed, using liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), including two systematic workflows (i) post-run target screening (suspect screening) and (ii) non-target screening. An accurate-mass database was built and used for the post-run screening analysis. The database contained 240 pesticide metabolites found in different matrixes such as air, soil, water, plants, animals and humans. For non-target analysis, a "fragmentation-degradation" relationship strategy was selected. The proposed methodology was applied to 31 air samples (PM10) collected in the Valencian Region (Spain). In the post-target analysis 34 metabolites were identified, of which 11 (3-ketocarburan, carbofuran-7-phenol, carbendazim, desmethylisoproturon, ethiofencarb-sulfoxide, malaoxon, methiocarb-sulfoxide, N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-L-alanine, omethoate, 2-hydroxy-terbuthylazine, and THPAM) were confirmed using analytical standards. The semiquantitative estimated concentration ranged between 6.78 and 198.31 pg m(-3). Likewise, two unknown degradation products of malaoxon and fenhexamid were elucidated in the non-target screening.

  5. Retrospective analysis of pesticide metabolites in urine using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López, Antonio; Dualde, Pablo; Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara

    2016-11-01

    A comprehensive retrospective analysis of pesticide metabolites in urine was developed, using liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) that includes both post-run target (suspect screening) and non-target screening. An accurate-mass database comprising 263 pesticide metabolites was built and used for the post-run screening analysis. For non-target analysis, a "fragmentation-degradation" relationship strategy was selected. The proposed methodology was applied to 49 real urine samples from pregnant women. In the post-target analysis 26 pesticide metabolites were tentatively identified, 8 of which (2-diethylamino-6-methyl-pyrimidinol; 3-ketocarbofuran; 4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinamine; 4-hydroxy-2-isporopyl-6-methylpyrimidine; diethyl malate; diethyl maleate; N-(2-Ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-2-hydroxyacetamide and propachlor oxanilic acid ) were confirmed using analytical standards. Likewise, one unknown degradation product, methyl-N-phenylcarbamate was elucidated in the non-target screening. Finally, the real urine samples were grouped according to their origin applying a metabolomic approach.

  6. Thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled using proximal probe thermal desorption with electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemica lionization

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure proximal probe thermal desorption sampling method coupled with secondary ionization by electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was demonstrated for the mass spectrometric analysis of a diverse set of compounds (dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, explosives and pesticides) separated on various high-performance thin-layer chromatography plates. Line scans along or through development lanes on the plates were carried out by moving the plate relative to a stationary heated probe positioned close to or just touching the stationary phase surface. Vapors of the compounds thermally desorbed from the surface were drawn into the ionization region of a combined electrospray ionization/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source where they merged with reagent ions and/or charged droplets from a corona discharge or an electrospray emitter and were ionized. The ionized components were then drawn through the atmospheric pressure sampling orifice into the vacuum region of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and detected using full scan, single ion monitoring, or selected reaction monitoring mode. Studies of variable parameters and performance metrics including the proximal probe temperature, gas flow rate into the ionization region, surface scan speed, read-out resolution, detection limits, and surface type are discussed.

  7. Determination of platinum and rhodium in environmental matrixes by solid sampling-electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vanhaecke, F; Resano, M; Pruneda-Lopez, M; Moens, L

    2002-12-01

    Electrothermal vaporization from a graphite furnace was used in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for the determination of Pt and Rh in environmental matrixes. Solid samples of tunnel dust, grass, and atmospheric aerosol collected on a cellulose filter could be analyzed directly, such that sample dissolution-which is not self-evident for the determination of platinum group metals-could be avoided. By heating the graphite furnace according to a multistep temperature program, spectral interferences were avoided, since a "dry" plasma was obtained, while "parent" ions such as Cu, Zn, and Pb, giving origin to interfering molecular ions, were vaporized during the thermal pretreatment step. For tunnel dust, the most demanding sample matrix, a mixture of HCl and HF was used as a modifier to stimulate the vaporization of matrix components during the thermal pretreatment step and, hence, to alleviate matrix-induced analyte signal suppression during the actual vaporization step. Calibration was accomplished by means of single standard addition with an aqueous standard solution. The results obtained agreed within the experimental uncertainty with the