Science.gov

Sample records for masses trilinear couplings

  1. Scalar bosons in minimal and ultraminimal technicolor: Masses, trilinear couplings, and widths

    SciTech Connect

    Doff, A.; Natale, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    We compute masses, trilinear self-couplings, and decay widths into weak bosons of the scalar composite bosons in the case of the minimal and ultraminimal technicolor models. The masses, computed via the Bethe-Salpeter equation, turn out to be light, and the trilinear couplings smaller than the one that would be expected when compared to a fundamental standard model scalar boson with the same mass. The decay widths into electroweak bosons of the ultraminimal model scalars bosons are much smaller than the one of the minimal model.

  2. Trilinear gauge couplings at DELPHI

    SciTech Connect

    McCubbin, Martin

    1997-06-15

    Preliminary measurements of trilinear gauge couplings are presented using data taken by DELPHI at 161 GeV and 172 GeV. Values for the couplings WWV (V=Z,{gamma}) are determined from a study of the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} using differential distributions from the WW final state in which one W decays hadronically and the other leptonically, and total cross-section data from all WW final states. Limits are also derived on neutral ZV{gamma} couplings from an analysis of the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{gamma}+invisible particles.

  3. Measurements of trilinear gauge boson couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.

    1997-10-01

    Direct measurements of the trilinear gauge boson couplings by the D0 collaboration at Fermilab are reported. Limits on the anomalous couplings were obtained at a 95% CL from four diboson production processes: W{gamma} production with the W boson decaying to e{nu} or {mu}{nu}, WW production with both of the W bosons decaying to e{nu} or {mu}{nu}, WW/WZ production with one W boson decaying to e{nu} and the other W or Z boson decaying to two jets, and Z{gamma} production with the Z boson decaying to ee, {mu}{mu}, or {nu}{nu}. Limits were also obtained from a combined fit to W{gamma}, WW {yields} dileptons and WW/WZ {yields} e{nu}jj data samples.

  4. Proving tri-linear couplings at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Womersley, J.

    1995-11-01

    Prospects for measuring the tri-linear couplings of gauge bosons at the LHC are reviewed. Studies carried out by the ATLAS collaboration, and for the 1994 DPF Long Range Planning Workshop, are described. It will be possible to probe {ital WWV} anomalous couplings with a precision of order 10{sup -1}-10{sup -3} if the form factor scale {lambda}{sub {ital FF}}{approx_gt}2 TeV. This just reaches the interesting region where one may hope to see deviations from the standard model given present limits on the scale of new physics. The {ital Z}{gamma}{ital V} limits are much more sensitive to {lambda}{sub {ital FF}}; for {lambda}{sub {ital FF}}{approx_gt}1.5 TeV, {ital h}{sub 3}{sup {ital Z}}{much_gt}O(10{sup -3}) and {ital h}{sup {ital Z}}{sub 4}{much_gt}O(10{sup -5}). It will be possible to see the amplitude zero in {ital W}{gamma} and {ital WZ} production at the LHC but this physics is probably better explored at the Tevatron. {copyright} 1995 {ital American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Measurement of the WW production cross section with dilepton final states in pp collisions at square root(s) = 1.96 TeV and limits on anomalous trilinear gauge couplings.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-11-06

    We provide the most precise measurement of the WW production cross section in pp collisions to date at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV, and set limits on the associated trilinear gauge couplings. The WW-->lnul'nu (l, l' = e, mu) decay channels are analyzed in 1 fb(-1) of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measured cross section is sigma(pp --> WW) = 11.5+/-2.1(stat+syst)+/-0.7(lumi) pb. One- and two-dimensional 95% C.L. limits on trilinear gauge couplings are provided.

  6. A measurement of the WZ production cross section and limits on anomalous trilinear gauge couplings in proton-proton collisions at center of mass energy = 7 TeV using 4:64 1/fb of data collected with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarkar, Advait Neel

    I present a measurement of the W ±Z production cross section in the leptonic final states in pp collisions at s = 7 TeV and limits on anomalous trilinear gauge couplings, using 4.64 fb-1 of data collected using the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The production cross section has been determined to be 19.0+1.4-1.3 (stat.)±0.9(syst.)±0.4(lumi.), in agreement with the Standard Model (SM) expectation of 17.6+1.1-1.0 pb. A search for anomalous tri-linear gauge couplings has been conducted and limits have been set at the 95% confidence level; the result is consistent with the SM couplings.

  7. Broadband geodesic pulses for three spin systems: time-optimal realization of effective trilinear coupling terms and indirect SWAP gates.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Timo O; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J

    2003-11-01

    Broadband implementations of time-optimal geodesic pulse elements are introduced for the efficient creation of effective trilinear coupling terms for spin systems consisting of three weakly coupled spins 1/2. Based on these pulse elements, the time-optimal implementation of indirect SWAP operations is demonstrated experimentally. The duration of indirect SWAP gates based on broadband geodesic sequence is reduced by 42.3% compared to conventional approaches.

  8. Extracting the CP-violating phases of trilinear R-parity violating couplings from μ→eee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan, Yasaman; Najjari, Saereh

    2010-06-01

    It has recently been shown that by measuring the transverse polarizations of the final particles in μ→eee, it is possible to extract information on the phases of the effective couplings leading to this decay. We examine this possibility within the context of R-parity violating Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) in which the μ→eee process can take place at a tree level. We demonstrate how a combined analysis of the angular distribution of the emitted electrons and their transverse polarization can determine the CP-violating phases of the trilinear R-parity violating Yukawa couplings.

  9. Measuring the trilinear couplings of MSSM neutral Higgs bosons at high-energy e+e- colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osland, P.; Pandita, P. N.

    1999-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of multiple production of the lightest CP-even Higgs boson (h) of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) at high-energy e+e- colliders. We consider the production of the heavier CP-even Higgs boson (H) via Higgs-strahlung e+e--->ZH, in association with the CP-odd Higgs boson (A) in e+e--->AH, or via the fusion mechanism e+e--->νeν¯eH, with H subsequently decaying through H-->hh, thereby resulting in a pair of lighter Higgs bosons (h) in the final state. These processes can enable one to measure the trilinear Higgs couplings λHhh and λhhh, which can be used to theoretically reconstruct the Higgs potential. We delineate the regions of the MSSM parameter space in which these trilinear Higgs couplings could be measured at a future e+e- collider. In our calculations, we include in detail the radiative corrections to the Higgs sector of the MSSM, especially the mixing in the squark sector.

  10. Measurements of CP-conserving trilinear gauge boson couplings WWV (V≡ γ,Z) in e+e- collisions at LEP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G. J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kerzel, U.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kostioukhine, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Libby, J.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nemecek, S.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.; DELPHI Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The data taken by Delphi at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV are used to place limits on the CP-conserving trilinear gauge boson couplings Δ gZ1, λ γ and Δ κ γ associated to W + W - and single W production at Lep2. Using data from the jj ℓ ν, jjjj, jjX and ℓ X final states, where j, ℓ and X represent a jet, a lepton and missing four-momentum, respectively, the following limits are set on the couplings when one parameter is allowed to vary and the others are set to their Standard Model values of zero: begin{array}{l}Δ g^Z_1=-0.025^{+0.033}_{-0.030}, noalign{}λ_γ =0.002^{+0.035}_{-0.035}qquadand noalign{}Δkappa_γ =0.024^{+0.077}_{-0.081}. Results are also presented when two or three parameters are allowed to vary. All observations are consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model and supersede the previous results on these gauge coupling parameters published by Delphi.

  11. WW production cross section measurement and limits on anomalous trilinear gauge couplings at √(s) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Michael P.

    2008-04-01

    The cross section for WW production is measured and limits on anomalous WWγ and WWZ trilinear gauge couplings are set using WW → ee/eμ/μμ events collected by the Run II D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider corresponding to 1 fb-1 of integrated luminosity at √s = 1.96 TeV. Across the three final states, 108 candidate events are observed with 40.8± 3.8 total background expected, consistent with σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → WW) = 11.6 ± 1.8(stat) ± 0.7(syst) ± 0.7(lumi) pb. Using a set of SU(2)L Ⓧ U(1)Y conserving constraints, the one-dimensional 95% C.L. limits on trilinear gauge couplings are -0.63 < Δκγ< 0.99, -0.15 < Λγ < 0.19, and -0.14 < Δg1Z < 0.34.

  12. Limits on Anomalous Trilinear Gauge Couplings in $Z\\gamma$ Events from $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2011-03-01

    Using Z{gamma} candidate events collected by the CDF detector at the Tevatron Collider, we search for potential anomalous (non-standard-model) couplings between the Z boson and the photon. At the hard scatter energies typical of the Tevatron, standard model Z{gamma} couplings are too weak to be detected by current experiments; hence any evidence of couplings indicates new physics. Measurements are performed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 fb{sup -1} in the Z {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay channel and 5.1 fb{sup -1} in the Z {yields} l{sup +}l{sup -} (l = {mu}, e) decay channels. The combination of these measurements provides the most stringent limits to date on Z{gamma} trilinear gauge couplings. Using an energy scale of {Lambda} = 1.5 TeV to allow for a direct comparison with previous measurements, we find limits on the CP-conserving parameters that describe Z{gamma} couplings to be |h{sub 3}{sup {gamma},Z}| < 0.017 and |h{sub 4}{sup {gamma},Z}| < 0.0006. These results are consistent with standard model predictions.

  13. Limits on anomalous trilinear gauge couplings in Zγ events from pp¯ collisions at √s=1.96  TeV.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rubbo, F; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sissakian, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tu, Y; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2011-07-29

    Using Zγ candidate events collected by the CDF detector at the Tevatron Collider, we search for potential anomalous (non-standard-model) couplings between the Z boson and the photon. Zγ couplings vanish at tree level and are heavily suppressed at higher orders; hence any evidence of couplings indicates new physics. Measurements are performed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9  fb(-1) in the Z→νν¯ decay channel and 5.1  fb(-1) in the Z→l(+)l(-) (l=μ, e) decay channels. The combination of these measurements provides the most stringent limits to date on Zγ trilinear gauge couplings. Using an energy scale of Λ=1.5  TeV to allow for a direct comparison with previous measurements, we find limits on the CP-conserving parameters that describe Zγ couplings to be |h(3)(γ,Z)|<0.022 and |h(4)(γ,Z)|<0.0009. These results are consistent with standard model predictions.

  14. Neutral Higgs Boson Pair-Production and Trilinear Self-Couplings in the Mssm at Ilc and Clic Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A.; Hernández-Ruíz, M. A.; Sampayo, O. A.

    We study pair-production as well as the triple self-couplings of the neutral Higgs bosons of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) at the future International Linear e+e- Collider (ILC) and Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The analysis is based on the reactions e+e--> b bar b hih_i, t bar t hih_i with hi = h, H, A. We evaluate the total cross-section for both bbar bhih_i, tbar thih_i and calculate the total number of events considering the complete set of Feynman diagrams at tree-level. We vary the triple couplings κλhhh, κλHhh, κλhAA, κλHAA, κλhHH and κλHHH within the range κ = -1 and +2. The numerical computation is done for the energies expected at the ILC with a center-of-mass energy 500, 1000, 1600 GeV and a luminosity 1000 fb-1. The channels e+e--> b bar b hih_i and e+e--> t bar t hih_i are also discussed to a center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV and luminosities of 1000 fb-1 and 5000 fb-1.

  15. Using second-order calibration method based on trilinear decomposition algorithms coupled with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector for determination of quinolones in honey samples.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Jie; Wu, Hai-Long; Shao, Sheng-Zhi; Kang, Chao; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Shao-Hua; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2011-09-15

    A novel strategy that combines the second-order calibration method based on the trilinear decomposition algorithms with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed to mathematically separate the overlapped peaks and to quantify quinolones in honey samples. The HPLC-DAD data were obtained within a short time in isocratic mode. The developed method could be applied to determine 12 quinolones at the same time even in the presence of uncalibrated interfering components in complex background. To access the performance of the proposed strategy for the determination of quinolones in honey samples, the figures of merit were employed. The limits of quantitation for all analytes were within the range 1.2-56.7 μg kg(-1). The work presented in this paper illustrated the suitability and interesting potential of combining second-order calibration method with second-order analytical instrument for multi-residue analysis in honey samples.

  16. Simultaneous determination of free amino acid content in tea infusions by using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection coupled with alternating penalty trilinear decomposition algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fuyuan; Tan, Chao; Zhao, Aiping; Li, Menglong

    2011-10-26

    In this paper, a novel application of alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD) for high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) has been developed to simultaneously determine the contents of free amino acids in tea. Although the spectra of amino acid derivatives were similar and a large number of water-soluble compounds are coextracted, APTLD could predict the accurate concentrations together with reasonable resolution of chromatographic and spectral profiles for the amino acids of interest owing to its "second-order advantage". An additional advantage of the proposed method is lower cost than traditional methods. The results indicate that it is an attractive alternative strategy for the routine resolution and quantification of amino acids in the presence of unknown interferences or when complete separation is not easily achieved.

  17. Measurement of the Zγ → ν ν ‾ γ production cross section in pp collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV and limits on anomalous ZZγ and Zγγ trilinear gauge boson couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Neveu, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; de Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. 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M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Passaseo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pegoraro, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'Imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. 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B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes de Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Kumar, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Woods, N.

    2016-09-01

    An inclusive measurement of the Zγ → ν ν ‾ γ production cross section in pp collisions at √{ s} = 8TeV is presented, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.6 fb-1 collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. This measurement is based on the observation of events with large missing energy and with a single photon with transverse momentum above 145GeV and absolute pseudorapidity in the range | η | < 1.44. The measured Zγ → ν ν ‾ γ production cross section, 52.7 ± 2.1 (stat) ± 6.4 (syst) ± 1.4 (lumi) fb, agrees well with the standard model prediction of 50.0-2.2+2.4 fb. A study of the photon transverse momentum spectrum yields the most stringent limits to date on the anomalous ZZγ and Zγγ trilinear gauge boson couplings.

  18. Viable and testable SUSY GUTs with Yukawa unification: the case of split trilinears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagnoli, Diego; Raby, Stuart; Straub, David M.

    2009-10-01

    We explore general SUSY GUT models with exact third-generation Yukawa unification, but where the requirement of universal soft terms at the GUT scale is relaxed. We consider the scenario in which the breaking of universality inherits from the Yukawa couplings, i.e. is of minimal flavor violating (MFV) type. In particular, the MFV principle allows for a splitting between the up-type and the down-type soft trilinear couplings. We explore the viability of this trilinear splitting scenario by means of a fitting procedure to electroweak observables, quark masses as well as flavor-changing neutral current processes. Phenomenological viability singles out one main scenario. This scenario is characterized by a sizable splitting between the trilinear soft terms and a large μ term. Remarkably, this scenario does not invoke a partial decoupling of the sparticle spectrum, as in the case of universal soft terms, but instead it requires part of the spectrum, notably the lightest stop, the gluino and the lightest charginos and neutralinos to be very close to the current experimental limits. The above mechanism is mostly triggered by a non-trivial interplay between the requirements of negative, sizable SUSY threshold corrections to mb and an instead negligible modification of the B → Xsγ decay rate, in presence of various other constraints, most notably a successful EWSB and a not too large BR(Bs → μ+μ-). We present a model-building interpretation of our discussed scenario and emphasize the crucial role of SUSY spectrum determinations at the LHC for either falsifying Yukawa unification or else providing important hints on the mechanism of SUSY breaking at work.

  19. An Excel macro for generating trilinear plots.

    PubMed

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2007-01-01

    This computer note describes a method for creating trilinear plots in Microsoft Excel. Macros have been created in MS Excel's internal language: Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). A simple form has been set up to allow the user to input data from an Excel worksheet. The VBA macro is used to convert the triangular data (which consist of three columns of percentage data) into X-Y data. The macro then generates the axes, labels, and grid for the trilinear plot. The X-Y data are plotted as scatter data in Excel. By providing this macro in Excel, users can create trilinear plots in a quick, inexpensive manner.

  20. Metastability bounds on flavor-violating trilinear soft terms in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-hyeon

    2011-03-01

    The vacuum stability bounds on flavor-violating trilinear soft terms are revisited from the viewpoint that one should not ban a standard-model-like false vacuum as long as it is long-lived on a cosmological time scale. The vacuum transition rate is evaluated numerically by searching for the bounce configuration. Like stability, a metastability bound does not decouple even if sfermion masses grow. Apart from being more generous than stability, the new bounds are largely independent of Yukawa couplings except for the stop trilinears. With vacuum longevity imposed on otherwise arbitrary LR insertions, it is found that a super flavor factory has the potential to probe sparticle masses up to a few TeV through B and {tau} physics whereas the MEG experiment might cover a far wider range. In the stop sector, metastability is more restrictive than any existing experimental constraint such as from electroweak precision data. Also discussed are dependency on other parameters and reliability under radiative corrections.

  1. Environmental dependence of masses and coupling constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim

    2008-02-15

    We construct a class of scalar field models coupled to matter that lead to the dependence of masses and coupling constants on the ambient matter density. Such models predict a deviation of couplings measured on the Earth from values determined in low-density astrophysical environments, but do not necessarily require the evolution of coupling constants with the redshift in the recent cosmological past. Additional laboratory and astrophysical tests of {delta}{alpha} and {delta}(m{sub p}/m{sub e}) as functions of the ambient matter density are warranted.

  2. Four mass coupled oscillator guitar model.

    PubMed

    Popp, John E

    2012-01-01

    Coupled oscillator models have been used for the low frequency response (50 to 250 Hz) of a guitar. These 2 and 3 mass models correctly predict measured resonance frequency relationships under various laboratory boundary conditions, but did not always represent the true state of a guitar in the players' hands. The model presented has improved these models in three ways, (1) a fourth oscillator includes the guitar body, (2) plate stiffnesses and other fundamental parameters were measured directly and effective areas and masses used to calculate the responses, including resonances and phases, directly, and (3) one of the three resultant resonances varies with neck and side mass and can also be modeled as a bar mode of the neck and body. The calculated and measured resonances and phases agree reasonably well.

  3. Measurement of the Wγ → μvγ Cross-Section, Limits on Anomalous Trilinear Vector Boson Couplings, and the Radiation Amplitude Zero in p$\\bar{p}$ Collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Askew, Andrew Warren

    2004-11-01

    This thesis details the measurement of the p$\\bar{p}$ → Wγ + X → μvγ + X cross section at √s = 1.96 TeV using the D0 detector at Fermilab, in 134.5 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. From the photon ET spectrum limits on anomalous couplings of the photon to the W are obtained. At 95% confidence level, limits of -1.05 < Δκ < 1.04 for λ = 0 and -0.28 < λ < 0.27 for Δκ = 0 are obtained on the anomalous coupling parameters. The charge signed rapidity difference from the data is displayed, and its significance discussed.

  4. Sensitivity of optical mass sensor enhanced by optomechanical coupling

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yong

    2015-03-23

    Optical mass sensors based on cavity optomechanics employ radiation pressure force to drive mechanical resonator whose mechanical susceptibility can be described by nonlinear optical transmission spectrum. In this paper, we present an optical mass sensor based on a two-cavity optomechanical system where the mechanical damping rate can be decreased by adjusting a pump power so that the mass sensitivity which depends on the mechanical quality factor has been enhanced greatly. Compared with that of an optical mass sensor based on single-cavity optomechanics, the mass sensitivity of the optical mass sensor is improved by three orders of magnitude. This is an approach to enhance the mass sensitivity by means of optomechanical coupling, which is suitable for all mass sensor based on cavity optomechanics. Finally, we illustrate the accurate measurement for the mass of a few chromosomes, which can be achieved based on the current experimental conditions.

  5. Sensitivity of optical mass sensor enhanced by optomechanical coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Optical mass sensors based on cavity optomechanics employ radiation pressure force to drive mechanical resonator whose mechanical susceptibility can be described by nonlinear optical transmission spectrum. In this paper, we present an optical mass sensor based on a two-cavity optomechanical system where the mechanical damping rate can be decreased by adjusting a pump power so that the mass sensitivity which depends on the mechanical quality factor has been enhanced greatly. Compared with that of an optical mass sensor based on single-cavity optomechanics, the mass sensitivity of the optical mass sensor is improved by three orders of magnitude. This is an approach to enhance the mass sensitivity by means of optomechanical coupling, which is suitable for all mass sensor based on cavity optomechanics. Finally, we illustrate the accurate measurement for the mass of a few chromosomes, which can be achieved based on the current experimental conditions.

  6. Unification of gauge couplings in radiative neutrino mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Ohlsson, Tommy; Riad, Stella; Schmidt, Michael A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the possibility of gauge coupling unification in various radiative neutrino mass models, which generate neutrino masses at one- and/or two-loop level. Renormalization group running of gauge couplings is performed analytically and numerically at one- and two-loop order, respectively. We study three representative classes of radiative neutrino mass models: (I) minimal ultraviolet completions of the dimension-7 Δ L = 2 operators which generate neutrino masses at one- and/or two-loop level without and with dark matter candidates, (II) models with dark matter which lead to neutrino masses at one-loop level and (III) models with particles in the adjoint representation of SU(3). In class (I), gauge couplings unify in a few models and adding dark matter amplifies the chances for unification. In class (II), about a quarter of the models admits gauge coupling unification. In class (III), none of the models leads to gauge coupling unification. Regarding the scale of unification, we find values between 1014 GeV and 1016 GeV for models belonging to class (I) without dark matter, whereas models in class (I) with dark matter as well as models of class (II) prefer values in the range 5·1010 - 5·1014 GeV.

  7. Higgs self-coupling measurements at a 100 TeV hadron collider

    DOE PAGES

    Barr, Alan J.; Dolan, Matthew J.; Englert, Christoph; ...

    2015-02-03

    An important physics goal of a possible next-generation high-energy hadron collider will be precision characterisation of the Higgs sector and electroweak symmetry breaking. A crucial part of understanding the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking is measuring the Higgs self-interactions. We study dihiggs production in proton-proton collisions at 100 TeV centre of mass energy in order to estimate the sensitivity such a machine would have to variations in the trilinear Higgs coupling around the Standard Model expectation. We focus on the bb¯γγ final state, including possible enhancements in sensitivity by exploiting dihiggs recoils against a hard jet. In conclusion, we findmore » that it should be possible to measure the trilinear self-coupling with 40% accuracy given 3/ab and 12% with 30/ab of data.« less

  8. Higgs self-coupling measurements at a 100 TeV hadron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Alan J.; Dolan, Matthew J.; Englert, Christoph; Ferreira de Lima, Enoque Danilo; Spannowsky, Michael

    2015-02-03

    An important physics goal of a possible next-generation high-energy hadron collider will be precision characterisation of the Higgs sector and electroweak symmetry breaking. A crucial part of understanding the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking is measuring the Higgs self-interactions. We study dihiggs production in proton-proton collisions at 100 TeV centre of mass energy in order to estimate the sensitivity such a machine would have to variations in the trilinear Higgs coupling around the Standard Model expectation. We focus on the bb¯γγ final state, including possible enhancements in sensitivity by exploiting dihiggs recoils against a hard jet. In conclusion, we find that it should be possible to measure the trilinear self-coupling with 40% accuracy given 3/ab and 12% with 30/ab of data.

  9. High Mass Ion Detection with Charge Detector Coupled to Rectilinear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Avinash A.; Chou, Szu-Wei; Chang, Pei-Yu; Lee, Chen-Wei; Cheng, Chun-Yen; Chu, Ming-Lee; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Conventional linear ion trap mass analyzers (LIT-MS) provide high ion capacity and show their MS n ability; however, the detection of high mass ions is still challenging because LIT-MS with secondary electron detectors (SED) cannot detect high mass ions. To detect high mass ions, we coupled a charge detector (CD) to a rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer (RIT-MS). Immunoglobulin G ions (m/z 150,000) are measured successfully with controlled ion kinetic energy. In addition, when mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios of singly charged ions exceed 10 kTh, the detection efficiency of CD is found to be greater than that of SED. The CD can be coupled to LIT-MS to extend the detection mass range and provide the potential to perform MS n of high mass ions inside the ion trap.

  10. Thermodynamically coupled mass transport processes in a saturated clay

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1984-11-01

    Gradients of temperature, pressure, and fluid composition in saturated clays give rise to coupled transport processes (thermal and chemical osmosis, thermal diffusion, ultrafiltration) in addition to the direct processes (advection and diffusion). One-dimensional transport of water and a solute in a saturated clay subjected to mild gradients of temperature and pressure was simulated numerically. When full coupling was accounted for, volume flux (specific discharge) was controlled by thermal osmosis and chemical osmosis. The two coupled fluxes were oppositely directed, producing a point of stagnation within the clay column. Solute flows were dominated by diffusion, chemical osmosis, and thermal osmosis. Chemical osmosis produced a significant flux of solute directed against the gradient of solute concentration; this effect reduced solute concentrations relative to the case without coupling. Predictions of mass transport in clays at nuclear waste repositories could be significantly in error if coupled transport processes are not accounted for. 14 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  11. Beyond Principal Component Analysis: A Trilinear Decomposition Model and Least Squares Estimation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Tuan Dinh; Mocks, Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Sufficient conditions are derived for the consistency and asymptotic normality of the least squares estimator of a trilinear decomposition model for multiway data analysis. The limiting covariance matrix is computed. (Author/SLD)

  12. Spin-orbit coupling induced by effective mass gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos-Abiague, A.

    2010-04-01

    The existence of a spin-orbit coupling (SOC) induced by the gradient of the effective mass in low-dimensional heterostructures is revealed. In structurally asymmetric quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures the presence of a mass gradient across the interfaces results in a SOC which competes with the SOC created by the electric field in the valence band. However, in graded quantum wells subjected to an external electric field, the mass-gradient-induced SOC can be finite even when the electric field in the valence band vanishes.

  13. New bounds on trilinear R-parity violation from lepton flavor violating observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiner, H. K.; Nickel, K.; Staub, F.; Vicente, A.

    2012-07-01

    Many extensions of the leptonic sector of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) are known, most of them leading to observable flavor violating effects. It has recently been shown that the 1-loop contributions to lepton flavor violating three-body decays li→3lj involving the Z0 boson may be dominant, that is, much more important than the usual photonic penguins. Other processes like μ-e conversion in nuclei and flavor violating τ decays into mesons are also enhanced by the same effect. This is for instance also the case in the MSSM with trilinear R-parity violation. The aim of this work is to derive new bounds on the relevant combinations of R-parity violating couplings and to compare them with previous results in the literature. For heavy supersymmetric spectra the limits are improved by several orders of magnitude. For completeness, also constraints coming from flavor violating Z0-decays and tree-level decay channels l→liljlk are presented for a set of benchmark points.

  14. Nonperturbative Quark Mass and Coupling Renormalization in Two Flavor QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Thomas Charles

    1995-01-01

    Nonperturbative bare quark mass and coupling renormalization is studied for two flavor quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the beta function for the case of Kogut-Susskind quarks is determined over the parameter space of existing lattice (spectrum) simulations from the existing spectrum data. This beta function is combined with a series of finite temperature lattice simulations (N_{t} = 4 ) to calculate the interaction measure, varepsilon-3p, which together with the pressure yields the thermal equation of state. A method of computing the asymmetry, or Karsch, coefficients, is also given. These coefficients give the parameter renormalizations for anisotropic lattices. However, for the three points in parameter space that we studied (one using Wilson fermions and two using Kogut-Susskind fermions), a clear determination of the asymmetry coefficients could not be made because of the remarkable fact that ratios of masses measured in different directions on lattices with anisotropic couplings were Euclidean invariant.

  15. Sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Chenchen; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-06-17

    A sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry is disclosed. The sheathless interface includes a separation capillary for performing CE separation and an emitter capillary for electrospray ionization. A portion of the emitter capillary is porous or, alternatively, is coated to form an electrically conductive surface. A section of the emitter capillary is disposed within the separation capillary, forming a joint. A metal tube, containing a conductive liquid, encloses the joint.

  16. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS COUPLED ON-LINE WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ELEMENTAL SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel interface to connect a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) detector is reported here. The interface was built using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) system. In this interface, the CE capillary was placed co...

  17. Inductively Coupled Plasma Zoom-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elise A; Ray, Steven J; Enke, Christie G; Hieftje, Gary M

    2016-03-01

    A zoom-time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been coupled to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source. Zoom-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (zoom-TOFMS) combines two complementary types of velocity-based mass separation. Specifically, zoom-TOFMS alternates between conventional, constant-energy acceleration (CEA) TOFMS and energy-focused, constant-momentum acceleration (CMA) (zoom) TOFMS. The CMA mode provides a mass-resolution enhancement of 1.5-1.7× over CEA-TOFMS in the current, 35-cm ICP-zoom-TOFMS instrument geometry. The maximum resolving power (full-width at half-maximum) for the ICP-zoom-TOFMS instrument is 1200 for CEA-TOFMS and 1900 for CMA-TOFMS. The CMA mode yields detection limits of between 0.02 and 0.8 ppt, depending upon the repetition rate and integration time-compared with single ppt detection limits for CEA-TOFMS. Isotope-ratio precision is shot-noise limited at approximately 0.2% relative-standard deviation (RSD) for both CEA- and CMA-TOFMS at a 10 kHz repetition rate and an integration time of 3-5 min. When the repetition rate is increased to 43.5 kHz for CMA, the shot-noise limited, zoom-mode isotope-ratio precision is improved to 0.09% RSD for the same integration time.

  18. On polarization parameters of spin-1 particles and anomalous couplings in e^+e^-→ ZZ/Zγ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Rafiqul; Singh, Ritesh K.

    2016-10-01

    We study the anomalous trilinear gauge couplings of Z and γ using a complete set of polarization asymmetries for the Z boson in e^+e^-→ ZZ/Zγ processes with unpolarized initial beams. We use these polarization asymmetries, along with the cross section, to obtain a simultaneous limit on all the anomalous couplings using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. For an e^+e^- collider running at 500 GeV center-of-mass energy and 100 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity the simultaneous limits on the anomalous couplings are 1-3× 10^{-3}.

  19. Mass eigenstates in bimetric theory with matter coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt-May, Angnis

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the ghost-free bimetric action extended by a recently proposed coupling to matter through a composite metric. The equations of motion for this theory are derived using a method which avoids varying the square-root matrix that appears in the matter coupling. We make an ansatz for which the metrics are proportional to each other and find that it can solve the equations provided that one parameter in the action is fixed. In this case, the proportional metrics as well as the effective metric that couples to matter solve Einstein's equations of general relativity including a matter source. Around these backgrounds we derive the quadratic action for perturbations and diagonalize it into generalized mass eigenstates. It turns out that matter only interacts with the massless spin-2 mode whose equation of motion has exactly the form of the linearized Einstein equations, while the field with Fierz-Pauli mass term is completely decoupled. Hence, bimetric theory, with one parameter fixed such that proportional solutions exist, is degenerate with general relativity up to linear order around these backgrounds.

  20. Hydrodynamical Coupling of Mass and Momentum in Multiphase Galactic Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Evan E.; Robertson, Brant E.

    2017-01-01

    Using a set of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations run with the Cholla code, we investigate how mass and momentum couple to the multiphase components of galactic winds. The simulations model the interaction between a hot wind driven by supernova explosions and a cooler, denser cloud of interstellar or circumgalactic media. By resolving scales of {{Δ }}x< 0.1 pc over > 100 pc distances, our calculations capture how the cloud disruption leads to a distribution of densities and temperatures in the resulting multiphase outflow and quantify the mass and momentum associated with each phase. We find that the multiphase wind contains comparable mass and momenta in phases over a wide range of densities and temperatures extending from the hot wind (n≈ {10}-2.5 {{cm}}-3, T≈ {10}6.5 K) to the coldest components (n≈ {10}2 {{cm}}-3, T≈ {10}2 K). We further find that the momentum distributes roughly in proportion to the mass in each phase, and the mass loading of the hot phase by the destruction of cold, dense material is an efficient process. These results provide new insight into the physical origin of observed multiphase galactic outflows and inform galaxy formation models that include coarser treatments of galactic winds. Our results confirm that cool gas observed in outflows at large distances from the galaxy (≳ 1 kpc) likely does not originate through the entrainment of cold material near the central starburst.

  1. Coupled membranes with doubly negative mass density and bulk modulus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Ma, Guancong; Yang, Zhiyu; Sheng, Ping

    2013-03-29

    We present a structurally and conceptually simple acoustic double negative metamaterial comprising two coupled membranes. Owing to its symmetry, the system can generate both monopolar and dipolar resonances that are separately tunable, thereby making broadband double negativity possible. A homogenization scheme is implemented that enables the exact characterization of our metamaterial by the effective mass density and bulk modulus even beyond the usual long-wavelength regime, with the measured displacement fields on the sample's surfaces as inputs. Double negativity is achieved in the frequency range of 520-830 Hz. Transmission and reflection predictions using effective parameters are shown to agree remarkably well with the experiment.

  2. Measurement of the W mass with the DELPHI detector at LEP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Chris

    1997-04-01

    In 1996 LEP ran at centre of mass energies of 161 and 172 GeV. An integrated luminosity of approx. 10 pb-1 was collected by the DELPHI experiment at each energy. These data are used to measure the cross-section for the doubly resonant WW process at these energies. At 161 GeV this cross-section may be interpreted, within the Standard Model, as a measurement of the W mass. The method of direct reconstruction is used to obtain a W mass using the 172 GeV data. Results on trilinear gauge couplings are also given.

  3. Quantitative aspects of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulska, Ewa; Wagner, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Accurate determination of elements in various kinds of samples is essential for many areas, including environmental science, medicine, as well as industry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a powerful tool enabling multi-elemental analysis of numerous matrices with high sensitivity and good precision. Various calibration approaches can be used to perform accurate quantitative measurements by ICP-MS. They include the use of pure standards, matrix-matched standards, or relevant certified reference materials, assuring traceability of the reported results. This review critically evaluates the advantages and limitations of different calibration approaches, which are used in quantitative analyses by ICP-MS. Examples of such analyses are provided. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  4. Quantitative aspects of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bulska, Ewa; Wagner, Barbara

    2016-10-28

    Accurate determination of elements in various kinds of samples is essential for many areas, including environmental science, medicine, as well as industry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a powerful tool enabling multi-elemental analysis of numerous matrices with high sensitivity and good precision. Various calibration approaches can be used to perform accurate quantitative measurements by ICP-MS. They include the use of pure standards, matrix-matched standards, or relevant certified reference materials, assuring traceability of the reported results. This review critically evaluates the advantages and limitations of different calibration approaches, which are used in quantitative analyses by ICP-MS. Examples of such analyses are provided.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  5. The Successive Projections Algorithm for interval selection in trilinear partial least-squares with residual bilinearization.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Adriano de Araújo; Alcaraz, Mirta Raquel; Goicoechea, Hector C; Araújo, Mario Cesar U

    2014-02-06

    In this work the Successive Projection Algorithm is presented for intervals selection in N-PLS for three-way data modeling. The proposed algorithm combines noise-reduction properties of PLS with the possibility of discarding uninformative variables in SPA. In addition, second-order advantage can be achieved by the residual bilinearization (RBL) procedure when an unexpected constituent is present in a test sample. For this purpose, SPA was modified in order to select intervals for use in trilinear PLS. The ability of the proposed algorithm, namely iSPA-N-PLS, was evaluated on one simulated and two experimental data sets, comparing the results to those obtained by N-PLS. In the simulated system, two analytes were quantitated in two test sets, with and without unexpected constituent. In the first experimental system, the determination of the four fluorophores (l-phenylalanine; l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; 1,4-dihydroxybenzene and l-tryptophan) was conducted with excitation-emission data matrices. In the second experimental system, quantitation of ofloxacin was performed in water samples containing two other uncalibrated quinolones (ciprofloxacin and danofloxacin) by high performance liquid chromatography with UV-vis diode array detector. For comparison purpose, a GA algorithm coupled with N-PLS/RBL was also used in this work. In most of the studied cases iSPA-N-PLS proved to be a promising tool for selection of variables in second-order calibration, generating models with smaller RMSEP, when compared to both the global model using all of the sensors in two dimensions and GA-NPLS/RBL.

  6. Cold Mass Issues in the MICE Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2011-01-19

    I have identified two potential issues in the design of the attachments to the MICE coupling magnet cold mass. One of these attachment issues may extend into the cold mass. Both issues came to light during the analysis of what happened to the spectrometer solenoids. We must not make the same mistakes that were made on the spectrometer solenoids. The two questions that result from the identified issues are; 1) Are the superconducting low temperature superconducting leads between the coupling coil and the lower end of the high temperature superconducting (LTS) leads robust enough not quench and burn out? In the spectrometer solenoid one part of the LTS lead was not robust enough to prevent quenching and a burn out of the LTS lead and ; 2) Will there be problems with the quench protection resistors and diodes when the magnet quenches as a result of an HTS lead burning out or a disconnect of the magnet from its power supply? The second question is very important because the coupling coil has a large stored energy and inductance. As result, when current flows through the diodes and the resistors, both can be over heated. We observed resistor overheating in spectrometer magnet 2. This heating probably happened when the HTS lead the LTS lead burned out during the tests of magnet 2A and 2B respectively. (See MICE Note 324.) The answer to the first question is simple and straightforward. This is the issue that is primarily dealt with in MICE Note 324. If the resistance across the coil sub-divisions is high enough, the whole magnet will turn normal through quench-back. Making the resistance across a coil sub-division high enough is not simple.

  7. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Uranium Error Propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Maclean, S; Shepley, D; Shaw, R K

    2001-07-01

    The Hazards Control Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP/MS) technology to analyze uranium in urine. The ICP/MS used by the Hazards Control Department is a Perkin-Elmer Elan 6000 ICP/MS. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program requires that the total error be assessed for bioassay measurements. A previous evaluation of the errors associated with the ICP/MS measurement of uranium demonstrated a {+-} 9.6% error in the range of 0.01 to 0.02 {micro}g/l. However, the propagation of total error for concentrations above and below this level have heretofore been undetermined. This document is an evaluation of the errors associated with the current LLNL ICP/MS method for a more expanded range of uranium concentrations.

  8. Coupling Electrochemistry with Probe Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi; Liu, Pengyuan; Held, Michael A; Dewald, Howard D; Chen, Hao

    2016-04-18

    A new coupling of electrochemistry with mass spectrometry (MS) using probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is presented. Due to the high salt tolerance of PESI, the detection of electrochemical reaction products in room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) is realized for the first time. Furthermore, PESI-MS allows the analysis of electrochemical reaction products on different or multiple electrode surfaces. In addition, peptides and proteins fractionated through isoelectric focusing (IEF) in the presence of an external electric field can also be directly analyzed by using PESI-MS, suggesting a new and rapid characterization means for the IEF technique. This study reveals the versatility of EC/PESI-MS, which could have an impact in electrochemistry and bioanalysis fields.

  9. Paper-Based Electrochemical Cell Coupled to Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-Min; Perry, Richard H

    2015-10-01

    On-line coupling of electrochemistry (EC) to mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful approach for identifying intermediates and products of EC reactions in situ. In addition, EC transformations have been used to increase ionization efficiency and derivatize analytes prior to MS, improving sensitivity and chemical specificity. Recently, there has been significant interest in developing paper-based electroanalytical devices as they offer convenience, low cost, versatility, and simplicity. This report describes the development of tubular and planar paper-based electrochemical cells (P-EC) coupled to sonic spray ionization (SSI) mass spectrometry (P-EC/SSI-MS). The EC cells are composed of paper sandwiched between two mesh stainless steel electrodes. Analytes and reagents can be added directly to the paper substrate along with electrolyte, or delivered via the SSI microdroplet spray. The EC cells are decoupled from the SSI source, allowing independent control of electrical and chemical parameters. We utilized P-EC/SSI-MS to characterize various EC reactions such as oxidations of cysteine, dopamine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and diphenyl sulfide. Our results show that P-EC/SSI-MS has the ability to increase ionization efficiency, to perform online EC transformations, and to capture intermediates of EC reactions with a response time on the order of hundreds of milliseconds. The short response time allowed detection of a deprotonated diphenyl sulfide intermediate, which experimentally confirms a previously proposed mechanism for EC oxidation of diphenyl sulfide to pseudodimer sulfonium ion. This report introduces paper-based EC/MS via development of two device configurations (tubular and planar electrodes), as well as discusses the capabilities, performance, and limitations of the technique.

  10. Paper-Based Electrochemical Cell Coupled to Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao-Min; Perry, Richard H.

    2015-08-01

    On-line coupling of electrochemistry (EC) to mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful approach for identifying intermediates and products of EC reactions in situ. In addition, EC transformations have been used to increase ionization efficiency and derivatize analytes prior to MS, improving sensitivity and chemical specificity. Recently, there has been significant interest in developing paper-based electroanalytical devices as they offer convenience, low cost, versatility, and simplicity. This report describes the development of tubular and planar paper-based electrochemical cells (P-EC) coupled to sonic spray ionization (SSI) mass spectrometry (P-EC/SSI-MS). The EC cells are composed of paper sandwiched between two mesh stainless steel electrodes. Analytes and reagents can be added directly to the paper substrate along with electrolyte, or delivered via the SSI microdroplet spray. The EC cells are decoupled from the SSI source, allowing independent control of electrical and chemical parameters. We utilized P-EC/SSI-MS to characterize various EC reactions such as oxidations of cysteine, dopamine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and diphenyl sulfide. Our results show that P-EC/SSI-MS has the ability to increase ionization efficiency, to perform online EC transformations, and to capture intermediates of EC reactions with a response time on the order of hundreds of milliseconds. The short response time allowed detection of a deprotonated diphenyl sulfide intermediate, which experimentally confirms a previously proposed mechanism for EC oxidation of diphenyl sulfide to pseudodimer sulfonium ion. This report introduces paper-based EC/MS via development of two device configurations (tubular and planar electrodes), as well as discusses the capabilities, performance, and limitations of the technique.

  11. Environmental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the numerous ways in which inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been used for the analysis of environmental samples since it was commercially introduced in 1983. Its multielemental isotopic capability, high sensitivity and wide linear dynamic range makes it ideally suited for environmental analysis. Provided that some care is taken during sample preparation and that appropriate calibration strategies are used to circumvent non-spectroscopic interferences, the technique is readily applicable to the analysis of a wide variety of environmental samples (natural waters, soils, rocks, sediments, vegetation, etc.), using quadrupole, time-of-flight or double-focusing sector-field mass spectrometers. In cases where spectroscopic interferences arising from the sample matrix cannot be resolved, then separation methods can be implemented either on- or off-line, which can simultaneously allow analyte preconcentration, thus further decreasing the already low detection limits that are achievable. In most cases, the blank, prepared by following the same steps as for the sample but without the sample, limits the ultimate detection limits that can be reached.

  12. Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoshan

    1995-07-07

    The inductively coupled plasma is an electrodeless discharge in a gas (usually Ar) at atmospheric pressure. Radio frequency energy generated by a RF power source is inductively coupled to the plasma gas through a water cooled load coil. In ICP-MS the "Fassel" TAX quartz torch commonly used in emission is mounted horizontally. The sample aerosol is introduced into the central flow, where the gas kinetic temperature is about 5000 K. The aerosol is vaporized, atomized, excited and ionized in the plasma, and the ions are subsequently extracted through two metal apertures (sampler and skimmer) into the mass spectrometer. In ICP-MS, the matrix effects, or non-spectroscopic interferences, can be defined as the type of interferences caused by dissolved concomitant salt ions in the solution. Matrix effects can be divided into two categories: (1) signal drift due to the deposition of solids on the sampling apertures; and/or (2) signal suppression or enhancement by the presence of the dissolved salts. The first category is now reasonably understood. The dissolved salts, especially refractory oxides, tend to deposit on the cool tip of the sampling cone. The clogging of the orifices reduces the ion flow into the ICP-MS, lowers the pressure in the first stage of ICP-MS, and enhances the level of metal oxide ions. Because the extent of the clogging increases with the time, the signal drifts down. Even at the very early stage of the development of ICP-MS, matrix effects had been observed. Houk et al. found out that the ICP-MS was not tolerant to solutions containing significant amounts of dissolved solids.

  13. Gold fingerprinting by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watling, R. John; Herbert, Hugh K.; Delev, Dianne; Abell, Ian D.

    1994-02-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been applied to the characterization of the trace element composition "fingerprint" of selected gold samples from Western Australia and South Africa. By comparison of the elemental associations it is possible to relate gold to a specific mineralizing event, mine or bullion sample. This methodology facilitates identification of the provenance of stolen gold or gold used in salting activities. In this latter case, it is common for gold from a number of sources to be used in the salting process. Consequently, gold in the prospect being salted will not come from a single source and identification of multiple sources for this gold will establish that salting has occurred. Preliminary results also indicate that specific elemental associations could be used to identify the country of origin of gold. The technique has already been applied in 17 cases involving gold theft in Western Australia, where it is estimated that up to 2% of gold production is "relocated" each year as a result of criminal activities.

  14. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-03-02

    We used an electrostatic size classification technique to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Moreover, we counted size-segregated particles with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized by the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10-5 to 10-11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer

  15. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-05-01

    An electrostatic size classification technique was used to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Size-segregated particles were counted with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized by the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10- 5 to 10- 11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer theory was applied, but

  16. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-03-02

    We used an electrostatic size classification technique to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Moreover, we counted size-segregated particles with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized bymore » the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10-5 to 10-11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer theory was

  17. Hydrodynamic chromatography coupled with single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for investigating nanoparticles agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Rakcheev, Denis; Philippe, Allan; Schaumann, Gabriele E

    2013-11-19

    Studying the environmental fate of engineered or natural colloids requires efficient methods for measuring their size and quantifying them in the environment. For example, an ideal method should maintain its correctness, accuracy, reproducibility, and robustness when applied to samples contained in complex matrixes and distinguish the target particles from the natural colloidal background signals. Since it is expected that a large portion of nanoparticles will form homo- or heteroagglomerates when released into environmental media, it is necessary to differentiate agglomerates from primary particles. At present, most sizing techniques do not fulfill these requirements. In this study, we used online coupling of two promising complementary sizing techniques: hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) and single-particle ICPMS analysis to analyze gold nanoparticles agglomerated under controlled conditions. We used the single-particle mode of the ICPMS detector to detect single particles eluted from an HDC-column and determine a mass and an effective diameter for each particle using a double calibration approach. The average agglomerate relative density and fractal dimension were calculated using these data and used to follow the morphological evolution of agglomerates over time during the agglomeration process. The results demonstrate the ability of HDC coupled to single-particle analysis to identify and characterize nanoparticle homoagglomerates and is a very promising technique for the analysis of colloids in complex media.

  18. A propulsion-mass tensor coupling in relativistic rocket motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Hector Hugo

    1998-01-01

    Following earlier speculations about antigravity machines and works on the relativistic dynamics of constant and variable rest mass point particles, a mass tensor is found in connection with the closed system consisting of the rocket driven spaceship and its propellant mass, provided a ``solidification'' point other than the system center of mass is considered. Therefore, the mass tensor form depends on whether the system is open or closed, and upon where the ``solidification'' point is located. An alternative propulsion principle is subsequently derived from the tensor mass approach. The new principle, the covariant equivalent of Newton's Third Law for the physical interpretation of the relativistic rocket motion, reads: A spaceship undergoes a propulsion effect when the whole system mass 4-ellipsoid warps.

  19. Top-quark mass coupling and classification of weakly coupled heterotic superstring vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizos, J.

    2014-06-01

    The quest for the Standard Model among the huge number of string vacua is usually based on a set of phenomenological criteria related to the massless spectrum of string models. In this work we study criteria associated with interactions in the effective low energy theory and in particular with the presence of the coupling that provides mass to the top quark. Working in the context of the free-fermionic formulation of the heterotic superstring, we demonstrate that, in a big class of phenomenologically promising compactifications, these criteria can be expressed entirely in terms of the generalised GSO projection coefficients entering the definition of the models. They are shown to be very efficient in identifying phenomenologically viable vacua, especially in the framework of computer-based search, as they are met by approximately one every models. We apply our results in the investigation of a class of supersymmetric Pati-Salam vacua, comprising configurations, and we show that when combined with other phenomenological requirements they lead to a relatively small set of about Standard Model compatible models that can be fully classified.

  20. Determination of plutonium in urine: evaluation of electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrzak, R.; Kaplan, E.

    1996-11-01

    Mass spectroscopy has the distinct advantage of detecting atoms rather than radioactive decay products for nuclides of low specific activity. Electrothermal vaporization (ETV) is an efficient means of introducing small volumes of prepared samples into an inductively coupled mass spectrometer to achieve the lowest absolute detection limits. The operational characteristics and capabilities of electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled mass spectrometer mass spectroscopy were evaluated. We describe its application as a detection method for determining Pu in urine, in conjunction with a preliminary separation technique to avoid matrix suppression of the signal.

  1. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and the Determination of Neptunium and Plutonium in the Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Kate

    This project is concerned with the application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to the determination of neptunium-237, plutonium-239 and plutonium-240 concentrations in the marine environment…

  2. Aspect of Fermion Mass Hierarchy within Flavor Democracy for Yukawa Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Katsuichi; Yamamoto, Katsuji

    We discuss the fermion mass hierarchy by including vector-like fermions which are accommodated in E6 GUTs within flavor democracy for Yukawa couplings. In this framework, all Yukawa couplings for the standard Higgs doublet have the same strength, and all Yukawa couplings for the singlet Higgs have the same strength (New ansatz). In addition, singlet Higgs and right-handed neutrinos exist. Under this condition, the mass hierarchy mt ≫ mb ˜ mτ as well as mt ≫ mc, mu can be naturally explained.

  3. MICROSCALE FLOW INJECTION AND MICROBORE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATORGRAPHY COUPLED WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY VIA A HIGH-EFFICIENCY NEBULIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high-effeciency nebulizer has been used for coupling microscale flow injection and microbore high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The microscale flow injection system was configured to minimize band broadening between...

  4. Coupling of Ultrafast LC with Mass Spectrometry by DESI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yi; Liu, Yong; Helmy, Roy; Chen, Hao

    2014-10-01

    Recently we reported a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) interface to combine liquid chromatography (LC) with mass spectrometry (MS) using a new LC eluent splitting strategy through a tiny orifice on LC capillary tube [ J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 25, 286 (2014)]. The interface introduces negligible dead volume and back pressure, thereby allowing "near real-time" MS detection, fast LC elution, and online MS-directed purification. This study further evaluates the LC/DESI-MS performance with focus of using ultra-fast LC. Using a monolithic C18 column, metabolites in urine can be separated within 1.6 min and can be online collected for subsequent structure elucidation (e.g., by NMR, UV, IR) in a recovery yield up to 99%. Using a spray solvent with alkaline pH, negative ions could be directly generated for acidic analytes (e.g., ibuprofen) in acidic LC eluent by DESI, offering a novel protocol to realize "wrong-way around" ionization for LC/MS analysis. In addition, DESI-MS is found to be compatible with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) for the first time.

  5. Microfluidics-to-mass spectrometry: a review of coupling methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Yi, Lian; Mukhitov, Nikita; Schrell, Adrian M; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Roper, Michael G

    2015-02-20

    Microfluidic devices offer great advantages in integrating sample processes, minimizing sample and reagent volumes, and increasing analysis speed, while mass spectrometry detection provides high information content, is sensitive, and can be used in quantitative analyses. The coupling of microfluidic devices to mass spectrometers is becoming more common with the strengths of both systems being combined to analyze precious and complex samples. This review summarizes select achievements published between 2010 and July 2014 in novel coupling between microfluidic devices and mass spectrometers. The review is subdivided by the types of ionization sources employed, and the different microfluidic systems used.

  6. Exact Mass-Coupling Relation for the Homogeneous Sine-Gordon Model.

    PubMed

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2016-05-06

    We derive the exact mass-coupling relation of the simplest multiscale quantum integrable model, i.e., the homogeneous sine-Gordon model with two mass scales. The relation is obtained by comparing the perturbed conformal field theory description of the model valid at short distances to the large distance bootstrap description based on the model's integrability. In particular, we find a differential equation for the relation by constructing conserved tensor currents, which satisfy a generalization of the Θ sum rule Ward identity. The mass-coupling relation is written in terms of hypergeometric functions.

  7. Microfluidics-to-Mass Spectrometry: A review of coupling methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Yi, Lian; Mukhitov, Nikita; Schrell, Adrian M.; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Roper, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices offer great advantages in integrating sample processes, minimizing sample and reagent volumes, and increasing analysis speed, while mass spectrometry detection provides high information content, is sensitive, and can be used in quantitative analyses. The coupling of microfluidic devices to mass spectrometers is becoming more common with the strengths of both systems being combined to analyze precious and complex samples. This review summarizes select achievements published between 2010 – July 2014 in novel coupling between microfluidic devices and mass spectrometers. The review is subdivided by the types of ionization sources employed, and the different microfluidic systems used. PMID:25458901

  8. Mid Pleistocene foraminiferal mass extinction coupled with phytoplankton evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kender, Sev; McClymont, Erin L.; Elmore, Aurora C.; Emanuele, Dario; Leng, Melanie J.; Elderfield, Henry

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the interaction between climate and biotic evolution is crucial for deciphering the sensitivity of life. An enigmatic mass extinction occurred in the deep oceans during the Mid Pleistocene, with a loss of over 100 species (20%) of sea floor calcareous foraminifera. An evolutionarily conservative group, benthic foraminifera often comprise >50% of eukaryote biomass on the deep-ocean floor. Here we test extinction hypotheses (temperature, corrosiveness and productivity) in the Tasman Sea, using geochemistry and micropalaeontology, and find evidence from several globally distributed sites that the extinction was caused by a change in phytoplankton food source. Coccolithophore evolution may have enhanced the seasonal `bloom' nature of primary productivity and fundamentally shifted it towards a more intra-annually variable state at ~0.8 Ma. Our results highlight intra-annual variability as a potential new consideration for Mid Pleistocene global biogeochemical climate models, and imply that deep-sea biota may be sensitive to future changes in productivity.

  9. Mid Pleistocene foraminiferal mass extinction coupled with phytoplankton evolution.

    PubMed

    Kender, Sev; McClymont, Erin L; Elmore, Aurora C; Emanuele, Dario; Leng, Melanie J; Elderfield, Henry

    2016-06-17

    Understanding the interaction between climate and biotic evolution is crucial for deciphering the sensitivity of life. An enigmatic mass extinction occurred in the deep oceans during the Mid Pleistocene, with a loss of over 100 species (20%) of sea floor calcareous foraminifera. An evolutionarily conservative group, benthic foraminifera often comprise >50% of eukaryote biomass on the deep-ocean floor. Here we test extinction hypotheses (temperature, corrosiveness and productivity) in the Tasman Sea, using geochemistry and micropalaeontology, and find evidence from several globally distributed sites that the extinction was caused by a change in phytoplankton food source. Coccolithophore evolution may have enhanced the seasonal 'bloom' nature of primary productivity and fundamentally shifted it towards a more intra-annually variable state at ∼0.8 Ma. Our results highlight intra-annual variability as a potential new consideration for Mid Pleistocene global biogeochemical climate models, and imply that deep-sea biota may be sensitive to future changes in productivity.

  10. Dark matter candidate with well-defined mass and couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Roland

    2017-01-01

    There is as yet no confirmed and statistically significant evidence for direct, indirect, or collider-based detection of dark matter. However, several indirect searches, including AMS-02, Fermi-LAT, and PAMELA, have shown an intriguing excess of positrons when compared to expectations. Here we predict a Higgs-related but spin 1/2 dark matter candidate with a mass of 125 GeV. Since an initially reported 130 GeV gamma-ray excess has been abandoned by the full Fermi-LAT collaboration, this is a genuine prediction rather than postdiction. It would be consistent with a prediction of 125 GeV freshly-created positrons and antiprotons, but the complicated propagation of charged particles makes a comparison problematical.

  11. Mode-shape-based mass detection scheme using mechanically diverse, indirectly coupled microresonator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glean, Aldo A.; Judge, John A.; Vignola, Joseph F.; Ryan, Teresa J.

    2015-02-01

    We explore vibration localization in arrays of microresonators used for ultrasensitive mass detection and describe an algorithm for identifying the location and amount of added mass using measurements of a vibration mode of the system. For a set of sensing elements coupled through a common shuttle mass, the inter-element coupling is shown to be proportional to the ratio of the element masses to the shuttle mass and to vary with the frequency mistuning between any two sensing elements. When any two elements have sufficiently similar frequencies, mass adsorption on one element can result in measurable changes to multiple modes of the system. We describe the effects on system frequencies and mode shapes due to added mass, in terms of mass ratio and frequency spacing. In cases in which modes are not fully localized, frequency-shift-based mass detection methods may give ambiguous results. The mode-shape-based detection algorithm presented uses a single measured mode shape and corresponding natural frequency to identify the location and amount of added mass. Mass detection in the presence of measurement noise is numerically simulated using a ten element sensor array. The accuracy of the detection scheme is shown to depend on the amplitude with which each element vibrates in the chosen mode.

  12. Nonlinear local electrovascular coupling. II: From data to neuronal masses.

    PubMed

    Riera, J J; Jimenez, J C; Wan, X; Kawashima, R; Ozaki, T

    2007-04-01

    In the companion article a local electrovascular coupling (LEVC) model was proposed to explain the continuous dynamics of electrical and vascular states within a cortical unit. These states produce certain mesoscopic reflections whose discrete time series can be reconstructed from electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this article we develop a recursive optimization algorithm based on the local linearization (LL) filter and an innovation method to make statistical inferences about the LEVC model from both EEG and fMRI data, i.e., to estimate the unobserved states and the unknown parameters of the model. For a better understanding, the LL filter is described from a Bayesian point of view, providing the particulars for the case of hybrid data (e.g., EEG and fMRI), which could be sampled at different rates. The dynamics of the exogenous synaptic inputs going into the cortical unit are also estimated by introducing a set of Gaussian radial basis functions. In order to study the dynamics of the electrical and vascular states in the striate cortex of humans as well as their local interrelationships, we applied this algorithm to EEG and fMRI recordings obtained concurrently from two subjects while passively observing a radial checkerboard with a white/black pattern reversal. The EEG and fMRI data from the first subject was used to estimate the electrical/vascular states and parameters of the LEVC model in V1 for a 4.0 Hz reversion frequency. We used the EEG data from the second subject to investigate the changes in the dynamics of the electrical states when the frequency of reversion is varied from 0.5-4.0 Hz. Then we made use of the estimated electrical states to predict the effects on the vasculature that such variations produce.

  13. Design and Analyisi of a Self-centered Cold Mass Support for the MICE Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Li, S. Y.; Guo, Xing Long; Zheng, Shi Xian; Green, Michael A.

    2011-05-04

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) consists of eighteen superconducting solenoid coils in seven modules, which are magnetically hooked together since there is no iron to shield the coils and the return flux. The RF coupling coil (RFCC) module consists of a superconducting coupling solenoid mounted around four conventional conducting 201.25 MHz closed RF cavities. The coupling coil will produce up to a 2.2 T magnetic field on the centerline to keep the beam within the RF cavities. The peak magnetic force on the coupling magnet from other magnets in MICE is up to 500 kN in longitudinal direction, which will be transferred to the base of the RF coupling coil (RFCC) module through a cold mass support system. A self-centered double-band cold mass support system with intermediate thermal interruption is applied to the coupling magnet, and the design is introduced in detail in this paper. The thermal and structural analysis on the cold mass support assembly has been carried out using ANSYS. The present design of the cold mass support can satisfy with the stringent requirements for the magnet center and axis azimuthal angle at 4.2 K and fully charged.

  14. Mid Pleistocene foraminiferal mass extinction coupled with phytoplankton evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kender, Sev; McClymont, Erin L.; Elmore, Aurora C.; Emanuele, Dario; Leng, Melanie J.; Elderfield, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between climate and biotic evolution is crucial for deciphering the sensitivity of life. An enigmatic mass extinction occurred in the deep oceans during the Mid Pleistocene, with a loss of over 100 species (20%) of sea floor calcareous foraminifera. An evolutionarily conservative group, benthic foraminifera often comprise >50% of eukaryote biomass on the deep-ocean floor. Here we test extinction hypotheses (temperature, corrosiveness and productivity) in the Tasman Sea, using geochemistry and micropalaeontology, and find evidence from several globally distributed sites that the extinction was caused by a change in phytoplankton food source. Coccolithophore evolution may have enhanced the seasonal ‘bloom' nature of primary productivity and fundamentally shifted it towards a more intra-annually variable state at ∼0.8 Ma. Our results highlight intra-annual variability as a potential new consideration for Mid Pleistocene global biogeochemical climate models, and imply that deep-sea biota may be sensitive to future changes in productivity. PMID:27311937

  15. Coupled Gravity and Elevation Measurement of Ice Sheet Mass Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, K. C.; Baumgartner, F.

    2005-01-01

    During June 2003, we measured surface gravity at six locations about a glaciological measurement site located on the South-central Greenland Ice. We operated a GPS unit for 90 minutes at each site -the unit was operated simultaneously with a base station unit in Sondrestrom Fjord so as to enable differential, post-processing of the data. We installed an aluminum, accumulation-rate-pole at each site. The base section of the pole also served as the mount for the GPS antenna. Two gravimeters were used simultaneously at each site. Measurements were repeated at each site with at time lapse of at least 50 minutes. We measured snow physical properties in two shallow pits The same measurement sites were occupied in 1981 and all were part of a hexagonal network of geodetic and glaciological measurements established by The Ohio State University in 1980. Additional gravity observations were acquired at three of the sites in 1993 and 1995. Gravity data were collected in conjunction with Doppler satellite measurements of position and elevation in 1981 and global positioning system measurements subsequently. The use of satellite navigation techniques permitted reoccupation of the same sites in each year to within a few 10 s of meters or better. After detrending the gravity data, making adjustments for tides and removing the residual effects of local spatial gradients in gravity, we observe an average secular decrease in gravity of about 0.01 milligal/year, but with tenths of milligal variations about the mean trend. The trend is consistent with a nearly linear increase in surface elevation of between 7 to 10 c d y r (depending on location) as measured by repeated airborne laser altimeter, surface Doppler satellite and GPS elevation measurements. Differences between the residual gravity anomalies after free air correction may be attributable to local mass changes. This project is a collaboration between the Byrd Polar Research Center of the Ohio State University and the Arctic

  16. Mass spectrometry based on a coupled Cooper-pair box and nanomechanical resonator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cheng; Chen, Bin; Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2011-10-01

    Nanomechanical resonators (NRs) with very high frequency have a great potential for mass sensing with unprecedented sensitivity. In this study, we propose a scheme for mass sensing based on the NR capacitively coupled to a Cooper-pair box (CPB) driven by two microwave currents. The accreted mass landing on the resonator can be measured conveniently by tracking the resonance frequency shifts because of mass changes in the signal absorption spectrum. We demonstrate that frequency shifts induced by adsorption of ten 1587 bp DNA molecules can be well resolved in the absorption spectrum. Integration with the CPB enables capacitive readout of the mechanical resonance directly on the chip.

  17. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in metabolomics research: mass analyzers in ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupling.

    PubMed

    Forcisi, Sara; Moritz, Franco; Kanawati, Basem; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Lehmann, Rainer; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2013-05-31

    The present review gives an introduction into the concept of metabolomics and provides an overview of the analytical tools applied in non-targeted metabolomics with a focus on liquid chromatography (LC). LC is a powerful analytical tool in the study of complex sample matrices. A further development and configuration employing Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is optimized to provide the largest known liquid chromatographic resolution and peak capacity. Reasonably UHPLC plays an important role in separation and consequent metabolite identification of complex molecular mixtures such as bio-fluids. The most sensitive detectors for these purposes are mass spectrometers. Almost any mass analyzer can be optimized to identify and quantify small pre-defined sets of targets; however, the number of analytes in metabolomics is far greater. Optimized protocols for quantification of large sets of targets may be rendered inapplicable. Results on small target set analyses on different sample matrices are easily comparable with each other. In non-targeted metabolomics there is almost no analytical method which is applicable to all different matrices due to limitations pertaining to mass analyzers and chromatographic tools. The specifications of the most important interfaces and mass analyzers are discussed. We additionally provide an exemplary application in order to demonstrate the level of complexity which remains intractable up to date. The potential of coupling a high field Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (ICR-FT/MS), the mass analyzer with the largest known mass resolving power, to UHPLC is given with an example of one human pre-treated plasma sample. This experimental example illustrates one way of overcoming the necessity of faster scanning rates in the coupling with UHPLC. The experiment enabled the extraction of thousands of features (analytical signals). A small subset of this compositional space could be mapped into a mass

  18. 3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process.

    PubMed

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist V; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-04-01

    A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer describing oven roasting of meat has been developed from first principles. The proposed mechanism for the mass transfer of water is modified and based on a critical literature review of the effect of heat on meat. The model equations are based on a conservation of mass and energy, coupled through Darcy's equations of porous media - the water flow is mainly pressure-driven. The developed model together with theoretical and experimental assessments were used to explain the heat and water transport and the effect of the change in microstructure (permeability, water binding capacity and elastic modulus) that occur during the meat roasting process. The developed coupled partial differential equations were solved by using COMSOL Multiphysics®3.5 and state variables are predicted as functions of both position and time. The proposed mechanism was partially validated by experiments in a convection oven where temperatures were measured online.

  19. Quark masses and strong coupling constant in 2+1 flavor QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Maezawa, Y.; Petreczky, P.

    2016-08-30

    We present a determination of the strange, charm and bottom quark masses as well as the strong coupling constant in 2+1 flavor lattice QCD simulations using highly improved staggered quark action. The ratios of the charm quark mass to the strange quark mass and the bottom quark mass to the charm quark mass are obtained from the meson masses calculated on the lattice and found to be mc/ms = 11.877(91) and mb/mc = 4.528(57) in the continuum limit. We also determine the strong coupling constant and the charm quark mass using the moments of pseudoscalar charmonium correlators: αs(μ = mc)more » = 0.3697(85) and mc(μ = mc) = 1.267(12) GeV. Our result for αs corresponds to the determination of the strong coupling constant at the lowest energy scale so far and is translated to the value αs(μ = MZ, nf = 5) = 0.11622(84).« less

  20. Quark masses and strong coupling constant in 2+1 flavor QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Maezawa, Y.; Petreczky, P.

    2016-08-30

    We present a determination of the strange, charm and bottom quark masses as well as the strong coupling constant in 2+1 flavor lattice QCD simulations using highly improved staggered quark action. The ratios of the charm quark mass to the strange quark mass and the bottom quark mass to the charm quark mass are obtained from the meson masses calculated on the lattice and found to be mc/ms = 11.877(91) and mb/mc = 4.528(57) in the continuum limit. We also determine the strong coupling constant and the charm quark mass using the moments of pseudoscalar charmonium correlators: αs(μ = mc) = 0.3697(85) and mc(μ = mc) = 1.267(12) GeV. Our result for αs corresponds to the determination of the strong coupling constant at the lowest energy scale so far and is translated to the value αs(μ = MZ, nf = 5) = 0.11622(84).

  1. Tribological behavior of a friction couple functioning with selective mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Filip

    2016-06-01

    Experimental researches on different lubricated friction couples, have confirmed that it is useful to investigate thermodynamic processes which are unstable in lubricant and on the friction couples surfaces in the first stage of the friction process. This presupposes that, in operating conditions, physical-chemical processes which are favourable to friction, such as: polymerization, formation of colloids, formation of other active substances at the contact surfaces and of other compounds with low resistance to shear take place. Friction in such conditions takes place with selective mass transfer, and it is used there where the friction of the mixed and adherence layers is not safe enough, or the durability of the friction couples is not assured. The selective mass transfer allows the transfer of some elements of the materials in contact from one surface to the other, covering them with a thin, superficial layer, with superior properties at minimal friction and wear. The aim of this paper is to analyse the physical-chemical factors and the proper processes for achieving the selective mass transfer for the couple steel/bronze, which in optimal conditions, forms a thin layer of copper on the contact surfaces areas. Also, it presents some studies and researches concerning the tribological behaviour of the surfaces of a friction couple with linear contact (roll/roll) which operates with selective mass transfer, tested on Amsler tribometer.

  2. Tribological behavior of a friction couple functioning with selective mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Filip

    2017-02-01

    Experimental researches on different lubricated friction couples, have confirmed that it is useful to investigate thermodynamic processes which are unstable in lubricant and on the friction couples surfaces in the first stage of the friction process. This presupposes that, in operating conditions, physical-chemical processes which are favourable to friction, such as: polymerization, formation of colloids, formation of other active substances at the contact surfaces and of other compounds with low resistance to shear take place. Friction in such conditions takes place with selective mass transfer, and it is used there where the friction of the mixed and adherence layers is not safe enough, or the durability of the friction couples is not assured. The selective mass transfer allows the transfer of some elements of the materials in contact from one surface to the other, covering them with a thin, superficial layer, with superior properties at minimal friction and wear. The aim of this paper is to analyse the physical-chemical factors and the proper processes for achieving the selective mass transfer for the couple steel/bronze, which in optimal conditions, forms a thin layer of copper on the contact surfaces areas. Also, it presents some studies and researches concerning the tribological behaviour of the surfaces of a friction couple with linear contact (roll/roll) which operates with selective mass transfer, tested on Amsler tribometer.

  3. The Helium Cooling System and Cold Mass Support System for theMICE Coupling Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Wu, H.; Li, L.K.; Green, M.A.; Liu, C.S.; Li, L.Y.; Jia, L.X.; Virostek, S.P.

    2007-08-27

    The MICE cooling channel consists of alternating threeabsorber focus coil module (AFC) and two RF coupling coil module (RFCC)where the process of muon cooling and reacceleration occurs. The RFCCmodule comprises a superconducting coupling solenoid mounted around fourconventional conducting 201.25 MHz closed RF cavities and producing up to2.2T magnetic field on the centerline. The coupling coil magnetic fieldis to produce a low muon beam beta function in order to keep the beamwithin the RF cavities. The magnet is to be built using commercialniobium titanium MRI conductors and cooled by pulse tube coolers thatproduce 1.5 W of cooling capacity at 4.2 K each. A self-centering supportsystem is applied for the coupling magnet cold mass support, which isdesigned to carry a longitudinal force up to 500 kN. This report willdescribe the updated design for the MICE coupling magnet. The cold masssupport system and helium cooling system are discussed indetail.

  4. Direct analysis of samples by mass spectrometry: From elements to bio-molecules using laser ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Perdian, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods that are able to analyze solid samples or biological materials with little or no sample preparation are invaluable to science as well as society. Fundamental research that has discovered experimental and instrumental parameters that inhibit fractionation effects that occur during the quantification of elemental species in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is described. Research that determines the effectiveness of novel laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric methods for the molecular analysis of biological tissues at atmospheric pressure and at high spatial resolution is also described. A spatial resolution is achieved that is able to analyze samples at the single cell level.

  5. The effects of analyte mass and collision gases on ion beam formation in an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Jessica J.; Edmund, Alisa J.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2016-11-01

    Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to evaluate the effect of matrix components on the formation and focusing of a Ba ion beam in a commercial inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Cross sections of the ion beams were taken in the second vacuum stage, in front of the entrance to the mass analyzer. Under normal operating conditions, the addition of Pb shifted the position of the Ba ion beam to the right. PLIF was also used to evaluate the effect of a collision reaction interface (CRI) on Ca and Ba ion beams. A wider velocity distribution of ions and a decrease in overall intensity were observed for the CRI images. The fluorescence and mass spectrometer signals decreased with increased CRI flow rates. These effects were most obvious for Ca ions with He gas.

  6. In situ calibration of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission and mass spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Braymen, Steven D.

    1996-06-11

    A method and apparatus for in situ addition calibration of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer or mass spectrometer using a precision gas metering valve to introduce a volatile calibration gas of an element of interest directly into an aerosol particle stream. The present situ calibration technique is suitable for various remote, on-site sampling systems such as laser ablation or nebulization.

  7. DETERMINATION OF BROMATE IN DRINKING WATERS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromate is a disinfection by-product in drinking water, formed during the ozonation of source water containing bromide. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is combined with an ion chromatograph for the analysis of bromate in drinking waters. Three chromatographic colu...

  8. ULTRASONIC NEBULIZATION AND ARSENIC VALENCE STATE CONSIDERATIONS PRIOR TO DETERMINATION VIA INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) was utilized as a sample introduction device for an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in an attempt to increase the sensitivity for As. The USN produced a valence state response difference for As. The As response was suppressed approximate...

  9. Laser vaporization/ionization interface for coupling microscale separation techniques with mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Yu-chen

    1999-06-29

    The present invention provides a laser-induced vaporization and ionization interface for directly coupling microscale separation processes to a mass spectrometer. Vaporization and ionization of the separated analytes are facilitated by the addition of a light-absorbing component to the separation buffer or solvent.

  10. Laser vaporization/ionization interface for coupling microscale separation techniques with mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, Y.C.

    1999-06-29

    The present invention provides a laser-induced vaporization and ionization interface for directly coupling microscale separation processes to a mass spectrometer. Vaporization and ionization of the separated analytes are facilitated by the addition of a light-absorbing component to the separation buffer or solvent. 8 figs.

  11. Determination of Arsenic in Sinus Wash and Tap Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnell, Anna M.; Nahan, Keaton; Holloway, Dawone; Vonderheide, Anne P.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element to which humans are primarily exposed through food and water; it occurs as a result of human activities and naturally from the earth's crust. An experiment was developed for a senior level analytical laboratory utilizing an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) for the analysis of arsenic in household…

  12. A Single-band Cold Mass Support System for the MICE Superconducting Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong; Wang, Li; Liu, X.K.; Liu, C.S.; Li, L.K.; Xu, Feng Yu; Jia, Lin X.; Green, Michael A.

    2008-04-02

    The cooling channel of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) consists of eighteen superconducting solenoid coils, which are magnetically hooked together and contained in seven modules. The operations of a pair of MICE superconducting coupling magnets are affected directly by the other solenoid coils in the MICE channel. In order to meet the stringent requirement for the magnet center and axis azimuthal angle at 4.2 K, a self-centered tension-band cold mass support system with intermediate thermal interruption was applied for the MICE superconducting coupling magnet. The physical center of the magnet does not change as it is cooled down from 300 K to 4.2 K using this support system. This paper analyzed and calculated force loads on the coupling magnet under various operation modes of the MICE cooling channel. The performance parameters of a single-band cold mass support system were calculated also.

  13. Current medical research with the application of coupled techniques with mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Summary The most effective methods of analysis of organic compounds in biological fluids are coupled chromatographic techniques. Capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allows the most efficient separation, identification and quantification of volatile metabolites in biological fluids. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is especially suitable for the analysis of non-volatile and/or thermally unstable compounds. A major drawback of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is that no standard spectral libraries such as NIST and Wiley for GC-MS are available to facilitate the identification of unknown compounds. Moreover, the identification of potential new compounds, especially new biomarkers in LC-MS, is much more challenging than in GC-MS. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry (CE-MS) has been widely used to characterize metabolomes. Capillary electrophoresis is a powerful technique for the separation of charged metabolites, offering high analyte resolution. The advantages of CE-MS are applicability for hydrophilic metabolites, robust separation efficiency and short duration of analysis. This review provides an overview of current chromatographic methods – gas chromatography – mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry – and their applications in current medical research. The focus is on the description of metabonomics research, strategies for biomarkers identification, medical diagnoses of diseases and research of drugs. PMID:21525822

  14. Microfluidic Chip Coupled with Thermal Desorption Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Hsien; Chen, Tsung-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic chips have been used as platforms for a diversity of research purposes such as for separation and micro-reaction. One of the suitable detectors for microfluidic chip is mass spectrometry. Because microfluidic chips are generally operated in an open air condition, mass spectrometry coupled with atmospheric pressure ion sources can suit the requirement with minimum compromise. In this study, we develop a new interface to couple a microfluidic chip with mass spectrometry. A capillary tip coated with a layer of graphite, capable of absorbing energy of near-infrared (NIR) light is used to interface microfluidic chip with mass spectrometry. An NIR laser diode (λ=808 nm) is used to irradiate the capillary tip for assisting the generation of spray from the eluent of the microfluidic chip. An electrospray is provided to fuse with the spray generated from the microfluidic chip for post-ionization. Transesterification is used as the example to demonstrate the feasibility of using this interface to couple microfluidic chip with mass spectrometry. PMID:26839753

  15. Coupling centrifuge modeling and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine contaminant retardation in clays.

    PubMed

    Timms, Wendy; Hendry, M Jim; Muise, Jason; Kerrich, Robert

    2009-02-15

    Quantifying the retardation (Rd) of reactive solutes as they migrate through low-permeability clay-rich media is difficult, thus motivating this study to assess the viability of combining centrifuge modeling and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. An influent solution containing Cl-, trace metals, and lanthanide species flowed at 1.0 mL x h(-1) through an undisturbed clay-rich core sample (33 mm diameter x 50 mm long) mounted in a UFA Beckman centrifuge operating at 3000 rpm (N factor = 876 g). During the 87 day experiment the hydraulic conductivity of the core was 3.4 x 10(-10) m x s(-1). Effluent breakthrough data indicate the Rd of Tl to be 10; incomplete breakthrough (non-steady-state) data for 145Nd and 171Yb suggest Rd values of >75 and >85, respectively. At the completion of the transport experiment, longitudinal sections of the core solid were analyzed for 145Nd and 171Yb using a Cetac laser ablation system coupled with an ICP-MS. The longitudinal core sections yielded Rd values of >10000 for 145Nd and 171Yb. This study demonstrates coupling these techniques can provide Rd values for a wide range of reactive solutes with relatively rapid testing of small-scale, low hydraulic conductivity core samples.

  16. Speciation of arsenic in marine food (Anemonia sulcata) by liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and organic mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Acuña, M; García-Barrera, T; García-Sevillano, M A; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2013-03-22

    Arsenic species have been investigated in Anemonia sulcata, which is frequently consumed food staple in Spain battered in wheat flour and fried with olive oil. Speciation in tissue extracts was carried out by anion/cation exchange chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-(AEC/CEC)-ICP-MS). Three methods for the extraction of arsenic species were investigated (ultrasonic bath, ultrasonic probe and focused microwave) and the optimal one was applied. Arsenic speciation was carried out in raw and cooked anemone and the dominant species are dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) followed by arsenobetaine (AB), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)), tetramethylarsonium ion (TETRA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO). In addition, arsenocholine (AsC), glyceryl phosphorylarsenocholine (GPAsC) and dimethylarsinothioic acid (DMAS) were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). These results are interesting since GPAsC has been previously reported in marine organisms after experimental exposure to AsC, but not in natural samples. In addition, this paper reports for the first time the identification of DMAS in marine food.

  17. Coupled Fluids-Radiation Analysis of a High-Mass Mars Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Allen, Gary; Tang, Chun; Brown, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The NEQAIR line-by-line radiation code has been incorporated into the DPLR Navier-Stokes flow solver such that the NEQAIR subroutines are now callable functions of DPLR. The coupled DPLR-NEQAIR code was applied to compute the convective and radiative heating rates over high-mass Mars entry vehicles. Two vehicle geometries were considered - a 15 m diameter 70-degree sphere cone configuration and a slender, mid-L/D vehicle with a diameter of 5 m called an Ellipsled. The entry masses ranged from 100 to 165 metric tons. Solutions were generated for entry velocities ranging from 6.5 to 9.1 km/s. The coupled fluids-radiation solutions were performed at the peak heating location along trajectories generated by the Traj trajectory analysis code. The impact of fluids-radiation coupling is a function of the level of radiative heating and the freestream density and velocity. For the high-mass Mars vehicles examined in this study, coupling effects were greatest for entry velocities above 8.5 km/s where the surface radiative heating was reduced by up 17%. Generally speaking, the Ellipsled geometry experiences a lower peak radiative heating rate but a higher peak turbulent convective heating rate than the MSL-based vehicle.

  18. Tri-linear color multi-linescan sensor with 200 kHz line rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrey, Olaf; Brockherde, Werner; Nitta, Christian; Bechen, Benjamin; Bodenstorfer, Ernst; Brodersen, Jörg; Mayer, Konrad J.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present a newly developed linear CMOS high-speed line-scanning sensor realized in a 0.35 μm CMOS OPTO process for line-scan with 200 kHz true RGB and 600 kHz monochrome line rate, respectively. In total, 60 lines are integrated in the sensor allowing for electronic position adjustment. The lines are read out in rolling shutter manner. The high readout speed is achieved by a column-wise organization of the readout chain. At full speed, the sensor provides RGB color images with a spatial resolution down to 50 μm. This feature enables a variety of applications like quality assurance in print inspection, real-time surveillance of railroad tracks, in-line monitoring in flat panel fabrication lines and many more. The sensor has a fill-factor close to 100%, preventing aliasing and color artefacts. Hence the tri-linear technology is robust against aliasing ensuring better inspection quality and thus less waste in production lines.

  19. Measurement of the 135Cs half-life with accelerator mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, C. M.; Cornett, R. J.; Charles, C. R. J.; Zhao, X. L.; Kieser, W. E.

    2016-01-01

    The isotope 135Cs is quoted as having a half-life of 2.3 Myr. However, there are three published values ranging from 1.8 to 3 Myr. This research reviews previous measurements and reports a new measurement of the half-life using newly developed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) techniques along with β and γ radiometric analysis. The half-life was determined to be (1.6 ±0.6 ) ×106 yr by AMS and (1.3 ±0.2 ) ×106 yr by ICPMS with 95% confidence. The two values agree with each other but differ from the accepted value by ˜40 % .

  20. Probing the Higgs self coupling via single Higgs production at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Degrassi, G.; Giardino, P. P.; Maltoni, F.; ...

    2016-12-16

    Here, we propose a method to determine the trilinear Higgs self coupling that is alternative to the direct measurement of Higgs pair production total cross sections and differential distributions. Furthermore, the method relies on the effects that electroweak loops featuring an anomalous trilinear coupling would imprint on single Higgs production at the LHC. We first calculate these contributions to all the phenomenologically relevant Higgs production (ggF, VBF, WH, ZH, tmore » $$\\bar{t}$$ ) and decay (γγ,WW*/ZZ*→ 4f, b$$\\bar{b}$$,ττ) modes at the LHC and then estimate the sensitivity to the trilinear coupling via a one-parameter fit to the single Higgs measurements at the LHC 8 TeV. We also found that the bounds on the self coupling are already competitive with those from Higgs pair production and will be further improved in the current and next LHC runs.« less

  1. Probing the Higgs self coupling via single Higgs production at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Degrassi, G.; Giardino, P. P.; Maltoni, F.; Pagani, D.

    2016-12-16

    Here, we propose a method to determine the trilinear Higgs self coupling that is alternative to the direct measurement of Higgs pair production total cross sections and differential distributions. Furthermore, the method relies on the effects that electroweak loops featuring an anomalous trilinear coupling would imprint on single Higgs production at the LHC. We first calculate these contributions to all the phenomenologically relevant Higgs production (ggF, VBF, WH, ZH, t$\\bar{t}$ ) and decay (γγ,WW*/ZZ*→ 4f, b$\\bar{b}$,ττ) modes at the LHC and then estimate the sensitivity to the trilinear coupling via a one-parameter fit to the single Higgs measurements at the LHC 8 TeV. We also found that the bounds on the self coupling are already competitive with those from Higgs pair production and will be further improved in the current and next LHC runs.

  2. Probing the Higgs self coupling via single Higgs production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrassi, G.; Giardino, P. P.; Maltoni, F.; Pagani, D.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a method to determine the trilinear Higgs self coupling that is alternative to the direct measurement of Higgs pair production total cross sections and differential distributions. The method relies on the effects that electroweak loops featuring an anomalous trilinear coupling would imprint on single Higgs production at the LHC. We first calculate these contributions to all the phenomenologically relevant Higgs production ( ggF, VBF, WH, ZH, toverline{t}H ) and decay (γ γ, W{W}^{ast }/Z{Z}^{ast}to 4f,boverline{b},τ τ ) modes at the LHC and then estimate the sensitivity to the trilinear coupling via a one-parameter fit to the single Higgs measurements at the LHC 8 TeV. We find that the bounds on the self coupling are already competitive with those from Higgs pair production and will be further improved in the current and next LHC runs.

  3. Separation of actinides using capillary extraction chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dominic S; Montoya, Velma M

    2009-08-01

    Trace levels of actinides have been separated on capillary extraction chromatography columns. Detection of the actinides was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, which was coupled with the extraction chromatography system. In this study, we compare 30-cm long, 4.6 mm i.d. columns to capillary columns (750 microm i.d.) with lengths from 30 cm up to 150 cm. The columns that were tested were packed with TRU resin. We were able to separate a mixture of five actinides ((232)Th, (238)U, (237)Np, (239)Pu, and (241)Am). This work has application to rapid bioassay as well as automated separations of actinide materials.

  4. Absence of mass generation in the d>=3, N>=1 weakly coupled Gross-Neveu model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Emmanuel; Procacci, Aldo

    2000-05-01

    We show that the massless (ultraviolet-regularized) Gross-Neveu model, in d>=3 dimensions and any number of flavors (N=1,2,3,...), does not exhibit the mass generation mechanism if the quartic term coupling constant λ is sufficiently small. Specifically, by showing the uniformity in N for the whole treatment developed for N=1 in previous works, we prove that the two-point function can be written in terms of a convergent expansion in powers of the initial coupling λ, with a convergence radius uniform in N and in the volume, and that, for long distances, it decays as a free propagator (i.e., polynomially).

  5. The climatic mass balance of Svalbard glaciers: a 10-year simulation with a coupled atmosphere-glacier mass balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aas, Kjetil S.; Dunse, Thorben; Collier, Emily; Schuler, Thomas V.; Berntsen, Terje K.; Kohler, Jack; Luks, Bartłomiej

    2016-05-01

    In this study we simulate the climatic mass balance of Svalbard glaciers with a coupled atmosphere-glacier model with 3 km grid spacing, from September 2003 to September 2013. We find a mean specific net mass balance of -257 mm w.e. yr-1, corresponding to a mean annual mass loss of about 8.7 Gt, with large interannual variability. Our results are compared with a comprehensive set of mass balance, meteorological, and satellite measurements. Model temperature biases of 0.19 and -1.9 °C are found at two glacier automatic weather station sites. Simulated climatic mass balance is mostly within about 100 mm w.e. yr-1 of stake measurements, and simulated winter accumulation at the Austfonna ice cap shows mean absolute errors of 47 and 67 mm w.e. yr-1 when compared to radar-derived values for the selected years 2004 and 2006. Comparison of modeled surface height changes from 2003 to 2008, and satellite altimetry reveals good agreement in both mean values and regional differences. The largest deviations from observations are found for winter accumulation at Hansbreen (up to around 1000 mm w.e. yr-1), a site where sub-grid topography and wind redistribution of snow are important factors. Comparison with simulations using 9 km grid spacing reveal considerable differences on regional and local scales. In addition, 3 km grid spacing allows for a much more detailed comparison with observations than what is possible with 9 km grid spacing. Further decreasing the grid spacing to 1 km appears to be less significant, although in general precipitation amounts increase with resolution. Altogether, the model compares well with observations and offers possibilities for studying glacier climatic mass balance on Svalbard both historically as well as based on climate projections.

  6. Fluorescent quantification of terazosin hydrochloride content in human plasma and tablets using second-order calibration based on both parallel factor analysis and alternating penalty trilinear decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hong-Yan; Wu, Hai-Long; OuYang, Li-Qun; Zhang, Yan; Nie, Jin-Fang; Fu, Hai-Yan; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2009-09-14

    Two second-order calibration methods based on the parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and the alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD) method, have been utilized for the direct determination of terazosin hydrochloride (THD) in human plasma samples, coupled with the excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy. Meanwhile, the two algorithms combing with the standard addition procedures have been applied for the determination of terazosin hydrochloride in tablets and the results were validated by the high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. These second-order calibrations all adequately exploited the second-order advantages. For human plasma samples, the average recoveries by the PARAFAC and APTLD algorithms with the factor number of 2 (N=2) were 100.4+/-2.7% and 99.2+/-2.4%, respectively. The accuracy of two algorithms was also evaluated through elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR) tests and t-test. It was found that both algorithms could give accurate results, and only the performance of APTLD was slightly better than that of PARAFAC. Figures of merit, such as sensitivity (SEN), selectivity (SEL) and limit of detection (LOD) were also calculated to compare the performances of the two strategies. For tablets, the average concentrations of THD in tablet were 63.5 and 63.2 ng mL(-1) by using the PARAFAC and APTLD algorithms, respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by t-test and both algorithms could give accurate results, too.

  7. Observation of Coupled Vortex Lattices in a Mass-Imbalance Bose and Fermi Superfluid Mixture.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xing-Can; Chen, Hao-Ze; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xiang-Pei; Wang, Xiao-Qiong; Jiang, Xiao; Deng, Youjin; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-09-30

    Quantized vortices play an essential role in diverse superfluid phenomena. In a Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture, especially of two mass-imbalance species, such macroscopic quantum phenomena are particularly rich due to the interplay between the Bose and Fermi superfluidity. However, generating a Bose-Fermi two-species superfluid, producing coupled vortex lattices within, and further probing interspecies interaction effects remain challenging. Here, we experimentally realize a two-species superfluid with dilute gases of lithium-6 and potassium-41, having a mass ratio of about seven. By rotating the superfluid mixture, we simultaneously produce coupled vortex lattices of the two species and thus present a definitive visual evidence for the double superfluidity. Moreover, we report several unconventional behaviors, due to the Bose-Fermi interaction, on the formation and decay of two-species vortices.

  8. Quantitative bioanalysis of strontium in human serum by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Somarouthu, Srikanth; Ohh, Jayoung; Shaked, Jonathan; Cunico, Robert L; Yakatan, Gerald; Corritori, Suzana; Tami, Joe; Foehr, Erik D

    2015-01-01

    Aim: A bioanalytical method using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to measure endogenous levels of strontium in human serum was developed and validated. Results & methodology: This article details the experimental procedures used for the method development and validation thus demonstrating the application of the inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method for quantification of strontium in human serum samples. The assay was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and stability. Significant endogenous levels of strontium are present in human serum samples ranging from 19 to 96 ng/ml with a mean of 34.6 ± 15.2 ng/ml (SD). Discussion & conclusion: Calibration procedures and sample pretreatment were simplified for high throughput analysis. The validation demonstrates that the method was sensitive, selective for quantification of strontium (88Sr) and is suitable for routine clinical testing of strontium in human serum samples. PMID:28031925

  9. Simultaneous sample preconcentration and matrix removal using field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ammar, Assad; Siripinyanond, Atitaya; Barnes, Ramon M.

    2001-10-01

    An on-channel sample preconcentration-matrix removal arrangement, based on coupling field-flow fractionation (FFF) to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), has been constructed for on-line sample pretreatment ICP-MS trace element determination. A commercial FFF system is modified to incorporate an on-channel preconcentration procedure allowing injection of up to 50 ml of sample, which could be preconcentrated by 50-1400 fold. A high molecular weight complexing agent added to the sample forms strong complexes with the measured trace analytes but not with the sample matrix. When the sample-complexing agent mixture is introduced to the FFF unit, the uncomplexed matrix element is removed by permeation through a membrane that separates the FFF sample compartment. The trace analytes remain in the FFF channel, because their high molecular weight complexes do not permeate through the membrane. Preconcentration and matrix elimination occur simultaneously. The matrix-free, preconcentrated sample is introduced directly to the ICP-MS nebulizer. The method was tested using 10-ml sample aliquots that contain As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Re, Sn, Te, Tl, Y, Zn and Zr analytes and 5000 mg l -1 Ca or Na matrices and ethylene imine polymer complexing agent. Copper and Re isotopic ratio values in reference standards also were determined after preconcentration and matrix element removal.

  10. Speciation of trace elements in human serum by micro anion exchange chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Malavolta, Marco; Piacenza, Francesco; Basso, Andrea; Giacconi, Robertina; Costarelli, Laura; Pierpaoli, Sara; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2012-02-01

    Speciation analysis of essential trace elements in human serum provides important information on nutritional status and homeostatic mechanisms regulating transport processes, acute phase reactions, and protection against oxidative damage. Anion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has proved to be a useful tool in speciation. Here we describe a fast method that can be applied to carry out the speciation of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se in as little as 1 microl [corrected] of serum. The method employs monolithic anion exchange micro columns installed on a tandem HPLC system coupled on-line with an ICP-MS detector. The chromatographic separation is similar to those reported previously but with considerable gain in terms of time and sample requirement. Reproducibility is acceptable for most species. Using our method, we were able to find species-specific differences between different commercially available trace element reference materials. Because the method chosen to collect blood might interfere with speciation, the proposed methodology was used to compare heparinized plasma, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma, and serum from adult healthy volunteers. As expected, EDTA strongly affects speciation analysis (especially for Fe and Zn), whereas changes due to the use of lithium-heparin (Li-He) as anticoagulant appear to be minimized.

  11. Comparison of Alternative Coupling Methods of the Vibrant Soundbridge Floating Mass Transducer.

    PubMed

    Busch, Susan; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2017-01-10

    The active middle ear implant Vibrant Soundbridge© provides a variety of coupling modalities of the floating mass transducer (FMT) to various structures of the ossicular chain and the round window. A retrospective analysis was performed on 125 subjects (n = 137 ears) (1) to compare the efficacy of the different FMT coupling modalities with increasing degree of hearing loss, (2) to compare the performance in speech outcome and the effective gain between the coupling types, and (3) to evaluate the risk of additional hearing loss of each coupling procedure. The patients were grouped according to their type of FMT coupling into incus vibroplasty (incus group, n = 59), round window vibroplasty with coupler (RWC group, n = 23), round window vibroplasty without coupler (RW group, n = 22), and oval window vibroplasty with coupler (OWC group, n = 33). For each coupling group, pre- and postoperative thresholds, the results of the Freiburg monosyllable test at 65 dB SPL, and the effective gain across frequencies (0.5-6 kHz) were evaluated. A logistic regression function was used to describe the relationship between word recognition scores (WRS, in % correct) and the mean bone conduction (BC) hearing loss. The surgical procedure had no clinically relevant effect on BC thresholds of patients in each coupling group. The BC pure tone average (PTA4) for 50% WRS predicted by the model function was similar for the incus (48.2 dB nHL), RW (47.8 dB nHL), and OWC (49.0 dB nHL) groups, but higher for the RWC group (67.9 dB nHL). However, the median WRS was 80% or better with no significant differences in speech perception between coupling types (Kruskal-Wallis test, p = 0.229). The effective gain shows an advantage for the incus coupling between 0.5 and 2 kHz over the other coupling types. The performance of the FMT coupling modalities is equally good for patients with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, but the efficacy of coupling types differs for patients with greater hearing loss

  12. Online Coupling of Flow-Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Nanoparticle Surface Coating Thickness and Aggregation State

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...

  13. In situ calibration of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission and mass spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Braymen, S.D.

    1996-06-11

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for in situ addition calibration of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer or mass spectrometer using a precision gas metering valve to introduce a volatile calibration gas of an element of interest directly into an aerosol particle stream. The present in situ calibration technique is suitable for various remote, on-site sampling systems such as laser ablation or nebulization. 5 figs.

  14. Screening Samples for Arsenic by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry for Treaty Samples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    hydrolysis products chlorovinyl arsonous acid (CVAA). One of the missions of the Forensic Analytical Center is to screen samples for compliance with the... Forensic Analytical Center (ECBC-FAC) is a designated lab under the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). This organization is...FAC Forensic Analytical Center GC-MS gas chromatography-mass spectrometry HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS inductively coupled

  15. How might a statistical cloud scheme be coupled to a mass-flux convection scheme?

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Stephen A.; Pincus, Robert; Hannay, Cecile; Xu, Kuan-man

    2004-09-27

    The coupling of statistical cloud schemes with mass-flux convection schemes is addressed. Source terms representing the impact of convection are derived within the framework of prognostic equations for the width and asymmetry of the probability distribution function of total water mixing ratio. The accuracy of these source terms is quantified by examining output from a cloud resolving model simulation of deep convection. Practical suggestions for inclusion of these source terms in large-scale models are offered.

  16. Improving the Mass-Limited Performance of Routine NMR Probes using Coupled Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Brian; Lim, Victor; Taber, Bob; Zens, Albert

    2016-07-01

    We report a method to convert, on demand, a general use dual-broadband probe to a high performance mass-limited probe for both high band and low band nuclei. This technology uses magnetic coupling of inductors to achieve this capability. The method offers a cost effective way of increasing the performance of routine NMR probes without having to change probes or increase the overall foot print of the spectrometer.

  17. Reduction of plyatomic ion interferences in indictively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with cryogenic desolvation

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Luis C.

    1993-09-01

    A desolvation scheme for introducing aqueous and organic samples into an argon inductively coupled plasma is described; the aerosol generated by nebulizer is heated (+140 C) and cooled (-80 C) repeatedly, and the dried aerosol is then injected into the mass spectrometer. Polyatomic ions are greatly suppressed. This scheme was validated with analysis of seawater and urine reference samples. Finally, the removal of organic solvents by cryogenic desolvation was studied.

  18. Improving the Mass-Limited Performance of Routine NMR Probes using Coupled Coils.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Brian; Lim, Victor; Taber, Bob; Zens, Albert

    2016-07-01

    We report a method to convert, on demand, a general use dual-broadband probe to a high performance mass-limited probe for both high band and low band nuclei. This technology uses magnetic coupling of inductors to achieve this capability. The method offers a cost effective way of increasing the performance of routine NMR probes without having to change probes or increase the overall foot print of the spectrometer.

  19. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, N.C.; Limbach, P.A.; Shomo, R.E. II; Marshall, A.G. ); Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E. )

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF{sup {minus}}{sub 6} fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H){sup +} ions) of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with {ital tetra}-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol{sup ( )} sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon{sup ( )}. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  20. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Nicholas C.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Shomo, Ronald E., II; Marshall, Alan G.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Delmore, James E.

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF-6 fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis [e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H)+ ions] of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with tetra-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol■ sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon■. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  1. A DISTINCTIVE DISK-JET COUPLING IN THE LOWEST-MASS SEYFERT, NGC 4395

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M.; Reynolds, Mark T.; Gueltekin, Kayhan; Gallo, Elena; Maitra, Dipankar

    2013-09-10

    Simultaneous observations of X-rays and radio luminosities have been well studied in accreting stellar-mass black holes. These observations are performed in order to understand how mass accretion rates and jetted outflows are linked in these individual systems. Such contemporaneous studies in supermassive black holes (SMBH) are harder to perform, as viscous times scale linearly with mass. However, as NGC 4395 is the lowest known mass Seyfert galaxy, we have used it to examine the simultaneous X-ray (Swift) and radio (Very Large Array) correlation in a SMBH in a reasonably timed observing campaign. We find that the intrinsic X-ray variability is stronger than the radio variability, and that the fluxes are only weakly or tentatively coupled, similar to prior results obtained in NGC 4051. If the corona and the base of the jet are one and the same, this may suggest that the corona in radio-quiet active galactic nucleus filters disk variations, only transferring the strongest and/or most sustained variations into the jet. Further, when both NGC 4395 and NGC 4051 are placed on the stellar-mass L{sub X} -L{sub R} plane, they appear to reside on the steeper L{sub X} -L{sub R} track. This suggests that SMBHs also follow two distinct tracks just as stellar-mass black holes do, and supports the idea that the same physical disk-jet mechanisms are at play across the mass scale.

  2. Online coupling of electrochemical reactions with liquid sample desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiwen; Dewald, Howard D; Chen, Hao

    2009-12-01

    The combination of electrochemistry (EC) and mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical tool to study redox reactions. This work reports the online coupling of a thin-layer electrochemical flow cell with liquid sample desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) and its applications in investigating various electrochemical reactions of biological molecules such as oxidative formation and reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds and online derivatization of peptides/proteins. As a result of the direct sampling nature of DESI, several useful features of such a coupling have been found, including simple instrumentation, fast response time (e.g., 3.6 s in the case of dopamine oxidation), freedom to choose a favorable ionization mode of DESI or traditional electrolysis solvent systems, and the absence of background signal possibly resulting from ionization when the cell is off (e.g., in the case of dopamine oxidation). More importantly, with the use of this new coupling apparatus, three disulfide bonds of insulin were fully cleaved by electrolytic reduction and both the A and B chains of the protein were successfully detected online by DESI-MS. In addition, online tagging of free cysteine residues of peptides/proteins employing electrogenerated dopamine o-quinone can be performed. These revealed characteristics of the coupling along with examined electrochemical reactions suggest that EC/DESI-MS has good potential in bioanalysis.

  3. Hydromechanical coupling in fractured rock masses: mechanisms and processes of selected case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangerl, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Hydromechanical (HM) coupling in fractured rock play an important role when events including dam failures, landslides, surface subsidences due to water withdrawal or drainage, injection-induced earthquakes and others are analysed. Generally, hydromechanical coupling occurs when a rock mass contain interconnected pores and fractures which are filled with water and pore/fracture pressures evolves. In the on hand changes in the fluid pressure can lead to stress changes, deformations and failures of the rock mass. In the other hand rock mass stress changes and deformations can alter the hydraulic properties and fluid pressures of the rock mass. Herein well documented case studies focussing on surface subsidence due to water withdrawal, reversible deformations of large-scale valley flanks and failure as well as deformation processes of deep-seated rock slides in fractured rock masses are presented. Due to pore pressure variations HM coupling can lead to predominantly reversible rock mass deformations. Such processes can be considered by the theory of poroelasticity. Surface subsidence reaching magnitudes of few centimetres and are caused by water drainage into deep tunnels are phenomenas which can be assigned to processes of poroelasticity. Recently, particular focus was given on large tunnelling projects to monitor and predict surface subsidence in fractured rock mass in oder to avoid damage of surface structures such as dams of large reservoirs. It was found that surface subsidence due to tunnel drainage can adversely effect infrastructure when pore pressure drawdown is sufficiently large and spatially extended and differential displacements which can be amplified due to topographical effects e.g. valley closure are occurring. Reversible surface deformations were also ascertained on large mountain slopes and summits with the help of precise deformation measurements i.e. permanent GPS or episodic levelling/tacheometric methods. These reversible deformations are often

  4. Gated Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry Coupled to Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, Mark E; Wolff, Jeremy J; Silveira, Joshua A; Lin, Cheng; Costello, Catherine E; Park, Melvin A

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of molecules by ion mobility spectrometry coupled with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) provides chemical information on the three dimensional structure and mass of the molecules. The coupling of ion mobility to trapping mass spectrometers has historically been challenging due to the large differences in analysis time between the two devices. In this paper we present a modification of the trapped ion mobility (TIMS) analysis scheme termed "Gated TIMS" that allows efficient coupling to a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) analyzer. Analyses of standard compounds and the influence of source conditions on the TIMS distributions produced by ion mobility spectra of labile ubiquitin protein ions are presented. Ion mobility resolving powers up to 100 are observed. Measured collisional cross sections of ubiquitin ions are in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement to previous measurements. Gated TIMS FT-ICR produces results comparable to those acquired using TIMS/time-of-flight MS instrument platforms as well as numerous drift tube IMS-MS studies published in the literature.

  5. Determination of silver in nano-plastic food packaging by microwave digestion coupled with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Q-B; Li, B; Song, H; Wu, H-J

    2011-08-01

    The detection of silver in nano-plastic food packaging by microwave digestion coupled with either inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was investigated. Microwave digestion was optimised by trialling different acid mixtures. Both ICP-AES and ICP-MS showed good reproducibility, repeatability and recovery. For ICP-AES the limit of detection of the method (LODm) was 25.0 µg g(-1), the limit of detection of the instrument (LODi) was 30.0 ng ml(-1), the linear range was 0.10-10.0 µg ml(-1). The average recoveries for blank samples spiked with silver at 100, 250 and 500 µg g(-1) ranged from 82.53% to 87.60%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were from 1.79% to 8.30%. For ICP-MS analysis the LODm was 0.75 µg g(-1), the LODi was 0.04 ng ml(-1), the linear range was 0.20-500.0 ng ml(-1), the RSDs were 2.26-4.79%, and the recoveries were 78.09-92.72% (spiked concentrations of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 µg g(-1)). These results indicate that the proposed method could be employed to analyse silver in nano-plastic food packaging.

  6. A straightforward means of coupling preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hong; Kiplinger, Jeffrey P; Goetzinger, Wolfgang K; Cole, Roderic O; Laws, Kathrine A; Foster, Marc; Schrock, Audrey

    2002-01-01

    Flow splitting to a mass spectrometer is a common way of coupling a highly specific detector to preparative or semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification of combinatorial libraries, drug metabolites, and characterizable impurities. The sensitive mass spectrometer consumes only a small fraction of the analyte while providing online structure-specific detection, and its output can thus be used to trigger collection of the desired fraction. Coupling mass spectrometry to preparative HPLC is difficult due to the susceptibility of the detector to fouling under conditions of high analyte concentration or solute amount, or to changes in solvent composition. We report here on a device, the mass rate attenuator (MRA), which automatically produces split ratios over a range of 100:1 to 100 000:1 under programmable user control. The MRA is a flow-control device that periodically gates a small aliquot from one liquid stream into another. The design allows the user to set the frequency of the gating without interruption of the HPLC flow stream. The MRA also allows control of the volume of the aliquot that is transferred between the flow streams. This additional control, compared to passive splitting devices, facilitates optimization of the tubing connecting the separation, detection and collection events. We demonstrate that such optimization can reduce the volume of the collected fraction without compromising recovery, thus reducing the time spent in evaporating solvents to reclaim purified products.

  7. Low mass thermal dilepton production at NLO in a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiglieri, Jacopo; Moore, Guy D.

    2014-12-01

    We present a computation, within weakly-coupled thermal QCD, of the production rate of low invariant mass ( M 2 ~ g 2 T 2) dileptons, at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the coupling (which is ). This involves extending the NLO calculation of the photon rate which we recently presented to the case of small nonzero photon invariant mass. Numerical results are discussed and tabulated forms and code are provided for inclusion in hydrodynamical models. We find that NLO corrections can increase the dilepton rate by up to 30-40% relative to leading order. We find that the electromagnetic response of the plasma for real photons and for small invariant mass but high energy dilepton pairs (e.g., M 2 < (300 MeV)2 but p T > 1 GeV) are close enough that dilepton pair measurements really can serve as ersatz photon measurements. We also present a matching a la Ghisoiu and Laine between our results and results at larger invariant masses.

  8. Method for quantitative proteomics research by using metal element chelated tags coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiling; Zhang, Yangjun; Wang, Jinglan; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Chunxi; Cai, Yun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2006-09-15

    The mass spectrometry-based methods with a stable isotope as the internal standard in quantitative proteomics have been developed quickly in recent years. But the use of some stable isotope reagents is limited by the relative high price and synthetic difficulties. We have developed a new method for quantitative proteomics research by using metal element chelated tags (MECT) coupled with mass spectrometry. The bicyclic anhydride diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N' ',N' '-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) is covalently coupled to primary amines of peptides, and the ligand is then chelated to the rare earth metals Y and Tb. The tagged peptides are mixed and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Peptides are quantified by measuring the relative signal intensities for the Y and Tb tag pairs in MS, which permits the quantitation of the original proteins generating the corresponding peptides. The protein is then identified by the corresponding peptide sequence from its MS/MS spectrum. The MECT method was evaluated by using standard proteins as model sample. The experimental results showed that metal chelate-tagged peptides chromatographically coeluted successfully during the reversed-phase LC analysis. The relative quantitation results were accurate for proteins using MECT. DTPA modification of the N-terminal of peptides promoted cleaner fragmentation (only y-series ions) in mass spectrometry and improved the confidence level of protein identification. The MECT strategy provides a simple, rapid, and economical alternative to current mass tagging technologies available.

  9. High mass positive ions and molecules in capacitively-coupled radio-frequency CF4 plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzenbach, W.; Cunge, G.; Booth, J. P.

    1999-06-01

    The positive ions and neutral radicals arriving at the earthed walls of a capacitively-coupled radio-frequency pure CF4 plasma were analyzed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer adapted for high masses. Experiments were performed at 50 and 200 mTorr, in an empty reactor and with Si and SiO2-coated Si substrates on the powered electrode. High mass ions and neutrals were detected, up to 500 and 300 amu, respectively. The abundance of high-mass species was greatest in the presence of silicon wafers and at higher pressure. The observed ion masses can be separated into distinct series, originating from different initial bases to which successive CF2 units have been added. We, therefore, propose that these high-mass species are the result of a gas phase polymerization process consisting of CF2 addition reactions, in agreement with a model proposed recently by our group. The influence of a silicon substrate derives primarily from the strong decrease that it induces in the concentration of F atoms, which otherwise limit the concentration of CF2 and of chain initiating species.

  10. Reactivity and analytical performance of oxygen as cell gas in inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgilio, Alex; Amais, Renata S.; Amaral, Clarice D. B.; Fialho, Lucimar L.; Schiavo, Daniela; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.

    2016-12-01

    The reactivity and analytical performance of O2 as cell gas in inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry was investigated. Selected analytes in a wide mass range were divided in three groups according to their reactivity: G1 represents elements with high oxygen affinity (Ce, La, P, Sc, Ti, and Y), G2 contains elements that may partially react with oxygen (As, Ba, Mo, Si, Sr, and V), and G3 comprises elements expected to be less reactive towards oxygen (Al, Bi, Cu, Mg, Pb, and Pd). On-mass and mass-shift modes were evaluated by monitoring atomic and metal oxide ions, respectively. Analytical signal profiles, oxide percentages, sensitivities and limits of detection for oxygen flow rates varying from 0.1 to 1.0 mL min- 1 were also studied. Group 1 elements plus As and V presented better sensitivities and LODs when measuring oxides, which were the major species for all flow rates evaluated. Molybdenum and Si oxides presented intermediate behavior and MoO fraction was up to 47% and limit of detection was the same as that obtained in on-mass mode. For others G2 and G3 elements, on-mass mode presented higher sensitivity and better LODs, with estimated oxide contents lower than 10%. In most cases, increasing oxygen flow rates led to lower sensitivities and worse LODs.

  11. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luong, Elise

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 ± 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 ± 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 ± 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 ± 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and β-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of 13C+ with 12C 1H+ comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or β-cyclodextrin.

  12. Speciation of cisplatin in environmental water samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, Janja; Martinčič, Anže; Milačič, Radmila; Ščančar, Janez

    2015-06-01

    Cisplatin is still widely used for treatment of numerous types of tumours. Different speciation methods have been applied to study behaviour of the intact drug and its individual biotransformation species in various clinical samples. These methods are mainly based on electrophoresis, size exclusion (SEC) or ion chromatography (IC) techniques coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), which is a common technique for separation of polar substances, was rarely applied for separation of cisplatin and its hydrolysed metabolites. There is also a lack of information available on the occurrence of cisplatin and its hydrolysed complexes in the environmental waters. In the present study the concentrations of Pt were determined in hospital wastewaters by ICP-MS. A procedure for separation of cisplatin and its aqueous hydrolysed complexes by the use of HILIC column was optimized. Quantification of separated Pt species was performed by isotope dilution (ID)-ICP-MS procedure. Low limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were obtained for cisplatin and its hydrolysed complexes ranging from 0.0273 to 0.1726 ng Pt/mL and from 0.0909 to 0.5753 ng Pt/mL, respectively. Good repeatability of the procedure with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than ±2.3% was obtained. The column recoveries, which ranged from 95 to 101%, indicated that the procedure developed enabled quantitative speciation analysis of aqueous cisplatin complexes. The ZIC-HILIC-ID-ICP-MS procedure was successfully applied in speciation of cisplatin in spiked hospital wastewater samples.

  13. Ultraviolet optomechanical crystal cavities with ultrasmall modal mass and high optomechanical coupling rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen; Yu, Zejie; Ma, Jingwen; Zhu, Bingqing; Tsang, Hon Ki; Sun, Xiankai

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanical crystal (OMC) cavities which exploit the simultaneous photonic and phononic bandgaps in periodic nanostructures have been utilized to colocalize, couple, and transduce optical and mechanical resonances for nonlinear interactions and precision measurements. The development of near-infrared OMC cavities has difficulty in maintaining a high optomechanical coupling rate when scaling to smaller mechanical modal mass because of the reduction of the spatial overlap between the optical and mechanical modes. Here, we explore OMC nanobeam cavities in gallium nitride operating at the ultraviolet wavelengths to overcome this problem. With a novel optimization strategy, we have successfully designed an OMC cavity, with a size of 3.83 × 0.17 × 0.13 μm3 and the mechanical modal mass of 22.83 fg, which possesses an optical mode resonating at the wavelength of 393.03 nm and the fundamental mechanical mode vibrating at 14.97 GHz. The radiation-limited optical Q factor, mechanical Q factor, and optomechanical coupling rate are 2.26 × 107, 1.30 × 104, and 1.26 MHz, respectively. Our design and optimization approach can also serve as the general guidelines for future development of OMC cavities with improved device performance. PMID:27892523

  14. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xingjun; Deng, Yunpeng; Hu, Di

    2016-04-08

    This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG). The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range.

  15. Ultraviolet optomechanical crystal cavities with ultrasmall modal mass and high optomechanical coupling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Yu, Zejie; Ma, Jingwen; Zhu, Bingqing; Tsang, Hon Ki; Sun, Xiankai

    2016-11-01

    Optomechanical crystal (OMC) cavities which exploit the simultaneous photonic and phononic bandgaps in periodic nanostructures have been utilized to colocalize, couple, and transduce optical and mechanical resonances for nonlinear interactions and precision measurements. The development of near-infrared OMC cavities has difficulty in maintaining a high optomechanical coupling rate when scaling to smaller mechanical modal mass because of the reduction of the spatial overlap between the optical and mechanical modes. Here, we explore OMC nanobeam cavities in gallium nitride operating at the ultraviolet wavelengths to overcome this problem. With a novel optimization strategy, we have successfully designed an OMC cavity, with a size of 3.83 × 0.17 × 0.13 μm3 and the mechanical modal mass of 22.83 fg, which possesses an optical mode resonating at the wavelength of 393.03 nm and the fundamental mechanical mode vibrating at 14.97 GHz. The radiation-limited optical Q factor, mechanical Q factor, and optomechanical coupling rate are 2.26 × 107, 1.30 × 104, and 1.26 MHz, respectively. Our design and optimization approach can also serve as the general guidelines for future development of OMC cavities with improved device performance.

  16. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xingjun; Deng, Yunpeng; Hu, Di

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG). The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range. PMID:27070616

  17. Mass-corrections for the conservative coupling of flow and transport on collocated meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Waluga, Christian; Wohlmuth, Barbara; Rüde, Ulrich

    2016-01-15

    Buoyancy-driven flow models demand a careful treatment of the mass-balance equation to avoid spurious source and sink terms in the non-linear coupling between flow and transport. In the context of finite-elements, it is therefore commonly proposed to employ sufficiently rich pressure spaces, containing piecewise constant shape functions to obtain local or even strong mass-conservation. In three-dimensional computations, this usually requires nonconforming approaches, special meshes or higher order velocities, which make these schemes prohibitively expensive for some applications and complicate the implementation into legacy code. In this paper, we therefore propose a lean and conservatively coupled scheme based on standard stabilized linear equal-order finite elements for the Stokes part and vertex-centered finite volumes for the energy equation. We show that in a weak mass-balance it is possible to recover exact conservation properties by a local flux-correction which can be computed efficiently on the control volume boundaries of the transport mesh. We discuss implementation aspects and demonstrate the effectiveness of the flux-correction by different two- and three-dimensional examples which are motivated by geophysical applications.

  18. Identification of Microalgae by Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Multiple Nanomatrices.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lung-Hsiang; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Shih, Chi-Yu; Hsiung, Tung-Ming; Chang, Jeng; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Chiu, Tai-Chia; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a simple method to identify microalgae by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using three different substrates: HgSe, HgTe, and HgTeSe nanostructures. The fragmentation/ionization processes of complex molecules in algae varied according to the heat absorption and transfer efficiency of the nanostructured matrices (NMs). Therefore, the mass spectra obtained for microalgae showed different patterns of m/z values for different NMs. The spectra contained both significant and nonsignificant peaks. Constructing a Venn diagram with the significant peaks obtained for algae when using HgSe, HgTe, and HgTeSe NMs in m/z ratio range 100-1000, a unique relationship among the three sets of values was obtained. This unique relationship of sets is different for each species of microalgae. Therefore, by observing the particular relationship of sets, we successfully identified different algae such as Isochrysis galbana, Emiliania huxleyi, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Nannochloris sp., Skeletonema cf. costatum, and Tetraselmis chui. This simple and cost-effective SALDI-MS analysis method coupled with multi-nanomaterials as substrates may be extended to identify other microalgae and microorganisms in real samples. Graphical Abstract Identification of microalgae by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry coupled with three different mercury-based nanosubstrates.

  19. Scandium analysis in silicon-containing minerals by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Drouin, Elisabeth; Constantin, Marc; Bazin, Claude; Larivière, Dominic

    2016-04-01

    This article reports on the development of a new method for the accurate and precise determination of the amount of scandium, Sc, in silicon-containing minerals, based on the use of tandem quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). The tandem quadrupole instrument enables new mass filtering configurations, which can reduce polyatomic interferences during the determination of Sc in mineral matrices. He and O2 were used and compared as collision and reaction gases for the removal of interferences at m/z 45 and 61. Using helium gas was ineffective to overcome all of the spectral interferences observed at m/z 45 and particularly for Si-based interferences. However, conversion of Sc+ ions into ScO+ ions (after bombardment with O2 in the octopole reaction system coupled with the use of the instrument in MS/MS mass-shift mode) provided interference-free conditions and sufficiently low limits of detection, down to 3 ng L- 1, to accurately detect Sc. The accuracy of the proposed methodology was assessed by analyzing five different reference materials (BX-N, OKA-2, NIM-L, SY-3 and GH).

  20. Parallel Exploration of Interaction Space by BioID and Affinity Purification Coupled to Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Geoffrey G; Youn, Ji-Young; Samavarchi-Tehrani, Payman; Raught, Brian; Gingras, Anne-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Complete understanding of cellular function requires knowledge of the composition and dynamics of protein interaction networks, the importance of which spans all molecular cell biology fields. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics approaches are instrumental in this process, with affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (AP-MS) now widely used for defining interaction landscapes. Traditional AP-MS methods are well suited to providing information regarding the temporal aspects of soluble protein-protein interactions, but the requirement to maintain protein-protein interactions during cell lysis and AP means that both weak-affinity interactions and spatial information is lost. A more recently developed method called BioID employs the expression of bait proteins fused to a nonspecific biotin ligase, BirA*, that induces in vivo biotinylation of proximal proteins. Coupling this method to biotin affinity enrichment and mass spectrometry negates many of the solubility and interaction strength issues inherent in traditional AP-MS methods, and provides unparalleled spatial context for protein interactions. Here we describe the parallel implementation of both BioID and FLAG AP-MS allowing simultaneous exploration of both spatial and temporal aspects of protein interaction networks.

  1. Mass-corrections for the conservative coupling of flow and transport on collocated meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluga, Christian; Wohlmuth, Barbara; Rüde, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Buoyancy-driven flow models demand a careful treatment of the mass-balance equation to avoid spurious source and sink terms in the non-linear coupling between flow and transport. In the context of finite-elements, it is therefore commonly proposed to employ sufficiently rich pressure spaces, containing piecewise constant shape functions to obtain local or even strong mass-conservation. In three-dimensional computations, this usually requires nonconforming approaches, special meshes or higher order velocities, which make these schemes prohibitively expensive for some applications and complicate the implementation into legacy code. In this paper, we therefore propose a lean and conservatively coupled scheme based on standard stabilized linear equal-order finite elements for the Stokes part and vertex-centered finite volumes for the energy equation. We show that in a weak mass-balance it is possible to recover exact conservation properties by a local flux-correction which can be computed efficiently on the control volume boundaries of the transport mesh. We discuss implementation aspects and demonstrate the effectiveness of the flux-correction by different two- and three-dimensional examples which are motivated by geophysical applications.

  2. Coupled sulfur isotopic and chemical mass transfer modeling: Approach and application to dynamic hydrothermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Janecky, D.R.

    1988-09-21

    A computational modeling code (EQPSreverse arrowS) has been developed to examine sulfur isotopic distribution pathways coupled with calculations of chemical mass transfer pathways. A post processor approach to EQ6 calculations was chosen so that a variety of isotopic pathways could be examined for each reaction pathway. Two types of major bounding conditions were implemented: (1) equilibrium isotopic exchange between sulfate and sulfide species or exchange only accompanying chemical reduction and oxidation events, and (2) existence or lack of isotopic exchange between solution species and precipitated minerals, parallel to the open and closed chemical system formulations of chemical mass transfer modeling codes. All of the chemical data necessary to explicitly calculate isotopic distribution pathways is generated by most mass transfer modeling codes and can be input to the EQPS code. Routines are built in to directly handle EQ6 tabular files. Chemical reaction models of seafloor hydrothermal vent processes and accompanying sulfur isotopic distribution pathways illustrate the capabilities of coupling EQPSreverse arrowS with EQ6 calculations, including the extent of differences that can exist due to the isotopic bounding condition assumptions described above. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling and Mass Outflow - the Magnetosphere/Ionosphere Perspective (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltberger, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Global scale models of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction have long established history of including magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling through the electrodynamic coupling. Typically this coupling includes closure of field aligned currents from the magnetosphere in the electrostatic ionosphere with the conductances being modified by particle precipitation processes. Recent advances in simulation technology, namely multi-fluid MHD, allow the scope of MI coupling in simulations to include mass outflows from the thermosphere-ionosphere into the magnetosphere. Multiple approaches to addressing this challenge have been developed. In one approach empirical parametrization of the outflow characteristics, namely velocity and flux, are used to include high intensity sources such as the auroral zone and cusp. Another approach starts by modeling the plasma flow along a single field line and then expands to include multiple field lines convecting over the polar cap. In both approaches the ionospheric outflow has profound effects on the state of the magnetosphere. Generally speaking it improves agreement with Dst observations, alters the cross polar cap potential, and can fundamentally alter the evolution of the modeled magnetospheric state. Initial indications from some of the model efforts show that including this plasma source may also alter the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. While significant advances on including these effects in global scale models has been accomplished many challenges remain.

  4. Separation of actinides using capillary extraction chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dominic S

    2008-01-01

    Trace levels of actinides have been separated on extraction chromatography columns. Detection of the actinides was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), which was coupled with the extraction chromatography system. In this study we compare 30 cm long, 4.6 mm ID columns to capillary columns (750 {micro}m ID) with lengths from 30 cm up to 150 cm. The columns that were tested were packed with TRU resin. We were able to separate a mixture of five actinides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}pU, {sup 241}Am). This work has application to rapid bioassay as well as for automated separations of actinide materials.

  5. Proteomic characterization of integral membrane proteins using thermostatted liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah M; Wu, Christine C

    2012-01-01

    Due to the hydrophobicity and localization of integral membrane proteins, they are difficult to study using conventional biochemical methods that are compatible with proteomic analyses. This chapter describes the coupling of multiple crucial steps that lead to the optimized shotgun proteomic analysis of integral membrane proteins while maintaining empirical topology information. Namely, a membrane shaving method is utilized to separate protease accessible peptides from membrane embedded peptides and elevated temperatures during chromatographic separation is utilized to augment the recovery of hydrophobic peptides for in-line analysis using tandem mass spectrometry. This combination of steps facilitates increased identification of membrane proteins while also maintaining information regarding protein topology.

  6. Determination of trace metals in marine biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; McLaren, J.W.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of two marine biological reference materials (dogfish liver tissue (DOLT-1) and dogfish muscle tissue (DORM-1)). The materials were put into solution by digestion in a nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Thirteen elements (Na, Mg, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were then determined. Accurate results were obtained by standard additions or isotope dilution techniques for all of these elements in DORM-1 and for all but Cr in DOLT-1.

  7. Anomalous coupling, top-mass and parton-shower effects in W + W - production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellm, J.; Gieseke, S.; Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.; Plätzer, S.; Reuschle, C.; von Soden-Fraunhofen, J. F.

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the process ppto {W}+{W}-to {e}+{ν}_e{μ}-{overline{ν}}_{μ } at NLO QCD, including also effective field theory (EFT) operators mediating the ggW + W - interaction, which first occur at dimension eight. We further combine the NLO and EFT matrix elements produced by G oS am with the H erwig7/M atchbox framework, which offers the possibility to study the impact of a parton shower. We assess the effects of the anomalous couplings by comparing them to top-mass effects as well as uncertainties related to variations of the renormalisation, factorisation and hard shower scales.

  8. Chemical recoveries of technetium-99 for various procedures using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ihsanullah; East, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    The procedure for the determination of {sup 99}Tc inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was based on the modification of a variety of available separation techniques. Standard Ru and Rh solutions were used for checking decontaminations and instrument response respectively. Technetium-99 and {sup 95m}Tc tracers were applied as yield monitors using ICP-MS and gamma-ray spectrometry respectively. Percent recoveries are reported for a variety of radiochemical separation procedures for water (58-83%), seaweed (10-76%), and for soil matrices (19-79%).

  9. EPA Method 200.8: Determination of Trace Elements in Waters and Wastes by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAM lists this method for preparation and analysis of aqueous liquid and drinking water samples. This method will determine metal-containing compounds only as the total metal (e.g., total arsenic), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

  10. In-Situ Organic Compound Analysis of the Meteorite Surface by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Coupled with an Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naraoka, H.; Hashiguchi, M.

    2016-08-01

    It-situ analysis of organic compounds on the meteorite surface was performed by desorption electrospray ionization coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry. Indigenous peaks of meteorite origin were discriminated from the background.

  11. Detection of chemical warfare agent degradation products in foods using liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kubachka, Kevin M; Richardson, Douglas D; Heitkemper, Douglas T; Caruso, Joseph A

    2008-08-22

    The following work presents the exploration of three chromatographic separations in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the analysis of chemical warfare agent degradation products (CWADPs). The robust ionization of ICP is virtually matrix independent thus enabling the examination of sample matrices generally considered too complicated for analysis by electrospray ionization (ESI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS with little to no sample preparation. The analysis was focused on detecting CWADPs in food matrices, as they present possible vehicles for terrorist contamination. Due to the specific detection of (31)P by ICP-MS, resolution of analytes of interest from other P-containing interferences (H(3)PO(4)) was a crucial part of each separation. Up to 10 CWADPs were separated in the presence of H(3)PO(4) with detection limits in the low part per billion levels using the methods described. Additionally, one method was tailored to be compatible with both ICP-MS and ESI-MS making structural verification possible.

  12. Coupling of a scanning flow cell with online electrochemical mass spectrometry for screening of reaction selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grote, Jan-Philipp; Zeradjanin, Aleksandar R.; Cherevko, Serhiy; Mayrhofer, Karl J. J.

    2014-10-01

    In this work the online coupling of a miniaturized electrochemical scanning flow cell (SFC) to a mass spectrometer is introduced. The system is designed for the determination of reaction products in dependence of the applied potential and/or current regime as well as fast and automated change of the sample. The reaction products evaporate through a hydrophobic PTFE membrane into a small vacuum probe, which is positioned only 50-100 μm away from the electrode surface. The probe is implemented into the SFC and directly connected to the mass spectrometer. This unique configuration enables fast parameter screening for complex electrochemical reactions, including investigation of operation conditions, composition of electrolyte, and material composition. The technical developments of the system are validated by initial measurements of hydrogen evolution during water electrolysis and electrochemical reduction of CO2 to various products, showcasing the high potential for systematic combinatorial screening by this approach.

  13. Stable strange quark matter objects with running masses and coupling constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-Jun; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2017-03-01

    We improve our recently proposed unified description for strange quark matter (SQM) objects, in the way that analytical expressions are derived and used to calculate the distribution of particles inside an SQM object. In the improved model, the computational time is greatly reduced without losing accuracy. The properties of SQM objects are then investigated by adopting perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) with running quark masses and coupling constant. Aside from the increase of masses and radii of strange stars, it is found that the perturbative interactions also make the electric field on the surface stronger and extends deeper into the core, while small SQM objects become less compact and more positively charged. These may affect the experimental searches of SQM.

  14. An RFID-Based Manufacturing Control Framework for Loosely Coupled Distributed Manufacturing System Supporting Mass Customization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruey-Shun; Tsai, Yung-Shun; Tu, Arthur

    In this study we propose a manufacturing control framework based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology and a distributed information system to construct a mass-customization production process in a loosely coupled shop-floor control environment. On the basis of this framework, we developed RFID middleware and an integrated information system for tracking and controlling the manufacturing process flow. A bicycle manufacturer was used to demonstrate the prototype system. The findings of this study were that the proposed framework can improve the visibility and traceability of the manufacturing process as well as enhance process quality control and real-time production pedigree access. Using this framework, an enterprise can easily integrate an RFID-based system into its manufacturing environment to facilitate mass customization and a just-in-time production model.

  15. Characterization of four Phyllanthus species using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Ricardo da Fontoura; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2013-05-24

    This paper reports a comparison of four Phyllanthus species (P. amarus, P. stipulatus, P. niruri and P. tenellus), commonly known as stone breaker, by the characterization of the chemical profile of their aqueous extracts. Such characterization was carried out using liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IT-MS(n)) under reversed-phase gradient elution mode. The results of MS/MS and MS(3) on-line experiments, using the electrospray ionization source in the positive and negative mode, are extensively discussed. Furthermore, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside was isolated in multimilligram scale from the aqueous extract of P. stipulatus and characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR. Although it is an unusual flavonol in natural products, LC-IT-MS(n) experiments showed it to be present also in P. amarus.

  16. Radionuclide detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: A comparison of atomic and radiation detection method

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Wyse, E.J.; Koppenaal, D.W.

    1991-04-01

    Radionuclide detection by mass spectrometric techniques offers inherent advantages over conventional radiation detection methods. Since radionuclides decay at variable rates (half-lives) and via various nuclear transformations (i.e. emission of alpha, beta, and/or gamma radiation) their determination via radiation detection depends not only on decay systematics but also on detector technology. Radionuclide detection by direct atom measurement, however, is dependent only on technique sensitivity and is indifferent to decay mode. Evaluation of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) indicates this method to be superior conventional radiation detection techniques for many radionuclides. This work discusses factors which influence detection by both methods. Illustrative applications of ICP/MS to the ultra-trace determination of several radionuclides, including {sup 129}I, are presented. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Investigation of coupled heat and mass transfer in heterogeneous porous media using numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illangasekare, T. H.; Frippiat, C. C.; Zyvoloski, G. A.

    2007-12-01

    A significant body of knowledge exists on separates processes of thermal and mass transport in granular and fractured subsurface formations. However, the need to simulate these processes in a fully coupled way has become necessary to deal with problems associated with long-term-storage of nuclear waste, and the development of new technologies for subsurface remediation. Another emerging area for research is associated with the development of technologies for in situ extraction of underground resources. Numerical models that couple thermal and mass transport processes will play a crucial role in understanding the fundamental processes associated with these new technologies, as well as in making predictions on how complex subsurface systems are expected to behave. It is our hypothesis that heat transport will have a significant impact on distributions of solute concentration, through temperature-dependent dissolution and precipitation, and temperature-dependent rate-limited diffusive transfer of solutes in fractured or highly heterogeneous media. A number of issues related to the validity of existing numerical tools that capture these processes, and their application to field systems through up-scaling need to be investigated. With this overall goal in mind, in this preliminary study, we explore the effect of the variability of subsurface properties on heat and mass transport using simulations conducted using an existing multiphase model. The finite-element code FEHM (Finite-Element Heat and Mass transport code) used in this study was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This code allows for the coupled simulation of flow, heat and mass transport, accounting for density effects and dissolution and/or precipitation reactions. Our analysis is based on two- and three-dimensional simulations using synthetic data sets. Heterogeneous facies distributions are generated according to Markov Chain transition probability models. A distributed source of constant

  18. Bioimaging of metals by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Zoriy, Miroslav; Matusch, Andreas; Wu, Bei; Salber, Dagmar; Palm, Christoph; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The distribution analysis of (essential, beneficial, or toxic) metals (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, and others), metalloids, and non-metals in biological tissues is of key interest in life science. Over the past few years, the development and application of several imaging mass spectrometric techniques has been rapidly growing in biology and medicine. Especially, in brain research metalloproteins are in the focus of targeted therapy approaches of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, or stroke, or tumor growth. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) using double-focusing sector field (LA-ICP-SFMS) or quadrupole-based mass spectrometers (LA-ICP-QMS) has been successfully applied as a powerful imaging (mapping) technique to produce quantitative images of detailed regionally specific element distributions in thin tissue sections of human or rodent brain. Imaging LA-ICP-QMS was also applied to investigate metal distributions in plant and animal sections to study, for example, the uptake and transport of nutrient and toxic elements or environmental contamination. The combination of imaging LA-ICP-MS of metals with proteomic studies using biomolecular mass spectrometry identifies metal-containing proteins and also phosphoproteins. Metal-containing proteins were imaged in a two-dimensional gel after electrophoretic separation of proteins (SDS or Blue Native PAGE). Recent progress in LA-ICP-MS imaging as a stand-alone technique and in combination with MALDI/ESI-MS for selected life science applications is summarized.

  19. GaAs Coupled Micro Resonators with Enhanced Sensitive Mass Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chopard, Tony; Lacour, Vivien; Leblois, Therese

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the improvement of mass detection sensitivity and time response using a simple sensor structure. Indeed, complicated technological processes leading to very brittle sensing structures are often required to reach high sensitivity when we want to detect specific molecules in biological fields. These developments constitute an obstacle to the early diagnosis of diseases. An alternative is the design of coupled structures. In this study, the device is based on the piezoelectric excitation and detection of two GaAs microstructures vibrating in antisymmetric modes. GaAs is a crystal which has the advantage to be micromachined easily using typical clean room processes. Moreover, we showed its high potential in direct biofunctionalisation for use in the biological field. A specific design of the device was performed to improve the detection at low mass and an original detection method has been developed. The principle is to exploit the variation in amplitude at the initial resonance frequency which has in the vicinity of weak added mass the greatest slope. Therefore, we get a very good resolution for an infinitely weak mass: relative voltage variation of 8%/1 fg. The analysis is based on results obtained by finite element simulation. PMID:25474375

  20. GaAs coupled micro resonators with enhanced sensitive mass detection.

    PubMed

    Chopard, Tony; Lacour, Vivien; Leblois, Therese

    2014-12-02

    This work demonstrates the improvement of mass detection sensitivity and time response using a simple sensor structure. Indeed, complicated technological processes leading to very brittle sensing structures are often required to reach high sensitivity when we want to detect specific molecules in biological fields. These developments constitute an obstacle to the early diagnosis of diseases. An alternative is the design of coupled structures. In this study, the device is based on the piezoelectric excitation and detection of two GaAs microstructures vibrating in antisymmetric modes. GaAs is a crystal which has the advantage to be micromachined easily using typical clean room processes. Moreover, we showed its high potential in direct biofunctionalisation for use in the biological field. A specific design of the device was performed to improve the detection at low mass and an original detection method has been developed. The principle is to exploit the variation in amplitude at the initial resonance frequency which has in the vicinity of weak added mass the greatest slope. Therefore, we get a very good resolution for an infinitely weak mass: relative voltage variation of 8%/1 fg. The analysis is based on results obtained by finite element simulation.

  1. Laser Microdissection and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled for Multimodal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Matthias; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the coupling of ambient laser ablation surface sampling, accomplished using a laser capture microdissection system, with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for high spatial resolution multimodal imaging. A commercial laser capture microdissection system was placed in close proximity to a modified ion source of a mass spectrometer designed to allow for sampling of laser ablated material via a transfer tube directly into the ionization region. Rhodamine 6G dye of red sharpie ink in a laser etched pattern as well as cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section were identified and imaged from full scan mass spectra. A minimal spot diameter of 8 m was achieved using the 10X microscope cutting objective with a lateral oversampling pixel resolution of about 3.7 m. Distinguishing between features approximately 13 m apart in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section was demonstrated in a multimodal fashion including co-registered optical and mass spectral chemical images.

  2. Speciation of chromium in waste water using ion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2007-04-30

    Ion chromatography (IC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was systematically investigated for determining the speciation of chromium in environmental samples. Firstly, the stability of complexes formed by Cr(III) with various aminopolycarboxylic acids was studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that [Cr(EDTA)](-) was stable in solution. Secondly, various mobile phases were examined to separate Cl(-) from chromium species by IC to avoid Cl(-) interference. The separation of [Cr(EDTA)](-) and Cr(VI) was achieved on a new anion-exchange column (G3154A/102) using a mobile phase containing 20mM NH(4)NO(3) and 10mM NH(4)H(2)PO(4) at pH 7.0 without Cl(-) interference. Detection limits for chromium species were below 0.2 microg/L with a direct injection of sample and without prior removal of interferences from the matrix. Finally, the proposed method was used for the determination of chromium species in contaminated waters.

  3. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4-5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper.

  4. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Dennis D.; Rutzke, Michael A.

    Atomic spectroscopy has played a major role in the development of our current database for mineral nutrients and toxicants in foods. When atomic absorption spectrometers became widely available in the 1960s, the development of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) methods for accurately measuring trace amounts of mineral elements in biological samples paved the way for unprecedented advances in fields as diverse as food analysis, nutrition, biochemistry, and toxicology (1). The application of plasmas as excitation sources for atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) led to the commercial availability of instruments for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) beginning in the late 1970s. This instrument has further enhanced our ability to measure the mineral composition of foods and other materials rapidly, accurately, and precisely. More recently, plasmas have been joined with mass spectrometers (MS) to form inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer ICP-MS instruments that are capable of measuring mineral elements with extremely low detection limits. These three instrumental methods have largely replaced traditional wet chemistry methods for mineral analysis of foods, although traditional methods for calcium, chloride, iron, and phosphorus remain in use today (see Chap. 12).

  5. Coupling isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis to mass spectrometry by electrostatic spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Liang; Tobolkina, Elena; Liu, Baohong; Girault, Hubert H

    2013-05-07

    Gel electrophoresis has been used for decades as a high-resolution separation technique for proteins and protein isomers but has been limited in the coupling with MS because of low throughput and poor automaticity compared with LC-MS. In this work, we have developed an ambient ionization strategy, electrostatic spray ionization, for in situ ionization of proteins or peptides inside a surfactant-free polyacrylamide gel. The samples can be first separated by isoelectric focusing in a gel and then quickly in situ detected by scanning the gel with the electrostatic spray ionization mass spectrometry. With this strategy, nanograms of proteins or peptides inside a band are enough to be ionized for MS detection. This method for protein/peptide spots visualization is sensitive, providing sample molecular weight information while avoiding spot staining and chemical extraction procedures that can introduce contaminants and sample loss. Proof-of-principle results have demonstrated that the electrostatic spray ionization can produce sample ions from a complex background, and with a spatial resolution matching the isoelectric focusing, it is therefore a good choice to couple directly isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry.

  6. Nanomanipulation-coupled to nanospray mass spectrometry applied to document and ink analysis.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Vivian; Joshi, Ubisha; Leveille, Jennifer M; Golden, Teresa D; Verbeck, Guido F

    2014-09-01

    A method for the extraction and analysis of ink samples was developed using microscopy with direct analyte probe nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization mass spectrometry (DAPNe-NSI-MS) for localized chemical analysis of document inks. Nanomanipulation can be effectively coupled to nanospray ionization mass spectrometry providing picomolar sensitivity, and the capability to analyze ultra-trace amounts of material and reduce the required sample volume to as low as 300 nL. This new and innovative technique does not leave destructive footprints on the surface of a document. To demonstrate the breadth of this technique, analysis of inks from various eras were tested, iron gall ink and modern inks, as well as the capability to detect the oxidative products of polyethylene glycol (PEG), a common binding agent. The experimental results showed that DAPNe-NSI-MS was able to chelate iron(II) and manganese(II) ions of iron gall ink and organic components of modern and carbon-based inks. Regardless of whether the ink composition is modern or ancient, organic or inorganic, this new instrumental approach is able to identify and characterize the ingredients by modifying the extraction solvent, illustrating the potential diversity of the DAPNe technique.

  7. Separation Of Uranium And Plutonium Isotopes For Measurement By Multi Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Martinelli, R E; Hamilton, T F; Williams, R W; Kehl, S R

    2009-03-29

    Uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) isotopes in coral soils, contaminated by nuclear weapons testing in the northern Marshall Islands, were isolated by ion-exchange chromatography and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The soil samples were spiked with {sup 233}U and {sup 242}Pu tracers, dissolved in minerals acids, and U and Pu isotopes isolated and purified on commercially available ion-exchange columns. The ion-exchange technique employed a TEVA{reg_sign} column coupled to a UTEVA{reg_sign} column. U and Pu isotope fractions were then further isolated using separate elution schemes, and the purified fractions containing U and Pu isotopes analyzed sequentially using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MCICP-MS). High precision measurements of {sup 234}U/{sup 235}U, {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U, {sup 236}U/{sup 235}U, and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu in soil samples were attained using the described methodology and instrumentation, and provide a basis for conducting more detailed assessments of the behavior and transfer of uranium and plutonium in the environment.

  8. Laser-ablation sampling for inductively coupled plasma distance-of-flight mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W.; Dennis, Elise; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma distance-of-flight mass spectrometer (ICP-DOFMS) has been coupled with laser-ablation (LA) sample introduction for the elemental analysis of solids. ICP-DOFMS is well suited for the analysis of laser-generated aerosols because it offers both high-speed mass analysis and simultaneous multi-elemental detection. Here, we evaluate the analytical performance of the LA-ICP-DOFMS instrument, equipped with a microchannel plate-based imaging detector, for the measurement of steady-state LA signals, as well as transient signals produced from single LA events. Steady-state detection limits are 1 mg g1, and absolute single-pulse LA detection limits are 200 fg for uranium; the system is shown capable of performing time-resolved single-pulse LA analysis. By leveraging the benefits of simultaneous multi-elemental detection, we also attain a good shot-to-shot reproducibility of 6% relative standard deviation (RSD) and isotope-ratio precision of 0.3% RSD with a 10 s integration time.

  9. Inverse model of fully coupled fluid flow and stress in fractured rock masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-12-01

    In order to reflect the real behavior of the seepage field and deformation field during the environment change and construction process£¬the basic equations and FEM methods for fully coupled analysis of fluid flow and stress are developed£¬based on the assumptions of small deformation and incompressible water flow in complicated fractured rock masses. Both the equivalent continuum media model and the discrete media model are adopted. And the modified initial flow method is used to deal with the free surface of unconfined seepage. Due to the difficulty in determining the parameters of water flow field, stress field and their coupling relations, an inverse model is presented for the fully coupled problem in which both the data of water head and displacement are taken into consideration. Objective function is defined based on sensitivity analysis of parameters, and the relative values of water head, displacement on parameters are adopted in the establishment of objective function. A hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed as optimization method. The probability of crossover and mutation is determined according to chromosome fitness and a concept of self- adaptive probability is given. In addition, simplex method is also applied to increase the ability of local search, the operation of accelerated cycle is used in order to decrease optimization time.

  10. Coupled porohyperelastic mass transport (PHEXPT) finite element models for soft tissues using ABAQUS.

    PubMed

    Vande Geest, Jonathan P; Simon, B R; Rigby, Paul H; Newberg, Tyler P

    2011-04-01

    Finite element models (FEMs) including characteristic large deformations in highly nonlinear materials (hyperelasticity and coupled diffusive/convective transport of neutral mobile species) will allow quantitative study of in vivo tissues. Such FEMs will provide basic understanding of normal and pathological tissue responses and lead to optimization of local drug delivery strategies. We present a coupled porohyperelastic mass transport (PHEXPT) finite element approach developed using a commercially available ABAQUS finite element software. The PHEXPT transient simulations are based on sequential solution of the porohyperelastic (PHE) and mass transport (XPT) problems where an Eulerian PHE FEM is coupled to a Lagrangian XPT FEM using a custom-written FORTRAN program. The PHEXPT theoretical background is derived in the context of porous media transport theory and extended to ABAQUS finite element formulations. The essential assumptions needed in order to use ABAQUS are clearly identified in the derivation. Representative benchmark finite element simulations are provided along with analytical solutions (when appropriate). These simulations demonstrate the differences in transient and steady state responses including finite deformations, total stress, fluid pressure, relative fluid, and mobile species flux. A detailed description of important model considerations (e.g., material property functions and jump discontinuities at material interfaces) is also presented in the context of finite deformations. The ABAQUS-based PHEXPT approach enables the use of the available ABAQUS capabilities (interactive FEM mesh generation, finite element libraries, nonlinear material laws, pre- and postprocessing, etc.). PHEXPT FEMs can be used to simulate the transport of a relatively large neutral species (negligible osmotic fluid flux) in highly deformable hydrated soft tissues and tissue-engineered materials.

  11. Recent developments in inductively coupled plasma source magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Halliday, A.N.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Christensen, J.C.; Jones, C.E.; Hall, C.M.; Yi, Wen; Teagle, D.; Walder, A.J.; Freedman, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes advances in isotopic measurements that have been made with an inductively coupled plasma source magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometer and presents results of new experiments aimed at further evaluating the instrument`s capability. It is shown using standard solutions that trace element ratios such as Rb/Sr can be measured precisely without isotope dilution by comparison with reference solutions of known composition. Similarly, using a new wide flight tube, Pb isotopic compositions and U/Pb ratios can be accurately measured simultaneously without isotope dilution. The effects of deliberately inducing changes in the running conditions (RF power) are shown to be significant for measuring trace element ratios but not for mass bias and interference corrected isotopic compositions. Finally, it is demonstrated that precise and accurate isotopic compositions of elements as refractory as W can be determined relatively easily by solution nebulization and even by direct laser ablation of complex silicates. Isobaric interferences in such experiments are negligible. These experiments serve to highlight the remarkable potential that this new field offers for hitherto difficult isotopic measurements in nuclear, earth, environmental and medical sciences. Isotopic measurements can be made that are reproducible at high precision through a range of running conditions, even in the presence of isobaric interferences. The ability to correct for mass discrimination accurately using a second element of similar mass, the very high sensitivity for elements that are otherwise difficult to ionize, the demonstrated capability for laser ablation work and the ability to measure through a wide mass range simultaneously give this instrument major advantages over other more traditional techniques of isotopic measurement.

  12. Fabrication of a polystyrene microfluidic chip coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianqiao; Dong, Yuanyuan; He, Qiaohong; Chen, Hengwu; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2015-05-15

    A highly integrated polystyrene (PS) microfluidic chip coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for on-chip protein digestion and online analysis was developed. The immobilized enzymatic microreactor for on-chip protein digestion was integrated onto microchip via the novel method of region-selective UV-modification combined with glutaraldehyde-based immobilization. The micro film electric contact for applying high voltage was prepared on chips by using UV-directed electroless plating technique. A micro-tip was machined at the end of main channel, serving as the interface between microchip and mass spectrometric detector. On-chip digestion and online detection of protein was carried out by coupling the microchip with mass spectrometry (MS). The influences of methanol flow rate in side channel on the stability of spray and intensity of signals were investigated systematically. Also the influence of sample flow rate on the performance of immobilized enzymatic reactor were investigated. Stable spray was obtained at the spray voltage of 2.8-3.0kV and the methanol flow rate of 500-700nLmin(-1) with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of total ion current (TIC) less than 10%. The influence of sample flow rate on the performance of immobilized enzymatic reactor was also studied. The sequence coverage of protein identification decreased with the increase of flow rate of the sample solution. A sequence coverage of 96% was obtained with immobilized enzymatic reactor at the sample flow rate of 100nLmin(-1) with the reaction time of 8.4min. It could detect cytochrome c as low as 10μgmL(-1) with the developed system. No obvious decrease in protein digestion efficiency was observed after the chip continuously performed for 4h and stored for 15d.

  13. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of acrylamide in typical Spanish products.

    PubMed

    Bermudo, E; Moyano, E; Puignou, L; Galceran, M T

    2008-07-15

    This paper describes the use of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of acrylamide in several typical foods produced and consumed in Spain. Christmas sweets, olives, traditionally made potato crisps, pastry products, sweet fritters ("churros") and one of Spain's most famous dishes, Spanish omelette, were selected. Using the mass spectra information provided by an ion trap analyzer in combination with the accurate mass measurements from time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometry a co-extractive interference present in some potato products was identified as valine. A porous graphitic carbon column, which enabled the co-extractive and acrylamide to be separated, and ion trap or triple quadrupole analyzers, depending on the acrylamide concentration, were used to determine this genotoxic compound in foodstuffs. The highest values were found in potato products, sweet fritters, Christmas sweets and pastry products, with values ranging between 70 and 2000 microg/g. Spanish omelette presented relatively low levels, similar to those obtained for dried fruits.

  14. Miniaturized system of a gas chromatograph coupled with a Paul ion trap mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortt, B. J.; Darrach, M. R.; Holland, Paul M.; Chutjian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Miniature gas chromatography (GC) and miniature mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation has been developed to identify and quantify the chemical compounds present in complex mixtures of gases. The design approach utilizes micro-GC components coupled with a Paul quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Inherent to the system are high sensitivity, good dynamic range, good QIT resolution, low GC flow-rates to minimize vacuum requirements and the need for consumables; and the use of a modular approach to adapt to volatile organic compounds dissolved in water or present in sediment. Measurements are reported on system response to gaseous species at concentrations varying over four orders of magnitude. The ability of the system to deal with complicated mixtures is demonstrated, and future improvements are discussed. The GC/QIT system described herein has a mass, volume and power that are, conservatively, one-twentieth of those of commercial off-the-shelf systems. Potential applications are to spacecraft cabin-air monitoring, robotic planetary exploration and trace-species detection for residual gas analysis and environmental monitoring.

  15. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the analysis of biological samples and pharmaceutical drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossipov, K.; Seregina, I. F.; Bolshov, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is widely used in the analysis of biological samples (whole blood, serum, blood plasma, urine, tissues, etc.) and pharmaceutical drugs. The shortcomings of this method related to spectral and non-spectral interferences are manifested in full measure in determination of the target analytes in these complex samples strongly differing in composition. The spectral interferences are caused by similarity of masses of the target component and sample matrix components. Non-spectral interferences are related to the influence of sample matrix components on the physicochemical processes taking place during formation and transportation of liquid sample aerosols into the plasma, on the value and spatial distribution of plasma temperature and on the transmission of the ion beam from the interface to mass spectrometer detector. The review is devoted to analysis of different mechanisms of appearance of non-spectral interferences and to ways for their minimization or elimination. Special attention is paid to the techniques of biological sample preparation, which largely determine the mechanisms of the influence of sample composition on the results of element determination. The ways of lowering non-spectral interferences by instrumental parameter tuning and application of internal standards are considered. The bibliography includes 189 references.

  16. Numerical simulation of coupled heat and mass transfer in wood dried at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhenggang; Kaliske, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The mutual effect between heat and mass transfer is investigated for wood dried at high temperature. A numerical model of coupled heat and mass transfer under the effect of the pressure gradient is presented. Based on the macroscopic viewpoint of continuum mechanics, the mathematical model with three independent variables (temperature, moisture content and gas pressure) is constructed. Mass transfer in the pores involves a diffusional flow driven by the gradient of moisture content, convectional flow of gaseous mixture governed by the gradient of gas pressure, the Soret effect and phase change of water. Energy gain or loss due to phase change of water is taken as the heat source. Numerical methods, the finite element method and the finite difference method are used to discretize the spatial and time dimension, respectively. A direct iteration method to solve the nonlinear problem without direct evaluation of the tangential matrix is introduced. The local convergence condition based on the contraction-mapping principle is discussed. The mathematical model is applied to a 3-D wood board dried at high temperature with the Neumann boundary conditions for both temperature and moisture content, and the Dirichlet boundary conditions for gas pressure.

  17. [Analysis of Trace Inorganic Elements in Castor Oil by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Tan-ping; Xie, Hua-lin; Nie, Xi-du

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in castor oil after direct dilution with ethanol by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established. The sample was diluted by ethanol before ICP-MS determination. The condensation and deposition of high concentrations of carbon in mass cone interface and ion lens, which will decrease the sensitivity of element analysis, were avoided effectively by introducing O2 to plasma. The mass spectral interferences were eliminated by octopole reaction system (ORS). The matrix effects were calibrated to using Sc, Ge, Rh and Ir as internal standard elements. Au standard solution, which could form amalgam alloy with Hg, was dropped to eliminate the memory effect of Hg. The results show that the correlation coefficient for analyte is no less than 0.999 5, the detection limits is in the range of 0.06 - 20.1 ng x L(-1), the recovery is in the range of 990.4% - 110.2%, and the RSD is less than 4.8%. This method was very fast, simple and accurate to simultaneously analyze multi-elements in castor oil.

  18. Precise determination of seawater calcium using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hou-Chun; You, Chen-Feng; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Chen, Bao-Shan; Li, Yen

    2014-02-21

    We describe a method for rapid, precise and accurate determination of calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentration in seawater using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). A 10 μL aliquot of seawater was spiked with an appropriate (43)Ca enriched solution for (44)Ca/(43)Ca ID-ICP-MS analyses, using an Element XR (Thermo Fisher Scientific), operated at low resolution in E-scan acquisition mode. A standard-sample bracketing technique was applied to correct for potential mass discrimination and ratio drift at every 5 samples. A precision of better than 0.05% for within-run and 0.10% for duplicate measurements of the IAPSO seawater standard was achieved using 10 μL solutions with a measuring time less than 3 minutes. Depth profiles of seawater samples collected from the Arctic Ocean basin were processed and compared with results obtained by the classic ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) titration. Our new ID-ICP-MS data agreed closely with the conventional EGTA data, with the latter consistently displaying 1.5% excess Ca(2+) values, possibly due to a contribution of interference from Mg(2+) and Sr(2+) in the EGTA titration. The newly obtained Sr/Ca profiles reveal sensitive water mass mixing in the upper oceanic column to reflect ice melting in the Arctic region. This novel technique provides a tool for seawater Ca(2+) determination with small sample size, high throughput, excellent internal precision and external reproducibility.

  19. Association between Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms of African American Married Couples: Mediating and Moderating Roles of Couples' Behavioral Closeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, Thulitha; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined (a) associations between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms in African American husbands and wives, (b) transactional associations between husbands and wives in this relationship, and (c) mediating and moderating role of couples' behavioral closeness in this association. Data came from a sample of 450 African…

  20. Delta34S measurements of sulfur by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Clough, Robert; Evans, Peter; Catterick, Tim; Evans, E Hywel

    2006-09-01

    An accurate and precise method for the determination of delta34S measurements by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed. Full uncertainty budgets, taking into consideration all the uncertainties of the measurement process, have been calculated. The technique was evaluated by comparing measured values with a range of isotopically enriched sulfur solutions prepared by gravimetric addition of a 34S spike. The gravimetric and measured results exhibited a correlation of R2 >0.999. Repeat measurements were also made after adding Na (up to 420 microg g(-1)) and Ca (up to 400 microg g(-1)) salts to the sulfur standard. No significant deviations in the delta34S values were observed. The Russell correction expression (Ingle, C.; Sharp, B.; Horstwood, M.; Parrish, R.; Lewis, D. J. J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 2003, 18, 219) was used to correct for mass bias on the 34S/32S isotope amount ratio from the mass bias observed for the 30Si/28Si isotope amount ratio. Consistent compensation for instrumental mass bias was achieved. Resolution of the measured delta34S values was better than 1 per thousand after consideration of all uncertainty components. The technique was evaluated for practical applications by measurement of delta34S for a range of mineral waters by pneumatic nebulization sample introduction and the analysis of genuine and counterfeit pharmaceuticals using both laser ablation sample introduction and liquid chromatography. For the former two cases polyatomic interferences were resolved by operating the MC-ICPMS in medium resolution, while for the chromatographic analyses polyatomic interferences were minimized by the use of a membrane desolvator, allowing the instrument to be operated at a resolution of 400.

  1. Breast mass segmentation in digital mammography based on pulse coupled neural network and level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Weiying; Ma, Yide; Li, Yunsong

    2015-05-01

    A novel approach to mammographic image segmentation, termed as PCNN-based level set algorithm, is presented in this paper. Just as its name implies, a method based on pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) in conjunction with the variational level set method for medical image segmentation. To date, little work has been done on detecting the initial zero level set contours based on PCNN algorithm for latterly level set evolution. When all the pixels of the input image are fired by PCNN, the small pixel value will be a much more refined segmentation. In mammographic image, the breast tumor presents big pixel value. Additionally, the mammographic image with predominantly dark region, so that we firstly obtain the negative of mammographic image with predominantly dark region except the breast tumor before all the pixels of an input image are fired by PCNN. Therefore, in here, PCNN algorithm is employed to achieve mammary-specific, initial mass contour detection. After that, the initial contours are all extracted. We define the extracted contours as the initial zero level set contours for automatic mass segmentation by variational level set in mammographic image analysis. What's more, a new proposed algorithm improves external energy of variational level set method in terms of mammographic images in low contrast. In accordance with the gray scale of mass region in mammographic image is higher than the region surrounded, so the Laplace operator is used to modify external energy, which could make the bright spot becoming much brighter than the surrounded pixels in the image. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed method performs on a known public database namely MIAS, rather than synthetic images. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach can potentially obtain better masses detection results in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Ultimately, this algorithm could lead to increase both sensitivity and specificity of the physicians' interpretation of

  2. Biochip Spray: Simplified Coupling of Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sweccha; Zuilhof, Han; van Beek, Teris A; Nielen, Michel W F

    2017-02-07

    A simplified coupling of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immuno-biosensing with ambient ionization mass spectrometry (MS) was developed. It combines two orthogonal analysis techniques: the biosensing capability of SPR and the chemical identification power of high resolution MS. As a proof-of-principle, deoxynivalenol (DON), an important mycotoxin, was captured using an SPR gold chip containing an antifouling layer and monoclonal antibodies against the toxin and, after washing, the chip could be taken out and analyzed by direct spray MS of the biosensor chip to confirm the identity of DON. Furthermore, cross-reacting conjugates of DON present in a naturally contaminated beer could be successfully identified, thus showing the potential of rapid identification of (un)expected cross-reacting molecules.

  3. [Study on the determination of trace elements in bitter almond by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Xie, Hua-Lin; Nie, Xi-Du

    2013-05-01

    Samples of bitter almond were digested by microwave digestion, and trace elements amounts of B, Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Ba and Pb in sample solutions were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). HNO3 + H2O2 was used to achieve the complete decomposition of the organic matrix in a closed-vessel microwave oven. The working parameters of the instrument were optimized. The result showed that the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 4.79% for all the elements, and the recovery was 90.00%-109.30% by adding standard recovery experiment. This method was simple, sensitive and precise and can perform simultaneo multi-elements determination for bitter almond, which could satisfy the sample examination request and provide scientific rationale for determining inorganic elements in bitter almond.

  4. Assessment of the analytical capabilities of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, H.E.; Garbarino, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    A thorough assessment of the analytical capabilities of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was conducted for selected analytes of importance in water quality applications and hydrologic research. A multielement calibration curve technique was designed to produce accurate and precise results in analysis times of approximately one minute. The suite of elements included Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn. The effects of sample matrix composition on the accuracy of the determinations showed that matrix elements (such as Na, Ca, Mg, and K) that may be present in natural water samples at concentration levels greater than 50 mg/L resulted in as much as a 10% suppression in ion current for analyte elements. Operational detection limits are presented.

  5. Analysis of biological reference materials, prepared by microwave dissolution, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Friel, J K; Skinner, C S; Jackson, S E; Longerich, H P

    1990-03-01

    A procedure has been developed for the analysis of biological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Fast, efficient and complete sample digestion is achieved by a combined microwave-nitric acid/open beaker-nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide procedure. The ICP-MS analysis is performed with an on-line five-element internal standard to correct for matrix and instrumental drift effects. Results are presented for 24 elements in three biological reference materials (National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials 5277a Liver and 1566 Oyster and International Atomic Energy Agency Certified Reference Material H4 Animal Muscle). For all elements significantly above the detection limit and reagent blank concentrations, good agreement exists between ICP-MS and certified values.

  6. Accurate determination of silver nanoparticles in animal tissues by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veverková, Lenka; Hradilová, Šárka; Milde, David; Panáček, Aleš; Skopalová, Jana; Kvítek, Libor; Petrželová, Kamila; Zbořil, Radek

    2014-12-01

    This study examined recoveries of silver determination in animal tissues after wet digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The composition of the mineralization mixture for microwave assisted digestion was optimized and the best recoveries were obtained for mineralization with HNO3 and addition of HCl promptly after digestion. The optimization was performed on model samples of chicken meat spiked with silver nanoparticles and a solution of ionic silver. Basic calculations of theoretical distribution of Ag among various silver-containing species were implemented and the results showed that most of the silver is in the form of soluble complexes AgCl2- and AgCl32 - for the optimized composition of the mineralization mixture. Three animal tissue certified reference materials were then analyzed to verify the trueness and precision of the results.

  7. Determination of mercury in fish samples by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Ming-Jyh; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Li, Yi-Ching

    1997-06-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of mercury in several fish samples. The effects of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals are reported. Palladium was used as modifier to delay the vaporization of mercury in this study. As the vaporization behavior of mercury in fish slurry and aqueous solution is quite different, the standard addition method was used for the determination of mercury in reference materials. The detection limit of mercury estimated from the standard addition curve was in the range 0.002-0.004 μg g -1 for different samples. This method has been applied to the determination of mercury in dogfish muscle reference material (DORM-1 and DORM-2) and dogfish liver reference material (DOLT-1). Accuracy was better than 4% and precision was better than 7% with the USS-ETV-ICP-MS method.

  8. Biochip Spray: Simplified Coupling of Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A simplified coupling of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immuno-biosensing with ambient ionization mass spectrometry (MS) was developed. It combines two orthogonal analysis techniques: the biosensing capability of SPR and the chemical identification power of high resolution MS. As a proof-of-principle, deoxynivalenol (DON), an important mycotoxin, was captured using an SPR gold chip containing an antifouling layer and monoclonal antibodies against the toxin and, after washing, the chip could be taken out and analyzed by direct spray MS of the biosensor chip to confirm the identity of DON. Furthermore, cross-reacting conjugates of DON present in a naturally contaminated beer could be successfully identified, thus showing the potential of rapid identification of (un)expected cross-reacting molecules. PMID:28208290

  9. Inductively Coupled Plasma: Fundamental Particle Investigations with Laser Ablation and Applications in Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Saetveit, Nathan Joe

    2008-01-01

    Particle size effects and elemental fractionation in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are investigated with nanosecond and femtosecond laser ablation, differential mobility analysis, and magnetic sector ICP-MS. Laser pulse width was found to have a significant influence on the LA particle size distribution and the elemental composition of the aerosol and thus fractionation. Emission from individual particles from solution nebulization, glass, and a pressed powder pellet are observed with high speed digital photography. The presence of intact particles in an ICP is shown to be a likely source of fractionation. A technique for the online detection of stimulated elemental release from neural tissue using magnetic sector ICP-MS is described. Detection limits of 1 μg L-1 or better were found for P, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in a 60 μL injection in a physiological saline matrix.

  10. [Study on the determination of 14 inorganic elements in coffee by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Nie, Xi-Du; Fu, Liang

    2013-07-01

    Samples of coffee were digested by microwave digestion, and inorganic elements amounts of Na, Mg, P, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo and Pb in sample solutions were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). HNO3 + H2O2 was used to achieve the complete decomposition of the organic matrix in a closed-vessel microwave oven. The working parameters of the instrument were optimized. The results showed that the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 3.84% for all the elements, and the recovery was found to be 92.00% -106.52% by adding standard recovery experiment. This method was simple, sensitive and precise and can perform simultaneous multi-elements determination of coffee, which could satisfy the sample examination request and provide scientific rationale for determining inorganic elements of coffee.

  11. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of isotope ratios in depleted uranium contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Michael D

    2003-09-01

    Laser ablation of pressed soil pellets was examined as a means of direct sample introduction to enable inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) screening of soils for residual depleted uranium (DU) contamination. Differentiation between depleted uranium, an anthropogenic contaminant, and naturally occurring uranium was accomplished on the basis of measured 235U/238U isotope ratios. The amount of sample preparation required for laser ablation is considerably less than that typically required for aqueous sample introduction. The amount of hazardous laboratory waste generated is diminished accordingly. During the present investigation, 235U/238U isotope ratios measured for field samples were in good agreement with those derived from gamma spectrometry measurements. However, substantial compensation was required to mitigate the effects of impaired pulse counting attributed to sample inhomogeneity and sporadic introduction of uranium analyte into the plasma.

  12. Phytochemical analysis of Hibiscus caesius using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ain, Quratul; Naveed, Muhammad Na; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Farman, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman

    2015-09-01

    Various species in genus Hibiscus are traditionally known for their therapeutic attributes. The present study focused on the phytochemical analysis of a rather unexplored species Hibiscus caesius (H. caesius), using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The analysis revealed five major compounds in the aqueous extract, viz. vanillic acid, protocatechoic acid, quercetin, quercetin glucoside and apigenin, being reported for the first time in H. caesius. Literature suggests that these compounds have important pharmacological traits such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and hepatoprotective etc. however, this requires further pharmacological investigations at in vitro and in vivo scale. The above study concluded the medicinal potential of H. caesius.

  13. Pulsed radio-frequency discharge inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for oxide analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Yin, Zhibin; Hang, Wei; Li, Bin; Huang, Benli

    2016-08-01

    A direct solid sampling technique has been developed based on a pulsed radio-frequency discharge (RFD) in mixture of N2 and Ar environment at atmospheric pressure. With an averaged input power of 65 W, a crater with the diameter of 80 μm and depth of 50 μm can be formed on sample surface after discharge for 1 min, suggesting the feasibility of the pulsed RFD for sampling nonconductive solids. Combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), this technique allows to measure elemental composition of solids directly with relative standard deviation (RSD) of ~ 20%. Capability of quantitative analysis was demonstrated by the use of soil standards and artificial standards. Good calibration linearity and limits of detection (LODs) in range of 10- 8-10- 9 g/g were achieved for most elements.

  14. Development of analytical methods for multiplex bio-assay with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ornatsky, Olga I; Kinach, Robert; Bandura, Dmitry R; Lou, Xudong; Tanner, Scott D; Baranov, Vladimir I; Nitz, Mark; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the development of highly multiplexed bio-analytical assays with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection are discussed. Use of novel reagents specifically designed for immunological methods utilizing elemental analysis is presented. The major steps of method development, including selection of elements for tags, validation of tagged reagents, and examples of multiplexed assays, are considered in detail. The paper further describes experimental protocols for elemental tagging of antibodies, immunostaining of live and fixed human leukemia cells, and preparation of samples for ICP-MS analysis. Quantitative analysis of surface antigens on model cell lines using a cocktail of seven lanthanide labeled antibodies demonstrated high specificity and concordance with conventional immunophenotyping.

  15. Stable isotope dilution analysis of hydrologic samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, J.R.; Taylor, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is employed in the determination of Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, Ba, Ti, and Pb in nonsaline, natural water samples by stable isotope dilution analysis. Hydrologic samples were directly analyzed without any unusual pretreatment. Interference effects related to overlapping isobars, formation of metal oxide and multiply charged ions, and matrix composition were identified and suitable methods of correction evaluated. A comparability study snowed that single-element isotope dilution analysis was only marginally better than sequential multielement isotope dilution analysis. Accuracy and precision of the single-element method were determined on the basis of results obtained for standard reference materials. The instrumental technique was shown to be ideally suited for programs associated with certification of standard reference materials.

  16. Strategies for the analysis of coal by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kleiber, L; Fink, H; Niessner, R; Panne, U

    2002-09-01

    The potential of laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was investigated for the inorganic characterization of different coal samples pressed into pellets. Reference analysis was performed by microwave-assisted digestion of the ground samples followed by ICP-MS analysis of the resulting solutions. Two different laser ablation sampling procedures were compared. For continuous sampling, three sites of the pellet were sampled for approximately one minute, whereas for sequential sampling 15 sites were sampled for two seconds, respectively. The qualitative results of the two procedures were equivalent, but continuous sampling allowed faster analysis and better precision (RSD about 10%) than sequential sampling (RSD 10-20%). Different normalization procedures with internal and extrinsic standards were investigated and allowed a quantitative determination of Al, Ti, Zn, Ni, and V with measurement uncertainties below 10% and Fe, Si, and Sn with measurement uncertainties below 20%.

  17. Determination of elemental content off rocks by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichte, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of analysis for rocks and soils is presented using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It is based on a lithium borate fusion and the free-running mode of a Nd/YAG laser. An Ar/N2 sample gas improves sensitivity 7 ?? for most elements. Sixty-three elements are characterized for the fusion, and 49 elements can be quantified. Internal standards and isotopic spikes ensure accurate results. Limits of detection are 0.01 ??g/g for many trace elements. Accuracy approaches 5% for all elements. A new quality assurance procedure is presented that uses fundamental parameters to test relative response factors for the calibration.

  18. Determination of metals in composite diet samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Morgan, Jeffrey N; Fernando, Reshan; Pellizzari, Edo D; Akinbo, Olujide

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques for determination of metals in composite diets. Aluminum, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, vanadium, and zinc were determined by this method. Atmospheric pressure microwave digestion was used to solubilize analytes in homogenized composite diet samples, and this procedure was followed by ICP-MS analysis. Recovery of certified elements from standard reference materials ranged from 92 to 119% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.4-1.9%. Recovery of elements from fortified composite diet samples ranged from 75 to 129% with RSDs of 0-11.3%. Limits of detection ranged from 1 to 1700 ng/g; high values were due to significant amounts of certain elements naturally present in composite diets. Results of this study demonstrate that low-resolution quadrupole-based ICP-MS provides precise and accurate measurements of the elements tested in composite diet samples.

  19. Combinatorial Library Screening Coupled to Mass Spectrometry to Identify Valuable Cyclic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Camperi, Silvia A; Giudicessi, Silvana L; Martínez-Ceron, María C; Gurevich-Messina, Juan M; Saavedra, Soledad L; Acosta, Gerardo; Cascone, Osvaldo; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Albericio, Fernando

    2016-06-02

    Combinatorial library screening coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis is a practical approach to identify useful peptides. Cyclic peptides can have high biological activity, selectivity, and affinity for target proteins, and high stability against proteolytic degradation. Here we describe two strategies to prepare combinatorial libraries suitable for MS analysis to accelerate the discovery of cyclic peptide structures. Both approaches use ChemMatrix resin and the linker 4-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid. One strategy involves the synthesis of a one-bead-two-peptides library in which each bead contains both the cyclic peptide and its linear counterpart to facilitate MS analysis. The other protocol is based on the synthesis of a cyclic depsipeptide library in which a glycolamidic ester group is incorporated by adding glycolic acid. After library screening, the ring is opened and the peptide is released simultaneously for subsequent MS analysis. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. A coupled DEM-DFN approach to rock mass strength characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harthong, Barthelemy; Scholtes, Luc; Donze, Frederic

    2013-04-01

    An enhanced version of the discrete element method (DEM) has been specifically developed for the analysis of fractured rock masses [Scholtes L, Donze F, 2012]. In addition to the discrete representation of the intact medium which enables the description of the localized stress-induced damage caused by heterogeneities inherent to rocks, structural defects can be explicitly taken into account in the modeling to represent pre-existing fractures or discontinuities of size typically larger than the discrete element size. From laboratory scale simulations to slope stability case studies, the capability of this approach to simulate the progressive failure mechanisms occurring in jointed rock are presented is assessed on the basis of referenced experiments and in situ observations. For instance, the challenging wing crack extension, typical of brittle material fracturing, can be successfully reproduced under both compressive and shear loading path, as a result of the progressive coalescence of micro-cracks induced by stress concentration at the tips of pre-existing fractures. In this study, the dedicated DEM is coupled to a discrete fracture network (DFN) model to assess the influence of DFN properties on the mechanical behavior of fractured rock masses where progressive failure can occur. The DFN model assumes the distribution of fractures barycentres to be fractal and the distribution of fracture sizes to follow a power-law distribution [Davy P, Le Goc P, Darcel C, Bour O, de Dreuzy JR, Munier R, 2010]. The proposed DEM/DFN model is used to characterize the influence of clustering and size distribution of pre-existing fractures on the strength of fractured rock masses. The results show that the mechanical behaviour of fractured rock masses is mainly dependent on the fracture intensity. However, for a given fracture intensity, the strength can exhibit a 50 per cent variability depending on the size distribution of the pre-existing fractures. This difference can be

  1. Characterization of crude oil biomarkers using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mogollón, Noroska Gabriela Salazar; Prata, Paloma Santana; Dos Reis, Jadson Zeni; Neto, Eugênio Vaz Dos Santos; Augusto, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Oil samples from Recôncavo basin (NE Brazil), previously analyzed by traditional techniques such as gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, were evaluated using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry along with simplified methods of samples preparation to evaluate the differences and advantages of these analytical techniques to better understand the development of the organic matter in this basin without altering the normal distribution of the compounds in the samples. As a result, the geochemical parameters calculated by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry described better the origin, maturity, and biodegradation of both samples probably by increased selectivity, resolution, and sensitivity inherent of the multidimensional technique. Additionally, the detection of the compounds such as, the C(14α-) homo-26-nor-17α-hopane series, diamoretanes, nor-spergulanes, C19 -C26 A-nor-steranes and 4α-methylsteranes resolved and detected by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry were key to classify and differentiate these lacustrine samples according to their maturity and deposition conditions.

  2. Estimate the effective connectivity in multi-coupled neural mass model using particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Bonan; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Wei, Xile

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of the effective connectivity among different brain regions during seizure is a crucial problem in neuroscience today. As a consequence, a new model inversion framework of brain function imaging is introduced in this manuscript. This framework is based on approximating brain networks using a multi-coupled neural mass model (NMM). NMM describes the excitatory and inhibitory neural interactions, capturing the mechanisms involved in seizure initiation, evolution and termination. Particle swarm optimization method is used to estimate the effective connectivity variation (the parameters of NMM) and the epileptiform dynamics (the states of NMM) that cannot be directly measured using electrophysiological measurement alone. The estimated effective connectivity includes both the local connectivity parameters within a single region NMM and the remote connectivity parameters between multi-coupled NMMs. When the epileptiform activities are estimated, a proportional-integral controller outputs control signal so that the epileptiform spikes can be inhibited immediately. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework. The framework and the results have a profound impact on the way we detect and treat epilepsy.

  3. Determination of the rare-earth elements in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichte, F.E.; Meier, A.L.; Crock, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    A method of analysis of geological materials for the determination of the rare-earth elements using the Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric technique (ICP-MS) has been developed. Instrumental parameters and factors affecting analytical results have been first studied and then optimized. Samples are analyzed directly following an acid digestion, without the need for separation or preconcentration with limits of detection of 2-11 ng/g, precision of ?? 2.5% relative standard deviation, and accuracy comparable to inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. A commercially available ICP-MS instrument is used with modifications to the sample introduction system, torch, and sampler orifice to reduce the effects of high salt content of sample solutions prepared from geologic materials. Corrections for isobaric interferences from oxide ions and other diatomic and triatomic ions are made mathematically. Special internal standard procedures are used to compensate for drift in metahmetal oxide ratios and sensitivity. Reference standard values are used to verify the accuracy and utility of the method.

  4. Coupled motion of rigid bodies about their center of mass. [Shuttle/payload system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezewski, D. J.; Donaldson, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Nontrivial analytical solutions for the coupled motion of two rigid bodies about their center of mass are obtained on the assumptions that the rigid bodies are coupled by a massless rigid boom and that no external forces are acting on the system. Both relative rotational and translational motions of the two bodies are considered. General equations of motion are derived by regarding the two bodies as consisting of two distinct systems of particles and by applying the principle of conservation of angular momentum. It is shown that a basic nontrivial solution can be obtained for the translational problem if an assumption is made concerning the relative orientation of one principal axis of inertia of each body and that fundamental nontrivial solutions are readily obtained for the rotational problem if an additional assumption is made with respect to the symmetry of one body. Certain stability criteria are found for some of these motions by defining regions of constraint for the relative translational and rotational elements.

  5. Hydrogen measurement during steam oxidation using coupled thermogravimetric analysis and quadrupole mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Parkison, Adam J.; Nelson, Andrew Thomas

    2016-01-11

    An analytical technique is presented with the goal of measuring reaction kinetics during steam oxidation reactions for three cases in which obtaining kinetics information often requires a prohibitive amount of time and cost. The technique presented relies on coupling thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with a quantitative hydrogen measurement technique using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). The first case considered is in differentiating between the kinetics of steam oxidation reactions and those for simultaneously reacting gaseous impurities such as nitrogen or oxygen. The second case allows one to independently measure the kinetics of oxide and hydride formation for systems in which both of these reactions are known to take place during steam oxidation. The third case deals with measuring the kinetics of formation for competing volatile and non-volatile oxides during certain steam oxidation reactions. In order to meet the requirements of the coupled technique, a methodology is presented which attempts to provide quantitative measurement of hydrogen generation using QMS in the presence of an interfering fragmentation species, namely water vapor. This is achieved such that all calibrations and corrections are performed during the TGA baseline and steam oxidation programs, making system operation virtually identical to standard TGA. Benchmarking results showed a relative error in hydrogen measurement of 5.7–8.4% following the application of a correction factor. Lastly, suggestions are made for possible improvements to the presented technique so that it may be better applied to the three cases presented.

  6. Hydrogen measurement during steam oxidation using coupled thermogravimetric analysis and quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Parkison, Adam J.; Nelson, Andrew Thomas

    2016-01-11

    An analytical technique is presented with the goal of measuring reaction kinetics during steam oxidation reactions for three cases in which obtaining kinetics information often requires a prohibitive amount of time and cost. The technique presented relies on coupling thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with a quantitative hydrogen measurement technique using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). The first case considered is in differentiating between the kinetics of steam oxidation reactions and those for simultaneously reacting gaseous impurities such as nitrogen or oxygen. The second case allows one to independently measure the kinetics of oxide and hydride formation for systems in which both ofmore » these reactions are known to take place during steam oxidation. The third case deals with measuring the kinetics of formation for competing volatile and non-volatile oxides during certain steam oxidation reactions. In order to meet the requirements of the coupled technique, a methodology is presented which attempts to provide quantitative measurement of hydrogen generation using QMS in the presence of an interfering fragmentation species, namely water vapor. This is achieved such that all calibrations and corrections are performed during the TGA baseline and steam oxidation programs, making system operation virtually identical to standard TGA. Benchmarking results showed a relative error in hydrogen measurement of 5.7–8.4% following the application of a correction factor. Lastly, suggestions are made for possible improvements to the presented technique so that it may be better applied to the three cases presented.« less

  7. Sulfur analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giner Martínez-Sierra, J.; Galilea San Blas, O.; Marchante Gayón, J. M.; García Alonso, J. I.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years the number of applications of sulfur (S) analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector has increased significantly. In this article we describe in some depth the application of ICP-MS for S analysis with emphasis placed on the sulfur-specific detection by hyphenated techniques such as LC, GC, CE and LA coupled on-line to ICP-MS. The different approaches available for sulfur isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS are also detailed. Particular attention has been paid to the quantification of peptides/proteins and the analysis of metallopeptides/metalloproteins via sulfur by LC-ICP-MS. Likewise, the speciation analysis of metal-based pharmaceuticals and metallodrugs and non-metal selective detection of pharmaceuticals via S are highlighted. Labeling procedures for metabolic applications are also included. Finally, the measurement of natural variations in S isotope composition with multicollector ICP-MS instruments is also covered in this review.

  8. Determination of selenium urinary metabolites by high temperature liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terol, A; Ardini, F; Basso, A; Grotti, M

    2015-02-06

    The coupling of high temperature liquid chromatography (HTLC) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for the determination of selenium metabolites in urine samples is reported for the first time. In order to achieve "ICPMS-friendly" chromatographic conditions, the retention on a graphite stationary phase of the major selenium urinary metabolites using only plain water with 2% methanol as the mobile phase was investigated. Under the optimal conditions (T=80°C, Ql=1.2 mL min(-1)), methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-d-galactopyranoside (selenosugar 1), methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-d-glucosopyranoside (selenosugar 2) and trimethylselenonium ion were efficiently separated in less than 7 min, without any interferences due to other common selenium species (selenite, selenate, selenocystine and selenomethionine) or detectable effect of the urine matrix. The limits of detection were 0.3-0.5 ng Se mL(-1), and the precision of the analytical procedure was better than 3% (RSD%, n=5). The HTLC-ICPMS method was applied to the analysis of urine samples from two volunteers before and after ingestion of Brazil nuts or selenium supplements. The developed procedure proved to be adequate for the analytical task, providing results consistent with previous studies.

  9. Multivariate analysis of progressive thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2010-09-01

    Thermal decomposition of poly dimethyl siloxane compounds, Sylgard{reg_sign} 184 and 186, were examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. The technique involves sequentially heating a sample of the material of interest with subsequent analysis in a commercial GC/MS system. The decomposition chromatograms were analyzed using multivariate analysis tools including principal component analysis (PCA), factor rotation employing the varimax criterion, and multivariate curve resolution. The results of the analysis show seven components related to offgassing of various fractions of siloxanes that vary as a function of temperature. Thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique for analyzing chemical mixtures. It has great potential in numerous analytic areas including materials analysis, sports medicine, in the detection of designer drugs; and biological research for metabolomics. Data analysis is complicated, far from automated and can result in high false positive or false negative rates. We have demonstrated a step-wise TD/GC-MS technique that removes more volatile compounds from a sample before extracting the less volatile compounds. This creates an additional dimension of separation before the GC column, while simultaneously generating three-way data. Sandia's proven multivariate analysis methods, when applied to these data, have several advantages over current commercial options. It also has demonstrated potential for success in finding and enabling identification of trace compounds. Several challenges remain, however, including understanding the sources of noise in the data, outlier detection, improving the data pretreatment and analysis methods, developing a software tool for ease of use by the chemist, and demonstrating our belief that

  10. Isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Kimura, Takaumi

    2010-12-15

    Information on plutonium isotope ratios in individual particles is of great importance for nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and so on. Although secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is successfully utilized for the analysis of individual uranium particles, the isobaric interference of americium-241 to plutonium-241 makes difficult to obtain accurate isotope ratios in individual plutonium particles. In the present work, an analytical technique by a combination of chemical separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is developed and applied to isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles. The ICP-MS results for individual plutonium particles prepared from a standard reference material (NBL SRM-947) indicate that the use of a desolvation system for sample introduction improves the precision of isotope ratios. In addition, the accuracy of the (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratio is much improved, owing to the chemical separation of plutonium and americium. In conclusion, the performance of the proposed ICP-MS technique is sufficient for the analysis of individual plutonium particles.

  11. Plutonium determination in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: A review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liguo; Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Pan, Shaoming; Wang, Zhongtang; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-05-01

    Knowing the concentration and isotopic ratio of Pu in seawater is of critical importance for assessing Pu contamination and investigating oceanic processes. In recent decades, the concentration of (239+240)Pu in seawater, particularly for surface seawater, has presented an exponential decreasing trend with time; thus determination of Pu in seawater has become a challenge nowadays. Here, we have summarized and critically discussed a variety of reported analytical methods for Pu determination in seawater sample based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analytical technique for rapid ultra-trace detection of Pu. Generally, pretreatments for seawater sample include co-precipitation, valence adjustment and chemical separation and purification procedures, all of which are comprehensively reviewed. Overall, the selected anion-exchange, extraction resins and operation condition are important for decontamination of interference from matrix elements and achieving satisfactory chemical yields. In addition, other mass spectrometric and radiometric detections are briefly addressed and compared with the focus on assessing ICP-MS. Finally, we discuss some issues and prospects in determination and application of Pu isotopes in seawater samples for future research.

  12. Sulfur-based absolute quantification of proteins using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Seok; Heun Kim, Sook; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yim, Yong-Hyeon

    2015-10-01

    An element-based reductive approach provides an effective means of realizing International System of Units (SI) traceability for high-purity biological standards. Here, we develop an absolute protein quantification method using double isotope dilution (ID) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with microwave-assisted acid digestion for the first time. We validated the method and applied it to certify the candidate protein certified reference material (CRM) of human growth hormone (hGH). The concentration of hGH was determined by analysing the total amount of sulfur in hGH. Next, the size-exclusion chromatography method was used with ICP-MS to characterize and quantify sulfur-containing impurities. By subtracting the contribution of sulfur-containing impurities from the total sulfur content in the hGH CRM, we obtained a SI-traceable certification value. The quantification result obtained with the present method based on sulfur analysis was in excellent agreement with the result determined via a well-established protein quantification method based on amino acid analysis using conventional acid hydrolysis combined with an ID liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The element-based protein quantification method developed here can be generally used for SI-traceable absolute quantification of proteins, especially pure-protein standards.

  13. Probing Protein Surface with a Solvent Mimetic Carbene Coupled to Detection by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Gabriela E.; Mundo, Mariana R.; Craig, Patricio O.; Delfino, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Much knowledge into protein folding, ligand binding, and complex formation can be derived from the examination of the nature and size of the accessible surface area (SASA) of the polypeptide chain, a key parameter in protein science not directly measurable in an experimental fashion. To this end, an ideal chemical approach should aim at exerting solvent mimicry and achieving minimal selectivity to probe the protein surface regardless of its chemical nature. The choice of the photoreagent diazirine to fulfill these goals arises from its size comparable to water and from being a convenient source of the extremely reactive methylene carbene (:CH2). The ensuing methylation depends primarily on the solvent accessibility of the polypeptide chain, turning it into a valuable signal to address experimentally the measurement of SASA in proteins. The superb sensitivity and high resolution of modern mass spectrometry techniques allows us to derive a quantitative signal proportional to the extent of modification (EM) of the sample. Thus, diazirine labeling coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection can shed light on conformational features of the native as well as non-native states, not easily addressable by other methods. Enzymatic fragmentation of the polypeptide chain at the level of small peptides allows us to locate the covalent tag along the amino acid sequence, therefore enabling the construction of a map of solvent accessibility. Moreover, by subsequent MS/MS analysis of peptides, we demonstrate here the feasibility of attaining amino acid resolution in defining the target sites.

  14. Direct solid sampling of fire assay beads by spark ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hoven, R. L.; Nam, Sang-Ho; Montaser, Akbar; Doughten, M. W.; Dorrzapf, A. F.

    1995-06-01

    A spark-based, solid-sampling cell is described for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The cell is devised for the direct sampling of gold and silver beads produced by the classical lead fire assay procedure. The sampler produces a solid aerosol composed of submicron-sized vapor condensates and small (< 2 μm) spherules. In contrast to solution nebulization, the mass spectrum for spark-ICP-MS is relatively free of interfering metal oxide, polyatomic, and multiply-charged ions. The measurement precision is 3% RSD for Pt, Pd, and Rh preconcentrated into fire assay beads, but is 6% RSD for Ir due to its heterogeneous distribution in a silver bead. Detection limits determined for Pt, Pd, Rh, and Ir in fire assay beads range from 0.6 μg/g (Pt) to 1.2 μg/g (Pd). Calibration curves for these elements are linear up to the highest concentration in the bead studied (2000 μg/g). The quantitative potential of the method is evaluated using the South African Reference Material (SARM-7) geologic standard.

  15. Origin of Self-preservation Effect for Hydrate Decomposition: Coupling of Mass and Heat Transfer Resistances

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Dongsheng; Zhang, Diwei; Zhang, Xianren; Chen, Guangjin

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrates could show an unexpected high stability at conditions out of thermodynamic equilibrium, which is called the self-preservation effect. The mechanism of the effect for methane hydrates is here investigated via molecular dynamics simulations, in which an NVT/E method is introduced to represent different levels of heat transfer resistance. Our simulations suggest a coupling between the mass transfer resistance and heat transfer resistance as the driving mechanism for self-preservation effect. We found that the hydrate is initially melted from the interface, and then a solid-like water layer with temperature-dependent structures is formed next to the hydrate interface that exhibits fractal feature, followed by an increase of mass transfer resistance for the diffusion of methane from hydrate region. Furthermore, our results indicate that heat transfer resistance is a more fundamental factor, since it facilitates the formation of the solid-like layer and hence inhibits the further dissociation of the hydrates. The self-preservation effect is found to be enhanced with the increase of pressure and particularly the decrease of temperature. Kinetic equations based on heat balance calculations is also developed to describe the self-preservation effect, which reproduces our simulation results well and provides an association between microscopic and macroscopic properties. PMID:26423519

  16. Sensitive sandwich immunoassay based on single particle mode inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Zhi; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2010-11-15

    A sensitive sandwich type immunoassay has been proposed with the detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in a single particle mode (time resolved analysis). The signal induced by the flash of ions ((197)Au(+)) due to the ionization of single Au-nanoparticle (Au-NP) label in the plasma torch can be measured by the mass spectrometer. The frequency of the transient signals is proportional to the concentration of Au-NPs labels. Characteristics of the signals obtained from Au-NPs of 20, 45 and 80 nm in diameters were discussed. The analytical figures for the determination of Au-labeled IgG using ICP-MS in conventional integral mode and single particle mode were compared in detail. Rabbit-anti-human IgG was used as a model analyte in the sandwich immunoassay. A detection limit (3 σ) of 0.1 ng mL(-1) was obtained for rabbit-anti-human IgG after immunoreactions, with a linear range of 0.3-10 ng mL(-1) and a RSD of 8.1% (2.0 ng mL(-1)). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to spiked rabbit-anti-human IgG samples and rabbit-anti-human serum samples. The method resulted to be a highly sensitive ICP-MS based sandwich type immunoassay.

  17. Characterization of the limonene oxidation products with liquid chromatography coupled to the tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Bartłomiej; Gierczak, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    Composition of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated during ozonolysis of limonene was investigated with liquid chromatography coupled to the negative electrospray ionization (ESI), quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as well as high resolution Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry. Aerosol was generated in the flow-tube reactor. HR-MS/MS analysis allowed for proposing structures for the several up-to-date unknown limonene oxidation products. In addition to the low MW limonene oxidation products, significant quantities of oligomers characterized by elemental compositions: C19H30O5, C18H28O6, C19H28O7, C19H30O7 and C20H34O9 were detected in the SOA samples. It was concluded that these compounds are most likely esters, aldol reaction products and/or hemiacetals. In addition to detailed study of the limonene oxidation products, the reaction time as well as initial ozone concentration impact on the limonene SOA composition was investigated. The relative intensities of the two esters of the limonic acid and 7-hydroxy limononic acid increased as a result of lowering the initial ozone concentration and shortening the reaction time, indicating that esterification may be an important oligomerization pathway during limonene SOA formation.

  18. Thorium colloid analysis by single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Degueldre, C; Favarger, P-Y

    2004-04-19

    Thorium colloid analysis in water has been carried out by a single particle mode using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The flash of ions due to the ionisation of a thorium colloidal particle in the plasma torch can be detected and measured in a time scan for (232)Th (+ ) or (248)[ThO] (+ ) according to the sensitivity required by the mass spectrometer. The peaks of the recorded intensity of the MS signal can be analysed as a function of the particle size or fraction of the studied element in the colloid phase. The frequency of the flashes is directly proportional to the concentration of particles in the colloidal suspension. After discussing Th colloid detection, on the basis of the intensity of the ion flashes generated in the plasma torch, tests were performed on thorium dioxide colloidal particles. This feasibility study also describes the experimental conditions and the limitation of the plasma design to detect thorium colloids in a single particle analysis mode down to about 10fg.

  19. Studies of selenium and xenon in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bricker, Tonya

    1994-07-27

    Since its development, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been a widely used analytical technique. ICP-MS offers low detection limits, easy determination of isotope ratios, and simple mass spectra from analyte elements. ICP-MS has been successfully employed for many applications including geological, environmental, biological, metallurgical, food, medical, and industrial. One specific application important to many areas of study involves elemental speciation by using ICP-MS as an element specific detector interfaced to liquid chromatography. Elemental speciation information is important and cannot be obtained by atomic spectrometric methods alone which measure only the total concentration of the element present. Part 1 of this study describes the speciation of selenium in human serum by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and detection by ICP-MS. Although ICP-MS has been widely sued, room for improvement still exists. Difficulties in ICP-MS include noise in the background, matrix effects, clogging of the sampling orifice with deposited solids, and spectral interference caused by polyatomic ions. Previous work has shown that the addition of xenon into the central channel of the ICP decreases polyatomic ion levels. In Part 2 of this work, a fundamental study involving the measurement of the excitation temperature is carried out to further understand xenon`s role in the reduction of polyatomic ions. 155 refs.

  20. Atomic Mineral Characteristics of Indonesian Osteoporosis by High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Zairin; Sumitro, Sutiman Bambang; Hidayat, Mohammad; Rahim, Agus Hadian; Sabarudin, Akhmad; Umemura, Tomonari

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research indicates that negative calcium balance is associated with low bone mass, rapid bone loss, and high fracture rates. However, some studies revealed that not only calcium is involved in bone strengthening as risk factor of fracture osteoporosis. Thus, in this report, the difference of metallic and nonmetallic elements in osteoporosis and normal bones was studied by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). The influence of these elements on bone metabolic processes is also discussed. Inclusion criteria of bone samples consist of postmenopausal woman, trabecular bone fracture, normal and osteoporosis BMD value, and no history of previous disease. The results showed that the concentration of B, Al, S, V, Co, Mo, Te, Ba, La, Ni, As, and Ca/P ratio is higher in osteoporosis than normal. These atomic minerals have negative role to imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation activity. Conversely, concentrations of Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cr, Pd, Ag, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Pb, and Se are lower in osteoporosis than in normal bones. Among these atoms, known to have important roles in bone structure, we found involvement of atomic mineral and calcium which are considerable to contribute to osteoporotic phenomena. PMID:22654598

  1. Origin of Self-preservation Effect for Hydrate Decomposition: Coupling of Mass and Heat Transfer Resistances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Dongsheng; Zhang, Diwei; Zhang, Xianren; Chen, Guangjin

    2015-10-01

    Gas hydrates could show an unexpected high stability at conditions out of thermodynamic equilibrium, which is called the self-preservation effect. The mechanism of the effect for methane hydrates is here investigated via molecular dynamics simulations, in which an NVT/E method is introduced to represent different levels of heat transfer resistance. Our simulations suggest a coupling between the mass transfer resistance and heat transfer resistance as the driving mechanism for self-preservation effect. We found that the hydrate is initially melted from the interface, and then a solid-like water layer with temperature-dependent structures is formed next to the hydrate interface that exhibits fractal feature, followed by an increase of mass transfer resistance for the diffusion of methane from hydrate region. Furthermore, our results indicate that heat transfer resistance is a more fundamental factor, since it facilitates the formation of the solid-like layer and hence inhibits the further dissociation of the hydrates. The self-preservation effect is found to be enhanced with the increase of pressure and particularly the decrease of temperature. Kinetic equations based on heat balance calculations is also developed to describe the self-preservation effect, which reproduces our simulation results well and provides an association between microscopic and macroscopic properties.

  2. Trilinear analysis of thin-layer chromatography retention of 35 model compounds chromatographed on nine adsorbents with 20 pure solvents.

    PubMed

    Komsta, Łukasz; Skibiński, Robert; Bezpalko, Natalia; Mielniczek, Aleksandra; Stępkowska, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    The RF value dataset of 35 model compounds, chromatographed with 20 pure solvents as the mobile phase each on nine adsorbents: RP2, RP8, RP18, alumina, cellulose, CN, DIOL, NH2 , and silica, was subjected to trilinear analysis with parallel factor analysis. The two-factor optimal model explained 87% of total information in this complex dataset. The first obtained score (trend) represents two features: the presence of hydrogen bonding and heteroatoms of solute and the mean elution force of the solvent. The second trend represents molecule size, aromaticity, and number of carbons, interconnected with presence of chlorine in mobile phase. The correlation between the scores and molecular descriptors were checked to interpret these trends quantitatively. The scores of adsorbents were slightly intercorrelated, showing NH2 , alumina, and cellulose as outliers from main adsorbents cloud. The obtained results suggest that molecular size and aromaticity, connected with chlorine atoms in mobile phase, is the second source of retention variability.

  3. Controlled Dissolution of Surface Layers for Elemental Analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lorge, Susan Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Determining the composition of thin layers is increasingly important for a variety of industrial materials such as adhesives, coatings and microelectronics. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are some of the techniques that are currently employed for the direct analysis of the sample surface. Although these techniques do not suffer from the contamination problems that often plague sample dissolution studies, they do require matrix matched standards for quantification. Often, these standards are not readily available. Despite the costs of clean hoods, Teflon pipette tips and bottles, and pure acids, partial sample dissolution is the primary method used in the semiconductor industry to quantify surface impurities. Specifically, vapor phase decomposition (VPD) coupled to ICP-MS or total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) provides elemental information from the top most surface layers at detection sensitivities in the 107-1010atoms/cm2 range. The ability to quantify with standard solutions is a main advantage of these techniques. Li and Houk applied a VPD-like technique to steel. The signal ratio of trace element to matrix element was used for quantification. Although controlled dissolution concentrations determined for some of the dissolved elements agreed with the certified values, concentrations determined for refractory elements (Ti, Nb and Ta) were too low. LA-ICP-MS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements indicated that carbide grains distributed throughout the matrix were high in these refractory elements. These elements dissolved at a slower rate than the matrix element, Fe. If the analyte element is not removed at a rate similar to the matrix element a true

  4. Minimal nonsupersymmetric S O (10 ) model: Gauge coupling unification, proton decay, and fermion masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. S.; Khan, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present a minimal renormalizable nonsupersymmetric S O (10 ) grand unified model with a symmetry breaking sector consisting of Higgs fields in the 5 4H+12 6H+1 0H representations. This model admits a single intermediate scale associated with Pati-Salam symmetry along with a discrete parity. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, the unification of gauge couplings, and proton lifetime estimates are studied in detail in this framework. Including threshold corrections self-consistently obtained from a full analysis of the Higgs potential, we show that the model is compatible with the current experimental bound on proton lifetime. The model generally predicts an upper bound of few times 1035 yr for proton lifetime, which is not too far from the present Super-Kamiokande limit of τp≳1.29 ×1034 yr . With the help of a Pecci-Quinn symmetry and the resulting axion, the model provides a suitable dark matter candidate while also solving the strong C P problem. The intermediate scale, MI≈(1013- 1014) GeV which is also the B -L scale, is of the right order for the right-handed neutrino mass which enables a successful description of light neutrino masses and oscillations. The Yukawa sector of the model consists of only two matrices in family space and leads to a predictive scenario for quark and lepton masses and mixings. The branching ratios for proton decay are calculable with the leading modes being p →e+π0 and p →ν ¯π+. Even though the model predicts no new physics within the reach of the LHC, the next-generation proton decay detectors and axion search experiments have the capability to reach a verdict on this minimal scenario.

  5. North Atlantic Water Mass Formation as Depicted by Coupled Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, D.; McClean, J.

    2008-12-01

    We evaluate the realism of North Atlantic (NA) water mass properties in two fully coupled one-degree class Community Climate System Model 3.0 (CCSM3) simulations using Eulerian spectral (CCSM-T85) and finite- volume (CCSM-FV) atmospheric dynamical cores. We calculate the water mass transformation rates (WMTR) for the entire North Atlantic (NA) and separately for the Nordic Seas using 20-year monthly time series of sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, surface heat and freshwater fluxes due to the atmosphere-ocean and ice-ocean interactions. Compared to the CCSM3-T85 the CCSM3-FV has higher WMTR in narrower density ranges. It's subpolar mode water (σθ= 27.5 kg.m-3) formation rate is 25Sv while in CCSM-T85 it is 20Sv. In the Nordic Seas the CCSM-FV formation rate is about 7.5 Sv versus 6 Sv in CCSM-T85 in the σθ range 27.-28.35 kg.m-3. These results will be validated with observational estimates based on surface fluxes and sea surface temperature from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data and Polar science center Hydrographic Climatology (PHC) sea surface salinity monthly climatology. As expected the dominant formation process is the buoyancy flux caused by the atmosphere-ocean heat exchange. The effect of ice-ocean buoyancy fluxes is to reduce the WMTR mainly due to the freshwater component (freshening during melting). We investigate the interannual variability of the NA WMTR related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) for both models. The ocean response to the NAO mode is better simulated in the CCSM-FV with intensified water mass production during the negative phase when the winter convection in the Nordic Seas is stronger.

  6. COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Frisch, E.; Johnson, C.G.

    1962-05-15

    A detachable coupling arrangement is described which provides for varying the length of the handle of a tool used in relatively narrow channels. The arrangement consists of mating the key and keyhole formations in the cooperating handle sections. (AEC)

  7. Study on Mass Discrimination Effect of Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma as an Atomic Source (ICP-RIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Tomita, H.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.

    2009-03-17

    We have proposed a novel concept of Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry using an Inductively Coupled Plasma as an Atomic Source (ICP-RIMS). Isotope ratio analysis using ICP-RIMS is expected to be a convenient and precise technique with high throughput. However, the mass discrimination effect caused from difference in kinetic energy of neutral atoms in ICP-RIMS is crucial for precise isotope analysis. We, therefore, investigated the atom kinetic energy distribution introduced into the laser ionization region. The mass-dependent kinetic energy was confirmed in the initial kinetic energy distributions. We preliminary estimated a mass discrimination effect caused by mass-dependent kinetic energy in ICP-RIMS for various detector sizes. We proposed that this effect can be suppressed by selecting the appropriate detector size and adopting the scanning mode of the deflecting voltage.

  8. Multiplex bio-assay with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Towards a massively multivariate single-cell technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Scott D.; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry R.; Baranov, Vladimir I.

    2007-03-01

    Recent progress in the development of massively multiplexed bioanalytical assays using element tags with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection is reviewed. Feasibility results using commercially available secondary immunolabeling reagents for leukemic cell lines are presented. Multiplex analysis of higher order is shown with first generation tag reagents based on functionalized carriers that bind lanthanide ions. DNA quantification using metallointercalation allows for cell enumeration or mitotic state differentiation. In situ hybridization permits the determination of cellular RNA. The results provide a feasibility basis for the development of a multivariate assay tool for individual cell analysis based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in a cytometer configuration.

  9. Changes in Body Mass Index and Obesity Risk in Married Couples Over 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Laura K.; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Demerath, Ellen; Woodward, Mark; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Married couples might be an appropriate target for obesity prevention interventions. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether an individual's risk of obesity is associated with spousal risk of obesity and whether an individual's change in body mass index (BMI; weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is associated with spousal BMI change. We analyzed data from 3,889 spouse pairs in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort who were sampled at ages 45–65 years from 1986 to 1989 and followed for up to 25 years. We estimated hazard ratios for incident obesity by whether spouses remained nonobese, became obese, remained obese, or became nonobese. We estimated the association of participants' BMI changes with concurrent spousal BMI changes using linear mixed models. Analyses were stratified by sex. At baseline, 22.6% of men and 24.7% of women were obese. Nonobese participants whose spouses became obese were more likely to become obese themselves (for men, hazard ratio = 1.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.30, 2.43; for women, hazard ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval: 1.39, 2.57). With each 1-unit increase in spousal BMI change, women's BMI change increased by 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.18) and men's BMI change increased by 0.10 (95% confidence interval: 0.09, 0.12). Having a spouse become obese nearly doubles one's risk of becoming obese. Future research should consider exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention interventions in couples. PMID:26405117

  10. Minimalist coupled evolution model for stellar X-ray activity, rotation, mass loss, and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.; Owen, James E.

    2016-05-01

    Late-type main-sequence stars exhibit an X-ray to bolometric flux ratio that depends on {tilde{R}o}, the ratio of rotation period to convective turnover time, as {tilde{R}o}^{-ζ } with 2 ≤ ζ ≤ 3 for {tilde{R}o} > 0.13, but saturates with |ζ| < 0.2 for {tilde{R}o} < 0.13. Saturated stars are younger than unsaturated stars and show a broader spread of rotation rates and X-ray activity. The unsaturated stars have magnetic fields and rotation speeds that scale roughly with the square root of their age, though possibly flattening for stars older than the Sun. The connection between faster rotators, stronger fields, and higher activity has been established observationally, but a theory for the unified time-evolution of X-ray luminosity, rotation, magnetic field and mass loss that captures the above trends has been lacking. Here we derive a minimalist holistic framework for the time evolution of these quantities built from combining a Parker wind with new ingredients: (1) explicit sourcing of both the thermal energy launching the wind and the X-ray luminosity via dynamo produced magnetic fields; (2) explicit coupling of X-ray activity and mass-loss saturation to dynamo saturation (via magnetic helicity build-up and convection eddy shredding); (3) use of coronal equilibrium to determine how magnetic energy is divided into wind and X-ray contributions. For solar-type stars younger than the Sun, we infer conduction to be a subdominant power loss compared to X-rays and wind. For older stars, conduction is more important, possibly quenching the wind and reducing angular momentum loss. We focus on the time evolution for stars younger than the Sun, highlighting what is possible for further generalizations. Overall, the approach shows promise towards a unified explanation of all of the aforementioned observational trends.

  11. Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer – Operational Performance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Watrous; Anthony Appelhans; Robert Hague; John Olson; Tracy Houghton

    2013-06-01

    The INL made an assessment of the commercially available inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICPMS) for actinide analysis; emphasizing low detection limits for plutonium. INL scientists subsequently determined if plutonium was present on a swipe, at a 10 million atom decision level. This report describes the evaluation of ICPMS instruments and the operational testing of a new process for the dissolution, separation and analysis via ICPMS of swipes for plutonium and uranium. The swipe dissolution, plutonium and uranium isolation, separation and purification are wet chemistry methods following established procedures. The ICPMS is a commercially available multi-collector magnetic sector mass spectrometer that utilizes five ion counting detectors operating simultaneously. The instrument includes a sample introduction system allowing for sample volumes of < 1 mL to be reproducibly injected into the instrument with minimal waste of the sample solution, while maximizing the useable signal. The performance of the instrument was measured using SRM 996 (244Pu spike) at concentrations of 12 parts per quadrillion (ppq, fg/mL) and with SRM 4350B Columbia River Sediment samples spiked onto swipes at the 10 million atom level. The measured limit of detection (LOD, defined as 3s) for 239Pu is 310,000 atoms based upon the instrument blank data. The limit of quantification (LOQ defined as 10 s) for 239Pu is 105,000 atoms. The measured limit of detection for 239Pu from the SRM 4350B spiked onto a swipe was 2.7 million atoms with the limit of quantification being 9.0 million atoms.

  12. Radiative corrections to the Higgs boson couplings in the triplet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Mayumi; Kanemura, Shinya; Kikuchi, Mariko; Yagyu, Kei

    2013-01-01

    We calculate a full set of one-loop corrections to the Higgs boson coupling constants as well as the electroweak parameters. We compute the decay rate of the standard model-like Higgs boson (h) into diphoton. Renormalized Higgs couplings with the weak gauge bosons hVV (V=W and Z) and the trilinear coupling hhh are also calculated at the one-loop level in the on-shell scheme. Magnitudes of the deviations in these quantities are evaluated in the parameter regions where the unitarity and vacuum stability bounds are satisfied and the predicted W boson mass at the one-loop level is consistent with the data. We find that there are strong correlations among deviations in the Higgs boson couplings hγγ, hVV and hhh. For example, if the event number of the pp→h→γγ channel deviates by +30% (-40%) from the standard model prediction, deviations in the one-loop corrected hVV and hhh vertices are predicted to be about -0.1% (-2%) and -10% (+150%), respectively. The model can be discriminated from the other models by accurately measuring these coupling constants in future collider experiments.

  13. Postinflationary vacuum instability and Higgs-inflaton couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, Kari; Karčiauskas, Mindaugas; Lebedev, Oleg; Rusak, Stanislav; Zatta, Marco

    2016-11-01

    The Higgs-inflaton coupling plays an important role in the Higgs field dynamics in the early Universe. Even a tiny coupling generated at loop level can have a dramatic effect on the fate of the electroweak vacuum. Such Higgs-inflaton interaction is present both at the trilinear and quartic levels in realistic reheating models. In this work, we examine the Higgs dynamics during the preheating epoch, focusing on the effects of the parametric and tachyonic resonances. We use lattice simulations and other numerical tools in our studies. We find that the resonances can induce large fluctuations of the Higgs field which destabilize the electroweak vacuum. Our considerations thus provide an upper bound on quartic and trilinear interactions between the Higgs and the inflaton. We conclude that there exists a favorable range of the couplings within which the Higgs field is stabilized during both inflation and preheating epochs.

  14. Postinflationary vacuum instability and Higgs-inflaton couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Karčiauskas, Mindaugas; Lebedev, Oleg; Rusak, Stanislav; Zatta, Marco

    2016-11-11

    The Higgs-inflaton coupling plays an important role in the Higgs field dynamics in the early Universe. Even a tiny coupling generated at loop level can have a dramatic effect on the fate of the electroweak vacuum. Such Higgs-inflaton interaction is present both at the trilinear and quartic levels in realistic reheating models. In this work, we examine the Higgs dynamics during the preheating epoch, focusing on the effects of the parametric and tachyonic resonances. We use lattice simulations and other numerical tools in our studies. We find that the resonances can induce large fluctuations of the Higgs field which destabilize the electroweak vacuum. Our considerations thus provide an upper bound on quartic and trilinear interactions between the Higgs and the inflaton. We conclude that there exists a favorable range of the couplings within which the Higgs field is stabilized during both inflation and preheating epochs.

  15. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging of metals in experimental and clinical Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Boaru, Sorina Georgiana; Merle, Uta; Uerlings, Ricarda; Zimmermann, Astrid; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Willheim, Claudia; Eder, Elisabeth; Ferenci, Peter; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the liver does not properly release copper into bile, resulting in prominent copper accumulation in various tissues. Affected patients suffer from hepatic disorders and severe neurological defects. Experimental studies in mutant mice in which the copper-transporting ATPase gene (Atp7b) is disrupted revealed a drastic, time-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper that is accompanied by formation of regenerative nodes resembling cirrhosis. Therefore, these mice represent an excellent exploratory model for Wilson's disease. However, the precise time course in hepatic copper accumulation and its impact on other trace metals within the liver is yet poorly understood. We have recently established novel laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry protocols allowing quantitative metal imaging in human and murine liver tissue with high sensitivity, spatial resolution, specificity and quantification ability. By use of these techniques, we here aimed to comparatively analyse hepatic metal content in wild-type and Atp7b deficient mice during ageing. We demonstrate that the age-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper is strictly associated with a simultaneous increase in iron and zinc, while the intrahepatic concentration and distribution of other metals or metalloids is not affected. The same findings were obtained in well-defined human liver samples that were obtained from patients suffering from Wilson's disease. We conclude that in Wilson's disease the imbalances of hepatic copper during ageing are closely correlated with alterations in intrahepatic iron and zinc content.

  16. Quantitative determination of trisiloxane surfactants in beehive environments based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Mullin, Christopher A

    2013-08-20

    Organosilicone surfactants are increasingly being applied to agricultural agro-ecosystems as spray adjuvants, and were recently shown to impact the learning ability of honey bees. Here we developed a method for analyzing three trisiloxane surfactants (single polyethoxylate (EO) chain and end-capped with methyl, acetyl, or hydroxyl groups; TSS-CH3, TSS-COCH3, or TSS-H) in beehive matrices based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) approach from less than 2 g of honey, pollen, or beeswax. Recoveries for each oligomer (2-13 EO) were between 66 and 112% in all matrices. Average method detection limits (MDL) were 0.53, 0.60, 0.56 ng/g in honey, 0.63, 0.81, 0.78 ng/g in pollen, and 0.51, 0.69, 0.63 ng/g in beeswax. Five honey, 10 pollen, and 10 beeswax samples were analyzed. Trisiloxane surfactants were detected in every beeswax and 60% of the pollen samples. Total trisiloxane surfactant concentrations were up to 390 and 39 ng/g in wax and pollen. The described method is proved suitable for analyzing trisiloxane surfactants in beehive samples. The presence of trisiloxane surfactants in North American beehives calls for renewed effort to investigate the consequence of these adjuvants to bee health and the ongoing global bee decline.

  17. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging of metals in experimental and clinical Wilson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Boaru, Sorina Georgiana; Merle, Uta; Uerlings, Ricarda; Zimmermann, Astrid; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Willheim, Claudia; Eder, Elisabeth; Ferenci, Peter; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the liver does not properly release copper into bile, resulting in prominent copper accumulation in various tissues. Affected patients suffer from hepatic disorders and severe neurological defects. Experimental studies in mutant mice in which the copper-transporting ATPase gene (Atp7b) is disrupted revealed a drastic, time-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper that is accompanied by formation of regenerative nodes resembling cirrhosis. Therefore, these mice represent an excellent exploratory model for Wilson's disease. However, the precise time course in hepatic copper accumulation and its impact on other trace metals within the liver is yet poorly understood. We have recently established novel laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry protocols allowing quantitative metal imaging in human and murine liver tissue with high sensitivity, spatial resolution, specificity and quantification ability. By use of these techniques, we here aimed to comparatively analyse hepatic metal content in wild-type and Atp7b deficient mice during ageing. We demonstrate that the age-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper is strictly associated with a simultaneous increase in iron and zinc, while the intrahepatic concentration and distribution of other metals or metalloids is not affected. The same findings were obtained in well-defined human liver samples that were obtained from patients suffering from Wilson's disease. We conclude that in Wilson's disease the imbalances of hepatic copper during ageing are closely correlated with alterations in intrahepatic iron and zinc content. PMID:25704483

  18. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with laser ablation metal ions release detection in the human mouth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueerova, Hana; Dostalova, Tatjana; Prochazkova, J.

    2002-06-01

    Presence of more dental alloys in oral cavity often causes pathological symptoms. Due to various and multi-faced symptomatology, they tend to be a source of significant problems not only for the patient but also for the dentist. Metal ions released from alloys can cause subjective and objective symptoms in mouth. The aim of this study was detection of metal elements presence in saliva. There were 4 groups of examined persons: with intact teeth (15 individuals) with metallic restorations, pathological currents 5-30 (mu) A, multi-faced subjective symptomatology and uncharacteristic objective diagnosis (32 patients), with metallic restorations and no subjective symptoms (14 persons) and with metallic restorations, without pathological currents and with problems related to galvanism (13 patients). Presence of 14 metal elements was checked by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with laser ablation. Nd:YAG laser detector was used. There were significant differences in content of silver, gold and mercury between persons with intact teeth and other three groups. There were no differences found between subjects with and without galvanic currents, and presence of subjective and objective symptoms.

  19. Determination of multiple human arsenic metabolites employing high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Szabina; Liu, Guangliang; Matulis, Shannon; Boise, Lawrence H.; Cai, Yong

    2016-01-01

    During the metabolism of different arsenic-containing compounds in human, a variety of metabolites are produced with significantly varying toxicities. Currently available analytical methods can only detect a limited number of human metabolites in biological samples during one run due to their diverse characteristics. In addition, co-elution of species is often unnoticeable with most detection techniques leading to inaccurate metabolic profiles and assessment of toxicity. A high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method was developed that can identify thirteen common arsenic metabolites possibly present in human with special attention dedicated to thiolated or thiol conjugated arsenicals. The thirteen species included in this study are arsenite (AsIII), arsino-glutathione (As(GS)3), arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), monomethylarsino-glutathione (MMAIII(GS)2), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV), dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII (from DMAIIII)), S-(dimethylarsinic)cysteine (DMAIII(Cys)), dimethylarsino-glutathione (DMAIII(GS)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTAV), dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTAV), dimethylarsinothioyl glutathione (DMMTAV(GS)). The developed method was applied for the analysis of cancer cells that were incubated with Darinaparsin (DMAIII(GS)), a novel chemotherapeutic agent for refractory malignancies, and the arsenic metabolic profile obtained was compared to results using a previously developed method. This method provides a useful analytical tool which is much needed in unequivocally identifying the arsenicals formed during the metabolism of environmental arsenic exposure or therapeutic arsenic administration. PMID:26708625

  20. Profiling methods to identify cold-regulated primary metabolites using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dethloff, Frederik; Erban, Alexander; Orf, Isabel; Alpers, Jessica; Fehrle, Ines; Beine-Golovchuk, Olga; Schmidt, Stefanie; Schwachtje, Jens; Kopka, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This book chapter describes the analytical procedures required for the profiling of a metabolite fraction enriched for primary metabolites. The profiling is based on routine gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The generic profiling method is adapted to plant material, specifically to the analysis of single leaves from plants that were exposed to temperature stress experiments. The described method is modular. The modules include a rapid sampling and metabolic inactivation protocol for samples in a wide size range, a sample extraction procedure, a chemical derivatization step that is required to make the metabolite fraction amenable to gas chromatographic analysis, a routine GC-MS method, and finally the procedures of data processing and data mining. A basic and extendable set of standardizations for metabolite recovery and retention index alignment of the resulting GC-MS chromatograms is included. The method has two applications: (1) the rapid screening for changes of relative metabolite pools sizes under temperature stress and (2) the verification of cold-regulated metabolites by exact quantification using a GC-MS protocol with extended internal and external standardization.

  1. Determination of total iodine in foods and dietary supplements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Darryl; Zywicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed and validated for the determination of total iodine in a wide variety of food products and dietary supplements. The method involves a unique sample digestion with a KOH solution in an oven or by using an open-vessel microwave system. After digestion, a stabilizer is added and the solution is taken to volume, then filtered and analyzed either directly or after dilution. The amount of iodine is determined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was validated by experiments to determine its precision, accuracy, linearity, specificity, ruggedness, and robustness. The LOQ of this method is 25-50 microg/kg. The method demonstrated an average RSD of 2.27% during analysis of milk powder and 4.30% during analysis of a dietary supplement tablet reference material. The accuracy of the method as determined with these same reference materials was 100 and 94.2%, respectively. The method has been used successfully on commodity foods, processed foods, dairy products, pet food, infant formula, animal feed, mineral premixes, and a variety of dietary supplements.

  2. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) Applications in Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Chahrour, Osama; Malone, John

    2016-12-12

    Recent advances in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) hyphenated to different separation techniques have promoted it as a valuable tool in protein/peptide quantification. These emerging ICP-MS applications allow absolute quantification by measuring specific elemental responses. One approach quantifies elements already present in the structure of the target peptide (e.g. phosphorus and sulphur) as natural tags. Quantification of these natural tags allows the elucidation of the degree of protein phosphorylation in addition to absolute protein quantification. A separate approach is based on utilising bi-functional labelling substances (those containing ICP-MS detectable elements), that form a covalent chemical bond with the protein thus creating analogs which are detectable by ICP-MS. Based on the previously established stoichiometries of the labelling reagents, quantification can be achieved. This technique is very useful for the design of precise multiplexed quantitation schemes to address the challenges of biomarker screening and discovery. This review discusses the capabilities and different strategies to implement ICP-MS in the field of quantitative proteomics.

  3. Determination of technetium-99 in aqueous samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    An isotope dilution/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric method (ID/ICP-MS) for measuring the concentration of technetium-99 in aqueous samples was developed at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The procedure is faster than radiometric techniques, is also less subject to interferences, and has equal or better detection limits. It is currently being used to measure the concentration of {sup 99}Tc in samples of Savannah River water collected in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site. In this method, one liter samples of water are spiked with {sup 97}Tc. After equilibration, the technetium is extracted from the sample with a chromatographic resin. Interfering elements, molybdenum and ruthenium, are either not retained by the resin or are washed off with dilute nitric acid. The technetium is then eluted with more concentrated nitric acid, and the {sup 99}Tc/{sup 97}Tc ratio in the eluant is measured with an ICP-MS. The {sup 99}Tc concentration in the original sample is calculated from the {sup 99}Tc/{sup 97}Tc ratio. The chemical recovery of the extraction procedure is greater than 90%. The detection limit of the instrument, taken as three times the background counts at m/z = 99, is 0.6 part per trillion (ppt). The detection limit of the procedure, taken as three times the standard deviation of several reagent blank analyses, is 0.33 pCi/L.

  4. Determination of technetium-99 in aqueous samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    An isotope dilution/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric method (ID/ICP-MS) for measuring the concentration of technetium-99 in aqueous samples was developed at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The procedure is faster than radiometric techniques, is also less subject to interferences, and has equal or better detection limits. It is currently being used to measure the concentration of {sup 99}Tc in samples of Savannah River water collected in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site. In this method, one liter samples of water are spiked with {sup 97}Tc. After equilibration, the technetium is extracted from the sample with a chromatographic resin. Interfering elements, molybdenum and ruthenium, are either not retained by the resin or are washed off with dilute nitric acid. The technetium is then eluted with more concentrated nitric acid, and the {sup 99}Tc/{sup 97}Tc ratio in the eluant is measured with an ICP-MS. The {sup 99}Tc concentration in the original sample is calculated from the {sup 99}Tc/{sup 97}Tc ratio. The chemical recovery of the extraction procedure is greater than 90%. The detection limit of the instrument, taken as three times the background counts at m/z = 99, is 0.6 part per trillion (ppt). The detection limit of the procedure, taken as three times the standard deviation of several reagent blank analyses, is 0.33 pCi/L.

  5. Using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for calibration transfer between environmental CRMs.

    PubMed

    Turk, G C; Yu, L L; Salit, M L; Guthrie, W F

    2001-06-01

    Multielement analyses of environmental reference materials have been performed using existing certified reference materials (CRMs) as calibration standards for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The analyses have been performed using a high-performance methodology that results in comparison measurement uncertainties that are significantly less than the uncertainties of the certified values of the calibration CRM. Consequently, the determined values have uncertainties that are very nearly equivalent to the uncertainties of the calibration CRM. Several uses of this calibration transfer are proposed, including, re-certification measurements of replacement CRMs, establishing traceability of one CRM to another, and demonstrating the equivalence of two CRMs. RM 8704, a river sediment, was analyzed using SRM 2704, Buffalo River Sediment, as the calibration standard. SRM 1632c, Trace Elements in Bituminous Coal, which is a replacement for SRM 1632b, was analyzed using SRM 1632b as the standard. SRM 1635, Trace Elements in Subbituminous Coal, was also analyzed using SRM 1632b as the standard.

  6. Fundamental and methodological investigations for the improvement of elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass soectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, Christopher Hysjulien

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation describes a variety of studies meant to improve the analytical performance of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS. The emission behavior of individual droplets and LA generated particles in an ICP is studied using a high-speed, high frame rate digital camera. Phenomena are observed during the ablation of silicate glass that would cause elemental fractionation during analysis by ICP-MS. Preliminary work for ICP torch developments specifically tailored for the improvement of LA sample introduction are presented. An abnormal scarcity of metal-argon polyatomic ions (MAr{sup +}) is observed during ICP-MS analysis. Evidence shows that MAr{sup +} ions are dissociated by collisions with background gas in a shockwave near the tip of the skimmer cone. Method development towards the improvement of LA-ICP-MS for environmental monitoring is described. A method is developed to trap small particles in a collodion matrix and analyze each particle individually by LA-ICP-MS.

  7. Dried blood spot analysis by digital microfluidics coupled to nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shih, Steve C C; Yang, Hao; Jebrail, Mais J; Fobel, Ryan; McIntosh, Nathan; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2012-04-17

    Dried blood spot (DBS) samples on filter paper are surging in popularity as a sampling and storage vehicle for a wide range of clinical and pharmaceutical applications. For example, a DBS sample is collected from every baby born in the province of Ontario, Canada, for quantification of approximately one hundred analytes that are used to screen for 28 conditions, including succinylacetone (SA), a marker for hepatorenal tyrosinemia. Unfortunately, the conventional methods used to evaluate DBS samples for newborn screening and other applications are tedious and slow, with limited options for automated analysis. In response to this challenge, we have developed a method to couple digital microfluidics (DMF) to nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nESI-MS) for SA quantification in DBS samples. The new system is formed by sandwiching a pulled glass capillary emitter between the two DMF substrates such that the capillary emitter is immobilized without external seals or gaskets. Moreover, we introduce a new feedback control system that enables high-fidelity droplet manipulation across DBS samples without manual intervention. The system was validated by application to on-chip extraction, derivatization, and analysis of SA and other analytes from DBS samples, with comparable performance to gold-standard methods. We propose that the new methods described here can potentially contribute to a new generation of analytical techniques for quantifying analytes in DBS samples for a wide range of applications.

  8. Impact of plant shoot architecture on leaf cooling: a coupled heat and mass transfer model

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, L. J.; Franklin, K. A.; Homer, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Plants display a range of striking architectural adaptations when grown at elevated temperatures. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, these include elongation of petioles, and increased petiole and leaf angles from the soil surface. The potential physiological significance of these architectural changes remains speculative. We address this issue computationally by formulating a mathematical model and performing numerical simulations, testing the hypothesis that elongated and elevated plant configurations may reflect a leaf-cooling strategy. This sets in place a new basic model of plant water use and interaction with the surrounding air, which couples heat and mass transfer within a plant to water vapour diffusion in the air, using a transpiration term that depends on saturation, temperature and vapour concentration. A two-dimensional, multi-petiole shoot geometry is considered, with added leaf-blade shape detail. Our simulations show that increased petiole length and angle generally result in enhanced transpiration rates and reduced leaf temperatures in well-watered conditions. Furthermore, our computations also reveal plant configurations for which elongation may result in decreased transpiration rate owing to decreased leaf liquid saturation. We offer further qualitative and quantitative insights into the role of architectural parameters as key determinants of leaf-cooling capacity. PMID:23720538

  9. Characterization of microconcentric nebulizer uptake rates for capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2003-05-01

    There is demonstrated interest in combining capillary electrophoresis (CE) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for speciation determinations. When self-aspirating nebulizers are used for this application, it is important to offset the suction effect to avoid degradation of the separation. In this study, sample uptake rates for three microconcentric nebulizers of the same model, in combination with a cyclonic spray chamber, were characterized and compared for future utilization in CE-ICP-MS interfaces. The specific model studied was a MicroMist with a nominal uptake rate of 100 μl/min at 1 l/min argon gas flow rate per the manufacturer's specifications. Sample uptake rates at various nebulizer gas flows were measured by aspirating water from a weighed container and calculating the uptake rate in microliter per minute. The nebulizers studied provided good reproducibility from day to day, but a comparison of the different nebulizers reflected a significant difference in performance. A characteristic observed during the study was that uptake rates decreased with increasing nebulizer gas flow. This can be used for sample introduction for CE-ICP-MS. Interestingly, very different performance was observed when comparing the three different nebulizers of the same model. Uptake rates showed strong dependence on argon gas flow rates and the dimensions of the sample uptake tubing.

  10. Comparison of sample preservation methods for clinical trace element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Joshua A; Hunt, John W; Urry, Francis M; McMillin, Gwen A

    2005-04-01

    The effects of chemical additives and storage temperatures on measurement of 16 trace elements in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were evaluated. A 24-hour urine specimen was supplemented with concentrations of the elements. Aliquots containing 1 of 4 chemical additives were stored at 3 different temperatures in sealed polypropylene containers. Elemental concentrations were determined by ICP-MS for the resulting samples after 1, 2, 8, and 65 days of storage. Initial element concentrations measured within 8 hours of specimen preparation were consistent with expected concentrations (except for aluminum). For most elements, preservation and storage conditions yielded consistent measured concentrations throughout the experiment. Notable exceptions were for aluminum (general rise over time) and mercury (general decrease over time). Adding boric acid and potassium pyrosulfate resulted in sample contamination; elemental contamination was concentration-dependent for both. Although little microbial contamination was observed during the experiment, refrigeration of samples is recommended to curtail bacterial growth in nonsterile specimens. In light of these results, refrigerated urine storage without the use of chemical additives is an effective preservation method for ICP-MS analysis of many trace elements.

  11. Urinary proteomics based on capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Albalat, Amaya; Franke, Julia; Gonzalez, Julien; Mischak, Harald; Zürbig, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Urine is an excellent sample source in the proteomic study of diseases. It is available in large quantities, is relatively stable, is not contaminated by cells or lipids, and has shown to provide information not only on the organs in contact with the urinary tract but also of more remote organs and tissues. In addition to these qualities, it can be collected by untrained personnel. For these reasons, urinary proteomic studies have escalated in recent years with the aim of identifying biomarkers that could be use for diagnosis or to predict the outcome of renal pathologies. In this chapter, we present one of the analytical platforms that has been successfully used in a number of studies for the identification and validation of biomarkers in kidney diseases. This technique is capillary electrophoresis coupled online to an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CE-MS). This technology has proven to be highly reproducible, sensitive with a quick analysis time, important features when analytical platforms have to be used in a clinical setting.

  12. Coupling ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry: constraints and possible applications.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Aller, Marta; Gurny, Robert; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2013-05-31

    The introduction of columns packed with porous sub-2μm particles and the extension of the upper pressure limit of HPLC instrumentation to 1300bar (ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography, UHPLC) has opened new frontiers in resolution and speed of analysis. However, certain constraints appear when coupling UHPLC technology with mass spectrometry (MS). First, the most significant limitation is related to the narrow peaks that are produced by UHPLC that require a fast duty cycle, which is only available on the latest generations of MS devices. Thus, certain analyzers are more readily compatible with UHPLC (e.g., QqQ or TOF/MS) than others (e.g., ion trap or FT-MS). Second, due to the reduction of the column volume, extra-column band broadening can become significant, leading to a reduction in the kinetic performance of the UHPLC-MS configuration. Third, as the mobile phase linear velocity is higher in UHPLC, the electrospray ionization source must also be able to provide high sensitivity at flow rates of up to 1mL/min. Despite these limitations, the UHPLC-MS/MS platform has successfully been employed over the last decade for various types of applications, including those related to bioanalysis, drug metabolism, multi-residue screening, metabolomics, biopharmaceuticals and polar compounds.

  13. Determination of vanadium by reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bednar, A J

    2009-04-30

    Recent advances in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have included the addition of interference reduction technologies, such as collision and reaction cells, to improve its detection capability for certain elements that suffer from polyatomic interferences. The principle behind reaction cell (RC)-ICP-MS is to remove a particular polyatomic interference by dissociation or formation of a different polyatomic species that no longer interferes with the analyte of interest. However, some interferences cannot be removed by commonly reported reaction gases, such as hydrogen, oxygen, or methane, necessitating using more reactive and hazardous gases, such as ammonia. The current study investigates oxygen as a reaction gas in RC-ICP-MS to specifically react with vanadium analyte ions, rather than the interferents, to produce a polyatomic analyte species and thereby provide a way to analyze for vanadium in complex environmental matrices. The technique has been tested on a series of river water, tap water, and synthetic laboratory samples, and shown to be successful in vanadium analyses in high chloride and sulfate matrices. The zinc isobaric interference on the new vanadium oxide analyte at m/z 67 is also investigated, and can be corrected by using a standard mathematical correction equation. The results of this study further increase the utility of RC-ICP-MS analytical techniques for complex environmental matrices.

  14. High Resolution Studies of the Origins of Polyatomic Ions in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Jill Wisnewski

    2006-01-01

    The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is an atmospheric pressure ionization source. Traditionally, the plasma is sampled via a sampler cone. A supersonic jet develops behind the sampler, and this region is pumped down to a pressure of approximately one Torr. A skimmer cone is located inside this zone of silence to transmit ions into the mass spectrometer. The position of the sampler and skimmer cones relative to the initial radiation and normal analytical zones of the plasma is key to optimizing the useful analytical signal [1]. The ICP both atomizes and ionizes the sample. Polyatomic ions form through ion-molecule interactions either in the ICP or during ion extraction [l]. Common polyatomic ions that inhibit analysis include metal oxides (MO+), adducts with argon, the gas most commonly used to make up the plasma, and hydride species. While high resolution devices can separate many analytes from common interferences, this is done at great cost in ion transmission efficiency--a loss of 99% when using high versus low resolution on the same instrument [2]. Simple quadrupole devices, which make up the bulk of ICP-MS instruments in existence, do not present this option. Therefore, if the source of polyatomic interferences can be determined and then manipulated, this could potentially improve the figures of merit on all ICP-MS devices, not just the high resolution devices often utilized to study polyatomic interferences.

  15. Matrix effects during phosphorus determination with quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Miroslav; Goessler, Walter; Mikac, Nevenka; Veber, Marjan

    2005-09-01

    A quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was evaluated for use in the detection of phosphorus. The influences of nitric acid and methanol (simulating the composition of a sample solution after nitric acid digestion) on phosphorus determination were studied using two different measuring methods at different plasma conditions: detection of phosphorus ions at m/z 31 and detection of phosphorus oxide ions at m/z 47. The existence of polyatomic interferences at m/z 31 and 47 was explored. Nitric acid and methanol are shown to be the sources of polyatomic ions and therefore cause poorer detection limits. Better detection limits were achieved in such matrices when phosphorus was detected as 31P+. The presence of methanol improves the system sensitivity towards phosphorus sevenfold; however, this positive effect is hindered by the high background signal due to carbon-based polyatomic ions. For samples with an organic matrix an appropriate mineralization procedure should be applied (high excess of nitric acid and high temperature) to quantitatively oxidize organic compounds to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed from the sample, in order to achieve correct results.

  16. Online deuterium hydrogen exchange and protein digestion coupled with ion mobility spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Gregory C; Arndt, James R; Valentine, Stephen J

    2015-05-19

    Online deuterium hydrogen exchange (DHX) and pepsin digestion (PD) is demonstrated using drift tube ion mobility spectrometry (DTIMS) coupled with linear ion trap (LTQ) mass spectrometry (MS) with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) capabilities. DHX of deuterated ubiquitin, followed by subsequent quenching and digestion, is performed within ∼60 s, yielding 100% peptide sequence coverage. The high reproducibility of the IMS separation allows spectral feature matching between two-dimensional IMS-MS datasets (undeuterated and deuterated) without the need for dataset alignment. Extracted ion drift time distributions (XIDTDs) of deuterated peptic peptides are mobility-matched to corresponding XIDTDs of undeuterated peptic peptides that were identified using collision-induced dissociation (CID). Matching XIDTDs allows a straightforward identification and deuterium retention evaluation for labeled peptides. Aside from the mobility separation, the ion trapping capabilities of the LTQ, combined with ETD, are demonstrated to provide single-residue resolution. Deuterium retention for the c- series ions across residues M(1)-L(15) and N(25)-R(42) are in good agreement with the known secondary structural elements within ubiquitin.

  17. Monitoring Conformational Landscape of Ovine Prion Protein Monomer Using Ion Mobility Coupled to Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Van der Rest, Guillaume; Rezaei, Human; Halgand, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Prion protein is involved in deadly neurodegenerative diseases. Its pathogenicity is linked to its structural conversion (α-helix to β-strand transition). However, recent studies suggest that prion protein can follow a plurality of conversion pathways, which hints towards different conformers that might coexist in solution. To gain insights on the plasticity of the ovine prion protein (PrP) monomer, wild type (A136, R154, Q171), mutants and deletions of ARQ were studied by traveling wave ion mobility experiments coupled to mass spectrometry. In order to perform the analysis of a large body of data sets, we designed and evaluated the performance of a processing pipeline based on Driftscope peak detection and a homemade script for automated peak assignment, annotation, and quantification on specific multiply charged protein data. Using this approach, we showed that in the gas phase, PrPs are represented by at least three conformer families differing in both charge state distribution and collisional cross-section, in agreement with the work of Hilton et al. (2010). We also showed that this plasticity is borne both by the N- and C-terminal domains. Effect of protein concentration, pH and temperature were also assessed, showing that (1) pH does not affect conformer distributions, (2) protein concentration modifies the conformational landscape of one mutant (I208M) only, and (3) heating leads to other unfolded species and to a modification of the conformer intensity ratios. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. Suppression of seizures based on the multi-coupled neural mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuzhen; Ren, Kaili; Su, Fei; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Wang, Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders, which affects approximately 1% of population in the world. In order to effectively control the seizures, we propose a novel control methodology, which combines the feedback linearization control (FLC) with the underlying mechanism of epilepsy, to achieve the suppression of seizures. The three coupled neural mass model is constructed to study the property of the electroencephalographs (EEGs). Meanwhile, with the model we research on the propagation of epileptiform waves and the synchronization of populations, which are taken as the foundation of our control method. Results show that the proposed approach not only yields excellent performances in clamping the pathological spiking patterns to the reference signals derived under the normal state but also achieves the normalization of the pathological parameter, where the parameters are estimated from EEGs with Unscented Kalman Filter. The specific contribution of this paper is to treat the epilepsy from its pathogenesis with the FLC, which provides critical theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of neurological disorders.

  19. Recent advances in capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry for clinical proteomic applications.

    PubMed

    Stalmach, Angelique; Albalat, Amaya; Mullen, William; Mischak, Harald

    2013-06-01

    Proteome analysis using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS) has been used in a number of clinical applications in the past years. The main focus of CE-MS-based studies has been on the investigation of urine, due to the stability of the urinary proteome, ease of collection, and also the low molecular weight range of the urinary proteome, mostly peptides below 30 kDa. The reproducibility of this approach has enabled analysis of over 20 000 samples in a comparable way, giving enormous statistical power to any additional study involving this methodological setup. In this article, we review the major technological issues associated with the application of CE-MS in the routine investigation of the urinary proteome for clinical applications. We pinpoint recent developments that may have a chance to improve on the currently used approach, and highlight obstacles that need to be solved. In the second part of the article, we review the recent clinical applications, aiming to highlight relevant issues, and possible future routine applications in clinical diagnosis. In the end, we provide a short outlook, and indicate future developments to be expected, as well as problems that need to be solved to enable routine application of CE-MS in a clinical setting.

  20. Profiling metals in Cordyceps sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Hu, Hankun; Zheng, Baogeng; Arslan, Zikri; Huang, Hung-Chung; Mao, Weidong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-28

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2.0 ppm. Arsenic level in C. sinensis caterpillar is significantly higher than that in its mycelium and varies from 3.0 to 32 ppm likely due to soil contamination. It's for the first time demonstrated in this work that clustering analysis on the proposed metal profiles consisting of 24 elements is very useful to identify "abnormal" C. sinensis samples, thus adding another dimension to the effective means for authentication and quality assessment of this highly demanded previous natural product.

  1. [Determination of blue ballpoint pen ink by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong; Shen, Min; Luo, Yi-wen; Bo, Jun; Xu, Che; Zhuo, Xian-yi

    2010-10-01

    To establish an identification method for the forensic analysis of blue ballpoint ink by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), 95 kinds of blue ballpoint pen from different manufacturers were detected. These blue ballpoint pens were classified into 34 groups according to their metal element components, among which, 26 groups can be directly distinguished according to the types of metal element components contained in the ballpoint pen, the other groups can be distinguished by different element response ratios. Meanwhile the examination result on the papers showed that the papers have no impact on the ink handwriting analysis. Experimental results showed that the method's reproducibility is good and precision is less than 10%. This method has better identification ability than traditional identification technology for questioned document. Eighty eight kinds of blue ballpoint pen out of the total 95 selected kinds can be distinguished with this method. The established method is simple, rapid, with good precision, and almost has no damage to the sample. It is particularly suitable for the demand of identification of blue ballpoint pen in forensic science.

  2. Determination of cobalamins using capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S. A.; Miller-Ihli, N. J.

    2000-12-01

    The determination of cobalamins using capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) was investigated. Both capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) modes of operation were studied. The optimal separation of four cobalamin species (cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin) and a potentially harmful corrinoid analogue (cobinamide dicyanide) was obtained using CZE at a pH of 2.5. Both 20 mM phosphate and 20 mM formate buffers were used with success, although the formate buffer provided improved resolution. The CZE-ICP-MS method was used to quantify cyanocobalamin in a vitamin supplement and the analytical results were in good agreement (±5%) with values obtained by ICP-MS for total Co levels. The solution detection limits for cobalamins using CZE-ICP-MS were approximately 50 ng/ml. MEKC was found to be useful for the screening of vitamin preparations because it provided a rapid means of distinguishing cyanocobalamin (the form most commonly used in vitamin preparations) from free cobalt. The separation of free cobalt and cyanocobalamin using MEKC was achieved in less than 10 min.

  3. Element fingerprinting of marine organisms by dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cubadda, Francesco; Raggi, Andrea; Coni, Ettore

    2006-02-01

    A method for the determination of sixteen elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, V, Zn) in seafood by dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS) is presented. A preliminary study of polyatomic interferences was carried out in relation to the chemical composition of marine organisms belonging to different taxa. Acid effects and other matrix effects in marine organisms submitted to closed-vessel microwave digestion were investigated as well. Ammonia was the reactive gas used in the DRC to remove polyatomic ions interfering with 27Al, 52Cr, 56Fe and 51V. Optimal conditions for the simultaneous determination of analytes were identified in order to develop a fast multielement method. A suite of real samples (mussels and various fish species) were used during method development along with three certified reference materials: BCR CRM 278R (mussel tissue), BCR CRM 422 (cod muscle) and DORM-2 (dogfish muscle). The proposed analytical approach can be used in conjunction with suitable chemometric procedures to address quality and safety issues in aquaculture and fisheries. As an example, a case study is described in which mussels from three farming sites in the Venice Lagoon were distinguished by multivariate analysis of element fingerprints.

  4. Toward Sensitive and Accurate Analysis of Antibody Biotherapeutics by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    An, Bo; Zhang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Remarkable methodological advances in the past decade have expanded the application of liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of biotherapeutics. Currently, LC/MS represents a promising alternative or supplement to the traditional ligand binding assay (LBA) in the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and toxicokinetic studies of protein drugs, owing to the rapid and cost-effective method development, high specificity and reproducibility, low sample consumption, the capacity of analyzing multiple targets in one analysis, and the fact that a validated method can be readily adapted across various matrices and species. While promising, technical challenges associated with sensitivity, sample preparation, method development, and quantitative accuracy need to be addressed to enable full utilization of LC/MS. This article introduces the rationale and technical challenges of LC/MS techniques in biotherapeutics analysis and summarizes recently developed strategies to alleviate these challenges. Applications of LC/MS techniques on quantification and characterization of antibody biotherapeutics are also discussed. We speculate that despite the highly attractive features of LC/MS, it will not fully replace traditional assays such as LBA in the foreseeable future; instead, the forthcoming trend is likely the conjunction of biochemical techniques with versatile LC/MS approaches to achieve accurate, sensitive, and unbiased characterization of biotherapeutics in highly complex pharmaceutical/biologic matrices. Such combinations will constitute powerful tools to tackle the challenges posed by the rapidly growing needs for biotherapeutics development. PMID:25185260

  5. Determination of plastic additives in packaging by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María-Teresa

    2015-10-02

    A simple and sensitive analytical method for the determination of several plastic additives in multilayer packaging based on solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to variable wavelength (VWD) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detectors is presented. The proposed method allows the simultaneous determination of fourteen additives belonging to different families such as antioxidants, slip agents and light stabilizers, as well as two oxidation products in only 9min. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and intermediate precision. The instrumental method showed satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision at concentrations closed to LOQ with RSDs less than 7 and 20%, respectively, and LODs until 5000 times more sensitive than other GC-FID and HPLC-VWD methods previously reported. Also, focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) was optimized and evaluated to extract plastic additives from packaging. Extraction results obtained by FUSLE and SLE were compared to those obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). All extraction methods showed excellent extraction efficiency for slip agents, however quantitative recovery of all analytes was achieved only by SLE with just 5ml of hexane for 10h. Finally, the selected method was applied to the analysis of packaging samples where erucamide, Irgafos 168, oxidized Irgafos 168, Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010 were detected and quantified.

  6. Monitoring Conformational Landscape of Ovine Prion Protein Monomer Using Ion Mobility Coupled to Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Rest, Guillaume; Rezaei, Human; Halgand, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Prion protein is involved in deadly neurodegenerative diseases. Its pathogenicity is linked to its structural conversion (α-helix to β-strand transition). However, recent studies suggest that prion protein can follow a plurality of conversion pathways, which hints towards different conformers that might coexist in solution. To gain insights on the plasticity of the ovine prion protein (PrP) monomer, wild type (A136, R154, Q171), mutants and deletions of ARQ were studied by traveling wave ion mobility experiments coupled to mass spectrometry. In order to perform the analysis of a large body of data sets, we designed and evaluated the performance of a processing pipeline based on Driftscope peak detection and a homemade script for automated peak assignment, annotation, and quantification on specific multiply charged protein data. Using this approach, we showed that in the gas phase, PrPs are represented by at least three conformer families differing in both charge state distribution and collisional cross-section, in agreement with the work of Hilton et al. (2010). We also showed that this plasticity is borne both by the N- and C-terminal domains. Effect of protein concentration, pH and temperature were also assessed, showing that (1) pH does not affect conformer distributions, (2) protein concentration modifies the conformational landscape of one mutant (I208M) only, and (3) heating leads to other unfolded species and to a modification of the conformer intensity ratios.

  7. Arsenic speciation in soil using high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, D.A.; Yaeger, J.S.; Parish, K.J.; Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Gowdy, M.J.; Mohrman, G.B.; Besmer, M.G.

    1996-08-01

    A method has been developed to identify and quantify As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic compounds in soil samples from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) by high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP/MS). The soils were extracted using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) and sonication. The percentages of As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic species extracted from soil samples were 30, 50, and 100 respectively. The arsenic species were not altered during the extraction process. They were separated by reversed-phase, ion-pairing, HPLC using a microbore Inertsil-ODS{trademark} column. The HPLC column effluent was introduced into an ICP/MS system using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN). Detection limits of less than 1 pg were readily obtained for each arsenic species. Internal standards are recommended to increase accuracy and precision. Soil samples spiked with arsenic oxide, sodium arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), and chlorovinyl arsenious acid (CVAA) were extracted, identified and quantified with the HPLC/ICP/MS system. The soil samples were analyzed in support of the analytical needs of a thermal desorption treatability study being conducted at the RMA.

  8. Thin layer chromatography coupled to paper spray ionization mass spectrometry for cocaine and its adulterants analysis.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, Thays C; Tosato, Flavia; Souza, Lindamara M; Santos, Heloa; Merlo, Bianca B; Ortiz, Rafael S; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Filgueiras, Paulo R; França, Hildegardo S; Augusti, Rodinei; Romão, Wanderson; Vaz, Boniek G

    2016-05-01

    Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a simple and inexpensive type of chromatography that is extensively used in forensic laboratories for drugs of abuse analysis. In this work, TLC is optimized to analyze cocaine and its adulterants (caffeine, benzocaine, lidocaine and phenacetin) in which the sensitivity (visual determination of LOD from 0.5 to 14mgmL(-1)) and the selectivity (from the study of three different eluents: CHCl3:CH3OH:HCOOHglacial (75:20:5v%), (C2H5)2O:CHCl3 (50:50v%) and CH3OH:NH4OH (100:1.5v%)) were evaluated. Aiming to improve these figures of merit, the TLC spots were identified and quantified (linearity with R(2)>0.98) by the paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PS-MS), reaching now lower LOD values (>1.0μgmL(-1)). The method developed in this work open up perspective of enhancing the reliability of traditional and routine TLC analysis employed in the criminal expertise units. Higher sensitivity, selectivity and rapidity can be provided in forensic reports, besides the possibility of quantitative analysis. Due to the great simplicity, the PS(+)-MS technique can also be coupled directly to other separation techniques such as the paper chromatography and can still be used in analyses of LSD blotter, documents and synthetic drugs.

  9. Comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for uranium isotopic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Havrilla, George Joseph; McIntosh, Kathryn Gallagher; Judge, Elizabeth; Dirmyer, Matthew R.; Campbell, Keri; Gonzalez, Jhanis J.

    2016-10-20

    Feasibility tests were conducted using femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for rapid uranium isotopic measurements. The samples used in this study consisted of a range of pg quantities of known 235/238 U solutions as dried spot residues of 300 pL drops on silicon substrates. The samples spanned the following enrichments of 235U: 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3, and 15.1%. In this direct comparison using these particular samples both pulse durations demonstrated near equivalent data can be produced on either system with respect to accuracy and precision. There is no question that either LA-ICP-MS method offers the potential for rapid, accurate and precise isotopic measurements of U10Mo materials whether DU, LEU or HEU. The LA-ICP-MS equipment used for this work is commercially available. The program is in the process of validating this work for large samples using center samples strips from Y-12 MP-1 LEU-Mo Casting #1.

  10. Determination of metals in marine species by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Karl X.; Swami, Kamal

    2007-10-01

    A microwave digestion method suitable for determination of multiple elements in marine species was developed, with the use of cold vapor atomic spectrometry for the detection of Hg, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for all of the other elements. An optimized reagent mixture composed of 2 ml of HNO 3, 2 ml of H 2O 2 and 0.3 ml of HF used in microwave digestion of about 0.15 g (dry weight) of sample was found to give the best overall recoveries of metals in two standard reference materials. In the oyster tissue standard reference material (SRM 1566b), recoveries of Na, Al, K, V, Co, Zn, Se, Sr, Ag, Cd, Ni, and Pb were between 90% and 110%; Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, As, and Ba recoveries were between 85% and 90%; Hg recovery was 81%; and Ca recovery was 64%. In a dogfish certified reference material (DORM-2), the recoveries of Al, Cr, Mn, Se, and Hg were between 90% and 110%; Ni, Cu, Zn, and As recoveries were about 85%; and Fe recovery was 112%. Method detection limits of the elements were established. Metal concentrations in flounder, scup, and blue crab samples collected from coastal locations around Long Island and in the Hudson River estuary were determined.

  11. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: An emerging method for analysis of long-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.R.; Noyce, J.R.; Lardy, M.M.

    1993-12-31

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a relatively new technique that can analyze for most of the elements in the periodic table at parts per billion (ng/mL) to parts per trillion (pg/mL). Already in use several years for trace analysis of stable isotopes, ICP-MS is becoming a powerful, complementary method to the counting of decay radiations for the analysis of radionuclides. Most radionuclides with half-lives longer than approximately 1x10{sup 3} years can be quantitatively detected on ICP-MS instruments that have an electrothermal vaporization unit for the injection of sample aliquants. Radionuclides with half-lives greater than approximately 1x10{sup 4} years can be measured routinely with greater sensitivity and more quickly by ICP-MS than by radiation counting. Examples from the literature of applying ICP-MS to radionuclides are the bioassay of uranium in urine, measurement of {sup 237}Np in soil and silt, and analysis for {sup 99}Tc in sea water, seaweed, and marine sediment. This paper discusses the instrumentation, advantages and limitations, and present and potential applications of ICP-MS for radionuclide measurements.

  12. Fast separation of triterpenoid saponins using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Zhang, Tingting; Zhou, Haibo; Feng, Ying; Fan, Chunlin; Chen, Weijia; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-03-20

    Triterpenoid saponins (TSs) are the most important components of some traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and have exhibited valuable pharmacological properties. In this study, a rapid and efficient method was developed for the separation of kudinosides, stauntosides and ginsenosides using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry (SFC-MS). The separation conditions for the selected TSs were carefully optimized after the initial screening of eight stationary phases. The best compromise for all compounds in terms of chromatographic performance and MS sensitivity was obtained when water (5-10%) and formic acid (0.05%) were added to the supercritical carbon dioxide/MeOH mobile phase. Beside the composition of the mobile phase, the nature of the make-up solvent for interfacing SFC with MS was also evaluated. Compared to reversed phase liquid chromatography, the SFC approach showed higher resolution and shorter running time. The developed SFC-MS methods were successfully applied to the separation and identification of TSs present in Ilex latifolia Thunb., Panax quinquefolius L. and Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. These results suggest that this SFC-MS approach could be employed as a useful tool for the quality assessment of natural products containing TSs as active components.

  13. Determination of sulfonamides in beeswax by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Antczak, Maja

    2015-12-01

    The manuscript presents the development of a new method for the quantification of 16 sulfonamides in beeswax. Different sample preparation techniques were tested and modified to maximise the recovery of the target analytes and minimise the amount of coeluted impurities under conditions that provide reproducible results. The proposed method consisted of melting and dilution of beeswax in a mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol followed by extraction with 2% acetic acid. The extract was cleaned up by solid-phase extraction using strong cation exchange phase. Determination of the sulfonamides was achieved by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with the use of a pentafluorophenyl analytical column and applying a gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.01% acetic acid as mobile phases. The limits of detection and limits of quantification ranged from 1 to 2μg/kg and from 2 to 5μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries varied between 65.2% and 117.8% while coefficient of variation of the method was less than 24.2% under intermediate precision conditions. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of real samples of beeswax from beekeepers and commercial foundations manufacturers.

  14. Depleted uranium analysis in blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todorov, T.I.; Xu, H.; Ejnik, J.W.; Mullick, F.G.; Squibb, K.; McDiarmid, M.A.; Centeno, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report depleted uranium (DU) analysis in whole blood samples. Internal exposure to DU causes increased uranium levels as well as change in the uranium isotopic composition in blood specimen. For identification of DU exposure we used the 235U/238U ratio in blood samples, which ranges from 0.00725 for natural uranium to 0.002 for depleted uranium. Uranium quantification and isotopic composition analysis were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For method validation we used eight spiked blood samples with known uranium concentrations and isotopic composition. The detection limit for quantification was determined to be 4 ng L-1 uranium in whole blood. The data reproduced within 1-5% RSD and an accuracy of 1-4%. In order to achieve a 235U/238U ratio range of 0.00698-0.00752% with 99.7% confidence limit a minimum whole blood uranium concentration of 60 ng L??1 was required. An additional 10 samples from a cohort of veterans exposed to DU in Gulf War I were analyzed with no knowledge of their medical history. The measured 235U/ 238U ratios in the blood samples were used to identify the presence or absence of DU exposure within this patient group. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. ISOTOPE DILUTION ANALYSIS OF BROMATE IN DRINKING WATER MATRIXES BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromate is a disinfection byproduct in drinking water which is formed during the ozonation of source water containing bromide. This paper described the analysis of bromate via ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The separation of bromate from interfer...

  16. Coupled electrochemical and heat/mass transport characteristics in passive direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rong

    This thesis presents both experimental and theoretical investigations of coupled heat/mass transfer and electrochemical characteristics in the passive DMFC. Unlike active fuel cells, which can be operated under stabilized operating conditions, the discharging behavior of the passive DMFC usually varies with time, as the methanol concentration in the fuel reservoir decreases with time. This poses a difficulty in characterizing the performance of the passive DMFC under relatively stable operating conditions. In this work, we found that the performance of the passive DMFC became relatively stable as the cell operating temperature rose to a relatively stable value. This finding indicates that the performance of the passive DMFC can be characterized by collecting polarization data at the instance when the cell operating temperature under the open-circuit condition rises to a relatively stable value. With this proposed standard of passive DMFC performance characterization, the effects of two important parameters, including methanol concentration and cell orientation, on the passive DMFC performance were then investigated. It is found that the cell performance increased with methanol concentration. Unlike previous studies that attributed the improved performance as a result of increasing methanol concentration to the reduced anode mass transport polarization, our experimental results revealed that the improved cell performance was primarily due to the increased cell operating temperature as a result of the increased rate of methanol crossover with high methanol concentration operation. We also found that the performance was sensitive to the cell orientation. The vertical operation always yielded better performance than did the horizontal operation. This can be attributed to the increased operating temperature as a result of a higher rate of methanol crossover, which resulted from the stronger natural convection in the vertical orientation. These parametric studies

  17. Discriminating between Z'-boson effects and effects of anomalous gauge couplings in the double production of W ± bosons at a linear collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Vasili V.; Pankov, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    The potential of the International Linear electron-positron Collider (ILC) for seeking, in the annihilation production of W ±-boson pairs, signals induced by new neutral gauge bosons predicted by models belonging to various classes and featuring an extended gauge sector is studied. Limits that will be obtained at ILC for the parameters and masses of Z' bosons are compared with present-day and future data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The possibility of discriminating between the effects of Z-Z' mixing and signals induced by anomalous gauge couplings (AGC) is demonstrated within theoretically motivated trilinear gauge models involving several free anomalous parameters. It is found that the sensitivity of ILC to the effects of Z-Z' mixing in the process e + e - → W + W - and its ability to discriminate between these two new-physics scenarios, Z' and AGC, become substantially higher upon employing polarized initial ( e + e -) and final ( W ±) states.

  18. Multi-elemental analysis of aqueous geochemical samples by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Adams, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Typically, quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to determine as many as 57 major, minor, and trace elements in aqueous geochemical samples, including natural surface water and groundwater, acid mine drainage water, and extracts or leachates from geological samples. The sample solution is aspirated into the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) which is an electrodeless discharge of ionized argon gas at a temperature of approximately 6,000 degrees Celsius. The elements in the sample solution are subsequently volatilized, atomized, and ionized by the ICP. The ions generated are then focused and introduced into a quadrupole mass filter which only allows one mass to reach the detector at a given moment in time. As the settings of the mass analyzer change, subsequent masses are allowed to impact the detector. Although the typical quadrupole ICP-MS system is a sequential scanning instrument (determining each mass separately), the scan speed of modern instruments is on the order of several thousand masses per second. Consequently, typical total sample analysis times of 2–3 minutes are readily achievable for up to 57 elements.

  19. Progress toward a search for anomalous spin-mass couplings with a dual-isotope rubidium magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Julian; Lacey, Ian; Peregrinaramirez, Rodrigo; Delcheva, Delyana; Jacome, L. R.; Kimball, Derek

    2010-10-01

    A coupling between spin and mass can arise from new spin-0 or spin-1 force-mediating particles or in non-standard gravity with scalar or vector components in addition to the usual tensor interaction. We report on progress toward a search for anomalous couplings between the mass of the earth and Rb spins. In the experiment, a natural isotopic mixture of Rb atoms is contained in an antirelaxation-coated cell. The atomic spins are polarized via laser optical pumping and spin precession is measured in both isotopes using optical rotation. The experiment is particularly sensitive to spin-mass interactions of the proton. We discuss the sensitivity of our experimental scheme and strategies for control of several important systematic effects such as differential light shifts, collisional frequency shifts, and frequency shifts due to the rotation of the earth.

  20. Liquid sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and mass spectrometry - Critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bings, N. H.; Orlandini von Niessen, J. O.; Schaper, J. N.

    2014-10-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can be considered as the most important tools in inorganic analytical chemistry. Huge progress has been made since the first analytical applications of the ICP. More stable RF generators, improved spectrometers and detection systems were designed along with the achievements gained from advanced microelectronics, leading to overall greatly improved analytical performance of such instruments. In contrast, for the vast majority of cases liquid sample introduction is still based on the pneumatic principle as described in the late 19th century. High flow pneumatic nebulizers typically demand the use of spray chambers as “aerosol filters” in order to match the prerequisites of an ICP. By this, only a small fraction of the nebulized sample actually contributes to the measured signal. Hence, the development of micronebulizers was brought forward. Those systems produce fine aerosols at low sample uptake rates, but they are even more prone for blocking or clogging than conventional systems in the case of solutions containing a significant amount of total dissolved solids (TDS). Despite the high number of publications devoted to liquid sample introduction, it is still considered the Achilles' heel of atomic spectrometry and it is well accepted, that the technology used for liquid sample introduction is still far from ideal, even when applying state-of-the-art systems. Therefore, this review is devoted to offer an update on developments in the field liquid sample introduction that had been reported until the year 2013. The most recent and noteworthy contributions to this field are discussed, trends are highlighted and future directions are outlined. The first part of this review provides a brief overview on theoretical considerations regarding conventional pneumatic nebulization, the fundamentals on aerosol generation and discusses characteristics of aerosols ideally suited

  1. Ultracentrifugation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for metal-protein equilibrium studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Holcombe, James A.

    2012-10-01

    The coupling of separation by preparative ultracentrifugation and metal detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been explored for metal-protein equilibrium determinations. This study characterizes the stoichiometry as well as apparent (Kapp) and intrinsic (Kint) binding affinities of the metal-protein association for a model protein. In particular, the affinity of Cu2 + for the high affinity binding site in bovine serum albumin (BSA) is determined. Once equilibrium is established between Cu2 + and BSA, preparative ultracentrifugation moves the metalloprotein away from the meniscus, leaving unbound equilibrium copper in the protein free solution. Since the initial (total) concentrations of purified BSA and Cu2 + can be determined, the free copper concentration at equilibrium can also be determined by taking a small aliquot above the sedimenting boundary for analysis using ICP-MS. This analysis allows for the determination of free Cu2 + ion, which is identical to the equilibrium concentration prior to ultracentrifugation. From these data Kapp and Kint were determined at two different conditions, 100 mM Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) at pH 9.53 and pH 7.93. log Kapp values of 17.6 and 14.6 were determined at pH 9.53 and pH 7.93, respectively. Furthermore, pH-independent log Kint values of - 1.43 and - 1.04 were determined at pH 9.53 and 7.93, respectively. While the log Kint at pH 9.53 was in good agreement with literature values obtained from alternative methods, Kint at pH 7.93 was about 2.5 × larger than previously reported. BSA undergoes a structural rearrangement between pH 7-9, and the generally accepted pH-dependency of protein tertiary structure may be responsible for the variations in the "intrinsic" binding constant. The Cu-BSA binding affinity was also monitored in 100 mM Tris 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution at pH 7.93 in order to determine the effect of a denaturant on metal binding. Results for both log

  2. Computation with Inverse States in a Finite Field FP: The Muon Neutrino Mass, the Unified Strong-Electroweak Coupling Constant, and the Higgs Mass

    SciTech Connect

    DAI,YANG; BORISOV,ALEXEY B.; BOYER,KEITH; RHODES,CHARLES K.

    2000-08-11

    The construction of inverse states in a finite field F{sub P{sub {alpha}}} enables the organization of the mass scale with fundamental octets in an eight-dimensional index space that identifies particle states with residue class designations. Conformance with both CPT invariance and the concept of supersymmetry follows as a direct consequence of this formulation. Based on two parameters (P{sub {alpha}} and g{sub {alpha}}) that are anchored on a concordance of physical data, this treatment leads to (1) a prospective mass for the muon neutrino of {approximately}27.68 meV, (2) a value of the unified strong-electroweak coupling constant {alpha}* = (34.26){sup {minus}1} that is physically defined by the ratio of the electron neutrino and muon neutrino masses, and (3) a see-saw congruence connecting the Higgs, the electron neutrino, and the muon neutrino masses. Specific evaluation of the masses of the corresponding supersymmetric Higgs pair reveals that both particles are superheavy (> 10{sup 18}GeV). No renormalization of the Higgs masses is introduced, since the calculational procedure yielding their magnitudes is intrinsically divergence-free. Further, the Higgs fulfills its conjectured role through the see-saw relation as the particle defining the origin of all particle masses, since the electron and muon neutrino systems, together with their supersymmetric partners, are the generators of the mass scale and establish the corresponding index space. Finally, since the computation of the Higgs masses is entirely determined by the modulus of the field P{sub {alpha}}, which is fully defined by the large-scale parameters of the universe through the value of the universal gravitational constant G and the requirement for perfect flatness ({Omega} = 1.0), the see-saw congruence fuses the concepts of mass and space and creates a new unified archetype.

  3. Investigation of a measure of robustness in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makonnen, Yoseif; Beauchemin, Diane

    2015-01-01

    In industrial/commercial settings where operators often have minimal expertise in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS), there is a prevalent need for a response factor indicating robust plasma conditions, which is analogous to the Mg II/Mg I ratio in ICP optical emission spectrometry (OES), whereby a Mg II/Mg I ratio of 10 constitutes robust conditions. While minimizing the oxide ratio usually corresponds to robust conditions, there is no specific target value that is widely accepted as indicating robust conditions. Furthermore, tuning for low oxide ratios does not necessarily guarantee minimal matrix effects, as they really address polyatomic interferences. From experiments, conducted in parallel for both MS and OES, there were some element pairs of similar mass and very different ionization potential that were exploited for such a purpose, the rationale being that, if these elements were ionized to the same extent, then that could be indicative of a robust plasma. The Be II/Li I intensity ratio was directly related to the Mg II/Mg I ratio in OES. Moreover, the 9Be+/7Li+ ratio was inversely related to the CeO+/Ce+ and LaO+/La+ oxide ratios in MS. The effects of different matrices (i.e. 0.01-0.1 M Na) were also investigated and compared to a conventional argon plasma optimized for maximum sensitivity. The suppression effect of these matrices was significantly reduced, if not eliminated in the case of 0.01 M Na, when the 9Be+/7Li+ ratio was around 0.30 on the Varian 820 MS instrument. Moreover, a very similar ratio (0.28) increased robustness to the same extent on a completely different ICP-MS instrument (PerkinElmer NEXION). Much greater robustness was achieved using a mixed-gas plasma with nitrogen in the outer gas and either nitrogen or hydrogen as a sheathing gas, as the 9Be+/7Li+ ratio was then around 1.70. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on using a simple analyte intensity ratio, 9Be+/7Li+, to gauge plasma robustness.

  4. {sup 99}Tc bioassay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.A.

    1998-05-01

    A means of analyzing {sup 99}Tc in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed. Historically, {sup 99}Tc analysis was based on the radiometric detection of the 293 keV E{sub Max} beta decay product by liquid scintillation or gas flow proportional counting. In a urine matrix, the analysis of{sup 99}Tc is plagued with many difficulties using conventional radiometric methods. Difficulties originate during chemical separation due to the volatile nature of Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} or during radiation detection due to color or chemical quenching. A separation scheme for {sup 99}Tc detection by ICP-MS is given and is proven to be a sensitive and robust analytical alternative. A comparison of methods using radiometric and mass quantitation of {sup 99}Tc has been conducted in water, artificial urine, and real urine matrices at activity levels between 700 and 2,200 dpm/L. Liquid scintillation results based on an external standard quench correction and a quench curve correction method are compared to results obtained by ICP-MS. Each method produced accurate results, however the precision of the ICP-MS results is superior to that of liquid scintillation results. Limits of detection (LOD) for ICP-MS and liquid scintillation detection are 14.67 and 203.4 dpm/L, respectively, in a real urine matrix. In order to determine the basis for the increased precision of the ICP-MS results, the detection sensitivity for each method is derived and measured. The detection sensitivity for the {sup 99}Tc isotope by ICP-MS is 2.175 x 10{sup {minus}7} {+-} 8.990 x 10{sup {minus}9} and by liquid scintillation is 7.434 x 10{sup {minus}14} {+-} 7.461 x 10{sup {minus}15}. A difference by seven orders of magnitude between the two detection systems allows ICP-MS samples to be analyzed for a period of 15 s compared to 3,600 s by liquid scintillation counting with a lower LOD.

  5. Identification of organically associated trace elements in wood and coal by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Richaud, R; Lazaro, M J; Lachas, H; Miller, B B; Herod, A A; Dugwell, D R; Kandiyoti, R

    2000-01-01

    1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was used to extract samples of wood (forest residue) and coal; the extracts were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using two different sample preparation methods, in order to identify trace elements associated with the organic part of the samples. A sample of fly ash was similarly extracted and analysed in order to assess the behaviour of the mineral matter contained within the wood and coal samples. 32% of the biomass was extracted at the higher temperature and 12% at room temperature while only 12% of the coal was extracted at the higher temperature and 3% at room temperature. Less than 2% of the ash dissolved at the higher temperature. Size exclusion chromatograms of the extracts indicated the presence of significant amounts of large molecular mass materials (>1000 mu) in the biomass and coal extracts but not in the ash extract. Trace element analyses were carried out using ICP-MS on the acid digests prepared by 'wet ashing' and microwave extraction. Sixteen elements (As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn) were quantified, in the samples before extraction, in the extracts and in the residues. Concentrations of trace elements in the original biomass sample were lower than in the coal sample while the concentrations in the ash sample were the highest. The major trace elements in the NMP extracts were Ba, Cu, Mn and Zn from the forest residue; Ba, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from the coal; Cu and Zn from the ash. These elements are believed to be associated with the organic extracts from the forest residue and coal, and also from the ash. Be and Sb were not quantified in the extracts because they were present at too low concentrations; up to 40% of Mn was extracted from the biomass sample at 202 degrees C, while Se was totally extracted from the ash sample. For the forest residue, approximately 7% (at room temperature) and 45% (at 202 degrees C) of the total trace elements studied were

  6. Documenting utility of paddlefish otoliths for quantification of metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Schaffler, James J.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE The otoliths of the inner ear of fishes record the environment of their surrounding water throughout their life. For paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), otoliths have not been routinely used by scientists since their detriments were outlined in the early 1940s. We sought to determine if paddlefish otoliths were useful for resolving elemental information contained within. METHODS Adult paddlefish were collected from two wild, self-sustaining populations in Oklahoma reservoirs in the Arkansas River basin. Juveniles were obtained from a hatchery in the Red River basin of Oklahoma. Otoliths were removed and laser ablation, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to quantify eight elements (Li, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sr, Y, Ba, and Pb) along the core and edge portions, which were analyzed for differences between otolith regions and among paddlefish sources. RESULTS Differences were found among samples for six of the eight elements examined. Otoliths from Red River basin paddlefish born in a hatchery had significantly lower amounts of Mg and Mn, but higher levels of Rb than otoliths from wild paddlefish in the Arkansas River basin. Concentrations of Y, Sr, and Ba were reduced on the edges of adult paddlefish from both reservoirs compared with the cores. CONCLUSIONS This research shows the utility of using an ICP-MS analysis of paddlefish otoliths. Future research that seeks to determine sources of paddlefish production, such as which reservoir tributaries are most important for reproduction or what proportion of the population is composed of wild versus hatchery-produced individuals, appears promising. Published in 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Multielemental analyses of environmental and geological samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xiaowen.

    1993-01-01

    The technique of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been applied to determine trace elements in environmental (drinking water and tree rings) and geological (soil) samples. Most of this monograph is focused on analysis in these samples of rare-earth elements and lead, which have lower detection limits in ICP-MS than in other analytical techniques. A brief history of ICP-MS and discussions of fundamental principles of the instrument, interferences of the method, and common analytical protocols are provided. The application of the technique to four projects is described: (1) Quantitative analysis of rare-earth elements in individual tree rings of fire-scarred trees was performed. The result showed that the concentrations of La, Pr, and Nd are highest in the ring corresponding to the fire year. (2) Lead pollution in drinking water from New York City was investigated by measuring lead concentration and the isotope ratio of [sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb in drinking water samples and in the suspected polluting sources. It was found that lead in drinking water mainly comes from lead pipe and plumbing materials containing high concentrations of lead. In addition, optimization of the operating parameters and enhancement of lead signal were also discussed in the chapter. (3) Lead concentration in soil and in annual-growth rings of trees from streets in Brookyln, New York were analyzed. The change of lead concentration in the rings from 1952 to 1991 correlates with the consumption of lead in gasoline in the United States during the same period. The study showed that tree rings can be used as an indirect historical indicator of environmental changes during the tree's lifetime. (4) Rare-earth-element ratios in archaeological tree samples were measured to determine the original locations of the samples. In Appendix I, application of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to analysis of wood samples is briefly discussed.

  8. Photochemical vapor generation of lead for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Hualing; Zhang, Ningning; Gong, Zhenbin; Li, Weifeng; Hang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Photochemical vapor generation (PCVG) of lead was successfully achieved with a simplified and convenient system, in which only low molecular weight organic acid and a high-efficiency photochemical reactor were needed. The reactor was used to generate lead volatile species when a solution of lead containing a small amount of low molecular weight organic acid was pumped through. Several factors, including the concentration of acetic acid, the concentration of hydrochloride acid, and the irradiation time of UV light were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, including the addition of 0.90% (v/v) acetic acid and 0.03% (v/v) hydrochloride acid, and irradiation time of 28 s, intense and repeatable signal of lead volatile species was successfully obtained and identified with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). In addition, the effects from inorganic anions and transition metal ions, including Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -, Cu2 +, Fe3 +, Co2 + and Ni2 +, were investigated, which suggests that their suppression to the PCVG of lead was in the order of Cl- < SO42 - < NO3- for anions and Ni2 +, Co2 + < Fe3 + < Cu2 + for transition metal ions. Under optimized conditions, relative standard derivation (RSD) of 4.4% was achieved from replicate measurements (n = 5) of a standard solution of 0.1 μg L- 1 lead. And, the limit of quantitation (LOQ, 10σ) of 0.012 μg L- 1 lead was obtained using this method and the method blank could be easily controlled down to 0.023 μg L- 1. To validate applicability of this method, it was also employed for the determination of lead in tap water, rain water and lake water.

  9. Association of body mass index with some fertility markers among male partners of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Hajshafiha, Masoumeh; Ghareaghaji, Rasul; Salemi, Sedigheh; Sadegh-Asadi, Nahid; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2013-01-01

    Background The available evidence on the role of obesity and body mass index (BMI) on male infertility has been controversial or inconclusive to some extent. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BMI on some male-fertility laboratory indicators both among infertile and fertile men in an Iranian population. Methods and materials A total of 159 male patients who had lived as a partner in an infertile couple for at least 1 year, after regular reproductive activity in their married life, and who sought infertility consultation, were investigated. BMI was assessed, and a morning blood sample was taken assessing serum levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol. Semen-analysis parameters were also measured. Results In this study, it was found that the likelihood of oligospermia was increased at higher BMI values. Obese men were found to be 3.5 times more likely to have oligospermia than those with normal BMI. BMI was not found to be associated with mean numeric values of the semen-analysis parameters, including sperm count, sperm morphology, and sperm motility. BMI was not significantly correlated with some hormone levels, such as LH, prolactin, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio. However, a statistically significant association was observed between BMI and estradiol (P < 0.01), sex hormone-binding globulin (P < 0.001), and also the testosterone/estradiol ratio (P < 0.001). A different pattern of associations in this study was observed when the associations between BMI and sexual hormone levels were compared between fertile and subfertile/infertile men. Conclusion The association explored between BMI and some sexual hormones and semen characteristics, as well as different patterns of this association between fertile and subfertile/infertile men, will be of help to broaden our understanding of the effect of obesity on some male reproductive

  10. Detecting nanoparticulate silver using single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mitrano, Denise M; Lesher, Emily K; Bednar, Anthony; Monserud, Jon; Higgins, Christopher P; Ranville, James F

    2012-01-01

    The environmental prevalence of engineered nanomaterials, particularly nanoparticulate silver (AgNP), is expected to increase substantially. The ubiquitous use of commercial products containing AgNP may result in their release to the environment, and the potential for ecological effects is unknown. Detecting engineered nanomaterials is one of the greatest challenges in quantifying their risks. Thus, it is imperative to develop techniques capable of measuring and characterizing exposures, while dealing with the innate difficulties of nanomaterial detection in environmental samples, such as low-engineered nanomaterial concentrations, aggregation, and complex matrices. Here the authors demonstrate the use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, operated in a single-particle counting mode (SP-ICP-MS), to detect and quantify AgNP. In the present study, two AgNP products were measured by SP-ICP-MS, including one of precisely manufactured size and shape, as well as a commercial AgNP-containing health food product. Serial dilutions, filtration, and acidification were applied to confirm that the method detected particles. Differentiation of dissolved and particulate silver (Ag) is a feature of the technique. Analysis of two wastewater samples demonstrated the applicability of SP-ICP-MS at nanograms per liter Ag concentrations. In this pilot study, AgNP was found at 100 to 200 ng/L in the presence of 50 to 500 ng/L dissolved Ag. The method provides the analytical capability to monitor Ag and other metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in fate, transport, stability, and toxicity studies using a commonly available laboratory instrument. Rapid throughput and element specificity are additional benefits of SP-ICP-MS as a measurement tool for metal and metal oxide engineered nanoparticles.

  11. Acquisition of a High-resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer for Cosmochemical and Geochemical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    The primary goal of our research in this program is to develop new techniques for the analysis of volatile trace elements in very small samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in preparation for samples returned by the Stardust mission. The instrument that will serve as the basis of our experiments is the ELEMENT2 high-resolution ICP-MS. We have spent the past year designing the laboratory to house this instrument as well as space to store and prepare samples returned by the Stardust mission. Unfortunately, the location that we had initially selected for the instrument turned out to be insufficient for our needs. This was determined almost eight months into the first year of our funding cycle, after extensive work including the production of engineering drawings. However, during this time the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory was selected to lead Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission. As a result of this award LPL purchased a new, 50,000 square foot building. We have acquired 1400 square feet of laboratory space in this new facility. Four-hundred square feet will be used for a class-100 clean room. This area is designated for storage and preparation of extraterrestrial materials. The additional 1000 square feet will house the ELEMENT2 ICP-MS and peripheral devices. This is an enormous amount of space for this instrument, but it provides plenty of room for expansion in the future. The ICP-MS and the clean room facilities have been purchased. The instrument has been delivered. The startup time for this instrument is relatively short and we expect to be collecting our first data by mid-summer.

  12. The effect of pre-evaporation on ion distributions in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shulan; Beauchemin, Diane

    2006-02-01

    The connecting tube (2 or 5-mm i. d., 11-cm long) between the spray chamber and the torch was heated (to 400 °C) to investigate the effect of pre-evaporation on the distribution of ions in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Axial and radial profiles of analyte ions (Al +, V +, Cr +, Ni +, Zn +, Mn +, Zn +, As +, Se +, Mo +, Cd +, Sb +, La +, Pb +) in 1% HNO 3 as well as some polyatomic ions (LaO +, ArO +, ArN +, CO 2+) were simultaneously obtained on a time-of-flight ICP-MS instrument. Upon heating the connecting tube, the optimal axial position of all elements shifted closer to the load coil. Without the heated tube, 3.5 mm was the compromise axial position for multielemental analysis, which was optimal for 6 analytes. With the heated tube, this position became 1.5 mm, which was then optimal for 9 of the 14 analytes. Furthermore, the radial profiles, which were wide with a plateau in their middle without heating, became significantly narrower and Gaussian-like with a heated tube. This narrowing, which was most important for the 5-mm tube, slightly (by a factor of two at the most) yet significantly (at the 95% confidence level) improved the sensitivity of all elements but Mn upon optimisation of the axial position for compromise multi-element analysis. Furthermore, a concurrent decrease in the standard deviation of the blank was significant at the 95% confidence level for 9 of the 14 analytes. For most of the analytes, this translated into a two-fold to up to an order of magnitude improvement in detection limit, which is commensurate with a reduction of noise resulting from the smaller droplets entering the plasma after traversing the pre-evaporation tube.

  13. Generalization of Ryan's theorem: Probing tidal coupling with gravitational waves from nearly circular, nearly equatorial, extreme-mass-ratio inspirals

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chao; Lovelace, Geoffrey

    2008-03-15

    Extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) and intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals (IMRIs) - binaries in which a stellar-mass object spirals into a massive black hole or other massive, compact body - are important sources of gravitational waves for LISA and LIGO, respectively. Thorne has speculated that the waves from EMRIs and IMRIs encode, in principle, all the details of (i) the central body's spacetime geometry (metric), (ii) the tidal coupling (energy and angular momentum exchange) between the central body and orbiting object, and (iii) the evolving orbital elements. Fintan Ryan has given a first partial proof that this speculation is correct: Restricting himself to nearly circular, nearly equatorial orbits and ignoring tidal coupling, Ryan proved that the central body's metric is encoded in the waves. In this paper we generalize Ryan's theorem. Retaining Ryan's restriction to nearly circular and nearly equatorial orbits, and dropping the assumption of no tidal coupling, we prove that Thorne's conjecture is nearly fully correct: the waves encode not only the central body's metric but also the evolving orbital elements and (in a sense slightly different from Thorne's conjecture) the evolving tidal coupling.

  14. Multi-cavity coupling acoustic metamaterials with low-frequency broad band gaps based on negative mass density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chuanhui; Wu, Jiu Hui; Cao, Songhua; Jing, Li

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies a novel kind of low-frequency broadband acoustic metamaterials with small size based on the mechanisms of negative mass density and multi-cavity coupling. The structure consists of a closed resonant cavity and an open resonant cavity, which can be equivalent to a homogeneous medium with effective negative mass density in a certain frequency range by using the parameter inversion method. The negative mass density makes the anti-resonance area increased, which results in broadened band gaps greatly. Owing to the multi-cavity coupling mechanism, the local resonances of the lower frequency mainly occur in the closed cavity, while the local resonances of the higher frequency mainly in the open cavity. Upon the interaction between the negative mass density and the multi-cavity coupling, there exists two broad band gaps in the range of 0-1800 Hz, i.e. the first-order band gap from 195 Hz to 660 Hz with the bandwidth of 465 Hz and the second-order band gap from 1157 Hz to 1663 Hz with the bandwidth of 506 Hz. The acoustic metamaterials with small size presented in this paper could provide a new approach to reduce the low-frequency broadband noises.

  15. Comparative analysis of ancient ceramics by neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Tsolakidou, Alexandra; Kilikoglou, Vassilis

    2002-10-01

    The accurate measurement of the maximum possible number of elements in ancient ceramic samples is the main requirement in provenance studies. For this reason neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) have been successfully used for most of the studies. In this work the analytical performance of inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been compared with that of XRF and NAA for the chemical characterization of archaeological pottery. Correlation coefficients between ICP techniques and XRF or NAA data were generally better than 0.90. The reproducibility of data calculated on a sample prepared and analysed independently ten times was approximately 5% for most of the elements. Results from the ICP techniques were finally evaluated for their capacity to identify the same compositional pottery groups as results from XRF and NAA analysis, by use of multivariate statistics.

  16. A measurement of the W+W- production cross-section in pp collisions at center of mass energy =1.96 TeV in the dilepton channel and limits on anomalous WWZ/gamma couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGivern, Dustin

    Measurements of the production cross section of W+W7- pairs in pp collisions at 1.96 TeV and limits on trilinear gauge boson coupling (TGC) parameters are presented. The data were recorded with the CDF experiment at Tevatron during the 2001 and 2002 data taking periods in which a total integrated luminosity of 184 pb-1 was collected. The data sample was filtered for events with two leptonic W boson decays where the charged leptons can be either electrons or muons. 17 events are ob served against an expected background of 5.01q 8 events. The resulting cross- section is found to be a(pp -> W+W ) = 14.5l5 (stat)lJ g(syst) 0.9(lum) pb and agrees well with the Standard Model expectation. Limits on the TGC parameters Aac and A are set under both the equal coupling scheme, that assumes the W boson couples identically to the Z and 7, and the HISZ coupling scheme, that requires the couplings to respect SU(2)L x U(l)y gauge symmetry. In both cases this is achieved by using a likelihood fit to the lepton-PT distribution of the 17 candidate events. The resulting limits are found to be: -0.4 < Aac < +0.6 (A = 0) - 0.3 < A < +0.4 (An = 0) for the EQUAL couplings and -0.7 < Ak < +0.9 (A = 0) - 0.4 < A < +0.4 (An = 0) for the HISZ couplings.

  17. Characterization of the chemical constituents in Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang by liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Chen, Pinghong; Xu, Yimin; Li, Xiaodong; Fan, Xiaohui

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents in Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang, a traditional Chinese formula, were studied by liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry for the first time. Among the 146 compounds detected in Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang, 104 compounds were identified unambiguously or tentatively based on their accurate molecular weight and multistage MS data, including one potential novel compound and two reported in Glycyrrhiza genus for the first time. The possible fragmentation pathways were proposed and fragmentation rules of the major types of compounds were concluded. This study provided an example to facilitate the tedious identification of chemical composition in traditional Chinese medicine, and maybe a promising reference approach to research the analogous formulae.

  18. Universally coupled massive gravity, III: dRGT-Maheshwari pure spin-2, Ogievetsky-Polubarinov and arbitrary mass terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, J. Brian

    2016-02-01

    Einstein's equations were derived for a free massless spin-2 field using universal coupling in the 1950-1970s by various authors; total stress-energy including gravity's served as a source for linear free field equations. A massive variant was likewise derived in the late 1960s by Freund, Maheshwari and Schonberg, and thought to be unique. How broad is universal coupling? In the last decade four 1-parameter families of massive spin-2 theories (contravariant, covariant, tetrad, and cotetrad of almost any density weights) have been derived using universal coupling. The (co)tetrad derivations included 2 of the 3 pure spin-2 theories due to de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley; those two theories first appeared in the 2-parameter Ogievetsky-Polubarinov family (1965), which developed the symmetric square root of the metric as a nonlinear group realization. One of the two theories was identified as pure spin-2 by Maheshwari in 1971-1972, thus evading the Boulware-Deser-Tyutin-Fradkin ghost by the time it was announced. Unlike the previous 4 families, this paper permits nonlinear field redefinitions to build the effective metric. By not insisting in advance on knowing the observable significance of the graviton potential to all orders, one finds that an arbitrary graviton mass term can be derived using universal coupling. The arbitrariness of a universally coupled mass/self-interaction term contrasts sharply with the uniqueness of the Einstein kinetic term. One might have hoped to use universal coupling as a tie-breaking criterion for choosing among theories that are equally satisfactory on more crucial grounds (such as lacking ghosts and having a smooth massless limit). But the ubiquity of universal coupling implies that the criterion does not favor any particular theories among those with the Einstein kinetic term.

  19. Universally coupled massive gravity, III: dRGT–Maheshwari pure spin-2, Ogievetsky–Polubarinov and arbitrary mass terms

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J. Brian

    2016-02-15

    Einstein’s equations were derived for a free massless spin-2 field using universal coupling in the 1950–1970s by various authors; total stress–energy including gravity’s served as a source for linear free field equations. A massive variant was likewise derived in the late 1960s by Freund, Maheshwari and Schonberg, and thought to be unique. How broad is universal coupling? In the last decade four 1-parameter families of massive spin-2 theories (contravariant, covariant, tetrad, and cotetrad of almost any density weights) have been derived using universal coupling. The (co)tetrad derivations included 2 of the 3 pure spin-2 theories due to de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley; those two theories first appeared in the 2-parameter Ogievetsky–Polubarinov family (1965), which developed the symmetric square root of the metric as a nonlinear group realization. One of the two theories was identified as pure spin-2 by Maheshwari in 1971–1972, thus evading the Boulware–Deser–Tyutin–Fradkin ghost by the time it was announced. Unlike the previous 4 families, this paper permits nonlinear field redefinitions to build the effective metric. By not insisting in advance on knowing the observable significance of the graviton potential to all orders, one finds that an arbitrary graviton mass term can be derived using universal coupling. The arbitrariness of a universally coupled mass/self-interaction term contrasts sharply with the uniqueness of the Einstein kinetic term. One might have hoped to use universal coupling as a tie-breaking criterion for choosing among theories that are equally satisfactory on more crucial grounds (such as lacking ghosts and having a smooth massless limit). But the ubiquity of universal coupling implies that the criterion does not favor any particular theories among those with the Einstein kinetic term.

  20. Advances in the helium-jet coupled on-line mass separator RAMA. [Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Moltz, D M; Aysto, J; Cable, M D; Parry, R F; Haustein, P E; Wouters, J M; Cerny, J

    1980-01-01

    General improvements to the on-line mass separator RAMA (Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer) have yielded a greater reliability and efficiency for some elements. A new utilitarian helium-jet chamber has been installed to facilitate quick target and degrader foil changes in addition to a new ion source holder. A higher efficiency hollow-cathode, cathode-extraction ion source, for lower melting point elements (< 1200/sup 0/C) has also been designed. Tests with the beta-delayed proton emitter /sup 37/Ca showed a factor of five increase in yield over the old hollow-cathode, anode-extraction source. A differentially-pumped-tape drive system compatible with both ..gamma..-..gamma.. and ..beta..-..gamma.. experiments has been incorporated into the general detection system. All major operating parameters will soon be monitored by a complete stand-alone microprocessor system which will eventually be upgraded to a closed-loop control system.

  1. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vacri, M. L. di; Nisi, S.; Balata, M.

    2013-08-08

    The measurement of naturally occurring low level radioactivity background in a high voltage (HV) cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP MS) is presented in this work. The measurements were performed at the Chemistry Service of the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The contributions to the radioactive background coming from the different components of the heterogeneous material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy analysis that was performed at the low background facility STELLA (Sub Terranean Low Level Assay) of the LNGS underground lab using HPGe detectors.

  2. Precision Mass Sensing by Tunable Double Optomechanically Induced Transparency with Squeezed Field in a Coupled Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiong; Li, Wen-Juan

    2017-04-01

    We present a scheme for all-optical precision mass sensing with squeezed field in a system consisting of an optomechanical cavity coupled to a charged nanomechanical resonator (NAMR) in terms of tunable double optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) . We demonstrate that the accreted mass landing on NAMR can be achieved by measuring the splitting of the two transparency windows of the double OMIT. Moreover, our work shows this scheme for the quantized fields can be robust against temperature and cavity decay in somehow. Specifically, the precision measurement is from the noise spectrum, for these reasons, our scheme may provide a new paradigm for precision measurement based on the noise in the optomechanical system.

  3. Precision Mass Sensing by Tunable Double Optomechanically Induced Transparency with Squeezed Field in a Coupled Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiong; Li, Wen-Juan

    2017-01-01

    We present a scheme for all-optical precision mass sensing with squeezed field in a system consisting of an optomechanical cavity coupled to a charged nanomechanical resonator (NAMR) in terms of tunable double optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) . We demonstrate that the accreted mass landing on NAMR can be achieved by measuring the splitting of the two transparency windows of the double OMIT. Moreover, our work shows this scheme for the quantized fields can be robust against temperature and cavity decay in somehow. Specifically, the precision measurement is from the noise spectrum, for these reasons, our scheme may provide a new paradigm for precision measurement based on the noise in the optomechanical system.

  4. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as an element-specific detector for field-flow fractionation particle separation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Howard E.; Garbarino, John R.; Murphy, Deirdre M.; Beckett, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer was used for the quantitative measurement of trace elements In specific,submicrometer size-fraction particulates, separated by sedimentation field-flow fractionation. Fractions were collected from the eluent of the field-flow fractionation centrifuge and nebulized, with a Babington-type pneumatic nebulizer, into an argon inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. Measured Ion currents were used to quantify the major, minor, and trace element composition of the size-separated colloidal (< 1-microm diameter) particulates. The composition of surface-water suspended matter collected from the Yarra and Darling rivers in Australia is presented to illustrate the usefulness of this tool for characterizing environmental materials. An adsorption experiment was performed using cadmium lon to demonstrate the utility for studying the processes of trace metal-suspended sediment interactions and contaminant transport in natural aquatic systems.

  5. Determination of arsenic in gold by flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with matrix removal by reductive precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becotte-Haigh, Paul; Tyson, Julian F.; Denoyer, Eric; Hinds, Michael W.

    1996-12-01

    Arsenic was determined in gold by flow injection hydride generation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a batch mode reductive precipitation removal of the interfering gold matrix. A solution of potassium iodide, L-ascorbic acid, and hydrochloric acid was used as the reluctant. The recovery of gold by precipitation and filtration was 99 ± 3%. The detection limit for arsenic in gold was 55 ng g -1 in the solid. The concentration of arsenic that was determined in the Royal Canadian Mint gold sample FAU-10 was 29.7 μg g -1 in the solid; this value was indistinguishable, with 95% confidence, from values determined at the Royal Canadian Mint by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The standard deviation for four replicate determinations of the arsenic in FAU-10 was 0.972 μg g -1 in the solid.

  6. Screening hydrolysis products of sulfur mustard agents by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Kroening, Karolin K; Richardson, Douglas D; Afton, Scott; Caruso, Joseph A

    2009-04-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, is one of a class of mustard agents which are chemical warfare agents. The main chemical warfare hydrolysis degradation products of sulfur mustards are: thiodiglycol, bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)methane, 1,2-bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)ethane, 1,3-bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)propane, and 1,4-bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)butane. The aim of this study is to identify these five hydrolysis degradation products utilizing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for element-specific sulfur detection using a collision/reaction cell and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to confirm the identification. To date, this is the first study utilizing ICP-MS with (32)S element-specific detection for the analysis of vesicant chemical warfare agent degradation products.

  7. The effect of inclusion of Δ resonances in relativistic mean-field model with scaled hadron masses and coupling constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, K. A.; Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the equation of state of the baryon matter plays a decisive role in the description of neutron stars. With an increase of the baryon density the filling of Fermi seas of hyperons and Δ isobars becomes possible. Their inclusion into standard relativistic mean-field models results in a strong softening of the equation of state and a lowering of the maximum neutron star mass below the measured values. We extend a relativistic mean-field model with scaled hadron masses and coupling constants developed in our previous works and take into account now not only hyperons but also the Δ isobars. We analyze available empirical information to put constraints on coupling constants of Δs to mesonic mean fields. We show that the resulting equation of state satisfies majority of presently known experimental constraints.

  8. Fractionation analysis of manganese in Turkish hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Umran Seven; Gucer, Seref

    2014-11-05

    In this study, an analytical fractionation scheme based on water, diethyl ether, n-hexane, and methanol extractions has been developed to identify manganese-bound fractions. Additionally, in vitro simulated gastric and intestinal digestion, n-octanol extraction, and activated carbon adsorption were used to interpret the manganese-bound structures in hazelnuts in terms of bioaccessibility. The total content of manganese in the samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted digestion, and additional validation was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water fractions were further evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the identification of water-soluble manganese fractions in hazelnut samples. The limits of detection and quantification were 3.6 and 12.0 μg L(-1), respectively, based on peak height.

  9. Evaluation of the analytical capability of NIR femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Takafumi; Kon, Yoshiaki

    2008-03-01

    A laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (LA-ICPMS) technique utilizing a titanium-sapphire (TiS) femtosecond laser (fs-laser) has been developed for elemental and isotopic analysis. The signal intensity profile, depth of the ablation pit and level of elemental fractionation were investigated in order to evaluate the analytical capability of the present fs-laser ablation-ICPMS technique. The signal intensity profile of (57)Fe, obtained from iron sulfide (FeS(2)), demonstrated that the resulting signal intensity of (57)Fe achieved by the fs-laser ablation was almost 4-times higher than that obtained by ArF excimer laser ablation under a similar energy fluence (5 J/cm(2)). In fs-laser ablation, there is no significant difference in a depth of the ablation pit between glass and zircon material, while in ArF laser ablation, the resulting crater depth on the zircon crystal was almost half the level than that obtained for glass material. Both the thermal-induced and particle size-related elemental fractionations, which have been thought to be main sources of analytical error in the LA-ICPMS analysis, were measured on a Harvard 91500 zircon crystal. The resulting fractionation indexes on the (206)Pb/(238)U (f(Pb/U)) and (238)U/(232)Th (f(U/Th)) ratios obtained by the present fs-laser ablation system were significantly smaller than those obtained by a conventional ArF excimer laser ablation system, demonstrative of smaller elemental fractionation. Using the present fs-laser ablation technique, the time profile of the signal intensity of (56)Fe and the isotopic ratios ((57)Fe/(54)Fe and (56)Fe/(54)Fe) have been measured on a natural pyrite (FeS(2)) sample. Repeatability in signal intensity of (56)Fe achieved by the fs-laser ablation system was significantly better than that obtained by ArF excimer laser ablation. Moreover, the resulting precision in (57)Fe/(54)Fe and (56)Fe/(54)Fe ratio measurements could be improved by the fs-laser ablation system

  10. Novel Imprinted Polymer for the Preconcentration of Cadmium with Determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Vedat; Yilmaz, Hayriye; Arslan, Zikri; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    A novel Cd(II)-imprinted polymer was prepared with chemical immobilization approach by using N-methacryloyl-L-histidine as a vinylated chelating agent for on-line solid phase extraction of Cd(II) for determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cd(II)-monomer complex was synthesized and copolymerized via bulk polymerization method in the presence of ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate cross-linker. The resulting polymer was leached with 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 to generate the cavities in the polymer for Cd(II) ions. The experimental conditions, including load pH, solution flow rate, and eluent concentration for effective sorption of Cd(II) were optimized using a minicolumn of the imprinted polymer. A volume of 5.0 mL sample 5 μg L(-1) Cd(II) solution at pH 6.5 was loaded onto the column at 2.0 mL min(-1) by using a sequential injection system (FIALab 3200) followed by elution with 1.0 mL of 0.75 mol L(-1) HNO3. The relative selectivity coefficients of the imprinted polymer for Cd(II) were 38.5, 3.5, 3.0, 2.5 and 6.0 in the presence of Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Co(II) and Pb(II), respectively. Computational calculations revealed that the selectivity of the imprinted polymer was mediated by the stability of Cd(II)-N-methacryloyl-L-histidine complex which was far more stable than those of commonly used monomers, such as 4-vinyl pyridine, methacrylic acid and vinylimidazole. The detection limit (3s) and relative standard deviation (%) were found to be 0.004 μg L(-1) and 3.2%, respectively. The method was validated by analysis of seawater certified reference material (CASS-4) and successfully applied to the determination of Cd(II) in coastal seawater and estuarine water samples.

  11. Investigation of lanthanum-strontium-cobalt ferrites using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Óvári, Mihály; Tarsoly, Gergely; Németh, Zoltán; Mihucz, Victor G.; Záray, Gyula

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, suitability of laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for characterization of the purity and homogeneity of lanthanum-strontium-cobalt ferrite (LSCF) ceramic microsamples with general formula La1 - xSrxFe0.025Co0.975O3 (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.50) was studied through determination of their Sr:La ratios as well as Sr content either in depth or line profiling mode. The Sr content of the LSCF samples expressed as weight percent ranged between 5.8% and 9.7% in the case of wet chemical ICP-MS analysis, while theoretical values varied from 5.5% to 9.4%. In the case of LA-ICP-MS, relative standard deviation of the La-normalized Sr intensities was sufficient to characterize the homogeneity of the studied samples. Major and trace element (Mn, Ni, Cu, Mg, Al, Ba) concentrations could be detected at medium resolution of the applied sector field ICP-MS instrument after microwave-assisted acid digestion. For depth and line profiling, a successful approach consisted of the normalization of intensities of Sr, Fe and Co with the corresponding La counts. For the determination of the elemental ratios of La and Sr, the methods involving LA were in good agreement with theoretical values by standardization to an in-house standard corresponding to the LSCF sample having the highest x value (i.e., 0.50) checked by wet chemical ICP-MS measurements. Thus, assessment of fine scale doping of synthesized perovskite type of microsamples could be achieved by the proposed LA-ICP-MS based on a novel calibration approach applying an in-house perovskite standard. Therefore, LA-ICP-MS can be recommended for quality control of perovskite-based products. In memoriam Attila Vértes (1934-2011), full professor of the Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

  12. Gas and liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection for environmental speciation analysis — advances and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szpunar, Joanna; McSheehy, Shona; Połeć, Kasia; Vacchina, Véronique; Mounicou, Sandra; Rodriguez, Isaac; Łobiński, Ryszard

    2000-07-01

    Recent advances in the coupling of gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and their role in trace element speciation analysis of environmental materials are presented. The discussion is illustrated with three research examples concerning the following topics: (i) development and coupling of multicapillary microcolumn GC with ICP MS for speciation of organotin in sediment and biological tissue samples; (ii) speciation of arsenic in marine algae by size-exclusion-anion-exchange HPLC-ICP MS; and (iii) speciation of cadmium in plant cell cultures by size-exclusion HPLC-ICP MS. Particular attention is paid to the problem of signal identification in ICP MS chromatograms; the potential of electrospray MS/MS for this purpose is highlighted.

  13. A vector-dyadic development of the equations of motion for N-coupled rigid bodies and point masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    The equations of motion are derived, in vector-dyadic format, for a topological tree of coupled rigid bodies, point masses, and symmetrical momentum wheels. These equations were programmed, and form the basis for the general-purpose digital computer program N-BOD. A complete derivation of the equations of motion is included along with a description of the methods used for kinematics, constraint elimination, and for the inclusion of nongyroscope forces and torques acting external or internal to the system.

  14. A two-dimensional coupled flow-mass transport model based on an improved unstructured finite volume algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianzhong; Song, Lixiang; Kursan, Suncana; Liu, Yi

    2015-05-01

    A two-dimensional coupled water quality model is developed for modeling the flow-mass transport in shallow water. To simulate shallow flows on complex topography with wetting and drying, an unstructured grid, well-balanced, finite volume algorithm is proposed for numerical resolution of a modified formulation of two-dimensional shallow water equations. The slope-limited linear reconstruction method is used to achieve second-order accuracy in space. The algorithm adopts a HLLC-based integrated solver to compute the flow and mass transport fluxes simultaneously, and uses Hancock's predictor-corrector scheme for efficient time stepping as well as second-order temporal accuracy. The continuity and momentum equations are updated in both wet and dry cells. A new hybrid method, which can preserve the well-balanced property of the algorithm for simulations involving flooding and recession, is proposed for bed slope terms approximation. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm are validated by the reasonable good agreement between numerical and reference results of several benchmark test cases. Results show that the proposed coupled flow-mass transport model can simulate complex flows and mass transport in shallow water.

  15. Dynamical regimes of a pH-oscillator operated in two mass-coupled flow-through reactors.

    PubMed

    Pešek, Oldřich; Schreiberová, Lenka; Schreiber, Igor

    2011-05-28

    We present results of experiments focused on emergent and cooperative dynamics in a system of two coupled flow-through stirred reaction cells with diffusion-like mass exchange and a strongly nonlinear chemical reaction between hydrogen peroxide and thiosulphate catalysed by cupric ions in diluted solution of sulphuric acid. Due to complex mechanism, in which a crucial role is played by hydrogen and/or hydroxide ions, dynamics in a single cell entail multiple stationary states, excitability and oscillations conveniently indicated by measuring pH. When coupled, the system shows a plethora of dynamical regimes depending on the coupling strength and flow rate. Under certain conditions both cells display dynamics close to that in the absence of coupling, but majority of the regimes are emergent and cannot be deduced from dynamics of decoupled reactors. The most prominent is a stationary state maintaining highly acidic values of pH in one of the reactors and weakly acidic in the other. When each cell is set to display excitability and the coupled system is externally perturbed, the cells may cooperate and transmit excitations elicited by pulsed perturbations in one cell to the other. Periodic pulses induce firing patterns marked by a various degree of propagated excitations and by being periodic or irregular.

  16. Investigations into the origins of polyatomic ions in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Sally M.

    2010-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is an elemental analytical instrument capable of determining nearly all elements in the periodic table at limits of detection in the parts per quadrillion and with a linear analytical range over 8-10 orders of magnitude. Three concentric quartz tubes make up the plasma torch. Argon gas is spiraled through the outer tube and generates the plasma powered by a looped load coil operating at 27.1 or 40.6 MHz. The argon flow of the middle channel is used to keep the plasma above the innermost tube through which solid or aqueous sample is carried in a third argon stream. A sample is progressively desolvated, atomized and ionized. The torch is operated at atmospheric pressure. To reach the reduced pressures of mass spectrometers, ions are extracted through a series of two, approximately one millimeter wide, circular apertures set in water cooled metal cones. The space between the cones is evacuated to approximately one torr. The space behind the second cone is pumped down to, or near to, the pressure needed for the mass spectrometer (MS). The first cone, called the sampler, is placed directly in the plasma plume and its position is adjusted to the point where atomic ions are most abundant. The hot plasma gas expands through the sampler orifice and in this expansion is placed the second cone, called the skimmer. After the skimmer traditional MS designs are employed, i.e. quadrupoles, magnetic sectors, time-of-flight. ICP-MS is the leading trace element analysis technique. One of its weaknesses are polyatomic ions. This dissertation has added to the fundamental understanding of some of these polyatomic ions, their origins and behavior. Although mainly continuing the work of others, certain novel approaches have been introduced here. Chapter 2 includes the first reported efforts to include high temperature corrections to the partition functions of the polyatomic ions in ICP-MS. This and other objections to preceeding

  17. Parafac and go/no-go: disentangling CNV return from the P3 complex by trilinear component analysis.

    PubMed

    Verleger, Rolf; Paulick, Claudia; Möcks, Joachim; Smith, Janette L; Keller, Karsten

    2013-03-01

    It has been proposed that the fronto-central difference between go-P3 and no-go P3 is due to motor-related negativity overlapping P3 in the go case and positive relaxation of such negativity overlapping P3 in the no-go case, and that this motor-related activation may be identified by its having the same topography as the preceding CNV. Testing these suggestions meets with the problem of how to validly distinguish between P3 and the assumed overlapping continuing or downsweeping CNV. Distinguishing between overlapping components is a major reason why principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied, but the major criterion of conventional rotations (Varimax and Promax) is avoiding overlap. Trilinear component analysis (TCA) defines components independently of overlap, by their having stable topographies across time and observations. By applying TCA, we expected to obtain equal P3 components in go and no-go, and a preceding CNV component that would continue and overlap P3 with negative polarity in the go case and with positive polarity in the no-go case. We analyzed data from warned go/no-go tasks, separately for blocks with hand movements and eye movements. Different from expectation, TCA of the Hand task yielded three relevant components: parietal P3, only slightly affected by go vs. no-go, an overlapping CNV downturn unaffected by go vs. no-go, and an anterior-positive/posterior-negative bipolar N2-P3 that modeled the go/no-go effect. No convincing TCA solution was obtained in the Eye task. Possibilities and limitations of the TCA method are discussed.

  18. Bioimaging of metals and biomolecules in mouse heart by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Breuer, Uwe; Hsieh, Hui-Fang; Osterholt, Tobias; Kumtabtim, Usarat; Wu, Bei; Matusch, Andreas; Caruso, Joseph A; Qin, Zhenyu

    2010-11-15

    Bioimaging mass spectrometric techniques allow direct mapping of metal and biomolecule distributions with high spatial resolution in biological tissue. In this study laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) was used for imaging of transition metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Ti), alkali and alkaline-earth metals (Na, K, Mg, and Ca, respectively), and selected nonmetals (such as C, P, and S) in native cryosections of mouse heart. The metal and nonmetal images clearly illustrated the shape and the anatomy of the samples. Zinc and copper were inhomogeneously distributed with average concentrations of 26 and 11 μg g(-1), respectively. Titanium and manganese were detected at concentrations reaching 1 and 2 μg g(-1), respectively. The highest regional metal concentration of 360 μg g(-1)was observed for iron in blood present in the lumen of the aorta. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as an elemental and biomolecular mass spectrometric technique was employed for imaging of Na, K, and selected biomolecules (e.g., phosphocholine, choline, cholesterol) in adjacent sections. Here, two different bioimaging techniques, LA-ICPMS and SIMS, were combined for the first time, yielding novel information on both elemental and biomolecular distributions.

  19. Enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for searching for low-mass inhibitors of enzymes in complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Da Silva, David; Delépée, Raphaël; Maunit, Benoît

    2014-04-01

    In this report, enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles (EMPs) were shown to be an effective affinity-based tool for finding specific interactions between enzymatic targets and the low-mass molecules in complex mixtures using classic MALDI-TOF apparatus. EMPs used in this work act as nonorganic matrix enabling ionization of small molecules without any interference in the low-mass range (enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization MS, ENALDI MS) and simultaneously carry the superficial specific binding sites to capture inhibitors present in a studied mixture. We evaluated ENALDI approach in two complementary variations: 'ion fading' (IF-ENALDI), based on superficial adsorption of inhibitors and 'ion hunting' (IH-ENALDI), based on selective pre-concentration of inhibitors. IF-ENALDI was applied for two sets of enzyme-inhibitor pairs: tyrosinase-glabridin and trypsin-leupeptin and for the real plant sample: Sparrmannia discolor leaf and stem methanol extract. The efficacy of IH-ENALDI was shown for the pair of trypsin-leupeptin. Both ENALDI approaches pose an alternative for bioassay-guided fractionation, the common method for finding inhibitors in the complex mixtures.

  20. Enzyme-Coupled Nanoparticles-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Searching for Low-Mass Inhibitors of Enzymes in Complex Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Da Silva, David; Delépée, Raphaël; Maunit, Benoît

    2014-04-01

    In this report, enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles (EMPs) were shown to be an effective affinity-based tool for finding specific interactions between enzymatic targets and the low-mass molecules in complex mixtures using classic MALDI-TOF apparatus. EMPs used in this work act as nonorganic matrix enabling ionization of small molecules without any interference in the low-mass range (enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization MS, ENALDI MS) and simultaneously carry the superficial specific binding sites to capture inhibitors present in a studied mixture. We evaluated ENALDI approach in two complementary variations: `ion fading' (IF-ENALDI), based on superficial adsorption of inhibitors and `ion hunting' (IH-ENALDI), based on selective pre-concentration of inhibitors. IF-ENALDI was applied for two sets of enzyme-inhibitor pairs: tyrosinase-glabridin and trypsin-leupeptin and for the real plant sample: Sparrmannia discolor leaf and stem methanol extract. The efficacy of IH-ENALDI was shown for the pair of trypsin-leupeptin. Both ENALDI approaches pose an alternative for bioassay-guided fractionation, the common method for finding inhibitors in the complex mixtures.

  1. VACUUM DISTILLATION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A procedure is presented that uses a vacuum distillation/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system for analysis of problematic matrices of volatile organic compounds. The procedure compensates for matrix effects and provides both analytical results and confidence intervals from...

  2. A numerical manifold method model for analyzing fully coupled hydro-mechanical processes in porous rock masses with discrete fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mengsu; Rutqvist, Jonny; Wang, Yuan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a numerical manifold method (NMM) model was developed for fully coupled analysis of hydro-mechanical (HM) processes in porous rock masses with discrete fractures. Using an NMM two-cover-mesh system of mathematical and physical covers, fractures are conveniently discretized by dividing the mathematical cover along fracture traces to physical cover, resulting in a discontinuous model on a non-conforming mesh. In this model, discrete fracture deformation (e.g. open and slip) and fracture fluid flow within a permeable and deformable porous rock matrix are rigorously considered. For porous rock, direct pore-volume coupling was modeled based on an energy-work scheme. For mechanical analysis of fractures, a fracture constitutive model for mechanically open states was introduced. For fluid flow in fractures, both along-fracture and normal-to-fracture fluid flow are modeled without introducing additional degrees of freedom. When the mechanical aperture of a fracture is changing, its hydraulic aperture and hydraulic conductivity is updated. At the same time, under the effect of coupled deformation and fluid flow, the contact state may dynamically change, and the corresponding contact constraint is updated each time step. Therefore, indirect coupling is realized under stringent considerations of coupled HM effects and fracture constitutive behavior transfer dynamically. To verify the new model, examples involving deformable porous media containing a single and two sets of fractures were designed, showing good accuracy. Last, the model was applied to analyze coupled HM behavior of fractured porous rock domains with complex fracture networks under effects of loading and injection.

  3. Coupled effect of flow variability and mass transfer on contaminant transport and attenuation in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Fiori, Aldo; Dagan, Gedeon

    2016-04-01

    The driving mechanism of contaminant transport in aquifers is groundwater flow, which is controlled by boundary conditions and heterogeneity of hydraulic properties. In this work we show how hydrodynamics and mass transfer can be combined in a general analytical manner to derive a physically-based (or process-based) residence time distribution for a given integral scale of the hydraulic conductivity; the result can be applied for a broad class of linear mass transfer processes. The derived tracer residence time distribution is a transfer function with parameters to be inferred from combined field and laboratory measurements. It is scalable relative to the correlation length and applicable for an arbitrary statistical distribution of the hydraulic conductivity. Based on the derived residence time distribution, the coefficient of variation and skewness of contaminant residence time are illustrated assuming a log-normal hydraulic conductivity distribution and first-order mass transfer. We show that for a low Damkohler number the coefficient of variation is more strongly influenced by mass transfer than by heterogeneity, whereas skewness is more strongly influenced by heterogeneity. The derived physically-based residence time distribution for solute transport in heterogeneous aquifers is particularly useful for studying natural attenuation of contaminants. We illustrate the relative impacts of high heterogeneity and a generalised (non-Fickian) multi-rate mass transfer on natural attenuation defined as contaminant mass loss from injection to a downstream compliance boundary.

  4. Comparative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long; Zeng, Su-Ling; Zhang, Yu; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-01-05

    Steroidal saponins, which exhibit multiple pharmacological effects, are the major bioactive constituents in herbal medicines from Dioscoreae species. In this study, a sensitive method based on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was established and validated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs including Dioscoreae Nipponica Rhizome (DNR) and Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae Rhizome (DHR), Dioscoreae Spongiosae Rhizome (DSR) and Dioscoreae Rhizome (DR). A total of eleven steroidal saponins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF/MS). Furthermore, seven major steroidal saponins was simultaneous quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ/MS). The qualitative and quantitative analysis results indicated that the chemical composition of DNR, DHR and DSR samples exhibited a high level of global similarity, while the ingredients in DR varied greatly from the other three herbs. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were performed to compare and discriminate the Dioscoreae herbs based on the quantitative data. The results demonstrated the qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins based on HPLC-MS is a feasible method for quality control of Dioscoreae herbs.

  5. Coupled heat and mass transfer by natural convection adjacent to a permeable horizontal cylinder in a saturated porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Yih, K.A.

    1999-04-01

    Coupled heat and mass transfer (or double-diffusion) driven by buoyancy, due to temperature and concentration variations in a saturated porous medium, has several important applications in geothermal and geophysical engineering such as the migration of moisture through the air contained in fibrous insulation, the extraction of geothermal energy, underground disposal of nuclear wastes, and the spreading of chemical contaminants through water-saturated soil. Here, the heat and mass transfer characteristics of free convection about a permeable horizontal cylinder embedded in porous media under the coupled effects of thermal and mass diffusion are numerically analyzed. The surface of the horizontal cylinder is maintained at a uniform wall temperature and uniform wall concentration. The transformed governing equations are obtained and solved by Keller box method. Numerical results for the dimensionless temperature profiles, the dimensionless concentration profiles, the Nusselt number and the Sherwood number are presented. Increasing the buoyancy ratio N and the transpiration parameter f{sub w} increases the Nusselt number and the Sherwood number. For thermally assisting flow, when Lewis number Le increases, the Nusselt (Sherwood) number decreases (increases). Whereas, for thermally opposing flow, both the Nusselt number and the Sherwood number increase with increasing the Lewis number.

  6. A numerical model of hydro-thermo-mechanical coupling in a fractured rock mass

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Kathleen Marie

    1996-06-01

    Coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical codes with the ability to model fractured materials are used for predicting groundwater flow behavior in fractured aquifers containing thermal sources. The potential applications of such a code include the analysis of groundwater behavior within a geothermal reservoir. The capability of modeling hydro-thermo systems with a dual porosity, fracture flow model has been previously developed in the finite element code, FEHM. FEHM has been modified to include stress coupling with the dual porosity feature. FEHM has been further developed to implicitly couple the dependence of fracture hydraulic conductivity on effective stress within two dimensional, saturated aquifers containing fracture systems. The cubic law for flow between parallel plates was used to model fracture permeability. The Bartin-Bandis relationship was used to determine the fracture aperture within the cubic law. The code used a Newton Raphson iteration to implicitly solve for six unknowns at each node. Results from a model of heat flow from a reservoir to the moving fluid in a single fracture compared well with analytic results. Results of a model showing the increase in fracture flow due to a single fracture opening under fluid pressure compared well with analytic results. A hot dry rock, geothermal reservoir was modeled with realistic time steps indicating that the modified FEHM code does successfully model coupled flow problems with no convergence problems.

  7. Use of a parallel path nebulizer for capillary-based microseparation techniques coupled with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for speciation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2004-06-01

    A low flow, parallel path Mira Mist CE nebulizer designed for capillary electrophoresis (CE) was evaluated as a function of make-up solution flow rate, composition, and concentration, as well as the nebulizer gas flow rate. This research was conducted in support of a project related to the separation and quantification of cobalamin (vitamin B-12) species using microseparation techniques combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. As such, Co signals were monitored during the nebulizer characterization process. Transient effects in the ICP were studied to evaluate the suitability of using gradients for microseparations and the benefit of using methanol for the make-up solution was demonstrated. Co signal response changed significantly as a function of changing methanol concentrations of the make-up solution and maximum signal enhancement was seen at 20% methanol with a 15 μl/min flow rate. Evaluation of the effect of changing the nebulizer gas flow rates showed that argon flows from 0.8 to 1.2 l/min were equally effective. The Mira Mist CE parallel path nebulizer was then evaluated for interfacing capillary microseparation techniques including capillary electrophoresis (CE) and micro high performance liquid chromatography (μHPLC) to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A mixture of four cobalamin species standards (cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and 5' deoxyadenosylcobalamin) and the corrinoid analogue cobinamide dicyanide were successfully separated using both CE-ICP-MS and μHPLC-ICP-MS using the parallel path nebulizer with a make-up solution containing 20% methanol with a flow rate of 15 μl/min.

  8. Split Flow Online Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry System for One-Shot Data Acquisition of Quantification and Recovery Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Makoto; Takagai, Yoshitaka

    2016-10-04

    Online solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is a useful tool in automatic sequential analysis. However, it cannot simultaneously quantify the analytical targets and their recovery percentages (R%) in one-shot samples. We propose a system that simultaneously acquires both data in a single sample injection. The main flowline of the online solid-phase extraction is divided into main and split flows. The split flow line (i.e., bypass line), which circumvents the SPE column, was placed on the main flow line. Under program-controlled switching of the automatic valve, the ICPMS sequentially measures the targets in a sample before and after column preconcentration and determines the target concentrations and the R% on the SPE column. This paper describes the system development and two demonstrations to exhibit the analytical significance, i.e., the ultratrace amounts of radioactive strontium ((90)Sr) using commercial Sr-trap resin and multielement adsorbability on the SPE column. This system is applicable to other flow analyses and detectors in online solid phase extraction.

  9. Evaluation of Hydrodynamic Chromatography Coupled with UV-Visible, Fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Detectors for Sizing and Quantifying Colloids in Environmental Media

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Allan; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the analysis of nanoparticles in environmental samples. Using two commercially available columns (Polymer Labs-PDSA type 1 and 2), a set of well characterised calibrants and a new external time marking method, we showed that flow rate and eluent composition have few influence on the size resolution and, therefore, can be adapted to the sample particularity. Monitoring the agglomeration of polystyrene nanoparticles over time succeeded without observable disagglomeration suggesting that even weak agglomerates can be measured using HDC. Simultaneous determination of gold colloid concentration and size using ICP-MS detection was validated for elemental concentrations in the ppb range. HDC-ICP-MS was successfully applied to samples containing a high organic and ionic background. Indeed, online combination of UV-visible, fluorescence and ICP-MS detectors allowed distinguishing between organic molecules and inorganic colloids during the analysis of Ag nanoparticles in synthetic surface waters and TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDC-ICP-MS is a flexible, sensitive and reliable method to measure the size and the concentration of inorganic colloids in complex media and suggest that there may be a promising future for the application of HDC in environmental science. Nonetheless the rigorous measurements of agglomerates and of matrices containing natural colloids still need to be studied in detail. PMID:24587393

  10. Speciation of chromium and its distribution in tea leaves and tea infusion using titanium dioxide nanotubes packed microcolumn coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shizhong; Zhu, Shengping; He, Yuanyuan; Lu, Dengbo

    2014-05-01

    Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TDNTs) were used as a solid phase extraction adsorbent for chromium species by a packed microcolumn coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), including total, suspended and soluble chromium as well as Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in tea leaves and tea infusion. The experimental results indicated that Cr(III) was quantitatively retained on TDNTs in the pH range of 5.0-8.0, while Cr(VI) remained in the solution. The total chromium was determined after reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The concentration of Cr(VI) is calculated by the difference between total chromium and Cr(III). Under optimal conditions, the detection limits of this method were 0.0075ngmL(-1) for Cr(III). The relative standard deviation was 3.8% (n=9, c=1.0ngmL(-1)). This method was applied for the analysis of the speciation of chromium and its distribution and content in tea leaves, tea infusion and a certified reference material of tea leaves with satisfactory results.

  11. Multi-element analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy for provenancing of animals at the continental scale.

    PubMed

    Kreitals, Natasha M; Watling, R John

    2014-11-01

    Chemical signatures within the environment vary between regions as a result of climatological, geochemical and anthropogenic influences. These variations are incorporated into the region's geology, soils, water and vegetation; ultimately making their way through the food chain to higher level organisms. Because the variation in chemical signatures between areas is significant, a specific knowledge of differences in elemental distribution patterns between, and within populations, could prove beneficial for provenancing animals or animal related products when applied to indigenous and feral faunal populations. The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) was used as an investigative model to determine the feasibility of using a chemical traceability method for the provenance determination of animal tissue. Samples of pig muscle, tongue, stomach, heart, liver and kidney were collected from known farming areas around Australia. Samples were digested in 1:3 H2O2:HNO3 and their elemental composition determined using solution based Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Pigs from different growing regions in Australia could be distinguished based on the chemical signature of each individual tissue type. Discrimination was possible at a region, state and population level. This investigation demonstrates the potential for multi-element analysis of low genetic variation native and feral species of forensic relevance.

  12. Direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization-mass spectrometry of drug residues from latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Kristina; Wiley, Rachel; Waverka, Kristin; Fox, James; Dziekonski, Eric; Verbeck, Guido F

    2013-07-01

    Here, we present a method of extracting drug residues from fingerprints via Direct Analyte-Probed Nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DAPNe-NSI-MS). This instrumental technique provides higher selectivity and lower detection limits over current methods, greatly reducing sample preparation, and does not compromise the integrity of latent fingerprints. This coupled to Raman microscopy is an advantageous supplement for location and identification of trace particles. DAPNe uses a nanomanipulator for extraction and differing microscopies for localization of chemicals of interest. A capillary tip with solvent of choice is placed in a nanopositioner. The surface to be analyzed is placed under a microscope, and a particle of interest is located. Using a pressure injector, the solvent is injected onto the surface where it dissolves the analyte, and then extracted back into the capillary tip. The solution is then directly analyzed via NSI-MS. Analyses of caffeine, cocaine, crystal methamphetamine, and ecstasy have been performed successfully.

  13. Climatic impact of glacial cycle polar motion: Coupled oscillations of ice sheet mass and rotation pole position

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Bruce G.; James, Thomas S.; Mengel, John G.

    1999-01-01

    Precessional motion of Earth's rotation axis relative to its orbit is a well-known source of long-period climatic variation. It is less well appreciated that growth and decay of polar ice sheets perturb the symmetry of the global mass distribution enough that the geographic location of the rotation axis will change by at least 15 km and possibly as much as 100 km during a single glacial cycle. This motion of the pole will change the seasonal and latitudinal pattern of temperatures. We present calculations, based on a diurnal average energy balance, which compare the summer and winter temperature anomalies due to a 1° decrease in obliquity with those due to a 1° motion of the rotation pole toward Hudson Bay. Both effects result in peak temperature perturbations of about 1° Celsius. The obliquity change primarily influences the amplitude of the seasonal cycle, while the polar motion primarily changes the annual mean temperatures. The polar motion induced temperature anomaly is such that it will act as a powerful negative feedback on ice sheet growth. We also explore the evolution of the coupled system composed of ice sheet mass and pole position. Oscillatory solutions result from the conflicting constraints of rotational and thermal stability. A positive mass anomaly on an otherwise featureless Earth is in rotational equilibrium only at the poles or the equator. The two polar equilibria are rotationally unstable, and the equatorial equilibrium, though rotationally stable, is thermally unstable. We find that with a plausible choice for the strength of coupling between the thermal and rotational systems, relatively modest external forcing can produce significant response at periods of 104–106 years, but it strongly attenuates polar motion at longer periods. We suggest that these coupled oscillations may contribute to the observed dominance of 100 kyr glacial cycles since the mid-Pleistocene and will tend to stabilize geographic patterns that are suitable to

  14. Mass cytometry: technique for real time single cell multitarget immunoassay based on inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bandura, Dmitry R; Baranov, Vladimir I; Ornatsky, Olga I; Antonov, Alexei; Kinach, Robert; Lou, Xudong; Pavlov, Serguei; Vorobiev, Sergey; Dick, John E; Tanner, Scott D

    2009-08-15

    A novel instrument for real time analysis of individual biological cells or other microparticles is described. The instrument is based on inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry and comprises a three-aperture plasma-vacuum interface, a dc quadrupole turning optics for decoupling ions from neutral components, an rf quadrupole ion guide discriminating against low-mass dominant plasma ions, a point-to-parallel focusing dc quadrupole doublet, an orthogonal acceleration reflectron analyzer, a discrete dynode fast ion detector, and an 8-bit 1 GHz digitizer. A high spectrum generation frequency of 76.8 kHz provides capability for collecting multiple spectra from each particle-induced transient ion cloud, typically of 200-300 micros duration. It is shown that the transients can be resolved and characterized individually at a peak frequency of 1100 particles per second. Design considerations and optimization data are presented. The figures of merit of the instrument are measured under standard inductively coupled plasma (ICP) operating conditions (<3% cerium oxide ratio). At mass resolution (full width at half-maximum) M/DeltaM > 900 for m/z = 159, the sensitivity with a standard sample introduction system of >1.4 x 10(8) ion counts per second per mg L(-1) of Tb and an abundance sensitivity of (6 x 10(-4))-(1.4 x 10(-3)) (trailing and leading masses, respectively) are shown. The mass range (m/z = 125-215) and abundance sensitivity are sufficient for elemental immunoassay with up to 60 distinct available elemental tags. When <15 elemental tags are used, a higher sensitivity mode at lower resolution (M/DeltaM > 500) can be used, which provides >2.4 x 10(8) cps per mg L(-1) of Tb, at (1.5 x 10(-3))-(5.0 x 10(-3)) abundance sensitivity. The real-time simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes from individual 1.8 microm polystyrene beads labeled with lanthanides is shown. A real time single cell 20 antigen expression assay of model cell lines and leukemia

  15. Combined effect of couple stresses and heat and mass transfer on peristaltic flow with slip conditions in a tube.

    PubMed

    Sobh, Ayman M

    2013-10-01

    In this article, the influence of heat and mass transfer on peristaltic transport of a couple stress fluid in a uniform tube with slip conditions on the wall is studied. The problem can model the blood flow in living creatures. Under long wavelength approximation and zero Reynolds number, exact solutions for the axial velocity component, pressure gradient, and both temperature and concentration fields are derived. The pressure rise is computed numerically and explained graphically. Moreover, effects of various physical parameters of the problem on temperature distribution, concentration field, and trapping are studied and discussed graphically.

  16. Assessment of the Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Through Protective Garments Using Manikins and Other Advanced Measurement Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, René M.; Psikuta, Agnes

    The assessment of the coupled heat and mass transfer in protective clothing is very complex as the layers of the system are a combination of fabric and air layers that constantly change with the movements of the wearer. The methods to measure these mechanisms become more and more sophisticated which increases the precision of models to predict the impact of heat and moisture fluxes on the human thermal physiology. The simulation of the human thermoregulatory mechanisms requires the combination of physical models representing the body (manikins) with physiological (mathematical) models. This chapter gives different examples of advanced measurement methods to characterize the thermal properties of fabrics and garments.

  17. A critical review of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for geoanalysis, geochemistry and hydrology, Part 1. Analytical performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenner, I.B.; Taylor, H.E.

    1992-01-01

    Present-day inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrumentation is described briefly. Emphasis is placed on performance characteristics for geoanalysis, geochemistry, and hydrology. Applications where ICP-MS would be indispensable are indicated. Determination of geochemically diagnostic trace elements (such as the rare earth elements [REE], U and Th), of isotope ratios for fingerprinting, tracer and other geo-isotope applications, and benchmark isotope dilution determinations are considered to be typical priority applications for ICP-MS. It is concluded that ICP-MS furnishes unique geoanalytical and environmental data that are not readily provided by conventional spectroscopic (emission and absorption) techniques.

  18. Forensic Chemistry and Ambient Mass Spectrometry: A Perfect Couple Destined for a Happy Marriage?

    PubMed

    Correa, Deleon N; Santos, Jandyson M; Eberlin, Livia S; Eberlin, Marcos N; Teunissen, Sebastiaan F

    2016-03-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry has been demonstrated, via various proof-of-concept studies, to offer a powerful, rather universal, simple, fast, nondestructive, and robust tool in forensic chemistry, producing reliable evidence at the molecular level. Its nearly nondestructive nature also preserves the sample for further inquiries. This feature article demonstrates the applicability of ambient mass spectrometry in forensic chemistry and explains the challenges that need to be overcome for this technique to make the ultimate step from the academic world into forensic institutes worldwide. We anticipate that the many beneficial and matching figures of merit will bring forensic chemistry and ambient mass spectrometry to a long-term relationship, which is likely to get strongly consolidated over the years.

  19. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  20. Determination of 20 trace elements and arsenic species for a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine Niuhuang Jiedu tablets by direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengfei; Liang, Xiaoli; Xia, Lufeng; Jahouh, Farid; Wang, Rong; Kuang, Yongmei; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Niuhuang Jiedu tablet (NHJDT) is a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine. A direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 20 trace elements (Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, As, Zn, Sr, Ba, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Cr, Se, Co, Mo, Cd, Hg) in NHJDT, as well as in water, gastric fluid and intestinal fluid was established. Meanwhile, a high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method was developed for the determination of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and for the identification of arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) in these extracts. Both methods were fully validated in the respect of linearity, sensitivity, precision, stability and accuracy. The reliability of the ICP-MS method was further evaluated using a certified standard reference material prepared from dried tomato leaves (NIST, SRM 1572a). The analysis showed that some manufacturers formulated lower amount of realgar than required in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) in their preparations. In addition, almost same extraction profiles for total As and inorganic As were found in water and in gastrointestinal fluids, while higher extraction rates for other 19 elements were observed in gastrointestinal fluids. Our findings show that the toxicities of Hg, Cu, Cd and Pb in NHJDP are low, while the real As toxicity in NHJDT should be deeply investigated.

  1. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Green River Shale By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F.; Clarke, D.; Moody, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied to a geological sample for the determination of rare earth elements (REEs) using a specialized nebulizer system. The low flow desolvating nebulizer has been shown to decrease metal oxide formation which leads to a reduction in mass spectral interferences. Traditional nebulizers and spray chambers may be suitable for similar sample types, but reduction of water vapor loading to the plasma can improve REE detection limits for quadrupole-based ICP-MS. The Green River formation holds the largest oil shale deposits in the world and understanding the elemental composition of these samples is important in its study. A certified reference material, USGS Green River Shale (SGR-1), was microwave digested prior to analysis, and recoveries of REEs compared to historical values are discussed.

  2. An inexact Newton method for fully-coupled solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with heat and mass transport

    SciTech Connect

    Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.; Walker, H.F.

    1997-02-01

    The solution of the governing steady transport equations for momentum, heat and mass transfer in flowing fluids can be very difficult. These difficulties arise from the nonlinear, coupled, nonsymmetric nature of the system of algebraic equations that results from spatial discretization of the PDEs. In this manuscript the authors focus on evaluating a proposed nonlinear solution method based on an inexact Newton method with backtracking. In this context they use a particular spatial discretization based on a pressure stabilized Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation of the low Mach number Navier-Stokes equations with heat and mass transport. The discussion considers computational efficiency, robustness and some implementation issues related to the proposed nonlinear solution scheme. Computational results are presented for several challenging CFD benchmark problems as well as two large scale 3D flow simulations.

  3. Qualitative analysis of phenolic compounds in apple pomace using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem mode.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rabaneda, Ferran; Jáuregui, Olga; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of phenolic compounds in apple residues resulting from the juice industry was investigated to provide an alternative use for this raw material. For the identification of these compounds, liquid chromatography coupled to ionspray mass spectrometry in tandem mode (LC/MS/MS) with negative ion detection was used. The residues were first extracted and then chromatographed on Sephadex LH-20 to yield 13 fractions. Positive identification of the compounds was based on their retention times and mass spectra in full scan mode (MS), and in different MS/MS modes (product ion scan, precursor ion scan and neutral loss scan). In this way, 60 compounds, including cinnamic and benzoic acid derivatives and flavonoids, were identified, some of them not previously reported in apple waste.

  4. Tracer travel and residence time distributions in highly heterogeneous aquifers: Coupled effect of flow variability and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, V.; Fiori, A.; Dagan, G.

    2016-12-01

    The driving mechanism of tracer transport in aquifers is groundwater flow which is controlled by the heterogeneity of hydraulic properties. We show how hydrodynamics and mass transfer are coupled in a general analytical manner to derive a physically-based (or process-based) residence time distribution for a given integral scale of the hydraulic conductivity; the result can be applied for a broad class of linear mass transfer processes. The derived tracer residence time distribution is a transfer function with parameters to be inferred from combined field and laboratory measurements. It is scalable relative to the correlation length and applicable for an arbitrary statistical distribution of the hydraulic conductivity. Based on the derived residence time distribution, the coefficient of variation and skewness of residence time are illustrated assuming a log-normal hydraulic conductivity field and first-order mass transfer. We show that for a low Damkohler number the coefficient of variation is more strongly influenced by mass transfer than by heterogeneity, whereas skewness is more strongly influenced by heterogeneity.

  5. Microfluidic Chip-Based Online Screening Coupled to Mass Spectrometry: Identification of Inhibitors of Thrombin and Factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Janaki Krishnamoorthy; Otvos, Reka A; Kool, Jeroen; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2016-02-01

    Thrombin and factor Xa (FXa) are critical enzymes of the blood coagulation cascade and are excellent targets of anticoagulant agents. Natural sources present an array of anticoagulants that can be developed as antithrombotic drugs. High-resolution, online screening techniques have been developed for the identification of drug leads from complex mixtures. In this study, we have developed and optimized a microfluidic online screening technique coupled to nano-liquid chromatography (LC) and in parallel with a mass spectrometer for the identification of thrombin and FXa inhibitors in mixtures. Inhibitors eluting from the nano-LC were split postcolumn in a 1:1 ratio; half was fed into a mass spectrometer (where its mass is detected), and the other half was fed into a microfluidic chip (which acts as a microreactor for the online assays). With our platform, thrombin and FXa inhibitors were detected in the assay in parallel with their mass identification. These methods are suitable for the identification of inhibitors from sample amounts as low as sub-microliter volumes.

  6. Coupling Aggressive Mass Removal with Microbial Reductive Dechlorination for Remediation of DNAPL Source Zones: A Review and Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Christ, John A.; Ramsburg, C. Andrew; Abriola, Linda M.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Löffler, Frank E.

    2005-01-01

    The infiltration of dense non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) into the saturated subsurface typically produces a highly contaminated zone that serves as a long-term source of dissolved-phase groundwater contamination. Applications of aggressive physical–chemical technologies to such source zones may remove > 90% of the contaminant mass under favorable conditions. The remaining contaminant mass, however, can create a rebounding of aqueous-phase concentrations within the treated zone. Stimulation of microbial reductive dechlorination within the source zone after aggressive mass removal has recently been proposed as a promising staged-treatment remediation technology for transforming the remaining contaminant mass. This article reviews available laboratory and field evidence that supports the development of a treatment strategy that combines aggressive source-zone removal technologies with subsequent promotion of sustained microbial reductive dechlorination. Physical–chemical source-zone treatment technologies compatible with posttreatment stimulation of microbial activity are identified, and studies examining the requirements and controls (i.e., limits) of reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes are investigated. Illustrative calculations are presented to explore the potential effects of source-zone management alternatives. Results suggest that, for the favorable conditions assumed in these calculations (i.e., statistical homogeneity of aquifer properties, known source-zone DNAPL distribution, and successful bioenhancement in the source zone), source longevity may be reduced by as much as an order of magnitude when physical–chemical source-zone treatment is coupled with reductive dechlorination. PMID:15811838

  7. Analysis of Ir in Köfelsit rocks by inductively coupled plasma-sector-field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS).

    PubMed

    Koellensperger, G; Hann, S; Prinz, G; Stingeder, G; Bujatti-Narbeshuber, M

    2001-07-01

    Three different analytical strategies have been evaluated for the quantification of Ir in geological samples. Glassy rock samples from Köfels and reference material WGB-1 were analyzed directly by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) at mass resolution 400 using membrane desolvation and at mass resolution 9500 without membrane desolvation. Matrix separation by anion-exchange pre-concentration was also investigated. The ultrasonic nebulizer USN6000AT+ (Cetac Technologies, Omaha, NE, USA) incorporating a membrane desolvation unit was used as the sample-introduction system. Sample preparation involved complete microwave-assisted acid digestion of the silicate matrix with HNO3-HCl-HF. The results obtained by the three methods of quantification were in good agreement, showing that oxide-type interferences were effectively eliminated solely by membrane desolvation. The limits of detection were 6 pg g for low resolution measurement with use of the membrane, 15 pg g(-1) at a mass resolution of 9500, and 59 pg g(-1) for the ion-exchange procedure. The ultimate precision obtained for the Köfelsit Ir data was, however, compromised by the small sample intake (0.3 g), because of the inhomogeneous distribution of Ir in geological samples.

  8. Controlled dissolution of silicon dioxide layers for depth resolved multielement analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorge, Susan E.; Houk, R. S.

    2009-11-01

    Dissolution procedures were developed to control the number of surface layers removed, in an attempt to achieve depth resolved analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). NIST 612 glass was chosen because it is a homogeneous material with many elements at interesting concentrations, ~ 50 ppm. Varying dissolution time and HF concentration resulted in the reproducible removal of SiO 2 layers as thin as 70 Å deep. Dissolved trace metals were determined after dilution by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a magnetic sector instrument. The amount removed was determined from the concentration of a major element, Ca. With the exception of Zn, trace metal concentrations agreed reasonably well with their certified values for removal depths of 500, 300 and 150 Å. Zinc concentration was significantly high in all dissolutions indicating either a contamination problem or that Zn is removed at a faster rate than Ca. For the dissolutions that removed 70 Å of SiO 2, Cr, Mn, Co, Sr, Cd, Ce, Dy, Er, Yb and U recovery results agreed with their certified values (~ 50 ppm); Ti, As, Mo, Ba, and Th could not be determined because net intensities were below 3 σ of the blank; and measured concentrations for Cu, Pb and Zn were well above the certified values.

  9. Calibration of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for the quantitative analysis of solid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, James

    1999-02-12

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has become the method of choice for elemental and isotopic analysis. Several factors contribute to its success. Modern instruments are capable of routine analysis at part per trillion levels with relative detection limits in part per quadrillion levels. Sensitivities in these instruments can be as high as 200 million counts per second per part per million with linear dynamic ranges up to eight orders of magnitude. With standards for only a few elements, rapid semiquantitative analysis of over 70 elements in an individual sample can be performed. Less than 20 years after its inception ICP-MS has shown to be applicable to several areas of science. These include geochemistry, the nuclear industry, environmental chemistry, clinical chemistry, the semiconductor industry, and forensic chemistry. In this introduction, the general attributes of ICP-MS will be discussed in terms of instrumentation and sample introduction. The advantages and disadvantages of current systems are presented. A detailed description of one method of sample introduction, laser ablation, is given. The paper also gives conclusions and suggestions for future work. Chapter 2, Quantitative analysis of solids by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for calibration, has been removed for separate processing.

  10. Determination of hexavalent chromium in traditional Chinese medicines by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Li, Li-Min; Xia, Jing; Cao, Shuai; Hu, Xin; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Ji, Shen

    2015-12-01

    An analytical method that combined high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of hexavalent chromium in traditional Chinese medicines. Hexavalent chromium was extracted using the alkaline solution. The parameters such as the concentration of alkaline and the extraction temperature have been optimized to minimize the interconversion between trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium. The extracted hexavalent chromium was separated on a weak anion exchange column in isocratic mode, followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination. To obtain a better chromatographic resolution and sensitivity, 75 mM NH4 NO3 at pH 7 was selected as the mobile phase. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 0.2-5.0 μg L(-1) (r(2) = 0.9999) for hexavalent chromium. The limits of detection and quantitation are 0.1 and 0.3 μg L(-1) , respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of hexavalent chromium in Chloriti lapis and Lumbricus with satisfactory recoveries of 95.8-112.8%.

  11. Coupling Laser Diode Thermal Desorption with Acoustic Sample Deposition to Improve Throughput of Mass Spectrometry-Based Screening.

    PubMed

    Haarhoff, Zuzana; Wagner, Andrew; Picard, Pierre; Drexler, Dieter M; Zvyaga, Tatyana; Shou, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The move toward label-free screening in drug discovery has increased the demand for mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis. Here we investigated the approach of coupling acoustic sample deposition (ASD) with laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). We assessed its use in a cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition assay, where a decrease in metabolite formation signifies CYP inhibition. Metabolite levels for 3 CYP isoforms were measured as CYP3A4-1'-OH-midazolam, CYP2D6-dextrorphan, and CYP2C9-4'-OH-diclofenac. After incubation, samples (100 nL) were acoustically deposited onto a stainless steel 384-LazWell plate, then desorbed by an infrared laser directly from the plate surface into the gas phase, ionized by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and analyzed by MS/MS. Using this method, we achieved a sample analysis speed of 2.14 s/well, with bioanalytical performance comparable to the current online solid-phase extraction (SPE)-based MS method. An even faster readout speed was achieved when postreaction sample multiplexing was applied, where three reaction samples, one for each CYP, were transferred into the same well of the LazWell plate. In summary, LDTD coupled with acoustic sample deposition and multiplexing significantly decreased analysis time to 0.7 s/sample, making this MS-based approach feasible to support high-throughput screening (HTS) assays.

  12. Cobalamin speciation using reversed-phase micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2004-06-01

    Micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was optimized for the determination and separation of a mixture of cobalt containing species. Four cobalamin species (cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin) representing the various forms of vitamin B12 as well as the harmful corrinoid analogue cobinamide dicyanide were separated using reversed-phase microcapillary chromatography with columns containing C18 packing material with a 2-μm particle size. Selection of organic solvents for the separation took into consideration compatibility with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer being used for element specific detection. Optimized method conditions included use of a methanol gradient and make-up solution for the nebulizer. Some issues associated with dead volume were overcome by the extension of the gradient program. The total analysis time was 52 min. The column-to-column variability was evaluated and was found to be very reasonable (9% RSD on average), confirming that this method is rugged and that the technology should be easily transferred to other laboratories.

  13. Investigating the presence of omeprazole in waters by liquid chromatography coupled to low and high resolution mass spectrometry: degradation experiments.

    PubMed

    Boix, C; Ibáñez, M; Sancho, J V; Niessen, W M A; Hernández, F

    2013-10-01

    Omeprazole is one of the most consumed pharmaceuticals around the world. However, this compound is scarcely detected in urban wastewater and surface water. The absence of this pharmaceutical in the aquatic ecosystem might be due to its degradation in wastewater treatment plants, as well as in receiving water. In this work, different laboratory-controlled degradation experiments have been carried out on surface water in order to elucidate generated omeprazole transformation products (TPs). Surface water spiked with omeprazole was subjected to hydrolysis, photo-degradation under both sunlight and ultraviolet radiation and chlorination. Analyses by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) permitted identification of up to 17 omeprazole TPs. In a subsequent step, the TPs identified were sought in surface water and urban wastewater by LC-QTOF MS and by LC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole. The parent omeprazole was not detected in any of the samples, but four TPs were found in several water samples. The most frequently detected compound was OTP 5 (omeprazole sulfide), which might be a reasonable candidate to be included in monitoring programs rather than the parent omeprazole.

  14. Fast quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in plasma using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Li, Xituo; Wang, Yan; Gu, Xue; Dai, Jieyu; Wang, Guiming; Cheng, Yu; Yan, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrates in biosamples are frequently highlighted as the most differential metabolites in many metabolomics studies. A simple, fast, simultaneous quantitative method for 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma has been developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. In order to quantify 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma, various conditions, including columns, chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometry conditions, and plasma preparation methods, were investigated. Different conditions in this quantified analysis were performed and optimized. The reproducibility, precision, recovery, matrix effect, and stability of the method were verified. The results indicated that a methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) mixture could effectively and reproducibly precipitate rat plasma proteins. Cold organic solvents coupled with vortex for 1 min and incubated at -20°C for 20 min were the most optimal conditions for protein precipitation and extraction. The results, according to the linearity, recovery, precision, matrix effect, and stability, showed that the method was satisfactory in the quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma. The quantified analysis of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma performed excellently in terms of sensitivity, high throughput, and simple sample preparation, which met the requirement of quantification in specific expanded metabolomic studies after the global metabolic profiling research.

  15. Comparison of Analytical Methods for the Determination of Uranium in Seawater Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Jordana R.; Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Choe, Key-Young

    2016-04-20

    Trace element determinations in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are analytically challenging due to the typically very low concentrations of the trace elements and the potential interference of the salt matrix. In this study, we did a comparison for uranium analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of Sequim Bay seawater samples and three seawater certified reference materials (SLEW-3, CASS-5 and NASS-6) using seven different analytical approaches. The methods evaluated include: direct analysis, Fe/Pd reductive precipitation, standard addition calibration, online automated dilution using an external calibration with and without matrix matching, and online automated pre-concentration. The method which produced the most accurate results was the method of standard addition calibration, recovering uranium from a Sequim Bay seawater sample at 101 ± 1.2%. The on-line preconcentration method and the automated dilution with matrix-matched calibration method also performed well. The two least effective methods were the direct analysis and the Fe/Pd reductive precipitation using sodium borohydride

  16. Review: Current applications and challenges for liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS).

    PubMed

    Godin, Jean-Philippe; McCullagh, James S O

    2011-10-30

    High-precision isotope analysis is recognized as an essential research tool in many fields of study. Until recently, continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) was available via an elemental analyzer or a gas chromatography inlet system for compound-specific analysis of light stable isotopes. In 2004, however, an interface that coupled liquid chromatography with IRMS (LC/IRMS) became commercially available for the first time. This brought the capability for new areas of application, in particular enabling compound-specific δ(13)C analysis of non-volatile, aqueous soluble, compounds from complex mixtures. The interface design brought with it several analytical constraints, however, in particular a lack of compatibility with certain types of chromatography as well as limited flow rates and mobile phase compositions. Routine LC/IRMS methods have, however, been established for measuring the δ(13)C isotopic ratios of underivatized individual compounds for application in archeology, nutrition and physiology, geochemistry, hydrology, soil science and food authenticity. Seven years after its introduction, we review the technical advances and constraints, methodological developments and new applications of liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

  17. Multidimensional Separation of Natural Products Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Hadamard Transform Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xing; Knochenmuss, Richard; Siems, William F.; Hill, Herbert H.

    2016-05-01

    A high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)was interfaced to an atmospheric drift tube ion mobility time of flight mass spectrometry. The power of multidimensional separation was demonstrated using chili pepper extracts. The ambient pressure drift tube ion mobility provided high resolving powers up to 166 for the HPLC eluent. With implementation of Hadamard transform (HT), the duty cycle for the ion mobility drift tube was increased from less than 1% to 50%, and the ion transmission efficiency was improved by over 200 times compared with pulsed mode, improving signal to noise ratio 10 times. HT ion mobility and TOF mass spectrometry provide an additional dimension of separation for complex samples without increasing the analysis time compared with conventional HPLC.

  18. Applications of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in environmental radiochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grain, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    The state of the art in ICP-MS is now such that there are few discernible differences between radiochemical and mass spectrometric determinations of longlived radionuclides. Indeed, ICP-MS may provide better (more sensitive) data for many radionuclides, depending upon how one wishes to define "long-lived." In lowlevel determinations, sample preparation remains an important part of the analytical procedure, even with ICP-MS, but the speed and isotopic selectivity of the mass spectrometer appear to offer distinct procedural advantages over radiochemical techniques. Therefore, "radioanalytical" ICP-MS applications should continue to grow, especially in the area of radiation protection, but further research (on efficient sample introduction, for example) and method development may be required to get ICP-MS "off the ground" in the geochemical research areas that have traditionally been supported by radiochemistry.

  19. Fast separation and analysis of reduced monoclonal antibodies with capillary zone electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yimeng; Sun, Liangliang; Knierman, Michael D; Dovichi, Norman J

    2016-02-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-MS) was used for analysis of reduced antibodies. We first developed a simple protocol to condition commercial linear-polyacrylamide coated capillaries for use in top-down proteomics. We then suspended reduced antibodies in a solution of 35% acetic acid, 50% acetonitrile in water. Heavy and light chains were baseline resolved within 10 min and with 3-30 µg/mL detection limits using a 0.1% aqueous formic acid background electrolyte. Quintuplicate runs of a two-antibody mixture produced relative standard deviations of ∼1% in migration time and 10% in peak amplitudes. Resolution was further improved for the two-antibody mixture by using 5% acetic acid as the background electrolyte, highlighting the potential of capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for analysis of antibody mixtures.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Surface Sampling/Ionization Techniques for Direct Coupling of Planar Separations with Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pasilis, Sofie P; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    Planar separations, which include thin layer chromatography and gel electrophoresis, are in widespread use as important and powerful tools for conducting separations of complex mixtures. To increase the utility of planar separations, new methods are needed that allow in-situ characterization of the individual components of the separated mixtures. A large number of atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques for use with mass spectrometry have emerged in the past several years, and several have been investigated as a means for mass spectrometric read-out of planar separations. In this article, we review the atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques that have been used for the read-out of planar separation media. For each technique, we briefly explain the operational basics and discuss the analyte type for which it is appropriate and some specific applications from the literature.

  1. The Correlation of Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Experimental Data for Vertical Falling Film Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Keyhani, M; Miller, W A

    1999-11-14

    Absorption chillers are gaining global acceptance as quality comfort cooling systems. These machines are the central chilling plants and the supply for cotnfort cooling for many large commercial buildings. Virtually all absorption chillers use lithium bromide (LiBr) and water as the absorption fluids. Water is the refrigerant. Research has shown LiBr to he one of the best absorption working fluids because it has a high affinity for water, releases water vapor at relatively low temperatures, and has a boiling point much higher than that of water. The heart of the chiller is the absorber, where a process of simultaneous heat and mass transfer occurs as the refrigerant water vapor is absorbed into a falling film of aqueous LiBr. The more water vapor absorbed into the falling film, the larger the chiller's capacity for supporting comfort cooling. Improving the performance of the absorber leads directly to efficiency gains for the chiller. The design of an absorber is very empirical and requires experimental data. Yet design data and correlations are sparse in the open literature. The experimental data available to date have been derived at LiBr concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 0.60 mass fraction. No literature data are readily available for the design operating conditions of 0.62 and 0.64 mass fraction of LiBr and absorber pressures of 0.7 and 1.0 kPa.

  2. Pesticide analysis at ppt concentration levels: coupling nano-liquid chromatography with dielectric barrier discharge ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mirabelli, Mario F; Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-05-01

    We report the coupling of nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) with an ambient dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI)-based source. Detection and quantification were carried out by high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), using an LTQ-Orbitrap in full scan mode. Despite the fact that nano-LC systems are rarely used in food analysis, this coupling was demonstrated to deliver extremely high sensitivity in pesticide analysis, with limits of detection (LODs) as low as 10 pg/mL. In all cases, the limits of quantification (LOQs) were compliant with the current EU regulation. An excellent signal linearity over up to four orders of magnitude was also observed. Therefore, this method can easily compete with conventional GC-(EI)-MS or LC-ESI-MS/MS methods and in some cases outperform them. The method was successfully tested for food sample analysis, with apples and baby food, extracted using the QuEChERS approach. Our results demonstrate an outstanding sensitivity (at femtogram level) and reproducibility of the nano-LC-DBDI coupling, capable of improving routine pesticide analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most sensitive and reproducible plasma-MS-based method for pesticide analysis reported to date.

  3. MRI scanning in patients implanted with a round window or stapes coupled floating mass transducer of the Vibrant Soundbridge.

    PubMed

    Renninger, Daniel; Ernst, Arne; Todt, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion MRI examinations in patients with an alternatively coupled VSB can lead to unpleasant side-effects. However, the residual hearing was not impaired, whereas the hearing performance with the VSB was decreased in one patient which could be fixed by a surgical revision. Different experiences for the VSB 503 can be expected. Objective To investigate the in vivo effects of MRI scanning on the Vibrant Soundbridge system (VSB) with an alternatively coupled Floating Mass Transducer (FMT). Method Sixty-five VSB (502) implantees were included in this study. Of them, 42 questionnaires could be evaluated with the patients' statements about their medical, otological, and general condition before, during, and after an MRI scan which was indicated for different medical reasons, despite the previous implantation of an alternatively coupled Vibrant Soundbridge System. Results In four patients (9.5%), five MRI examinations were performed. These were done for different indications (e.g. knee and shoulder joint diagnostics). During the scanning, noise and subjectively perceived distortion of the implant were described. A deterioration of the hearing gain with the VSB in place was found in one patient. A decrease of the hearing threshold was not observed.

  4. Gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (GC-API-MS): review.

    PubMed

    Li, Du-Xin; Gan, Lin; Bronja, Amela; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2015-09-03

    Although the coupling of GC/MS with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) has been reported in 1970s, the interest in coupling GC with atmospheric pressure ion source was expanded in the last decade. The demand of a "soft" ion source for preserving highly diagnostic molecular ion is desirable, as compared to the "hard" ionization technique such as electron ionization (EI) in traditional GC/MS, which fragments the molecule in an extensive way. These API sources include atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI), electrospray ionization (ESI) and low temperature plasma (LTP). This review discusses the advantages and drawbacks of this analytical platform. After an introduction in atmospheric pressure ionization the review gives an overview about the history and explains the mechanisms of various atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used in combination with GC such as APCI, APPI, APLI, ESI and LTP. Also new developments made in ion source geometry, ion source miniaturization and multipurpose ion source constructions are discussed and a comparison between GC-FID, GC-EI-MS and GC-API-MS shows the advantages and drawbacks of these techniques. The review ends with an overview of applications realized with GC-API-MS.

  5. Rapid identification and analysis of airborne plutonium using a combination of alpha spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Dennis E; Steed, Amber C; Sobus, Jon; Stetzenbach, Klaus; Lindley, Kaz; Hodge, Vernon F

    2003-10-01

    Recent wildland fires near two U.S. nuclear facilities point to a need to rapidly identify the presence of airborne plutonium during incidents involving the potential release of radioactive materials. Laboratory turn-around times also need to be shortened for critical samples collected in the earliest stages of radiological emergencies. This note discusses preliminary investigations designed to address both these problems. The methods under review are same day high-resolution alpha spectroscopy to screen air filter samples for the presence of plutonium and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to perform sensitive plutonium analyses. Thus far, using modified alpha spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to reliably identify the approximately 5.2 MeV emission of 239Pu on surrogate samples (air filters artificially spiked with plutonium after collection) even though the primary alpha-particle emissions of plutonium are, as expected, superimposed against a natural alpha radiation background dominated by short-lived radon and thoron progeny (approximately 6-9 MeV). Several processing methods were tested to prepare samples for analysis and shorten laboratory turn-around time. The most promising technique was acid-leaching of air filter samples using a commercial open-vessel microwave digestion system. Samples prepared in this way were analyzed by both alpha spectroscopy (as a thin-layer iron hydroxide co-precipitate) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The detection levels achieved for 239Pu--approximately 1 mBq m(-3) for alpha spectroscopy screening, and, < 0.1 mBq m(-3) for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis--are consistent with derived emergency response levels based on EPA's Protective Action Guides, and samples can be evaluated in 36 to 72 h. Further, if samples can be returned to a fixed-laboratory and processed immediately, results from mass spectrometry could be available in as little as 24 h. When fully implemented

  6. Direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Masaki; Sakurai, Hiromu; Nishiguchi, Kohei; Utani, Keisuke; Günther, Detlef

    2015-09-03

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique was applied to the direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in ambient air. The ultra-trace semiconductor gases such as arsine (AsH3) and phosphine (PH3) were converted to particles by reaction with ozone (O3) and ammonia (NH3) gases within a gas to particle conversion device (GPD). The converted particles were directly introduced and measured by ICPMS through a gas exchange device (GED), which could penetrate the particles as well as exchange to Ar from either non-reacted gases such as an air or remaining gases of O3 and NH3. The particle size distribution of converted particles was measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and the results supported the elucidation of particle agglomeration between the particle converted from semiconductor gas and the particle of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which was produced as major particle in GPD. Stable time-resolved signals from AsH3 and PH3 in air were obtained by GPD-GED-ICPMS with continuous gas introduction; however, the slightly larger fluctuation, which could be due to the ionization fluctuation of particles in ICP, was observed compared to that of metal carbonyl gas in Ar introduced directly into ICPMS. The linear regression lines were obtained and the limits of detection (LODs) of 1.5 pL L(-1) and 2.4 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, were estimated. Since these LODs revealed sufficiently lower values than the measurement concentrations required from semiconductor industry such as 0.5 nL L(-1) and 30 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, the GPD-GED-ICPMS could be useful for direct and high sensitive analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in air.

  7. Asymmetrical Flow-Field-Flow Fractionation coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the analysis of gold nanoparticles in the presence of natural nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Meisterjahn, Boris; Neubauer, Elisabeth; Von der Kammer, Frank; Hennecke, Dieter; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-11-03

    Flow-Field-Flow Fractionation (Flow-FFF), coupled with online detection systems, is one of the most promising tools available for the analysis and characterization of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in complex matrices. In order to demonstrate the applicability of Flow-FFF for the detection, quantification, and characterization of engineered gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), model dispersions were prepared containing AuNPs with diameters of 30 or 100nm, natural nanoparticles (NNPs) extracted from a soil sample, and different concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM), which were then used to investigate interactions between the AuNPs and the NNPs. It could be shown that light scattering detection can be used to evaluate the fractionation performance of the pure NNPs, but not the fractionation performance of the mixed samples that also contained AuNPs because of specific interactions between the AuNPs and the laser light. A combination of detectors (i.e. light absorbance and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) was found to be useful for differentiating between heteroaggregation and homoaggregation of the nanoparticles (NPs). The addition of NOM to samples containing 30nm AuNPs stabilized the AuNPs without affecting the NP size distribution. However, fractograms for samples with no added NOM showed a change in the size distribution, suggesting interactions between the AuNPs and NNPs. This interpretation was supported by unchanged light absorption wavelengths for the AuNPs. In contrast, results for samples containing 100nm AuNPs were inconclusive with respect to recovery and size distributions because of problems with the separation system that probably related to the size and high density of these nanoparticles, highlighting the need for extensive method optimization strategies, even for nanoparticles of the same material but different sizes.

  8. Ultra-trace determination of gold nanoparticles in environmental water by surfactant assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction coupled with electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2016-08-01

    A new method by coupling surfactant assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (SA-DLLME) with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) was proposed for the analysis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in environmental water samples. Effective separation of AuNPs from ionic gold species was achieved by using sodium thiosulphate as a complexing agent. Various experimental parameters affecting SA-DLLME of AuNPs, such as the organic solvent, organic solvent volume, pH of the sample, the kind of surfactant, surfactant concentration, vortex time, speed of centrifugation, centrifugation time, and different coating as well as sizes of AuNPs were investigated carefully. Furthermore, the interference of coexisting ions, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and other metal nanoparticles (NPs) were studied. Under the optimal conditions, a detection limit of 2.2 ng L- 1 and an enrichment factor of 152-fold was achieved for AuNPs, and the original morphology of the AuNPs could be maintained during the extraction process. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of AuNPs in environmental water samples, including tap water, the East Lake water, and the Yangtze River water, with recoveries in the range of 89.6-102%. Compared with the established methods for metal NPs analysis, the proposed method has the merits of simple and fast operation, low detection limit, high selectivity, good tolerance to the sample matrix and no digestion or dilution required. It provides an efficient quantification methodology for monitoring AuNPs' pollution in the environmental water and evaluating its toxicity.

  9. Size determination and quantification of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles by flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, L; Bolea, E; Laborda, F; Cubel, C; Ferrer, P; Gianolio, D; da Silva, I; Castillo, J R

    2016-03-18

    Facing the lack of studies on characterization and quantification of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs), whose consumption and release is greatly increasing, this work proposes a method for their sizing and quantification by Flow Field-flow Fractionation (FFFF) coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two modalities of FFFF (Asymmetric Flow- and Hollow Fiber-Flow Field Flow Fractionation, AF4 and HF5, respectively) are compared, and their advantages and limitations discussed. Experimental conditions (carrier composition, pH, ionic strength, crossflow and carrier flow rates) are studied in detail in terms of NP separation, recovery, and repeatability. Size characterization of CeO2 NPs was addressed by different approaches. In the absence of feasible size standards of CeO2 NPs, suspensions of Ag, Au, and SiO2 NPs of known size were investigated. Ag and Au NPs failed to show a comparable behavior to that of the CeO2 NPs, whereas the use of SiO2 NPs provided size estimations in agreement to those predicted by the theory. The latter approach was thus used for characterizing the size of CeO2 NPs in a commercial suspension. Results were in adequate concordance with those achieved by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and dynamic light scattering. The quantification of CeO2 NPs in the commercial suspension by AF4-ICP-MS required the use of a CeO2 NPs standards, since the use of ionic cerium resulted in low recoveries (99 ± 9% vs. 73 ± 7%, respectively). A limit of detection of 0.9 μg L(-1) CeO2 corresponding to a number concentration of 1.8 × 1012 L(-1) for NPs of 5 nm was achieved for an injection volume of 100 μL.

  10. Ion-pair chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IPC-ICP-MS) as a method for thiomolybdate speciation in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Lohmayer, Regina; Reithmaier, Gloria Maria Susanne; Bura-Nakić, Elvira; Planer-Friedrich, Britta

    2015-03-17

    Molybdenum precipitates preferentially under reducing conditions; therefore, its occurrence in sediment records is used as an indicator of paleoredox conditions. Although thiomolybdates (MoO4-xSx(2-) with x = 1-4) supposedly are necessary intermediates in the process of molybdenum precipitation under anoxic conditions, there is no information about their abundance in natural environments, because of a lack of element-specific methods with sufficiently low detection limits. Here, we optimized ion-pair chromatographic separation for coupling to an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry detector (IPC-ICP-MS). 2-Propanol (10%-25% gradient) replaced the previously used acetonitrile (25%-75%) as the solvent, to reduce the carbon load into the plasma. In synthetic solutions, formation of thiomolybdates was found to occur spontaneously in the presence of excess sulfide and the degree of thiolation was highest at pH 7. Excess hydroxyl led to a transformation of thiomolybdates to molybdate. Under acidic to neutral conditions, precipitation of molybdenum and hydrolysis of tetrathiomolybdate were observed. Flash-freezing was found to be suitable to stabilize tetrathiomolybdate, with <4% transformation over more than two months. High ionic strengths matrices (>2 mM) negatively affected the detection of molybdate, which eluted mainly in the dead volume, but had no negative effect on higher thiolated molybdates. Detection limits were ∼10 nM. With the newly developed IPC-ICP-MS method, thiomolybdates were found to form spontaneously in euxinic marine waters after adding a molybdate spike and occur naturally in sulfidic geothermal waters.

  11. Towards silicon speciation in light petroleum products using gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with a dynamic reaction cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chainet, Fabien; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Ponthus, Jeremie; Pécheyran, Christophe; Castro, Joaudimir; Tessier, Emmanuel; Donard, Olivier François Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Silicon speciation has recently gained interest in the oil and gas industry due to the significant poisoning problems caused by silicon on hydrotreatment catalysts. The poisoning effect clearly depends on the structure of the silicon species which must be determined and quantified. The hyphenation of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) allows a specific detection to determine the retention times of all silicon species. The aim of this work is to determine the retention indices of unknown silicon species to allow their characterization by a multi-technical approach in order to access to their chemical structure. The optimization of the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of the ICP-MS using hydrogen as reactant gas successfully demonstrated the resolution of the interferences (14N14N+ and 12C16O+) initially present on 28Si. The linearity was excellent for silicon compounds and instrumental detection limits ranged from 20 to 140 μg of Si/kg depending on the response of the silicon compounds. A continuous release of silicon in the torch was observed most likely due to the use of a torch and an injector which was made of quartz. A non-universal response for silicon was observed and it was clearly necessary to use response coefficients to quantify silicon compounds. Known silicon compounds such as cyclic siloxanes (D3-D16) coming from PDMS degradation were confirmed. Furthermore, more than 10 new silicon species never characterized before in petroleum products were highlighted in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) degradation samples produced under thermal cracking of hydrocarbons. These silicon species mainly consisted of linear and cyclic structures containing reactive functions such as ethoxy, peroxide and hydroxy groups which can be able to react with the alumina surface and hence, poison the catalyst. This characterization will further allow the development of innovative solutions such as trapping silicon compounds or

  12. Improvement of Mitochondria Extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Characterization in Shotgun Proteomics Using Sheathless Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Marianne; Gahoual, Rabah; Enkler, Ludovic; Becker, Hubert Dominique; Chicher, Johana; Hammann, Philippe; François, Yannis-Nicolas; Kuhn, Lauriane; Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe the characterization of a quantity-limited sample (100 ng) of yeast mitochondria by shotgun bottom-up proteomics. Sample characterization was carried out by sheathless capillary electrophoresis, equipped with a high sensitivity porous tip and coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (CESI–MS-MS) and concomitantly with a state-of-art nano flow liquid chromatography coupled to a similar mass spectrometry (MS) system (nanoLC–MS-MS). With single injections, both nanoLC–MS-MS and CESI–MS-MS 60 min-long separation experiments allowed us to identify 271 proteins (976 unique peptides) and 300 proteins (1,765 unique peptides) respectively, demonstrating a significant specificity and complementarity in identification depending on the physicochemical separation employed. Such complementary, maximizing the number of analytes detected, presents a powerful tool to deepen a biological sample's proteomic characterization. A comprehensive study of the specificity provided by each separating technique was also performed using the different properties of the identified peptides: molecular weight, mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), isoelectric point (pI), sequence coverage or MS–MS spectral quality enabled to determine the contribution of each separation. For example, CESI–MS-MS enables to identify larger peptides and eases the detection of those having extreme pI without impairing spectral quality. The addition of peptides, and therefore proteins identified by both techniques allowed us to increase significantly the sequence coverages and then the confidence of characterization. In this study, we also demonstrated that the two yeast enolase isoenzymes were both characterized in the CESI–MS-MS data set. The observation of discriminant proteotypic peptides is facilitated when a high number of precursors with high-quality MS–MS spectra are generated. PMID:26860395

  13. Comparison of chicken and pheasant ovotransferrin N-glycoforms via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kuan; Wang, Chengjian; Sun, Yujiao; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Linjuan; Wang, Zhongfu

    2014-07-23

    Species-specific ovotransferrin features a highly conservative protein sequence, but it varies in the structure of the attached oligosaccharides, which may contribute to the differences observed in its bioactivity and nutritional value. Herein, chicken ovotransferrin (COT) and pheasant ovotransferrin (POT) isolated by repeated ethanol precipitation of egg white were digested with peptide N-glycosidase F to release N-glycans. The obtained N-glyans were isotopically labeled with aniline and analyzed via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and online hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). Relative quantitation based on isotopic aniline labeling and HILIC-MS/MS analysis revealed in detail the conspicuous difference between COT and POT in the abundance of their N-glycan compositions and isomers. In total, 16 COT N-glycans were observed, including 1 core structure (3.18%), 3 hybrid type (5.42%), and 12 complex type (91.40%), whereas 21 POT N-glycans were found, including 1 truncated structure (1.88%), 1 core structure (6.26%), 3 high mannose type (5.20%), 6 hybrid type (19.14%), and 10 complex type (67.52%). To our knowledge, this study is the first qualitative and quantitative comparison of COT and POT N-glycosylation patterns. These results suggest that POT has a different glycosylation pattern compared to that of COT and thus the effect of its glycosylation pattern on its bioactivity is worthy of further exploration.

  14. Comparative Study of Three Methods for Affinity Measurements: Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled with UV Detection and Mass Spectrometry, and Direct Infusion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Gleb G.; Logie, Jennifer; Okhonin, Victor; Renaud, Justin B.; Mayer, Paul M.; Berezovski, Maxim V.

    2012-07-01

    We present affinity capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (ACE-MS) as a comprehensive separation technique for label-free solution-based affinity analysis. The application of ACE-MS for measuring affinity constants between eight small molecule drugs [ibuprofen, s-flurbiprofen, diclofenac, phenylbutazone, naproxen, folic acid, resveratrol, and 4,4'-(propane-1,3-diyl) dibenzoic acid] and β-cyclodextrin is described. We couple on-line ACE with MS to combine the separation and kinetic capability of ACE together with the molecular weight and structural elucidation of MS in one system. To understand the full potential of ACE-MS, we compare it with two other methods: Direct infusion mass spectrometry (DIMS) and ACE with UV detection (ACE-UV). After the evaluation, DIMS provides less reliable equilibrium dissociation constants than separation-based ACE-UV and ACE-MS, and cannot be used solely for the study of noncovalent interactions. ACE-MS determines apparent dissociation constants for all reacting small molecules in a mixture, even in cases when drugs overlap with each other during separation. The ability of ACE-MS to interact, separate, and rapidly scan through m/z can facilitate the simultaneous affinity analysis of multiple interacting pairs, potentially leading to the high-throughput screening of drug candidates.

  15. Speciation analysis of inorganic tin by on-column complexation ion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Yang, Die; Guo, Xiangquan; Chen, Zuliang

    2014-11-14

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were used as complementary methods to identify Sn-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) complex formation. ESI-MS was used to initially confirm the formation of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) and their MS spectra suggest these tin complexes were stable in solution. On-column complexation of tin with DTPA and the separation of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) was performed on anion-exchange chromatography with an mobile phase containing 20mM NH4NO3 and 3mM DTPA at pH 6.0, and the subsequent detection of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) was achieved by ICP-MS. Linear plots were obtained in a concentration range of 1.0-1000 μg L(-1) with detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 μg L(-1). The developed procedure allows the simultaneous determination of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) in less than 5 min with a RSD between 2.1 and 2.7%. The recoveries of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) were found to be 96.8 and 99.4%, respectively, when the sample was spiked with 20 μg L(-1) standard. Finally, the proposed procedure was used for the determination of tin species in contaminated water.

  16. Analysis of additives in dairy products by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Ling, Yun; Lin, Yuanhui; Chang, James; Chu, Xiaogang

    2014-04-04

    A new method combining QuEChERS with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap) was developed for the highly accurate and sensitive screening of 43 antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in dairy products. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method for the determination of 42 different analytes in dairy products for the first time. After optimization, the maximum predicted recovery was 99.33% rate for aspartame under the optimized conditions of 10 mL acetionitrile, 1.52 g sodium acetate, 410 mg PSA and 404 mgC18. For the matrices studied, the recovery rates of the other 42 compounds ranged from 89.4% to 108.2%, with coefficient of variation <6.4%. UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap Mass full scan mode acquired full MS data was used to identify and quantify additives, and data-dependent scan mode obtained fragment ion spectra for confirmation. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 1.5ppm, and only need to calibrate once a week. The 43 compounds behave dynamic in the range 0.001-1000 μg kg(-1) concentration, with correlation coefficient >0.999. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.0001-3.6 μg kg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in commercial dairy product samples, and it is very useful for fast screening of different food additives.

  17. Elastic Proton Scattering of Medium Mass Nuclei from Coupled-Cluster Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, G.; MichelN.,

    2012-01-01

    Using coupled-cluster theory and interactions from chiral effective field theory, we compute overlap functions for transfer and scattering of low-energy protons on the target nucleus 40Ca. Effects of three-nucleon forces are included phenomenologically as in-medium two-nucleon interactions. Using known asymptotic forms for one-nucleon overlap functions we derive a simple and intuitive way of computing scattering observables such as elastic scattering phase shifts and cross sections. As a first application and proof of principle, we compute phase shifts and differential interaction cross sections at energies of 9.6 and 12.44 MeV and compare with experimental data. Our computed diffraction minima are in fair agreement with experimental results, while we tend to overestimate the cross sections at large scattering angles.

  18. Mass-producible microtags for security applications: calculated fabrication tolerances by rigorous coupled-wave analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Descour, M.R.; Sweatt, W.C.; Krenz, K.D.

    1998-04-01

    We develop a method for encoding phase and amplitude in microscopic computer-generated holograms (microtags) for security applications. An 8{times}8 cell phase-only and an 8{times}8 cell phase-and-amplitude microtag design are fabricated in photoresist using an extreme ultraviolet (13.4-nm) lithography (EUVL) tool. Each microtag measures 80{times}160{mu}m and contains features 0.2 {mu}m wide. Fraunhofer-zone diffraction patterns can be obtained from fabricated microtags without any intervening optics and compare very favorably with predicted diffraction patterns [Descour {ital et al.} (1996)]. We present the results of a rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) of microtags. Microtags are modeled as consisting of subwavelength gratings of a trapezoidal profile. Transverse-electric (TE) and TM readout polarizations are modeled. The analysis concerns the determination of optimal microtag-grating design parameter values and tolerances on those parameters. The parameters are grating wall-slope angle, grating duty cycle, grating depth, and metal coating thickness. Optimal microtag-grating parameter values result in maximum diffraction efficiency, which is calculated at 16{percent} for microtag gratings in air and 12{percent} for microtag gratings underneath a protective dielectric coating, within fabrication constraints. TM-polarized readout illumination is diffracted with higher efficiency than TE-polarized illumination by microtag gratings. {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}{ital Key words:} computer-generated holograms; security and anticounterfeiting devices; grating fabrication tolerances; rigorous coupled-wave analysis. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers}

  19. Higgs coupling constants as a probe of new physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kanemura, Shinya; Okada, Yasuhiro; Senaha, Eibun; Yuan, C.-P.

    2004-12-01

    We study new physics effects on the couplings of weak gauge bosons with the lightest CP-even Higgs boson (h), hZZ, and the trilinear coupling of the lightest Higgs boson, hhh, at the one-loop order, as predicted by the two Higgs doublet model. Those renormalized coupling constants can deviate from the standard model (SM) predictions due to two distinct origins: the tree level mixing effect of Higgs bosons and the quantum effect of additional particles in loop diagrams. The latter can be enhanced in the renormalized hhh coupling constant when the additional particles show the nondecoupling property. Therefore, even in the case where the hZZ coupling is close to the SM value, deviation in the hhh coupling from the SM value can become as large as plus 100%, while that in the hZZ coupling is at most minus 1% level. Such large quantum effect on the Higgs trilinear coupling is distinguishable from the tree level mixing effect, and is expected to be detectable at a future linear collider.

  20. The influence of topographic feedback on a coupled mass balance and ice-flow model for Vestfonna ice-cap, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Martina; Möller, Marco; Zwinger, Thomas; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    Using a coupled simulation set-up between a by statistical climate data forced and to ice-cap resolution downscaled mass balance model and an ice-dynamic model, we study coupling effects for the Vestfonna ice cap, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, by analysing the impacts of different imposed coupling intervals on mass-balance and sea-level rise (SLR) projections. Based on a method to estimate errors introduced by different coupling schemes, we find that neglecting the topographic feedback in the coupling leads to underestimations of 10-20% in SLR projections on century time-scales in our model compared to full coupling (i.e., exchange of properties using smallest occurring time-step). Using the same method it also is shown that parametrising mass-balance adjustment for changes in topography using lapse rates is a - in computational terms - cost-effective reasonably accurate alternative applied to an ice-cap like Vestfonna. We test the forcing imposed by different emission pathways (RCP 2.4, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5). For most of them, over the time-period explored (2000-2100), fast-flowing outlet glaciers decrease in impacting SLR due to their deceleration and reduced mass flux as they thin and retreat from the coast, hence detaching from the ocean and thereby losing their major mass drainage mechanism, i.e., calving.

  1. Phonon-particle coupling effects in odd-even double mass differences of semi-magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saperstein, E. E.; Baldo, M.; Pankratov, S. S.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    A method is developed to consider the particle-phonon coupling (PC) effects in the calculation of the odd-even double mass differences (DMD) in semi-magic nuclei starting from the free NN potential. The PC correction δΣPC to the mass operator Σ is found in g L 2-approximation, g L being the vertex of creating the L-phonon. The tadpole term of the operator δΣPC is taken into account. The method is based on a direct, without any use of the perturbation theory, solution of the Dyson equation with the mass operator Σ(ɛ) = Σ0 + δΣPC(ɛ) for finding the single-particle energies and Z-factors. In its turn, they are used as an input for finding different PC corrections to the DMD values. Results for a chain of even semi-magic nuclei 200-206Pb show that the inclusion of the PC corrections makes agreement with the experimental data significantly better.

  2. Measurement of femtogram quantities of protactinium in silicate rock samples by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Regelous, Marcel; Turner, Simon P; Elliott, Tim R; Rostami, Kia; Hawkesworth, Chris J

    2004-07-01

    We describe a new method for the chemical separation and analysis of Pa in silicate rock samples by isotope dilution. Our new technique has the following advantages over previous methods: (a) The initial separation of Pa from the rock matrix is carried out using anionic exchange resin and HCl-HF mixtures, avoiding the need to remove F(-) quantitatively from the sample solution prior to this step, (b) Efficient ionization of Pa is achieved using a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, so that smaller sample sizes and shorter measurement times are required, compared to previous methods using thermal ionization mass spectrometry or alpha spectrometry. (c) Plasma ionization requires less efficient separation of the high field strength elements from Pa, thus reducing reagent volumes, blanks, and sample preparation times. Instrumental mass fractionation can be corrected for using admixed U of known isotopic composition. Using this method, Pa concentrations can be measured to a precision of approximately 0.5% and an accuracy of approximately 1% using only a few tens of femtograms of Pa.

  3. Mass spectrometry of positive ions in capacitively coupled low pressure RF discharges in oxygen with water impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanović, Ilija; Stojanović, Vladimir; Boulmer-Leborgne, Chantal; Lecas, Thomas; Kovacevic, Eva; Berndt, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    A capacitively coupled RF oxygen discharge is studied by means of mass spectroscopy. Mass spectra of neutral and positive species are measured in the mid plane between the electrodes at different distances between plasma and mass-spectrometer orifice. In the case of positive ions, as expected, the largest flux originates from \\text{O}2+ . However, a significant number of impurities are detected, especially for low input powers and larger distances. The most abundant positive ions (besides \\text{O}2+ ) are \\text{N}{{\\text{O}}+}, \\text{NO}2+ , {{\\text{H}}+}≤ft({{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O}\\right) , and {{\\text{H}}+}{{≤ft({{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O}\\right)}2} . In particular, for the case of hydrated hydronium ions {{\\text{H}}+}{{≤ft({{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O}\\right)}n} (n  =  1, 2) a surprisingly large flux (for low pressure plasma conditions) is detected. Another interesting fact concerns the {{\\text{H}}2}{{\\text{O}}+} ions. Despite the relatively high ammount of water impurities {{\\text{H}}2}{{\\text{O}}+} ions are present only in traces. The reaction mechanisms leading to the production of the observed ions, especially the hydrated hydronium ions are discussed.

  4. Search for a Low-Mass Neutral Higgs Boson with Suppressed Couplings to Fermions Using Events with Multiphoton Final States

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero

    2016-06-20

    A search for a Higgs boson with suppressed couplings to fermions, $h_f$, assumed to be the neutral, lower-mass partner of the Higgs boson discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, is reported. Such a Higgs boson could exist in extensions of the standard model with two Higgs doublets, and could be produced via $p\\bar{p} \\to H^\\pm h_f \\to W^* h_f h_f \\to 4\\gamma + X$, where $H^\\pm$ is a charged Higgs boson. This analysis uses all events with at least three photons in the final state from proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96~TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.2~${\\rm fb}^{-1}$. No evidence of a signal is observed in the data. Values of Higgs-boson masses between 10 and 100 GeV/$c^2$ are excluded at 95\\% Bayesian credibility.

  5. Targeted high-resolution ion mobility separation coupled to ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry of endocrine disruptors in complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Paolo; Thompson, Christopher J; Ridgeway, Mark E; Park, Melvin A; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2015-04-21

    Traditional separation and detection of targeted compounds from complex mixtures from environmental matrices requires the use of lengthy prefractionation steps and high-resolution mass analyzers due to the large number of chemical components and their large structural diversity (highly isomeric). In the present work, selected accumulation trapped ion mobility spectrometry (SA-TIMS) is coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) for direct separation and characterization of targeted endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) from a complex environmental matrix in a single analysis. In particular, targeted identification based on high-resolution mobility (R ∼ 70-120) and ultrahigh-resolution mass measurements (R > 400 000) of seven commonly targeted EDC and their isobars (e.g., bisphenol A, (Z)- and (E)-diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, estrone, α-estradiol, and 17-ethynylestradiol) is shown from a complex mixture of water-soluble organic matter (e.g., Suwannee River Fulvic Acid Standard II) complemented with reference standard measurements and theoretical calculations (<3% error).

  6. Biogeochemical responses following coral mass spawning on the Great Barrier Reef: pelagic-benthic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, C.; Jantzen, C.; Struck, U.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Huettel, M.

    2008-03-01

    This study quantified how the pulse of organic matter from the release of coral gametes triggered a chain of pelagic and benthic processes during an annual mass spawning event on the Australian Great Barrier Reef. Particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations in reef waters increased by threefold to 11-fold the day after spawning and resulted in a stimulation of pelagic oxygen consumption rates that lasted for at least 1 week. Water column microbial communities degraded the organic carbon of gametes of the broadcast-spawning coral Acropora millepora at a rate of >15% h-1, which is about three times faster than the degradation rate measured for larvae of the brooding coral Stylophora pistillata. Stable isotope signatures of POM in the water column reflected the fast transfer of organic matter from coral gametes into higher levels of the food chain, and the amount of POM reaching the seafloor immediately increased after coral spawning and then tailed-off in the next 2 weeks. Short-lasting phytoplankton blooms developed within a few days after the spawning event, indicating a prompt recycling of nutrients released through the degradation of spawning products. These data show the profound effects of coral mass spawning on the reef community and demonstrate the tight recycling of nutrients in this oligotrophic ecosystem.

  7. Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Bioactive Fatty Acyl Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Divito, Erin B.; Kroniser, Kristin M.; Cascio, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of the contributions of lipids to cellular physiology, both as structural components of the membrane and as modulatory ligands for membrane proteins, has increased in recent years with the development of the biophysical and biochemical tools to examine these effects. Their modulatory roles in ion channels and transporters function have been extensively characterized, with the molecular mechanisms of these activities being the subject of intense scrutiny. The physiological significance of lipids in biochemistry is expanding as numerous fatty acyls are discovered to possess signaling properties. These bioactive lipids are often found in quantities of pmol/g of tissue and are co-extracted with numerous lipophilic molecules, making their detection and identification challenging. Common analytical methodologies involve chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric techniques; however, a single chromatographic step is typically ineffective due to the complexity of the biological samples. It is, therefore, essential to develop approaches that incorporate multiple dimensions of separation. Described in this manuscript are normal phase and reversed phase separation strategies for lipids that include detection of the bioactive primary fatty acid amides and N-acyl glycines via tandem mass spectrometry. Concerted utilization of these approaches are then used to separate and sensitively identify primary fatty acid amides extracted from homogenized tissue, using mouse brains as a test case. PMID:28018237

  8. Magnetic immunoassay coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen in human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Yiwen; Xiao, Guangyang; Hu, Bin

    2015-04-01

    The absolute quantification of glycoproteins in complex biological samples is a challenge and of great significance. Herein, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized magnetic beads were prepared to selectively capture glycoproteins, while antibody conjugated gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized as element tags to label two different glycoproteins. Based on that, a new approach of magnetic immunoassay-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycoproteins. Taking biomarkers of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as two model glycoproteins, experimental parameters involved in the immunoassay procedure were carefully optimized and analytical performance of the proposed method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) for AFP and CEA were 0.086 μg L- 1 and 0.054 μg L- 1 with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7, c = 5 μg L- 1) of 6.5% and 6.2% for AFP and CEA, respectively. Linear range for both AFP and CEA was 0.2-50 μg L- 1. To validate the applicability of the proposed method, human serum samples were analyzed, and the obtained results were in good agreement with that obtained by the clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. The developed method exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for the simultaneous determination of AFP and CEA, and extended the applicability of metal nanoparticle tags based on ICP-MS methodology in multiple glycoprotein quantifications.

  9. Mercury speciation in thawed out and refrozen fish samples by gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Krystek, Petra; Ritsema, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Different sub-sampling procedures were applied for the determination of mercury species (as total mercury Hg, methylmercury MeHg+ and inorganic mercury Hg2+) in frozen fish meat. Analyses were carried out by two different techniques. After the sample material was pre-treated by microwave digestion, atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS) was used for the determination of total Hg. Speciation analysis was performed according to the following procedure: dissolution of sample material in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), derivatisation with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt4), extraction into isooctane and measurement with gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS) for the identification and quantification of methylmercury (MeHg+) and inorganic mercury (Hg2+). The concentration range of total Hg measured in the shark fillets is between 0.9 and 3.6 microg g(-1) thawed out shark fillet. Speciation analysis leads to > or =94% Hg present as MeHg+. Homogeneity, storage conditions and stability of analytical species and sample materials have great influence on analytical results. Sub-sampling of half-frozen/partly thawed out fish and analysis lead to significantly different concentrations, which are on average a factor of two lower.

  10. Polymer monolithic capillary microextraction on-line coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Au and Pd in biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaolan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2014-11-01

    A novel method based on on-line polymer monolithic capillary microextraction (CME)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the determination of trace Au and Pd in biological samples. For this purpose, poly(glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith was prepared and functionalized with mercapto groups. The prepared monolith exhibited good selectivity to Au and Pd, and good resistance to strong acid with a long life span. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency of CME, such as sample acidity, sample flow rate, eluent conditions and coexisting ion interference were investigated in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, 3σ) were 5.9 ng L- 1 for Au and 8.3 ng L- 1 for Pd, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, c = 50 ng L -1, n = 7) were 6.5% for Au and 1.1% for Pd, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of Au and Pd in human urine and serum samples with the recovery in the range of 84-118% for spiked samples. The developed on-line polymer monolithic CME-ICP-MS method has the advantages of rapidity, simplicity, low sample/reagent consumption, high sensitivity and is suitable for the determination of trace Au and Pd in biological samples with limited amount available and complex matrix.

  11. Selenium speciation in animal tissues after enzymatic digestion by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Quijano, M A; Moreno, P; Gutiérrez, A M; Pérez-Conde, M C; Cámara, C

    2000-07-01

    A procedure is described for the enzymatic digestion of tuna and mussel samples that allows the determination of selenium species by high-performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The species were extracted by two-step enzymatic hydrolysis with a non-specific protease (subtilisin). The selenium species were separated on a Spherisorb 5 ODS/AMINO column using two different chromatographic conditions, namely phosphate buffers at pH 2.8 and pH 6.0 as mobile phases. The method determines organic (trimethylselenonium, selenocystine, selenomethionine and selenoethionine) and inorganic selenium species (selenite and selenate), but only organic selenium species were found in the samples. The sum of identified selenium species in the sample was about 30% of the total selenium present in the enzymatic extract despite the fact that recoveries of total hydrolysed selenium were 93-102%. Trimethylselenonium ion and selenomethionine were found in both tuna and mussel samples and an unknown selenium species was also found in tuna samples.

  12. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry as an alternative to cloud point extraction based methods for rapid quantification of silver ions and surface coated silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K.; Linder, Sean W.

    2016-01-01

    Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 μg kg−1 of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 μg kg−1 of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10–110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low. PMID:26724893

  13. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry as an alternative to cloud point extraction based methods for rapid quantification of silver ions and surface coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K; Linder, Sean W

    2016-01-15

    Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 μg kg(-1) of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 μg kg(-1) of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10-110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low.

  14. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantification of quantum dots bioconjugation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-Miranda, Mario; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Costa-Fernández, José M; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2015-11-27

    Hyphenation of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) to an on-line elemental detection (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS) is proposed as a powerful diagnostic tool for quantum dots bioconjugation studies. In particular, conjugation effectiveness between a "model" monoclonal IgG antibody (Ab) and CdSe/ZnS core-shell Quantum Dots (QDs), surface-coated with an amphiphilic polymer, has been monitored here by such hybrid AF4-ICP-MS technique. Experimental conditions have been optimized searching for a proper separation between the sought bioconjugates from the eventual free reagents excesses employed during the bioconjugation (QDs and antibodies). Composition and pH of the carrier have been found to be critical parameters to ensure an efficient separation while ensuring high species recovery from the AF4 channel. An ICP-MS equipped with a triple quadropole was selected as elemental detector to enable sensitive and reliable simultaneous quantification of the elemental constituents, including sulfur, of the nanoparticulated species and the antibody. The hyphenated technique used provided nanoparticle size-based separation, elemental detection, and composition analysis capabilities that turned out to be instrumental in order to investigate in depth the Ab-QDs bioconjugation process. Moreover, the analytical strategy here proposed allowed us not only to clearly identify the bioconjugation reaction products but also to quantify nanoparticle:antibodies bioconjugation efficiency. This is a key issue in future development of analytical and bioanalytical photoluminescent QDs applications.

  15. Coupled effects of temperature and mass transport on the isotope fractionation of zinc during electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jay R.; John, Seth G.; Kavner, Abby

    2014-01-01

    The isotopic composition of zinc metal electrodeposited on a rotating disc electrode from a Zn-citrate aqueous solution was investigated as a function of overpotential (electrochemical driving force), temperature, and rotation rate. Zn metal was measured to be isotopically light with respect to Zn+2 in solution, with observed fractionations varying from Δ66/64Znmetal-aqueous = -1.0‰ to -3.9‰. Fractionation varies continuously as a function of a dimensionless parameter described by the ratio of observed deposition rate to calculated mass-transport limiting rate, where larger fractionations are observed at lower deposition rates, lower temperature, and at faster electrode rotation rates. Thus, the large fractionation and its rate dependence is interpreted as a competition between the two kinetic processes with different effective activation energies: mass-transport-limited (diffusion limited) kinetics with a large activation energy, which creates small fractionations close to the predicted diffusive fractionation; and electrochemical deposition kinetics, with a smaller effective activation energy, which creates large fractionations at low deposition rates and high hydrodynamic fluxes of solute to the electrode. The results provide a framework for predicting isotope fractionation in processes controlled by two competing reactions with different kinetic isotope effects. Light isotopes are electroplated. In all cases light stable isotopes of the metals are preferentially electroplated, with mass-dependent behavior evident where three or more isotopes are measured. Fractionation is time-independent, meaning that the fractionation factor does not vary with the extent of reaction. In most of our experiments, we have controlled the extent of reaction such that only a small amount of metal is deposited from the stock solution, thus avoiding significant evolution of the reservoir composition. In such experiments, the observed isotope fractionation is constant as a

  16. Characterization of cyclitol glycosides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Carrero-Carralero, C; Ruiz-Matute, A I; Ramos, L; Sanz, M L; Martínez-Castro, I

    2017-02-10

    Several cyclitol glycosides have been characterised as trimethylsilyl derivatives by their gas chromatographic (GC) retention data (linear retention indices) and electron impact mass spectrometric (MS) profiles. Both GC-MS results have been related to cyclitol glycosides structural features. Abundance ratios of characteristic m/z ions 133/129 and 260/265 have been proposed to distinguish glycosyl-inositols from glycosyl-methyl-inositols. These ratios in combination with the presence or absence of m/z 375 ion allowed the unequivocal characterization of cyclitol glycosides. These criteria have been applied to the characterization of new cyclitol glycosides in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) and in leaves of Coriaria myrtifolia and Coriaria ruscifolia.

  17. Standardless analysis of solids by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurubeyli, T. K.; Nurubeyli, Z. K.; Nuriyev, K. Z.; Gurbanov, K. B.

    2017-02-01

    The possibility of the standardless mass spectrometric analysis of the elemental composition of solids has been discussed. The effect of each stage of the laser plasma expansion on the formation of the coefficient of relative sensitivity of elements in the sample has been studied theoretically and experimentally. It has been shown that the stages of ionization and detection make the main contribution to the formation of the coefficient of relative sensitivity. It has been proposed to separate dissociation and ionization processes in time and/or in space. To compensate for the energy spread of ions at the output of the analyzer, a circuit has been proposed for aligning the energy of ions before their detection.

  18. Membrane-Based Emitter for Coupling Microfluidics with Ultrasensitive Nanoelectrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-06-09

    An integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane-based microfluidic emitter for high performance nanoelectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) has been fabricated and evaluated. The ~100-μm-thick emitter was created by cutting a PDMS membrane that protrudes beyond the bulk substrate. The reduced surface area at the emitter enhances the electric field and reduces wetting of the surface by the electrospray solvent. As such, the emitter provides highly stable electrospray at flow rates as low as 10 nL/min, and is compatible with electrospray solvents containing a large organic component (e.g., 90% methanol). This approach enables facile emitter construction, and provides excellent stability, reproducibility and sensitivity, as well as compatibility with multilayer soft lithography.

  19. Membrane-based emitter for coupling microfluidics with ultrasensitive nanoelectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D

    2011-07-15

    An integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane-based microfluidic emitter for high-performance nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been fabricated and evaluated. The ∼100-μm-thick emitter was created by cutting a PDMS membrane that protrudes beyond the bulk substrate. The reduced surface area at the emitter enhances the electric field and reduces wetting of the surface by the electrospray solvent. As such, the emitter enables highly stable electrosprays at flow rates as low as 10 nL/min and is compatible with electrospray solvents containing a large organic component (e.g., 90% methanol). This approach enables facile emitter construction and provides excellent stability, reproducibility, and sensitivity as well as compatibility with multilayer soft lithography.

  20. Plasma lipid analysis by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Kudoh, Shinobu; Sato, Taka-Aki; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2015-06-01

    A novel method for the analysis of endogenous lipids and related compounds was developed employing hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with carbamoyl stationary phase achieved clear separation of phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, ceramide, and mono-hexsosyl ceramide groups with good peak area repeatability (RSD% < 10) and linearity (R(2) > 0.99). The established method was applied to human plasma assays and a total of 117 endogenous lipids were successfully detected and reproducibly identified. In addition, we investigated the simultaneous detection of small polar metabolites such as amino and organic acids co-existing in the same biological samples processed in a single analytical run with lipids. Our results show that hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is a useful tool for human plasma lipidome analysis and offers more comprehensive metabolome coverage.

  1. Determination of salivary efavirenz by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Theron, Anri; Cromarty, Duncan; Rheeders, Malie; Viljoen, Michelle

    2010-10-15

    A novel and robust screening method for the determination of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, efavirenz (EFV), in human saliva has been developed and validated based on high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample preparation of the saliva involved solid-phase extraction (SPE) on C18 cartridges. The analytes were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (Phenomenex Kinetex C18, 150mm×3mm internal diameter, 2.6μm particle size) and detected with tandem mass spectrometry in electrospray positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Gradient elution with increasing methanol (MeOH) concentration was used to elute the analytes, at a flow-rate of 0.4mL/min. The total run time was 8.4min and the retention times for the internal standard (reserpine) was 5.4min and for EFV was 6.5min. The calibration curves showed linearity (r(2), 0.989-0.992) over the concentration range of 3.125-100μg/L. Mean intra- and inter-assay relative standard deviation, accuracy, mean extraction recovery, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.46-9.43%, 80-120%, 60% (±7.95), 1.84 and 6.11μg/L respectively. The working range was defined as 6.25-100μg/L. This novel LC-MS/MS assay is suitable for reliable detection of low EFV concentrations in saliva and can be used as a screening tool for monitoring EFV compliance.

  2. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with axial field in a quadrupole reaction cell.

    PubMed

    Bandura, Dmitry R; Baranov, Vladimir I; Tanner, Scott D

    2002-10-01

    A novel reaction cell for ICP-MS with an electric field provided inside the quadrupole along its axis is described. The field is implemented via a DC bias applied to additional auxiliary electrodes inserted between the rods of the quadrupole. The field reduces the settling time of the pressurized quadrupole when its mass bandpass is dynamically tuned. It also improves the transmission of analyte ions. It is shown that for the pressurized cell with the field activated, the recovery time for a change in quadrupole operating parameters is reduced to <4 ms, which allows fast tuning of the mass bandpass in concert with and at the speed of the analyzing quadrupole. When the cell is operated with ammonia, the field reduces ion-ammonia cluster formation, further enhancing the transmission of atomic ions that have a high cluster formation rate. Ni x (NH3)n+ cluster formation in a cell operated with a wide bandpass (i.e., Ni+ precursors are stable in the cell) is shown to be dependent on the axial field strength. Clusters at n = 2-4 can be suppressed by 9, 1200, and >610 times, respectively. The use of a retarding axial field for in-situ energy discrimination against cluster and polyatomic ions is shown. When the cell is pressurized with O2 for suppression of 129Xe+, the formation of 127IH2+ by reactions with gas impurities limits the detection of 129I to isotopic abundance of approximately 10(-6). In-cell energy discrimination against 127IH2+ utilizing a retarding axial field is shown to reduce the abundance of the background at m/z = 129 to ca. 3 x 10(-8) of the 127I+ signal. In-cell energy discrimination against 127IH2+ is shown to cause less I+ loss than a post-cell potential energy barrier for the same degree of 127IH2+ suppression.

  3. Phase-tunable Josephson junction and spontaneous mass current in a spin-orbit-coupled Fermi superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2016-10-01

    Atomtronics has the potential for engineering new types of functional devices, such as Josephson junctions (JJs). Previous studies have mainly focused on JJs whose ground states have zero or π superconducting phase difference across the junctions, while arbitrary phase-tunable JJs may have important applications in superconducting electronics and quantum computation. Here we show that a phase-tunable JJ can be implemented in a spin-orbit-coupled cold atomic gas with the magnetic tunneling barrier generated by a spin-dependent focused laser beam. We consider the JJ confined in either a linear harmonic trap or a circular ring trap. In the ring trap, the magnetic barrier induces a spontaneous mass current for the ground state of the JJ, demonstrating the magnetoelectric effects of cold atoms.

  4. Intelligent Analysis of Samples by Semiquantitative Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) Technique: A Review.

    PubMed

    Krzciuk, Karina

    2016-07-03

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a popular and routine analytical method that has been used for determination of trace elements since the 1980s. It provides fast quantitative analysis and allows the determination of more than 70 elements with good accuracy and very low detection limits, but requires an intricate calibration procedure. In analyses of samples for which very low detection limits are not required a semiquantitative ICP-MS analysis mode can be used. This approach is more time- and cost-effective, and it uses a simple calibration procedure. This article presents a critical review of the semiquantitative (SQ) mode of ICP-MS and describes current and future applications of SQ analysis.

  5. Hemoglobin Variant Analysis via Direct Surface Sampling of Dried Blood Spots Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited disorders. Newborn blood screening for clinically significant hemoglobin variants, including sickle (HbS), HbC, and HbD, has been adopted in many countries as it is widely acknowledged that early detection improves the outcome. We present a method for determination of Hb variants by direct surface sampling of dried blood spots by use of an Advion Triversa Nanomate automated electrospray system coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer. The method involves no sample preparation. It is possible to unambiguously identify homozygous and heterozygous HbS, HbC, and HbD variants in <10 min without the need for additional confirmation. The method allows for repeated analysis of a single blood spot over a prolonged time period and is tolerant of blood spot storage conditions. PMID:21341716

  6. Determination of organomercury in biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; Siu, K.W.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-12-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for the determination of organomercury in two marine biological standard reference materials for trace metals (dogfish muscle tissue DORM-1 and lobster hepatopancreas TORT-1). In most parts of this study, the organomercury was extracted as the chloride from the material with toluene and back extracted into an aqueous medium of cysteine acetate. Since the final extracts contained more than 4% sodium, isotope dilution and flow injection analysis were used to respectively counter the effect of concomitant elements and avoid clogging the interface. Comparison of results with gas chromatography shows that the only significant organomercury is methyl-mercury. At least 93% of mercury in DORM-1 and 39% of mercury in TORT-1 exist as methylmercury.

  7. Multielemental analysis of prehistoric animal teeth by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Galiova, Michaela; Kaiser, Jozef; Fortes, Francisco J.; Novotny, Karel; Malina, Radomir; Prokes, Lubomir; Hrdlicka, Ales; Vaculovic, Tomas; Nyvltova Fisakova, Miriam; Svoboda, Jiri; Kanicky, Viktor; Laserna, Javier J.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) were utilized for microspatial analyses of a prehistoric bear (Ursus arctos) tooth dentine. The distribution of selected trace elements (Sr, Ba, Fe) was measured on a 26 mmx15 mm large and 3 mm thick transverse cross section of a canine tooth. The Na and Mg content together with the distribution of matrix elements (Ca, P) was also monitored within this area. The depth of the LIBS craters was measured with an optical profilometer. As shown, both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS can be successfully used for the fast, spatially resolved analysis of prehistoric teeth samples. In addition to microchemical analysis, the sample hardness was calculated using LIBS plasma ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios of Mg (or Ca). To validate the sample hardness calculations, the hardness was also measured with a Vickers microhardness tester.

  8. Determination of selenium species in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Quijano, M A; Gutiérrez, A M; Pérez-Conde, M C; Cámara, C

    1999-08-23

    A method developed to determine organic and inorganic selenium species in human urine samples is presented in detail. After a simple sample treatment based on elimination of non-charged organic compounds, selenium species were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Spherisorb 5 ODS/AMINO column using two different chromatographic conditions: phosphate buffers at pH 2.8 and 6.0. Detection was carried out using an on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Trimethylselenonium ion and two unknown selenium species in urine samples were found. Selenium species were shown to have stability problems, with the maximum allowed storage time of 1 week.

  9. Use of dried blood spots and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for multi-element determination in blood.

    PubMed

    Vacchina, Véronique; Huin, Vincent; Hulo, Sébastien; Cuny, Damien; Broly, Franck; Renom, Gilles; Perini, Jean-Marc

    2014-07-01

    The paper describes the development of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) method for multitrace element determination in dried blood spots (DBSs). The analytical conditions were optimized using Seronorm™ L-3 and L-1 Certified Reference Materials. The best results were obtained by sampling blood drops on a decontaminated PVDF filter membrane. After drying under metal-free conditions, the DBSs underwent acidic digestion and were analyzed with ICP MS. The method was then validated for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mo, Se and Zn. Using a matrix-matched calibration curve, the recovery levels ranged from 96% to 117%. The repeatability and reproducibility were generally below 15%. Limits of quantification ranging from 0.5 to 50 μg/L. In order to investigate the analytical procedure under real sampling conditions, the results obtained from DBSs and liquid blood aliquots (less subject to contamination) from two adult subjects were compared.

  10. Comparison of ultraviolet femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis in glass, monazite, and zircon.

    PubMed

    Poitrasson, Franck; Mao, Xianglei; Mao, Samuel S; Freydier, Rémi; Russo, Richard E

    2003-11-15

    We compared the analytical performance of ultraviolet femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The benefit of ultrafast lasers was evaluated regarding thermal-induced chemical fractionation, that is otherwise well known to limit LA-ICPMS. Both lasers had a Gaussian beam energy profile and were tested using the same ablation system and ICPMS analyzer. Resulting crater morphologies and analytical signals showed more straightforward femtosecond laser ablation processes, with minimal thermal effects. Despite a less stable energy output, the ultrafast laser yielded elemental (Pb/U, Pb/Th) and Pb isotopic ratios that were more precise, repeatable, and accurate, even when compared to the best analytical conditions for the nanosecond laser. Measurements on NIST glasses, monazites, and zircon also showed that femtosecond LA-ICPMS calibration was less matrix-matched dependent and therefore more versatile.

  11. Identification of gunshot residues in fabric targets using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique and ternary graphs.

    PubMed

    Freitas, João Carlos D; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Negrini Neto, Osvaldo; Viebig, Sônia Bocamino

    2012-03-01

    During criminal investigations involving firearms, the detection of gunshot residues (GSRs) is one of the most important evidences. In the present study, a new method to identify trace evidences of GSRs, deposited around the bullet entrance hole, in different types of fabrics used as targets, is described. The experiments were carried out using a 0.38-inch caliber revolver, and 9-mm and 0.40-inch caliber pistols. Testimonies of 2.25 cm(2) of the fabrics were cut around the bullet entrance and digested with 10% nitric acid. Antimony, barium, and lead were analyzed in the remaining solution using a sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The concentrations of the elements were detected at levels up to few microgram per square centimeter. The use of ternary graphics allowed us to identify specific patterns of distribution for blank samples and the clear distinction between the revolver and pistols used.

  12. Development and evaluation of high resolution quadrupole mass analyzer and an inductively coupled plasma-Mach disk

    SciTech Connect

    Amad, Ma'an Hazem

    1999-12-10

    By definition a plasma is an electrically conducting gaseous mixture containing a significant concentration of cations and electrons. The Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) is an electrodeless discharge in a gas at atmospheric pressure. This discharge is an excellent one for vaporizing, atomizing, and ionizing elements. The early development of the ICP began in 1942 by Babat and then by Reed in the early 1960s. This was then followed by the pioneering work of Fassel and coworkers in the late 1960s. Commercial ICP spectrometers were introduced in the mid 1970s. A major breakthrough in the area of ICP took place in the early 1980s when the ICP was shown to be an excellent ion source for mass spectrometry.

  13. Using laser ablation/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to bioimage multiple elements in mouse tumors after hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Jiang, Pei-Shin; Yang, Bing-Shen; Sun, Tian-Ye; Peng, Hsu-Hsia; Wang, Chu-Fang

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we employed laser ablation/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to map the spatial distribution of Gd-doped iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in one tumor slice that had been subjected to magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). The mapping results revealed the high resolution of the elemental analysis, with the distribution of Gd atoms highly correlated with that of the Fe atoms. The spatial distributions of C, P, S, and Zn atoms revealed that the effect of MFH treatment was significantly dependent on the diffusion of the magnetic fluid in the tissue. An observed enrichment of Cu atoms after MFH treatment was probably due to inflammation in the tumor. The abnormal distribution of Ni atoms suggests a probable biochemical reaction in the tumor. Therefore, this LA-ICP-MS mapping technique can provide novel information regarding the spatial distribution of elements in tumors after cancer therapy.

  14. Determination of bromine and tin compounds in plastics using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    İzgi, Belgin; Kayar, Murat

    2015-07-01

    The polybrominated flame retardants and organotin compounds were screened in terms of bromine and tin content using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in plastics. The calibration standards were prepared using the fused-disk technique, and all samples were investigated under optimal conditions. Using a central composite experimental design, laser parameters, laser energy, pulse rate, scan rate and spot size were identified. The detection limits of the method were 1000 mgkg(-1) and 1600 mgkg(-1) for bromide and tin, whereas the relative standard deviation (%) values of the analysis were 9% and 6% (n=3) for ERM EC681k with 770 ± 70 mgkg(-1) Br and 86 ± 6 mgkg(-1) Sn respectively, and 106-115% of Br and 102-104% of Sn were observed for the tetrabromobisphenol A and butyltin trichloride spike plastics, respectively.

  15. Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometric Isotopic Determination of Nuclear Wastes Sources Associated with Hanford Tank Leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, John C.; Dresel, P. Evan; Farmer, Orville T.

    2007-11-01

    The subsurface distribution of a nuclear waste tank leak on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site was sampled by slant drilling techniques in order to characterize the chemical and radiological characteristics of the leaked material and assess geochemical transport properties of hazardous constituents. Sediment core samples recovered from the borehole were subjected to distilled water and acid leaching procedures with the resulting leachates analyzed for isotopic and chemical signatures. High-sensitivity inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) techniques were used for determination of isotopic ratios for Cs, I, Mo. Analysis of the isotopic patterns of I and Mo combined with associated chemical data showed evidence for at least two separate intrusions of nuclear waste into the subsurface. Isotopic data for Cs was inconclusive with respect to a source attribution signature.

  16. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  17. Differentiation of bullet type based on the analysis of gunshot residue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Udey, Ruth N; Hunter, Brian C; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2011-09-01

    Porcine tissue samples shot with two different types of bullets, jacketed and nonjacketed, were collected in the fresh state and throughout moderate decomposition. Wound samples were microwave-digested and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to detect all elements present at measurable levels in gunshot residue (GSR). Elements detected included antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), and lead (Pb), which are considered characteristic of GSR, as well as iron (Fe) and copper (Cu). These five elements were used to differentiate shot tissue and unshot tissue, as well as tissue shot by the two different bullet types, both in the fresh state and throughout moderate decomposition. The concentrations of Cu, Sb, and Pb were able to distinguish the two bullet types in fresh tissue samples at the 95% confidence level. Cu and Pb were able to differentiate the bullet types throughout moderate decomposition at the 99% confidence level.

  18. Detection of gunshot residue in blowfly larvae and decomposing porcine tissue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Lagoo, Lisa; Schaeffer, Luther S; Szymanski, David W; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2010-05-01

    Blowfly larvae and porcine tissue contaminated with gunshot residue (GSR) were collected during summer and winter months, over a 37-day and a 60-day sampling period, respectively. Wound samples were microwave-digested and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the detection of antimony, barium, and lead. During summer, the 37-day sampling period encompassed all stages of decomposition, except skeletonization. The three elements were detected in larvae only on days 3 and 4 after death but were detected at significant levels in tissue samples throughout the entire sampling period. In winter, no significant decomposition was observed throughout the 60-day sampling. Although temperatures were too low for blowfly activity, the three elements were detected in the tissue samples at relatively constant, significant levels. Hence, GSR determination in tissue was more dependent on decomposition stage rather than time since death.

  19. Fast analysis of triterpenoids in Ganoderma lucidum spores by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhou; Xia, Bing; Qiu, Ming Hua; Li Sheng, Ding; Xu, Hong Xi

    2013-11-01

    A rapid and reliable method was established for simultaneous determination of main triterpenoids in Ganoderma lucidum spores using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS). The established method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and was successfully applied to determine the contents of 10 main triterpenoids in different batches of G. lucidum spores. The analysis results showed that moderate levels of triterpenoids were found in G. lucidum spores. In addition, a MS full scan with a daughter ion scan experiment was performed to identify the potential derivatives of triterpenoids present in G. lucidum spores. As a result, a total of 22 triterpenoids from different G. lucidum spores were unequivocally or tentatively identified via comparisons with authentic standards and literatures. This method provides both qualitative and quantitative results without the need for repetitive UPLC-MS analyses, thereby increasing efficiency and productivity, making it suitable for high-throughput applications.

  20. The coupling between flame surface dynamics and species mass conservation in premixed turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trouve, A.; Veynante, D.; Bray, K. N. C.; Mantel, T.

    1994-01-01

    Current flamelot models based on a description of the flame surface dynamics require the closure of two inter-related equations: a transport equation for the mean reaction progress variable, (tilde)c, and a transport equation for the flame surface density, Sigma. The coupling between these two equations is investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNS) with emphasis on the correlation between the turbulent fluxes of (tilde)c, bar(pu''c''), and Sigma, (u'')(sub S)Sigma. Two different DNS databases are used in the present work: a database developed at CTR by A. Trouve and a database developed by C. J. Rutland using a different code. Both databases correspond to statistically one-dimensional premixed flames in isotropic turbulent flow. The run parameters, however, are significantly different, and the two databases correspond to different combustion regimes. It is found that in all simulated flames, the correlation between bar(pu''c'') and (u'')(sub S)Sigma is always strong. The sign, however, of the turbulent flux of (tilde)c or Sigma with respect to the mean gradients, delta(tilde)c/delta(x) or delta(Sigma)/delta(x), is case-dependent. The CTR database is found to exhibit gradient turbulent transport of (tilde)c and Sigma, whereas the Rutland DNS features counter-gradient diffusion. The two databases are analyzed and compared using various tools (a local analysis of the flow field near the flame, a classical analysis of the conservation equation for (tilde)(u''c''), and a thin flame theoretical analysis). A mechanism is then proposed to explain the discrepancies between the two databases and a preliminary simple criterion is derived to predict the occurrence of gradient/counter-gradient turbulent diffusion.

  1. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: an emerging technology for detecting rare cells in tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Managh, Amy J; Hutchinson, Robert W; Riquelme, Paloma; Broichhausen, Christiane; Wege, Anja K; Ritter, Uwe; Ahrens, Norbert; Koehl, Gudrun E; Walter, Lisa; Florian, Christian; Schlitt, Hans J; Reid, Helen J; Geissler, Edward K; Sharp, Barry L; Hutchinson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Administering immunoregulatory cells to patients as medicinal agents is a potentially revolutionary approach to the treatment of immunologically mediated diseases. Presently, there are no satisfactory, clinically applicable methods of tracking human cells in patients with adequate spatial resolution and target cell specificity over a sufficient period of time. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) represents a potential solution to the problem of detecting very rare cells in tissues. In this article, this exquisitely sensitive technique is applied to the tracking of gold-labeled human regulatory macrophages (Mregs) in immunodeficient mice. Optimal conditions for labeling Mregs with 50-nm gold particles were investigated by exposing Mregs in culture to variable concentrations of label: Mregs incubated with 3.5 × 10(9) particles/ml for 1 h incorporated an average of 3.39 × 10(8) Au atoms/cell without loss of cell viability. Analysis of single, gold-labeled Mregs by LA-ICP-MS registered an average of 1.9 × 10(5) counts/cell. Under these conditions, 100% labeling efficiency was achieved, and label was retained by Mregs for ≥36 h. Gold-labeled Mregs adhered to glass surfaces; after 24 h of culture, it was possible to colabel these cells with human-specific (154)Sm-tagged anti-HLA-DR or (174)Yb-tagged anti-CD45 mAbs. Following injection into immunodeficient mice, signals from gold-labeled human Mregs could be detected in mouse lung, liver, and spleen for at least 7 d by solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and LA-ICP-MS. These promising results indicate that LA-ICP-MS tissue imaging has great potential as an analytical technique in immunology.

  2. Arsenic speciation using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, D.A.; Yaeger, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Parish, K.J.; Gowdy, M.J.; Mohrman, G.B.

    1995-08-01

    A method has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to identify and quantify As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic compounds in environmental samples. A arsenic species were separated by reversed-phase, ion-pairing, HPLC using a microbore Inertsil-ODS{trademark} column. Only 1 {micro}L of sample was injected on the column, and the mobile phase flow rates were typically on the order of 40 {micro}L/min. The HPLC mobile phase was a mixture of methanol and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH), and the column effluent was introduced into an ICP-mass spectrometer using direct injection nebulization. Detection limits of less than 1 pg As (as injected on the column) were easily obtained for each arsenic species. The effect of changes in mobile phase composition and ICP-MS conditions will be described, as well as quality control measures, e.g., the use of surrogates, internal standards, and matrix spikes. Precision and accuracy information will be presented from the analysis of aqueous standards and soil extracts that were spiked with arsenic oxide [As(III)], sodium arsenate [As(V)], dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), or chlorovinyl arsenious acid (CVAA). The authors believe that these data demonstrate the utility of this technique for the sensitive determination of arsenic species present in water or soil.

  3. Elucidation of Drug Metabolite Structural Isomers Using Molecular Modeling Coupled with Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reading, Eamonn; Munoz-Muriedas, Jordi; Roberts, Andrew D; Dear, Gordon J; Robinson, Carol V; Beaumont, Claire

    2016-02-16

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) in combination with molecular modeling offers the potential for small molecule structural isomer identification by measurement of their gas phase collision cross sections (CCSs). Successful application of this approach to drug metabolite identification would facilitate resource reduction, including animal usage, and may benefit other areas of pharmaceutical structural characterization including impurity profiling and degradation chemistry. However, the conformational behavior of drug molecules and their metabolites in the gas phase is poorly understood. Here the gas phase conformational space of drug and drug-like molecules has been investigated as well as the influence of protonation and adduct formation on the conformations of drug metabolite structural isomers. The use of CCSs, measured from IM-MS and molecular modeling information, for the structural identification of drug metabolites has also been critically assessed. Detection of structural isomers of drug metabolites using IM-MS is demonstrated and, in addition, a molecular modeling approach has been developed offering rapid conformational searching and energy assessment of candidate structures which agree with experimental CCSs. Here it is illustrated that isomers must possess markedly dissimilar CCS values for structural differentiation, the existence and extent of CCS differences being ionization state and molecule dependent. The results present that IM-MS and molecular modeling can inform on the identity of drug metabolites and highlight the limitations of this approach in differentiating structural isomers.

  4. Coupling the Torpedo microplate-receptor binding assay with mass spectrometry to detect cyclic imine neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Aráoz, Rómulo; Ramos, Suzanne; Pelissier, Franck; Guérineau, Vincent; Benoit, Evelyne; Vilariño, Natalia; Botana, Luis M; Zakarian, Armen; Molgó, Jordi

    2012-12-04

    Cyclic imine neurotoxins constitute an emergent family of neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin that are potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We developed a target-directed functional method based on the mechanism of action of competitive agonists/antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors for the detection of marine cyclic imine neurotoxins. The key step for method development was the immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes rich in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the surface of microplate wells and the use of biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin as tracer. Cyclic imine neurotoxins competitively inhibit biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. The microplate-receptor binding assay allowed rapid detection of nanomolar concentrations of cyclic imine neurotoxins directly in shellfish samples. Although highly sensitive and specific for the detection of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as a class, the receptor binding assay cannot identify a given analyte. To address the low selectivity of the microplate-receptor binding assay, the cyclic imine neurotoxins tightly bound to the coated Torpedo nicotinic receptor were eluted with methanol, and the chemical nature of the eluted ligands was identified by mass spectrometry. The immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes on the surface of microplate wells proved to be a high-throughput format for the survey of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors directly in shellfish matrixes with high sensitivity and reproducibility.

  5. Proteomic analysis of Taenia ovis metacestodes by high performance liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yadong

    2017-03-15

    Taenia ovis metacestodes reside in the muscle of sheep and goats, and may cause great economic loss due to condemnation of carcasses if not effectively controlled. Although advances have been made in the control of T. ovis infection, our knowledge of T. ovis biology is limited. Herein the protein profiling of T. ovis metacestodes was determined by liquid chromatography-linked tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 966 proteins were identified and 25.1% (188/748) were annotated to be associated with metabolic pathways. Consistently, GO analysis returned a metabolic process (16.27%) as one of two main biological process terms. Moreover, it was found that 24 proteins, including very low-density lipoprotein receptor, enolase, paramyosin and endophilin B1, were abundant in T. ovis metacestodes. These proteins may be associated with motility, metabolism, signaling, stress, drug resistance and immune responses. Furthermore, comparative analysis of 5 cestodes revealed the presence of Taenia-specific enolases. These data provide clues for better understanding of T. ovis biology, which is informative for effective control of infection.

  6. Strategies for differentiation of isobaric flavonoids using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fridén, Mikael E; Sjöberg, Per J R

    2014-07-01

    Flavonoids are a class of secondary plant metabolites existing in great variety in nature. Due to this variety, identification can be difficult, especially as overlapping compounds in both chromatographic separations and mass spectrometric detection are common. Methods for distinguishing isobaric flavonoids using MS(2) and MS(3) have been developed. Chromatographic separation of various plant extracts was done with RP-HPLC and detected with positive ESI-MS operated in information-dependent acquisition (IDA) mode. Two methods for the determination of flavonoid identity and substitution pattern, both featuring IDA criteria, were used together with the HPLC equipment. A third method where the collision energy was ramped utilized direct infusion. With the developed strategies, it is possible to differentiate between many isobaric flavonoids. Various classes of flavonoids were found in all of the plant extracts, in the red onion extract 45 components were detected and for 29 of them the aglycone was characterized, while the substituents were tentatively identified for 31 of them. For the strawberry extract, those numbers were 66, 30 and 60, and for the cherry extract 99, 56 and 71. The great variety of flavonoids, several of them isobaric, found in each of the extracts highlights the need for reliable methods for flavonoid characterization. Methods capable of differentiating between most of the isobars analyzed have been developed.

  7. Simultaneous determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization- tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Shuang; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Qing; Lv, Qing; Chen, Yun-Xia; Ma, Hui-Juan; Li, Jing-Rui; Ma, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable analytical method based on HPLC/MSIMS has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics. A diversity of cosmetic samples, including powder, lotion, shampoo, and cream were collected. The samples were ultrasonically extracted with aqueous methanol, and the extracts were then subjected to cleanup bySPE using an Oasis HLB cartridge followed by filtration with a 0.20 pm membrane filter. Afterwards, chromatographic separation was performed on an XSelect CSH C18 column (2.1 x 150 mm, 3.5 pm) maintained at 30°C within 15 min by a gradient of acetonitrile-0.1% aqueous formic acid solution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The mass spectrometric detection was carried, out using electrospray positive ionization under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. A good linearity was observed over the concentration range from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL. The intraday and interday precisions, which were investigated by determining all target compounds in cosmetics seven times/day and on 7 consecutive days, were below 5.00%. The mean recoveries at three spiked levels ranged from 80.42 to 100.83% with the RSDs from 0.45 to 9.02%. The LOQs were determined to be between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. The method was sufficiently rapid, reliable, and sensitive for the determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics.

  8. An interface for online coupling capillary electrophoresis to dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiding; Ai, Wanpeng; Bai, Yu; Zhou, Yinglin; Wen, Luhong; Zhang, Xinxiang; Liu, Huwei

    2016-12-01

    The online combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry (MS) has long been desired for the capability of direct and simultaneous separation and detection with high efficiency, accuracy, and throughput. In this work, a novel CE-MS interface was developed, using dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI). The interface employed a spray tip with a coaxial three-layer structure, into which the CE sample solution, the sheath liquid, and the nebulizing gas were introduced. The spray tip was put between the DBDI outlet and the MS inlet, thus the CE sample solution could be blended with the sheath liquid, then nebulized. The nebulized sample could be ionized by DBDI, and finally analyzed by MS. The key parameters of the interface were optimized. Then, proof-of-concept experiments separating and detecting the mixture of metronidazole and acetaminophen solutions were conducted. The results showed high separation efficiency, low time consumption, high reproducibility, and convenience in operation. In addition, the interface exhibited a high tolerance of non-volatile salts and surfactants, which would be widely used in CE analyses. All of these results demonstrated that the newly developed CE-DBDI-MS interface could be successfully used in CE-MS studies, and could be further utilized in multiple areas involving efficient separation and detection.

  9. Quantification of plasma homocitrulline using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jaisson, Stéphane; Gorisse, Laëtitia; Pietrement, Christine; Gillery, Philippe

    2012-02-01

    Homocitrulline (HCit), an amino acid formed by the carbamylation of ε-amino groups of lysine residues, is considered a promising biomarker for monitoring diseases such as chronic renal failure and atherosclerosis. This paper describes a tandem mass spectrometric method for total, protein-bound and free HCit measurement in plasma samples. HCit was separated from other plasma components by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Detection was achieved by monitoring transitions of 190.1 > 127.1 and 190.1 > 173.1 for HCit, and 183.1 > 120.2 for d(7)-citrulline used as internal standard. This method allowed HCit quantification within 5.2 min and was precise (inter-assay CV < 5.85%), accurate (mean recoveries ranging from 97% to 106%), and exhibited a good linearity from 10 nmol/L to 1.6 μmol/L. Plasma samples from control and uremic mice (n = 10) were analyzed. In control mice, mean total plasma HCit concentration was 0.78 ± 0.12 μmol/mol amino acids, whereas it was increased 2.7-fold in uremic mice plasma, reaching 2.10 ± 0.50 μmol/mol amino acids (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this method exhibits good analytical performances and meets the criteria of sensitivity suitable for HCit concentration assessment in plasma samples.

  10. Multielemental analysis of purpleback flying squad using high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, H; Kohno, H; Kannan, K; Tsumura, A; Yamasaki, S I

    2001-08-01

    Forty-four elements were analyzed in 21 tissues of purpleback flying squid, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, by high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES). Greater concentrations of V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, Cd, Pb, and Bi were found in liver, pancreas, and ink sac than in other tissues. Ink sac concentrated remarkable levels of Ca and Sr in addition to the above-mentioned elements. Several alkalis, alkaline earth, and rare earth elements preferentially accumulated in muscle. Among the hard tissues, accumulation of V and U in beak, Ni, Zn, and Cd in gladius and Cr in skin was prominent. K, Rb, Cs, Pb, Bi and some transition elements (V, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the livers of adult than in juvenile squids. Sodium, alkaline earth, and rare earth elements were higher in the livers of juveniles than in adult squids.

  11. Theory of inelastic confinement-induced resonances due to the coupling of center-of-mass and relative motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Simon; Saenz, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    A detailed study of the anharmonicity-induced resonances caused by the coupling of center-of-mass and relative motion is presented for a system of two ultracold atoms in single-well potentials. As has been confirmed experimentally, these inelastic confinement-induced resonances are of interest since they can lead to coherent molecule formation, losses, and heating in ultracold atomic gases. A perturbative model is introduced to describe the resonance positions and the coupling strengths. The validity of the model and the behavior of the resonances for different confinement geometries are analyzed in comparison with exact numerical ab initio calculations. While such resonances have so far only been detected for large positive values of the s -wave scattering length, it is found that they are present also for negative s -wave scattering lengths, i.e., for attractive interactions. The possibility to coherently tune the resonances by a variation of the external confinement geometry might pave the way for coherent molecule association where magnetic Feshbach resonances are inaccessible.

  12. A capillary electrophoresis system with dual capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Kelliton José Mendonça; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2016-07-01

    A commercial system that is comprised of a CE coupled to an ESI triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was equipped with two capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detectors (C(4) Ds). The first C(4) D was positioned inside the original cartridge, and the second C(4) D was positioned as close as possible to the ESI probe entrance by using a 3D-printed support. The C(4) Ds electropherograms were matched to the ESI-MS electropherogram by correcting their timescales by the factor LT /LD , where LT and LD are the total capillary length and the length until the C(4) D, respectively. A general approach for method development supporting the simultaneous conductivity and MS detection is discussed, while application examples are introduced. These examples include the use of C(4) D as a simple device that dismiss the use of an EOF marker, a low-selectivity detector that continuously provide information about unexpected features of the sample, and even a detector that can be more sensitive than ESI-MS. The C(4) D used in this setup proved to have a smaller contribution to the peak broadening than ESI-MS, which allowed that a C(4) D, positioned at 12 cm from the inlet of an 80-cm-long capillary, could be used to foresee position and shape of the peaks being formed 6.8 times slower at the ESI-MS electropherogram.

  13. Structural Design and Analysis for a Double-Band Cold Mass Support of the MICE Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A; Wu, Hong; Liu, X. K.; Wang, Li; Li, S. Y.; Guo, XingLong; Pan, Heng; Xu, FengYu

    2009-07-01

    The cooling channel of Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) consists of eighteen superconducting solenoid coils, which are magnetically hooked together. A pair ofcoupling magnets operating at 4 K is applied to produce up to .6 T magnetic field on the magnet centerline to keep muon beam within the RF cavity windows. The peak magnetic force on the coupling magnet from other magnets in the MICE channel is up to 500 kN inlongitudinal direction, and the requirements for magnet center and axis azimuthal angle at 4 K are stringent. A self-centered double-band cold mass support system with intermediatethermal interruption is applied for the coupling magnet. The physical center of the magnet does not change as it is cooled down from 300 K to 4.2 K with this support system. In this paper the design parameters of the support system are discussed. The integral analysis of the support system using FEA method was carried out to etermine the tension forces in bands when various loads are applied. The magnet centre displacement and concentricity deviation form the axis of the warm bore are obtained, and the peak tension in support bands is also determined according to the simulation results.

  14. A sharp interface method for coupling multiphase flow, heat transfer and multicomponent mass transfer with interphase diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ping; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2017-03-01

    Mixing of partially miscible fluids plays an important role in many physical and chemical processes. The modeling complexities lie in the tight coupling of the multiphase flow, heat transfer and multicomponent mass transfer, as well as diffusions across the phase interface. We present a sharp interface method for modeling such process. The non-ideal equation of state is used to compute the fluid properties such as density, fugacity and enthalpy, and to predict phase equilibrium composition. The phase interface location is tracked using the phase propagation velocity. A third-order one-sided finite difference scheme using a variable grid size according to the interface location is utilized to discretize the partial derivatives immediately next to the interface, while a second-order central scheme is used for the bulk of fluids. An optimization method, the Nelder-Mead method, is applied to search for (1) the phase compositions on both sides of the interface, and (2) the phase propagation velocity based on the coupling of the multicomponent phase equilibrium and the species' balance across the interface. The temperature at the interface is determined by the energy balance. Numerical results are used to demonstrate the convergence of our method and show its capability to simulate the mixing of multicomponent partially miscible fluids.

  15. Role of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in cultural heritage research: a review.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Barbara; Monticelli, Damiano; Rampazzi, Laura

    2009-03-02

    Cultural heritage represents a bridge between the contemporary society and the past populations, and a strong collaboration between archaeologists, art historians and analysts may lead to the decryption of the information hidden in an ancient object. Quantitative elemental compositional data play a key role in solving questions concerning dating, provenance, technology, use and the relationship of ancient cultures with the environment. Nevertheless, the scientific investigation of an artifact should be carried out complying with some important constraints: above all the analyses should be as little destructive as possible and performed directly on the object to preserve its integrity. Laser ablation sampling coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) fulfils these requirements exhibiting comparably strong analytical performance in trace element determination. This review intends to show through the applications found in the literature how valuable is the contribution of LA-ICP-MS in the investigation of ancient materials such as obsidian, glass, pottery, human remains, written heritage, metal objects and miscellaneous stone materials. The main issues related to cultural heritage investigation are introduced, followed by a brief description of the features of this technique. An overview of the exploitation of LA-ICP-MS is then presented. Finally, advantages and drawbacks of this technique are critically discussed: the fit for purpose and prospects of the use of LA-ICP-MS are presented.

  16. Effect of increasing paternal body mass index on pregnancy and live birth rates in couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Umul, M; Köse, S A; Bilen, E; Altuncu, A G; Oksay, T; Güney, M

    2015-04-01

    In this study, our purpose was to investigate the possible effect of paternal obesity on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes on the basis of clinical pregnancy outcome. Antropometric measurements of 155 couples, referred to our infertility clinic and who underwent an ICSI cycle, have been evaluated. The study sample were divided into three groups with respect to paternal body mass index (BMI), as normal weight (BMI: 20-24.9), overweight (BMI: 25-29.9) and obese (BMI ≥ 30). Results of conventional semen analysis were also analysed. Clinical pregnancy data, including fertilisation rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate, were evaluated. Paternal obesity was a significant negative factor for sperm concentration and sperm motility (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01 respectively). A significant decrease of clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate was associated with increased paternal BMI (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 respectively). We have not determined a significant difference among groups in terms of fertilisation rate and implantation rate. This study demonstrates that increasing paternal BMI has a negative influence on ICSI success, including clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. There is a need for further studies to point the importance of lifestyle changes in order to overcome the negative influence of paternal obesity on couple's fertility.

  17. Complexation studies with lanthanides and humic acid analyzed by ultrafiltration and capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kautenburger, Ralf; Beck, Horst Philipp

    2007-08-03

    For the long-term storage of radioactive waste, detailed information about geo-chemical behavior of radioactive and toxic metal ions under environmental conditions is necessary. Humic acid (HA) can play an important role in the immobilisation or mobilisation of metal ions due to complexation and colloid formation. Therefore, we investigate the complexation behavior of HA and its influence on the migration or retardation of selected lanthanides (europium and gadolinium as homologues of the actinides americium and curium). Two independent speciation techniques, ultrafiltration and capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) have been compared for the study of Eu and Gd interaction with (purified Aldrich) HA. The degree of complexation of Eu and Gd in 25 mg l(-1) Aldrich HA solutions was determined with a broad range of metal loading (Eu and Gd total concentration between 10(-6) and 10(-4) mol l(-1)), ionic strength of 10 mM (NaClO4) and different pH-values. From the CE-ICP-MS electropherograms, additional information on the charge of the Eu species was obtained by the use of 1-bromopropane as neutral marker. To detect HA in the ICP-MS and separate between HA complexed and non complexed metal ions in the CE-ICP-MS, we have halogenated the HA with iodine as ICP-MS marker.

  18. Assessment of quinoxyfen phototransformation pathways by liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Priscila; Ramil, María; Rodríguez, Isaac; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Vieira, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo; Cela, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    Quinoxyfen has been recently identified as a priority hazardous substance in the field of the European water policy. In this work, its fate in aqueous samples and solid supports under UV and solar radiation is investigated. Diverse degradation experiments were carried out, at lab scale, using spiked aliquots of different aqueous matrices (ultrapure, treated wastewater and river water) irradiated at different wavelengths (λ = 254 nm, λ = 365 nm and solar light). Half-lives of quinoxyfen (2-26 min) depended on the wavelength and the intensity of radiation whilst the nature of the aqueous matrix did not play an important role in degradation kinetics. Moreover, experiments under solar radiation of doped silicone tubes were performed to simulate degradation when quinoxyfen is adsorbed on plant leaves or soil. As the compound is not completely mineralized, the identification of quinoxyfen transformation products (TPs) was performed by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) injection of different irradiated time aliquots. The full-fragment ion spectra, at different collision energies, allowed the elucidation of the chemical structure of TPs formed by hydroxylation, cyclization or cleavage reactions. Five out of seven identified TPs have not been reported previously. The ecotoxicity simulation by software (TEST and ECOSAR) for TPs revealed that some of them could cause harmful effects to organisms such as Daphnia magna or Fathead minnow in a similar extent to the precursor; moreover, the time course profiles of major TPs (TP1 and TP2) revealed a much higher resistance to further photodegradation than quinoxyfen. Graphical abstract Quinoxyfen phototransformation pathways.

  19. Determination of (236)U in environmental samples by single extraction chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-11-09

    In order to measure trace (236)U and (236)U/(238)U in environmental samples with a high matrix effect, a novel and simple method was developed that makes the digestion and purification procedures compatible with advanced triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A total dissolution of sample with HF + HNO3 + HClO4 was followed by chromatographic separation with a single resin column containing normal type DGA resin (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) as the extractant system. The analytical accuracy and precision of (236)U/(238)U ratios, measured as (236)U(16)O(+)/(238)U(16)O(+), were examined by using the reference materials IAEA-135, IAEA-385, IAEA-447, and JSAC 0471. The low method detection limit (3.50 × 10(-6) Bq kg(-1)) makes it possible to perform routine monitoring of environmental (236)U due to global fallout combined with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident fallout (>10(-5) Bq kg(-1)). Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to measure (236)U/(238)U ratios and (236)U activities in soil samples contaminated by the accident. The low (236)U/(238)U atom ratios ((1.50-13.5) × 10(-8)) and (236)U activities ((2.25-14.1) × 10(-2) mBq kg(-1)) indicate (236)U contamination was mainly derived from global fallout in the examined samples.

  20. Magnetic solid phase extraction coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the speciation of mercury in environmental water and human hair samples.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shishuai; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Deng, Wenchao; Zheng, Qi; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, γ-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPTS) modified Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was successfully prepared, and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The sorption performance of the prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@γ-MPTS MNPs towards methylmercury (CH3Hg(+)) and inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) was investigated. It was found that CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+) could be simultaneously retained on the prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@γ-MPTS MNPs, and the quantitative elution of CH3Hg(+) and total mercury (THg) was achieved by using 1.5 mol L(-1) HCl containing 0.01% and 3% thiourea (m/v), respectively. And the levels of Hg(2+) were obtained by subtracting CH3Hg(+) from THg. Based on the above facts, a method of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the speciation of CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+). Various experimental parameters affecting MSPE of CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+) such as pH, eluent, sample volume, and co-existing ions have been studied. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for CH3Hg(+) and THg were 1.6 and 1.9 ng L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated by analysis of a Certified Reference Material NRCC DORM-2 dogfish muscle, and the determined values are in good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method has also been successfully applied for the speciation of CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+) in environmental water and human hair samples.

  1. Usefulness of the direct coupling headspace-mass spectrometry for sensory quality characterization of virgin olive oil samples.

    PubMed

    López-Feria, Silvia; Cárdenas, Soledad; García-Mesa, José Antonio; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2007-02-05

    The applicability of the headspace coupled to mass spectrometry for evaluation of the sensory quality of virgin olive oil samples is presented. The volatiles of the oil are directly transferred from the sample vial to the detector without chromatographic separation. The mass spectrum obtained can be considered as a fingerprint of the oil sample and can be used for classification purposes. After a training step with samples previously qualified following the official method, a classification model was created using the supervised technique soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Eight negative (rancid, winey-vinegary, muddy sediment, hay-wood, vegetable water, earthy, fusty and musty-humidity) and three principal positive attributes (fruity, bitter and pungent) have been included in this study. With them, a classification model consisting of two main classes (extra- and lampante-virgin olive oil) was constructed. In addition, the unsupervised technique cluster analysis permitted the discrimination among oils with different negative attributes. The proposed procedure has been applied to the classification of commercial samples (as extra- or lampante-virgin olive oils) and the results were compared with those provided by the expert's panel with acceptable correlation.

  2. Bioimaging of metals in brain tissue by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and metallomics.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Matusch, Andreas; Palm, Christoph; Salber, Dagmar; Morton, Kathryn A; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-02-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been developed and established as an emerging technique in the generation of quantitative images of metal distributions in thin tissue sections of brain samples (such as human, rat and mouse brain), with applications in research related to neurodegenerative disorders. A new analytical protocol is described which includes sample preparation by cryo-cutting of thin tissue sections and matrix-matched laboratory standards, mass spectrometric measurements, data acquisition, and quantitative analysis. Specific examples of the bioimaging of metal distributions in normal rodent brains are provided. Differences to the normal were assessed in a Parkinson's disease and a stroke brain model. Furthermore, changes during normal aging were studied. Powerful analytical techniques are also required for the determination and characterization of metal-containing proteins within a large pool of proteins, e.g., after denaturing or non-denaturing electrophoretic separation of proteins in one-dimensional and two-dimensional gels. LA-ICP-MS can be employed to detect metalloproteins in protein bands or spots separated after gel electrophoresis. MALDI-MS can then be used to identify specific metal-containing proteins in these bands or spots. The combination of these techniques is described in the second section.

  3. Determination of 237Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Jones, Vernon D; Nichols, Sheldon T; Bernard, Maureen A; Noyes, Gary W

    2010-12-03

    A new method for the determination of (237)Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples has been developed that provides enhanced uranium removal to facilitate assay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in large soil samples for the measurement of (237)Np and Pu isotopes by ICP-MS. (238)U can interfere with (239)Pu measurement by ICP-MS as (238)UH(+) mass overlap and (237)Np via (238)U peak tailing. The method provides enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then transferring Pu to DGA resin for additional purification. The decontamination factor for removal of uranium from plutonium for this method is greater than 1×10(6). Alpha spectrometry can also be applied so that the shorter-lived (238)Pu isotope can be measured successfully. (239) Pu, (242)Pu and (237)Np were measured by ICP-MS, while (236)Pu and (238)Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

  4. Thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled using proximal probe thermal desorption with electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemica lionization

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure proximal probe thermal desorption sampling method coupled with secondary ionization by electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was demonstrated for the mass spectrometric analysis of a diverse set of compounds (dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, explosives and pesticides) separated on various high-performance thin-layer chromatography plates. Line scans along or through development lanes on the plates were carried out by moving the plate relative to a stationary heated probe positioned close to or just touching the stationary phase surface. Vapors of the compounds thermally desorbed from the surface were drawn into the ionization region of a combined electrospray ionization/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source where they merged with reagent ions and/or charged droplets from a corona discharge or an electrospray emitter and were ionized. The ionized components were then drawn through the atmospheric pressure sampling orifice into the vacuum region of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and detected using full scan, single ion monitoring, or selected reaction monitoring mode. Studies of variable parameters and performance metrics including the proximal probe temperature, gas flow rate into the ionization region, surface scan speed, read-out resolution, detection limits, and surface type are discussed.

  5. DETERMINATION OF 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2010-07-26

    A new method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples has been developed that provides enhanced uranium removal to facilitate assay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in large soil samples for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by ICP-MS. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via {sup 238}U peak tailing. The method provides enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then transferring Pu to DGA resin for additional purification. The decontamination factor for removal of uranium from plutonium for this method is greater than 1 x 10{sup 6}. Alpha spectrometry can also be applied so that the shorter-lived {sup 238}Pu isotope can be measured successfully. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu and {sup 238}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

  6. Coupled Space- and Velocity-Focusing in Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry-a Comprehensive Theoretical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi-Hong; Lai, Yin-Hung; Wang, Yi-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    A comprehensive theoretical calculation that couples space- and velocity-focusing is developed for optimizing the design of a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Conventional designs for ion sources of TOF mass spectrometers deviate from the optimal condition because the velocity- and space-focusing conditions are considered separately for two ions with simplified equations. The result of a reexamination taking into account all essential ions reveals that the conventional ion source design, especially the length of the ion extraction region, results in poor resolving power. The comprehensive calculation demonstrates that the resolving power increases when the length of the extraction region is shorter than that of the conventional ion source. A numerical analysis indicates that the resolving power dramatically increases when the effective extraction potential compensates for the initial kinetic energy spread of ions. With typically used extraction potentials, the newly optimized ion source improves the resolving power by more than two orders of magnitude compared with the conventional design. This new theoretical interpretation can also be used to predict the optimal extraction potential and extraction delay in conventional ion sources to substantially improve the resolving power. This comprehensive calculation method is effective not only for designing new high-resolution instruments but also for optimizing commercial products.

  7. Direct and Sensitive Detection of CWA Simulants by Active Capillary Plasma Ionization Coupled to a Handheld Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Etter, Raphael; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-07-01

    An active capillary plasma ionization (ACI) source was coupled to a handheld mass spectrometer (Mini 10.5; Aston Labs, West Lafayette, IN, USA) and applied to the direct gas-phase detection and quantification of chemical warfare agent (CWA) related chemicals. Complementing the discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) of the Mini 10.5 mass spectrometer with an additional membrane pump, a quasi-continuous sample introduction through the ACI source was achieved. Nerve agent simulants (three dialkyl alkylphosphonates, a dialkyl phosporamidate, and the pesticide dichlorvos) were detected at low gas-phase concentrations with limits of detection ranging from 1.0 μg/m3 to 6.3 μg/m3. Our results demonstrate a sensitivity enhancement for portable MS-instrumentation by using an ACI source, enabling direct, quantitative measurements of volatile organic compounds. Due to its high sensitivity, selectivity, low power consumption (<80 W) and weight (<13 kg), this instrumentation has the potential for direct on-site CWA detection as required by military or civil protection.

  8. Investigations on the direct introduction of cigarette smoke for trace elements analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Michael J.; Naworal, John D.; Walker, Kathleen; Connell, Chris T.

    2003-11-01

    Direct introduction of mainstream cigarette smoke into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been investigated with respect to its feasibility for on-line analysis of trace elements. An automated apparatus was designed and built interfacing a smoking machine with an ICP-MS for smoke generation, collection, injection and analysis. Major and minor elements present in the particulate phase and the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke of 2R4F reference cigarettes have been qualitatively identified by examination of their full mass spectra. This method provides a rapid-screening analysis of the transfer of trace elements into mainstream smoke during cigarette combustion. A full suite of elements present in the whole cigarette smoke has been identified, including As, B, Ba, Br, Cd, Cl, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Tl and Zn. Of these elements, the major portions of B, Ba, Cs, Cu, K, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, Rb, Sn, Tl and Zn are present in the particulate phase, whereas the major portion of Hg is present in the gas phase. As, Br, Cd, Cl, I and Sb exist in a distribution between the gas phase and the particulate phase. Depending on the element, the precision of measurement ranges from 5 to 25% in terms of relative standard deviation of peak height and peak area, based on the fourth puff of 2R4F mainstream cigarette smoke analyzed in five smoking replicates.

  9. Analysis of glass fragments by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Bajic, Stanley J; Aeschliman, David B; Saetveit, Nathan J; Baldwin, David P; Houk, R S

    2005-09-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is used to differentiate glass samples with similar optical and physical properties based on trace elemental composition. Laser ablation increases the number of elements that can be used for differentiation by eliminating problems commonly associated with dissolution and contamination. In this study, standard residential window and tempered glass samples that could not be differentiated by refractive index or density were successfully differentiated by LA-ICP-MS. The primary analysis approach used is Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the complete mass spectrum. PCA, a multivariate analysis technique, provides rapid analysis of samples without time-consuming pair-wise comparison of calibrated analyses or prior knowledge of the elements present in the samples. Probabilities for positive association of the individual samples are derived from PCA. Utilization of the Q-statistic with PCA allowed us to distinguish all samples within the set to a certainty greater than the 99% confidence interval.

  10. First inductively coupled plasma-distance-of-flight mass spectrometer: instrument performance with a microchannel plate/phosphor imaging detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W.; Dennis, Elise; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2013-09-01

    Here we describe the first combination of a Distance-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (DOFMS) instrument and an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ion source. DOFMS is a velocity-based MS technique in which ions of a range of mass-to-charge (m/z) values are detected simultaneously along the length of a spatially selective detector. As a relative of time-of-flight (TOF) MS, DOFMS leverages benefits fromboth TOFMS and spatially dispersive MS. The simultaneous detection of groups of m/z values improves dynamic range by spreading ion signal across many detector elements and reduces correlated noise by signal ratioing. To ascertain the performance characteristics of the ICP-DOFMS instrument, we have employed a microchannel-plate/phosphor detection assembly with a scientific CCD to capture images of the phosphor plate. With this simple (and commercially available) detection scheme, elemental detection limits from 2–30 ng L*1 and a linear dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude (10–106 ng L1) have been demonstrated. Additionally, a competitive isotope-ratio precision of 0.1% RSD has been achieved with only a 6 s signal integration period. In addition to first figures of merit, this paper outlines technical considerations for the design of the ICP-DOFMS.

  11. High-precision measurement of variations in calcium isotope ratios in urine by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.L.L.; Gordon, G.W.; Arrua, R.C.; Skulan, J.L.; Anbar, A.D.; Bullen, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new chemical separation method to isolate Ca from other matrix elements in biological samples, developed with the long-term goal of making high-precision measurement of natural stable Ca isotope variations a clinically applicable tool to assess bone mineral balance. A new two-column procedure utilizing HBr achieves the purity required to accurately and precisely measure two Ca isotope ratios (44Ca/42Ca and 44Ca/43Ca) on a Neptune multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) in urine. Purification requirements for Sr, Ti, and K (Ca/Sr > 10000; Ca/Ti > 10000000; and Ca/K > 10) were determined by addition of these elements to Ca standards of known isotopic composition. Accuracy was determined by (1) comparing Ca isotope results for samples and standards to published data obtained using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), (2) adding a Ca standard of known isotopic composition to a urine sample purified of Ca, and (3) analyzing mixtures of urine samples and standards in varying proportions. The accuracy and precision of δ44/42Ca measurements of purified samples containing 25 μg of Ca can be determined with typical errors less than ±0.2‰ (2σ).

  12. RAPID DETERMINATION OF 237 NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN WATER BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ALPHA SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.; Culligan, B.; Nichols, S.; Noyes, G.

    2010-06-23

    A new method that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in water samples was developed for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via peak tailing. The method provide enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then moving Pu to DGA resin for additional removal of uranium. The decontamination factor for uranium from Pu is almost 100,000 and the decontamination factor for U from Np is greater than 10,000. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation method. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long and short-lived Pu isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 20 samples (including QC samples) in 4 to 6 hours, and can also be used for emergency response. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

  13. An improved thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry coupling using a surface sampling probe electrospray ion trap system

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Michael J; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2004-01-01

    A combined surface sampling probe/electrospray emitter coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer was used for the direct read out of unmodified reversed-phase C18 thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The operation of the surface sampling electrospray ionization interface in positive and negative ionization modes was demonstrated through the direct analysis of TLC plates on which a commercial test mix comprised of four dye compounds viz., rhodamine B, fluorescein, naphthol blue black, and fast green FCF, and an extract of the caffeine-containing plant Ilex vomitoria, were spotted and developed. Acquisition of full-scan mass spectra and automated collection of MS/MS product ion spectra while scanning a development lane along the surface of a TLC plate demonstrated the advantages of using an ion trap in this combination. Details of the sampling system, benefits of analyzing a developed lane in both positive ion and negative ion modes, levels of detection while surface scanning, surface scan speed effects, and the utility of three-dimensional data display, are also discussed.

  14. Identification of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate thermal degradation products in a generation chamber by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Sébastien; Cloutier, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Isocyanate thermal degradation characterization by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry has been performed to elucidate the methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) thermal degradation structure emitted in a generation chamber using a temperature between 50°C and 180°C to produce MDI vapors. [M+H](+) ions containing an isocyanate functional group were studied by tandem mass spectrometry. The [M+H](+) ion analyses based on the combination of full scans and precursor ion scans were useful for identifying all structures. The compounds emitted were identified and validated as a mixture of compounds containing amine and isocyanate functions. Residual MDI, methylene diphenyl amino-isocyanate, and methylene diphenyl diamine were identified. Polymerized forms of these structures were also observed because amine and isocyanate chemical functions react rapidly to polymerize. These results must be used with special care by scientists establishing sensitization diagnostics and developing sampling devices using generation chambers as they must be related to MDI behavior in workplaces. Even if pure MDI is introduced in the generation chamber, several different compounds are generated when the MDI is heated at a high temperature. This can result in some misleading interpretations for non-specific isocyanate sampling device development and sensitization diagnostics as MDI is present in the chamber with other compounds with known adverse effects.

  15. Determination of azithromycin residue in pork using a molecularly imprinted monolithic microcolumn coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Haicui; Jin, Zhen; Liu, Qingying; Song, Xuqin; He, Limin; Fang, Binghu; Meng, Chenying

    2016-04-01

    Using spiramycin as a dummy template, a molecularly imprinted polymer monolithic micro-column with high selection to azithromycin was prepared in a micropipette tip. The imprinting factor of the monolithic micro-column prepared was approximately 2.67 and the morphological structure of the polymers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. A simple, sensitive, and reproducible method based on the imprinted monolithic micro-column coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for determining the residues of azithromycin in pork. Pork samples were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up under the optimal monolithic micro-column conditions, and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.50-50 μg/L with the correlation coefficient (r(2) ) above 0.99. In the three spiking levels of 0.50, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg, the average recoveries of azithromycin from pork samples were between 85.8 and 96.5% with a relative standard deviation below 10%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.03 and 0.1 μg/kg, respectively.

  16. Determination of Common Adulterants in Herbal Medicine and Food Samples using Core-shell Column Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Al Lawati, Haider A J; Al Busaidi, Idris; Kadavilpparampu, Afsal M; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2017-03-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to develop and validate a rapid method to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse 18 common adulterants in herbal medicine and food samples. Initially, the mobile phase composition was optimized in three different columns: core-shell, monolithic and standard 3.5-µm-particle-size columns. The results show that the core-shell column provides the best separation. Moreover, the tandem mass spectrometry was optimized. The linear range for all adulterants was 0.5-500 μg mL-1. Finally, the samples that were supplied by the Public Authority of Customer Protection, Ministry of Health, and those collected from the local market were analysed. The results indicate that 7 of 33 analysed samples contained adulterants. The adulterated samples mainly contain sildenafil, tadalafil or vardenafil. The concentrations of these three adulterants in the samples were 0.18-39 wt%. This study is the first report in the Sultanate of Oman about adulteration in herbal medicine and food samples. The results clearly raise some concern and require proper plan of action to increase public awareness about this serious issue.

  17. [High-sensitivity analysis of purines in alcoholic beverages using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Kakigi, Yasuhiro; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we established a high-sensitivity analytical method for purines in alcoholic beverages using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The alcoholic beverages were hydrolyzed with perchloric acid (60%) and subjected to strong cation exchange solid-phase extraction (Bond Elut SCX). The four purine bases (hypoxanthine, adenine, xanthine, guanine) in the extracted solution were separated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography with TSKgel Amide-80 as a separation column, 10 mM ammonium formate (pH 2.0) as mobile phase A, and acetonitrile/100 mM ammonium formate (pH 2.0) (90/10) as mobile phase B. The detection of purine bases was performed by tandem mass spectrometry with ESI. The linearity of this analytical method was not less than 0.996, and the repeatability was not more than 8.4% for each purine base. The recovery was in the range of 60-105%, and the detection limit was not more than 0.005 mg/100 mL. This established method is expected to be useful for quality control and surveillance of purines in alcoholic beverages.

  18. Development of a comprehensive analytical method for phosphate metabolites in plants by ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Yoko; Mitsuhashi, Naoto; Kokaji, Tetsuo; Miyakoda, Hidekazu; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2005-08-26

    This paper describes the development of a practical method for the analysis of phosphorus compounds with a focus on sugar phosphates from the model higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana by ion chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS-MS). After the analytical separation, the potassium hydroxide eluent was converted to water with an anion suppressor allowing the effluent from the IC to be connected to the mass spectrometer directly. In the optimized method, 17 phosphorous compounds (adenosine diphosphate (ADP), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, galactose 1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, glucose 1,6-bisphosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, mannose 6-phosphate, phosphoenol pyrvate, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, ribulose 5-phosphate, ribose 5-phosphate, sucrose 6-phosophate and uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucose (UDPG)) were determined. The linearity of response for these phosphorous compounds over the concentration range of 0 and 10 microM was better than 0.9993 in all cases. The minimum detection limit was between 0.01 and 2.50 microM for a 25 microL injection, and recovery rates for standard addition to the sample were within the range from 93% to 110%.

  19. Investigation of pharmaceuticals in processed animal by-products by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Ibáñez, María; Serrano, Roque; Boix, Clara; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore; Hannisdal, Rita; Alm, Martin; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2016-07-01

    There is an on-going trend for developing more sustainable salmon feed in which traditionally applied marine feed ingredients are replaced with alternatives. Processed animal products (PAPs) have been re-authorized as novel high quality protein ingredients in 2013. These PAPs may harbor undesirable substances such as pharmaceuticals and metabolites which are not previously associated with salmon farming, but might cause a potential risk for feed and food safety. To control these contaminants, an analytical strategy based on a generic extraction followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) using quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer (QTOF MS) was applied for wide scope screening. Quality control samples, consisting of PAP commodities spiked at 0.02, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg with 150 analytes, were injected in every sample batch to verify the overall method performance. The methodology was applied to 19 commercially available PAP samples from six different types of matrices from the EU animal rendering industry. This strategy allows assessing possible emergent risk exposition of the salmon farming industry to 1005 undesirables, including pharmaceuticals, several dyes and relevant metabolites.

  20. Trace analysis of energetic materials via direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Kristina; Dake, Jeffrey; Sisco, Edward; Verbeck, Guido F

    2013-09-10

    Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) has proven to be a useful forensic tool for the trace analysis of energetic materials. While other techniques for detecting trace amounts of explosives involve extraction, derivatization, solvent exchange, or sample clean-up, DART-MS requires none of these. Typical DART-MS analyses directly from a solid sample or from a swab have been quite successful; however, these methods may not always be an optimal sampling technique in a forensic setting. For example, if the sample were only located in an area which included a latent fingerprint of interest, direct DART-MS analysis or the use of a swab would almost certainly destroy the print. To avoid ruining such potentially invaluable evidence, another method has been developed which will leave the fingerprint virtually untouched. Direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DAPNe-NSI-MS) has demonstrated excellent sensitivity and repeatability in forensic analyses of trace amounts of illicit drugs from various types of surfaces. This technique employs a nanomanipulator in conjunction with bright-field microscopy to extract single particles from a surface of interest and has provided a limit of detection of 300 attograms for caffeine. Combining DAPNe with DART-MS provides another level of flexibility in forensic analysis, and has proven to be a sufficient detection method for trinitrotoluene (TNT), RDX, and 1-methylaminoanthraquinone (MAAQ).

  1. Quasi ?non-destructive? laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry fingerprinting of sapphires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillong, M.; Günther, D.

    2001-07-01

    A homogenized 193 nm excimer laser with a flat-top beam profile was used to study the capabilities of LA-ICP-MS for 'quasi' non-destructive fingerprinting and sourcing of sapphires from different locations. Sapphires contain 97-99% of Al 2O 3 (corundum), with the remainder composed of several trace elements, which can be used to distinguish the origin of these gemstones. The ablation behavior of sapphires, as well as the minimum quantity of sample removal that is required to determine these trace elements, was investigated. The optimum ablation conditions were a fluency of 6 J cm -2, a crater diameter of 120 μm, and a laser repetition rate of 10 Hz. The optimum time for the ablation was determined to be 2 s, equivalent to 20 laser pulses. The mean sample removal was 60 nm per pulse (approx. 3 ng per pulse). This allowed satisfactory trace element determination, and was found to cause the minimum amount of damage, while allowing for the fingerprinting of sapphires. More than 40 isotopes were measured using different spatial resolutions (20-120 μm) and eight elements were reproducibly detected in 25 sapphire samples from five different locations. The reproducibility of the trace element distribution is limited by the heterogeneity of the sample. The mean of five or more replicate analyses per sample was used. Calibration was carried out using NIST 612 glass reference material as external standard. The linear dynamic range of the ICP-MS (nine orders of magnitude) allowed the use of Al, the major element in sapphire, as an internal standard. The limits of detection for most of the light elements were in the μg g -1 range and were better for heavier elements (mass >85), being in the 0.1 μg g -1 range. The accuracy of the determinations was demonstrated by comparison with XRF analyses of the same set of samples. Using the quantitative analyses obtained using LA-ICP-MS, natural sapphires from five different origins were statistically classified using ternary plots and

  2. Microphysics of mass-transport in coupled droplet-pairs at low Reynolds number and the role of convective dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qingming; Sau, Amalendu

    2016-06-01

    Interfacial mass-transport and redistribution in the micro-scale liquid droplets are important in diverse fields of research interest. The role of the "inflow" and the "outflow" type convective eddy-pairs in the entrainment of outer solute and internal relocation are examined for different homogeneous and heterogeneous water droplet pairs appearing in a tandem arrangement. Two micro-droplets of pure (rain) water interact with an oncoming outer air stream (Re ≤ 100) contaminated by uniformly distributed SO2. By virtue of separation/attachment induced non-uniform interfacial shear-stress gradient, the well-defined inflow/outflow type pairs of recirculating eddy-based convective motion quickly develops, and the eddies effectively attract/repel the accumulated outer solute and control the physical process of mass-transport in the droplet-pair. The non-uniformly shear-driven flow interaction and bifurcation of the circulatory internal flow lead to growth of important micro-scale "secondary" eddies which suitably regroup with the adjacent "primary" one to create the sustained inflow/outflow type convective dynamics. The presently derived flow characteristics and in-depth analysis help to significantly improve our understanding of the micro-droplet based transport phenomena in a wider context. By tuning "Re" (defined in terms of the droplet diameter and the average oncoming velocity of the outer air) and gap-ratio "α," the internal convective forcing and the solute entrainment efficiency could be considerably enhanced. The quantitative estimates for mass entrainment, convective strength, and saturation characteristics for different coupled micro-droplet pairs are extensively examined here for 0.2 ≤ α ≤ 2.0 and 30 ≤ Re ≤ 100. Interestingly, for the compound droplets, with suitably tuned radius-ratio "B" (of upstream droplet with respect to downstream one) the generated "inflow" type coherent convective dynamics helped to significantly augment the centre

  3. Determination of rare earth elements in environmental matrices by sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Riondato, J; Vanhaecke, F; Moens, L; Dams, R

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of an international certification campaign, sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sector-field ICP-MS) was used for the accurate determination of the rare earth elements in five candidate reference materials: aquatic plant, calcareous soil, mussel tissue, river sediment, and tuna muscle. All samples were taken into solution by use of microwave-assisted or mixed microwave-assisted / open beaker acid digestion. Subsequently, the samples were appropriately diluted and subjected to ICP-MS analysis. Except for Sc, all the elements involved were determined at low mass resolution (R = 300). For Sc, application of a higher resolution setting (R = 3,000) was required to separate the analyte signal from those of several molecular ions which gave rise to spectral overlap at low mass resolution. Some of the heavier REE can also suffer from spectral overlap attributed to the occurrence of oxide ions (MO+) of the lighter REE and Ba. This spectral overlap could be successfully overcome by mathematical correction. Matrix effects were overcome by use of two carefully selected internal standards, such that external calibration could be used. On each occasion, a geological reference material was analyzed as a quality-control sample and the reliability of all results obtained was additionally checked by means of chondrite normalization. For tuna muscle the content of all REE was below the limit of detection. For calcareous soil and river sediment, low to sub microg g(-1) values were observed, whereas the REE content of aquatic plant and mussel tissue was considerably lower (low to sub ng g(-1)). Overall, the results obtained were in excellent agreement with the average values, calculated on the basis of all "accepted" values, obtained in different laboratories using different techniques.

  4. Comparing Theory and Experiment for Analyte Transport in the First Vacuum Stage of the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachreson, Matthew R.

    The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) has been used in laboratories for many years. The majority of the improvements to the instrument have been done empirically through trial and error. A few fluid models have been made, which have given a general description of the flow through the mass spectrometer interface. However, due to long mean free path effects and other factors, it is very difficult to simulate the flow details well enough to predict how changing the interface design will change the formation of the ion beam. Towards this end, Spencer et al. developed FENIX, a direct simulation Monte Carlo algorithm capable of modeling this transitional flow through the mass spectrometer interface, the transitional flow from disorganized plasma to focused ion beam. Their previous work describes how FENIX simulates the neutral ion flow. While understanding the argon flow is essential to understanding the ICP-MS, the true goal is to improve its analyte detection capabilities. In this work, we develop a model for adding analyte to FENIX and compare it to previously collected experimental data. We also calculate how much ambipolar fields, plasma sheaths, and electron-ion recombination affect the ion beam formation. We find that behind the sampling interface there is no evidence of turbulent mixing. The behavior of the analyte seems to be described simply by convection and diffusion. Also, ambipolar field effects are small and do not significantly affect ion beam formation between the sampler and skimmer cones. We also find that the plasma sheath that forms around the sampling cone does not significantly affect the analyte flow downstream from the skimmer. However, it does thermally insulate the electrons from the sampling cone, which reduces ion-electron recombination. We also develop a model for electron-ion recombination. By comparing it to experimental data, we find that significant amounts of electron-ion recombination occurs just downstream from the

  5. A minimal non-supersymmetric S O(10) model: Gauge coupling unification, proton decay and fermion masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Saki

    2016-06-01

    We present a minimal renormalizable non-supersymmetric S O(10) grand unified model with a symmetry breaking sector consisting of Higgs fields in the 54H + 126H + 10H representations. This model admits a single intermediate scale associated with Pati-Salam symmetry along with a discrete parity. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, the unification of gauge couplings and proton lifetime estimates are studied in detail in this framework. Including threshold corrections self-consistently, obtained from a full analysis of the Higgs potential, we show that the model is compatible with the current experimental bound on proton lifetime. The model generally predicts an upper bound of few times 1035 yrs for proton lifetime, which is not too far from the present Super-Kamiokande limit of τp ≳ 1.29 × 1034 yrs. With the help of a Pecci-Quinn symmetry and the resulting axion, the model provides a suitable dark matter candidate while also solving the strong CP problem. The intermediate scale, MI ≈ (1013 - 1014) GeV which is also the B - L scale, is of the right order for the right-handed neutrino mass which enables a successful description of light neutrino masses and oscillations. The Yukawa sector of the model consists of only two matrices in family space and leads to a predictive scenario for quark and lepton masses and mixings. The branching ratios for proton decay are calculable with the leading modes being p → e+π0 and p →v ¯π+ . Even though the model predicts no new physics within the reach of LHC, the next generation proton decay detectors and axion search experiments have the capability to pass verdict on this minimal scenario.

  6. Directly coupled high-performance liquid chromatography-accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of chemically modified protein and peptides.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Avi T; Stewart, Benjamin J; Ognibene, Ted J; Turteltaub, Kenneth W; Bench, Graham

    2013-04-02

    Quantitation of low-abundance protein modifications involves significant analytical challenges, especially in biologically important applications, such as studying the role of post-translational modifications in biology and measurement of the effects of reactive drug metabolites. (14)C labeling combined with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides exquisite sensitivity for such experiments. Here, we demonstrate real-time (14)C quantitation of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separations by liquid sample accelerator mass spectrometry (LS-AMS). By enabling direct HPLC-AMS coupling, LS-AMS overcomes several major limitations of conventional HPLC-AMS, where individual HPLC fractions must be collected and converted to graphite before measurement. To demonstrate LS-AMS and compare the new technology to traditional solid sample AMS (SS-AMS), reduced and native bovine serum albumin (BSA) was modified by (14)C-iodoacetamide, with and without glutathione present, producing adducts on the order of 1 modification in every 10(6) to 10(8) proteins. (14)C incorporated into modified BSA was measured by solid carbon AMS and LS-AMS. BSA peptides were generated by tryptic digestion. Analysis of HPLC-separated peptides was performed in parallel by LS-AMS, fraction collection combined with SS-AMS, and (for peptide identification) electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). LS-AMS enabled (14)C quantitation from ng sample sizes and was 100 times more sensitive to (14)C incorporated in HPLC-separated peptides than SS-AMS, resulting in a lower limit of quantitation of 50 zmol (14)C/peak. Additionally, LS-AMS turnaround times were minutes instead of days, and HPLC trace analyses required 1/6th the AMS instrument time required for analysis of graphite fractions by SS-AMS.

  7. Coupled deformation and metamorphism: Strain localization facilitated by solution mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, R. A.; Andronicos, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    was facilitated by two mechanisms: initial pressure solution combined with slip along cleavage planes and grain boundaries in muscovite, followed by grain boundary slip between sillimanite fibers combined with continued pressure solution. We infer that dehydration of muscovite produced hydrous fluids that facilitated the depletion of major elements in the shear bands leaving sillimanite, quartz and oxides in the shear zones. These textures demonstrate localized ductile deformation, and suggest that deformation was an important catalyst is driving the conversion of andalusite to sillimanite. This result suggests that the andalusite persisted in metastability into the sillimanite stability field and that deformation assisted in the complete transformation of andalusite to sillimanite. Combination of the observations summarized above highlights the importance of the relationship between deformation, metamorphism and solution mass transfer during pluton emplacement in the Needle Mountains, Colorado.

  8. Determination of rare earth element in carbonate using laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry: an examination of the influence of the matrix on laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yoshio; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2007-02-05

    In this study, we examined the influence of the matrix on rare earth element (REE) analyses of carbonate with laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) using carbonate and NIST glass standards. A UV 213 nm Nd:YAG laser system was coupled to an ICP-MS. Laser-ablation was carried out in both He and Ar atmospheres to investigate the influence of ablation gas on the analytical results. A small amount of N2 gas was added to the carrier gas to enhance the signal intensities. Synthetic CaCO3 standards, doped with REEs, as well as NIST glasses (NIST SRM 610 and 612) were used as calibration standards. Carbonatite, which is composed of pure calcite, was analyzed as carbonate samples. The degree of the influence of the matrix on the results was evaluated by comparing the results, which were calibrated by the synthetic CaCO3 and NIST glass standards. With laser-ablation in a He atmosphere, the differences between the results calibrated by the synthetic CaCO3 and NIST glass standards were less than 10% across the REE series, except for those of La which were 25%. In contrast, for the measurements made in an Ar atmosphere, the results calibrated by the synthetic CaCO3 and NIST glass standards differed by 25-40%. It was demonstrated that the LA-ICP-MS system can provide quantitative analysis of REE concentrations in carbonate samples using non matrix-matched standards of NIST glasses.

  9. An overview of recent applications of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in determination of inorganic impurities in drugs and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Nageswara Rao, R; Talluri, M V N Kumar

    2007-01-04

    The recent applications of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in determination of trace level inorganic impurities in drugs and pharmaceuticals have been reviewed. ICP-MS coupled with LC, GC and CE was used for speciation of heavy metals in pharmaceutical products. The review covers the period from 1995 to 2005 during which the technique was applied not only for determination of metallic impurities but also the assay of various trace elements in pharmaceuticals.

  10. Speciation of manganese binding to biomolecules in pine nuts (Pinus pinea) by two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detectors followed by identification by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arias-Borrego, Ana; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José L

    2008-10-01

    Advances in analytical methodology for speciation of manganese in pine nuts are presented in this work. The approach is based on the use of orthogonal chromatographic systems, namely size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of the extracts and strong anion exchange (IEC) of the fractions collected by the first column. In both columns, manganese elution is first monitored by a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrument equipped with an octopole reaction cell and an ultraviolet (UV) detector. SEC is performed by using two columns covering the molecular weight range from <10 to 70 kDa that allows an initial screening of the molecular weight of the Mn species. The higher resolution capability of the low molecular weight range column is the reason to use the latter for further experiments. The fraction from SEC-ICP-MS in which Mn is present at highest concentration is submitted to IEC-ICP-MS allowing Mn-citrate and MnCl(2) identification by retention time matching with standards. The concentration of these species is estimated to be 75 and 125 microg kg(-1) (as Mn), respectively, in the pine nuts samples and the presence of Mn-citrate is confirmed by nanoelectrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nESI-QqTOF-MS). In the same fraction, a third Mn-containing peak is detected in the IEC-UV-ICP-MS chromatogram. This peak corresponds to a protein containing Mn that was later submitted to a tryptic digestion and analyzed by nESI-QqTOF. The MS/MS data of a doubly charged peptide are used to obtain the sequence of the protein with the Mascot search engine. The peak turned out to be isocitrate dehydrogenase, a protein commonly associated with Mn.

  11. Determination of arsenic species in fish, crustacean and sediment samples from Thailand using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Rattanachongkiat, S; Millward, G E; Foulkes, M E

    2004-04-01

    Suitable techniques have been developed for the extraction of arsenic species in a variety of biological and environmental samples from the Pak Pa-Nang Estuary and catchment, located in Southern Thailand, and for their determination using HPLC directly coupled with ICP-MS. The estuary catchment comprises a tin mining area and inhabitants of the region can suffer from various stages of arsenic poisoning. The important arsenic species, AsB, DMA, MMA, and inorganic arsenic (As III and V) have been determined in fish and crustacean samples to provide toxicological information on those fauna which contribute to the local diet. A Hamilton PRP-X100 anion-exchange HPLC system employing a step elution has been used successfully to achieve separation of the arsenic species. A nitric acid microwave digestion procedure, followed by carrier gas nitrogen addition- (N2)-ICP-MS analysis was used to measure total arsenic in sample digests and extracts. The arsenic speciation of the biological samples was preserved using a Trypsin enzymatic extraction procedure. Extraction efficiencies were high, with values of 82-102%(As) for fish and crustacean samples. Validation for these procedures was carried out using certified reference materials. Fish and crustacean samples from the Pak Pa-Nang Estuary showed a range for total arsenic concentration, up to 17 microg g(-1) dry mass. The major species of arsenic in all fauna samples taken was AsB, together with smaller quantities of DMA and, more importantly, inorganic As. For sediment samples, arsenic species were determined following phosphoric acid (1 M H3PO4) extraction in an open focused microwave system. A phosphate-based eluant, pH 6-7.5, with anion exchange HPLC coupled with ICP-MS was used for separation and detection of AsIII, AsV, MMA and DMA. The optimum conditions, identified using an estuarine sediment reference material (LGC), were achieved using 45 W power and a 20 minute heating period for extraction of 0.5 g sediment. The

  12. Analysis of indandione anticoagulant rodenticides in animal liver by eluent generator reagent free ion chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mi-cong; Chen, Xiao-hong; Ye, Ming-li; Zhu, Yan

    2008-12-05

    A novel analytical method has been developed for simultaneous determination of four indandione anticoagulant rodenticides (diphacinone, chlorophacinone, pindone and valone) in animal liver tissues by eluent generator reagent free ion chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RFIC-ESI-MS). After the rodenticides were extracted from homogenized animal liver tissues with methanol-acetonitrile (10/90, v/v), the extracts were subjected to a solid-phase extraction (SPE) process using Oasis HLB cartridges. The IC separation was carried out on an IonPac AS11 analytical column (250 mm x 4.0 mm) using 10% methanol in a gradient of KOH solution at a constant flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The objective compounds were ionized by negative ion pneumatically assisted electrospray and detected in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Warfarin was applied as an internal standard (IS) for the compensation of the losses in the course of sample processing and the sensitivity drift of the detector, linear calibration functions were calculated for all analytes. The relative average recoveries of the objective compounds spiked in animal liver tissues were between 83.4 and 104.9%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.2-1.0 ng/g for them. Within-day and day-to-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10.4 and 13.3%, respectively. It was confirmed that this method could be used in a toxicological analysis. The coupling of IC to MS provided a new analytical tool to the analysts faced with the requirement of separating and analyzing indandione rodenticides in animal livers.

  13. Imaging of Cu, Zn, Pb and U in human brain tumor resections by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoriy, M. V.; Dehnhardt, M.; Reifenberger, G.; Zilles, K.; Becker, J. S.

    2006-11-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to produce images of element distribution in 20 [mu]m thin tissue sections of primary human brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme--GBM) and adjacent non-neoplastic brain tissue. The sample surface was scanned (raster area ~1 cm2) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 266 nm, diameter of laser crater 50 [mu]m, and laser power density 1 x 109 W cm-2). The laser ablation system was coupled to a double-focusing sector field ICP-SFMS. Ion intensities of 63Cu+, 64Zn+, 208Pb+, and 238U+ were measured by LA-ICP-MS within the tumor area and the surrounding region invaded by GBM as well as in control tissue. The quantitative determination of copper, zinc, lead and uranium distribution in brain tissues by LA-ICP-MS was performed using prepared matrix-matched laboratory standards doped with these elements of interest. The limits of detection (LODs) obtained for Cu and Zn were 0.34 and 0.14 [mu]g g-1, respectively, while LODs of 12.5 and 6.9 ng g-1 were determined for Pb and U. The concentration and distribution of selected elements are compared between the control tissues and regions affected by GBM. A correlation was found between LA-ICP-MS and receptor-autoradiographic results. As receptor-autoradiographic techniques, a labeling for A1AR and the pBR was employed. Regarding the A1AR, we used the specific A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR)-ligand, 3H-CPFPX [3H-cyclopentyl-3-(3-fluoropropyl)-1-propylxanthine], which has been shown to specifically label the invasive zone around GBMs. The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor was labeled with 3H-Pk11195 [3H-1-(2-chlorphenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline-carboxamide].

  14. Speciation of gadolinium in surface water samples and plants by hydrophilic interaction chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Uwe; Lingott, Jana; Richter, Silke; Jakubowski, Norbert; Panne, Ulrich

    2013-02-01

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was optimized for speciation analysis of gadolinium-based contrast agents in environmental samples, in particular surface river waters and plants. Surface water samples from the Teltow channel, near Berlin, were investigated over a distance of 5 km downstream from the influx of a wastewater treatment plant. The total concentration of gadolinium increased significantly from 50 to 990 ng L(-1) due to the influx of the contrast agents. After complete mixing with the river water, the concentration remained constant over a distance of at least 4 km. Two main substances [Dotarem(®) (Gd-DOTA) and Gadovist(®) (Gd-BT-DO3A)] have been identified in the river water using standards. A gadolinium-based contrast agent, possibly Gd-DOTA (Dotarem(®)), was also detected in water plant samples taken from the Teltow channel. Therefore, uptake of contrast agents [Gadovist(®) (Gd-BTDO3A), Magnevist(®) (Gd-DTPA), Omniscan(®) (Gd-DTPA-BMA), Dotarem(®) (Gd-DOTA), and Multihance(®) (Gd-BOPTA)] by plants was investigated in a model experiment using Lepidium sativum (cress plants). HILIC-ICP-MS was used for identification of different contrast agents, and a first approach for quantification using aqueous standard solutions was tested. For speciation analysis, all investigated contrast agents could be extracted from the plant tissues with a recovery of about 54 % for Multihance(®) (Gd-BOPTA) up to 106 % for Gadovist(®) (Gd-BT-DO3A). These experiments demonstrate that all contrast agents investigated are transported from the roots to the leaves where the highest content was measured.

  15. Total zinc quantification by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and its speciation by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in human milk and commercial formulas: Importance in infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Menéndez, Sonia; Fernández-Sánchez, María L; Fernández-Colomer, Belén; de la Flor St Remy, Rafael R; Cotallo, Gil Daniel Coto; Freire, Aline Soares; Braz, Bernardo Ferreira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2016-01-08

    This paper summarises results of zinc content and its speciation in human milk from mothers of preterm and full-term infants at different stages of lactation and from synthetic formula milks. Human milk samples (colostrum, 7th, 14th, and 28th day after delivery) from Spanish and Brazilian mothers of preterm and full-term infants (and also formula milks) were collected. After adequate treatment of the sample, total Zn was determined, while speciation analysis of the Zn was accomplished by size exclusion chromatography coupled online with the ICP-MS. It is observed that total zinc content in human milk decreases continuously during the first month of lactation, both for preterm and full term gestations. All infant formulas analysed for total Zn were within the currently legislated levels. For Zn speciation analysis, there were no differences between preterm and full term human milk samples. Moreover Zn species elute mainly associated with immunoglobulins and citrate in human milk whey. Interestingly the speciation in formula milk whey turned out to be completely different as the observed Zn(2+) was bound almost exclusively to low molecular weight ligands (citrate) and only comparatively very low amounts of the metal appeared to be associated with higher mass biomolecules (e.g. proteins).

  16. Elemental fingerprint analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Husted, Søren; Mikkelsen, Birgitte F; Jensen, Jacob; Nielsen, Niels Erik

    2004-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS) have been used to examine the multi-elemental composition and (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios of three spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes (Orthega, Barke, and Bartok) grown in three typical Danish agricultural soils (North Jutland, West Jutland, and East Zealand) differing in soil fertility. The aim of the study was to examine whether it was possible to generate a unique elemental fingerprint of individual barley genotypes irrespective of the elemental imprint plants had received from soils diffe