Elastic properties of superconductors and materials with weakly correlated spins.
Binek, Christian
2017-07-07
It is shown that in the ergodic regime, the temperature dependence of Young's modulus is solely determined by the magnetic properties of a material. For the large class of materials with paramagnetic or diamagnetic response, simple functional forms of the temperature derivative of Young's modulus are derived and compared with experimental data and empirical results. Superconducting materials in the Meissner phase are ideal diamagnets. As such, they display remarkable elastic properties. Constant diamagnetic susceptibility gives rise to a temperature independent elastic modulus for ceramic and single crystalline superconductors alike. The thermodynamic approach established in this report, paves the way to tailor elastic material parameters through the design of magnetic properties.
NDE Elastic Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bar-Cohen, Y.
1995-01-01
Fiber-reinforced composites are increasingly replacing metallic alloys as structural materials for primary components of fracture-critical structures. This trend is a result of the growing understanding of material behavior and recognition of the desirable properties of composites. A research program was conducted on NDE methods for determining the elastic properties of composites.
Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?
Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat
2016-04-01
[Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex(®), ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight(®) 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young's modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young's modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape.
Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?
Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat
2016-01-01
[Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex®, ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight® 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young’s modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young’s modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape. PMID:27190472
Estimation of material properties of a nonlinearly elastic bar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, B. E.; Childs, B.
1974-01-01
A method of determining certain characteristic flexural rigidities and elastic properties of nonlinearly elastic materials is presented. An estimation method utilizing perturbation methods and a least squares fitting technique is used to solve the nonlinear differential equation derived from the moment curvature relation, subject to boundary values representing deflections of the bar at discrete points. Deflection data from numerical simulations of a nonlinearly elastic, prismatic bar are used to demonstrate the estimation method. Numerical experiments relating the accuracy of the identification to the number and accuracy of the boundary values are presented. Conclusions based on the numerical experiments are included.
Characterization of Elastic Properties of Interfaces in Composite Materials
1990-09-01
29.50 ± 3.5*. Although this variance is too large to be explained by the shift in energy flow (analogous to the Goos - Hanchen shift in optics), its...JHU-CNDE-IW.7 AD-A228 119 Characterization of Elastic Properties of Interfaces in Composite Materials T.M. Hsieh, K.A. Hirshman, EA. Lindgren, M...Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has placed a great deal of emphasis on the development of new composite materials, specifically metal and
Cyclic material properties tests supporting elastic-plastic analysis development
Hodge, S.C.; Minicucci, J.M.
1996-11-01
Correlation studies have shown that hardening models currently available in the ABAQUS finite element code (isotropic, kinematic) do not accurately capture the inelastic strain reversals that occur due to structural rebounding from a rapidly applied transient dynamic load. The purpose of the Cyclic Material properties Test program was to obtain response data for the first several cycles of inelastic strain reversal from a cyclic properties test. This data is needed to develop elastic-plastic analysis methods that can accurately predict strains and permanent sets in structures due to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. Test specimens were cycled at inelastic strain levels typical of rapidly applied transient dynamic analyses (0.5% to 4.0%). In addition to the inelastic response data, cyclic material properties for high yield strength (80 ksi) steel were determined including a cyclic stress-strain curve for a stabilized specimen. Two test methods, the Incremental Step method and the Companion specimen Method, were sued to determine cyclic properties. The incrementally decreasing strain amplitudes in the first loading block of the Incremental Step method test is representative of the response of structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loads. The inelastic strain history data generated by this test program will be used to support development of a material model that can accurately predict inelastic material behavior including inelastic strain reversals. Additionally, this data can be used to verify material model enhancements to elastic-plastic finite element analysis codes.
Adler, Thomas A.
1996-01-01
The invention pertains a method of determining elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramics, intermetallics, metals, plastics and other hard, brittle materials which fracture prior to plastically deforming when loads are applied. Elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramic materials are determined using spherical indenters. The method is most useful for measuring and calculating the plastic and elastic deformation of hard, brittle materials with low values of elastic modulus to hardness.
Nonlinear elastic properties of various man-made materials
Darvennes, C.M.; Hou, X.
1998-12-31
Second harmonic generation was measured in several man-made materials for possible application of nonlinear elastic properties to non-destructive testing. Samples included several thicknesses of two types of carbon fiber/polymer matrix composites, three types of concretes, and plywood. Steel and Aluminum specimens were used as references and one of the composite samples was evaluated before and after fatigue cycles. Some interesting observations were made: (1) the two composites were much more nonlinear than the metals, (2) the concretes and the wood were extremely absorptive, (3) one of the concrete samples exhibited a third harmonic but no second harmonic, and (4) fatigue cycles significantly increased the second harmonic, even though no damage was observed by C-scan. The possible applications of these results to NDE will be discussed.
2017-04-06
AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0331 TOWARD CHARACTERIZATION OF SINGLE CRYSTAL ELASTIC PROPERTIES IN POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS USING RESONANT...STINFO COPY) AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433-7750 AIR...SINGLE CRYSTAL ELASTIC PROPERTIES IN POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS USING RESONANT ULTRASOUND (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT
Stress effects on the elastic properties of amorphous polymeric materials.
Caponi, S; Corezzi, S; Mattarelli, M; Fioretto, D
2014-12-07
Brillouin light scattering measurements have been used to study the stress induced modification in the elastic properties of two glass forming polymers: polybutadiene and epoxy-amine resin, prototypes of linear and network polymers, respectively. Following the usual thermodynamic path to the glass transition, polybutadiene has been studied as a function of temperature from the liquid well into the glassy phase. In the epoxy resin, the experiments took advantage of the system ability to reach the glass both via the chemical vitrification route, i.e., by increasing the number of covalent bonds among the constituent molecules, as well as via the physical thermal route, i.e., by decreasing the temperature. Independently from the particular way chosen to reach the glassy phase, the measurements reveal the signature of long range tensile stresses development in the glass. The stress presence modifies both the value of the sound velocities and their mutual relationship, so as to break the generalized Cauchy-like relation. In particular, when long range stresses, by improvise sample cracking, are released, the frequency of longitudinal acoustic modes increases more than 10% in polybutadiene and ∼4% in the epoxy resin. The data analysis suggests the presence of at least two different mechanisms acting on different length scales which strongly affect the overall elastic behaviour of the systems: (i) the development of tensile stress acting as a negative pressure and (ii) the development of anisotropy which increases its importance deeper and deeper in the glassy state.
Stress effects on the elastic properties of amorphous polymeric materials
Caponi, S. E-mail: silvia.corezzi@unipg.it; Fioretto, D.
2014-12-07
Brillouin light scattering measurements have been used to study the stress induced modification in the elastic properties of two glass forming polymers: polybutadiene and epoxy-amine resin, prototypes of linear and network polymers, respectively. Following the usual thermodynamic path to the glass transition, polybutadiene has been studied as a function of temperature from the liquid well into the glassy phase. In the epoxy resin, the experiments took advantage of the system ability to reach the glass both via the chemical vitrification route, i.e., by increasing the number of covalent bonds among the constituent molecules, as well as via the physical thermal route, i.e., by decreasing the temperature. Independently from the particular way chosen to reach the glassy phase, the measurements reveal the signature of long range tensile stresses development in the glass. The stress presence modifies both the value of the sound velocities and their mutual relationship, so as to break the generalized Cauchy-like relation. In particular, when long range stresses, by improvise sample cracking, are released, the frequency of longitudinal acoustic modes increases more than 10% in polybutadiene and ∼4% in the epoxy resin. The data analysis suggests the presence of at least two different mechanisms acting on different length scales which strongly affect the overall elastic behaviour of the systems: (i) the development of tensile stress acting as a negative pressure and (ii) the development of anisotropy which increases its importance deeper and deeper in the glassy state.
Visco-elastic properties and edge stress relaxation of laminated composite materials
Walrath, D.E.
1986-01-01
Applicability of the Schapery single-integral nonlinear visco-elastic constitutive model to describe time-dependent mechanical behavior of laminated composite materials containing two visco-elastic phases was explored. Procedures to measure all five visco-elastic material properties necessary to describe visco-elastic behavior of a transversely isotropic continuous-fiber unidirectional lamina were implemented. Measurement of the through-the-thickness or interlaminar shear visco-elastic response required development of a new test methodology. The losipescu shear test method was selected for this purpose. The visco-elastic response of unidirectional DuPont Kevlar KV49/Hercules 3501-6 epoxy was measured. An automated data-reduction scheme was developed to facilitate description of visco-elastic properties using the Schapery single-integral approach. The basis for this data-reduction scheme differs from similar approaches used by other investigators in that time-superposition features of linear visco-elasticity are preserved. Finally, measured visco-elastic properties of KV49/3501-6 were used to model the interlaminar shear-stress relaxation that occurs near free edges in symmetric angle-ply laminated composite materials loaded by uniform axial extension. Interlaminar stresses induced near free edges were shown to be time-dependent for KV49/3501-6.
Elastic properties of granular materials under uniaxial compaction cycles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warren, N.; Anderson, O. L.
1973-01-01
Data on andesitic and basaltic sands are presented showing compressional sound velocity, density, and creep as functions of uniaxial loading through several compaction cycles. Maximum pressures over which acoustic measurements were made were in the range from 600 to 700 bars. The dynamic elastic modulus varies with pressure in a manner analogous to that of a static elastic modulus defined by small pressure perturbations on a typical compaction cycle. After several compaction cycles, two compressional elastic moduli apparently exist at low pressure (thus two modes of compressional wave propagation through the samples are indicated). The elastic moduli observations are briefly discussed in terms of a general expression for compressibility.
Effects of temperature distribution and elastic properties of materials on gas-turbine-disk stresses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holms, Arthur G; Faldetta, Richard D
1947-01-01
Calculations were made to determine the influence of changes in temperature distribution and in elastic material properties on calculated elastic stresses for a typical gas-turbine disk. Severe temperature gradients caused thermal stresses of sufficient magnitude to reduce the operating safety of the disk. Small temperature gradients were found to be desirable because they produced thermal stresses that subtracted from the centrifugal stresses in the region of the rim. The thermal gradients produced a tendency for a severe stress condition to exist near the rim but this stress condition could be shifted away from the region of blade attachment by altering the temperature distribution. The investigation of elastic material properties showed that centrifugal stresses are slightly affected by changes in modulus of elasticity, but that thermal stresses are approximately proportional to modulus of elasticity and to coefficient of thermal expansion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penta, Raimondo; Gerisch, Alf
2017-01-01
The classical asymptotic homogenization approach for linear elastic composites with discontinuous material properties is considered as a starting point. The sharp length scale separation between the fine periodic structure and the whole material formally leads to anisotropic elastic-type balance equations on the coarse scale, where the arising fourth rank operator is to be computed solving single periodic cell problems on the fine scale. After revisiting the derivation of the problem, which here explicitly points out how the discontinuity in the individual constituents' elastic coefficients translates into stress jump interface conditions for the cell problems, we prove that the gradient of the cell problem solution is minor symmetric and that its cell average is zero. This property holds for perfect interfaces only (i.e., when the elastic displacement is continuous across the composite's interface) and can be used to assess the accuracy of the computed numerical solutions. These facts are further exploited, together with the individual constituents' elastic coefficients and the specific form of the cell problems, to prove a theorem that characterizes the fourth rank operator appearing in the coarse-scale elastic-type balance equations as a composite material effective elasticity tensor. We both recover known facts, such as minor and major symmetries and positive definiteness, and establish new facts concerning the Voigt and Reuss bounds. The latter are shown for the first time without assuming any equivalence between coarse and fine-scale energies ( Hill's condition), which, in contrast to the case of representative volume elements, does not identically hold in the context of asymptotic homogenization. We conclude with instructive three-dimensional numerical simulations of a soft elastic matrix with an embedded cubic stiffer inclusion to show the profile of the physically relevant elastic moduli (Young's and shear moduli) and Poisson's ratio at increasing (up to
Proxy model materials to simulate the elastic properties of digested municipal sludge.
Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Markis, Flora; Baudez, Jean-Christophe; Slatter, Paul
2013-10-01
The elastic rheological properties of sludge are complex and evolve with time as a result of ageing and microbial activity. Due to the peculiar nature of sludge, this makes the measurement of physical parameters difficul. The challenge is to identify a reference material that can be used as a proxy for industrial process design or optimization. In this study, respectively the mixtures of 0.5%, 0.7% and 1% glass beads suspension in water have been added to 0.5%, 0.7% and 1% carbopol dissolved in water and neutralized with NaOH to prepare gel, at different ratios. Elastic and loss moduli have been determined for different glass bead suspension ratios in the range of 0%-80%. The results showed that there is a critical glass bead suspension/carbopol ratio at which the elastic properties of the mixture changes dramatically. The elastic properties of these model mixtures of different glass bead/carbopol ratio suspensions are compared with the elastic property of municipal sludge sampled from a Melbourne Waste Water Treatment Plant, and similarity established.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Da Silveira, P.; Holiday, A.; Kelly, N.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.
2012-12-01
We will describe Internet applications for first principles calculations of elastic coefficients (Cij) and thermodynamics properties of crystalline materials, implemented in the VLab Cyberinfrastructure (CI). The Cij application has recently been upgraded to treat crystals of all symmetries. First we review the theory behind these calculations and address the different requirements for each Bravais lattice. We also describe the scientific workflow and its general method for handling actions in the VLab CI, job scheduling on XSEDE and Minnesota Supercomputing Institute High Performance Computing resources, and integration with Apache Airavata API. We illustrate the Cij application with a calculation of diamond's elastic coefficients at high pressures, and a database of results from successful calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schindler, Stefan; Mergheim, Julia; Zimmermann, Marco; Aurich, Jan C.; Steinmann, Paul
2017-01-01
A two-scale material modeling approach is adopted in order to determine macroscopic thermal and elastic constitutive laws and the respective parameters for metal matrix composite (MMC). Since the common homogenization framework violates the thermodynamical consistency for non-constant temperature fields, i.e., the dissipation is not conserved through the scale transition, the respective error is calculated numerically in order to prove the applicability of the homogenization method. The thermomechanical homogenization is applied to compute the macroscopic mass density, thermal expansion, elasticity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity for two specific MMCs, i.e., aluminum alloy Al2024 reinforced with 17 or 30 % silicon carbide particles. The temperature dependency of the material properties has been considered in the range from 0 to 500°C, the melting temperature of the alloy. The numerically determined material properties are validated with experimental data from the literature as far as possible.
Homogenized mechanical properties of auxetic composite materials in finite-strain elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochmann, Dennis M.; Venturini, Gabriela N.
2013-08-01
Careful microstructural design can result in materials with counterintuitive effective (macroscale) mechanical properties such as a negative Poisson’s ratio, commonly referred to as auxetic behavior. One specific approach to achieving auxetic behavior is to elastically connect structural elements with rotational degrees of freedom to result in elastic structures that unfold under uniaxial loading in specific directions, thereby giving rise to bi- or triaxial expansion, i.e. auxetic behavior (transverse expansion under uniaxial extension). This concept has been applied successfully to elastically coupled two-dimensional rigid rotational elements (such as rotating rectangles and triangles) which exhibit a negative effective in-plane Poisson’s ratio under uniaxial (ex)tension. Here, we adopt this fundamental design principle but take it to the next level by achieving auxetic behavior in finitely strained composites made of stiff inclusions in a hyperelastic matrix, and we study the resulting elastic properties under in-plane strain by numerical homogenization. Our results highlight the emergence of auxetic behavior based on geometric arrangement and properties of the base material and demonstrate a path towards simple inclusion-matrix composites with auxetic behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Manoj; Khan, Gufran S.; Shakher, Chandra
2015-08-01
In the present work, application of digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) was applied for the measurement of mechanical/elastic and thermal properties of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP). Digital speckle pattern interferometric technique was used to characterize the material constants (Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus) of the composite material. Poisson ratio based on plate bending and Young's modulus based on plate vibration of material are measured by using DSPI. In addition to this, the coefficient of thermal expansion of composite material is also measured. To study the thermal strain analysis, a single DSPI fringe pattern is used to extract the phase information by using Riesz transform and the monogenic signal. The phase extraction from a single DSPI fringe pattern by using Riesz transform does not require a phase-shifting system or spatial carrier. The elastic and thermal parameters obtained from DSPI are in close agreement with the theoretical predictions available in literature.
Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich
2014-04-01
The aim of this study was to measure the linear elastic material properties of direct dental resin composites and correlate them with their fatigue strength under cyclic loading. Bar specimens of twelve resin composites were produced according to ISO 4049 and tested for elastic modulus (Emod) in 3-point bending (n=10), flexural strength (FS) (n=15) and single-edge-notch-beam fracture toughness (FT) (n=15), both in 4-point bending. Using the same specimen geometry, the flexural fatigue strength (FFS) was determined using the staircase approach after 10(4) cycles at 0.5 Hz in 4-point bending (n=25). The observation of the fracture surface and fracture profiles was conducted using a scanning electron microscope in order to evaluate the respective fracture mechanisms according to the two different loading conditions. Materials were ranked differently according to the tested parameters. Only weak correlations were found between any of the initial properties and FFS or strength loss. The best correlation to FFS was found to be the Emod (r(2)=0.679), although only slightly. Crack path in both loading conditions was mainly interparticle, with the crack propagating mainly within the matrix phase for fatigued specimens and eventually through the filler/matrix interface for statically loaded specimens. Fracture of large particles or prepolymerized fillers was only observed in specimens of FS and FT. Initial properties were better associated with microstructural features, whereas the fatigue resistance showed to be more dependent on aspects relating to the matrix phase. Our results show that linear elastic properties such as elastic modulus, flexural strength and fracture toughness are not good descriptors of the fatigue resistance of dental resin composite under cyclic bending, and may therefore have limited clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosario, Daniel E.; Brigham, John C.; Aquino, Wilkins
2008-01-01
A numerical study is presented to show the potential for using vibroacoustic-based experiments to identify elastic material properties of orthotropic cylindrical vessels immersed in fluids. Sensitivity analyses and a simulated inverse problem are shown to quantify the potential for material characterization through the use of acoustic emissions. For comparison purposes, the analyses are also shown with the normal component of the velocity at the surface of the cylinder as the measured response in place of the acoustic pressure. The simulated experiment consisted of an orthotropic cylinder immersed in water with an impact force applied to the surface of the cylinder. The material parameters of the cylinder considered in the analyses were the circumferential and longitudinal elastic moduli, and the in-plane shear modulus. The velocity response is shown to provide sufficient information for characterizing all three moduli from a single experiment. Alternatively, the acoustic pressure response is shown to provide sufficient information for characterizing only the two elastic moduli from a single experiment. The analyses show that the acoustic pressure response does not have sufficient sensitivity to the in-plane shear modulus for characterization purposes. PMID:18757070
Effects of Membrane Material Properties on the Deformation of Elastic Capsules in a Shear Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Kit Yan; Eggleton, Charles
2006-03-01
The deformation process of elastic capsules in a simple shear flow is studied numerically using the immersed boundary method to probe the influence of membrane material properties. Membrane models that are representative of linear elastic membrane (Hookean law), strain hardening membrane (Skalak), and strain softening membrane (Mooney-Rivlin, neo-Hookean) and the Evans-Skalak model developed from thermodynamic principles to represent the behavior of a lipid bilayer and a cytoskeletal network, are used to study the effects of membrane material properties on the response of the capsule at various shear rates. Simulation results indicate that both the time to reach steady state and the final steady shape of the capsule are sensitive to the choice of the membrane model and parameter values used. These experimentally measurable quantities may be compared with computations for determining suitable model of a particular capsule of interest, and the associated material properties. Local strain and energy distributions computed also provide additional information that is not easily accessible experimentally.
Quantifying the Properties of Elastic, Liquid Metal Based Thermal Interface Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kemme, Nicholas
Advancements in thermal interface materials (TIMs) allows for the creation of new and more powerful electronics as they increase the heat transfer from the component to the heat sink. Current industrial options provide decent heat transfer, but the creation of TIMs with higher thermal conductivities is needed. In addition, if these TIMs are elastic in nature, their effectiveness can greatly increase as they can deal with changing interfaces without degradation of their properties. The research performed delves into this idea, creating elastic TIMs using liquid metal (LM), in this case galinstan, along with other matrix particles embedded in Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to create an easy to use, relatively inexpensive, thermally conductive, but electrically insulative, pad with increased thermal conductivity from industrial solutions. The pads were created using varying amounts of LM and matrix materials ranging from copper microspheres to diamond powder mixed into PDMS using a high-speed mixer. The material was then cast into molds and cured to create the pads. Once the pads were created, the difficulty came in quantifying their thermal properties. A stepped bar apparatus (SBA) following ASTM D5470 was created to measure the thermal resistance of the pads but it was determined that thermal conductivity was a more usable metric of the pads' performance. This meant that the pad's in-situ thickness was needed during testing, prompting the installation of a linear encoder to measure the thickness. The design and analysis of the necessary modification and proposed future design is further detailed in the following paper.
Evaluation of the Elastic Properties of Thirteen Silicone Interocclusal Recording Materials
Zietek, Marek
2016-01-01
Background. Addition silicones are popular as dental impression materials and are used in bite registration procedures. Objective. This study aimed to compare the postsetting elasticities and other mechanical properties of thirteen addition silicone interocclusal recording materials. Materials and Methods. The following materials were investigated: Colorbite D, Futar D, Genie Bite, Jet Blue Bite fast, Memoreg 2, O-Bite, Occlufast Rock, Omni-Bite Plus, Regidur i, Registrado X-tra, Regofix transparent, StoneBite, and Variotime Bite. Thirty specimens of each material were tested. The elasticities and strengths of the materials were measured with a universal testing machine, and computer software was used to determine the E-moduli, ultimate tensile strengths, and ultimate elongations of the specimens. Results. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p ≤ 0.05). The statistics revealed that the mean E-modulus values varied significantly across the materials (p = 0.000) and were highest for the StoneBite and Registrado X-tra and lowest for the Regofix transparent. The ultimate tensile strengths were highest for the Regofix transparent and Registrado X-tra (p = 0.000) and lowest for the Jet Blue Bite fast and Memoreg 2 (p = 0.000). The elongation percentages at the point of breaking varied significantly across the materials (p = 0.000); the lowest value was observed for the StoneBite, whereas the Regofix transparent nearly doubled original length. Conclusions. The authors concluded that materials with the high E-moduli and great ultimate tensile strengths may be most useful clinically. Registrado X-tra and StoneBite best met these criteria. PMID:27747239
Evaluation of the Elastic Properties of Thirteen Silicone Interocclusal Recording Materials.
Wieckiewicz, Mieszko; Grychowska, Natalia; Zietek, Marek; Wieckiewicz, Wlodzimierz
2016-01-01
Background. Addition silicones are popular as dental impression materials and are used in bite registration procedures. Objective. This study aimed to compare the postsetting elasticities and other mechanical properties of thirteen addition silicone interocclusal recording materials. Materials and Methods. The following materials were investigated: Colorbite D, Futar D, Genie Bite, Jet Blue Bite fast, Memoreg 2, O-Bite, Occlufast Rock, Omni-Bite Plus, Regidur i, Registrado X-tra, Regofix transparent, StoneBite, and Variotime Bite. Thirty specimens of each material were tested. The elasticities and strengths of the materials were measured with a universal testing machine, and computer software was used to determine the E-moduli, ultimate tensile strengths, and ultimate elongations of the specimens. Results. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p ≤ 0.05). The statistics revealed that the mean E-modulus values varied significantly across the materials (p = 0.000) and were highest for the StoneBite and Registrado X-tra and lowest for the Regofix transparent. The ultimate tensile strengths were highest for the Regofix transparent and Registrado X-tra (p = 0.000) and lowest for the Jet Blue Bite fast and Memoreg 2 (p = 0.000). The elongation percentages at the point of breaking varied significantly across the materials (p = 0.000); the lowest value was observed for the StoneBite, whereas the Regofix transparent nearly doubled original length. Conclusions. The authors concluded that materials with the high E-moduli and great ultimate tensile strengths may be most useful clinically. Registrado X-tra and StoneBite best met these criteria.
Mapping Elastic Properties of Heterogeneous Materials in Liquid with Angstrom-Scale Resolution.
Amo, Carlos A; Perrino, Alma P; Payam, Amir F; Garcia, Ricardo
2017-09-26
Fast quantitative mapping of mechanical properties with nanoscale spatial resolution represents one of the major goals of force microscopy. This goal becomes more challenging when the characterization needs to be accomplished with subnanometer resolution in a native environment that involves liquid solutions. Here we demonstrate that bimodal atomic force microscopy enables the accurate measurement of the elastic modulus of surfaces in liquid with a spatial resolution of 3 Å. The Young's modulus can be determined with a relative error below 5% over a 5 orders of magnitude range (1 MPa to 100 GPa). This range includes a large variety of materials from proteins to metal-organic frameworks. Numerical simulations validate the accuracy of the method. About 30 s is needed for a Young's modulus map with subnanometer spatial resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.
Effects of thermal vibrations are essential to obtain a more complete understanding of the properties of complex materials. For example, they are important in the analysis and simulation of x-ray absorption spectra (XAS). In previous work we introduced an ab initio approach for a variety of vibrational effects, such as crystallographic and XAS Debye-Waller factors, Debye and Einstein temperatures, and thermal expansion coefficients. This approach uses theoretical dynamical matrices from which the locally-projected vibrational densities of states are obtained using a Lanczos recursion algorithm. In this talk I present recent improvements to our implementation, which permit simulations of more complex materials with up to two orders of magnitude larger simulation cells. The method takes advantage of parallelization in calculations of the dynamical matrix with VASP. To illustrate these capabilities we discuss two problems of considerable interest: negative thermal expansion in ZrW2O8; and local inhomogeneities in the elastic properties of supported metal nanoparticles. Both cases highlight the importance of a local treatment of vibrational properties. Supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-03ER15476, with computer support from DOE-NERSC.
Milhans, Jacqueline; Ahzi, Said; Garmestani, Hamid; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.
2009-05-01
In this study, the effective elastic properties and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of a glass-ceramic were predicted using homogenization techniques. Using G18, a glass-ceramic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealant as an initial reference material, the effectiveness of different homogenization models was investigated for a two-phase glass-ceramic. The elastic properties and CTEs of the G18 amorphous phase are currently unknown. Thus, estimated values were used as an input to the models. The predictive model offers accurate macroscopic values on both the elastic modulus and the CTE of glass-ceramic materials, providing the estimated amorphous values are reasonable. This model can be used in designing glass-ceramic SOFC seal materials for its specific operation conditions.
Elastic properties of minerals
Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.
1993-09-01
Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van der Kelen, C.; Göransson, P.; Pluymers, B.; Desmet, W.
2014-12-01
The aspects related to modelling the frequency dependence of the elastic properties of air-saturated porous materials have been largely neglected in the past for several reasons. For acoustic excitation of porous materials, the material behaviour can be quite well represented by models where the properties of the solid frame have little influence. Only recently has the importance of the dynamic moduli of the frame come into focus. This is related to a growing interest in the material behaviour due to structural excitation. Two aspects stand out in connection with the elastic-dynamic behaviour. The first is related to methods for the characterisation of the dynamic moduli of porous materials. The second is a perceived lack of numerical methods able to model the complex material behaviour under structural excitation, in particular at higher frequencies. In the current paper, experimental data from a panel under structural excitation, coated with a porous material, are presented. In an attempt to correlate the experimental data to numerical predictions, it is found that the measured quasi-static material parameters do not suffice for an accurate prediction of the measured results. The elastic material parameters are then estimated by correlating the numerical prediction to the experimental data, following the physical behaviour predicted by the augmented Hooke's law. The change in material behaviour due to the frequency-dependent properties is illustrated in terms of the propagation of the slow wave and the shear wave in the porous material.
Doyle, Heather; Lohfeld, Stefan; McHugh, Peter
2014-03-01
This study assesses the ability of finite element (FE) models to capture the mechanical behaviour of sintered orthopaedic scaffold materials. Individual scaffold struts were fabricated from a 50:50 wt% poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) blend, using selective laser sintering. The tensile elastic modulus of single struts was determined experimentally. High resolution FE models of single struts were generated from micro-CT scans (28.8 μm resolution) and an effective strut elastic modulus was calculated from tensile loading simulations. Three material assignment methods were employed: (1) homogeneous PCL elastic constants, (2) composite PCL/β-TCP elastic constants based on rule of mixtures, and (3) heterogeneous distribution of micromechanically-determined elastic constants. In comparison with experimental results, the use of homogeneous PCL properties gave a good estimate of strut modulus; however it is not sufficiently representative of the real material as it neglects the β-TCP phase. The rule of mixtures method significantly overestimated strut modulus, while there was no significant difference between strut modulus evaluated using the micromechanically-determined elastic constants and experimentally evaluated strut modulus. These results indicate that the multi-scale approach of linking micromechanical modelling of the sintered scaffold material with macroscale modelling gives an accurate prediction of the mechanical behaviour of the sintered structure.
A NONLINEAR MESOSCOPIC ELASTIC CLASS OF MATERIALS
P. JOHNSON; R. GUYER; L. OSTROVSKY
1999-09-01
It is becoming clear that the elastic properties of rock are shared by numerous other materials (sand, soil, some ceramics, concrete, etc.). These materials have one or more of the following properties in common strong nonlinearity, hysteresis in stress-strain relation, slow dynamics and discrete memory. Primarily, it is the material's compliance, the mesoscopic linkages between the rigid components, that give these materials their unusual elastic properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durgesh, B. H.; Alkheraif, A. A.; Al Sharawy, M.; Varrela, J.; Vallittu, P. K.
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude of debonding stress of an orthodontic bracket bonded to the enamel with resin systems having different elastic properties. For the same purpose, sixty human premolars were randomly divided into four groups according to the adhesive system used for bonding brackets: G Fix flowable resin (GFI) with Everstick NET (ESN), GFI, G Aenial Universal Flow (GAU) with ESN, and GAU. The brackets were stressed in the occlusogingival direction on a universal testing machine. The values of debonding load and displacement were determined at the point of debonding. The elastic modulus of the tested materials was determined using nanoindentation. An analysis of variance showed a significant difference in the loads required to debond the bracket among the groups tested. The GAU group had the highest elastic modulus, followed by the GFI and ESN groups. ARI (Adhesive Remnant Index) scores demonstrated more remnants of the adhesive material on the bracket surface with adhesives having a higher elastic modulus. Taking into consideration results of the present in-vitro study, it can be concluded that the incorporation of a glass-fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRC) with a low elastic modulus between the orthodontic bracket and enamel increases the debonding force and strain more than with adhesive systems having a higher elastic modulus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Neill, Bridget; Bass, Jay D.; Rossman, George R.; Geiger, Charles A.; Langer, Klaus
1991-03-01
Brillouin spectroscopy was used to measure the single crystal elastic properties of a pure synthetic pyrope and a natural garnet containing 89.9 mol% of the pyrope end member (Mg3Al2Si3O12). The elastic moduli, c ij , of the two samples are entirely consistent and agree with previous estimates of the elastic properties of pyrope based upon the moduli of solid solutions. Our results indicate that the elastic moduli of pyrope end-member are c 11=296.2±0.5, c 12=111.1±0.6, c 44=91.6±0.3, Ks=172.8±0.3, μ=92.0±0.2, all in units of GPa. These results differ by several percent from those reported previously for synthetic pyrope, but are based upon a much larger data set. Although the hydrous components of the two samples from the present study are substantially different, representing both ‘dry’ and ‘saturated’ samples, we find no discernable effect of structurally bound water on the elastic properties. This is due to the small absolute solubility of water in pyrope, as compared with other garnets such as grossular.
Devi, C Usha; Bharat Chandran, R Sreekumari; Vasu, R Mohan; Sood, Ajay K
2007-01-01
Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS), without the use of tracer particles, has been used to study the internal dynamics of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) phantoms, which mimic the properties of normal and malignant breast tissues. From the measured intensity autocorrelations, the mean square displacement (MSD) of phantom meshing is estimated, leading to the storage and loss moduli of the medium covering frequencies up to 10 KHz. These are verified with independent measurements from a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) at low frequencies. We thus prove the usefulness of DWS to extract visco-elastic properties of the phantom and its possible application in detecting malignancy in soft tissues.
Theory-Guided Materials Design of Multi-Phase Ti-Nb Alloys with Bone-Matching Elastic Properties
Friák, Martin; Counts, William Art; Ma, Duancheng; Sander, Benedikt; Holec, David; Raabe, Dierk; Neugebauer, Jörg
2012-01-01
We present a scale-bridging approach for modeling the integral elastic response of polycrystalline composite that is based on a multi-disciplinary combination of (i) parameter-free first-principles calculations of thermodynamic phase stability and single-crystal elastic stiffness; and (ii) homogenization schemes developed for polycrystalline aggregates and composites. The modeling is used as a theory-guided bottom-up materials design strategy and applied to Ti-Nb alloys as promising candidates for biomedical implant applications. The theoretical results (i) show an excellent agreement with experimental data and (ii) reveal a decisive influence of the multi-phase character of the polycrystalline composites on their integral elastic properties. The study shows that the results based on the density functional theory calculations at the atomistic level can be directly used for predictions at the macroscopic scale, effectively scale-jumping several orders of magnitude without using any empirical parameters.
Real-Time Measurement of Material Elastic Properties in a High Gamma Irradiation Environment
Ken Telschow; Rob Schley; Dave Cottle
2006-05-01
This paper describes the first noncontact elastic vibration measurements of an object in a high gamma radiation field. Using a laser-coupled resonant ultrasound technique, the vibration modes of an Inconel hollow capped cylinder were measured as the gamma radiation field was increased to 104 Gy/h. This measurement technique allowed shifts in the resonant frequency of the sample’s vibration modes to be tracked over a 170-h period. The vibration mode frequencies changed in a manner consistent with the temperature dependence of the elastic stiffness coefficients of the material. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the laser approach for real-time resonant ultrasound measurements in this severely hostile nuclear environment.
Using capillary forces to determine the elastic properties of mesoporous materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rolley, E.; Garroum, N.; Grosman, A.
2017-02-01
The capillary forces in mesoporous materials, when imbibed with liquid, are large enough to induce mechanical deformations. Using anisotropic porous silicon, we show that systematic measurements of strain as a function of the pore pressure can yield most of the elastic constants characterizing the porous matrix. The results of this poroelastic approach are in agreement with independent standard stress-strain measurements. The porosity dependence of Young's moduli as well as the values of Poisson's ratios are qualitatively consistent with porous silicon having a honeycomb structure. For a quantitative comparison, we performed finite element modeling of realistic pore geometries. The calculated elastic moduli are found to be much smaller than the measured ones. This is presumably due to both (i) finite-size effects, the Young's modulus of the 5-nm thick walls of the honeycomb could be notably smaller than the Young's modulus of bulk Si, and (ii) defects of the honeycomb structure along the pore axis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konovalenko, Igor S.; Shilko, Evgeny V.; Konovalenko, Ivan S.; Vodopjyanov, Egor M.
2016-11-01
A two-scale mechanical model of brittle porous material partially filled with plastic filler (inclusions) was developed within the framework of the formalism of movable cellular automaton method. The model was applied to study the mechanical properties of mesoscopic samples with a linear distribution of the local porosity in the depth of the material. Calculation results showed essentially nonlinear dependence of their elastic and strength properties on the degree of pore space filling. It is found that depending on the sign of the gradient of porosity the value of shear strength of partially filled samples can significantly increase or remain constant with increase in the value of the degree of filling.
High-pressure elastic properties of major materials of Earth's mantle from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karki, Bijaya B.; Stixrude, Lars; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.
2001-11-01
The elasticity of materials is important for our understanding of processes ranging from brittle failure, to flexure, to the propagation of elastic waves. Seismologically revealed structure of the Earth's mantle, including the radial (one-dimensional) profile, lateral heterogeneity, and anisotropy are determined largely by the elasticity of the materials that make up this region. Despite its importance to geophysics, our knowledge of the elasticity of potentially relevant mineral phases at conditions typical of the Earth's mantle is still limited: Measuring the elastic constants at elevated pressure-temperature conditions in the laboratory remains a major challenge. Over the past several years, another approach has been developed based on first-principles quantum mechanical theory. First-principles calculations provide the ideal complement to the laboratory approach because they require no input from experiment; that is, there are no free parameters in the theory. Such calculations have true predictive power and can supply critical information including that which is difficult to measure experimentally. A review of high-pressure theoretical studies of major mantle phases shows a wide diversity of elastic behavior among important tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated Mg and Ca silicates and Mg, Ca, Al, and Si oxides. This is particularly apparent in the acoustic anisotropy, which is essential for understanding the relationship between seismically observed anisotropy and mantle flow. The acoustic anisotropy of the phases studied varies from zero to more than 50% and is found to depend on pressure strongly, and in some cases nonmonotonically. For example, the anisotropy in MgO decreases with pressure up to 15 GPa before increasing upon further compression, reaching 50% at a pressure of 130 GPa. Compression also has a strong effect on the elasticity through pressure-induced phase transitions in several systems. For example, the transition from stishovite to CaCl2
Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.
2012-12-01
The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are
Sewell, T. D.; Bedrov, D.; Menikoff, Ralph; Smith, G. D.
2001-01-01
Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate isothermal elastic properties for {beta}-, {alpha}-, and {delta}-HMX. The complete elastic tensor for each polymorph was determined at room temperature and pressure via analysis of microscopic strain fluctuations using formalism due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76,2662 (1982)]. Additionally, the isothermal compression curve was computed for {beta}-HMX for 0 {le} p {le} 10.6 GPa; the bulk modulus K and its pressure derivative K{prime} were obtained from two fitting forms employed previously in experimental studies of the {beta}-HMX equation of state. Overall, the results indicate good agreement between the bulk modulus predicted from the measured and calculated compression curves. The bulk modulus determined directly from the elastic tensor of {beta}-HMX is in significant disagreement with the compression curve-based results. The explanation for this discrepancy is an area of current research.
Ultrasonic System Measures Elastic Properties Of Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Mal, Ajit K.
1993-01-01
Measurements with leaky Lamb waves yield data on properties and defects of panels. System nondestructively measures elastic properties of, and defects in, panel of laminated fiber/matrix material. Ultrasonic transducers operating in pitch/catch mode excite and detect leaky Lamb waves in specimen. Elastic properties of specimen and defects within it characterized from dispersion curves of Lamb waves.
Nonlinear elastic material property estimation of lower extremity residual limb tissues.
Tönük, Ergin; Silver-Thorn, M Barbara
2003-03-01
The interface stresses between the residual limb and prosthetic socket have been studied to investigate prosthetic fit. Finite-element models of the residual limb-prosthetic socket interface facilitate investigation of the mechanical interface and may serve as a potential tool for future prosthetic socket design. However, the success of such residual limb models to date has been limited, in large part due to inadequate material formulations used to approximate the mechanical behavior of residual limb soft tissues. Nonlinear finite-element analysis was used to simulate force-displacement data obtained during in vivo rate-controlled (1, 5, and 10 mm/s) cyclic indentation of the residual limb soft tissues of seven individuals with transtibial amputation. The finite-element models facilitated determination of an appropriate set of nonlinear elastic material coefficients for bulk soft tissue at discrete clinically relevant test locations. Axisymmetric finite-element models of the residual limb bulk soft tissue in the vicinity of the test location, the socket wall and the indentor tip were developed incorporating contact analysis, large displacement, and large strain, and the James-Green-Simpson nonlinear elastic material formulation. Model dimensions were based on medical imaging studies of the residual limbs. The material coefficients were selected such that the normalized sum of square error (NSSE) between the experimental and finite-element model indentor tip reaction force was minimized. A total of 95% of the experimental data were simulated using the James-Green-Simpson material formulation with an NSSE less than 5%. The respective James-Green-Simpson material coefficients varied with subject, test location, and indentation rate. Therefore, these coefficients cannot be readily extrapolated to other sites or individuals, or to the same site and individual some time after testing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaomei
Ferroelectricity is one of the important fields in solid state physics because of its scientific and technological significance. This dissertation describes dielectric and elastic properties of the ferroelectric system KTa_{1-x}Nb_{x}O _3 (KTN) with niobium in the concentration range 1.2% ~ 16%. The occurrence and the nature of the phase transition in mixed ferroelectric systems is an intriguing topic due to the introduction of configurational disorder. Experimental results have shown that the critical temperature T _{c} in the KTN system strongly depends on the concentration of Nb and that the transverse optic soft mode frequency decreases as the concentration of Nb increases. However, the origin of the phase transition in this system is not clearly known. In particular, it is not yet clear whether or not the transition is driven by a soft mode and how the nature of the transition evolves as the Nb concentration is changed. This dissertation describes experimental work on the dielectric and elastic behaviors of the KTN system. The results on the linear and the nonlinear dielectric constants and on the electric polarization of KTN reveal (a) the occurrence of a structural transition with the appearance of ferroelectric macroregions at T_{c }, even for relatively low impurity concentrations (b) the presence of polar microregions significantly above T_{c}. The phase transition in KTN is driven by the interaction between effective dipolar moments d* rather than a soft mode. Our experimental results also reveal the coexistence of both dipolar glass like and ferroelectric behaviors in KTN with low Nb concentrations. Elastic results obtained on KTN provide direct evidence of the two distinct stages which the transition go through when approaching the critical temperature T _{c}. The ultrasonic measurements of the longitudinal elastic constant C_ {11} shows the softening of C _{11} with a (T-T_ {c})^{-mu} dependence at intermediate temperature in the first stage. In the
Elastic proteins: biological roles and mechanical properties.
Gosline, John; Lillie, Margo; Carrington, Emily; Guerette, Paul; Ortlepp, Christine; Savage, Ken
2002-01-01
The term 'elastic protein' applies to many structural proteins with diverse functions and mechanical properties so there is room for confusion about its meaning. Elastic implies the property of elasticity, or the ability to deform reversibly without loss of energy; so elastic proteins should have high resilience. Another meaning for elastic is 'stretchy', or the ability to be deformed to large strains with little force. Thus, elastic proteins should have low stiffness. The combination of high resilience, large strains and low stiffness is characteristic of rubber-like proteins (e.g. resilin and elastin) that function in the storage of elastic-strain energy. Other elastic proteins play very different roles and have very different properties. Collagen fibres provide exceptional energy storage capacity but are not very stretchy. Mussel byssus threads and spider dragline silks are also elastic proteins because, in spite of their considerable strength and stiffness, they are remarkably stretchy. The combination of strength and extensibility, together with low resilience, gives these materials an impressive resistance to fracture (i.e. toughness), a property that allows mussels to survive crashing waves and spiders to build exquisite aerial filters. Given this range of properties and functions, it is probable that elastic proteins will provide a wealth of chemical structures and elastic mechanisms that can be exploited in novel structural materials through biotechnology. PMID:11911769
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enakoutsa, Koffi
2014-09-01
Recently, the works by Toupin, Mindlin, Sokolowski and Germain have been developed following two research streams. In the first one, higher-order gradient continuum models were developed based on the Cauchy tetrahedron argument (see, e.g., dell'Isola and Seppecher in Comptes Rendus de l Academie de Sciences 17 Serie IIb: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Astronomie 321:303-308, 1995, Meccanica 32:33-52 1997, Zeitschrift fr Angewandte Mathematik und Physik 63(6):1119-1141, 2012). In the second one, the structure of higher-order gradient models is developed with a view to the applications. In particular in the model of linear isotropic solids proposed by Dell'Isola, Sciarra and Vidoli (DSV), the main constitutive equation is obtained for the case of second gradient models. This model introduces in addition to the two well-known Lame's elastic constants five constitutive constants. The practical applications of this model remain in its infancy since the issue of determining the new moduli it introduces is not yet completely addressed. Also, analytical solutions of simple boundary value problems that can be helpful to grasp some of the physical foundations of this model are missing. This paper aims to address these two issues by providing the analytical solutions for two model problems, a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions and the circular bending of a beam in plane strain, both the beam and the shell obeying the DSV second gradient isotropic elastic model. The solution of the circular bending of a beam has served to grasp some of the physical soundness of the model. A framework based on homogenization under inhomogeneous boundary conditions is also suggested to determine the unknown constitutive constants, which are provided in the particular case of elastic porous heterogeneous materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enakoutsa, Koffi
2015-06-01
Recently, the works by Toupin, Mindlin, Sokolowski and Germain have been developed following two research streams. In the first one, higher-order gradient continuum models were developed based on the Cauchy tetrahedron argument (see, e.g., dell'Isola and Seppecher in Comptes Rendus de l Academie de Sciences 17 Serie IIb: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Astronomie 321:303-308, 1995, Meccanica 32:33-52 1997, Zeitschrift fr Angewandte Mathematik und Physik 63(6):1119-1141, 2012). In the second one, the structure of higher-order gradient models is developed with a view to the applications. In particular in the model of linear isotropic solids proposed by Dell'Isola, Sciarra and Vidoli (DSV), the main constitutive equation is obtained for the case of second gradient models. This model introduces in addition to the two well-known Lame's elastic constants five constitutive constants. The practical applications of this model remain in its infancy since the issue of determining the new moduli it introduces is not yet completely addressed. Also, analytical solutions of simple boundary value problems that can be helpful to grasp some of the physical foundations of this model are missing. This paper aims to address these two issues by providing the analytical solutions for two model problems, a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions and the circular bending of a beam in plane strain, both the beam and the shell obeying the DSV second gradient isotropic elastic model. The solution of the circular bending of a beam has served to grasp some of the physical soundness of the model. A framework based on homogenization under inhomogeneous boundary conditions is also suggested to determine the unknown constitutive constants, which are provided in the particular case of elastic porous heterogeneous materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vagari, A. R.; Mirsalimov, V. M.
2012-07-01
A mathematical model of crack nucleation in a perforated heat-releasing material attenuated by a biperiodic system of cooling cylindrical channels with a circular cross section is constructed. Solving the problem of equilibrium of an isotropic perforated heat-releasing material with temperature-dependent properties containing nucleating cracks is reduced to solving systems of algebraic and nonlinear singular integral equations with a Cauchy-type kernel. The forces in crack nucleation regions are found by using the solution of these equations. The condition of crack emergence is formulated with allowance for the criterion of ultimate stretching of bonds in the material.
Valíček, Jan; Harničárová, Marta; Öchsner, Andreas; Hutyrová, Zuzana; Kušnerová, Milena; Tozan, Hakan; Michenka, Vít; Šepelák, Vladimír; Mitaľ, Dušan; Zajac, Jozef
2015-01-01
The paper solves the problem of the nonexistence of a new method for calculation of dynamics of stress-deformation states of deformation tool-material systems including the construction of stress-strain diagrams. The presented solution focuses on explaining the mechanical behavior of materials after cutting by abrasive waterjet technology (AWJ), especially from the point of view of generated surface topography. AWJ is a flexible tool accurately responding to the mechanical resistance of the material according to the accurately determined shape and roughness of machined surfaces. From the surface topography, it is possible to resolve the transition from ideally elastic to quasi-elastic and plastic stress-strain states. For detecting the surface structure, an optical profilometer was used. Based on the analysis of experimental measurements and the results of analytical studies, a mathematical-physical model was created and an exact method of acquiring the equivalents of mechanical parameters from the topography of surfaces generated by abrasive waterjet cutting and external stress in general was determined. The results of the new approach to the construction of stress-strain diagrams are presented. The calculated values agreed very well with those obtained by a certified laboratory VÚHŽ. PMID:28793645
Characterisation of Elastic and Acoustic Properties of an Agar-Based Tissue Mimicking Material.
Brewin, M P; Birch, M J; Mehta, D J; Reeves, J W; Shaw, S; Kruse, C; Whiteman, J R; Hu, S; Kenz, Z R; Banks, H T; Greenwald, S E
2015-10-01
As a first step towards an acoustic localisation device for coronary stenosis to provide a non-invasive means of diagnosing arterial disease, measurements are reported for an agar-based tissue mimicking material (TMM) of the shear wave propagation velocity, attenuation and viscoelastic constants, together with one dimensional quasi-static elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio. Phase velocity and attenuation coefficients, determined by generating and detecting shear waves piezo-electrically in the range 300 Hz-2 kHz, were 3.2-7.5 ms(-1) and 320 dBm(-1). Quasi-static Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio, obtained by compressive or shear loading of cylindrical specimens were 150-160 kPa; 54-56 kPa and 0.37-0.44. The dynamic Young's and shear moduli, derived from fitting viscoelastic internal variables by an iterative statistical inverse solver to freely oscillating specimens were 230 and 33 kPa and the corresponding relaxation times, 0.046 and 0.036 s. The results were self-consistent, repeatable and provide baseline data required for the computational modelling of wave propagation in a phantom.
Elastic properties of polycrystalline dense matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobyakov, D.; Pethick, C. J.
2015-04-01
Elastic properties of the solid regions of neutron star crusts and white dwarfs play an important role in theories of stellar oscillations. Matter in compact stars is presumably polycrystalline and, since the elastic properties of single crystals of such matter are very anisotropic, it is necessary to relate elastic properties of the polycrystal to those of a single crystal. We calculate the effective shear modulus of polycrystalline matter with randomly oriented crystallites using a self-consistent theory that has been very successful in applications to terrestrial materials and show that previous calculations overestimate the shear modulus by approximately 28 per cent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zhaoyang; Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jijun
2015-05-01
The structural, electronic and elastic properties for metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as energetic materials are investigated using non-local density functional theory with dispersion correction. The lattice constants of MOF-EMs are reproduced well by optPBE-vdW functional. The electronic structure analysis reveals that NHN is a metal, while the others are semiconductors or insulators with band gap from 0.1 eV to 4.7 eV. NHP, CHP, CHHP and CuAN are predicted to be magnetic. We also discuss the impact sensitivities of MOF-EMs in terms of their electronic structures. The calculated bulk modulus ranges from 15.1 GPa (CuAN) to 35.0 GPa (NHN).
Elastic Properties of Plasticine, Silly Putty, and Tennis Strings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cross, Rod
2012-01-01
How would a physicist describe the elastic properties of an apple or a banana? Physics students and teachers are familiar with the elastic properties of metal springs, but are likely to be less familiar with the elastic properties of other common materials. The behavior of a metal spring is commonly examined in the laboratory by adding masses to…
Elastic Properties of Plasticine, Silly Putty, and Tennis Strings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cross, Rod
2012-01-01
How would a physicist describe the elastic properties of an apple or a banana? Physics students and teachers are familiar with the elastic properties of metal springs, but are likely to be less familiar with the elastic properties of other common materials. The behavior of a metal spring is commonly examined in the laboratory by adding masses to…
Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials
Johnson, Paul A; Haupert, Sylvain; Renaud, Guillaume; Riviere, Jacques; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal
2010-12-07
Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, B. D.; Gibson, A. P.; Tan, L. T.; Royle, G. J.
2010-02-01
We have developed a novel phantom material: a solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVAL) in ethanol and water, freeze-thawed to produce a solid yet elastically compressible gel. The x-ray attenuation and mechanical properties of these gels are compared with published measurements of breast tissue. Gels with PVAL concentrations from 5 to 20% w/v were produced. The linear x-ray attenuation coefficients of these gels range from 0.76 to 0.86 cm-1 at 17.5 keV, increasing with PVAL concentration. These values are very similar to the published values of breast tissue at this energy, 0.8-0.9 cm-1. Under compression cancerous breast tissue is approximately ten times stiffer than healthy breast tissue. The Young's moduli of the gels increase with PVAL concentration. Varying the PVAL concentration from 7.5 to 20% w/v produces gels with Young's moduli from 20 to 220 kPa at 15% strain. These values are characteristic of normal and cancerous breast tissue, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haga, Hisashi; Sasaki, Shigeo; Morimoto, Mayumi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Ito, Etsuro; Abe, Kazuhiro; Sambongi, Takashi
1998-06-01
Using the force modulation mode in atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have succeeded in imaging elastic properties of agar gels immersed in water.The elastic images of agar have been captured simultaneously with the topographic images.Stiffer grains of agar whose size is about 200 nm can be clearly seen in the elastic image of 3.0% agar, while they are not so visible in the case of 1.5% agar.These grains probably correspond to aggregation of agar which cannot be observed in the topographic images.We also measured force-versus-distance curves using AFM to confirm that the absolute values of elastic modulus (Young's modulus) of agar coincide with the bulk values measured using the conventional stress-strain method.The estimated values of the elastic moduli with the AFM were 40 and 90 kPa for 1.5% and 3.0% agar gels, respectively.These are in good agreement with the respective bulk values of 30 and 80 kPa obtained using the conventional method.
Elastic Properties of Chimpanzee Craniofacial Cortical Bone.
Gharpure, Poorva; Kontogiorgos, Elias D; Opperman, Lynne A; Ross, Callum F; Strait, David S; Smith, Amanda; Pryor, Leslie C; Wang, Qian; Dechow, Paul C
2016-12-01
Relatively few assessments of cranial biomechanics formally take into account variation in the material properties of cranial cortical bone. Our aim was to characterize the elastic properties of chimpanzee craniofacial cortical bone and compare these to the elastic properties of dentate human craniofacial cortical bone. From seven cranial regions, 27 cylindrical samples were harvested from each of five chimpanzee crania. Assuming orthotropy, axes of maximum stiffness in the plane of the cortical plate were derived using modified equations of Hooke's law in a Mathcad program. Consistent orientations among individuals were observed in the zygomatic arch and alveolus. The density of cortical bone showed significant regional variation (P < 0.001). The elastic moduli demonstrated significant differences between sites, and a distinct pattern where E3 > E2 > E1 . Shear moduli were significantly different among regions (P < 0.001). The pattern by which chimpanzee cranial cortical bone varies in elastic properties resembled that seen in humans, perhaps suggesting that the elastic properties of craniofacial bone in fossil hominins can be estimated with at least some degree of confidence. Anat Rec, 299:1718-1733, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Soft, elastic, water-repellent materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coux, Martin; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David
2017-06-01
Small hydrophobic textures at solid surfaces provide water repellency, a situation whose detailed properties critically depend on the geometry of textures. Depending on their size, density, and shape, water slip, rain repellency, or antifogging can be achieved. Here, we discuss how the use of soft, elastic materials allows us to tune reversibly the texture density by stretching or relaxing the materials, which is found to impact water adhesion and rebounds. In addition, solid deformations can also be exploited to largely vary the shape of Wenzel drops, a consequence of the strong pinning of water in this state.
Elastic and thermal expansion asymmetry in dense molecular materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burg, Joseph A.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.
2016-09-01
The elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion are fundamental properties of elastically stiff molecular materials and are assumed to be the same (symmetric) under both tension and compression loading. We show that molecular materials can have a marked asymmetric elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion that are inherently related to terminal chemical groups that limit molecular network connectivity. In compression, terminal groups sterically interact to stiffen the network, whereas in tension they interact less and disconnect the network. The existence of asymmetric elastic and thermal expansion behaviour has fundamental implications for computational approaches to molecular materials modelling and practical implications on the thermomechanical strains and associated elastic stresses. We develop a design space to control the degree of elastic asymmetry in molecular materials, a vital step towards understanding their integration into device technologies.
Elastic and thermal expansion asymmetry in dense molecular materials.
Burg, Joseph A; Dauskardt, Reinhold H
2016-09-01
The elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion are fundamental properties of elastically stiff molecular materials and are assumed to be the same (symmetric) under both tension and compression loading. We show that molecular materials can have a marked asymmetric elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion that are inherently related to terminal chemical groups that limit molecular network connectivity. In compression, terminal groups sterically interact to stiffen the network, whereas in tension they interact less and disconnect the network. The existence of asymmetric elastic and thermal expansion behaviour has fundamental implications for computational approaches to molecular materials modelling and practical implications on the thermomechanical strains and associated elastic stresses. We develop a design space to control the degree of elastic asymmetry in molecular materials, a vital step towards understanding their integration into device technologies.
Babu, K. Ephraim; Murali, N.; Babu, K. Vijaya; Veeraiah, V.; Babu, B. Kishore
2015-05-15
The first principles calculation within the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method is applied to study the structural, electronic and elastic properties of cubic perovskite-type compounds KCaF{sub 3} and RbCaF{sub 3}. The exchange correlation effects are included through the LDA, GGA and modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) exchange potential. The calculated structural properties such as equilibrium lattice constant, the bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are in good agreement with the available data. KCaF{sub 3} and RbCaF{sub 3} have wide and indirect band gaps and they agree with experimental values. The elastic properties such as elastic constants, anisotropy factor, shear modulus, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are obtained for the first time. KCaF{sub 3} and RbCaF{sub 3} are elastically anisotropic and the B/G ratio indicate that these are ductile materials.
Forman, Jason L; de Dios, Eduardo del Pozo; Kent, Richard W
2010-12-01
Injury-predictive finite element (FE) models of the chest must reproduce the structural coupling behavior of the costal cartilage accurately. Gross heterogeneities (the perichondrium and calcifications) may cause models developed based on local material properties to erroneously predict the structural behavior of cartilage segments. This study sought to determine the pseudo-elastic effective material properties required to reproduce the structural behavior of the costal cartilage under loading similar to what might occur in a frontal automobile collision. Twenty-eight segments of cadaveric costal cartilage were subjected to cantilever-like, dynamic loading. Three limited-mesh FE models were then developed for each specimen, having element sizes of 10 mm (typical of current whole-body FE models), 3 mm, and 2 mm. The cartilage was represented as a homogeneous, isotropic, linear elastic material. The elastic moduli of the cartilage models were optimized to fit the anterior-posterior (x-axis) force versus displacement responses observed in the experiments. For a subset of specimens, additional model validation tests were performed under a second boundary condition. The pseudo-elastic effective moduli ranged from 4.8 to 49 MPa, with an average and standard deviation of 22 ± 13.6 MPa. The models were limited in their ability to reproduce the lateral (y-axis) force responses observed in the experiments. The prediction of the x-axis and y-axis forces in the second boundary condition varied. Neither the effective moduli nor the model fit were significantly affected (Student's t-test, p < 0.05) by the model mesh density. The average pseudo-elastic effective moduli were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than local costal cartilage modulus values reported in the literature. These results are consistent with the presence of stiffening heterogeneities within the costal cartilage structure. These effective modulus values may provide guidance for the representation of the costal
Weld stresses beyond elastic limit: Materials discontinuity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verderaime, V.
1989-01-01
When welded structures depend on properties beyond the elastic limit to qualify their ultimate safety factor, and weld-parent materials abruptly change at the interface, then stress discontinuity is inevitable. The stress concentration is mildly sensitive to material relative strain hardening and acutely sensitive to applied stress fields. Peak stresses occur on the weld surface, at the interface, and dissipate within a 0.01-inch band. When the stress is intense, the weld will always fracture at the interface. The analysis incorporates a classical mechanics model to more sharply define stress spikes within the bandwidth, and suggests a relative material index and Poisson's ratio related to strain hardening. Implications are discussed which are applicable to industries of high performance structures.
On the anisotropic elastic properties of hydroxyapatite.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, J. L.; Ukraincik, K.
1971-01-01
Experimental measurements of the isotropic elastic moduli on polycrystalline specimens of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are compared with elastic constants measured directly from single crystals of fluorapatite in order to derive a set of pseudo single crystal elastic constants for hydroxyapatite. The stiffness coefficients thus derived are given. The anisotropic and isotropic elastic properties are then computed and compared with similar properties derived from experimental observations of the anisotropic behavior of bone.
Single-Crystal Elasticity of Earth Materials: An Appraisal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duffy, T. S.
2015-12-01
The elastic properties of minerals are of central importance for interpreting seismic data for the Earth's crust, mantle, and core. Mineral elasticity data also have more general applications towards understanding equations of state, phase equilibria, interatomic forces, material strength, and phase transitions. The singe-crystal elastic properties are the most generally useful as they provide complete information on the anisotropy of elastic moduli (e.g. Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus), sound velocities, and compressibility. Measurement of the full set of single-crystal elastic properties remains challenging especially for lower symmetry crystals. In this talk, I present an overview of our current understanding of single-crystal elasticity based on a newly constructed database of single-crystal elastic properties. At ambient conditions the full elastic tensor of about 150 minerals have now been measured, along with about another 60 related compounds that are not formally minerals. About two-thirds of the measured minerals are oxides or silicates. A limitation of the existing database is that only about 10% of the measurements are on crystals of monoclinic or triclinic symmetry, while these two systems account for about 40% of known minerals. Additionally, only a smaller subset of minerals have been examined at high pressure or temperature conditions. Several applications of the database will be presented emphasizing trends in elastic anisotropy. The pyroxenes will be used as an illustrative example.
Coupling of elasticity to capillarity in soft aerated materials.
Ducloué, Lucie; Pitois, Olivier; Goyon, Julie; Chateau, Xavier; Ovarlez, Guillaume
2014-07-28
We study the elastic properties of soft solids containing air bubbles. Contrary to standard porous materials, the softness of the matrix allows for a coupling of the matrix elasticity to surface tension forces acting on the bubble surface. Thanks to appropriate experiments on model systems, we demonstrate how the elastic response of the soft porous solid is governed by two dimensionless parameters: the gas volume fraction and a capillary number comparing the elasticity of the matrix with the stiffness of the bubbles. Furthermore, we show that our experimental results are accurately predicted by computations of the shear modulus through a micro-mechanical approach.
Mesoscale elastic properties of marine sponge spicules.
Zhang, Yaqi; Reed, Bryan W; Chung, Frank R; Koski, Kristie J
2016-01-01
Marine sponge spicules are silicate fibers with an unusual combination of fracture toughness and optical light propagation properties due to their micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structure. We present optical measurements of the elastic properties of Tethya aurantia and Euplectella aspergillum marine sponge spicules using non-invasive Brillouin and Raman laser light scattering, thus probing the hierarchical structure on two very different scales. On the scale of single bonds, as probed by Raman scattering, the spicules resemble a combination of pure silica and mixed organic content. On the mesoscopic scale probed by Brillouin scattering, we show that while some properties (Young's moduli, shear moduli, one of the anisotropic Poisson ratios and refractive index) are nearly the same as those of artificial optical fiber, other properties (uniaxial moduli, bulk modulus and a distinctive anisotropic Poisson ratio) are significantly smaller. Thus this natural composite of largely isotropic materials yields anisotropic elastic properties on the mesoscale. We show that the spicules' optical waveguide properties lead to pronounced spontaneous Brillouin backscattering, a process related to the stimulated Brillouin backscattering process well known in artificial glass fibers. These measurements provide a clearer picture of the interplay of flexibility, strength, and material microstructure for future functional biomimicry.
Elastic-Plastic Properties: Simulation and Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiedler, Thomas; Öchsner, Andreas
This chapter addresses the elasto-plastic properties of novel metallic hollow sphere structures (MHSS). Numerical finite element analyses and experimental tests are conducted. The influence of the morphology, topology, joining technology and material composition on their mechanical properties is numerically investigated. Uni-axial compressive tests with adhesively bonded MHSS are performed in order to confirm the numerical findings. Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and the initial plastic yield stress are determined. Furthermore, the elastic anisotropy of simple cubic MHSS is investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeppson, T.; Tobin, H. J.
2014-12-01
The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw=9.0) produced large displacements of ~50 meters near the Japan Trench. In order to understand earthquake propagation and slip stabilization in this environment, quantitative values of the real elastic properties of fault zones and their surrounding wall rock material is crucial. Because elastic and mechanical properties of faults and wallrocks are controlling factors in fault strength, earthquake generation and propagation, and slip stabilization, an understanding of these properties and their depth dependence is essential to understanding and accurately modeling earthquake rupture. In particular, quantitatively measured S-wave speeds, needed for estimation of elastic properties, are scarce in the literature. We report laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements performed at elevated pressures, as well as the calculated dynamic elastic moduli, for samples of the rock surrounding the Tohoku earthquake principal fault zone recovered by drilling during IODP Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). We performed measurements on five samples of gray mudstone from the hanging wall and one sample of underthrust brown mudstone from the footwall. We find P- and S-wave velocities of 2.0 to 2.4 km/s and 0.7 to 1.0 km/s, respectively, at 5 MPa effective pressure. At the same effective pressure, the hanging wall samples have shear moduli ranging from 1.4 to 2.2 GPa and the footwall sample has a shear modulus of 1.0 GPa. While these values are perhaps not surprising for shallow, clay-rich subduction zone sediments, they are substantially lower than the 30 GPa commonly assumed for rigidity in earthquake rupture and propagation models [e.g., Ide et al., 1993; Liu and Rice, 2005; Loveless and Meade, 2011]. In order to better understand the elastic properties of shallow subduction zone sediments, our measurements from the Japan Trench are compared to similar shallow drill core samples from the Nankai Trough, Costa Rica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcano, Aristides; Gwanmesia, Gabriel; Workie, Bizenuh
2017-09-01
We have carried out the theoretical and experimental time evolution and amplitude study of the photothermal mirror signal generated by focusing a laser beam on the surface of a suite of solid samples. Based on a theoretical model that resolves the thermal diffusivity equation and the equation for thermo-elastic deformations simultaneously, we have calculated the transient time evolution and amplitude of the signal. We observe the same time evolution pattern for samples as diverse as glass, quartz, metals, and synthetic ceramic oxides. The data have yielded a linear dependence between the time build-up of the thermal mirror and the inverse of the thermal diffusivity for all the samples. For moderate power levels, we also observe a linear behavior between the stationary value of the signal and the thermally induced phase shift value. From the calibration curves, we have determined the thermally induced phase and the thermal diffusivity coefficients of two prospective nuclear reactor control rod materials, dysprosium titanate (Dy2TiO5) and dysprosium dititanate (Dy2Ti2O7) to be D = (7.0 ± 0.4) × 10^{-7} m^{2\\cdot s^{-1}}.
Accurate estimation of the elastic properties of porous fibers
Thissell, W.R.; Zurek, A.K.; Addessio, F.
1997-05-01
A procedure is described to calculate polycrystalline anisotropic fiber elastic properties with cylindrical symmetry and porosity. It uses a preferred orientation model (Tome ellipsoidal self-consistent model) for the determination of anisotropic elastic properties for the case of highly oriented carbon fibers. The model predictions, corrected for porosity, are compared to back-calculated fiber elastic properties of an IM6/3501-6 unidirectional composite whose elastic properties have been determined via resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. The Halpin-Tsai equations used to back-calculated fiber elastic properties are found to be inappropriate for anisotropic composite constituents. Modifications are proposed to the Halpin-Tsai equations to expand their applicability to anisotropic reinforcement materials.
Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, En-Bo; Gu, Guo-Qing; Poon, Ying-Ming
2010-09-01
Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed.
Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy: Elastic properties of some intermetallic compounds
Chu, F.; Thoma, D.J.; He, Y.; Maloy, S.A.; Mitchell, T.E.
1996-09-01
A novel nondestructive evaluation method, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS), is reviewed with an emphasis upon defining the elastic properties of intermetallic phases. The applications and advantages of RUS as compared to other conventional elastic constant measurement methods are explained. RUS has been employed to measure the elastic properties of single crystal and/or polycrystalline intermetallics, such as Laves phases (C15 HfV{sub 2} and NbCr{sub 2}), Nb-modified titanium aluminides, and transition metal disilicides (C11{sub b} MoSi{sub 2}, C40 NbSi{sub 2} and TaSi{sub 2}). For Laves phases, the elastic properties of HfV{sub 2}-based C15 phases show various anomalies and those of C15 NbCr{sub 2} do not. For Nb-modified titanium aluminides, the elastic properties of O-phase alloys are investigated as a function of alloying content. For transition metal disilicides, single crystal elastic constants of MoSi{sub 2}, NbSi{sub 2}, and TaSi{sub 2} are obtained and compared. Based on the experimentally determined elastic properties, the characteristics of interatomic bonding in these materials are examined and the possible impact of the elastic properties on mechanical behavior is discussed.
Elastic and osmotic properties of articular cartilage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, David; Dimitriadis, Emilios; Horkayne-Szakaly, Iren; Horkay, Ferenc
2006-03-01
The pathophysiology of osteoarthritis involves cellular and biochemical processes linked to mechanical stress. A better understanding of the mechanism of these processes and how they cause changes in the composition, macro- and micro-structure, and mechanical properties of cartilage is necessary for developing effective preventative and treatment strategies. In this study, elastic and osmotic swelling properties of tissue-engineered cartilage were explored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a tissue osmometer. AFM was also used to image the surface of the specimens while chemical composition was determined by biochemical analysis. Estimation of the Young's moduli of the tissue from AFM force-indentation data was performed using an optimization approach to fit appropriate models to the data. Force-indentation data were acquired both with sharp, pyramidal and with microspherical probes. The procedure has been validated by making measurements on model gel systems of known elastic properties. This approach is presented as a robust method of optimally extracting Young's moduli of soft, crosslinked materials from AFM data. Gross inhomogeneities at different scales in the cartilage tissue are manifested in the high degree of variance in local Young's moduli values obtained from both AFM and osmotic swelling data. These findings suggest that the mechanical properties of cartilage are affected by the local macromolecular composition.
Controlling elastic waves with isotropic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Zheng; Hu, Jin; Hu, Gengkai; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue
2011-03-01
Design of functional devices with isotropic materials has significant advantages, as regards easy fabrication and broadband application. In this letter, we present a method to derive isotropic transformation material parameters for elastodynamics under local conformal transformation. The transformed material parameters are then applied to design a beam bender, a four-beam antenna and an approximate carpet cloak for elastic wave with isotropic materials, validated by the numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ougherb, Chewki; Ouahrani, Tarik; Ferouani, Abdel Karim
2017-08-01
We investigate the electronic, thermodynamic and bonding properties of the ThGeO4 host material by means of pseudo-potential method within the framework of density functional theory. Zircon-type ThGeO4 is found to undergo a pressure-driven phase transition to tetragonal scheelite structure, and beyond to monoclinic fergusonite ones. Emphasis is placed on the trends of the dynamical stability and anisotropic behavior related to structural phase transition. Linear as well as cubic thermal expansion component show a different directional dependence as a function of temperature for the investigated polymorphs of the compound. The origin of the difference in the unit cell expansion is found to be related to the distortion of the ThO8 dodecahedra. The analysis of the non-covalent dispersion of the zircon and scheelite structures reveals a counter-balance between destabilizing interactions due to steric crowding and the current attractive and repulsive ones.
Introduction to physical properties and elasticity models: Chapter 20
Dvorkin, Jack; Helgerud, Michael B.; Waite, William F.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Nur, Amos
2003-01-01
Estimating the in situ methane hydrate volume from seismic surveys requires knowledge of the rock physics relations between wave speeds and elastic moduli in hydrate/sediment mixtures. The elastic moduli of hydrate/sediment mixtures depend on the elastic properties of the individual sedimentary particles and the manner in which they are arranged. In this chapter, we present some rock physics data currently available from literature. The unreferenced values in Table I were not measured directly, but were derived from other values in Tables I and II using standard relationships between elastic properties for homogeneous, isotropic material. These derivations allow us to extend the list of physical property estimates, but at the expense of introducing uncertainties due to combining property values measured under different physical conditions. This is most apparent in the case of structure II (sII) hydrate for which very few physical properties have been measured under identical conditions.
Lattice thermal conductivity evaluated using elastic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Tiantian; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Yongsheng
2017-04-01
Lattice thermal conductivity is one of the most important thermoelectric parameters in determining the energy conversion efficiency of thermoelectric materials. However, the lattice thermal conductivity evaluation requires time-consuming first-principles (quasi)phonon calculations, which limits seeking high-performance thermoelectric materials through high-throughput computations. Here, we establish a methodology to determine the Debye temperature Θ , Grüneisen parameter γ , and lattice thermal conductivity κ using computationally feasible elastic properties (the bulk and shear moduli). For 39 compounds with three different prototypes (the cubic isotropic rocksalt and zinc blende, and the noncubic anisotropic wurtzite), the theoretically calculated Θ ,γ , and κ are in reasonable agreement with those determined using (quasi)harmonic phonon calculations or experimental measurements. Our results show that the methodology is an efficient tool to predict the anharmonicity and the lattice thermal conductivity.
Elastic and mechanical properties of hexagonal diamond under pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Güler, E.; Güler, M.
2015-05-01
Hexagonal diamond is the harder and stiffer alternative of traditional cubic diamond for today's technology. Although several theoretical attempts have been performed to understand the ground-state elastic properties of hexagonal diamond, little is known about the high-pressure elastic properties of this key material. Unlike previous theoretical methods, we report the application of second-generation reactive bond order potential for the first time to elaborate the pressure-dependent properties of hexagonal diamond in conjunction with geometry optimization calculations up to 500 GPa. Pressure dependency of density, five independent elastic constants, bulk, shear and Young moduli, Poisson ratio, elastic wave velocities, anisotropy parameter, Kleinman parameter, and stability conditions of hexagonal diamond were evaluated. Overall, considered properties of hexagonal diamond display evident increments under pressure, and their ground-state values are in reasonable agreement with available theoretical data.
Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Rui; Koutsos, Vasileios; Cheung, Rebecca
2016-01-01
We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe2 membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe2 and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe2 flakes onto SiO2/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe2 membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe2 has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe2 (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS2 and WS2. Moreover, the multilayer WSe2 can endure ˜12.4 GPa stress and ˜7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe2 can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.
Elastic Properties of Sedimentary Rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melendez Martinez, Jaime
Sedimentary rocks are an important research topic since such rocks are associated to sources of ground water as well as oil, gas, and mineral reservoirs. In this work, elastic and physical properties of a variety of sedimentary samples that include glacial sediments, carbonates, shales, one evaporite, and one argillite from a variety of locations are investigated. Assuming vertical transverse isotropy, ultrasonic compressional- and shear-waves (at 1 MHz central frequency) were measured as a function of confining pressure on all samples with the exception of glacial samples which were tested assuming isotropy. Tensile strength tests (Brazilian test) were also carried out on selected glacial samples and, in addition, static-train measurements were conducted on shales and argillite samples. Lithological and textural features of samples were obtained through thin section techniques, scanning electron microscopy images and micro-tomography images. X-ray diffraction and X-Ray fluorescence provided the mineralogical oxides content information. Porosity, density, and pore structure were studied by using a mercury intrusion porosimeter and a helium pycnometer. The wide range of porosities of the studied samples (ranging from a minimum of 1% for shales to a maximum 45% for some glacial sediments) influence the measured velocities since high porosity sample shows an noticeable velocity increment as confining pressure increases as a consequence of closure of microcracks and pores, unlike low porosity samples where increment is quasi-lineal. Implementation of Gassmann's relation to ultrasonic velocities obtained from glacial samples has negligible impact on them when assuming water saturated samples, which suggests that state of saturation it is no so important in defining such velocities and instead they are mainly frame-controlled. On the other hand, velocities measured on carbonate and evaporite samples show that samples are at best weak anisotropic, thus the intrinsic
Anisotropic linear elastic properties of fractal-like composites.
Carpinteri, Alberto; Cornetti, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola; Sapora, Alberto
2010-11-01
In this work, the anisotropic linear elastic properties of two-phase composite materials, made up of square inclusions embedded in a matrix, are investigated. The inclusions present a fractal hierarchical distribution and are supposed to have the same Poisson's ratio as the matrix but a different Young's modulus. The effective elastic moduli of the medium are computed at each fractal iteration by coupling a position-space renormalization-group technique with a finite element analysis. The study allows to obtain and generalize some fundamental properties of fractal composite materials.
Anisotropic linear elastic properties of fractal-like composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carpinteri, Alberto; Cornetti, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola; Sapora, Alberto
2010-11-01
In this work, the anisotropic linear elastic properties of two-phase composite materials, made up of square inclusions embedded in a matrix, are investigated. The inclusions present a fractal hierarchical distribution and are supposed to have the same Poisson’s ratio as the matrix but a different Young’s modulus. The effective elastic moduli of the medium are computed at each fractal iteration by coupling a position-space renormalization-group technique with a finite element analysis. The study allows to obtain and generalize some fundamental properties of fractal composite materials.
Statistical properties of a folded elastic rod
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayart, Elsa; Deboeuf, Stéphanie; Boué, Laurent; Corson, Francis; Boudaoud, Arezki; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar
2010-03-01
A large variety of elastic structures naturally seem to be confined into environments too small to accommodate them; the geometry of folded structures span a wide range of length-scales. The elastic properties of these confined systems are further constrained by self-avoidance as well as by the dimensionality of both structures and container. To mimic crumpled paper, we devised an experimental setup to study the packing of a dimensional elastic object in 2D geometries: an elastic rod is folded at the center of a circular Hele-Shaw cell by a centripetal force. The initial configuration of the rod and the acceleration of the rotating disk allow to span different final folded configurations while the final rotation speed controls the packing intensity. Using image analysis we measure geometrical and mechanical properties of the folded configurations, focusing on length, curvature and energy distributions.
Petrova, A. E.; Krasnorussky, V. N.; Stishov, S. M.
2010-09-15
Measurements of the sound velocities in a single crystal of FeSi were performed in the temperature range 4-300 K. Elastic constants C{sub 11} and C{sub 44} deviate from a quasiharmonic behavior at high temperature; on the other hand, elastic constants C{sub 12} increases anomalously in the entire temperature range, indicating a change in the electron structure of this material.
Elastic Vector Solitons in Soft Architected Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, B.; Raney, J. R.; Tournat, V.; Bertoldi, K.
2017-05-01
We demonstrate experimentally, numerically, and analytically that soft architected materials can support the propagation of elastic vector solitons. More specifically, we focus on structures comprising a network of squares connected by thin and highly deformable ligaments and investigate the propagation of planar nonlinear elastic waves. We find that for sufficiently large amplitudes two components—one translational and one rotational—are coupled together and copropagate without dispersion. Our results not only show that soft architected materials offer a new and rich platform to study the propagation of nonlinear waves, but also open avenues for the design of a new generation of smart systems that take advantage of nonlinearities to control and manipulate the propagation of large amplitude vibrations.
Charting the complete elastic properties of inorganic crystalline compounds
de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Angsten, Thomas; Jain, Anubhav; Notestine, Randy; Gamst, Anthony; Sluiter, Marcel; Krishna Ande, Chaitanya; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Plata, Jose J; Toher, Cormac; Curtarolo, Stefano; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin A.; Asta, Mark
2015-01-01
The elastic constant tensor of an inorganic compound provides a complete description of the response of the material to external stresses in the elastic limit. It thus provides fundamental insight into the nature of the bonding in the material, and it is known to correlate with many mechanical properties. Despite the importance of the elastic constant tensor, it has been measured for a very small fraction of all known inorganic compounds, a situation that limits the ability of materials scientists to develop new materials with targeted mechanical responses. To address this deficiency, we present here the largest database of calculated elastic properties for inorganic compounds to date. The database currently contains full elastic information for 1,181 inorganic compounds, and this number is growing steadily. The methods used to develop the database are described, as are results of tests that establish the accuracy of the data. In addition, we document the database format and describe the different ways it can be accessed and analyzed in efforts related to materials discovery and design. PMID:25984348
Charting the complete elastic properties of inorganic crystalline compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Angsten, Thomas; Jain, Anubhav; Notestine, Randy; Gamst, Anthony; Sluiter, Marcel; Krishna Ande, Chaitanya; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Plata, Jose J.; Toher, Cormac; Curtarolo, Stefano; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin A.; Asta, Mark
2015-03-01
The elastic constant tensor of an inorganic compound provides a complete description of the response of the material to external stresses in the elastic limit. It thus provides fundamental insight into the nature of the bonding in the material, and it is known to correlate with many mechanical properties. Despite the importance of the elastic constant tensor, it has been measured for a very small fraction of all known inorganic compounds, a situation that limits the ability of materials scientists to develop new materials with targeted mechanical responses. To address this deficiency, we present here the largest database of calculated elastic properties for inorganic compounds to date. The database currently contains full elastic information for 1,181 inorganic compounds, and this number is growing steadily. The methods used to develop the database are described, as are results of tests that establish the accuracy of the data. In addition, we document the database format and describe the different ways it can be accessed and analyzed in efforts related to materials discovery and design.
Charting the complete elastic properties of inorganic crystalline compounds.
de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Angsten, Thomas; Jain, Anubhav; Notestine, Randy; Gamst, Anthony; Sluiter, Marcel; Krishna Ande, Chaitanya; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Plata, Jose J; Toher, Cormac; Curtarolo, Stefano; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin A; Asta, Mark
2015-01-01
The elastic constant tensor of an inorganic compound provides a complete description of the response of the material to external stresses in the elastic limit. It thus provides fundamental insight into the nature of the bonding in the material, and it is known to correlate with many mechanical properties. Despite the importance of the elastic constant tensor, it has been measured for a very small fraction of all known inorganic compounds, a situation that limits the ability of materials scientists to develop new materials with targeted mechanical responses. To address this deficiency, we present here the largest database of calculated elastic properties for inorganic compounds to date. The database currently contains full elastic information for 1,181 inorganic compounds, and this number is growing steadily. The methods used to develop the database are described, as are results of tests that establish the accuracy of the data. In addition, we document the database format and describe the different ways it can be accessed and analyzed in efforts related to materials discovery and design.
Elastic, Plastic, Cracking Aspects of the Hardness of Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armstrong, R. W.; Elban, W. L.; Walley, S. M.
2013-03-01
The hardness properties of materials are tracked from early history until the present time. Emphasis is placed on the hardness test being a useful probe for determining the local elastic, plastic and cracking properties of single crystal, polycrystalline, polyphase or amorphous materials. Beginning from connection made between individual hardness pressure measurements and the conventional stress-strain properties of polycrystalline materials, the newer consideration is described of directly specifying a hardness-type stress-strain relationship based on a continuous loading curve, particularly, as obtained with a spherical indenter. Such effort has received impetus from order-of-magnitude improvements in load and displacement measuring capabilities that are demonstrated for nanoindentation testing. Details of metrology assessments involved in various types of hardness tests are reviewed. A compilation of measurements is presented for the separate aspects of Hertzian elastic, dislocation-mechanics-based plasticity and indentation-fracture-mechanics-based cracking behaviors of materials, including elastic and plastic deformation rate effects. A number of test applications are reviewed, most notably involving the hardness of thin film materials and coatings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djellab, Sihem; Bouhadda, Youcef; Bououdina, Mohamed; Fenineche, Noureddine; Boudouma, Youcef
2016-08-01
The structural, electronic and elastic properties of MgH2, CaH2 and Ca4Mg3H14 have been determined using first principles calculation based on density functional theory. The calculated lattice constants were in good agreement with the experimental values. The electronic density of states revealed that these hydrides are insulators. The calculated elastic constants of MgH2, CaH2 and Ca4Mg3H14 indicated that these hydrides are mechanically stable at zero pressure. The bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio ν were derived, and the ductility was discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, Karl
2005-04-01
High contrast multilayered elastic structures continue to be problematic for ultrasonic inspection. Large acoustic material impedance mismatches, refraction, reverberation, multiple echoes, and high elastic attenuations are just some of the issues one is faced with standard high frequency (1-20 MHz) pulse echo detection and imaging methods. In this presentation, we will present progress towards developing a low frequency resonance technique that operates in the 20 to 70 kHz regime. The technique is based on a direct correlation between the electrical impedance of a standard electro-acoustic transducer and the mechanical loading it experiences when placed in contact with a layered elastic structure. Preliminary experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement.
A cohesive granular material with tunable elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemmerle, Arnaud; Schröter, Matthias; Goehring, Lucas
2016-10-01
By mixing glass beads with a curable polymer we create a well-defined cohesive granular medium, held together by solidified, and hence elastic, capillary bridges. This material has a geometry similar to a wet packing of beads, but with an additional control over the elasticity of the bonds holding the particles together. We show that its mechanical response can be varied over several orders of magnitude by adjusting the size and stiffness of the bridges, and the size of the particles. We also investigate its mechanism of failure under unconfined uniaxial compression in combination with in situ x-ray microtomography. We show that a broad linear-elastic regime ends at a limiting strain of about 8%, whatever the stiffness of the agglomerate, which corresponds to the beginning of shear failure. The possibility to finely tune the stiffness, size and shape of this simple material makes it an ideal model system for investigations on, for example, fracturing of porous rocks, seismology, or root growth in cohesive porous media.
A cohesive granular material with tunable elasticity
Hemmerle, Arnaud; Schröter, Matthias; Goehring, Lucas
2016-01-01
By mixing glass beads with a curable polymer we create a well-defined cohesive granular medium, held together by solidified, and hence elastic, capillary bridges. This material has a geometry similar to a wet packing of beads, but with an additional control over the elasticity of the bonds holding the particles together. We show that its mechanical response can be varied over several orders of magnitude by adjusting the size and stiffness of the bridges, and the size of the particles. We also investigate its mechanism of failure under unconfined uniaxial compression in combination with in situ x-ray microtomography. We show that a broad linear-elastic regime ends at a limiting strain of about 8%, whatever the stiffness of the agglomerate, which corresponds to the beginning of shear failure. The possibility to finely tune the stiffness, size and shape of this simple material makes it an ideal model system for investigations on, for example, fracturing of porous rocks, seismology, or root growth in cohesive porous media. PMID:27774988
Propagation of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials.
Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Wieja, K
2016-02-01
This paper presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous functionally graded elastic materials, which is a vital problem in the mechanics of solids. The elastic properties (shear modulus) of a semi-infinite elastic half-space vary monotonically with the depth (distance from the surface of the material). The Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem that describes the propagation of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials is formulated and solved by using two methods: i.e., (1) Finite Difference Method, and (2) Haskell-Thompson Transfer Matrix Method. The dispersion curves of phase and group velocity of surface Love waves in inhomogeneous elastic graded materials are evaluated. The integral formula for the group velocity of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic graded materials has been established. The effect of elastic non-homogeneities on the dispersion curves of Love waves is discussed. Two Love wave waveguide structures are analyzed: (1) a nonhomogeneous elastic surface layer deposited on a homogeneous elastic substrate, and (2) a semi-infinite nonhomogeneous elastic half-space. Obtained in this work, the phase and group velocity dispersion curves of Love waves propagating in the considered nonhomogeneous elastic waveguides have not previously been reported in the scientific literature. The results of this paper may give a deeper insight into the nature of Love waves propagation in elastic nonhomogeneous functionally graded materials, and can provide theoretical guidance for the design and optimization of Love wave based devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincent, Abhilash
Due to their therapeutic applications such as radical scavenging, MRI contrast imaging, Photoluminescence imaging, drug delivery, etc., nanoparticles (NPs) have a significant importance in bio-nanotechnology. The reason that prevents the utilizing NPs for drug delivery in medical field is mostly due to their biocompatibility issues (incompatibility can lead to toxicity and cell death). Changes in the surface conditions of NPs often lead to NP cytotoxicity. Investigating the role of NP surface properties (surface charges and surface chemistry) on their interactions with biomolecules (Cells, protein and DNA) could enhance the current understanding of NP cytotoxicity. Hence, it is highly beneficial to the nanotechnology community to bring more attention towards the enhancement of surface properties of NPs to make them more biocompatible and less toxic to biological systems. Surface functionalization of NPs using specific ligand biomolecules have shown to enhance the protein adsorption and cellular uptake through more favorable interaction pathways. Cerium oxide NPs (CNPs also known as nanoceria) are potential antioxidants in cell culture models and understanding the nature of interaction between cerium oxide NPs and biological proteins and cells are important due to their therapeutic application (especially in site specific drug delivery systems). The surface charges and surface chemistry of CNPs play a major role in protein adsorption and cellular uptake. Hence, by tuning the surface charges and by selecting proper functional molecules on the surface, CNPs exhibiting strong adhesion to biological materials can be prepared. By probing the nanoscale interaction forces acting between CNPs and protein molecules using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based force-distance (F-D) spectroscopy, the mechanism of CNP-protein adsorption and CNP cellular uptake can be understood more quantitatively. The work presented in this dissertation is based on the application of AFM in
Elastic Properties of Plasticine, Silly Putty, and Tennis Strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cross, Rod
2012-12-01
How would a physicist describe the elastic properties of an apple or a banana? Physics students and teachers are familiar with the elastic properties of metal springs, but are likely to be less familiar with the elastic properties of other common materials. The behavior of a metal spring is commonly examined in the laboratory by adding masses to measure the change in the extension or compression. A banana or an apple or any other relatively soft material could just as easily be examined in the same way, as an additional and entertaining exercise. Even if an apparatus is not readily available to undertake such an experiment, it can easily be constructed.1,2 In this article I compare the elastic properties of Plasticine (a brand of modeling clay), Silly Putty, and tennis strings. All three materials behave in the same qualitative manner when stretched or compressed slowly, despite the fact that they are quite different when stretched or compressed rapidly and despite the fact that Plasticine and Silly Putty are both much softer than a tennis string. Typical results for a slow deformation are shown in Fig. 1.
Elastic properties of suspended black phosphorus nanosheets
Wang, Jia-Ying; Li, Yang; Zhen, Liang; Xu, Cheng-Yan; Zhan, Zhao-Yao; Li, Tie
2016-01-04
The mechanical properties of black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets suspended over circular holes were measured by an atomic force microscope nanoindentation method. The continuum mechanic model was introduced to calculate the elastic modulus and pretension of BP nanosheets with thicknesses ranging from 14.3 to 34 nm. Elastic modulus of BP nanosheets declines with thickness, and the maximum value is 276 ± 32.4 GPa. Besides, the effective strain of BP ranges from 8 to 17% with a breaking strength of 25 GPa. Our results show that BP nanosheets serve as a promising candidate for flexible electronic applications.
Elastic Properties of Molecular Glass Thin Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, Jessica
2011-12-01
This dissertation provides a fundamental understanding of the impact of bulk polymer properties on the nanometer length scale modulus. The elastic modulus of amorphous organic thin films is examined using a surface wrinkling technique. Potential correlations between thin film behavior and intrinsic properties such as flexibility and chain length are explored. Thermal properties, glass transition temperature (Tg) and the coefficient of thermal expansion, are examined along with the moduli of these thin films. It is found that the nanometer length scale behavior of flexible polymers correlates to its bulk Tg and not the polymers intrinsic size. It is also found that decreases in the modulus of ultrathin flexible films is not correlated with the observed Tg decrease in films of the same thickness. Techniques to circumvent reductions from bulk modulus were also demonstrated. However, as chain flexibility is reduced the modulus becomes thickness independent down to 10 nm. Similarly for this series minor reductions in T g were obtained. To further understand the impact of the intrinsic size and processing conditions; this wrinkling instability was also utilized to determine the modulus of small organic electronic materials at various deposition conditions. Lastly, this wrinkling instability is exploited for development of poly furfuryl alcohol wrinkles. A two-step wrinkling process is developed via an acid catalyzed polymerization of a drop cast solution of furfuryl alcohol and photo acid generator. The ability to control the surface topology and tune the wrinkle wavelength with processing parameters such as substrate temperature and photo acid generator concentration is also demonstrated. Well-ordered linear, circular, and curvilinear patterns are also obtained by selective ultraviolet exposure and polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol film. As a carbon precursor a thorough understanding of this wrinkling instability can have applications in a wide variety of
Modeling shock waves in orthotropic elastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vignjevic, Rade; Campbell, James C.; Bourne, Neil K.; Djordjevic, Nenad
2008-08-01
A constitutive relationship for modeling of shock wave propagation in orthotropic materials is proposed for nonlinear explicit transient large deformation computer codes (hydrocodes). A procedure for separation of material volumetric compression (compressibility effects equation of state) from deviatoric strain effects is formulated, which allows for the consistent calculation of stresses in the elastic regime as well as in the presence of shock waves. According to this procedure the pressure is defined as the state of stress that results in only volumetric deformation, and consequently is a diagonal second order tensor. As reported by Anderson et al. [Comput. Mech. 15, 201 (1994)], the shock response of an orthotropic material cannot be accurately predicted using the conventional decomposition of the stress tensor into isotropic and deviatoric parts. This paper presents two different stress decompositions based on the assumption that the stress tensor is split into two components: one component is due to volumetric strain and the other is due to deviatoric strain. Both decompositions are rigorously derived. In order to test their ability to describe shock propagation in orthotropic materials, both algorithms were implemented in a hydrocode and their predictions were compared to experimental plate impact data. The material considered was a carbon fiber reinforced epoxy material, which was tested in both the through-thickness and longitudinal directions. The ψ decomposition showed good agreement with the physical behavior of the considered material, while the ζ decomposition significantly overestimated the longitudinal stresses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knuth, M. W.; Tobin, H. J.; Marone, C.; Saffer, D. M.; Hashimoto, Y.
2009-12-01
We present results of ultrasonic P and S-wave velocity measurements on core material recovered during NanTroSEIZE Stage 1 Expeditions 315 and 316 to the Nankai Trough Accretionary Margin, focusing on how different stress paths during subduction and exhumation along regional thrust faults influence the elastic moduli and anisotropy of various components of the accretionary prism. The influence of changes in pore pressure and confining pressure on the elastic properties of prism material has important implications for its mechanical strength, and understanding how elastic properties change along various stress paths will help us use 3D seismic tomography to draw inferences about overpressurization and fluid flow within the accretionary prism. We compare the velocities measured during shipboard physical properties characterization and logging-while-drilling data from Expedition 314 with 3D seismic velocity data and the results of previous shore-based studies to establish in situ conditions for material at various locations within the prism. We test both intact core material and disaggregated gouge and unlithified sediments from the upper prism, subjecting both samples types to a progression of confining pressure, pore pressure, and axial loading conditions representing normal consolidation and overconsolidation stress paths due to compaction and dewatering during burial and subsequent uplift by thrust faulting. While making continuous ultrasonic velocity measurements to determine changes in dynamic and quasistatic elastic moduli during axial and isotropic loading, we also subject granular material to frictional shear in a biaxial double-direct shearing configuration to measure how its frictional properties vary as a function of stress history.
Elastic properties of magnetosome chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiani, Bahareh; Faivre, Damien; Klumpp, Stefan
2015-04-01
Magnetotactic bacteria swim and orient in the direction of a magnetic field thanks to the magnetosome chain, a cellular ‘compass needle’ that consists of a string of vesicle-enclosed magnetic nanoparticles aligned on a cytoskeletal filament. Here we investigate the mechanical properties of such a chain, in particular the bending stiffness. We determine the contribution of magnetic interactions to the bending stiffness and the persistence length of the chain. This contribution is comparable to, but typically smaller than the contribution of the semiflexible filament. For a chain of magnetic nanoparticles without a semiflexible filament, the linear configuration is typically metastable and the lowest energy structures are closed chains (flux closure rings) without a net magnetic moment that are thus not functional as a cellular compass. Our calculations show that the presence of the cytoskeletal filament stabilizes the chain against ring closure, either thermodynamically or kinetically, depending on the stiffness of the filament, confirming that such stabilization is one of the roles of this structure in these bacterial cells.
Membrane Elastic Properties and Cell Function
Pontes, Bruno; Ayala, Yareni; Fonseca, Anna Carolina C.; Romão, Luciana F.; Amaral, Racκele F.; Salgado, Leonardo T.; Lima, Flavia R.; Farina, Marcos; Viana, Nathan B.; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo; Nussenzveig, H. Moysés
2013-01-01
Recent studies indicate that the cell membrane, interacting with its attached cytoskeleton, is an important regulator of cell function, exerting and responding to forces. We investigate this relationship by looking for connections between cell membrane elastic properties, especially surface tension and bending modulus, and cell function. Those properties are measured by pulling tethers from the cell membrane with optical tweezers. Their values are determined for all major cell types of the central nervous system, as well as for macrophage. Astrocytes and glioblastoma cells, which are considerably more dynamic than neurons, have substantially larger surface tensions. Resting microglia, which continually scan their environment through motility and protrusions, have the highest elastic constants, with values similar to those for resting macrophage. For both microglia and macrophage, we find a sharp softening of bending modulus between their resting and activated forms, which is very advantageous for their acquisition of phagocytic functions upon activation. We also determine the elastic constants of pure cell membrane, with no attached cytoskeleton. For all cell types, the presence of F-actin within tethers, contrary to conventional wisdom, is confirmed. Our findings suggest the existence of a close connection between membrane elastic constants and cell function. PMID:23844071
Membrane elastic properties and cell function.
Pontes, Bruno; Ayala, Yareni; Fonseca, Anna Carolina C; Romão, Luciana F; Amaral, Racκele F; Salgado, Leonardo T; Lima, Flavia R; Farina, Marcos; Viana, Nathan B; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo; Nussenzveig, H Moysés
2013-01-01
Recent studies indicate that the cell membrane, interacting with its attached cytoskeleton, is an important regulator of cell function, exerting and responding to forces. We investigate this relationship by looking for connections between cell membrane elastic properties, especially surface tension and bending modulus, and cell function. Those properties are measured by pulling tethers from the cell membrane with optical tweezers. Their values are determined for all major cell types of the central nervous system, as well as for macrophage. Astrocytes and glioblastoma cells, which are considerably more dynamic than neurons, have substantially larger surface tensions. Resting microglia, which continually scan their environment through motility and protrusions, have the highest elastic constants, with values similar to those for resting macrophage. For both microglia and macrophage, we find a sharp softening of bending modulus between their resting and activated forms, which is very advantageous for their acquisition of phagocytic functions upon activation. We also determine the elastic constants of pure cell membrane, with no attached cytoskeleton. For all cell types, the presence of F-actin within tethers, contrary to conventional wisdom, is confirmed. Our findings suggest the existence of a close connection between membrane elastic constants and cell function.
Elastic properties of woven fabric reinforced composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramnath, V.
1985-01-01
An analytical model for the realistic representation of a woven fabric reinforced composite is presented in this paper. The approach uses a variable cross-section geometric model in order to achieve geometric compatibility at the yarn cross-over regions. Admissible displacement and stress fields are used to determine bounds on the fabric elastic properties. The approach adopted enables the determination of the complete three-dimensional woven fabric composite properties. The in-plane fabric properties obtained through this approach have been compared with results obtained from other approaches existing in the literature. Also, comparisons made with available experimental data indicate good agreement.
Dielectric and Elastic Characterization of Nonlinear Heterogeneous Materials
Giordano, Stefano
2009-01-01
This review paper deals with the dielectric and elastic characterization of composite materials constituted by dispersions of nonlinear inclusions embedded in a linear matrix. The dielectric theory deals with pseudo-oriented particles shaped as ellipsoids of revolution: it means that we are dealing with mixtures of inclusions of arbitrary aspect ratio and arbitrary non-random orientational distributions. The analysis ranges from parallel spheroidal inclusions to completely random oriented inclusions. Each ellipsoidal inclusion is made of an isotropic dielectric material described by means of the so-called Kerr nonlinear relation. On the other hand, the nonlinear elastic characterization takes into consideration a dispersion of nonlinear (spherical or cylindrical) inhomogeneities. Both phases are considered isotropic (actually it means polycrystalline or amorphous solids). Under the simplifying hypotheses of small deformation for the material body and of small volume fraction of the embedded phase, we describe a theory for obtaining the linear and nonlinear elastic properties (bulk and shear moduli and Landau coefficients) of the overall material.
Discrete and Continuum Elastic Properties of Interfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alber, Elliott Solomon
The microstructure of defects in solids, e.g. interfaces, is heterogeneous and, consequently, so are the elastic properties. The complete anisotropic fourth-order tensors of both the discrete and the effective elastic moduli are defined in the interfacial region. To examine the meaning of discrete elastic constants, (i) a piecewise-continuous medium is considered where individual phases occupy the Voronoi polyhedra and have the elastic moduli associated with individual atoms, and (ii) the relationship between natural vibrations of the discrete systems and continuum waves is explored. Questions of local energy changes and stability are addressed in terms of continuum properties of the moduli, particularly positive definiteness and strong ellipticity. Comparisons between the atomistic results (exact effective moduli) and those for the continuum analog (bounds) establish the validity of the definition of elastic properties for heterogeneous structures at atomic scales and lead to criteria to assess the stability of a given microstructure. Homogenization of interfacial properties gives heterogeneous transition zone (or interphase) model. Interface phenomena in macrosystems (composites) and microsystems (grain boundaries) is explained by inner layer conditions between homogeneous bulk regions. Dynamical membrane and spring models of the imperfect interfaces are shown to be limiting models (similar to Reuss and Voigt bounding approximations in multiphase composite mechanics) for asymptotic expansions of stress and strain fields, respectively. Asymptotic expansion of both fields (in terms of small parameter h -thickness of the layer) produces mixed-type, exact approximation of the first order in h. Derived models of imperfect interface are used for investigation of interface waves in anisotropic bicrystals and for comparison with corresponding acoustical modes in phonon spectra. Localized interface waves are explained as general inhomogeneous plane waves in subsonic
Discrete and continuum elastic properties of interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alber, Elliott Solomon
1993-06-01
The microstructure of defects in solids, e.g. interfaces, is heterogeneous and, consequently, so are the elastic properties. The complete anisotropic fourth-order tensors of both the discrete and the effective elastic moduli are defined in the interfacial region. To examine the meaning of discrete elastic constants, (1) a piecewise-continuous medium is considered where individual phases occupy the Voronoi polyhedra and have the elastic moduli associated with individual atoms, and (2) the relationship between natural vibrations of the discrete systems and continuum waves is explored. Questions of local energy changes and stability are addressed in terms of continuum properties of the moduli, particularly positive definiteness and strong ellipticity. Comparisons between the atomistic results (exact effective moduli) and those for the continuum analog (bounds) establish the validity of the definition of elastic properties for heterogeneous structures at atomic scales and lead to criteria to assess the stability of a given microstructure. Homogenization of interfacial properties gives heterogeneous transition zone (or interphase) model. Interface phenomena in macrosystems (composites) and microsystems (grain boundaries) is explained by inner layer conditions between homogeneous bulk regions. Dynamical membrane and spring models of the imperfect interfaces are shown to be limiting models (similar to Reuss and Voigt bounding approximations in multiphase composite mechanics) for asymptotic expansions of stress and strain fields, respectively. Asymptotic expansion of both fields (in terms of small parameter h-thickness of the layer) produces mixed-type, exact approximation of the first order in h. Derived models of imperfect interface are used for investigation of interface waves in anisotropic bicrystals and for comparison with corresponding acoustical modes in phonon spectra. Localized interface waves are explained as general inhomogeneous plane waves in subsonic
The Structural Design for Hyper-Elastic Materials Using Cfd Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Young-Chul; Jung, Dae-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young
The usage of hyper-elastic material has been increasing gradually and its application has extended over a wide range of various industries. Implementing experimental and numerical methods, performance of hyper-elastic material can be predicted. Proposed in this study is the process by which the material coefficient can be obtained and applied to seat-ring of butterfly valve. Considering the mechanical properties and material conditions, optimum model was constructed and applied to obtain the coefficient by using CFD analysis.
From elasticity to capillarity in soft materials indentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, Jonathan T.; Schellenberger, Frank; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jürgen
2017-06-01
For soft materials with Young's moduli below 100 kPa, quantifying mechanical and interfacial properties by small scale indentation is challenging because in addition to adhesion and elasticity, surface tension plays a critical role. Until now, microscale contact of very soft materials has only been studied by static experiments under zero external loading. Here we introduce a combination of the colloidal probe technique and confocal microscopy to characterize the force-indentation and force-contact radius relationships during microindentation of soft silicones. We confirm that the widespread Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory must be extended to predict the mechanical contact for soft materials. Typically a liquid component is found within very soft materials. With a simple analytical model, we illustrate that accounting for this liquid surface tension can capture the contact behavior. Our results highlight the importance of considering liquid that is often associated with soft materials during small scale contact.
Reporting buckling strength and elastic properties of nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaat, M.; Abdelkefi, A.
2016-12-01
Nanocrystalline-nanowires have been incorporated in many micro-/nano-scale applications. To design nanowires-based nano-devices, studies should be conducted on the characterization of the elastic properties and the buckling strengths of nanowires. The challenge associated with detecting the properties of nanowires is that their properties are size-dependent. This motivated us to propose a model for the mechanics of nanocrystalline nanowires. In the context of this model, new measures are incorportated to account for the nanowire material structure and size effects and to reflect the experimental observations of nanomaterials-nanowires. This model is then harnessed to report the ranges of the buckling strength and the elastic properties of nanowires made of nanocrystalline diamond, Si, Al, Cu, Ag, Au, and Pt, for the first time. First, we report the range of the grain boundary Young's modulus for the various nanocrystalline materials. Depending on the contents of the grain boundary and the amount of impurities, the grain boundary Young's modulus is likely to be within the reported ranges. Second, for each grain size (from 200 nm to 2 nm), we report the range of Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and mass density of the aforementioned nanocrystalline nanomaterials. Third, we report the buckling strength and the equivalent Young's modulus of nanowires with different sizes accounting for the nanowire surface effects. The reported ranges of the buckling strength and the elastic properties of nanowires are experimentally validated.
Some Properties of the Transverse Elastic Waves in Quasiperiodic Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tutor, J.; Velasco, V. R.
We have studied the integrated density of states and fractal dimension of the transverse elastic waves spectrum in quasiperiodic systems following the Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequences. Due to the finiteness of the quasiperiodic generations, in spite of the high number of materials included, we have studied the possible influence of the boundary conditions, infinite periodic or finite systems, together with that of the different ways to generate the constituent blocks of the quasiperiodic systems, on the transverse elastic waves spectra. No relevant differences have been found for the different boundary conditions, but the different ways of generating the building blocks produce appreciable consequences in the properties of the transverse elastic waves spectra of the quasiperiodic systems studied here.
Elastic properties of graphene obtained by computational mechanical tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, Markus A.; Todt, Melanie; Rammerstorfer, Franz G.; Fischer, Franz D.; Paris, Oskar
2013-09-01
The basic building block of many carbon nanostructures like fullerenes, carbon onions or nanotubes is the truly two-dimensional material graphene. Commercial finite element codes, widely used to predict the mechanical properties of these structures, rely on the knowledge of the mechanical properties of the basic material. In this paper using an atomistic simulation approach we determine the membrane and bending stiffness of graphene, as well as the corresponding effective parameters: the effective elastic modulus E=2.4\\ \\text{TPa} , Poisson ratio \
Elastic properties of hybrid composites by the effective field approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanaun, S. K.; Jeulin, D.
2001-10-01
The work is dedicated to the calculation of the overall elastic properties of matrix composite materials containing two different populations of inclusions (three phase hybrid composites). The application of the well known Mori-Tanaka method or self-consistent effective medium method to the solution of this problem gives overall elastic moduli tensors of such composites that do not have the necessary symmetry (the symmetry with respect to the first and second pairs of indices). In this work, a new version of the effective field method that takes into account specific features of the microstructure of three phase composites is developed. In this version, the field that acts on every inclusion in the composite is assumed to be different for inclusions of different populations. It is shown that the modified effective field method gives a correct symmetry of the overall elastic moduli tensors of three phase composites. The method allows us to describe the influence of the peculiarities in spatial distributions of inclusions on the overall elastic constants. The cases of media containing infinite cylindrical fibers and thin ellipsoidal disks or spherical pores are considered. Various boolean type probabilistic models of random sets of such inclusions are proposed and the elastic moduli tensors of the corresponding three phase composites are obtained and analyzed. It turns out that these tensors strongly depend on statistical properties of the random fields of inclusions. It is shown that for two phase composites, the Mori-Tanaka method is a particular case of the effective field method. In the case of three phase composites, the formulas of the Mori-Tanaka method follow from the equations of the effective field method if a general property of the symmetry of cross-correlation functions of different populations of inclusions is violated. As a result, the overall elastic moduli tensors obtained by Mori-Tanaka method lose their natural symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sava, Mihaela; Hadǎr, Anton; Pǎrǎuşanu, Ioan; Petrescu, Horia-Alexandru; Baciu, Florin; Marinel, Stǎnescu Marius
2016-06-01
The influence of discontinuities is important for a correct determination of static and dynamic elastic characteristics of the material. In this paper we presented differences arising between the elastic modulus static and dynamic, laminated composite materials reinforced with carbon fiber, aramid and carbon-aramid, depending on the non-uniformity coefficient. For the study were determined static elastic modulus by carrying out traction tests and dynamic elastic modulus by determining the vibration frequency, on specimens of each type of material with and without discontinuities [1]. The elastic properties of composite materials resistance and can be influenced by various defects that arise from technological manufacturing process. This is important for the production of large series of parts of fiber-reinforced composite material, the fibers in the matrix distribution is not uniform. Studies on the mechanical behavior of composites with random distribution of fabrics are made in [2].
Elastic wave propagation in finitely deformed layered materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galich, Pavel I.; Fang, Nicholas X.; Boyce, Mary C.; Rudykh, Stephan
2017-01-01
We analyze elastic wave propagation in highly deformable layered media with isotropic hyperelastic phases. Band gap structures are calculated for the periodic laminates undergoing large deformations. Compact explicit expressions for the phase and group velocities are derived for the long waves propagating in the finitely deformed composites. Elastic wave characteristics and band gaps are shown to be highly tunable by deformation. The influence of deformation on shear and pressure wave band gaps for materials with various composition and constituent properties are studied, finding advantageous compositions for producing highly tunable complete band gaps in low-frequency ranges. The shear wave band gaps are influenced through the deformation induced changes in effective material properties, whereas pressure wave band gaps are mostly influenced by deformation induced geometry changes. The wide shear wave band gaps are found in the laminates with small volume fractions of a soft phase embedded in a stiffer material; pressure wave band gaps of the low-frequency range appear in the laminates with thin highly compressible layers embedded in a nearly incompressible phase. Thus, by constructing composites with a small amount of a highly compressible phase, wide complete band gaps at the low-frequency range can be achieved; furthermore, these band gaps are shown to be highly tunable by deformation.
Effective elastic properties of two dimensional multiplanar hexagonal nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhopadhyay, T.; Mahata, A.; Adhikari, S.; Asle Zaeem, M.
2017-06-01
A generalized analytical approach is presented to derive closed-form formulae for the elastic moduli of hexagonal multiplanar nano-structures. Hexagonal nano-structural forms are common for various materials. Four different classes of materials (single layer) from a structural point of view are proposed to demonstrate the validity and prospective application of the developed formulae. For example, graphene, an allotrope of carbon, consists of only carbon atoms to form a honeycomb like hexagonal lattice in a single plane, while hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) consists of boron and nitrogen atoms to form the hexagonal lattice in a single plane. Unlike graphene and hBN, there are plenty of other materials with hexagonal nano-structures that have the atoms placed in multiple planes such as stanene (consists of only Sn atoms) and molybdenum disulfide (consists of two different atoms: Mo and S). The physics based high-fidelity analytical model developed in this article are capable of obtaining the elastic properties in a computationally efficient manner for wide range of such materials with hexagonal nano-structures that are broadly classified in four classes from structural viewpoint. Results are provided for materials belonging to all the four classes, wherein a good agreement between the elastic moduli obtained using the proposed formulae and available scientific literature is observed.
Busignies, Virginie; Mazel, Vincent; Diarra, Harona; Tchoreloff, Pierre
2013-11-30
The effect of the elasticity of various pharmaceutical materials on the interfacial adhesion in bilayer tablets was investigated. The elastic properties of five pharmaceutical products were characterized by their total elastic recovery. To test the interfacial strength of the bilayer tablets a new flexural test was proposed. Thanks to the test configuration, the experimental breaking force is directly correlated with the interfacial layer strength. Depending on the materials, the fracture occurred over the interface or in one of the two layers. In most cases, the highest breaking forces were obtained when the materials had close elastic recovery. On the contrary, for materials with different elastic recovery, the breaking forces were reduced. The observed changes in the interfacial mechanical strength were statistically analyzed. Such an approach has an importance in the growing interest in the Quality by Design (QbD) concept in pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Half-oxidized phosphorene: band gap and elastic properties modulation.
Drissi, L B; Sadki, S; Sadki, K
2016-04-13
Based on a first principles approach, we study structural, electronic and elastic properties, as well as stabilities of all possible half-oxidized phosphorene conformers. Stability analysis reveals that oxygen chemisorption is an exothermic process in the six configurations despite the formation of interstitial oxygen bridges in three of them. Electronic structure calculations show that oxidation induces a band gap modulation ranging between 0.54 and 1.57 eV in the generalized gradient approximation corrected to 1.19 and 2.88 eV using GW. The mechanical response of the conformers is sensitively dependent on direction and indicates that the new derivatives are incompressible materials and one configuration has an auxetic behavior. The present results provide a basis for tailoring the electronic and elastic properties of phosphorene via half oxidation.
Half-oxidized phosphorene: band gap and elastic properties modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drissi, L. B.; Sadki, S.; Sadki, K.
2016-04-01
Based on a first principles approach, we study structural, electronic and elastic properties, as well as stabilities of all possible half-oxidized phosphorene conformers. Stability analysis reveals that oxygen chemisorption is an exothermic process in the six configurations despite the formation of interstitial oxygen bridges in three of them. Electronic structure calculations show that oxidation induces a band gap modulation ranging between 0.54 and 1.57 eV in the generalized gradient approximation corrected to 1.19 and 2.88 eV using GW. The mechanical response of the conformers is sensitively dependent on direction and indicates that the new derivatives are incompressible materials and one configuration has an auxetic behavior. The present results provide a basis for tailoring the electronic and elastic properties of phosphorene via half oxidation.
Mechanical properties of composite materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, H. Richard; Cornwell, L. R.
1993-01-01
A composite material incorporates high strength, high modulus fibers in a matrix (polymer, metal, or ceramic). The fibers may be oriented in a manner to give varying in-plane properties (longitudinal, transverse-stress, strain, and modulus of elasticity). The lay-up of the composite laminates is such that a center line of symmetry and no bending moment exist through the thickness. The laminates are tabbed, with either aluminum or fiberglass, and are ready for tensile testing. The determination of the tensile properties of resin matrix composites, reinforced by continuous fibers, is outlined in ASTM standard D 3039, Tensile Properties of Oriented Fiber Composites. The tabbed flat tensile coupons are placed into the grips of a tensile machine and load-deformation curves plotted. The load-deformation data are translated into stress-strain curves for determination of mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz, Franklin J.
This dissertation presents the results of using different inclusion and granular effective medium models and poroelasticity to predict the elastic properties of rocks with complex microstructures. Effective medium models account for the microstructure and texture of rocks, and can be used to predict the type of rock and microstructure from seismic velocities and densities. We introduce the elastic equivalency approach, using the differential effective medium model, to predict the effective elastic moduli of rocks and attenuation. We introduce the porous grain concept and develop rock physics models for rocks with microporosity. We exploit the porous grain concept to describe a variety of arrangements of uncemented and cemented grains with different degrees of hydraulic connectivity in the pore space. We first investigate the accuracy of the differential effective medium and self-consistent estimations of elastic properties of complex rock matrix using composites as analogs. We test whether the differential effective-medium (DEM) and self-consistent (SC) models can accurately estimate the elastic moduli of a complex rock matrix and compare the results with the average of upper and lower Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. We find that when the material microstructure is consistent with DEM, this model is more accurate than both SC and the bound-average method for a variety of inclusion aspect ratios, concentrations, and modulus contrasts. Based on these results, we next pose a question: can a theoretical inclusion model, specifically, the differential effective-medium model (DEM), be used to match experimental velocity data in rocks that are not necessarily made of inclusions (such as elastics)? We first approach this question by using empirical velocity-porosity equations as proxies for data. By finding a DEM inclusion aspect ratio (AR) to match these equations, we find that the required range of AR is remarkably narrow. Moreover, a constant AR of about 0.13 can be used to
Elastic properties of liquid and solid argon in nanopores.
Schappert, Klaus; Pelster, Rolf
2013-10-16
We have measured sorption isotherms and determined the intrinsic longitudinal elastic modulus β(Ar,ads) of nanoconfined material via ultrasonic measurements combined with a special effective medium analysis. In the liquid regime the adsorbate only contributes to the measured effective properties when the pores are completely filled and the modulus is bulklike. At partial fillings its contribution is cancelled out by the high compressibility of the vapour phase. In contrast, at lower temperatures frozen argon as well as underlying liquid surface layers cause a linear increase of the effective longitudinal modulus upon filling. During sorption the contribution of the liquid surface layers near the pore wall β(Ar,surf) increases with the thickness of the solid layers reaching the bulk value β(Ar,liquid) only in the limit of complete pore filling. We interpret this effect as due to the gradual stiffening of the solid argon membrane. The measurements and their analysis show that longitudinal ultrasonic waves are well suited to the study of the elastic properties and liquid-solid phase transitions in porous systems. This method should also help to detect the influence of nanoconfinement on elastic properties in further research.
Earlywood and latewood elastic properties in loblolly pine
Steven Cramer; David Kretschmann; Roderic Lakes; Troy Schmidt
2005-01-01
The elastic properties of earlywood and latewood and their variability were measured in 388 specimens from six loblolly pine trees in a commercial plantation. Properties measured included longitudinal modulus of elasticity, shear modulus, specific gravity, microfibril angle and presence of compression wood. Novel testing procedures were developed to measure properties...
Thermal and elastic properties of solid neon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acocella, Dominic; Horton, George K.; Cowley, E. Roger
2000-04-01
We apply the improved effective potential Monte Carlo (IEP) and the improved self-consistent (ISC) theories to study the thermal and elastic properties of natural solid Ne. As a first orientation, we use the (12-6) Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential for first-neighbor forces only. The two parameters in the potential are determined from the 0 K lattice spacing and the sublimation energy of the crystal. We also create a realistic interatomic potential for the Ne dimer based on our study of the existing literature. When supplemented by many-body contributions, this potential is also used with ISC and IEP. The results are then compared with the experimental data in the literature. We conclude that our realistic potential which we regard as the best currently available is not significantly superior in accounting for the experimental data to the LJ potential, though both give a decent account of the experimental data.
Effective elastic mechanical properties of single layer graphene sheets.
Scarpa, F; Adhikari, S; Srikantha Phani, A
2009-02-11
The elastic moduli of single layer graphene sheet (SLGS) have been a subject of intensive research in recent years. Calculations of these effective properties range from molecular dynamic simulations to use of structural mechanical models. On the basis of mathematical models and calculation methods, several different results have been obtained and these are available in the literature. Existing mechanical models employ Euler-Bernoulli beams rigidly jointed to the lattice atoms. In this paper we propose truss-type analytical models and an approach based on cellular material mechanics theory to describe the in-plane linear elastic properties of the single layer graphene sheets. In the cellular material model, the C-C bonds are represented by equivalent mechanical beams having full stretching, hinging, bending and deep shear beam deformation mechanisms. Closed form expressions for Young's modulus, the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio for the graphene sheets are derived in terms of the equivalent mechanical C-C bond properties. The models presented provide not only quantitative information about the mechanical properties of SLGS, but also insight into the equivalent mechanical deformation mechanisms when the SLGS undergoes small strain uniaxial and pure shear loading. The analytical and numerical results from finite element simulations show good agreement with existing numerical values in the open literature. A peculiar marked auxetic behaviour for the C-C bonds is identified for single graphene sheets under pure shear loading.
Elastic properties of C40 transition metal disilicides
Chu, F.; Maloy, S.A.; Petrovic, J.J.; Mitchell, T.E.; Lei, M.
1996-08-01
Room-temperature and low temperature elastic properties of hexagonal C40 transition metal disilicides, NbSi{sub 2} and TaSi{sub 2}, have been studied using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS). All five independent elastic stiffness constants c{sub ij} for NbSi{sub 2} and TaSi{sub 2} single crystals have been obtained. The temperature dependence of the c{sub ij} is normal but not large. The orientation dependence of the Young`s and shear moduli was examined in comparison with other transition metal disilicides. The room temperature shear moduli in the {l_brace}0001{r_brace} plane, with values of 145.3 and 143.7 GPa for NbSi{sub 2} and TaSi{sub 2} respectively, are low relative to those in the equivalent pseudo hexagonal {l_brace}220{r_brace} close-packed plane for tetragonal C11{sub b} MoSi{sub 2} and WSi{sub 2}. The isotropic elastic constants for polycrystalline materials were also calculated. The results show that the various moduli are all much higher than those of the constituent elements. The room temperature Poisson`s ratios of NbSi{sub 2} and TaSi{sub 2} are 0.18 and 0.19, respectively, which are smaller than those of the constituent elements and smaller than most materials. The Debye temperatures, {theta}{sub D}, were estimated to be 688 K for NbSi{sub 2} and 552 K for TaSi{sub 2}. The elastic properties of C40 VSi{sub 2}, NbSi{sub 2}, TaSi{sub 2}, and CrSi{sub 2} and C11{sub b} MoSi{sub 2} and WSi{sub 2} are compared and the possible influence on mechanical behavior discussed.
Elastic properties of NaXH4 (X = B, Al)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Zhen-Yi; Hou, Yu-Qing; Li, Li-Sha
2009-07-01
Elastic properties of NaXH4 (X = B, Al) have been studied by first-principles calculations using a projected augmented plane-wave approach. The calculated elastic constants compare favorably with experimental values. Our calculations show that the theoretically calculated elastic constants and bulk moduli have small values compared with those of typical metals and intermetallic compounds, which indicates that NaXH4 (X = B, Al) are highly compressible. Comparison of bulk moduli B of different complex hydrides shows a correlation between B and the decomposition temperatures. Also, we calculated the elastic anisotropies and the Debye temperatures from the elastic constants.
Structure and elastic properties of tunneling nanotubes.
Pontes, Bruno; Viana, Nathan B; Campanati, Loraine; Farina, Marcos; Neto, Vivaldo Moura; Nussenzveig, H Moysés
2008-02-01
We investigate properties of a reported new mechanism for cell-cell interactions, tunneling nanotubes (TNT's). TNT's mediate actin-based transfer of vesicles and organelles and they allow signal transmission between cells. The effects of lateral pulling with polystyrene beads trapped by optical tweezers on TNT's linking separate U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells in culture are described. This cell line was chosen for handling ease and possible pathology implications of TNT persistence in communication between cancerous cells. Observed nanotubes are shown to have the characteristic features of TNT's. We find that pulling induces two different types of TNT bifurcations. In one of them, termed V-Y bifurcation, the TNT is first distorted into a V-shaped form, following which a new branch emerges from the apex. In the other one, termed I-D bifurcation, the pulled TNT is bent into a curved arc of increasingly broader span. Curves showing the variation of pulling force with displacement are obtained. Results yield information on TNT structure and elastic properties.
Novel Super-Elastic Materials for Advanced Bearing Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dellacorte, Christopher
2014-01-01
Tribological surfaces of mechanical components encounter harsh conditions in terrestrial, marine and aerospace environments. Brinell denting, abrasive wear and fatigue often lead to life-limiting bearing and gear failures. Novel superelastic materials based upon Ni-Ti alloys are an emerging solution. Ni-Ti alloys are intermetallic materials that possess characteristics of both metals and ceramics. Ni-Ti alloys have intrinsically good aqueous corrosion resistance (they cannot rust), high hardness, relatively low elastic modulus, are chemically inert and readily lubricated. Ni-Ti alloys also belong to the family of superelastics and, despite high hardness, are able to withstand large strains without suffering permanent plastic deformation. In this paper, the use of hard, resilient Ni-Ti alloys for corrosion-proof, shockproof bearing and gear applications are presented. Through a series of bearing and gear development projects, it is demonstrated that Ni-Tis unique blend of materials properties lead to significantly improved load capacity, reduced weight and intrinsic corrosion resistance not found in any other bearing materials. Ni-Ti thus represents a new materials solution to demanding tribological applications.
Development of an orthodontic elastic material using EMA-based resin combined with 1-butanol.
Masuda, Takehiro; Miyazawa, Ken; Ueda, Naoya; Hata, Yuki; Kawai, Tatsushi; Goto, Shigemi
2011-01-01
For the development of new orthodontic elastic material, 1-butanol was added to PEMA-TA/HX resin. In the present study, basic experiments to reveal the mechanical properties of the materials were conducted. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that addition of 1-butanol did not cause any chemical changes to the PEMA-TA/HX resin. After addition of 1-butanol to PEMA-TA/HX resin, the modulus of elasticity, instantaneous modulus elasticity, retarded elasticity and viscosity were lowered in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the elastic strain was increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, on the application of heat a shape-memory effect was observed. These results suggest that the modulus of elasticity of this material can be adjusted. Additionally, this material has the ability to restore force as a function of its shape-memory effect in cases of plastic deformation at the insertion of appliances. This new orthodontic elastic material has the potential to be clinically effective in orthodontic treatment.
Biomechanical implications of cortical elastic properties of the macaque mandible.
Dechow, Paul C; Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Gharpure, Poorva
2017-06-17
Knowledge of the variation in the elastic properties of mandibular cortical bone is essential for modeling bone function. Our aim was to characterize the elastic properties of rhesus macaque mandibular cortical bone and compare these to the elastic properties from mandibles of dentate humans and baboons. Thirty cylindrical samples were harvested from each of six adult female rhesus monkey mandibles. Assuming orthotropy, axes of maximum stiffness in the plane of the cortical plate were derived from ultrasound velocity measurements. Further velocity measurements with longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic transducers along with measurements of bone density were used to compute three-dimensional cortical elastic properties using equations based on Hooke's law. Results showed regional variations in the elastic properties of macaque mandibular cortical bone that have both similarities and differences with that of humans and baboons. So far, the biological and structural basis of these differences is poorly understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Characterizing the elastic properties of tissues
Akhtar, Riaz; Sherratt, Michael J.; Cruickshank, J. Kennedy; Derby, Brian
2012-01-01
The quality of life of ageing populations is increasingly determined by age-related changes to the mechanical properties of numerous biological tissues. Degradation and mechanical failure of these tissues has a profound effect on human morbidity and mortality. Soft tissues have complex and intricate structures and, similar to engineering materials, their mechanical properties are controlled by their microstructure. Thus age-relate changes in mechanical behavior are determined by changes in the properties and relative quantities of microstructural tissue components. This review focuses on the cardiovascular system; it discusses the techniques used both in vivo and ex vivo to determine the age-related changes in the mechanical properties of arteries. PMID:22723736
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poon, Poh Chieh Benny
This study examines the accuracy of the extracted elastic properties using nanoindentation. Since the conventional method to extract these properties utilizes Sneddon's elastic solution, this study first considers indentations of linearly elastic solids for direct comparison. The study proposes a criterion for a converged specimen's geometry and modifies Sneddon's equation to account for the finite tip radius and specimen compressibility effects. A composite correction factor is derived to account for the violations of the underlying assumptions behind Sneddon's derivation. This factor is a function of indentation depth, and a critical depth is derived beyond which the finite tip radius effect will be insignificant. Techniques to identify the radius of curvature of the indenter and to decouple the elastic constants for linear elastic materials are proposed. Experimental results on nanoindentation of natural latex are reported and discussed in light of the proposed modified relation and techniques.The second part of the study examines the accuracy of the extracted material properties in elastic-plastic nanoindentations. The study establishes that the accurate determination of the projected area of contact, A, is crucial. However, the conventional method to determine A is largely limited to elastic materials, hence a new electrical resistance method is proposed to measure A for elastic-plastic materials. With an accurate A, the error associated with the extracted elastic material properties is reduced by more than 50% in some cases. This error remains to be a function of the material's Poisson's ratio, which is identified to influence the amount of residual stresses at the plastic imprint.Finally, this study examines the accuracy of the extracted material properties in the nanoindentation of soft materials using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The effects of cantilever stiffness, preload, and surface interaction forces are observed to influence the measurements
Structural, elastic and vibrational properties of ScGa{sub 3}
Bal, Ece; Dinç, Mustafa; Kılıçarslan, Aynur; Salmankurt, Bahadır Duman, Sıtkı
2016-03-25
We have presented theoretical investigations of the atomic, elastic and lattice dynamical properties of ScGa{sub 3} using an ab-initio pseudopotential method and a linear response scheme, within the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated atomic parameters and elastic constants are in agreement with previous ab initio calculations and experimental measurements. The material shows ductile behavior. Full phonon dispersions for this material are reported.
Elastic Properties and Enhanced Piezoelectric Response at Morphotropic Phase Boundaries
Cordero, Francesco
2015-01-01
The search for improved piezoelectric materials is based on the morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB) between ferroelectric phases with different crystal symmetry and available directions for the spontaneous polarization. Such regions of the composition x−T phase diagrams provide the conditions for minimal anisotropy with respect to the direction of the polarization, so that the polarization can easily rotate maintaining a substantial magnitude, while the near verticality of the TMPBx boundary extends the temperature range of the resulting enhanced piezoelectricity. Another consequence of the quasi-isotropy of the free energy is a reduction of the domain walls energies, with consequent formation of domain structures down to nanoscale. Disentangling the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the piezoelectricity in such conditions requires a high level of sophistication from the techniques and analyses for studying the structural, ferroelectric and dielectric properties. The elastic characterization is extremely useful in clarifying the phenomenology and mechanisms related to ferroelectric MPBs. The relationship between dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric responses is introduced in terms of relaxation of defects with electric dipole and elastic quadrupole, and extended to the response near phase transitions in the framework of the Landau theory. An account is provided of the anelastic experiments, from torsional pendulum to Brillouin scattering, that provided new important information on ferroelectric MPBs, including PZT, PMN-PT, NBT-BT, BCTZ, and KNN-based systems. PMID:28793707
Properties of elastic percolating networks in isotropic media with arbitrary elastic constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pla, O.; Garcia-Molina, R.; Guinea, F.; Louis, E.
1990-06-01
The properties of diluted elastic media in two dimensions are investigated in an isotropic system in which the ratio between the two Lamé coefficients can be varied. Changes in the ratio between the continuum elastic constants induce significant variations in the behavior of the system away from the threshold for percolation, but not in the properties near the percolation transition. We discuss the results in both cases and their relevance to the definition of the universal properties of diluted elastic networks. It is shown that many features of interest, like the bulk modulus at intermediate concentrations of voids and the backbone, are very dependent on the microscopic details of the model, and not only on its macroscopic behavior. Thus, elastic percolation does not seem to have the same degree of universality as scalar percolation.
Zheng, Xiu-Peng; Cao, Yan-Ping; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Wang, Gang-Feng
2010-05-21
The size-dependent elastic property of nanowires induced by the surface effect is investigated by using the core-shell model. The overall effective elastic moduli of nanowires with regular polygonal cross-sections are unified into a simple and explicit relation. It is found that the effect of surface elasticity on the elastic moduli can be well characterized by two dimensionless material and geometric parameters with clear physical meaning. Finite element simulations demonstrate that the derived theoretical relation is applicable for all the vibration, bending, and buckling test methods for measuring the mechanical properties of nanowires. The analytical result is also validated by comparing it with relevant experimental measurements. This study is helpful not only for interpreting various phenomena associated with size-dependent mechanical properties of nanowires but also for developing and evaluating test techniques for material characterization at the nanoscale.
Measurement of third-order elastic constants and applications to loaded structural materials.
Takahashi, Sennosuke; Motegi, Ryohei
2015-01-01
The objective of this study is to obtain the propagation velocity of an elastic wave in a loaded isotropic solid and to show the usefulness of the third-order elastic constant in determining properties of practical materials. As is well known, the infinitesimal elastic theory is unable to express the influence of stress on elastic wave propagating in loaded materials. To solve this problem, the authors derive an equation of motion for elastic wave in a finitely deformed state and use the Lagrangian description where the state before deformation is used as a reference, and Murnaghans finite deformation theory for the unidirectional deformed isotropic solid. Ordinary derivatives were used for the mathematical treatment and although the formulas are long the content is simple. The theory is applied to the measurement of the third-order elastic constants of common steels containing carbon of 0.22 and 0.32 wt%. Care is taken in preparing specimens to precise dimensions, in properly adhering of transducer to the surface of the specimen, and in having good temperature control during the measurements to obtain precise data. As a result, the stress at various sites in the structural materials could be estimated by measuring the elastic wave propagation times. The results obtained are graphed for illustration.
Slimani, A.; Boukheddaden, K. Varret, F.; Nishino, M.; Miyashita, S.
2013-11-21
The present work is devoted to the spatio-temporal investigations of spin-crossover lattices during their thermal relaxation from high- to low-spin state. The analysis is performed using Monte Carlo simulations on a distortable 2D lattice the sites of which are occupied by high-spin (HS) or low-spin (LS) atoms. The lattice is circular in shape and the HS to LS transformation results in single domain nucleation followed by growth and propagation processes. The evolution of the LS:HS interface is monitored during the relaxation process, through the mapping of spin states, displacement fields, local stresses, and elastic energy. The results show a curved interface, the curvature of which is reversed at the mid-transformation. The local stresses and elastic energy peak at the vicinity of the HS:LS interface, with sizeable dependence upon the position along the front line which evidences the edge effects.
First-Principles Study of the Elastic Properties of Nitrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korabel'nikov, D. V.; Zhuravlev, Yu. N.
2017-04-01
Elastic properties of nitrates LiNO3, NaNO3, KNO3 and NH4NO3 are studied from first principles in gradient approximation of the density functional theory by method of linear combination of atomic orbitals using CRYSTAL software complex. Elastic constants and modules, hardness, Poisson coefficient, and anisotropy parameters are calculated. Sound velocity, Debye temperature, thermal conductivity and Gruneisen parameter are evaluated. Mechanical stability, anisotropy and the series dependencies are shown for the examined compounds. Strong elastic anisotropy indicates anisotropy of interatomic interactions. The elastic constants are in good agreement with available experimental data.
Guthoff, R; Abramo, F; Draeger, J; Chumbley, L
1990-09-01
The relationship between experimentally induced intraocular lens (IOL) haptic deformation and resulting elastic haptic counter-resisting forces measured by electronic dynamometry was examined for 34 different IOL haptics of varying material composition and geometrical designs. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polypropylene loops of similar geometry did not fundamentally differ from one another, although lenses of differing geometry behaved differently. Unlike PMMA and polypropylene loops, soft haptics of poly-HEMA and silicone rubber demonstrated a larger elastic resistance force to the same degree of deformation. This was based upon design characteristics of the lenses and not upon intrinsic properties of the materials, which would have produced the opposite result. By comparative analysis of these dynamometer measurements and considerations of the lens design and elastic properties (including memory) of the component materials, we can calculate the stresses upon the zonular and capsular bag structures during and after IOL implantation.
Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe{sub 2}
Zhang, Rui Cheung, Rebecca; Koutsos, Vasileios
2016-01-25
We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe{sub 2}, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe{sub 2} membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe{sub 2} and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe{sub 2} flakes onto SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe{sub 2} membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe{sub 2} has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe{sub 2} (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2}. Moreover, the multilayer WSe{sub 2} can endure ∼12.4 GPa stress and ∼7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe{sub 2} can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.
Elastic and electromechanical properties of polypropylene foam ferroelectrets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dansachmüller, M.; Schwödiauer, R.; Bauer-Gogonea, S.; Bauer, S.; Paajanen, M.; Raukola, J.
2005-01-01
Internally charged closed-cell polymer electrets exhibit ferroelectric-like behavior and have been called ferroelectrets. They are attractive for soft electroactive transducers, the high compressibility leads to d33 transducer coefficients exceeding those of ferroelectric polymers. A technique for the measurement of the elastic modulus and the transducer coefficient of ferroelectrets is reported. The elastic behavior of ferroelectretic polypropylene foams is correlated with the piezoelectric-like properties. Prestress treatments linearize the transducer properties.
Elastic properties of gamma-Pu by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy
Migliori, Albert; Betts, J; Trugman, A; Mielke, C H; Mitchell, J N; Ramos, M; Stroe, I
2009-01-01
Despite intense experimental and theoretical work on Pu, there is still little understanding of the strange properties of this metal. We used resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method to investigate the elastic properties of pure polycrystalline Pu at high temperatures. Shear and longitudinal elastic moduli of the {gamma}-phase of Pu were determined simultaneously and the bulk modulus was computed from them. A smooth linear and large decrease of all elastic moduli with increasing temperature was observed. We calculated the Poisson ratio and found that it increases from 0.242 at 519K to 0.252 at 571K.
Elasticity theory equations and fracture condition for materials of varying moduli
Oleinikov, A.I.
1986-11-01
Many massive rocks and composite materials belong to the class of materials of varying moduli with definite distinct deformation and strength properties under tension and compression. The results of experiments indicate that the difference between the properties of materials of different moduli is not limited to tension and compression cases but can also appear clearly for any change in the form of the state of stress. Elasticity theory equations are constructed here to describe the strain of materials of varying moduli as well as the dependence of the strength properties on the form of the state of strain. Tests were done on coal, limestone, diabase and cement and results are shown. Using the dependencies obtained, Poisson's ratio and the elastic modulus can be calculated for these rocks. The equations and conditions of fracture proposed, are written in a simple invariant form.
Ultrasonic material property determinations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Serabian, S.
1986-01-01
The use and potential offered by ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to determine and/or monitor material properties is explored. The basis for such unique measurements along with examples of materials from a variety of industries are presented.
Surface elasticity effect on the size-dependent elastic property of nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Haiyan; Yun, Guohong; Bai, Narsu; Li, Jiangang
2012-04-01
A modified core-shell (MC-S) model is proposed to investigate the effect of surface elasticity on the elastic properties of nanowires under bending and tension loading modes. The continuous exponential function based on bulk elasticity is applied to the surface region of nanowires to better describe the elasticity in the surface layer. Two parameters related to the surface, namely, the inhomogeneous degree constant α˜, and the transition region of this inhomogeneous state rs (i.e., surface layer thickness), are introduced for examining the size effects of the elastic modulus of the overall nanowires. A strong size dependence of elasticity is revealed under both bending and tension loads. Furthermore, the theoretical solution for an effective Young's modulus with relevant experiments, as well as the results of a molecular statistical thermodynamics (MST) method for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, and a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for silicon (Si) nanowires, are compared. It is shown that the theoretical curves not only agree well with the experimental data, but also fit the computational results (MST or MD) approximately below 20 nm. As a result, our model can predict the behavior of surface elasticity, with respect to the lateral size of nanostructures at a relatively small scale, no matter how stiff or soft the surface of the nanomaterials.
Elastic and viscoelastic properties of a type I collagen fiber.
Sopakayang, Ratchada; De Vita, Raffaella; Kwansa, Albert; Freeman, Joseph W
2012-01-21
A new mathematical model is presented to describe the elastic and viscoelastic properties of a single collagen fiber. The model is formulated by accounting for the mechanical contribution of the collagen fiber's main constituents: the microfibrils, the interfibrillar matrix and crosslinks. The collagen fiber is modeled as a linear elastic spring, which represents the mechanical contribution of the microfibrils, and an arrangement in parallel of elastic springs and viscous dashpots, which represent the mechanical contributions of the crosslinks and interfibrillar matrix, respectively. The linear elastic spring and the arrangement in parallel of elastic springs and viscous dashpots are then connected in series. The crosslinks are assumed to gradually break under strain and, consequently, the interfibrillar is assumed to change its viscous properties. Incremental stress relaxation tests are conducted on dry collagen fibers reconstituted from rat tail tendons to determine their elastic and viscoelastic properties. The elastic and total stress-strain curves and the stress relaxation at different levels of strain collected by performing these tests are then used to estimate the parameters of the model and evaluate its predictive capabilities.
On shakedown theory for elastic-plastic materials and extensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chinh, Pham Duc
The idea that an elastic-plastic structure under given loading history may shake down to some purely elastic state (and hence to a safe state) after a finite amount of initial plastic deformation, can apply to many sophisticated material models with possible allowable changes of additional material characteristics, as has been done in the literature. Despite some claims to the contrary, it is shown; however, that the shakedown theorems in a Melan-Koiter path-independent sense have been extended successfully only for certain elastic-plastic hardening materials of practical significance. Shakedown of kinematic hardening material is determined by the ultimate and initial yield stresses, not the generally plastic deformation history-dependent hardening curve between. The initial yield stress is no longer the convenient one (corresponding to the plastic deformation at the level of 0.2%) as in usual elastic-plastic analysis but to be related to the shakedown safety requirement of the structure and should be as small as the fatigue limit for arbitrary high-cycle loading. Though the ultimate yield strength is well defined in the standard monotonic loading experiment, it also should be reduced to the so-called "high-cycle ratchetting" stress for the path-independent shakedown analysis. A reduced simple form of the shakedown kinematic theorem without time integrals is conjectured for general practical uses. Application of the theorem is illustrated by examples for a hollow cylinder, sphere, and a clamped disk, under variable (including quasiperiodic dynamic) pressure.
Testing device subjects elastic materials to biaxial deformations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, G. W.
1965-01-01
Testing device stretches elastic materials biaxially over large deformation ranges and varies strain ratios in two perpendicular directions. The device is used in conjunction with a tensile testing machine, which holds the specimen and permits control over the direction and magnitude of the stresses applied.
A three dimensional calculation of elastic equilibrium for composite materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lustman, Liviu R.; Rose, Milton E.
1986-01-01
A compact scheme is applied to three-dimensional elasticity problems for composite materials, involving simple geometries. The mathematical aspects of this approach are discussed, in particular the iteration method. A vector processor code implementing the compact scheme is presented, and several numerical experiments are summarized.
Elastic properties, strength and damage tolerance of pultruded composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Mrinal Chandra
Pultruded composites are candidate materials for civil engineering infrastructural applications due their higher corrosion resistance and lower life cycle cost. Efficient use of materials like structural members requires thorough understanding of the mechanism that affects their response. The present investigation addresses the modeling and characterization of E-glass fiber/polyester resin matrix pultruded composites in the form of sheets of various thicknesses. The elastic constants were measured using static, vibration and ultrasonic methods. Two types of piezoelectric crystals were used in ultrasonic measurements. Finally, the feasibility of using a single specimen, in the form of a circular disk, was shown in measuring all the elastic constants using ultrasonic technique. The effects of stress gradient on tensile strength were investigated. A large number of specimens, parallel and transverse to the pultrusion direction, were tested in tension, 3-point flexure, and 4-point flexure. A 2-parameter Weibull model was applied to predict the tensile strength from the flexure tests. The measured and Weibull-predicted ratios did not show consistent agreement. Microstructural observations suggested that the flaw distribution in the material was not uniform, which appears to be a basic requirement for the Weibull distribution. Compressive properties were measured using a short-block compression test specimen of 44.4-mm long and 25.4-mm wide. Specimens were tested at 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° orientations. The compression test specimen was modeled using 4-noded isoparametric layered plate and shell elements. The predicted elastic properties for the roving layer and the continuous strand mat layer was used for the finite element study. The damage resistance and damage tolerance were investigated experimentally. Using a quasi-static indentation loading, damage was induced at various incrementally increased force levels to investigate the damage growth process. Damage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
M, Shakil; Muhammad, Zafar; Shabbir, Ahmed; Muhammad Raza-ur-rehman, Hashmi; M, A. Choudhary; T, Iqbal
2016-07-01
The plane wave pseudo-potential method was used to investigate the structural, electronic, and elastic properties of CdSe1-x Te x in the zinc blende phase. It is observed that the electronic properties are improved considerably by using LDA+U as compared to the LDA approach. The calculated lattice constants and bulk moduli are also comparable to the experimental results. The cohesive energies for pure CdSe and CdTe binary and their mixed alloys are calculated. The second-order elastic constants are also calculated by the Lagrangian theory of elasticity. The elastic properties show that the studied material has a ductile nature.
Determination of Viral Capsid Elastic Properties from Equilibrium Thermal Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
May, Eric R.; Brooks, Charles L., III
2011-05-01
We apply two-dimensional elasticity theory to viral capsids to develop a framework for calculating elastic properties of viruses from equilibrium thermal fluctuations of the capsid surface in molecular dynamics and elastic network model trajectories. We show that the magnitudes of the long wavelength modes of motion available in a simulation with all atomic degrees of freedom are recapitulated by an elastic network model. For the mode spectra to match, the elastic network model must be scaled appropriately by a factor which can be determined from an icosahedrally constrained all-atom simulation. With this method we calculate the two-dimensional Young’s modulus Y, bending modulus κ, and Föppl-von Kármán number γ, for the T=1 mutant of the Sesbania mosaic virus. The values determined are in the range of previous theoretical estimates.
Measurement of elastic properties of blood vessels.
Ilic, D; Moix, T; Lambercy, O; Sache, L; Bleuler, H; Ohta, M; Augsburger, L
2005-01-01
This paper is related to the measurements of the modulus of elasticity of an artery by studying the deformations due to the inflation of an angioplasty balloon catheter used for Interventional Radiology (IR) procedures. Various types of balloons are studied in order to characterize and compare their behaviors at the time of inflation. A test bench, consisting of an angioplasty balloon, a Polyvinyl alcohol model and an actuator used to inflate a balloon, is developed for the realization of the experiments. The pressure-volume curve during the inflation of a balloon is observed. Elasticity modulus are derived with an analytical model of the measurement system. The results are then analyzed and compared to existing data from literature.
Elastic properties of overpressured and unconsolidated sediments
Lee, Myung W.
2003-01-01
Differential pressure affects elastic velocities and Poisson?s ratio of sediments in such a way that velocities increase as differential pressure increases. Overpressured zones in sediments can be detected by observing an increase in Poisson?s ratio with a corresponding drop in elastic velocities. In highly overpressured sands, such as shallow water flow sands, the P-to S-wave velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) is very high, on the order of 10 or higher, due to the unconsolidated and uncemented nature of sediments. In order to predict elastic characteristics of highly overpressured sands, Biot-Gassmann theory by Lee (BGTL) is used with a variable exponent n that depends on differential pressure and the degree of consolidation/compaction. The exponent n decreases as differential pressure and the degree of consolidation increases, and, as n decreases, velocity increases and Vp/Vs decreases. The predicted velocity ratio by BGTL agrees well with the measured velocity ratio at low differential pressure for unconsolidated sediments.
On the elastic properties of fiber composite laminates with statistically dispersed ply orientations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, E. Y.
1972-01-01
Structural application of advanced composite filamentary materials requires lamination of the basic orthotropic plies into angle-ply laminates. The resulting elastic and strength properties depend on the pattern of orientation and are influenced by inevitable errors and inaccuracy in placement of the angle plies. Reviewed is the effect on elastic properties of orientation dispersion. The conventional constitutive relations are recast in a homologous form to account for orientation dispersion by addition of a single parameter. Graphical results are presented to show the behavior of the most important advanced composite materials. The results are directly useful for estimating effects of manufacturing inaccuracy and for design of partially oriented reinforced structures.
Belli, Renan; Wendler, Michael; de Ligny, Dominique; Cicconi, Maria Rita; Petschelt, Anselm; Peterlik, Herwig; Lohbauer, Ulrich
2017-01-01
A deeper understanding of the mechanical behavior of dental restorative materials requires an insight into the materials elastic constants and microstructure. Here we aim to use complementary methodologies to thoroughly characterize chairside CAD/CAM materials and discuss the benefits and limitations of different analytical strategies. Eight commercial CAM/CAM materials, ranging from polycrystalline zirconia (e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent), reinforced glasses (Vitablocs Mark II, VITA; Empress CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and glass-ceramics (e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Suprinity, VITA; Celtra Duo, Dentsply) to hybrid materials (Enamic, VITA; Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE) have been selected. Elastic constants were evaluated using three methods: Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS), Resonant Beam Technique (RBT) and Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo (PE). The microstructures were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Young's modulus (E), Shear modulus (G), Bulk modulus (B) and Poisson's ratio (ν) were obtained for each material. E and ν reached values ranging from 10.9 (Lava Ultimate) to 201.4 (e.max ZirCAD) and 0.173 (Empress CAD) to 0.47 (Lava Ultimate), respectively. RUS showed to be the most complex and reliable method, while the PE method the easiest to perform but most unreliable. All dynamic methods have shown limitations in measuring the elastic constants of materials showing high damping behavior (hybrid materials). SEM images, Raman spectra and XRD patterns were made available for each material, showing to be complementary tools in the characterization of their crystal phases. Here different methodologies are compared for the measurement of elastic constants and microstructural characterization of CAD/CAM restorative materials. The elastic properties and crystal phases of eight materials are herein fully characterized. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials
Experimental investigation of Rayleigh Taylor instability in elastic-plastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haley, Aaron Alan; Banerjee, Arindam
2010-11-01
The interface of an elastic-plastic plate accelerated by a fluid of lower density is Rayleigh Taylor (RT) unstable, the growth being mitigated by the mechanical strength of the plate. The instability is observed when metal plates are accelerated by high explosives, in explosive welding, and in volcanic island formation due to the strength of the inner crust. In contrast to the classical case involving Newtonian fluids, RT instability in accelerated solids is not well understood. The difficulties for constructing a theory for the linear growth phase in solids is essentially due to the character of elastic-plastic constitutive properties which has a nonlinear dependence on the magnitude of the rate of deformation. Experimental investigation of the phenomena is difficult due to the exceedingly small time scales (in high energy density experiments) and large measurement uncertainties of material properties. We performed experiments on our Two-Wheel facility to study the linear stage of the incompressible RT instability in elastic-plastic materials (yogurt) whose properties were well characterized. Rotation of the wheels imparted a constant centrifugal acceleration on the material interface that was cut with a small sinusoidal ripple. The controlled initial conditions and precise acceleration amplitudes are levied to investigate transition from elastic to plastic deformation and allow accurate and detailed measurements of flow properties.
Elastic Properties and Internal Friction of Two Magnesium Alloys at Elevated Temperatures
Freels, M.; Liaw, P. K.; Garlea, E.; Morrell, J. S.; Radiovic, M.
2011-06-01
The elastic properties and internal friction of two magnesium alloys were studied from 25 C to 450 C using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS). The Young's moduli decrease with increasing temperature. At 200 C, a change in the temperature dependence of the elastic constants is observed. The internal friction increases significantly with increasing temperature above 200 C. The observed changes in the temperature dependence of the elastic constants and the internal friction are the result of anelastic relaxation by grain boundary sliding at elevated temperatures. Elastic properties govern the behavior of a materials subjected to stress over a region of strain where the material behaves elastically. The elastic properties, including the Young's modulus (E), shear modulus (G), bulk modulus (B), and Poisson's ratio (?), are of significant interest to many design and engineering applications. The choice of the most appropriate material for a particular application at elevated temperatures therefore requires knowledge of its elastic properties as a function of temperature. In addition, mechanical vibration can cause significant damage in the automotive, aerospace, and architectural industries and thus, the ability of a material to dissipate elastic strain energy in materials, known as damping or internal friction, is also important property. Internal friction can be the result of a wide range of physical mechanisms, and depends on the material, temperature, and frequency of the loading. When utilized effectively in engineering applications, the damping capacity of a material can remove undesirable noise and vibration as heat to the surroundings. The elastic properties of materials can be determined by static or dynamic methods. Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS), used in this study, is a unique and sophisticated non-destructive dynamic technique for determining the complete elastic tensor of a solid by measuring the resonant spectrum of mechanical resonance for a
Structure and elastic properties of smectic liquid crystalline elastomer films.
Stannarius, R; Köhler, R; Dietrich, U; Lösche, M; Tolksdorf, C; Zentel, R
2002-04-01
Mechanical measurements, x-ray investigations, and optical microscopy are employed to characterize the interplay of chemical composition, network topology, and elastic response of smectic liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) in various mesophases. Macroscopically ordered elastomer films of submicrometer thicknesses were prepared by cross linking freely suspended smectic polymer films. The cross-linked material preserves the mesomorphism and phase transitions of the precursor polymer. The elastic response of the smectic LCE is entropic, and the corresponding elastic moduli are of the order of MPa. In the tilted ferroelectric smectic-C* phase, the network structure plays an important role. Due to the coupling of elastic network deformations to the orientation of the mesogenic groups in interlayer cross-linked materials (mesogenic cross-linker units), the stress-strain characteristics is found to differ qualitatively from that in the other phases.
Elastic properties of single-walled carbon nanotube thin film by nanoindentation test.
Tang, Xingling; El-Hami, Abdelkhalak; El-Hami, Khalil; Eid, Mohamed; Si, Chaorun
2017-09-12
This paper carries out a preliminary study for the elastic properties of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin film. The SWCNT thin films (~250 nm) are prepared by a simple and cost effective method of spin-coating technology. Nanoindentation test with a Berkovich indenter is used to determine the hardness and elastic modulus of the SWCNT thin film. It is important to note that the elastic properties of SWCNT film are indirectly derived from the information of load and displacement of the indenter under certain assumptions, deviation of the 'test value' is inevitable. In this regard, uncertainty analysis is an effective process in guarantying the validity of the material properties. This paper carries out uncertainty estimation for the tested elastic properties of SWCNT film by nanoindentation. Experimental results and uncertainty analysis indicates that nanoindentation test could be an effective and reliable method in determine the elastic properties of SWCNT thin film. Moreover, the obtained values of hardness and elastic modulus can further benefit the design of SWCNT thin film based components.
Mechanical behavior and elastic properties of prestrained columnar ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snyder, Scott Aaron
Experiments on columnar-grained ice at --10 °C reveal changes to its mechanical behavior and elastic properties due to compressive prestrain. Laboratory-grown (152-mm cube) specimens of freshwater and saline ice were prestrained under uniaxial across-column compression (to levels from epsilon p = 0.003 to epsilonp = 0.20, at constant strain rates in the ductile regime) and then reloaded, again under uniaxial across-column compression (at rates from 1x10--6 s--1 to 3 x 10--2s--1). Prestrain caused solid-state recrystallization as well as damage in the form of non-propagating microcracks. These microstructural changes were quantified by analysis of thin sections. Elastic properties in across-column directions, both parallel (x1) and perpendicular ( x2) to the initial loading direction, were obtained from P-wave and S-wave ultrasonic velocities. As a result (and depending on the level) of the prestrain imparted in both materials, Young's modulus E was reduced by as much as 30%; the ductile-to-brittle (D--B) transition strain rate epsilon D/B was increased up to a factor of 3 to 10; and the ductile behavior with respect to loading along a direction within the horizontal ( x1-x2) plane of the parent ice sheet changed from isotropic to anisotropic. As the prestrain rate approached the nominal D--B transition rate of initially undamaged material, the magnitudes of prestrain effects on elastic compliance increased. The shift in the D--B transition, on the other hand, was less sensitive to the prestrain rate. The results are interpreted within the framework of a recent model that predicts the transition strain rate based on the micromechanical boundary between creep and fracture processes. Prestrain primarily affected certain parameters in the model, specifically the power-law creep coefficient B (more so than the creep exponent n), Young's modulus E and, by extension, the fracture toughness KIc. The physical implications of these effects are discussed.
Chun, Guan-Chun; Chiang, Hsing-Jung; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Li, Chien-Ming; Chen, Pei-Jarn; Chen, Tainsong
2015-01-01
The biomechanical properties of soft tissues vary with pathological phenomenon. Ultrasound elasticity imaging is a noninvasive method used to analyze the local biomechanical properties of soft tissues in clinical diagnosis. However, the echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR) is diminished because of the attenuation of ultrasonic energy by soft tissues. Therefore, to improve the quality of elastography, the eSNR and depth of ultrasound penetration must be increased using chirp-coded excitation. Moreover, the low axial resolution of ultrasound images generated by a chirp-coded pulse must be increased using an appropriate compression filter. The main aim of this study is to develop an ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation using a Tukey window for assessing the biomechanical properties of soft tissues. In this study, we propose an ultrasound elasticity imaging system equipped with a 7.5-MHz single-element transducer and polymethylpentene compression plate to measure strains in soft tissues. Soft tissue strains were analyzed using cross correlation (CC) and absolution difference (AD) algorithms. The optimal parameters of CC and AD algorithms used for the ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation were determined by measuring the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe) of a homogeneous phantom. Moreover, chirp-coded excitation and short pulse excitation were used to measure the elasticity properties of the phantom. The elastographic qualities of the tissue-mimicking phantom were assessed in terms of Young’s modulus and elastographic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe). The results show that the developed ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation modulated by a Tukey window can acquire accurate, high-quality elastography images. PMID:28793718
Micromechanics of intraply hybrid composites: Elastic and thermal properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.
1979-01-01
Composite micromechanics are used to derive equations for predicting the elastic and thermal properties of unidirectional intraply hybrid composites. The results predicted using these equations are compared with those predicted using approximate equations based on the rule of mixtures, linear laminate theory, finite element analysis and limited experimental data. The comparisons for three different intraply hybrids indicate that all four methods predict approximately the same elastic properties and are in good agreement with measured data. The micromechanics equations and linear laminate theory predict about the same values for thermal expansion coefficients. The micromechanics equations predict through-the-thickness properties which are in good agreement with the finite element results.
Dynamic properties of ceramic materials
Grady, D.E.; Wise, J.L.
1993-09-01
Controlled impact methods have been employed to obtain dynamic response properties of armor materials. Experimental data have been obtained for high-strength ceramics. Continued analysis of time-resolved velocity interferometer measurements has produced systematic material-property data for Hugoniot and release response, initial and post-yield strength, pressure-induced phase transformation, and dynamic fracture strength. A new technique has been developed to measure hydrodynamic properties of ceramic through shock-wave experiments on metal-ceramic composites and data obtained for silicon carbide. Additional data on several titanium diboride ceramics and high-quality aluminum oxide ceramic have been acquired, and issues regarding the influence of microstructure on dynamic properties have emerged. Comparison of dynamic (Hugoniot elastic limit) strength and indentation hardness data has been performed and important correlations revealed. Innovative impact experiments on confined and unconfined alumina rods using axial and transverse VISAR diagnostics have been demonstrated which permit acquisition of multiaxial dynamic response data. Dynamic failure properties of a high-density aluminosilicate glass, similar in composition to the intergranular glassy phase of some aluminas, have been investigated with regard to yield, spall, and failure-wave propagation.
Elastic properties of geophysical minerals at different temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Chandra Kumar; Pandey, Brijesh K.; Pandey, Anjani K.
2017-05-01
The elastic properties of minerals are very important to decide its technological applications upto the desired limit of accuracy. For some specific applications sometimes its mechanical properties such as ductility and brittleness plays significant role. The ratio K/G decides the brittleness and ductile behavior of material. In the present work we have taken Pyrope rich garnet (Mg3Al2Si3O12) and Grossular garnet (Ca3Al2Si3O12) to study their ductility and brittleness at different temperature ranges by using Hill's averaging method and other methods of thermodynamics. From the obtained results it is clear that in case of Pyrope-rich garnet, when the temperature increases the fracture decreases slowly in comparison to toughness, as a result the K/G ratio increases while in case of Grossular-garnet the toughness decreases slowly in comparison to fracture with increase in temperature, as a result the K/G ratio increases. Thus the fracture / toughness ratio increases with the temperature for Grossular-garnet while for Pyrope - rich garnet this ratio decreases. On the basis of these results it is clear that the nature of Pyrope-rich garnets is ductile whereas Grossular-garnet is brittle in nature. The interpretation of these properties can be interpreted on the basis of its composition, crystal structure dependence on temperature and the level of defect.
Elastohydrodynamics of elliptical contacts for materials of low elastic modulus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.
1983-01-01
The influence of the ellipticity parameter k and the dimensionless speed U, load W, and materials G parameters on minimum film thickness for materials of low elastic modulus was investigated. The ellipticity parameter was varied from 1 (a ball-on-plane configuration) to 12 (a configuration approaching a line contact); U and W were each varied by one order of magnitude. Seventeen cases were used to generate the minimum- and central-film-thickness relations. The influence of lubricant starvation on minimum film thickness in starved elliptical, elastohydrodynamic configurations was also investigated for materials of low elastic modulus. Lubricant starvation was studied simply by moving the inlet boundary closer to the center of the conjunction in the numerical solutions. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact were presented for both fully flooded and starved lubrication conditions. It is evident from these figures that the inlet pressure contours become less circular and closer to the edge of the Hertzian contact zone and that the film thickness decreases substantially as the serverity of starvation increases. The results presented reveal the essential features of both fully flooded and starved, elliptical, elastohydrodynamic conjunctions for materials of low elastic modulus.
The elastic properties of cancerous skin: Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus.
Tilleman, Tamara Raveh; Tilleman, Michael M; Neumann, Martino H A
2004-12-01
The physical properties of cancerous skin tissue have rarely been measured in either fresh or frozen skin specimens. Of interest are the elastic properties associated with the skin's ability to deform, i.e., to stretch and compress. Two constants--Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio--represent the basic elastic behavior pattern of any elastic material, including skin. The former relates the applied stress on a specimen to its deformation via Hooke's law, while the latter is the ratio between the axial and lateral strains. To investigate the elastic properties of cancerous skin tissue. For this purpose 23 consecutive cancerous tissue specimens prepared during Mohs micrographic surgery were analyzed. From these specimens we calculated the change in radial length (defined as the radial strain) and the change in tissue thickness (defined as axial strain). Based on the above two strains we determined a Poisson ratio of 0.43 +/- 0.12 and an average Young modulus of 52 KPa. Defining the elastic properties of cancerous skin may become the first step in turning elasticity into a clinical tool. Correlating these constants with the histopathologic features of a cancerous tissue can contribute an additional non-invasive, in vivo and in vitro diagnostic tool.
Cheng, Guang; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yuxin; Tay, See Leng; Gao, Wei
2017-01-01
A new inverse method was proposed to calculate the anisotropic elastic-plastic properties (flow stress) of thin electrodeposited Ag coating utilizing nanoindentation tests, previously reported inverse method for isotropic materials and three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analyses (FEA). Indentation depth was ~4% of coating thickness (~10 μm) to avoid substrate effect and different indentation responses were observed in the longitudinal (L) and the transverse (T) directions. The estimated elastic-plastic properties were obtained in the newly developed inverse method by matching the predicted indentation responses in the L and T directions with experimental measurements considering indentation size effect (ISE). The results were validated with tensile flow curves measured from free-standing (FS) Ag film. The current method can be utilized to characterize the anisotropic elastic-plastic properties of coatings and to provide the constitutive properties for coating performance evaluations.
Elastic properties and mechanical tension of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez, R.; Herrero, C. P.
2017-01-01
Room-temperature simulations of graphene have been performed as a function of the mechanical tension of the layer. Finite-size effects are accurately reproduced by an acoustic dispersion law for the out-of-plane vibrations that, in the long-wave limit, behaves as ρ ω2=σ k2+κ k4 . The fluctuation tension σ is finite (˜0.1 N/m) even when the external mechanical tension vanishes. Transverse vibrations imply a duplicity in the definition of the elastic constants of the layer, as observables related to the real area of the surface may differ from those related to the in-plane projected area. This duplicity explains the variability of experimental data on the Young modulus of graphene based on electron spectroscopy, interferometric profilometry, and indentation experiments.
Building Materials Property Table
2010-04-16
This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.
Energy principles in theory of elastic materials with voids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
En, Luo
1992-02-01
According to the basic idea of dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified way proposed by the author[1], various energy principles in theory of elastic materials with voids can be established systematically. In this paper, an important integral relation is given, which can be considered essentially as the generalized pr. inciple of virtual work. Based on this relation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem of work in theory of elastic materials with voids, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for the eight-field, six-field, four-field and two-field generalized variational principles, and the principle of minimum potential and complementary energies. Furthermore, with this appro ach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.
Grinding forces and elastic recovery in ceramic materials
Kondo, Y.; Tsukuda, A. ); Takada, A.; Okada, S. )
1994-06-01
Understanding grinding technology using a diamond grinding wheel is very important to achieve the dimensional accuracy of the final product in structural application of ceramics. Because Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] is very difficult to grind, its grindability, which is estimated from the grinding force, is examined with regard to some of its physical properties. The difficult-to-grind nature of Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] depends on its high elastic recovery energy.
Wang, Qian; Ashley, Dennis W.; Dechow, Paul C.
2010-01-01
Understanding the mechanical features of cortical bone and their changes with growth and adaptation to function plays an important role in our ability to interpret the morphology and evolution of craniofacial skeletons. We assessed the elastic properties of cortical bone of juvenile and adult baboon mandibles using ultrasonic techniques. Results showed that, overall, cortical bone from baboon mandibles could be modeled as an orthotropic elastic solid. There were significant differences in the directions of maximum stiffness, thickness, density, and elastic stiffness among different functional areas, indicating regional adaptations. After maturity, the cortical bone becomes thicker, denser, and stiffer, but less anisotropic. There were differences in elastic properties of the corpus and ramus between male and female mandibles which are not observed in human mandibles. There were correlations between cortical thicknesses and densities, between bone elastic properties and microstructural configuration, and between the directions of maximum stiffness and bone anatomical axes in some areas. The relationships between bone extrinsic and intrinsic properties bring us insights into the integration of form and function in craniofacial skeletons and suggest that we need to consider both macroscopic form, microstructural variation, and the material properties of bone matrix when studying the functional properties and adaptive nature of the craniofacial skeleton in primates. The differences between baboon and human mandibles is at variance to the pattern of differences in crania, suggesting differences in bone adaption to varying skeletal geometries and loading regimes at both phylogenetic and ontogenetic levels. PMID:19927280
Connection between elastic and electrical properties of cortical bone.
Gao, X; Sevostianov, I
2016-03-21
The paper focuses on the connection between elastic and electrical properties of cortical bone. Both these properties are governed by microstructure that consists of several pore systems filled with mechanically soft and electrically conductive tissue. Microstructural changes induced by aging, various diseases, microgravity conditions etc. lead to variation in both properties. The paper address the problem of evaluation of the changes in mechanical performance (decrease in Young׳s moduli) via monitoring electrical conductivity. The theoretical results are verified experimentally.
Reshak, Ali H; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y; Saeed, Yasir; Kityk, I V; Auluck, S
2011-03-31
We report a first-principles study of structural and phase stability in three different structures of perovskite-types KMgH(3) according to H position. While electronic and optical properties were measured only for stable perovskite-type KMgH(3), our calculated structural parameters are found in good agreement with experiment and other theoretical results. We also study the electronic charge density space distribution contours in the (200), (101), and (100) crystallographic planes, which gives better insight picture of chemical bonding between K-H, K-Mg-H, and Mg-H. Moreover, we have calculated the electronic band structure dispersion, total, and partial density of electron states to study the band gap origin and the contribution of s-band of H, s and p-band of Mg in the valence band, and d-band of K in the conduction band. Furthermore, optical features such as dielectric functions, refractive indices, extinction coefficient, optical reflectivity, absorption coefficients, optical conductivities, and loss functions of stable KMgH(3) were calculated for photon energies up to 40 eV.
First Principles Calculations for X-ray Resonant Spectra and Elastic Properties
Lee, Yongbin
2004-01-01
In this thesis, we discuss applications of first principles methods to x-ray resonant spectra and elastic properties calculation. We start with brief reviews about theoretical background of first principles methods, such as density functional theory, local density approximation (LDA), LDA+U, and the linear augmented plane wave (LAPW) method to solve Kohn-Sham equations. After that we discuss x-ray resonant scattering (XRMS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and the branching problem in the heavy rare earths Ledges. In the last chapter we discuss the elastic properties of the second hardest material AlMgB_{14}.
Bauer-Gogonea, S.; Camacho-Gonzalez, F.; Schwoediauer, R.; Ploss, B.; Bauer, S.
2007-09-17
Nonlinearities in ferroelectret polymer foam capacitors arise from voltage-dependent thickness changes. Such thickness changes are caused by the converse piezoelectric and electrostrictive effects in these soft materials. The authors show that the higher harmonics of the current response during application of a sinusoidal voltage to ferroelectret capacitors provide information on the elastic and electromechanical properties of the foam. The authors demonstrate the potential of this versatile measurement technique by investigating the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric response and by monitoring the changes in the elastic and electromechanical properties during inflation of cellular polypropylene.
Elastic and electronic properties calculations of the filled skutterudite CeOs4P12
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merabet, M.; Djoudi, L.; Benalia, S.; Dahmane, F.; Boucharef, M.; Rached, D.; Rached, H.
2016-10-01
The full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method (FP-LMTO) within the local density approximation (LDA) using the Perdew-Wang parameterization is used to calculate the structural, electronic and elastic properties of the filled skutterudite CeOs4P12. The results of the electronic properties show that this compound is an indirect band gap material (T -N). A special interest has been made to the determination of the elastic constants since there have been no available experimental and theoretical data. The energy band gaps and their volume and pressure dependence are also investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heyman, J. S.; Allison, S. G.; Salama, K.
1985-01-01
The behavior of higher order elastic properties, which are much more sensitive to material state than are second order properties, has been studied for steel alloys AISI 1016, 1045, 1095, and 8620 by measuring the stress derivative of the acoustic natural velocity to determine the stress acoustic constants (SAC's). Results of these tests show a 20 percent linear variation of SAC's with carbon content as well as even larger variations with prestrain (plastic deformation). The use of higher order elastic characterization permits quantitative evaluation of solids and may prove useful in studies of fatigue and fracture.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heyman, J. S.; Allison, S. G.; Salama, K.
1985-01-01
The behavior of higher order elastic properties, which are much more sensitive to material state than are second order properties, has been studied for steel alloys AISI 1016, 1045, 1095, and 8620 by measuring the stress derivative of the acoustic natural velocity to determine the stress acoustic constants (SAC's). Results of these tests show a 20 percent linear variation of SAC's with carbon content as well as even larger variations with prestrain (plastic deformation). The use of higher order elastic characterization permits quantitative evaluation of solids and may prove useful in studies of fatigue and fracture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer-Gogonea, S.; Camacho-Gonzalez, F.; Schwödiauer, R.; Ploss, B.; Bauer, S.
2007-09-01
Nonlinearities in ferroelectret polymer foam capacitors arise from voltage-dependent thickness changes. Such thickness changes are caused by the converse piezoelectric and electrostrictive effects in these soft materials. The authors show that the higher harmonics of the current response during application of a sinusoidal voltage to ferroelectret capacitors provide information on the elastic and electromechanical properties of the foam. The authors demonstrate the potential of this versatile measurement technique by investigating the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric response and by monitoring the changes in the elastic and electromechanical properties during inflation of cellular polypropylene.
Microstructure and micromechanical elastic properties of weak layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Köchle, Berna; Matzl, Margret; Proksch, Martin; Schneebeli, Martin
2014-05-01
Weak layers are the mechanically most important stratigraphic layer for avalanches. Yet, there is little known about their exact geometry and their micromechanical properties. To distinguish weak layers or interfaces is essential to assess stability. However, except by destructive mechanical tests, they cannot be easily identified and characterized in the field. We casted natural weak layers and their adjacent layers in the field during two winter seasons and scanned them non-destructively with X-ray computer tomography with a resolution between 10 - 20 µm. Reconstructed three-dimensional models of centimeter-sized layered samples allow for calculating the change of structural properties. We found that structural transitions cannot always by expressed by geometry like density or grain size. In addition, we calculated the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the individual layers with voxel-based finite element simulations. As any material has its characteristic elastic parameters, they may potentially differentiate individual layers, and therefore different microstructures. Our results show that Young's modulus correlates well with density but do not indicate snow's microstructure, in contrast to Poisson's ratio which tends to be lower for strongly anisotropic forms like cup crystals and facets.
A 3D Orthotropic Elastic Continuum Damage Material Model
English, Shawn Allen; Brown, Arthur A.
2013-08-01
A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage is implemented for polymer matrix composite lamina. Damage evolves based on a quadratic homogeneous function of thermodynamic forces in the orthotropic planes. A small strain formulation is used to assess damage. In order to account for large deformations, a Kirchhoff material formulation is implemented and coded for numerical simulation in Sandia’s Sierra Finite Element code suite. The theoretical formulation is described in detail. An example of material parameter determination is given and an example is presented.
High pressure elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium
Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.
2016-04-28
Studies of the phase diagram of uranium have revealed a wealth of high pressure and temperature phases. Under ambient conditions the crystal structure is well defined up to 100 gigapascals (GPa), but very little information on thermal conduction or elasticity is available over this same range. This work has applied ultrasonic interferometry to determine the elasticity, mechanical, and thermal properties of depleted uranium to 4.5 GPa. Results show general strengthening with applied load, including an overall increase in acoustic thermal conductivity. Further implications are discussed within. Lastly, this work presents the first high pressure studies of the elasticity and thermalmore » properties of depleted uranium metal and the first real-world application of a previously developed containment system for making such measurements.« less
High pressure elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium
Jacobsen, M. K. Velisavljevic, N.
2016-04-28
Studies of the phase diagram of uranium have revealed a wealth of high pressure and temperature phases. Under ambient conditions the crystal structure is well defined up to 100 gigapascals (GPa), but very little information on thermal conduction or elasticity is available over this same range. This work has applied ultrasonic interferometry to determine the elasticity, mechanical, and thermal properties of depleted uranium to 4.5 GPa. Results show general strengthening with applied load, including an overall increase in acoustic thermal conductivity. Further implications are discussed within. This work presents the first high pressure studies of the elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium metal and the first real-world application of a previously developed containment system for making such measurements.
Elastic properties of various boron-nitride structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Eun-Suok
2011-02-01
The stress-deformation behaviors derived from the continuum-lattice thermodynamic approach were applied to estimate the elastic properties of various boron-nitride crystals, such as boron-nitride sheets and nanotubes as well as cubic boron-nitride. The Tersoff and Tersoff-like potentials were used to describe the interatomic bond potential for the boron-nitride crystals. In this study, three sets of the Tersoff potential parameters and two sets of the Tersoff-like potential parameters from the literature were employed. Both the Tersoff potential parameters proposed by Matsunaga et al. and the Tersoff-like potential parameters proposed by Oh were best for estimating the elastic properties of boron-nitride nanotubes, including a sheet. Meanwhile, the elastic constants of c-BN calculated by the Tersoff potential parameters proposed by Sekkal et al. and the Tersofflike potential parameters proposed by Albe and Moller were in good agreement with experimental and other quantumistic calculation results.
High pressure elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.
2016-04-01
Studies of the phase diagram of uranium have revealed a wealth of high pressure and temperature phases. Under ambient conditions the crystal structure is well defined up to 100 gigapascals (GPa), but very little information on thermal conduction or elasticity is available over this same range. This work has applied ultrasonic interferometry to determine the elasticity, mechanical, and thermal properties of depleted uranium to 4.5 GPa. Results show general strengthening with applied load, including an overall increase in acoustic thermal conductivity. Further implications are discussed within. This work presents the first high pressure studies of the elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium metal and the first real-world application of a previously developed containment system for making such measurements.
Homogenization relations for elastic properties based on two-point statistical functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peydaye Saheli, Ghazal
In this research, the homogenization relations for elastic properties of isotropic and anisotropic materials including composites and polycrystalline materials are studied by applying two-point statistical mechanics theory. The validity of the results is investigated by direct comparison with experimental results. In today's technology, where advanced processing methods can provide materials with a variety of morphologies and features in different scales, a methodology to link properties to microstructure is necessary to develop a framework for material design. The link between structure of materials in any length scale (from nano to macro) and their properties whether they are mechanical, electrical, magnetic, or optical is critical in every engineering discipline. For this purpose, this research is focused on the homogenization relationships based on two-point statistical information to correlate the microstructure of the materials to their mechanical properties. Statistical distribution functions are commonly used for the representation of microstructures and also for homogenization of materials properties. The use of two-point statistics allows the materials designer to include the morphology and distribution in addition to the properties of the individual phases and components. Statistical mechanics modeling not only enables us to correlate the morphology of the microstructures to properties, it can also predict the microstructures from the properties. The latter issue which is called inverse structure-property problem has received a lot of attention in materials community in recent years. Microstructure design based on statistical mechanics facilitates and optimizes choosing the microstructures of materials for specific design with desired properties. Therefore studying the statistical mechanics theory in different length scale becomes very important. In this research, the main focus was to study the effect of one-point and two-point statistics on
Elastic Properties of the Annular Ligament of the Human Stapes--AFM Measurement.
Kwacz, Monika; Rymuza, Zygmunt; Michałowski, Marcin; Wysocki, Jarosław
2015-08-01
Elastic properties of the human stapes annular ligament were determined in the physiological range of the ligament deflection using atomic force microscopy and temporal bone specimens. The annular ligament stiffness was determined based on the experimental load-deflection curves. The elastic modulus (Young's modulus) for a simplified geometry was calculated using the Kirchhoff-Love theory for thin plates. The results obtained in this study showed that the annular ligament is a linear elastic material up to deflections of about 100 nm, with a stiffness of about 120 N/m and a calculated elastic modulus of about 1.1 MPa. These parameters can be used in numerical and physical models of the middle and/or inner ear.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erba, A.; Mahmoud, A.; Belmonte, D.; Dovesi, R.
2014-03-01
A computational strategy is devised for the accurate ab initio simulation of elastic properties of crystalline materials under pressure. The proposed scheme, based on the evaluation of the analytical stress tensor and on the automated computation of pressure-dependent elastic stiffness constants, is implemented in the CRYSTAL solid state quantum-chemical program. Elastic constants and related properties (bulk, shear and Young moduli, directional seismic wave velocities, elastic anisotropy index, Poisson's ratio, etc.) can be computed for crystals of any space group of symmetry. We apply such a technique to the study of high-pressure elastic properties of three silicate garnet end-members (namely, pyrope, grossular, and andradite) which are of great geophysical interest, being among the most important rock-forming minerals. The reliability of this theoretical approach is proved by comparing with available experimental measurements. The description of high-pressure properties provided by several equations of state is also critically discussed.
Erba, A. Mahmoud, A.; Dovesi, R.; Belmonte, D.
2014-03-28
A computational strategy is devised for the accurate ab initio simulation of elastic properties of crystalline materials under pressure. The proposed scheme, based on the evaluation of the analytical stress tensor and on the automated computation of pressure-dependent elastic stiffness constants, is implemented in the CRYSTAL solid state quantum-chemical program. Elastic constants and related properties (bulk, shear and Young moduli, directional seismic wave velocities, elastic anisotropy index, Poisson's ratio, etc.) can be computed for crystals of any space group of symmetry. We apply such a technique to the study of high-pressure elastic properties of three silicate garnet end-members (namely, pyrope, grossular, and andradite) which are of great geophysical interest, being among the most important rock-forming minerals. The reliability of this theoretical approach is proved by comparing with available experimental measurements. The description of high-pressure properties provided by several equations of state is also critically discussed.
Erba, A; Mahmoud, A; Belmonte, D; Dovesi, R
2014-03-28
A computational strategy is devised for the accurate ab initio simulation of elastic properties of crystalline materials under pressure. The proposed scheme, based on the evaluation of the analytical stress tensor and on the automated computation of pressure-dependent elastic stiffness constants, is implemented in the CRYSTAL solid state quantum-chemical program. Elastic constants and related properties (bulk, shear and Young moduli, directional seismic wave velocities, elastic anisotropy index, Poisson's ratio, etc.) can be computed for crystals of any space group of symmetry. We apply such a technique to the study of high-pressure elastic properties of three silicate garnet end-members (namely, pyrope, grossular, and andradite) which are of great geophysical interest, being among the most important rock-forming minerals. The reliability of this theoretical approach is proved by comparing with available experimental measurements. The description of high-pressure properties provided by several equations of state is also critically discussed.
Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and Other Properties of Beryllium
Goldberg, A
2006-02-01
This report is part of a series of documents that provide a background to those involved in the construction of beryllium components and their applications. This report is divided into five sub-sections: Atomic/Crystal Structure, Elastic Properties, Thermal Properties, Nuclear Properties, and Miscellaneous Properties. In searching through different sources for the various properties to be included in this report, inconsistencies were at times observed between these sources. In such cases, the values reported by the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics was usually used. In equations, except where indicated otherwise, temperature (T) is in degrees Kelvin.
Revisit of the relationship between the elastic properties and sound velocities at high pressures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chenju; Xiang, Shikai; Gu, Jianbing; Kuang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Yin; Yan, Xiaozhen; Chen, Haiyan
2014-09-01
The second-order elastic constants and stress-strain coefficients are defined, respectively, as the second derivatives of the total energy and the first derivative of the stress with respect to strain. Since the Lagrangian and infinitesimal strain are commonly used in the two definitions above, the second-order elastic constants and stress-strain coefficients are separated into two categories, respectively. In general, any of the four physical quantities is employed to characterize the elastic properties of materials without differentiation. Nevertheless, differences may exist among them at non-zero pressures, especially high pressures. Having explored the confusing issue systemically in the present work, we find that the four quantities are indeed different from each other at high pressures and these differences depend on the initial stress applied on materials. Moreover, the various relations between the four quantities depicting elastic properties of materials and high-pressure sound velocities are also derived from the elastic wave equations. As examples, we calculated the high-pressure sound velocities of cubic tantalum and hexagonal rhenium using these nexus. The excellent agreement of our results with available experimental data suggests the general applicability of the relations.
Revisit of the relationship between the elastic properties and sound velocities at high pressures
Wang, Chenju; Yan, Xiaozhen; Xiang, Shikai Chen, Haiyan; Gu, Jianbing; Yu, Yin; Kuang, Xiaoyu
2014-09-14
The second-order elastic constants and stress-strain coefficients are defined, respectively, as the second derivatives of the total energy and the first derivative of the stress with respect to strain. Since the Lagrangian and infinitesimal strain are commonly used in the two definitions above, the second-order elastic constants and stress-strain coefficients are separated into two categories, respectively. In general, any of the four physical quantities is employed to characterize the elastic properties of materials without differentiation. Nevertheless, differences may exist among them at non-zero pressures, especially high pressures. Having explored the confusing issue systemically in the present work, we find that the four quantities are indeed different from each other at high pressures and these differences depend on the initial stress applied on materials. Moreover, the various relations between the four quantities depicting elastic properties of materials and high-pressure sound velocities are also derived from the elastic wave equations. As examples, we calculated the high-pressure sound velocities of cubic tantalum and hexagonal rhenium using these nexus. The excellent agreement of our results with available experimental data suggests the general applicability of the relations.
Elastic properties of DNA linked flexible magnetic filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ērglis, K.; Zhulenkovs, D.; Sharipo, A.; Cēbers, A.
2008-05-01
Elastic properties of magnetic filaments linked by DNA in solutions of univalent and bivalent salts with different pH values are investigated through their deformation in an external field. A strong dependence of the bending modulus in bivalent salt solution on the pH is shown. Experimental results are interpreted on the basis of the magnetic elastica.
Determining the frequency dependence of elastic properties of fractured rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahrens, Benedikt; Renner, Jörg
2016-04-01
In the brittle crust, rocks often contain joints or faults on various length scales that have a profound effect on fluid flow and heat transport, as well as on the elastic properties of rocks. Improving the understanding of the effect of fractures and the role of stress state and heterogeneity along the fractures on elastic properties of rocks is potentially important for the characterization of deep geothermal reservoirs. Seismic surveys, typically covering a frequency range of about 1 to 1000 Hz, are a valuable tool to investigate fractured rocks but the extraction of fracture properties remains difficult. The elementary frequency-dependent interaction between fractured rock matrix and viscous pore fluids and the resulting effects on wave propagation require well-founded dispersion analyses of heterogeneous rocks. In this laboratory study, we investigate the stress dependence of the effective elastic properties of fractured reservoir rocks over a broad frequency range. To assess the effect of faults on the effective elastic properties, we performed cyclic axial loading tests on intact and fractured samples of Solnhofen limestone and Padang granodiorite. The samples contained an idealized fault, which was created by stacking two sample discs on top of each other that experienced various surface treatments to vary their roughness. The dynamic loading tests were conducted with frequencies up to 10 Hz and amplitudes reaching 10% of the statically applied stress. Simultaneously, P- and S-wave measurements were performed in the ultrasonic frequency range (above 100 kHz) with a total of 16 sensors, whose positioning above and below the samples guarantees a wide range of transmission and reflection angles. Preliminary results of static and dynamic elastic properties of intact Padang granodiorite show a pronounced increase in Young's moduli and Poisson's ratio with increasing axial stress. Stress relaxation is accompanied by a decrease of the modulus and the Poisson
Water jet indentation for local elasticity measurements of soft materials.
Chevalier, N R; Dantan, Ph; Gazquez, E; Cornelissen, A J M; Fleury, V
2016-01-01
We present a novel elastography method for soft materials (100Pa-100kPa) based on indentation by a μm-sized water jet. We show that the jet creates a localized deformation ("cavity") of the material that can be easily visualized. We study experimentally how cavity width and depth depend on jet speed, height, incidence angle and sample elasticity. We describe how to calibrate the indenter using gels of known stiffness. We then demonstrate that the indenter yields quantitative elasticity values within 10% of those measured by shear rheometry. We corroborate our experimental findings with fluid-solid finite-element simulations that quantitatively predict the cavity profile and fluid flow lines. The water jet indenter permits in situ local stiffness measurements of 2D or 3D gels used for cell culture in physiological buffer, is able to assess stiffness heterogeneities with a lateral resolution in the range 50-500μm (at the tissue scale) and can be assembled at low cost with standard material from a biology laboratory. We therefore believe it will become a valuable method to measure the stiffness of a wide range of soft, synthetic or biological materials.
First-principles elastic properties of (alpha)-Pu
Soderlind, P; Klepeis, J E
2008-11-04
Density-functional electronic structure calculations have been used to investigate the ambient pressure and low temperature elastic properties of the ground-state {alpha} phase of plutonium metal. The electronic structure and correlation effects are modeled within a fully relativistic anti-ferromagnetic treatment with a generalized gradient approximation for the electron exchange and correlation functionals. The 13 independent elastic constants, for the monoclinic {alpha}-Pu system, are calculated for the observed geometry. A comparison of the results with measured data from resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for a cast sample is made.
High pressure phase transition and elastic properties of americium telluride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aynyas, Mahendra; Rukmangad, Aditi; Arya, B. S.; Sanyal, S. P.
2013-06-01
The structural and elastic properties of Americium Telluride (AmTe) have been investigated by using a modified inter-ionic potential theory (MIPT). This theory is capable of explaining first order phase transition with a crystallographic change NaCl to CsCl structure for this compound. The values of optimized lattice constant, phase transition pressure, zero pressure bulk modulus and second order elastic constants (C11, C44) agree well with their corresponding experimental data. Debye temperature (θD) is also calculated for this compound for the first time.
Plate and butt-weld stresses beyond elastic limit, material and structural modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verderaime, V.
1991-01-01
Ultimate safety factors of high performance structures depend on stress behavior beyond the elastic limit, a region not too well understood. An analytical modeling approach was developed to gain fundamental insights into inelastic responses of simple structural elements. Nonlinear material properties were expressed in engineering stresses and strains variables and combined with strength of material stress and strain equations similar to numerical piece-wise linear method. Integrations are continuous which allows for more detailed solutions. Included with interesting results are the classical combined axial tension and bending load model and the strain gauge conversion to stress beyond the elastic limit. Material discontinuity stress factors in butt-welds were derived. This is a working-type document with analytical methods and results applicable to all industries of high reliability structures.
Acoustic scattering reduction using layers of elastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutrion, Cécile; Simon, Frank
2017-02-01
Making an object invisible to acoustic waves could prove useful for military applications or measurements in confined space. Different passive methods have been proposed in recent years to avoid acoustic scattering from rigid obstacles. These techniques are exclusively based on acoustic phenomena, and use for instance multiple resonators or scatterers. This paper examines the possibility of designing an acoustic cloak using a bi-layer elastic cylindrical shell to eliminate the acoustic field scattered from a rigid cylinder hit by plane waves. This field depends on the dimensional and mechanical characteristics of the elastic layers. It is computed by a semi-analytical code modelling the vibrations of the coating under plane wave excitation. Optimization by genetic algorithm is performed to determine the characteristics of a bi-layer material minimizing the scattering. Considering an external fluid consisting of air, realistic configurations of elastic coatings emerge, composed of a thick internal orthotopic layer and a thin external isotropic layer. These coatings are shown to enable scattering reduction at a precise frequency or over a larger frequency band.
Elastic properties of polyunsaturated phosphatidylethanolamines influence rhodopsin function.
Teague, Walter E; Soubias, Olivier; Petrache, Horia; Fuller, Nola; Hines, Kirk G; Rand, R Peter; Gawrisch, Klaus
2013-01-01
Membranes with a high content of polyunsaturated phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) facilitate formation of metarhodopsin-II (M(II)), the photointermediate of bovine rhodopsin that activates the G protein transducin. We determined whether M(II)-formation is quantitatively linked to the elastic properties of PEs. Curvature elasticity of monolayers of the polyunsaturated lipids 18 : 0-22 : 6(n - 3)PE, 18 : 0-22 : 5(n)- 6PE and the model lipid 18 : 1(n - 9)-18 : 1,(n- 9)PE were investigated in the inverse hexagonal phase. All three lipids form lipid monolayers with rather low spontaneous radii of curvature of 26-28 angstroms. In membranes, all three PEs generate high negative curvature elastic stress that shifts the equilibrium of MI(I)/M(II) photointermediates of rhodopsin towards M(II) formation.
Electronic, elastic, and optical properties of monolayer BC2N
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Lina; Hu, Meng; Peng, Yusi; Luo, Yanting; Li, Chunmei; Chen, Zhiqian
2016-12-01
The structural stability, electronic structure, elasticity, and optical properties of four types of monolayer BC2N have been investigated from first principles using calculation based on density functional theory. The results show that the structural stability of BC2N increases with the number of C-C and B-N bonds. By calculating the two-dimensional Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, and shear anisotropic factors in different directions, four structures present various anisotropies and the most stable structure is almost isotropic. For C-type BC2N, the values of two-dimensional Young's modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus (309, 128, 195 GPa m-1), are smaller than those of graphene (343, 151, 208) but bigger than those of h-BN (286, 185, 116). Furthermore, the dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity, absorption coefficient, and energy loss spectrum are also calculated to investigate the mechanism underpinning the optical transitions in BC2N, revealing monolayer BC2N as a candidate window material.
Linking elastic, mechanical and transport properties in anisotropically cracked rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schubnel, A.; Benson, P.; Nasseri, F.; Gueguen, Y.; Meredith, P.; Young, R.
2007-12-01
Damage and crack porosity can result in a decrease of the mechanical strength of the rock, the development of elastic and mechanical anisotropy and the enhancement of transport properties. Using Non-Interactive Crack Effective Medium (NIC) theory as a fundamental tool, it is possible to calculate dry and wet elastic properties of cracked rocks in terms of a crack density tensor, average crack aspect ratio and mean crack fabric orientation using the solid grains and fluid elastic properties. Using the same tool, we show that the anisotropy, the shear wave splitting and the dispersion of elastic waves can be derived for anisotropic crack fabrics. Mechanically, the existence of embedded microcrack fabrics in rocks also significantly influences the fracture toughness (KIC) of rocks. We show that KIC can show large amounts of anisotropy as well, the degree and orientation of which being largely constrained once again by the microcrack fabric. NIC can predict relatively well KIC at high crack density, by simply using dimensionless crack densities inverted from velocities. A decrease of 50% for crack densities larger than 1, 80% for crack densities larger than 5 is predicted, in close agreement with our observed experimental variation of KIC. At the microscale, this can be interpreted by the fact that the main fracture is strongly interacting with the pre-existing microcrack fabric. Finally, and above the percolation threshold, macroscopic fluid flow also depends on the porosity, crack density and aspect ratio. Using the permeability model of Guéguen and Dienes (1989) and the crack density and aspect ratio recovered from the elastic wave velocity inversion, we successfully predict the evolution of permeability with pressure for direct comparison with the laboratory measurements. These combined experimental and modelling results illustrate the importance of understanding the details of how rock microstructures change in response to an external stimulus in predicting the
Elastic properties of nematoid arrangements formed by amoeboid cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kemkemer, R.; Kling, D.; Kaufmann, D.; Gruler, H.
2000-02-01
In culture migrating and interacting amoeboid cells can form nematoid arrangements in analogy to a nematic liquid crystal phase. A nematoid arrangement is formed if the interaction has an apolar symmetry. Different cell types like human melanocytes (=pigment cells of the skin), human fibroblasts (=connective tissue cells), human osteoblasts (=bone cells), human adipocytes (=fat cells) etc., form a nematoid structure. Our hypothesis is that elastic properties of these nematoid structures can be described in analogy to that of classical nematic liquid crystals. The orientational elastic energy is derived and the orientational defects (disclination) of nematoid arrangements are investigated. The existence of half-numbered disclinations shows that the nematoid structure has an apolar symmetry. The density- and order parameter dependence of the orientational elastic constants and their absolute values are estimated. From the defect structure, one finds that the splay elastic constant is smaller than the bend elastic constant (melanocytes). The core of a disclination is either a cell free space or occupied by non oriented cells (isotropic state), by a cell with a different symmetry, or by another cell type.
Anisotropy of elastic properties in various aluminium-lithium sheet alloys
Zeng, X.H.; Ericsson, T.
1996-05-01
Anisotropic elastic properties of recrystallized and unrecrystallized Al-Li sheets have been experimentally studied and compared with theoretically predicted results. A conventional AA2024 alloy in the annealed condition as a reference material has also been investigated. A concept of lithium equivalent has been proposed in order to calculate single crystal elastic constants C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44} for commercial Al sheet alloys. Subsequently, these calculated single crystal elastic constants were applied to predict the Young`s modulus, using Bunge`s method with quantitative texture data which were determined by X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. To calculate the shear modulus the Bunge`s method was extended. It is shown that elastic properties of the alloys can be essentially predicted on the basis of Bunge`s method with calculated single crystals C{sub ij}. The measurement results of the Young`s modulus and shear modulus of polycrystalline Al-Li alloys were carried out using a dynamic resonance method. They were found to be in fair agreement with calculated curves using the neutron texture data with the calculated single crystal elastic constants C{sub ij}. The results showed that elastic properties depend strongly on testing direction due to the crystallographic texture and grain shape. The texture gradients also strongly affected the elastic properties of Al-Li alloys, but only slightly affected those of the conventional 2024 Al alloy. A slight stretch reduces the modulus of Al-Li by a small amount.
On the theory of elastic properties of two-dimensional hexagonal structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davydov, S. Yu.; Posrednik, O. V.
2015-04-01
The properties of graphene and graphene-like materials (GLMs) have been considered using the Harrison bond-orbital method, within which the stability of GLMs with a high bond ionicity has been analyzed. For purely covalent crystals (graphene, silicene, and germanen) and GLMs with a low bond ionicity, the anharmonic elastic properties (Grüneisen constant, pressure and temperature dependences of the bulk modulus) have been considered. Within the Keating force constant model, the second- and third-order elastic constants and the pressure dependence of the second-order elastic constants have been determined. The parameters of the previously proposed empirical potential have been determined. The results obtained are compared with the available experimental data and calculation results of other studies.
Elastic properties of sulphur and selenium doped ternary PbTe alloys by first principles
Bali, Ashoka Chetty, Raju Mallik, Ramesh Chandra
2014-04-24
Lead telluride (PbTe) is an established thermoelectric material which can be alloyed with sulphur and selenium to further enhance the thermoelectric properties. Here, a first principles study of ternary alloys PbS{sub x}Te{sub (1−x)} and PbSe{sub x}Te{sub (1−x)} (0≤x≤1) based on the Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA) is presented for different ratios of the isoelectronic atoms in each series. Equilibrium lattice parameters and elastic constants have been calculated and compared with the reported data. Anisotropy parameter calculated from the stiffness constants showed a slight improvement in anisotropy of elastic properties of the alloys over undoped PbTe. Furthermore, the alloys satisfied the predicted stability criteria from the elastic constants, showing stable structures, which agreed with the previously reported experimental results.
Effects of initial conditions on Rayleigh-Taylor instability using elastic-plastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roach, Pamela Susan
When an elastic-plastic solid is accelerated by a fluid of lower density, Rayleigh- Taylor instability (RTI) is observed, and the instability is mitigated by the material's mechanical strength, initial conditions, and the acceleration that drives the instability. Such instances of RTI are observed in supernovas, explosive welding, and inertial confinement fusion. In contrast to Newtonian fluids, experimental study of RTI in accelerated solids is traditionally hindered by difficulty to measure material properties and exceedingly small time scales. An understanding of the role initial conditions and material properties have on the growth of RTI will lead to better control of the instability. We present the results for a series of experiments to study the effect of amplitude and wavelength on RT instability with an elastic-plastic solid. A novel rotating wheel RT experiment that uses centrifugal forces to accelerate the two-material interface is used for this purpose. The experiment consists of a container filled with air and mayonnaise, a non-Newtonian emulsion, with an initial perturbation between the two materials. Single mode perturbations of various amplitudes and wavelength were analyzed and results found the instability required for acceleration was inversely proportional to both initial amplitude and wavelength. Three-dimensional (3D) interfaces were found to be more stable than two-dimensional (2D) interfaces. Elastic and plastic peak amplitude responses were observed for stable interfaces using a variable acceleration profile where the test section was first accelerated to slightly below the critical acceleration and then decelerated at the same rate. This exercise allowed for verification of the elastic-plastic (EP) transition process before instability was reached.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ze-Jin; Guo, Yun-Dong; Wang, Guang-Chang; Li, Jin; Dai, Wei; Liu, Jin-Chao; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Yang, Xiang-Dong
2009-11-01
This paper calculates the elastic, thermodynamic and electronic properties of pyrite (Pabar 3) RuO2 by the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) method. The lattice parameters, normalized elastic constants, Cauchy pressure, brittle-ductile relations, heat capacity and Debye temperature are successfully obtained. The Murnaghan equation of state shows that pyrite RuO2 is a potential superhard material. Internal coordinate parameter increases with pressure, which disagrees with experimental data. An analysis based on electronic structure and the pseudogap reveals that the bonding nature in RuO2 is a combination of covalent, ionic and metallic bonding. A study of the elastic properties indicates that the pyrite phase is isotropic under usual conditions. The relationship between brittleness and ductility shows that pyrite RuO2 behaves in a ductile matter at zero pressure and the degree of ductility increases with pressure.
Vaidyanathan, Tritala K; Vaidyanathan, Jayalakshmi; Arghavani, David
2016-12-01
Purpose: The goal of this investigation was to characterize the compliance properties in selected polymers used for temporary (provisional crown and bridge) applications. Method: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)- and polyethyl methacrylate (PEMA)-based JET and TRIM II were investigated along with two bisacryl composite resins (LUXATEMP and PROTEMP 3 GARANT). Rectangular samples of the resins were subjected to creep-recovery tests in a dynamic mechanical analyzer at and near the oral temperature (27 °C, 37 °C and 47 °C). The instantaneous (elastic), and time-dependent viscoelastic, and viscoplastic compliance profiles of the materials were determined and analyzed as a function of materials and temperature. Results: Highly significant (p = 0.0001) differences among means of elastic, viscoelastic and viscoplastic compliance values were found as a function of materials. TRIM II showed an order of magnitude higher viscoplastic deformation than the other three materials (LUXATEMP, PROTEMP 3 GARANT and JET). Conclusions: The results indicate that PEMA is susceptible to significantly greater elastic, viscoelastic, and more importantly to viscoplastic compliant behavior compared with bisacryl composite and PMMA provisional crown and bridge materials. This indicates high-dimensional instability and poor stiffness and resiliency in PEMA appliances vis-à-vis those of PMMA and bisacryl composites.
Ferguson, V L
2009-08-01
The relative contributions of elastic, plastic, and viscous material behavior are poorly described by the separate extraction and analysis of the plane strain modulus, E('), the contact hardness, H(c) (a hybrid parameter encompassing both elastic and plastic behavior), and various viscoelastic material constants. A multiple element mechanical model enables the partitioning of a single indentation response into its fundamental elastic, plastic, and viscous deformation components. The objective of this study was to apply deformation partitioning to explore the role of hydration, tissue type, and degree of mineralization in bone and calcified cartilage. Wet, ethanol-dehydrated, and PMMA-embedded equine cortical bone samples and PMMA-embedded human femoral head tissues were analyzed for contributions of elastic, plastic and viscous deformation to the overall nanoindentation response at each site. While the alteration of hydration state had little effect on any measure of deformation, unembedded tissues demonstrated significantly greater measures of resistance to plastic deformation than PMMA-embedded tissues. The PMMA appeared to mechanically stabilize the tissues and prevent extensive permanent deformation within the bone material. Increasing mineral volume fraction correlated with positive changes in E('), H(c), and resistance to plastic deformation, H; however, the partitioned deformation components were generally unaffected by mineralization. The contribution of viscous deformation was minimal and may only play a significant role in poorly mineralized tissues. Deformation partitioning enables a detailed interpretation of the elastic, plastic, and viscous contributions to the nanomechanical behavior of mineralized tissues that is not possible when examining modulus and contact hardness alone. Varying experimental or biological factors, such as hydration or mineralization level, enables the understanding of potential mechanisms for specific mechanical behavior
1980-07-01
certain properties of the solution to the analogous crack problem in the linearized theory. We then show that, at least for the Mooney - Rivlin material...an incompressible material con- forming to (1.18) is supplied by the Mooney - Rivlin material, with the complete plane-strain elastic potential (I) R... Mooney - Rivlin material, a solution with this parity cannot possibly exist. To this end suppose o0 !now that W is given by (1.19). Eliminating a between
Elastic properties of a porous titanium-bone tissue composite.
Rubshtein, A P; Makarova, E B; Rinkevich, A B; Medvedeva, D S; Yakovenkova, L I; Vladimirov, A B
2015-01-01
The porous titanium implants were introduced into the condyles of tibias and femurs of sheep. New bone tissue fills the pore, and the porous titanium-new bone tissue composite is formed. The duration of composite formation was 4, 8, 24 and 52 weeks. The formed composites were extracted from the bone and subjected to a compression test. The Young's modulus was calculated using the measured stress-strain curve. The time dependence of the Young's modulus of the composite was obtained. After 4 weeks the new bone tissue that filled the pores does not affect the elastic properties of implants. After 24 and 52 weeks the Young's modulus increases by 21-34% and 62-136%, respectively. The numerical calculations of the elasticity of porous titanium-new bone tissue composite were conducted using a simple polydisperse model that is based on the consideration of heterogeneous structure as a continuous medium with spherical inclusions of different sizes. The kinetics of the change in the elasticity of the new bone tissue is presented via the intermediate characteristics, namely the relative ultimate tensile strength or proportion of mature bone tissue in the bone tissue. The calculated and experimentally measured values of the Young's modulus of the composite are in good agreement after 8 weeks of composite formation. The properties of the porous titanium-new bone tissue composites can only be predicted when data on the properties of new bone tissue are available after 8 weeks of contact between the implant and the native bone.
ElAM: A computer program for the analysis and representation of anisotropic elastic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marmier, Arnaud; Lethbridge, Zoe A. D.; Walton, Richard I.; Smith, Christopher W.; Parker, Stephen C.; Evans, Kenneth E.
2010-12-01
The continuum theory of elasticity has been used for more than a century and has applications in many fields of science and engineering. It is very robust, well understood and mathematically elegant. In the isotropic case elastic properties are easily represented, but for non-isotropic materials, even in the simple cubic symmetry, it can be difficult to visualise how properties such as Young's modulus or Poisson's ratio vary with stress/strain orientation. The ElAM ( Elastic Anisotropy Measures) code carries out the required tensorial operations (inversion, rotation, diagonalisation) and creates 3D models of an elastic property's anisotropy. It can also produce 2D cuts in any given plane, compute averages following diverse schemes and query a database of elastic constants to support meta-analyses. Program summaryProgram title: ElAM1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEHB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 43 848 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 498 882 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90 Computer: Any Operating system: Linux, Windows (XP, Vista) RAM: Depends chiefly on the size of the arrays representing elastic properties in 3D Classification: 7.7 Nature of problem: Representation of elastic moduli and ratios, and of wave velocities, in 3D; automatic discovery of unusual elastic properties. Solution method: Stiffness matrix (6×6) inversion and conversion to compliance tensor (3×3×3×3), tensor rotation, dynamic matrix diagonalisation, simple optimisation, postscript and VRML output preparation. Running time: Dependent on angular accuracy and size of elastic constant database (from a few seconds to a few hours). The tests provided take from a
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biaglow, James A.
1995-01-01
Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.
Biaglow, J.A.
1995-09-01
Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Periyannan, Suresh; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan
2015-11-01
A novel technique for simultaneously measuring the moduli of elastic isotropic material, as a function of temperature, using two ultrasonic guided wave modes that are co-generated using a single probe is presented here. This technique can be used for simultaneously measuring Young's modulus (E) and shear modulus (G) of different materials over a wide range of temperatures (35 °C-1200 °C). The specimens used in the experiments have special embodiments (for instance, a bend) at one end of the waveguide and an ultrasonic guided wave generator/detector (transducer) at the other end for obtaining reflected signals in a pulse-echo mode. The orientation of the transducer can be used for simultaneously generating/receiving the L(0,1) and/or T(0,1) using a single transducer in a waveguide on one end. The far end of the waveguides with the embodiment is kept inside a heating device such as a temperature-controlled furnace. The time of flight difference, as a function of uniform temperature distribution region (horizontal portion) of bend waveguides was measured and used to determine the material properties. Several materials were tested and the comparison between values reported in the literature and measured values were found to be in agreement, for both elastic moduli (E and G) measurements, as a function of temperature. This technique provides significant reduction in time and effort over conventional means of measurement of temperature dependence of elastic moduli.
Prediction of elastic properties for polymer-particle nanocomposites exhibiting an interphase.
Deng, Fei; Van Vliet, Krystyn J
2011-04-22
Particle-polymer nanocomposites often exhibit mechanical properties described poorly by micromechanical models that include only the particle and matrix phases. Existence of an interfacial region between the particle and matrix, or interphase, has been posited and indirectly demonstrated to account for this effect. Here, we present a straightforward analytical approach to estimate effective elastic properties of composites comprising particles encapsulated by an interphase of finite thickness and distinct elastic properties. This explicit solution can treat nanocomposites that comprise either physically isolated nanoparticles or agglomerates of such nanoparticles; the same framework can also treat physically isolated nanoparticle aggregates or agglomerates of such aggregates. We find that the predicted elastic moduli agree with experiments for three types of particle-polymer nanocomposites, and that the predicted interphase thickness and stiffness of carbon black-rubber nanocomposites are consistent with measured values. Finally, we discuss the relative influence of the particle-polymer interphase thickness and stiffness to identify maximum possible changes in the macroscale elastic properties of such materials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lineback, L. D.
1974-01-01
The model was developed upon the physical properties of surface energy and intrinsic modulus of elasticity of a material containing a number of equal sized microcracks which are independent of one another. The effect of these cracks upon the strain energy per unit volume of material necessary to continue simultaneous crack growth as well as the measured physical properties was established, and the thermal stress resistance is developed in terms of this energy. The model is expressed in its final form in terms of the measured physical properties of fracture strength, effective modulus of elasticity, and coefficient of thermal expansion. The model was applied to existent thermal stress data of ceramic materials for which these physical properties had been measured. On the basis of these data it was concluded that the thermal stress resistance of a material may be improved by increasing the fracture strength.
Elastic and thermal properties of the layered thermoelectrics BiOCuSe and LaOCuSe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, S. K.; Dutta, G.
2016-09-01
We determine the elastic properties of the layered thermoelectrics BiOCuSe and LaOCuSe using first-principles density functional theory calculations. To predict their stability, we calculate six distinct elastic constants, where all of them are positive, and suggest mechanically stable tetragonal crystals. As elastic properties relate to the nature and the strength of the chemical bond, the latter is analyzed by means of real-space descriptors, such as the electron localization function (ELF) and Bader charge. From elastic constants, a set of related properties, namely, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, sound velocity, Debye temperature, Grüneisen parameter, and thermal conductivity, are evaluated. Both materials are found to be ductile in nature and not brittle. We find BiOCuSe to have a smaller sound velocity and, hence, within the accuracy of the used Slack's model, a smaller thermal conductivity than LaOCuSe. Our calculations also reveal that the elastic properties and the related lattice thermal transport of both materials exhibit a much larger anisotropy than their electronic band properties that are known to be moderately anisotropic because of a moderate effective-electron-mass anisotropy. Finally, we determine the lattice dynamical properties, such as phonon dispersion, atomic displacement, and mode Grüneisen parameters, in order to correlate the elastic response, chemical bonding, and lattice dynamics.
Landry, Nicholas W.; Knezevic, Marko
2015-01-01
Property closures are envelopes representing the complete set of theoretically feasible macroscopic property combinations for a given material system. In this paper, we present a computational procedure based on fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) for delineation of elastic property closures for hexagonal close packed (HCP) metals. The procedure consists of building a database of non-zero Fourier transforms for each component of the elastic stiffness tensor, calculating the Fourier transforms of orientation distribution functions (ODFs), and calculating the ODF-to-elastic property bounds in the Fourier space. In earlier studies, HCP closures were computed using the generalized spherical harmonics (GSH) representation and an assumption of orthotropic sample symmetry; here, the FFT approach allowed us to successfully calculate the closures for a range of HCP metals without invoking any sample symmetry assumption. The methodology presented here facilitates for the first time computation of property closures involving normal-shear coupling stiffness coefficients. We found that the representation of these property linkages using FFTs need more terms compared to GSH representations. However, the use of FFT representations reduces the computational time involved in producing the property closures due to the use of fast FFT algorithms. Moreover, FFT algorithms are readily available as opposed to GSH codes. PMID:28793566
Landry, Nicholas W; Knezevic, Marko
2015-09-17
Property closures are envelopes representing the complete set of theoretically feasible macroscopic property combinations for a given material system. In this paper, we present a computational procedure based on fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) to delineation of elastic property closures for hexagonal close packed (HCP) metals. The procedure consists of building a database of non-zero Fourier transforms for each component of the elastic stiffness tensor, calculating the Fourier transforms of orientation distribution functions (ODFs), and calculating the ODF-to-elastic property bounds in the Fourier space. In earlier studies, HCP closures were computed using the generalized spherical harmonics (GSH) representation and an assumption of orthotropic sample symmetry; here, the FFT approach allowed us to successfully calculate the closures for a range of HCP metals without invoking any sample symmetry assumption. The methodology presented here facilitates for the first time computation of property closures involving normal-shear coupling stiffness coefficients. We found that the representation of these property linkages using FFTs need more terms compared to GSH representations. However, the use of FFT representations reduces the computational time involved in producing the property closures due to the use of fast FFT algorithms. Moreover, FFT algorithms are readily available as opposed to GSH codes.
Ab initio investigations of the elastic properties of chlorates and perchlorates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korabel'nikov, D. V.; Zhuravlev, Yu. N.
2016-06-01
Elastic properties of NaClO3, KClO3, LiClO4, NaClO4, and KClO4 have been investigated from first principles by the method of linear combination of atomic orbitals in the gradient approximation of the density functional theory using CRYSTAL software. The elastic constants and moduli, hardness, Poisson's ratio, and the anisotropy parameters have been calculated. The velocities of sound, the Debye temperature, the thermal conductivity, and the Grüneisen parameter have been estimated. It has been found that these compounds are mechanically stable, anisotropic, and ductile materials. The dependences of their elastic parameters on the atomic number of the cation have been calculated. The obtained results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, H. J.
2012-12-01
The interpretation of highly resolved seismic data from Earths deep interior require measurements of the physical properties of Earth's materials under experimental simulated mantle conditions. More than decade ago seismic tomography clearly showed subduction of crustal material can reach the core mantle boundary under specific circumstances. That means there is no longer space for the assumption deep mantle rocks might be much less complex than deep crustal rocks known from exhumation processes. Considering this geophysical high pressure research is faced the challenge to increase pressure and sample volume at the same time to be able to perform in situ experiments with representative complex samples. High performance multi anvil devices using novel materials are the most promising technique for this exciting task. Recent large volume presses provide sample volumes 3 to 7 orders of magnitude bigger than in diamond anvil cells far beyond transition zone conditions. The sample size of several cubic millimeters allows elastic wave frequencies in the low to medium MHz range. Together with the small and even adjustable temperature gradients over the whole sample this technique makes anisotropy and grain boundary effects in complex systems accessible for elastic and inelastic properties measurements in principle. The measurements of both elastic wave velocities have also no limits for opaque and encapsulated samples. The application of triple-mode transducers and the data transfer function technique for the ultrasonic interferometry reduces the time for saving the data during the experiment to about a minute or less. That makes real transient measurements under non-equilibrium conditions possible. A further benefit is, both elastic wave velocities are measured exactly simultaneously. Ultrasonic interferometry necessarily requires in situ sample deformation measurement by X-radiography. Time-resolved X-radiography makes in situ falling sphere viscosimetry and even the
Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials.
Xia, Re; Li, Xide; Qin, Qinghua; Liu, Jianlin; Feng, Xi-Qiao
2011-07-01
Using the theory of surface elasticity, we investigate the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials. The classical theory of porous materials is modified to account for surface effects, which become increasingly important as the characteristic sizes of microstructures shrink to nanometers. First, a refined Timoshenko beam model is presented to predict the effective elastic modulus of nanoporous materials. Then the surface effects on the elastic microstructural buckling behavior of nanoporous materials are examined. In particular, nanoporous gold is taken as an example to illustrate the application of the proposed model. The results reveal that both the elastic modulus and the critical buckling behavior of nanoporous materials exhibit a distinct dependence on the characteristic sizes of microstructures, e.g. the average ligament width.
Elastic properties of external cortical bone in the craniofacial skeleton of the rhesus monkey.
Wang, Qian; Dechow, Paul C
2006-11-01
Knowledge of elastic properties and of their variation in the cortical bone of the craniofacial skeleton is indispensable for creating accurate finite-element models to explore the biomechanics and adaptation of the skull in primates. In this study, we measured elastic properties of the external cortex of the rhesus monkey craniofacial skeleton, using an ultrasonic technique. Twenty-eight cylindrical cortical specimens were removed from each of six craniofacial skeletons of adult Macaca mulatta. Thickness, density, and a set of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic velocities were measured on each specimen to allow calculation of the elastic properties in three dimensions, according to equations derived from Newton's second law and Hooke's law. The axes of maximum stiffness were determined by fitting longitudinal velocities measured along the perimeter of each cortical specimen to a sinusoidal function. Results showed significant differences in elastic properties between different functional areas of the rhesus cranium, and that many sites have a consistent orientation of maximum stiffness among specimens. Overall, the cortical bones of the rhesus monkey skull can be modeled as orthotropic in many regions, and as transversely isotropic in some regions, e.g., the supraorbital region. There are differences from human crania, suggesting that structural differences in skeletal form relate to differences in cortical material properties across species. These differences also suggest that we require more comparative data on elastic properties in primate craniofacial skeletons to explore effectively the functional significance of these differences, especially when these differences are elucidated through modeling approaches, such as finite-element modeling. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Polymorphism and Elastic Response of Molecular Materials from First Principles: How Hard Can it Be?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre
2014-03-01
Molecular materials are of great fundamental and applied importance in science and industry, with numerous applications in pharmaceuticals, electronics, sensing, and catalysis. A key challenge for theory has been the prediction of their stability, polymorphism and response to perturbations. While pairwise models of van der Waals (vdW) interactions have improved the ability of density functional theory (DFT) to model these systems, substantial quantitative and even qualitative failures remain. In this contribution we show how a many-body description of vdW interactions can dramatically improve the accuracy of DFT for molecular materials, yielding quantitative description of stabilities and polymorphism for these challenging systems. Moreover, the role of many-body vdW interactions goes beyond stabilities to response properties. In particular, we have studied the elastic properties of a series of molecular crystals, finding that many-body vdW interactions can account for up to 30% of the elastic response, leading to quantitative and qualitative changes in elastic behavior. We will illustrate these crucial effects with the challenging case of the polymorphs of aspirin, leading to a better understanding of the conflicting experimental and theoretical studies of this system.
Elastic properties of thin poly(vinyl alcohol)-cellulose nanocrystal membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pakzad, A.; Simonsen, J.; Yassar, R. S.
2012-03-01
In spite of extensive studies on the preparation and characterization of nanocomposite materials, the correlation of their properties at the nanoscale with those in bulk is a relatively unexplored area. This is of great importance, especially for materials with potential biomedical applications, where surface properties are as important in determining their applicability as bulk characteristics. In this study, the nanomechanical characteristics of thin poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) membranes were studied using the nanoindentation module in an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the properties were compared with the macro-scale properties obtained by tensile tests. In general, the elastic properties measured by nanoindentation followed the same trend as macro-scale tensile tests except for the PVOH 85-PAA 0-CNC 15 sample. In comparison to the macro-scale elastic properties, the measured elastic moduli with AFM were higher. Macro-scale tensile test results indicated that, in the presence of PAA, incorporation of CNCs up to 20 wt% improved the elastic modulus of PVOH, but when no PAA was added, increasing the CNC content above 10 wt% resulted in their agglomeration and degradation in mechanical properties of PVOH. The discrepancy between macro-scale tensile tests and nanoindentation in the PVOH 85-PAA 0-CNC 15 sample was correlated to the high degree of inhomogeneity of CNC dispersion in the matrix. It was found that the composites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals had smaller indentation imprints and the pile-up effect increased with the increase of cellulose nanocrystal content.
Elastic properties of thin poly(vinyl alcohol)-cellulose nanocrystal membranes.
Pakzad, A; Simonsen, J; Yassar, R S
2012-02-01
In spite of extensive studies on the preparation and characterization of nanocomposite materials, the correlation of their properties at the nanoscale with those in bulk is a relatively unexplored area. This is of great importance, especially for materials with potential biomedical applications, where surface properties are as important in determining their applicability as bulk characteristics. In this study, the nanomechanical characteristics of thin poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) membranes were studied using the nanoindentation module in an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the properties were compared with the macro-scale properties obtained by tensile tests. In general, the elastic properties measured by nanoindentation followed the same trend as macro-scale tensile tests except for the PVOH 85-PAA 0-CNC 15 sample. In comparison to the macro-scale elastic properties, the measured elastic moduli with AFM were higher. Macro-scale tensile test results indicated that, in the presence of PAA, incorporation of CNCs up to 20 wt% improved the elastic modulus of PVOH, but when no PAA was added, increasing the CNC content above 10 wt% resulted in their agglomeration and degradation in mechanical properties of PVOH. The discrepancy between macro-scale tensile tests and nanoindentation in the PVOH 85-PAA 0-CNC 15 sample was correlated to the high degree of inhomogeneity of CNC dispersion in the matrix. It was found that the composites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals had smaller indentation imprints and the pile-up effect increased with the increase of cellulose nanocrystal content.
Spontaneous oscillations of elastic contractile materials with turnover.
Dierkes, Kai; Sumi, Angughali; Solon, Jérôme; Salbreux, Guillaume
2014-10-03
Single and collective cellular oscillations driven by the actomyosin cytoskeleton have been observed in numerous biological systems. Here, we propose that these oscillations can be accounted for by a generic oscillator model of a material turning over and contracting against an elastic element. As an example, we show that during dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryo, experimentally observed changes in actomyosin concentration and oscillatory cell shape changes can, indeed, be captured by the dynamic equations studied here. We also investigate the collective dynamics of an ensemble of such contractile elements and show that the relative contribution of viscous and friction losses yields different regimes of collective oscillations. Taking into account the diffusion of force-producing molecules between contractile elements, our theoretical framework predicts the appearance of traveling waves, resembling the propagation of actomyosin waves observed during morphogenesis.
Elastic properties and morphology of individual carbon nanofibers.
Lawrence, Joseph G; Berhan, Lesley M; Nadarajah, Arunan
2008-06-01
The structural complexity of vapor-grown carbon nanofibers means that they require a method that determines both their elastic properties and their corresponding morphology. A three-point bending test method was developed combining atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and focused ion beam techniques to suspend individual nanofibers and measure their deflection coupled with accurate determinations of inner and outer diameters and morphology using high resolution TEM. This resulted in much improved accuracy and reproducibility of the measured values of the elastic modulus which ranged from 6 to 207 GPa. The data showed two distinct trends, with higher values of the modulus when the outer wall thickness of the nanofibers is larger than that of the inner wall, with the values decreasing with the overall wall thickness. These results suggest that the more ordered layers of the outer wall, closest to the inner wall, are mostly responsible for the nanofiber strength. For large nanofiber wall thicknesses of greater than 80 nm, the elastic modulus becomes independent of the thickness with a value of approximately 25 GPa. The results also demonstrate that this technique can be a standardized one for the detailed study of mechanical properties of nanofibers and their relationship to morphology.
Bonding and elastic properties of amorphous AlYB14
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Music, Denis; Hensling, Felix; Pazur, Tomas; Bednarcik, Jozef; Hans, Marcus; Schnabel, Volker; Hostert, Carolin; Schneider, Jochen M.
2013-09-01
We have studied the bonding and elastic properties of amorphous AlYB14 using theoretical and experimental means. Based on pair distribution functions and Voronoi tessellation, the icosahedral bonding is expected. A rather large Young's modulus of 365 GPa is predicted for amorphous AlYB14. To verify these predictions, we have measured density, pair distribution functions, binding energy and elastic properties of Al-Y-B thin films synthesized by magnetron sputtering. The calculated and measured densities are with a deviation of 3.5% in good agreement. The measured binding energy and pair distribution functions are also consistent with icosahedral bonding. The measured Young's modulus is 305±19 GPa, which is 16% smaller than the theoretical value and hence in good agreement. Overall consistency between theory and experiments was obtained indicating that the computational strategy employed here is useful to describe correlations between bonding, elasticity, density as well as (chemical) short range order and may hence enable future knowledge-based design of these ternary borides which show great potential for surface protection applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lissenden, Cliff J.; Herakovich, Carl T.
1992-01-01
Results for the predicted effective elastic properties of unidirectional composites are presented for glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy using eight different models. A brief review of each of the models is given along with the final equations in most cases. It is shown that there is wide variation in some predictions for glass/epoxy and that the upper and lower composite cylinder assemblage bounds do not always fall close together for this material.
Hardness, elastic, and electronic properties of chromium monoboride
Han, Lei; Wang, Shanmin; Zhu, Jinlong; Han, Songbai; Li, Wenmin; Chen, Bijuan; Wang, Xiancheng; Yu, Xiaohui E-mail: liubc@jlu.edu.cn Long, Youwen; Cheng, Jinguang; Jin, Changqing; Liu, Baochang E-mail: liubc@jlu.edu.cn; Zhang, Ruifeng E-mail: liubc@jlu.edu.cn; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yusheng
2015-06-01
We report high-pressure synthesis of chromium monoboride (CrB) at 6 GPa and 1400 K. The elastic and plastic behaviors have been investigated by hydrostatic compression experiment and micro-indentation measurement. CrB is elastically incompressible with a high bulk modulus of 269.0 (5.9) GPa and exhibits a high Vickers hardness of 19.6 (0.7) GPa under the load of 1 kg force. Based on first principles calculations, the observed mechanical properties are attributed to the polar covalent Cr-B bonds interconnected with strong zigzag B-B covalent bonding network. The presence of metallic Cr bilayers is presumably responsible for the weakest paths in shear deformation.
Phase Transition and Elastic Properties of La-Compounds
Raypuria, G. S.; Singh, K. C.; Baraiya, A. K.; Gupta, D. C.
2011-07-15
The Phase transition and elastic properties of La-monochalcogenides have been investigated under pressure by means of a modified charge-transfer potential model which incorporates the Coulomb interaction modified by Coulomb screening due to the delocalization of electron of rare-earth atom leading to many-body interactions, covalency effect and overlap repulsion extended up to second-nearest neighbours. Under high pressure the coordination increases and they transform from rock-salt to CsCl structure. The calculated values of cohesive energy, lattice constant, phase transition pressure, relative volume collapse and harmonic elastic moduli their agree well with the available measured data and better than those computed by earlier workers. Present model is capable of explaining the Cauchy's discrepancy correctly.
Hysteresis and the Dynamic Elasticity of Consolidated Granular Materials
Guyer, R.A.; TenCate, J.; Johnson, P.
1999-04-01
Quasistatic elasticity measurements on rocks show them to be strikingly nonlinear and to have elastic hysteresis with end point memory. When the model for this quasistatic elasticity is extended to the description of nonlinear dynamic elasticity the elastic elements responsible for the hysteresis dominate the behavior. Consequently, in a resonant bar, driven to nonlinearity, the frequency shift and the attenuation are predicted to be nonanalytic functions of the strain field. A resonant bar experiment yielding results in substantial qualitative and quantitative accord with these predictions is reported. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Wu, Z.; Cococcioni, M.; Umemoto, K.
2012-12-01
First principles calculations in mineral physics have contributed decisively to understanding numerous mineral properties of interest in geophysics. Thermal elasticity is the essential property that allows for direct insights into the origin of seismic observables such as velocity discontinuities, gradients, anisotropies, and heterogeneities. Earth materials are challenging to calculations because they contain iron, a strongly correlated element that may undergo spin crossover under pressure, hydrogen, that even in very small amounts can produce can produce anelastic effects, and phases that are stabilized only by anharmonic fluctuations, e.g., CaSiO3-perovskite. I will describe recent progress in methodology that is enabling calculations of thermal elastic properties with unprecedented easiness. I will exemplify its power on iron bearing phases including some undergoing spin crossovers, and provide an updated view of lower mantle velocities.
Analytical modeling of elastic-plastic wave behavior near grain boundaries in crystalline materials
Loomis, Eric; Greenfield, Scott; Luo, Shengnian; Swift, Damian; Peralta, Pedro
2009-01-01
It is well known that changes in material properties across an interface will produce differences in the behavior of reflected and transmitted waves. This is seen frequently in planar impact experiments, and to a lesser extent, oblique impacts. In anisotropic elastic materials, wave behavior as a function of direction is usually accomplished with the aid of velocity surfaces, a graphical method for predicting wave scattering configurations. They have expanded this method to account for inelastic deformation due to crystal plasticity. The set of derived equations could not be put into a characteristic form, but instead led to an implicit problem. to overcome this difficulty an algorithm was developed to search the parameters space defined by a wave normal vector, particle velocity vector, and a wave speed. A solution was said to exist when a set from this parameter space satisfied the governing vector equation. Using this technique they can predict the anisotropic elastic-plastic velocity surfaces and grain boundary scattering configuration for crystalline materials undergoing deformation by slip. Specifically, they have calculated the configuration of scattered elastic-plastic waves in anisotropic NiAl for an incident compressional wave propagating along a <111> direction and contacting a 45 degree inclined grain boundary and found that large amplitude transmitted waves exist owing to the fact that the wave surface geometry forces it to propagate near the zero Schmid factor direction <100>.
Relationships between elastic anisotropy and thermal expansion in A2Mo3O12 materials.
Romao, Carl P; Donegan, S P; Zwanziger, J W; White, Mary Anne
2016-11-09
We report calculated elastic tensors, axial Grüneisen parameters, and thermal stress distributions in Al2Mo3O12, ZrMgMo3O12, Sc2Mo3O12, and Y2Mo3O12, a series of isomorphic materials for which the coefficients of thermal expansion range from low-positive to negative. Thermal stress in polycrystalline materials arises from interactions between thermal expansion and mechanical properties, and both can be highly anisotropic. Thermal expansion anisotropy was found to be correlated with elastic anisotropy: axes with negative thermal expansion were less compliant. Calculations of axial Grüneisen parameters revealed that the thermal expansion anisotropy in these materials is in part due to the Poisson effect. Models of thermal stress due to thermal expansion anisotropy in polycrystals following cooling showed thermal stresses of sufficient magnitude to cause microcracking in all cases. The thermal expansion anisotropy was found to couple to elastic anisotropy, decreasing the bulk coefficient of thermal expansion and leading to lognormal extremes of the thermal stress distributions.
Effects of Initial Conditions on Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Elastic-Plastic Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roach, Pamela; Banerjee, Arindam
2012-11-01
In contrast to Newtonian fluids, experimental study of Rayleigh Taylor instability (RTI) in accelerated solids is traditionally hindered by difficulty to measure material properties and exceedingly small time scales of the processes. When an elastic-plastic solid is accelerated due to a density gradient, the instability is dependent on the material's mechanical strength, initial conditions, and acceleration that drive the instability. RTI in solids is observed in supernovas, explosive welding, and inertial confinement fusion. A novel experimental technique is used to study the effects of initial conditions and variable accelerations on the growth and instability in an elastic-plastic solid. The experiment consists of a container filled with air and mayonnaise, a non-Newtonian emulsion, with an initial perturbation between the two materials. Single mode perturbations of various amplitudes are analyzed and effects of two-dimensional versus three-dimensional interfaces are discussed. Furthermore, the instability threshold and stable elastic and plastic regions are investigated by controlling the acceleration. The instability threshold and perturbation growth rate are compared to linear analysis of incompressible RTI. The authors acknowledge financial support through DOE-LANL subcontract # 173667-1.
The elastic properties of beta-eucryptite in the glassy and microcracked crystalline states
Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Muth, Joseph T.
2012-01-01
Amorphous and crystalline {beta}-eucryptite (LiAlSiO{sub 4}) specimens were prepared with controlled grain sizes and varying levels of microcracking, and their elastic moduli were determined using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. It was found that the relationship between Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and degree of microcracking in these materials can be described well with fracture-mechanics-based models. It was also found that if glassy {beta}-eucryptite is considered to be a microcracked medium in which broken Si-O bonds, with respect to the crystalline material, constitute microcracks, then its elastic properties can be described equally well by these models. Such considerations are explained by noting the differences in atomic bond density among the different states of the material and by accounting for differences in strain energy release rate measurements on glass and ceramic specimens.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rassoulinejad-Mousavi, Seyed Moein; Mao, Yijin; Zhang, Yuwen
2016-06-01
Choice of appropriate force field is one of the main concerns of any atomistic simulation that needs to be seriously considered in order to yield reliable results. Since investigations on the mechanical behavior of materials at micro/nanoscale have been becoming much more widespread, it is necessary to determine an adequate potential which accurately models the interaction of the atoms for desired applications. In this framework, reliability of multiple embedded atom method based interatomic potentials for predicting the elastic properties was investigated. Assessments were carried out for different copper, aluminum, and nickel interatomic potentials at room temperature which is considered as the most applicable case. Examined force fields for the three species were taken from online repositories of National Institute of Standards and Technology, as well as the Sandia National Laboratories, the LAMMPS database. Using molecular dynamic simulations, the three independent elastic constants, C11, C12, and C44, were found for Cu, Al, and Ni cubic single crystals. Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation was then implemented to convert elastic constants of the single crystals into isotropic polycrystalline elastic moduli including bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Young's modulus as well as Poisson's ratio. Simulation results from massive molecular dynamic were compared with available experimental data in the literature to justify the robustness of each potential for each species. Eventually, accurate interatomic potentials have been recommended for finding each of the elastic properties of the pure species. Exactitude of the elastic properties was found to be sensitive to the choice of the force fields. Those potentials that were fitted for a specific compound may not necessarily work accurately for all the existing pure species. Tabulated results in this paper might be used as a benchmark to increase assurance of using the interatomic potential that was designated for a problem.
Rassoulinejad-Mousavi, Seyed Moein; Mao, Yijin; Zhang, Yuwen
2016-06-28
Choice of appropriate force field is one of the main concerns of any atomistic simulation that needs to be seriously considered in order to yield reliable results. Since investigations on the mechanical behavior of materials at micro/nanoscale have been becoming much more widespread, it is necessary to determine an adequate potential which accurately models the interaction of the atoms for desired applications. In this framework, reliability of multiple embedded atom method based interatomic potentials for predicting the elastic properties was investigated. Assessments were carried out for different copper, aluminum, and nickel interatomic potentials at room temperature which is considered as the most applicable case. Examined force fields for the three species were taken from online repositories of National Institute of Standards and Technology, as well as the Sandia National Laboratories, the LAMMPS database. Using molecular dynamic simulations, the three independent elastic constants, C{sub 11}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 44}, were found for Cu, Al, and Ni cubic single crystals. Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation was then implemented to convert elastic constants of the single crystals into isotropic polycrystalline elastic moduli including bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Young's modulus as well as Poisson's ratio. Simulation results from massive molecular dynamic were compared with available experimental data in the literature to justify the robustness of each potential for each species. Eventually, accurate interatomic potentials have been recommended for finding each of the elastic properties of the pure species. Exactitude of the elastic properties was found to be sensitive to the choice of the force fields. Those potentials that were fitted for a specific compound may not necessarily work accurately for all the existing pure species. Tabulated results in this paper might be used as a benchmark to increase assurance of using the interatomic potential that was
RNA intrusions change DNA elastic properties and structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Koh, Kyung Duk; Evich, Marina; Lesiak, Annie L.; Germann, Markus W.; Bongiorno, Angelo; Riedo, Elisa; Storici, Francesca
2014-08-01
The units of RNA, termed ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs), have been recently found as the most abundant defects present in DNA. Despite the relevance, it is largely unknown if and how rNMPs embedded in DNA can change the DNA structure and mechanical properties. Here, we report that rNMPs incorporated in DNA can change the elastic properties of DNA. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single molecule elasticity measurements show that rNMP intrusions in short DNA duplexes can decrease - by 32% - or slightly increase the stretch modulus of DNA molecules for two sequences reported in this study. Molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy identify a series of significant local structural alterations of DNA containing embedded rNMPs, especially at the rNMPs and nucleotide 3' to the rNMP sites. The demonstrated ability of rNMPs to locally alter DNA mechanical properties and structure may help in understanding how such intrusions impact DNA biological functions and find applications in structural DNA and RNA nanotechnology.The units of RNA, termed ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs), have been recently found as the most abundant defects present in DNA. Despite the relevance, it is largely unknown if and how rNMPs embedded in DNA can change the DNA structure and mechanical properties. Here, we report that rNMPs incorporated in DNA can change the elastic properties of DNA. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single molecule elasticity measurements show that rNMP intrusions in short DNA duplexes can decrease - by 32% - or slightly increase the stretch modulus of DNA molecules for two sequences reported in this study. Molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy identify a series of significant local structural alterations of DNA containing embedded rNMPs, especially at the rNMPs and nucleotide 3' to the rNMP sites. The demonstrated ability of rNMPs to locally alter DNA mechanical properties and structure
Material characterization of in vivo and in vitro porcine brain using shear wave elasticity.
Urbanczyk, Caryn A; Palmeri, Mark L; Bass, Cameron R
2015-03-01
Realistic computer simulation of closed head trauma requires accurate mechanical properties of brain tissue, ideally in vivo. A substantive deficiency of most existing experimental brain data is that properties were identified through in vitro mechanical testing. This study develops a novel application of shear wave elasticity imaging to assess porcine brain tissue shear modulus in vivo. Shear wave elasticity imaging is a quantitative ultrasound technique that has been used here to examine changes in brain tissue shear modulus as a function of several experimental and physiologic parameters. Animal studies were performed using two different ultrasound transducers to explore the differences in physical response between closed skull and open skull arrangements. In vivo intracranial pressure in four animals was varied over a relevant physiologic range (2-40 mmHg) and was correlated with shear wave speed and stiffness estimates in brain tissue. We found that stiffness does not vary with modulation of intracranial pressure. Additional in vitro porcine specimens (n = 14) were used to investigate variation in brain tissue stiffness with temperature, confinement, spatial location and transducer orientation. We observed a statistically significant decrease in stiffness with increased temperature (23%) and an increase in stiffness with decreasing external confinement (22-37%). This study determined the feasibility of using shear wave elasticity imaging to characterize porcine brain tissue both in vitro and in vivo. Our results underline the importance of temperature- and skull-derived boundary conditions to brain stiffness and suggest that physiologic ranges of intracranial pressure do not significantly affect in situ brain tissue properties. Shear wave elasticity imaging allowed for brain material properties to be experimentally characterized in a physiologic setting and provides a stronger basis for assessing brain injury in computational models. Copyright © 2015 World
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramanna, J.; Yedukondalu, N.; Ramesh Babu, K.; Vaitheeswaran, G.
2013-06-01
We report the structural, elastic, electronic, and optical properties of antiperovskite alkali metal oxyhalides Na3OCl, Na3OBr, and K3OBr using two different density functional methods within generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Plane wave pseudo potential (PW-PP) method has been used to calculate the ground state structural and elastic properties while the electronic structure and optical properties are calculated explicitly using full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The calculated ground state properties of the investigated compounds agree quite well with the available experimental data. The predicted elastic constants using both PW-PP and FP-LAPW methods are in good accord with each other and show that the materials are mechanically stable. The low values of the elastic moduli indicate that these materials are soft in nature. The bulk properties such as shear moduli, Young's moduli, and Poisson's ratio are derived from the calculated elastic constants. Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential improves the band gaps over GGA and Engel-Vosko GGA. The computed TB-mBJ electronic band structure reveals that these materials are direct band gap insulators. The complex dielectric function of the metal oxyhalide compounds have been calculated and the observed prominent peaks are analyzed through the TB-mBJ electronic structures. By using the knowledge of complex dielectric function other important optical properties including absorption, reflectivity, refractive index and loss function have been obtained as a function of energy.
Johner, Niklaus; Harries, Daniel; Khelashvili, George
2016-04-12
The importance of the material properties of membranes for diverse cellular processes is well established. Notably, the elastic properties of the membrane, which depend on its composition, can directly influence membrane reshaping and fusion processes as well as the organisation and function of membrane proteins. Determining these properties is therefore key for a mechanistic understanding of how the cell functions. We have developed a method to determine the bending rigidity and tilt modulus, for lipidic assemblies of arbitrary lipid composition and shape, from molecular dynamics simulations. The method extracts the elastic moduli from the distributions of microscopic tilts and splays of the lipid components. We present here an open source implementation of the method as a set of Python modules using the computational framework OpenStructure. These modules offer diverse algorithms typically used in the calculatation the elastic moduli, including routines to align MD trajectories of complex lipidic systems, to determine the water/lipid interface, to calculate lipid tilts and splays, as well as to fit the corresponding distributions to extract the elastic properties. We detail the implementation of the method and give several examples of how to use the modules in specific cases. The method presented here is, to our knowledge, the only available computational approach allowing to quantify the elastic properties of lipidic assemblies of arbitrary shape and composition (including lipid mixtures). The implementation as python modules offers flexibility, which has already allowed the method to be applied to diverse lipid assembly types, ranging from bilayers in the liquid ordered and disordered phases to a study of the inverted-hexagonal phase, and with different force-fields (both all-atom and coarse grained representations). The modules are freely available through GitHub at https://github.com/njohner/ost_pymodules/ while OpenStructure can be obtained at http://www.openstructure.org .
Characterization of nuclear graphite elastic properties using laser ultrasonic methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Fan W.; Han, Karen; Olasov, Lauren R.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Spicer, James B.
2015-05-01
Laser ultrasonic methods have been used to characterize the elastic behaviors of commercially-available and legacy nuclear graphites. Since ultrasonic techniques are sensitive to various aspects of graphite microstructure including preferred grain orientation, microcrack orientation and porosity, laser ultrasonics is a candidate technique for monitoring graphite degradation and structural integrity in environments expected in high-temperature, gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Aspects of materials texture can be assessed by studying ultrasonic wavespeeds as a function of propagation direction and polarization. Shear wave birefringence measurements, in particular, can be used to evaluate elastic anisotropy. In this work, laser ultrasonic measurements of graphite moduli have been made to provide insight into the relationship between the microstructures and the macroscopic stiffnesses of these materials. In particular, laser ultrasonic measurements have been made using laser line sources to produce shear waves with specific polarizations. By varying the line orientation relative to the sample, shear wave birefringence measurements have been recorded. Results from shear wave birefringence measurements show that an isostatically molded graphite, such as PCIB, behaves isotropically, while an extruded graphite, such as H-451, displays significant ultrasonic texture. Graphites have complicated microstructures that depend on the manufacturing processes used, and ultrasonic texture in these materials could originate from grain orientation and preferred microcrack alignment. Effects on material isotropy due to service related microstructural changes are possible and the ultimate aim of this work is to determine the degree to which these changes can be assessed nondestructively using laser ultrasonics measurements.
Characterization of nuclear graphite elastic properties using laser ultrasonic methods
Zeng, Fan W; Han, Karen; Olasov, Lauren R; Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Spicer, James B
2015-01-01
Laser ultrasonic methods have been used to characterize the elastic behaviors of commercially-available and legacy nuclear graphites. Since ultrasonic techniques are sensitive to various aspects of graphite microstructure including preferred grain orientation, microcrack orientation and porosity, laser ultrasonics is a candidate technique for monitoring graphite degradation and structural integrity in environments expected in high-temperature, gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Aspects of materials texture can be assessed by studying ultrasonic wavespeeds as a function of propagation direction and polarization. Shear wave birefringence measurements, in particular, can be used to evaluate elastic anisotropy. In this work, laser ultrasonic measurements of graphite moduli have been made to provide insight into the relationship between the microstructures and the macroscopic stiffnesses of these materials. In particular, laser ultrasonic measurements have been made using laser line sources to produce shear waves with specific polarizations. By varying the line orientation relative to the sample, shear wave birefringence measurements have been recorded. Results from shear wave birefringence measurements show that an isostatically molded graphite, such as PCIB, behaves isotropically, while an extruded graphite, such as H-451, displays significant ultrasonic texture. Graphites have complicated microstructures that depend on the manufacturing processes used, and ultrasonic texture in these materials could originate from grain orientation and preferred microcrack alignment. Effects on material isotropy due to service related microstructural changes are possible and the ultimate aim of this work is to determine the degree to which these changes can be assessed nondestructively using laser ultrasonics measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseenko, D. D.; Panin, S. V.; Maksimov, P. V.; Panin, V. E.; Babich, D. S.; Berto, F.
2016-11-01
The paper is devoted to detailed investigation of rotational deformation modes at the notch tip during shock loading. Using hybrid discrete-continuum approach of Excitable Cellular Automata the series of numerical experiments were conducted to simulate deformation behavior of ductile steel in the vicinities of U-, I- and V-notches. The detailed analysis of the force moment distribution at the notch tip allowed revealing the relationship between the rotational deformation modes at different scales. It was found that the elastic energy release is realized by means of the modulation of the magnitude and the sign of the force moment. The obtained results makes possible to optimize crystal structure for improvement of mechanical properties of the material in the way of elastic energy release by reversible microrotations.
Janson, Isaac A.; Putnam, Andrew J.
2014-01-01
Chemical, mechanical, and topographic extracellular matrix (ECM) cues have been extensively studied for their influence on cell behavior. These ECM cues alter cell adhesion, cell shape, and cell migration, and activate signal transduction pathways to influence gene expression, proliferation, and differentiation. ECM elasticity and topography, in particular, have emerged as material properties of intense focus based on strong evidence these physical cue can partially dictate stem cell differentiation. Cells generate forces to pull on their adhesive contacts, and these tractional forces appear to be a common element of cells’ responses to both elasticity and topography. This review focuses on recently published work that links ECM topography and mechanics and their influence on differentiation and other cell behaviors, We also highlight signaling pathways typically implicated in mechanotransduction that are (or may be) shared by cells subjected to topographic cues. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the potential implications of these commonalities for cell based therapies and biomaterial design. PMID:24910444
Elastic-plastic characterization of a cast stainless steep pipe elbow material
Joyce, J.A.; Hackett, E.M.; Roe, C.
1992-01-01
Tests conducted in Japan as part of the High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program for reactor piping systems revealed fatigue crack growth in a cast stainless steel pipe elbow. The material tested was equivalent to ASME SA-351CF8M. The David Taylor Research Center (DTRC) was tasked to developed the appropriate material property data to characterize cyclic deformation, cyclic elastic-plastic crack growth and ductile tearing resistance in the pipe elbow material. It was found that the cast stainless steel was very resistant to ductile crack extension. J-R curves essentially followed a blunting behavior to very high J levels. Low cycle fatigue crack growth rate data obtained on this material using a cyclic J integral approach was consistent with the high cycle fatigue crack growth rate and with a standard textbook correlation equation typical for this type of material. Evaluation of crack closure effects was essential to accurately determine the crack driving force for cyclic elastic- plastic crack growth in this material. SEM examination of several of the cyclic J test fracture surfaces indicated that fatigue was the primary mode of fracture with ductile crack extension intervening only during the last few cycles of loading.
Monitoring the Elastic Properties of Ice with Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Wijk, K.; Vaughan, M. J.; Prior, D. J.
2015-12-01
The elastic properties of ice are of interest in understanding (theevolution of) sea ice, glaciers and ice sheets, in general. Such dataare crucial if we are to use elastic (ultrasonic to seismic) data toconstrain the internal structure and fabric of ice bodies and theirenvironmental conditions. Fabric (crystallographic preferredorientation) and temperature are two key factors that control therheology of ice sheets. Fabric and temperature data at depth arelimited to the very small number of ice drill holes in Antarctica andGreenland, mostly at ice divides. Thus, there is a need to develop ourunderstanding of elastic properties and wave propagation in ice toextract better ice information from seismic data sets. Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) is used to measure the resonantmodes of samples, from which we can invert for the full elastictensor, and estimate the attenuation quality factor. Compared to moretraditional time-of-flight ultrasound measurements, there a fewobvious advantages. First, RUS is typically done at an order ofmagnitude lower in frequency, which brings it closer to seismicfrequencies. This is important when attempting to map out thedispersive nature of these elastic properties. Second, it is often farfrom trivial to pick the shear wave arrivals in ultrasound inheterogeneous media. RUS does not rely on this distinctionbetween primary and shear wave. After having developed and applied RUS successfully to rocksamples, an extension of RUS to ice cores in the Physical AcousticsLaboraty shows great promise. For example, we successfully invertedfor the isotropic parameters (bulk and shear modulus) of crystallineman-made ice, and estimated the attenuation quality factor Q. Bycontrolling the freezer settings in the set-up, we were able tomonitor changes in these properties as a function of temperature. Theresultant data are consistent with published results from otherapproaches in the laboratory and the field. RUS is sufficiently fast and portable that
The Elastic Properties of Natural Portlandite Ca(OH)2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speziale, S.; Reichmann, H. J.; Schilling, F.; Wenk, H. R.; Monteiro, P. J.
2007-12-01
Portlandite, Ca(OH) 2, is a simple hydroxide with brucite structure (space group P~{3}m1). It is built up of layers of CaO6 octahedra stacked along the c-axis. Portlandite is of basic interest for the cement and concrete research and industries, because it is a major primary solid phase in hydrated portland cement. It is therefore of particular importance to determine the elastic properties of portlandite. So far a computational (Laugesen, 2005) and an experimental (Holuj et al., 1985) study reported the single crystal elastic moduli Cij. However, these results differ significantly in some off-diagonal moduli. We performed Brillouin spectroscopy measurements on natural single crystal portlandite at ambient conditions. Our measurements have been performed in a new Brillouin laboratory set up at the Geoforschungszentrum, Potsdam. The new system features an Eulerian cradle with an inner diameter of 400 mm, and it has been designed to accommodate an internally heated diamond anvil cell to perform Brillouin measurements at high P and T conditions. We have obtained the following values for the elastic moduli (expressed in GPa followed by 1σ uncertainty in parentheses): C11 = 102.0 (2.0), C12 = 32.1 (1.0), C13 = 8.4 (0.4), C14 = 4.5 (0.2), C33 = 33.6 (0.7), C44 = 12.0 (0.3), C66 = (C11-C12)/2 = 35.0 (1.5). With our new measurements we put a better constraint on the value of C13 which is more than 2.5 times larger than reported by Holuj and coworkers, and is closer to the value calculated by Laugesen. A remarkable feature of the elastic behavior is the high elastic anisotropy of portlandite due to its highly anisotropic layered structure. The zero pressure Voigt and Reuss bounds to the adiabatic bulk modulus of portlandite are: K0SV = 37.3 (0.4) GPa and K0SR = 26.0 (0.3) GPa, with a 43% difference between the two bounds. The Voigt and Reuss bounds to the shear modulus are G0V = 24.4 (0.4) GPa and G0R = 17.5 (0.3) GPa, with a 40% difference between the two bounds. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mozafari, E.; Shulumba, N.; Steneteg, P.; Alling, B.; Abrikosov, Igor A.
2016-08-01
We present a theoretical scheme to calculate the elastic constants of magnetic materials in the high-temperature paramagnetic state. Our approach is based on a combination of disordered local moments picture and ab initio molecular dynamics (DLM-MD). Moreover, we investigate a possibility to enhance the efficiency of the simulations of elastic properties using the recently introduced method: symmetry imposed force constant temperature-dependent effective potential (SIFC-TDEP). We have chosen cubic paramagnetic CrN as a model system. This is done due to its technological importance and its demonstrated strong coupling between magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom. We have studied the temperature-dependent single-crystal and polycrystalline elastic constants of paramagentic CrN up to 1200 K. The obtained results at T = 300 K agree well with the experimental values of polycrystalline elastic constants as well as the Poisson ratio at room temperature. We observe that the Young's modulus is strongly dependent on temperature, decreasing by ˜14 % from T = 300 K to 1200 K. In addition we have studied the elastic anisotropy of CrN as a function of temperature and we observe that CrN becomes substantially more isotropic as the temperature increases. We demonstrate that the use of Birch law may lead to substantial errors for calculations of temperature induced changes of elastic moduli. The proposed methodology can be used for accurate predictions of mechanical properties of magnetic materials at temperatures above their magnetic order-disorder phase transition.
Elastic properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments
Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.
2001-01-01
Downhole-measured compressional- and shear-wave velocities acquired in the Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well, northwestern Canada, reveal that the dominant effect of gas hydrate on the elastic properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments is as a pore-filling constituent. As opposed to high elastic velocities predicted from a cementation theory, whereby a small amount of gas hydrate in the pore space significantly increases the elastic velocities, the velocity increase from gas hydrate saturation in the sediment pore space is small. Both the effective medium theory and a weighted equation predict a slight increase of velocities from gas hydrate concentration, similar to the field-observed velocities; however, the weighted equation more accurately describes the compressional- and shear-wave velocities of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. A decrease of Poisson's ratio with an increase in the gas hydrate concentration is similar to a decrease of Poisson's ratio with a decrease in the sediment porosity. Poisson's ratios greater than 0.33 for gas hydrate-bearing sediments imply the unconsolidated nature of gas hydrate-bearing sediments at this well site. The seismic characteristics of gas hydrate-bearing sediments at this site can be used to compare and evaluate other gas hydrate-bearing sediments in the Arctic.
A continuum model to study interphase effects on elastic properties of CNT/GS-nanocomposite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srivastava, Ashish; Kumar, Dinesh
2017-02-01
In the present study, initially a continuum level model of interphase region in a carbon nanotube (CNT)/graphene sheet (GS) based nanocomposite is established. Cohesive zone model through Lennard Jones (i.e. LJ) potential is utilized to model the interphase zone in terms of its thickness and elastic modulus, for different matrix materials containing CNTs of various radii (including graphene—a CNT of infinite radius). Thereafter, a finite element based study is conducted to characterize and compare the CNT- and GS-reinforced nanocomposites with and without interphase, using the method of representative volume element (RVE). Based on the study, it is concluded that the thickness as well as elastic modulus of the interphase zone is significantly affected by the matrix material of nanocomposite which is in contrast to the general assumption, made in the literature, of constant thickness of interphase zone for different matrix materials. In the case of nanocomposite with small radius CNTs, slightly higher, noticeable only at narrow scale, elastic modulus of interphase zone is obtained than the nanocomposite with large radius CNTs, irrespective of matrix materials. For metal nanocomposites, interphase zone results in loss of all stiffness properties of the resulting CNT/GS nanocomposite, and this loss is more prevalent in GS nanocomposite for its out-of-plane stiffness properties. But, on the contrary, in the case of polyethylene (i.e. PE) nanocomposite, the elastic modulus of interphase causes enhanced stiffness properties of the resulting nanocomposite, as compared to the perfectly bonded nanocomposite, for CNT and GS reinforcements.
Converting strain maps into elasticity maps for materials with small contrast
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellis, Cédric
2017-01-01
This study addresses the question of the quantitative reconstruction of heterogeneous distributions of isotropic elastic moduli from full strain field data. This parameter identification problem exposes the need for a local reconstruction procedure that is investigated here in the case of materials with small contrast. To begin with the integral formulation framework for the periodic linear elasticity problem, first- and second-order asymptotics are retained for the strain field solution and the effective elasticity tensor. Properties of the featured Green's tensor are investigated to characterize its decomposition into an isotropic term and an orthogonal part. The former is then shown to define a local contribution to the volume integral equations considered. Based on this property, then the combination of multiple strain field solutions corresponding to well-chosen applied macroscopic strains is shown to lead to a set of local and uncoupled identities relating, respectively, the bulk and shear moduli to the spherical and deviatoric components of the strain fields. Valid at the first-order in the weak contrast limit, such relations permit point-wise conversions of strain maps into elasticity maps. Furthermore, it is also shown that for macroscopically isotropic material configurations a single strain field solution is actually sufficient to reconstruct either the bulk or the shear modulus distribution. Those results are then revisited in the case of bounded media. Finally, some sets of analytical and numerical examples are provided for comparison and to illustrate the relevance of the obtained strain-modulus local equations for a parameter identification method based on full-field data.
Elastic and piezoresistive properties of nickel carbides from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelling, Jeffrey; Zahn, Peter; Schuster, Jörg; Gemming, Sibylle
2017-01-01
The nickel-carbon system has received increased attention over the past years due to the relevance of nickel as a catalyst for carbon nanotube and graphene growth, where nickel carbide intermediates may be involved or carbide interface layers form in the end. Nickel-carbon composite thin films comprising Ni3C are especially interesting in mechanical sensing applications. Due to the metastability of nickel carbides, formation conditions and the coupling between mechanical and electrical properties are not yet well understood. Using first-principles electronic structure methods, we calculated the elastic properties of Ni3C ,Ni2C , and NiC , as well as changes in electronic properties under mechanical strain. We observe that the electronic density of states around the Fermi level does not change under the considered strains of up to 1%, which correspond to stresses up to 3 GPa . Relative changes in conductivity of Ni3C range up to maximum values of about 10%.
Micro-CT based finite element models for elastic properties of glass-ceramic scaffolds.
Tagliabue, Stefano; Rossi, Erica; Baino, Francesco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Gastaldi, Dario; Vena, Pasquale
2017-01-01
In this study, the mechanical properties of porous glass-ceramic scaffolds are investigated by means of three-dimensional finite element models based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan data. In particular, the quantitative relationship between the morpho-architectural features of the obtained scaffolds, such as macroscopic porosity and strut thickness, and elastic properties, is sought. The macroscopic elastic properties of the scaffolds have been obtained through numerical homogenization approaches using the mechanical characteristics of the solid walls of the scaffolds (assessed through nanoindentation) as input parameters for the numerical simulations. Anisotropic mechanical properties of the produced scaffolds have also been investigated by defining a suitable anisotropy index. A comparison with morphological data obtained through the micro-CT scans is also presented. The proposed study shows that the produced glass-ceramic scaffolds exhibited a macroscopic porosity ranging between 29% and 97% which corresponds to an average stiffness ranging between 42.4GPa and 36MPa. A quantitative estimation of the isotropy of the macroscopic elastic properties has been performed showing that the samples with higher solid fractions were those closest to an isotropic material.
Galo, Rodrigo; Contente, Marta Maria Martins Giamatei; Galafassi, Daniel; Borsatto, Maria Cristina
2015-01-01
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the Young's modulus and the hardness of deciduous and permanent teeth following wear challenges using different dental materials. Materials and Methods: Wear challenges were performed against four dental materials: A resin-based fissure sealant (Fluoroshield®), a glass ionomer based fissure sealant (Vitremer®), and two microhybrid composite resins (Filtek Z250 and P90®). Using the pin-on-plate design, a deciduous or a permanent tooth was made into a pin (4 mm × 4 mm × 2 mm) working at a 3 N vertical load, 1 Hz frequency, and 900 cycles (15 min) with Fusayama artificial saliva as a lubricant. Before and after the tribological tests, the hardness and elasticity modulus of the tooth samples were measured by creating a nanoindentation at load forces up to 50 mN and 150 mN. All of the results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and post-hoc Duncan's tests (P < 0.05). Results: No difference in hardness was encountered between deciduous and permanent teeth (P < 0.05) or modulus of elasticity (P < 0.05) before or after the wear challenges for all of the dental materials tested. Conclusions: Wear challenges against the studied dental materials did not alter the properties of permanent or deciduous teeth after the application of a 3 N load. PMID:26929700
Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert
2002-12-01
An important material property in the paper industry is the anisotropic stiffness distribution due to the fibrous microstructure of paper and to processing procedures. Ultrasonic methods offer a means of determining the stiffness of sheets of paper from the anisotropic propagation characteristics of elastic Lamb waves along the machine direction and the cross direction. That is, along and perpendicular to the direction of paper production. Currently, piezoelectric ultrasonic methods are employed in the industry to measure the elastic polar diagram of paper through multiple contacting measurements made in all directions. This paper describes a new approach utilizing the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera to provide a complete image of the elastic waves traveling in all directions in the plane of the paper sheet. This approach is based on optical dynamic holographic methods that record the out of plane ultrasonic motion over the entire paper surface simultaneously without scanning. The full-field imaging technique offers great potential for increasing the speed of the measurement and it ultimately provides a substantial amount of information concerning local property variations and flaws in the paper. This report shows the success of the method and the manner in which it yields the elastic polar diagram for the paper from the dispersive flexural or antisymmetric Lamb wave.
Evaluation of elastic modulus and hardness of highly inhomogeneous materials by nanoindentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epshtein, Svetlana A.; Borodich, Feodor M.; Bull, Steve J.
2015-04-01
The experimental and numerical techniques for evaluation of mechanical properties of highly inhomogeneous materials are discussed. The techniques are applied to coal as an example of such a material. Characterization of coals is a very difficult task because they are composed of a number of distinct organic entities called macerals and some amount of inorganic substances along with internal pores and cracks. It is argued that to avoid the influence of the pores and cracks, the samples of the materials have to be prepared as very thin and very smooth sections, and the depth-sensing nanoindentation (DSNI) techniques has to be employed rather than the conventional microindentation. It is shown that the use of the modern nanoindentation techniques integrated with transmitted light microscopy is very effective for evaluation of elastic modulus and hardness of coal macerals. However, because the thin sections are glued to the substrate and the glue thickness is approximately equal to the thickness of the section, the conventional DSNI techniques show the effective properties of the section/substrate system rather than the properties of the material. As the first approximation, it is proposed to describe the sample/substrate system using the classic exponential weight function for the dependence of the equivalent elastic contact modulus on the depth of indentation. This simple approach allows us to extract the contact modulus of the material constitutes from the data measured on a region occupied by a specific component of the material. The proposed approach is demonstrated on application to the experimental data obtained by Berkovich nanoindentation with varying maximum depth of indentation.
Saha, Sourav Mojumder, Satyajit; Mahboob, Monon; Islam, M. Zahabul
2016-07-12
Tungsten is a promising material and has potential use as battery anode. Tungsten nanowires are gaining attention from researchers all over the world for this wide field of application. In this paper, we investigated effect of temperature and geometric parameters (diameter and aspect ratio) on elastic properties of Tungsten nanowire. Aspect ratios (length to diameter ratio) considered are 8:1, 10:1, and 12:1 while diameter of the nanowire is varied from 1-4 nm. For 2 nm diameter sample (aspect ratio 10:1), temperature is varied (10 K ~ 1500 K) to observe elastic behavior of Tungsten nanowire under uniaxial tensile loading. EAM potential is used for molecular dynamic simulation. We applied constant strain rate of 10{sup 9} s{sup −1} to deform the nanowire. Elastic behavior is expressed through stress vs. strain plot. We also investigated the fracture mechanism of tungsten nanowire and radial distribution function. Investigation suggests peculiar behavior of Tungsten nanowire in nano-scale with double peaks in stress vs. strain diagram. Necking before final fracture suggests that actual elastic behavior of the material is successfully captured through atomistic modeling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Sourav; Mojumder, Satyajit; Mahboob, Monon; Islam, M. Zahabul
2016-07-01
Tungsten is a promising material and has potential use as battery anode. Tungsten nanowires are gaining attention from researchers all over the world for this wide field of application. In this paper, we investigated effect of temperature and geometric parameters (diameter and aspect ratio) on elastic properties of Tungsten nanowire. Aspect ratios (length to diameter ratio) considered are 8:1, 10:1, and 12:1 while diameter of the nanowire is varied from 1-4 nm. For 2 nm diameter sample (aspect ratio 10:1), temperature is varied (10K ~ 1500K) to observe elastic behavior of Tungsten nanowire under uniaxial tensile loading. EAM potential is used for molecular dynamic simulation. We applied constant strain rate of 109 s-1 to deform the nanowire. Elastic behavior is expressed through stress vs. strain plot. We also investigated the fracture mechanism of tungsten nanowire and radial distribution function. Investigation suggests peculiar behavior of Tungsten nanowire in nano-scale with double peaks in stress vs. strain diagram. Necking before final fracture suggests that actual elastic behavior of the material is successfully captured through atomistic modeling.
Hard tissue as a composite material. I - Bounds on the elastic behavior.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, J. L.
1971-01-01
Recent determination of the elastic moduli of hydroxyapatite by ultrasonic methods permits a re-examination of the Voigt or parallel model of the elastic behavior of bone, as a two phase composite material. It is shown that such a model alone cannot be used to describe the behavior of bone. Correlative data on the elastic moduli of dentin, enamel and various bone samples indicate the existence of a nonlinear dependence of elastic moduli on composition of hard tissue. Several composite models are used to calculate the bounds on the elastic behavior of these tissues. The limitations of these models are described, and experiments to obtain additional critical data are discussed.
Hard tissue as a composite material. I - Bounds on the elastic behavior.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, J. L.
1971-01-01
Recent determination of the elastic moduli of hydroxyapatite by ultrasonic methods permits a re-examination of the Voigt or parallel model of the elastic behavior of bone, as a two phase composite material. It is shown that such a model alone cannot be used to describe the behavior of bone. Correlative data on the elastic moduli of dentin, enamel and various bone samples indicate the existence of a nonlinear dependence of elastic moduli on composition of hard tissue. Several composite models are used to calculate the bounds on the elastic behavior of these tissues. The limitations of these models are described, and experiments to obtain additional critical data are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurley, D. C.
A prime motivation for the original development of ultrasonic-based AFM methods was to enable measurements of elastic properties with nanoscale spatial resolution. In this chapter, we discuss the quantitative measurement of elastic modulus with ultrasonic-based AFM methods and compare it to measurement by more conventional or established techniques. First, we present the basic principles of modulus measurement with methods that involve contact resonance spectroscopy, such as atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) and ultrasonic AFM (U-AFM). Fundamental concepts of modulus measurement with more established approaches, especially instrumented (nano-) indentation (NI) and surface acoustic wave spectroscopy (SAWS), are then discussed. We consider the relative strengths and limitations of various approaches, for example measurement accuracy, spatial resolution, and applicability to different materials. Example results for specific material systems are given with an emphasis on studies involving direct intercomparison of different techniques. Finally, current research in this area and opportunities for future work are described.
Phase stability and elastic properties of Cr-V alloys
Gao, M C; Suzuki, Y; Schweiger, H; Doğan, Ö N; Hawk, J; Widom, M
2013-01-23
V is the only element in the periodic table that forms a complete solid solution with Cr and thus is particularly important in alloying strategy to ductilize Cr. This study combines first-principles density functional theory calculations and experiments to investigate the phase stability and elastic properties of Cr–V binary alloys. The cluster expansion study reveals the formation of various ordered compounds at low temperatures that were not previously known. These compounds become unstable due to the configurational entropy of bcc solid solution as the temperature is increased. The elastic constants of ordered and disordered compounds are calculated at both T = 0 K and finite temperatures. The overall trends in elastic properties are in agreement with measurements using the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method. The calculations predict that addition of V to Cr decreases both the bulk modulus and the shear modulus, and enhances the Poisson’s ratio, in agreement with experiments. Decrease in the bulk modulus is correlated to decrease in the valence electron density and increase in the lattice constant. An enhanced Poisson’s ratio for bcc Cr–V alloys (compared to pure Cr) is associated with an increased density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, the difference charge density in the bonding region in the (110) slip plane is highest for pure Cr and decreases gradually as V is added. The present calculation also predicts a negative Cauchy pressure for pure Cr, and it becomes positive upon alloying with V. The intrinsic ductilizing effect from V may contribute, at least partially, to the experimentally observed ductilizing phenomenon in the literature.
Phase stability and elastic properties of Cr-V alloys.
Gao, M C; Suzuki, Y; Schweiger, H; Doğan, Ö N; Hawk, J; Widom, M
2013-02-20
V is the only element in the periodic table that forms a complete solid solution with Cr and thus is particularly important in alloying strategy to ductilize Cr. This study combines first-principles density functional theory calculations and experiments to investigate the phase stability and elastic properties of Cr-V binary alloys. The cluster expansion study reveals the formation of various ordered compounds at low temperatures that were not previously known. These compounds become unstable due to the configurational entropy of bcc solid solution as the temperature is increased. The elastic constants of ordered and disordered compounds are calculated at both T = 0 K and finite temperatures. The overall trends in elastic properties are in agreement with measurements using the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method. The calculations predict that addition of V to Cr decreases both the bulk modulus and the shear modulus, and enhances the Poisson's ratio, in agreement with experiments. Decrease in the bulk modulus is correlated to decrease in the valence electron density and increase in the lattice constant. An enhanced Poisson's ratio for bcc Cr-V alloys (compared to pure Cr) is associated with an increased density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, the difference charge density in the bonding region in the (110) slip plane is highest for pure Cr and decreases gradually as V is added. The present calculation also predicts a negative Cauchy pressure for pure Cr, and it becomes positive upon alloying with V. The intrinsic ductilizing effect from V may contribute, at least partially, to the experimentally observed ductilizing phenomenon in the literature.
Elastic properties of alternative versus single-stranded leveling archwires.
Rucker, Brian K; Kusy, Robert P
2002-11-01
The strength, stiffness, and range of single-stranded stainless steel (SS) and superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires were compared with those of alternative leveling products, including nylon-coated and multistranded wires. Wire cross-sections were photographed after being potted in polymer, ground, and polished. Because the rectangular wires had rounded or beveled corners, gravimetric measurements and specific gravity calculations quantified the actual polygonal cross-sectional areas versus the ideal rectangular cross-sectional areas. Beveling reduced the cross-sectional areas by 7% to 8%; this decreased the wire stiffnesses by 15% to 19%. Using a testing machine, we measured the yield strengths, the elastic limits, and the ultimate tensile strengths in tension, and wire stiffnesses in 3-point bending. From cyclic loading tests, the elastic limits of the superelastic NiTi wires were approximately 90% and 45% of their ultimate tensile strengths for the round and rectangular wires, respectively. Using the measurements of the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of each wire, we computed the elastic property ratios (EPRs) versus a 16-mil (0.41 mm) NiTi wire. The single-stranded NiTi wires outperformed the alternative wires, whose EPRs varied from 0.05 to 0.32 for strength, from 0.11 to 1.55 for stiffness, and from 0.10 to 0.80 for range. Based on the current study and a review of the orthodontic literature, few superelastic wires are activated sufficiently in vivo to exhibit superelastic behavior. Therefore, the EPR data reported here for superelastic wires truly represent their performance in most clinical situations.
An In-Depth Tutorial on Constitutive Equations for Elastic Anisotropic Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.
2011-01-01
An in-depth tutorial on the constitutive equations for elastic, anisotropic materials is presented. Basic concepts are introduced that are used to characterize materials, and notions about how anisotropic material deform are presented. Hooke s law and the Duhamel-Neuman law for isotropic materials are presented and discussed. Then, the most general form of Hooke s law for elastic anisotropic materials is presented and symmetry requirements are given. A similar presentation is also given for the generalized Duhamel-Neuman law for elastic, anisotropic materials that includes thermal effects. Transformation equations for stress and strains are presented and the most general form of the transformation equations for the constitutive matrices are given. Then, specialized transformation equations are presented for dextral rotations about the coordinate axes. Next, concepts of material symmetry are introduced and criteria for material symmetries are presented. Additionally, engineering constants of fully anisotropic, elastic materials are derived from first principles and the specialized to several cases of practical importance.
Gelatine as a crustal analogue: Determining elastic properties for modelling magmatic intrusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavanagh, J. L.; Menand, T.; Daniels, K. A.
2013-01-01
Gelatine has often been used as an analogue material to model the propagation of magma-filled fractures in the Earth's brittle and elastic crust. Despite this, there are few studies of the elastic properties of gelatine and how these evolve with time. This important information is required to ensure proper scaling of experiments using gelatine. Gelatine is a viscoelastic material, but at cool temperatures (Tr ~ 5-10 °C) it is in the solid 'gel' state where the elastic behaviour dominates and the viscous component is negligible over short to moderate timescales. We present results from a series of experiments on up to 30 litres of maximum 30 wt.% pigskin gelatine mixtures that document in detail how the elastic properties evolve with time, as a function of the volume used and gel concentration (Cgel). Gelatine's fracture toughness is investigated by measuring the pressure required to propagate a pre-existing crack. In the gel-state, gelatine's Young's modulus can be calculated by measuring the deflection to the free-surface caused by an applied load. The load's geometry can affect the Young's modulus measurement; our results show its diameter needs to be ≲ 10% of both the container diameter and the gelatine thickness (Hgel) for side-wall and base effects to be ignored. Gelatine's Young's modulus increases exponentially with time, reaching a plateau (E∞) after several hours curing. E∞ depends linearly on Cgel, while Tr, Hgel and the gelatine's thermal diffusivity control the time required to reach this value. Gelatine's fracture toughness follows the same relationship as ideal elastic-brittle solids with a calculated surface energy γs = 1.0 ± 0.2 J m- 2. Scaling laws for gelatine as a crustal analogue intruded by magma (dykes or sills) show that mixtures of 2-5 wt.% gelatine cured at ~ 5-10 °C ensure the experiments are geometrically, kinematically and dynamically scaled.
Test Methods for Measuring Material Properties of Composite Materials in all Three Material Axes
2012-01-24
Elastic Properties Strength Properties ASTM Ref. In-Plane Tension Ex, Ey, νxy STx, STy D 3039 In-Plane Compression ECx, ECy, νCxy SCx, SCy D 6641 In...as required. The in-plane tension test was conducted using ASTM D 3039 /D 3039M “Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Composite...properties were determined for fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) with respect to all three material orientations using existing ASTM standards when
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enyashin, A. N.; Ivanovskii, A. L.
2008-05-01
The models of new isotropic cubic crystals of single-layered carbon nanotubes are proposed. The structural, elastic, and electronic properties and the energies of formation of these crystals were calculated using the density functional-based tight binding (DFTB) method. The crystals proposed were found to exhibit extreme compression moduli (550-650 GPa) and a minimum compressibility (0.0018-0.0015 GPa-1); in this case, the type of conduction of the parent nanotubes was retained. For this reason, the above crystals are of interest for the development of new superhard materials with controllable electrophysical properties.
Recent developments in testing techniques for elastic mechanical properties of 1-D nanomaterials.
Wang, Weidong; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Hongti; Lu, Yang
2015-01-01
One-dimensional (1-D) nanomaterials exhibit great potentials in their applications to functional materials, nano-devices and systems owing to their excellent properties. In the past decade, considerable studies have been done, with new patents being developed, on these 1-D building blocks for for their mechanical properties, especially elastic properties, which provide a solid foundation for the design of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and predictions of reliability and longevity for their devices. This paper reviews some of the recent investigations on techniques as well as patents available for the quantitative characterization of the elastic behaviors of various 1-D nanomaterials, with particular focus on on-chip testing system. The review begins with an overview of major testing methods for 1-D nanostructures' elastic properties, including nanoindentation testing, AFM (atomic force microscopy) testing, in situ SEM (scanning electron microscopy) testing, in situ TEM (transmission electron microscopy) testing and the testing system on the basis of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) technology, followed by advantages and challenges of each testing approach. This review also focuses on the MEMS-based testing apparatus, which can be actuated and measured inside SEM and TEM with ease, allowing users to highly magnify the continuous images of the specimen while measuring load electronically and independently. The combination of on-chip technologies and the in situ electron microscopy is expected to be a potential testing technique for nanomechanics. Finally, details are presented on the key challenges and possible solutions in the implementation of the testing techniques referred above.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, E. Y.
1973-01-01
Structural application of advanced composite filamentary materials requires lamination of the basic orthotropic plies into angle-ply laminates. This article reviews the effect on elastic properties of orientation dispersion. The conventional constitutive relations are recast in a homologous form to account for uniform orientation dispersion by addition of a single parameter. Graphical results are presented to show the behavior of the most important advanced composite materials. The results are directly useful for estimating effects of manufacturing inaccuracy and for design of partially oriented reinforced structures.
A first principle study of the pressure dependent elastic properties of monazite LaPO4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Kawsar; Arya, A.; Ghosh, P. S.; Dey, G. K.
2016-05-01
DFT based ab-initio simulations have been performed to study the effect of pressure on the elastic properties of monazite LaPO4 which is a promising host material for immobilization of high level nuclear waste. The phase is found to be stable up to 30 GPa. The calculated polycrystalline bulk, shear and Young moduli show an increasing trend as a function of pressure. The ductility and anisotropy in shear modulus of the material have been found to increase with pressure; whilethe bulk modulus anisotropy decreases with pressure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menzel, Andreas M.
2016-08-01
One possibility to adjust material properties to a specific need is to embed units of one substance into a matrix of another substance. Even materials that are readily tunable during operation can be generated in this way. In (visco)elastic substances, both the matrix material as well as the inclusions and/or their immediate environment can be dynamically deformed. If the typical dynamic response time of the inclusions and their surroundings approach the macroscopic response time, their deformation processes need to be included into a dynamic macroscopic characterization. Along these lines, we present a hydrodynamic description of (visco)elastic composite materials. For this purpose, additional strain variables reflect the state of the inclusions and their immediate environment. These additional strain variables in general are not set by a coarse-grained macroscopic displacement field. Apart from that, during our derivation, we also include the macroscopic variables of relative translations and relative rotations that were previously introduced in different contexts. As a central point, our approach reveals and classifies the importance of a macroscopic variable termed relative strains. We analyze two simplified minimal example geometries as an illustration.
Tetherless mobile micrograsping using a magnetic elastic composite material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiachen; Diller, Eric
2016-11-01
In this letter, we propose and characterize a new type of tetherless mobile microgripper for micrograsping that is made of a magnetic elastic composite material. Its magnetically-programmable material and structures make it the first three-dimensional (3D) mobile microgripper that is directly actuated and controlled by magnetic forces and torques. With a symmetric four-limb structure, the microgripper is 3.5 mm long from tip to tip when it is open and 30 μm thick. It forms an approximate 700 μm cube when it is closed. The orientation and 3D shape of the microgripper are determined by the direction and strength of the applied magnetic field, respectively. As a mobile device, the microgripper can be moved through aqueous environments for precise grasping and transportation of micro-objects, pulled by magnetic gradients directly or rolled in rotating magnetic fields. The deformation of the microgripper under magnetic actuation is characterized by modeling and confirmed experimentally. Being directly controlled by magnetic forces and torques, the microgripper is easier and more intuitive to control than other magnetic microgrippers that require other inputs such as thermal and chemical responses. In addition, the microgripper is capable of performing fast repeatable grasping motions, requiring no more than 25 ms to change from fully open to fully closed in water at room temperature. As a result of its large-amplitude 3D deformation, the microgripper can accommodate cargoes with a wide range of geometries and dimensions. A pick-and-place experiment demonstrates the efficacy of the microgripper and its potentials in biomedical, microfluidic, and microrobotic applications.
Askar, Haitham; Brouwer, Fredrik; Lehmensiek, Michel; Paris, Sebastian; Schwendicke, Falk
2017-03-01
Secondary caries limits the longevity of restorations and is thought to be associated with faulty restorations, e.g. dentin-restoration interfacial gaps. Recent evidence indicates that loading of restorations might aggravate the effects of gaps on interfacial mineral loss. It is unclear if this effect of loading is dose-dependent or not, and if restoration material properties like elasticity moderate the association between load and mineral loss. We hypothesized that mineral loss of secondary lesions increases with increasing load, and that this association is moderated by the elastic modulus of the placed restoration material. Dentin-restoration specimens with simulated interfacial gaps were submitted to cariogenic Lactobacillus-rhamnosus-biofilms for 10days, and concurrently loaded with different loads (0/42/84/126g per specimen, n=12/group). Two different composites (LEC: low elastic-modulus composite, HEC: high elastic-modulus composite) were employed. Transversal microradiography was used to evaluate the superficial and interfacial (wall) lesion mineral loss. Generalized linear modeling (GLM) was used to evaluate the association between loading, material and their interaction on mineral loss. Surface mineral loss was not significantly associated with loading, material, or their interaction (p-values ranged between p=0.062 and 0.526). For deep interfacial (wall) lesions, the applied load (p=0.023) but not the material (p=0.382) showed a significant effect. The interaction between both significantly affected mineral loss (p=0.01). Loads of ≥84g per specimens were associated with higher wall lesion mineral loss. Loads above a certain threshold significantly increased interfacial (wall) lesion mineral loss. This association was moderated by the elasticity of the placed restoration materials. The clinical relevance of our findings remains unclear, as future studies are needed to understand how exactly both load and material elasticity affect secondary lesion
Elastic Properties of Polymerised and Fluid Membranes Under Stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shillcock, Julian Charles
The stability of a living cell relies on the properties and interrelations of its constituent parts. The fluid bilayer surrounding the cell separates the cytoplasm inside the cell from the extracellular environment. A cross-linked network of proteins within the cytoplasm supports the fluid bilayer and contributes to the cell's elasticity. Three properties relating to the behaviour of a model fluid bilayer and polymerised network are investigated by Monte Carlo simulation: the phase behaviour of a system of discotic liquid crystal molecules, the elastic properties of a model polymerised network, and the stability and rupture of a model fluid membrane. The isotropic to nematic transition induced by hydrostatic pressure in a system of discotic liquid cystal molecules in three dimensions is presented. The study concentrates on the phase behaviour resulting from the anisotropy of the disks. The transition is present for disks whose thickness to radius ratio is less than 40%, but is absent for thicker disks. A more specialised model of disks restricted to intersect a planar interface between two immiscible fluids is investigated, but has no isotropic -nematic phase transition at finite temperature. The elastic properties of a two-dimensional, triangulated network of Hookean springs are investigated as a function of temperature and applied tension. The compression modulus decreases, and the shear modulus increases, as the tension on the network is increased. The elastic properties of self-avoiding networks at low temperature are well described by a mean field theory. When the self-avoidance constraint is removed, the network undergoes a phase transition to a collapsed state of small area as the tension is reduced to zero. Both types of network show an unstable expansion of their area when the stretching tension exceeds a specified value. Both networks also have the unusual property (referred to as a negative Poisson ratio) of expanding transversely when stretched
Tang, B; Ngan, A H W; Pethica, J B
2008-12-10
A method is proposed for quantitatively measuring the elastic modulus of materials using atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation. In this method, the cantilever deformation and the tip-sample interaction during the early loading portion are treated as two springs in series, and based on Sneddon's elastic contact solution, a new cantilever-tip property α is proposed which, together with the cantilever sensitivity A, can be measured from AFM tests on two reference materials with known elastic moduli. The measured α and A values specific to the tip and machine used can then be employed to accurately measure the elastic modulus of a third sample, assuming that the tip does not get significantly plastically deformed during the calibration procedure. AFM nanoindentation tests were performed on polypropylene (PP), fused quartz and acrylic samples to verify the validity of the proposed method. The cantilever-tip property and the cantilever sensitivity measured on PP and fused quartz were 0.514 GPa and 51.99 nm nA(-1), respectively. Using these measured quantities, the elastic modulus of acrylic was measured to be 3.24 GPa, which agrees well with the value measured using conventional depth-sensing indentation in a commercial nanoindenter.
Anisotropic Elastic Properties of Muscle-like Nematic Elastomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratna, Banahalii; Thomseniii, Donald L.; Shenoy, Devanand; Srinivasan, Amritha; Keller, Patrick
2001-03-01
De Gennes suggested in 1997 that the liquid crystal elastomers are an excellent framework to mimic muscular action. We have prepared anisotropic freestanding films of nematic elastomers from laterally attached side-chain polymers that show muscle-like mechanical properties. The orientational order of the liquid crystal side groups imposes a conformational anisotropy in the polymer backbone. When the order parameter drops at the nematic-isotropic phase transition, there is a concomitant loss of order in the backbone which results in a contraction of the film in the direction of the director orientation. Dynamic mechanical data along directions parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis, show anisotropic stress-strain behavior. The film exhibits soft elasticity when strained in the perpendicular direction when the liquid crystal mesogens reorient without appreciable stress build up. Thermostrictive studies in the parallel direction show 40constriction at the nematic-isotropic phase transition. Isometric studies show that the elastic energy stored is purely entropic in origin and the elastomer acts like a spring with unusually large spring constant at the NI transition. The maximum stress measured is 300kPa. A strain rate of 5s-1 is estimated from shear relaxation studies.
Visco-Elastic Properties of Sodium Hyaluronate Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulicke, Werner-Michael; Meyer, Fabian; Bingöl, Ali Ö.; Lohmann, Derek
2008-07-01
Sodium Hyaluronate (NaHA) is a member of the glycosaminoglycans and is present in the human organism as part of the synovial fluid and the vitreous body. HA is mainly commercialized as sodium or potassium salt. It can be extracted from cockscombs or can be produced by bacterial fermentation ensuring a low protein content. Because of its natural origin and toxicological harmlessness, NaHA is used to a great extent for pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. In medical applications, NaHA is already being used as a component of flushing and stabilizing fluids in the treatment of eye cataract and as a surrogate for natural synovial fluid. Another growing domain in the commercial utilization of NaHA is the field of skin care products like dermal fillers or moisturizers. In this spectrum, NaHA is used in dilute over semidilute up to concentrated (0
Materials properties data base computerization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baur, R. G.; Donthnier, M. L.; Moran, M. C.; Mortman, I.; Pinter, R. S.
1984-01-01
Material property data plays a key role in the design of jet engine components. Consistency, accuracy and efficient use of material property data is of prime importance to the engineering community. The system conception, development, implementation, and future plans for computer software that captures the Material Properties Handbook into a scientific data base are described. The engineering community is given access to raw data and property curves, display of multiple curves for material evaluation and selection, direct access by design analysis computer programs, display of the material specification, and a historical repository for the material evolution. The impact of this activity includes significant productivity gains and cost reductions; all users have access to the same information nd provides consistent, rapid response to the needs of the engineering community. Future plans include incorporating the materials properties data base into a network environment to access information from other data bases and download information to engineering work stations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almanna Lubis, Luluan; Ghosh, Deva P.; Hermana, Maman
2016-07-01
The elastic and electrical properties of low resistivity pays clastics reservoirs in Malay Basin are strongly dependent on the complex nature of the clay content, either dispersed or laminated/layered. Estimating the hydrocarbon pore volume from conventional electrical log, i.e. resistivity log, is quite a challenge. The low elastic impedance contrast also found as one of the challenge thus create a problem to map the distribution of the low resistivity reservoirs. In this paper, we evaluate the electrical properties and elastic rock properties to discriminate the pay from the adjacent cap rock or shale. Forward modeling of well log responses including electrical properties are applied to analyze the nature of the possible pays on laminated reservoir rocks. In the implementation of rock properties analysis, several conventional elastic properties are comparatively analyzed for the sensitivity and feasibility analysis on each elastic parameters. Finally, we discussed the advantages of each elastic parameters in detail. In addition, cross-plots of elastic and electrical properties attributes help us in the clear separation of anomalous zone and lithologic properties of sand and shale facies over conventional elastic parameter crossplots attributes. The possible relationship on electrical and elastic properties are discussed for further studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemzalová, P.; Friák, M.; Šob, M.; Ma, D.; Udyansky, A.; Raabe, D.; Neugebauer, J.
2013-11-01
We have employed parameter-free density functional theory calculations to study the thermodynamic stability and structural parameters as well as elastic and electronic properties of Ni4N in eight selected crystallographic phases. In agreement with the experimental findings, the cubic structure with Pearson symbol cP5, space group Pm3¯m (221) is found to be the most stable and it is also the only thermodynamically stable structure at T=0 K with respect to decomposition to the elemental Ni crystal and N2 gas phase. We determine structural parameters, bulk moduli, and their pressure derivatives for all eight allotropes. The thermodynamic stability and bulk modulus is shown to be anticorrelated. Comparing ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic states, we find common features between the magnetism of elemental Ni and studied ferromagnetic Ni4N structures. For the ground-state Ni4N structure and other two Ni4N cubic allotropes, we predict a complete set of single-crystalline elastic constants (in the equilibrium and under hydrostatic pressure), the Young and area moduli, as well as homogenized polycrystalline elastic moduli obtained by different homogenization methods. We demonstrate that the elastic anisotropy of the ground-state Ni4N is qualitatively opposite to that in the elemental Ni, i.e., these materials have hard and soft crystallographic directions interchanged. Moreover, one of the studied metastable cubic phases is found auxetic, i.e., exhibiting negative Poisson ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tennakoon, Sumudu P.
Relaxor ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) material exhibits exceptional electromechanical properties. The material undergoes a series of structural phase transitions with changes in temperature and the chemical composition. The work covered in this dissertation seek to gain insight into the phase diagram of PMN-PT using temperature and pressure dependence of the elastic properties. Single crystal PMN-PT with a composition near morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) was investigated using a resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) methodologies in the temperature range of 293 K - 800 K and the pressure range from near vacuum to 3.4 MPa. At atmospheric pressure, significantly high acoustic attenuation of PMN-PT is observed at temperatures below 400 K. A strong stiffening is observed in the temperature range of 400 K - 673 K, followed by a gradual softening at higher temperatures. With varying pressure, an increased pressure sensitivity of the elastic properties of PMN-PT is observed at the temperatures in the stiffening phase. Elastic behavior at elevated temperatures and pressures were studied for correlations with the ferroelectric domains at temperatures below the Curie temperature (TC), the locally polarized nano-regions, and an existence of pseudo-cubic crystalline at higher temperatures between (TC and TB). Thermoelectric lanthanum tellurides and skutterudites are being investigated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for advanced thermoelectric generates (TEGs). Effects of nickel (Ni) doping on elastic properties of lanthanum tellurides at elevated temperatures were investigated in the temperature range of 293 K - 800 K. A linear stiffening was observed with increasing the Ni content in the material. Elastic properties of p-type and n-type bismuth-based skutterudites were investigated in the temperature range of 293 K - 723 K. Elastic properties of rare-earth doped strontium titanate were also investigated in the temperature range of 293 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Neng; Xia, Shuman
2017-01-01
A combined modeling and experimental effort is made in this work to examine the cohesive fracture mechanisms of heterogeneous elastic solids. A two-phase laminated composite, which mimics the key microstructural features of many tough engineering and biological materials, is selected as a model material system. Theoretical and finite element analyses with cohesive zone modeling are performed to study the effective fracture resistance of the heterogeneous material associated with unstable crack propagation and arrest. A crack-tip-position controlled algorithm is implemented in the finite element analysis to overcome the inherent instability issues resulting from crack pinning and depinning at local heterogeneities. Systematic parametric studies are carried out to investigate the effects of various material and geometrical parameters, including the modulus mismatch ratio, phase volume fraction, cohesive zone size, and cohesive law shape. Concurrently, a novel stereolithography-based three-dimensional (3D) printing system is developed and used for fabricating heterogeneous test specimens with well-controlled structural and material properties. Fracture testing of the specimens is performed using the tapered double-cantilever beam (TDCB) test method. With optimal material and geometrical parameters, heterogeneous TDCB specimens are shown to exhibit enhanced effective fracture energy and effective fracture toughness than their homogeneous counterparts, which is in good agreement with the modeling predictions. The integrative computational and experimental study presented here provides a fundamental mechanistic understanding of the fracture mechanisms in brittle heterogeneous materials and sheds light on the rational design of tough materials through patterned heterogeneities.
Elastic properties of Fe-bearing wadsleyite at high pressures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Z.; Jacobsen, S. D.; Jiang, F.; Smyth, J. R.; Holl, C. M.; Frost, D. J.; Duffy, T.
2009-12-01
The elastic properties of wadsleyite, thought to be the dominant phase from 410 to 520-km depth in the mantle, are essential to interpret the seismic images and profiles in the transition zone. Our previous experimental measurements showed that elasticity of Mg2SiO4 wadsleyite can be significantly reduced by hydration at high pressures (e.g. Mao et al., 2008a,b). These results provide the first constraints on the effect of hydration on the high-pressure sound velocities of wadsleyite, and are significantly important for identifying the potential hydrogen rich region in the Earth’s transition zone. Since mantle wadsleyite contains ~10 mol.% Fe, it is more important to investigate the combined effect of Fe and hydration on the elastic properties of wadsleyite. Here, we measured the single-crystal elasticity of wadsleyite with 1.0 wt.% H2O, Mg1.73Fe0.19SiO4H0.16, up to 12 GPa using Brillouin scattering. At ambient conditions, the aggregate bulk modulus, KS0, and shear modulus, G0, are 158.4(5) GPa and 99.2(3) GPa, respectively. Including the results of current and previous studies, we find that the elasticity of wadsleyite decreases linearly with Fe and H2O content according to relations (in GPa): KS0 = 171(3)-13.0(8)CH2O, G0 = 112(2)-8.8(3)CH2O-40(10)XFe, where CH2O is the concentration of hydrogen expressed as weight percent H2O, and XFe is the Fe molar fraction (XFe = Fe/(Mg+Fe)). Further high-pressure measurements showed that the presence of 1 wt.% H2O in Fe-bearing wadsleyite increases the pressure derivative of the shear modulus from 1.5(1) to 1.9(1). But Fe-bearing wadsleyite with this amount of H2O might have a similar pressure derivative of the bulk modulus (4.8(1)) similar to the corresponding anhydrous phase. Using our results, we computed the sound velocities of wadsleyite with 1 wt.% H2O up to 12 GPa at 300 K. Compared to Fe-bearing anhydrous wadsleyite, 1 wt.% H2O causes a 1.5(4)% reduction in the compressional velocity at 12 GPa, and a 1
Elastic properties of compressed cryocrystals in a deformed atom model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbenko, Ie. Ie.; Zhikharev, I. V.; Troitskaya, E. P.; Chabanenko, Val. V.; Pilipenko, E. A.
2013-06-01
A model with deformed atom shells was built to investigate the elastic properties of rare-gas Ne and Kr crystals under high pressure. It is shown that the observed deviation from the Cauchy relation δ cannot be adequately reproduced when taking into account only the many-body interaction. The individual pressure dependence of δ is the result of competition of the many-body interaction and the quadrupole interaction associated with the quadrupole-type deformation of electron shells of the atoms during the displacement of the nuclei. Each kind of interaction makes a strongly pressure dependent contribution to δ. In the case of Ne and Kr, contributions of these interactions are compensated to a good precision, providing δ being almost constant against pressure.
Elastic properties and atomic bonding character in metallic glasses
Rouxel, T.; Yokoyama, Y.
2015-07-28
The elastic properties of glasses from different metallic systems were studied in the light of the atomic packing density and bonding character. We found that the electronegativity mismatch (Δe{sup −}) between the host- and the major solute-elements provides a plausible explanation to the large variation observed for Poisson's ratio (ν) among metallic glasses (MGs) (from 0.28 for Fe-based to 0.43 for Pd-based MGs), notwithstanding a similar atomic packing efficiency (C{sub g}). Besides, it is found that ductile MGs correspond to Δe{sup −} smaller than 0.5 and to a relatively steep atomic potential well. Ductility is, thus, favored in MGs exhibiting a weak bond directionality on average and opposing a strong resistance to volume change.
Caro, M A; Schulz, S; O'Reilly, E P
2013-01-16
We explore the calculation of the elastic properties of zinc-blende and wurtzite semiconductors using two different approaches: one based on stress and the other on total energy as a function of strain. The calculations are carried out within the framework of density functional theory in the local density approximation, with the plane wave-based package VASP. We use AlN as a test system, with some results also shown for selected other materials (C, Si, GaAs and GaN). Differences are found in convergence rate between the two methods, especially in low symmetry cases, where there is a much slower convergence for total energy calculations with respect to the number of plane waves and k points used. The stress method is observed to be more robust than the total energy method with respect to the residual error in the elastic constants calculated for different strain branches in the systems studied.
Majtyka, A; Chrobak, D; Romanowski, B; Ratuszna, A; Nowak, R
2016-06-01
This paper pertains to elastic properties of InAs and GaAs semiconducting crystals containing various amounts of vacancies--the relevant issue in the case of nanostructured electronic materials. The linear relationship between elastic constants and point defects concentration deduced from our classical molecular dynamic and ab initio calculations, confirms that an increasing vacancy content results in a decrease of pertinent elastic parameters, namely the crystal elastic stiffness-tensor components, the effect called herein "the softening of material" for simplicity. The pseudo-potential-based approach provides us results compatible with the available experimental data, while the alternatively used empirical potentials failed to account for different kind of vacancies on the elastic properties of semiconductors. Our results provide an expanded insight into the problems of modeling of the properties of the defected InAs and GaAs crystal structures. This issue is of interest to nanoelectronics and production of nanomaterials currently.
First-principles studies of the atomic, elastic and vibrational properties of BaNbO{sub 3}
Kılıçarslan, Aynur; Bal, Ece; Dinç, Mustafa; Salmankurt, Bahadır; Duman, Sıtkı
2016-03-25
We have employed the ab initio pseudopotential method, within a generalized gradient approximation of the density functional theory, a linear response approach, to determine atomic, elastic and lattice dynamical properties of the BaNbO{sub 3}. The obtained structural and elastic parameter are in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results. The analysis of B/G ratio indicates that BaNbO{sub 3} is a ductile material. The calculated lattice dynamical properties compared with phonon spectrum of the similar structures.
Material modeling of biofilm mechanical properties.
Laspidou, C S; Spyrou, L A; Aravas, N; Rittmann, B E
2014-05-01
A biofilm material model and a procedure for numerical integration are developed in this article. They enable calculation of a composite Young's modulus that varies in the biofilm and evolves with deformation. The biofilm-material model makes it possible to introduce a modeling example, produced by the Unified Multi-Component Cellular Automaton model, into the general-purpose finite-element code ABAQUS. Compressive, tensile, and shear loads are imposed, and the way the biofilm mechanical properties evolve is assessed. Results show that the local values of Young's modulus increase under compressive loading, since compression results in the voids "closing," thus making the material stiffer. For the opposite reason, biofilm stiffness decreases when tensile loads are imposed. Furthermore, the biofilm is more compliant in shear than in compression or tension due to the how the elastic shear modulus relates to Young's modulus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toher, Cormac; Oses, Corey; Plata, Jose J.; Hicks, David; Rose, Frisco; Levy, Ohad; de Jong, Maarten; Asta, Mark; Fornari, Marco; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco; Curtarolo, Stefano
2017-06-01
Thorough characterization of the thermomechanical properties of materials requires difficult and time-consuming experiments. This severely limits the availability of data and is one of the main obstacles for the development of effective accelerated materials design strategies. The rapid screening of new potential materials requires highly integrated, sophisticated, and robust computational approaches. We tackled the challenge by developing an automated, integrated workflow with robust error-correction within the AFLOW framework which combines the newly developed "Automatic Elasticity Library" with the previously implemented GIBBS method. The first extracts the mechanical properties from automatic self-consistent stress-strain calculations, while the latter employs those mechanical properties to evaluate the thermodynamics within the Debye model. This new thermoelastic workflow is benchmarked against a set of 74 experimentally characterized systems to pinpoint a robust computational methodology for the evaluation of bulk and shear moduli, Poisson ratios, Debye temperatures, Grüneisen parameters, and thermal conductivities of a wide variety of materials. The effect of different choices of equations of state and exchange-correlation functionals is examined and the optimum combination of properties for the Leibfried-Schlömann prediction of thermal conductivity is identified, leading to improved agreement with experimental results than the GIBBS-only approach. The framework has been applied to the AFLOW.org data repositories to compute the thermoelastic properties of over 3500 unique materials. The results are now available online by using an expanded version of the REST-API described in the Appendix.
Lakel, S.; Okbi, F.; Ibrir, M.; Almi, K.
2015-03-30
We have performed first-principles calculations to investigate the behavior under hydrostatic pressure of the structural, elastic and lattice dynamics properties of aluminum phosphide crystal (AlP), in both zinc-blende (B3) and nickel arsenide (B8) phases. Our calculated structural and electronic properties are in good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental results. The elastic constants, bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), and Young's modulus (E), Born effective charge and static dielectric constant ε{sub 0}, were calculated with the generalized gradient approximations and the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). Our results in the pressure behavior of the elastic and dielectric properties of both phases are compared and contrasted with the common III–V materials. The Born effective charge ZB decreases linearly with pressure increasing, while the static dielectric constant decreases quadratically with the increase of pressure.
Effective dielectric and elastic properties of nanoporous low-k media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermann, H.
2010-07-01
This paper presents a mathematically defined characterization of random porous media including random self-similarity and surface fractality. The initial two-phase structure is transformed into a three-phase system by introducing the internal surface layer as the third phase. Effective medium theories are utilized to calculate macroscopic dielectric and elastic properties. The dependence of both the static dielectric constant and Young's modulus on geometrical parameters is analyzed for different combinations of bulk and interface properties. It is shown that the modification of the properties of the internal surface layer is a promising way to improve the effective constants of the materials. The obtained analytical expressions are also used to determine confined regions in the space of structural parameters where pre-specified property combinations are realized. The results are discussed in terms of possible applications of nanometer-scale porous interlayer dielectrics with an ultralow dielectric constant and sufficient mechanical stiffness for future semiconducting devices.
Elastic properties of anorthite at high temperature and high pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsukage, K. N.; Nishihara, Y.; Noritake, F.; Tsujino, N.; Sakurai, M.; Higo, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Takahashi, E.
2012-12-01
To understand the elastic properties of subducted crustal minerals at P-T conditions of crust and upper most mantle, we performed in situ measurement of the elastic wave velocities of anorthite at temperatures up to 1100 oC at less than 2.0 GPa (in stability field) and up to 500 oC at 2.0-7.0 GPa. A fine grained polycrystalline anorthite was synthesised by using gas pressure apparatus installed at magma factory in Tokyo Institute of Technology. The quenched glass with anorthite composition was ground in ethanol and was loaded into a sealed Pt tube (3.0 mm inner diameter and 0.2 mm thickness) container. The sample was preheated at 900°C for 2 hours, and then keep at 1100°C for 20 hours at pressure of 0.3 GPa. The maximum grain size of the synthesized polycrystalline anorthite was about 15μm. The experiments were performed using the SPEED-1500 apparatus installed on beam line BL04B1 at synchrotron facility of SPring-8, Japan (Utsumi et al. 1998). The experimental design for in situ elastic wave velocities measurement at BL04B1 was presented by Higo et al. (2009). Pressure was generated by eight 26 mm tungsten carbide anvils with 11 mm truncated edge length. A Co-doped semi-sintered MgO octahedron with an 18 mm edge length was used as a pressure medium. The sample was enclosed in a BN sleeve container, and was placed in the central part (hot spot) of the furnace. Platinum foils (2.5 μm in thickness) were inserted at the both side of the sample for determination of sample length by using X-ray radiographic imaging techniques. An Al2O3 rod (5.3 mm in length and 2.0 mm in diameter) was used as buffer rod which transmit ultrasonic wave to the sample. Temperature was measured by a W97Re3-W75Re25 thermocouple. MgO was used as a pressure marker, and it was mixed with BN (MgO:BN = 1:1 by weight) to prevent grain growth at high temperatures. The ultrasonic signals were generated and received by 10oY-cut LiNbO3 transducer of 50 μm in thickness and 3.2 mm in diameter. We
Packaging Materials Properties Data
Leduc, D.
1991-10-30
Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection . data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.
Packaging materials properties data
Walker, M.S.
1991-01-01
Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the US Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.
Tzoneva, Rumiana; Weckwerth, Claudia; Seifert, Barbara; Behl, Marc; Heuchel, Matthias; Tsoneva, Iana; Lendlein, Andreas
2011-01-01
There is a need to create cell- and histocompatible implant materials, which might temporarily replace the mechanical function of a native tissue for regenerative therapies. To match the elastic behavior of the native tissue two different multiblock co-polymers were investigated: PDC, consisting of poly(p-dioxanone) (PPDO)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and PDD, based on PPDO/poly((adipinate-alt-1,4-butanediol)-co-(adipinate-alt-ethylene glycol)-co-adipinate-alt-diethylene glycol) (Diorez). PDC is capable of a shapememory effect. Both multiblock co-polymers show an improved elasticity compared to materials applied in established vascular prosthesis. PDD is softer than PDC at 20°C, while PDC maintains its elasticity at 37°C. Thermodynamic characteristics indicate a more polar surface of PDD. Low cell adhesion was found on surfaces with low molar free energy of hysteresis (ΔG) derived from contact angle measurements in wetting and dewetting mode and high cell adhesion on high-ΔG surfaces. An increasing content of PCL in PDC improved cell adhesion and spreading of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The prothrombotic potential of PDD is higher than PDC. Finally, it is concluded that PDC is a promising material for vascular tissue engineering because of its improved elastic properties, as well as balanced prothrombotic and anti-thrombotic properties with endothelial cells.
Elastic properties of a polyimide film determined by Brillouin scattering and mechanical techniques
Kumar, R.S.; Schuller, I.K.; Kumar, S.S.; Fartash, A.; Grimsditch, M.
1993-06-01
We discuss here the complete determination of the elastic properties of a polyimide film using two experimental techniques. One technique employs the polymer film as a vibrating membrane and allows a direct determination of the ``macroscopic`` biaxial modulus. Brillouin scattering, which measures the elastic properties on a {approximately} 100{mu} scale, allows for a complete characterization of the elastic behavior. Results obtained by the two techniques are in agreement within reported error bars.
Elastic properties and mechanical stability of chiral and filled viral capsids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buenemann, Mathias; Lenz, Peter
2008-11-01
The elasticity and mechanical stability of empty and filled viral capsids under external force loading are studied in a combined analytical and numerical approach. We analyze the influence of capsid structure and chirality on the mechanical properties. We find that generally skew shells have lower stretching energy. For large Föppl-von Kármán numbers γ (γ≈105) , skew structures are stiffer in their elastic response than nonchiral ones. The discrete structure of the capsules not only leads to buckling for large γ but also influences the breakage behavior of capsules below the buckling threshold: the rupture force shows a γ1/4 scaling rather than a γ1/2 scaling as expected from our analytical results for continuous shells. Filled viral capsids are exposed to internal anisotropic pressure distributions arising from regularly packaged DNA coils. We analyze their influence on the elastic properties and rupture behavior and we discuss possible experimental consequences. Finally, we numerically investigate specific sets of parameters corresponding to specific phages such as ϕ29 and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). From the experimentally measured spring constants we make predictions about specific material parameters (such as bending rigidity and Young’s modulus) for both empty and filled capsids.
Elastic Properties of 3D-Printed Rock Models: Dry and Saturated Cracks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, L.; Stewart, R.; Dyaur, N.
2014-12-01
Many regions of subsurface interest are, or will be, fractured. In addition, these zones many be subject to varying saturations and stresses. New 3D printing techniques using different materials and structures, provide opportunities to understand porous or fractured materials and fluid effects on their elastic properties. We use a 3D printer (Stratasys Dimension SST 768) to print two rock models: a solid octahedral prism and a porous cube with thousands of penny-shaped cracks. The printing material is ABS thermal plastic with a density of 1.04 g/cm3. After printing, we measure the elastic properties of the models, both dry and 100% saturated with water. Both models exhibit VTI (Vertical Transverse Isotropic) symmetry due to laying (about 0.25 mm thick) of the printing process. The prism has a density of 0.96 g/cm3 before saturation and 1.00 g/cm3 after saturation. Its effective porosity is calculated to be 4 %. We use ultrasonic transducers (500 kHz) to measure both P- and shear-wave velocities, and the raw material has a P-wave velocity of 1.89 km/s and a shear-wave velocity of 0.91 km/s. P-wave velocity in the un-saturated prism increases from 1.81 km/s to 1.84 km/s after saturation in the direction parallel to layering and from 1.73 km/s to 1.81 km/s in the direction perpendicular to layering. The fast shear-wave velocity decreases from 0.88 km/s to 0.87 km/s and the slow shear-wave velocity decreases from 0.82 km/s to 0.81 km/s. The cube, printed with penny-shaped cracks, gives a density of 0.79 g/cm3 and a porosity of 24 %. We measure its P-wave velocity as 1.78 km/s and 1.68 km/s in the direction parallel and perpendicular to the layering, respectively. Its fast shear-wave velocity is 0.88 km/s and slow shear-wave velocity is 0.70 km/s. The penny-shaped cracks have significant influence on the elastic properties of the 3D-printed rock models. To better understand and explain the fluid effects on the elastic properties of the models, we apply the extended
Laser-Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Properties of Anodized Aluminum Coatings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singer, F.
Anodized aluminum oxide plays a great role in many industrial applications, e.g. in order to achieve greater wear resistance. Since the hardness of the anodized films strongly depends on its processing parameters, it is important to characterize the influence of the processing parameters on the film properties. In this work the elastic material parameters of anodized aluminum were investigated using a laser-based ultrasound system. The anodized films were characterized analyzing the dispersion of Rayleigh waves with a one-layer model. It was shown that anodizing time and temperature strongly influence Rayleigh wave propagation.
Elastic Properties of Zinc Ferrite and Aluminate Spinels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichmann, H. J.; Jacobsen, S. D.
2004-12-01
Spinels are important ternary oxides of Earth's crust and upper mantle, and silicate spinel (ringwoodite) is the stable high-pressure phase of Mg2SiO4 in Earth's lower transition zone. The zinc ferrite spinel, franklinite (ZnFe2O4 ) exhibits ferrimagnetism at room pressure. Here we report the effects of iron-aluminium substitution on the single-crystal elastic properties of the zinc ferrite spinel (franklinite) and zinc aluminate spinel, gahnite (ZnAL2O4)using gigahertz ultrasonic interferometry. We studied natural franklinite from New Jersey and gahnite from North Carolina with measured cell parameters of 8.4456(6) Å and 8.0985(2) Å, respectively. The adiabatic bulk modulus KS0 (Voigt-Reuss-Hill average) of these two spinels is 179(6) GPa for franklinite and 209(5) GPa for gahnite. The shear modulus of the zinc spinels increases dramatically upon substitution of Al for Fe, with G = 65(3) GPa for franklinite and G = 102(3) GPa gahnite. The elastic moduli of franklinite are comparable to those of the magnetite, which we measured to be KS0 = 186(3) GPa and G = 60(3) GPa. In an earlier study, we reported the negative pressure dependence of C44 and G for magnetite. High-pressure shear-wave measurements are currently underway with franklinite and gahnite in order to determine whether or not pressure-induced shear-mode softening is common also to the zinc spinels.
Mechanical Properties of MEMS Materials
2004-03-01
thermal strain for polysilicon (data points) compared with bulk silicon (Thermophysical Properties of Matter, Volume 13, Y. S. Touloukian , Editor...AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2004-76 Final Technical Report March 2004 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEMS MATERIALS Johns Hopkins University...TITLE AND SUBTITLE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEMS MATERIALS 6. AUTHOR(S) W. N. Sharpe, Jr., K. J. Hemker - Dept of Mechanical Engineering R. L
Cuenca, Jacques; Göransson, Peter
2012-08-01
This paper presents a method for simultaneously identifying both the elastic and anelastic properties of the porous frame of anisotropic open-cell foams. The approach is based on an inverse estimation procedure of the complex stiffness matrix of the frame by performing a model fit of a set of transfer functions of a sample of material subjected to compression excitation in vacuo. The material elastic properties are assumed to have orthotropic symmetry and the anelastic properties are described using a fractional-derivative model within the framework of an augmented Hooke's law. The inverse estimation problem is formulated as a numerical optimization procedure and solved using the globally convergent method of moving asymptotes. To show the feasibility of the approach a numerically generated target material is used here as a benchmark. It is shown that the method provides the full frequency-dependent orthotropic complex stiffness matrix within a reasonable degree of accuracy.
Single molecule methods for monitoring changes in bilayer elastic properties.
Ingolfson, Helgi; Kapoor, Ruchi; Collingwood, Shemille A; Andersen, Olaf Sparre
2008-11-03
Membrane protein function is regulated by the cell membrane lipid composition. This regulation is due to a combination of specific lipid-protein interactions and more general lipid bilayer-protein interactions. These interactions are particularly important in pharmacological research, as many current pharmaceuticals on the market can alter the lipid bilayer material properties, which can lead to altered membrane protein function. The formation of gramicidin channels are dependent on conformational changes in gramicidin subunits which are in turn dependent on the properties of the lipid. Hence the gramicidin channel current is a reporter of altered properties of the bilayer due to certain compounds.
Elasticity and electrical properties of porous bodies described as an agglomerate-of-spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Höpfinger, H.; Winsel, A.
The phenomenological characterization of a sintered, pressed or electrolytically produced porous body as an 'agglomerate-of-spheres' (AOS), estimated by the properties of their connections — the so-called necks—, was used to predict its break-force, elasticity and resistance. To this, the previous theoretical description of the AOS could be expanded by the definition of an ideal AOS. Furthermore, it could be shown, that the behaviour of the AOS is re-inforced by the relation of the radii of the sphere and neck. The description of the mechanical properties correlates well in the case of elasticity and breaktension with data of experiments at the University of Kassel with PbO 2-electrodes. The theoretically predicted values of the electrical properties are about a hundred times smaller than the experimental ones. This may be caused by the material-specific circuit capacity used for the PbO 2, since there are no data concerning the stoichiometric variance of the oxygen phase width in the neck region. An attempt to approach to real electrodes is only a trial, which, for the first time, takes experimental data into consideration. The lack of dependable material-specific sizes of lead dioxide is still the greatest inaccuracy in comparison with experimental data.
Structural and Elastic Properties of Graphite Intercalation Compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Divincenzo, David Peter
A comprehensive theoretical description is developed for the structural and elastic properties of the first stage alkali metal graphite intercalation compounds and for pure graphite. We use a simplified density functional theory based on the Thomas Fermi approximation which avoids the excessive labor of a full quantum mechanical calculation but which has been shown to be reliable for a wide class of solids. The assumption is made that no chemical bonds are formed between the intercalant and the carbon host, that the intercalant is fully ionized, and that the excess charge distributes itself uniformly on the graphite planes. We verify this last assumption using an effective mass calculation. Results are obtained for the equilibrium lattice constants, compressibility, shear modulus, zone center phonon frequencies, alkali metal diffusion constants, and intrinsic alkali-alkali interactions. We obtain trends which are in good agreement with experiment. These properties are found to be determined primarily by the classical Coulomb forces operating between the charged constituents. We find the the Li compound to be quite distinct from the heavier alkali compounds, and we ascribe this difference primarily to the much greater compactness of the Li ion. We use out density functional results to construct a simple thermodynamic model for the phase diagram of Li graphite. Inclusion of the effect of the periodic graphite potential on the alkali ions is crucial to obtaining good agreement with experiment.
Namani, R; Feng, Y; Okamoto, R J; Jesuraj, N; Sakiyama-Elbert, S E; Genin, G M; Bayly, P V
2012-06-01
The mechanical characterization of soft anisotropic materials is a fundamental challenge because of difficulties in applying mechanical loads to soft matter and the need to combine information from multiple tests. A method to characterize the linear elastic properties of transversely isotropic soft materials is proposed, based on the combination of dynamic shear testing (DST) and asymmetric indentation. The procedure was demonstrated by characterizing a nearly incompressible transversely isotropic soft material. A soft gel with controlled anisotropy was obtained by polymerizing a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin solutions in a high field magnet (B = 11.7 T); fibrils in the resulting gel were predominantly aligned parallel to the magnetic field. Aligned fibrin gels were subject to dynamic (20-40 Hz) shear deformation in two orthogonal directions. The shear storage modulus was 1.08 ± 0. 42 kPa (mean ± std. dev.) for shear in a plane parallel to the dominant fiber direction, and 0.58 ± 0.21 kPa for shear in the plane of isotropy. Gels were indented by a rectangular tip of a large aspect ratio, aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the normal to the plane of transverse isotropy. Aligned fibrin gels appeared stiffer when indented with the long axis of a rectangular tip perpendicular to the dominant fiber direction. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of asymmetric indentation were used to determine the relationship between direction-dependent differences in indentation stiffness and material parameters. This approach enables the estimation of a complete set of parameters for an incompressible, transversely isotropic, linear elastic material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Guo-Yang; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Yanlin; Destrade, Michel; Cao, Yanping
2016-11-01
A body force concentrated at a point and moving at a high speed can induce shear-wave Mach cones in dusty-plasma crystals or soft materials, as observed experimentally and named the elastic Cherenkov effect (ECE). The ECE in soft materials forms the basis of the supersonic shear imaging (SSI) technique, an ultrasound-based dynamic elastography method applied in clinics in recent years. Previous studies on the ECE in soft materials have focused on isotropic material models. In this paper, we investigate the existence and key features of the ECE in anisotropic soft media, by using both theoretical analysis and finite element (FE) simulations, and we apply the results to the non-invasive and non-destructive characterization of biological soft tissues. We also theoretically study the characteristics of the shear waves induced in a deformed hyperelastic anisotropic soft material by a source moving with high speed, considering that contact between the ultrasound probe and the soft tissue may lead to finite deformation. On the basis of our theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, we propose an inverse approach to infer both the anisotropic and hyperelastic parameters of incompressible transversely isotropic (TI) soft materials. Finally, we investigate the properties of the solutions to the inverse problem by deriving the condition numbers in analytical form and performing numerical experiments. In Part II of the paper, both ex vivo and in vivo experiments are conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the inverse method in practical use.
Nonuniform elastic properties of macromolecules and effect of prestrain on their continuum nature.
Aggarwal, Ankush; May, Eric R; Brooks, Charles L; Klug, William S
2016-01-01
Many experimental and theoretical methods have been developed to calculate the coarse-grained continuum elastic properties of macromolecules. However, all of those methods assume uniform elastic properties. Following the continuum mechanics framework, we present a systematic way of calculating the nonuniform effective elastic properties from atomic thermal fluctuations obtained from molecular dynamics simulation at any coarse-grained scale using a potential of the mean-force approach. We present the results for a mutant of Sesbania mosaic virus capsid, where we calculate the elastic moduli at different scales and observe an apparent problem with the chosen reference configuration in some cases. We present a possible explanation using an elastic network model, where inducing random prestrain results in a similar behavior. This phenomenon provides a novel insight into the continuum nature of macromolecules and defines the limits on details that the elasticity theory can capture. Further investigation into prestrains could elucidate important aspects of conformational dynamics of macromolecules.
Khatam, Hamed; Ravi-Chandar, K.
2013-01-01
A nonlinear optimization procedure is established to determine the elastic modulus of slender, soft materials using beams with unknown initial curvature in the presence of large rotations. Specifically, the deflection of clamped-free beams under self-weight – measured at different orientations with respect to gravity – is used to determine the modulus of elasticity and the intrinsic curvature in the unloaded state. The approach is validated with experiments on a number of different materials – steel, polyetherimide, rubber and pig skin. Since the loading is limited to self-weight, the strain levels attained in these tests are small enough to assume a linear elastic material behavior. This nondestructive methodology is also applicable to engineered tissues and extremely delicate materials in order to obtain a quick estimate of the material’s elastic modulus. PMID:24159244
Davis, Frances M; Luo, Yuanming; Avril, Stéphane; Duprey, Ambroise; Lu, Jia
2015-10-01
In this manuscript, we present a combined experimental and computational technique that can identify the heterogeneous elastic properties of planar soft tissues. By combining inverse membrane analysis, digital image correlation, and bulge inflation tests, we are able to identify a tissue's mechanical properties locally. To show how the proposed method could be implemented, we quantified the heterogeneous material properties of a human ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA). The ATAA was inflated at a constant rate using a bulge inflation device until it ruptured. Every 3 kPa images were taken using a stereo digital image correlation system. From the images, the three-dimensional displacement of the sample surface was determined. A deforming NURBS mesh was derived from the displacement data, and the local strains were computed. The wall stresses at each pressure increment were determined using inverse membrane analysis. The local material properties of the ATAA were then identified using the pointwise stress and strain data. To show that it is necessary to consider the heterogeneous distribution of the mechanical properties in the ATAA, three different forward finite element simulations using pointwise, elementwise, and homogeneous material properties were compared. The forward finite element predictions revealed that heterogeneous nature of the ATAA must be accounted for to accurately reproduce the stress-strain response.
Using structural modularity in cocrystals to engineer properties: elasticity.
Saha, Subhankar; Desiraju, Gautam R
2016-06-08
Cocrystal formation of heterocyclic bases with halogenated aromatic acids increases the tendency for stacking and with this, an increase in structural isotropy occurs that leads to crystal elasticity.
Berryman, J.G.
2007-10-02
Some arguments of Bristow (1960) concerning the effects of cracks on elastic and transport (i.e., electrical or thermal conduction) properties of cold-worked metals are reexamined. The discussion is posed in terms of a modern understanding of bounds and estimates for physical properties of polycrystals--in contrast to Bristow's approach using simple mixture theory. One type of specialized result emphasized here is the cross-property estimates and bounds that can be obtained using the methods presented. Our results ultimately agree with those of Bristow, i.e., confirming that microcracking is not likely to be the main cause of the observed elastic behavior of cold-worked metals. However, it also becomes clear that the mixture theory approach to the analysis is too simple and that crack-crack interactions are necessary for proper quantitative study of Bristow's problem.
Identification of elastic basin properties by large-scale inverse earthquake wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epanomeritakis, Ioannis K.
The importance of the study of earthquake response, from a social and economical standpoint, is a major motivation for the current study. The severe uncertainties involved in the analysis of elastic wave propagation in the interior of the earth increase the difficulty in estimating earthquake impact in seismically active areas. The need for recovery of information about the geological and mechanical properties of underlying soils motivates the attempt to apply inverse analysis on earthquake wave propagation problems. Inversion for elastic properties of soils is formulated as an constrained optimization problem. A series of trial mechanical soil models is tested against a limited-size set of dynamic response measurements, given partial knowledge of the target model and complete information on source characteristics, both temporal and geometric. This inverse analysis gives rise to a powerful method for recovery of a material model that produces the given response. The goal of the current study is the development of a robust and efficient computational inversion methodology for material model identification. Solution methods for gradient-based local optimization combine with robustification and globalization techniques to build an effective inversion framework. A Newton-based approach deals with the complications of the highly nonlinear systems generated in the inversion solution process. Moreover, a key addition to the inversion methodology is the application of regularization techniques for obtaining admissible soil models. Most importantly, the development and use of a multiscale strategy offers globalizing and robustifying advantages to the inversion process. In this study, a collection of results of inversion for different three-dimensional Lame moduli models is presented. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the inversion methodology proposed and provide evidence for its capabilities. They also show the path for further study of elastic property
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun-Fei; Fu, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jun-Tao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Zhen-Yi
2016-08-01
The structural, elastic, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of thermoelectric material MgAgSb in γ,β,α phases are studied with first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The optimized lattice constants accord well with the experimental data. According to the calculated total energy of the three phases, the phase transition order is determined from α to γ phase with cooling, which is in agreement with the experimental result. The physical properties such as elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and anisotropy factor are also discussed and analyzed, which indicates that the three structures are mechanically stable and each has a ductile feature. The Debye temperature is deduced from the elastic properties. The total density of states (TDOS) and partial density of states (PDOS) of the three phases are investigated. The TDOS results show that the γ phase is most stable with a pseudogap near the Fermi level, and the PDOS analysis indicates that the conduction band of the three phases is composed mostly of Mg-3s, Ag-4d, and Sb-5p. In addition, the changes of the free energy, entropy, specific heat, thermal expansion of γ-MgAgSb with temperature are obtained successfully. The obtained results above are important parameters for further experimental and theoretical tuning of doped MgAgSb as a thermoelectric material at high temperature. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11504088), the Fund from Henan University of Technology, China (Grant Nos. 2014YWQN08 and 2013JCYJ12), the Natural Science Fund from the Henan Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 16A140027), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province of China (Grant Nos. 2013JQ1018 and 15JK1759), and the Science Foundation of Northwest University of China (Grant No. 14NW23).
Influence of exogenous pigmentation on the optical properties of orthodontic elastic ligatures
FERNANDES, Alline Birra Nolasco; RIBEIRO, Alexandre Antonio; de ARAUJO, Marcus Vinicius Almeida; RUELLAS, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira
2012-01-01
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the optical properties of orthodontic elastic ligatures under the influence of exogenous pigments contained in the daily diet. Material and methods For the analysis, colorless (clear) elastic segments (ORTHO Organizers, lot 660625A10) were used as received from the manufacturer, and were divided into 8 groups of 3 segments each. Each group was immersed in 200 mL of a solution containing a determined substance, as follows: distilled water (control group), Coca-Cola®, Pomarola brand tomato sauce (Cica®), açai, Jasmine® brand green tea, Royal Blend® black tea brand, Pilão® brand coffee and Palmares® wine brand. All test specimens were immersed in the solutions and kept in an appropriate receptacle for 7 days at 37ºC14. After the staining session, the test specimens were washed with distilled water in an ultrasonic vat for 5 min and dried with paper tissues6. The portable digital spectrophotometer Vita Easyshade Compact was used to assess if there was color variation of the test specimens. This variation was quantified and qualified at the initial time (T0) and after staining (T1). Results These results were analyzed statistically using the software SPSS version 18.0. The Shapiro-Wilk test of normality was applied followed by the one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey's post hoc test. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Conclusions From the substances evaluated in this study, those with higher staining potential on esthetic elastic ligatures were black tea, coffee and wine, respectively. Knowing this information, the dentist may advise their patients to avoid certain foods because of elastic staining may occur thus decreasing the aesthetics of the material. PMID:23032209
Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fishbein, Meyer
1939-01-01
A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.
Ultrasonic measurement of the elastic properties of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Washer, Glenn; Fuchs, Paul; Rezai, Ali; Ghasemi, Hamid
2005-05-01
This paper discusses research to develop ultrasonic methods for materials characterization of an innovative new material known as Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC). Also known as Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), this relatively new material has been proposed for the construction of civil structures. UHPC mix designs typically include no aggregates larger than sand, and include steel fibers 0.2 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length. These steel fibers increase the strength and toughness of the UHPC significantly relative to more traditional concretes. Compressive strengths of 200 to 800 MPa have been achieved with UHPC, compared with maximum compressive strength of 50 to 100 MPa for more traditional concrete materials. Young"s modulus of 50 to 60 GPa are common for UHPC. However, the curing methods employed have a significant influence on the strength and modulus of UHPC. This paper reports on the development of ultrasonic methods for monitoring the elastic properties of UHPC under a series of curing scenarios. Ultrasonic velocity measurements are used to estimate the bulk elastic modulus of UHPC and results are compared with traditional, destructive methods. Measurements of shear moduli and Poisson's ratio based on ultrasonic velocity are also reported. The potential for the development of quality control techniques for the future implementation of UHPC is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silverberg, Jesse; Bonassar, Lawrence; Cohen, Itai
2013-03-01
Contemporary developments in therapeutic tissue engineering have been enabled by basic research efforts in the field of biomechanics. Further integration of technology in medicine requires a deeper understanding of the mechanical properties of soft biological materials and the structural origins of their response under extreme stresses and strains. Drawing on the science generated by the ``Extreme Mechanics'' community, we present experimental results on the mechanical properties of articular cartilage, a hierarchically structured soft biomaterial found in the joints of mammalian long bones. Measurements of the spatially localized structure and mechanical properties will be compared with theoretical descriptions based on networks of deformed rods, poro-visco-elasticity, and standard continuum models. Discrepancies between experiment and theory will be highlighted, and suggestions for how models can be improved will be given.
Johner, Niklaus; Harries, Daniel; Khelashvili, George
2014-12-04
Accumulating evidence indicates that membrane reshaping and fusion processes, as well as regulation of membrane protein function, depend on lipid composition. Although it is widely accepted that cell membranes are under considerable stress and frustration and can be locally highly curved, experimental approaches to determine the material properties of lipids usually rely on their study in a relaxed environment or in flat bilayers. Here, we propose a computational method to determine the elastic properties of lipid assemblies of arbitrarily shaped interfaces and apply it to lipidic mixtures in the inverted hexagonal and lamellar phases. We find that the bending rigidity critically depends on the geometry of the system and correlates with the changes in lipid chain order imposed by the specific environment. Our results are relevant for resolving local lipid properties of deformed, stressed, or frustrated membranes that notably emerge around integral membrane proteins or during different membrane remodeling processes.
Gradient-modulus materials: Preparation, physical properties and application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Askadskii, Andrey; Goleneva, Lidiya; Afanas'ev, Egor; Petunova, Margarita; Serenko, Ol'ga; Jiang, Shengling
2017-05-01
The theoretical analysis of relationship of the chemical structure for polymeric networks on the modulus of elasticity fitting within the broad range from 3 to 2000 MPa has been produced. These networks contain bulky cross-linked points, connected by short flexible chains of controlled length. In this paper we prepared the networks derived from polyurethane-iso-cyan urates as well as a combination of polyurethane-iso-cyan urate and polyurethane. The materials possess elastic properties and high wear resistance due to polyurethane component. The polyurethane-iso-cyan urates and polyurethanes of various chemical structures were used for preparation of gradient-modulus materials with the elasticity modulus controlled in the broad range within the same sample or material. The gradient identified as a change in the concentration of monomers per unit distance in a specified direction. This involves creation of molecular gradient regarding the chemical structure of the sample.
Mechanical properties of dental investment materials.
Low, D; Swain, M V
2000-07-01
Measurement of the elastic modulus (E) of investment materials has been difficult because of their low strength. However, these values are essential for engineering simulation and there are many methods available to assess the elasticity of materials. The present study compared two different methods with one of the methods being non-destructive in nature and can be used for specimens prepared for other tests. Two different types of investment materials were selected, gypsum-and phosphate-bonded. Method 1 is a traditional three-point bending test. Twelve rectangular bars with dimension of (70 x 9 x 3 mm) were prepared and placed on supports 56.8 mm apart. The test was conducted at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min by use of a universal testing machine. The load applied to the test specimen and the corresponding deflection were measured until the specimen fractured. The E value was calculated from a linear part of the stress-strain plot. Method 2 is an ultra micro-indentation system to determine near surface properties of materials with nanometer resolution. The measurement procedure was programmed such that the specimens were indented with an initial contact force of 5 mN then followed by a maximum force of 500 mN. Measurement consisted of 10 indentations conducted with a spherical stainless steel indenter (R = 250 microm) that were equally spaced (500 microm). The E value rose asymptotically with depth of penetration and would approach the three-point bending test value at approximately four time's maximum contact depth for both materials. Both methods are practical ways of measuring the E of investment materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dingreville, Remi
Steady technological progresses in all fields of nanoscale technology and probe technology have enabled the synthesis, the assembly, the development, the characterization and the improvement of nanostructured materials. The lack of understanding of their macroscopic behavior is a major roadblock for inserting these materials into engineering applications. Partially due to these rapid advances in nano-scale and nano-structured materials, there has been a resurgence of interest in surface elastic properties such as surface energy, surface stresses, and surface elastic stiffness. Because of the large surface-to-volume ratio in nano-materials, surface elastic properties become more prominent. They have strong influence on the overall thermo-mechanical behavior of the nano-materials. In this dissertation, an innovative approach combining continuum mechanics and atomistic simulations is exposed to develop a nanomechanics theory for modeling and predicting the macroscopic behavior of nanomaterials. This nanomechanics theory exhibits the simplicity of the continuum formulation while taking into account the discrete atomic structure and interaction near surfaces/interfaces. There are four primary objectives to this dissertation. First, theory of interfaces is revisited to better understand its behavior and effects on the overall behavior of nanostructures. Second, atomistic tools are provided in order to efficiently determine the properties of free surfaces and interfaces. Interface properties are reported in this work, with comparison to both theoretical and experimental characterizations of interfaces. Specifically, we report surface elastic properties of groups 10--11 transition metals as well as properties for low-CSL grain boundaries in copper. Third, we propose a continuum framework that casts the atomic level information into continuum quantities that can be used to analyze, model and simulate macroscopic behavior of nanostructured materials. In particular, we study
Dental materials with antibiofilm properties.
Wang, Zhejun; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus
2014-02-01
Oral bacteria have evolved to form biofilms on hard tooth surfaces and dental materials. The antibiofilm effect of materials used for the restoration of oral function affects oral health. In this review we describe the features involved in the formation of oral biofilms on different surfaces in the oral cavity and the antibiofilm properties of dental materials. An electronic search of scientific papers from 1987 to 2013 was performed with PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google search engines using the following search terms: antibiofilm, dental material, dental hard tissue, endodontic material, implant material, oral biofilm, and restorative material. Selected inclusion criteria resulted in 179 citations from the scientific, peer-reviewed literature. Oral biofilms form not only on dental hard tissue, but also on a wide range of dental materials used in cariology, endodontics, restorative dentistry and periodontology, resulting in destruction of dental hard tissue and even infection. Therefore, there has been a continuous effort to develop the antibiofilm properties of dental materials used for different purposes. Specific antimicrobial design in the composition and application of new materials (e.g. bioceramic sealer, resin composite, implant coating) demonstrates an improvement of the antibiofilm properties of these materials compared to earlier generations. A significant number of dental materials have been shown to affect biofilm growth by inhibiting the adhesion of bacteria, limiting their growth or killing microbes in the biofilms formed in vitro. Incorporation of an appropriate amount of antibacterial agent could provide dental materials with antibiofilm activity without significantly influencing their mechanical properties. However, more randomized and double-blind clinical studies of sufficient length with these materials are needed to confirm long term success following their use in the dental clinic. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, J. G.; Chen, Z. J.; Xu, G. B.; Kuang, Z.; Chen, T. H.; Li, D. H.
2017-01-01
Using first-principles calculation we investigated the structural, electronic and elastic properties of paramagnetic CaFeAs2. Our results indicated that the density of states (DOS) was dominated predominantly by Fe-3d states at Fermi levels, and stronger hybridization exists between As1 and As1 atoms. Three hole pockets are formed at Γ and Z points, and two electronic pockets are formed at A and E points. The Dirac cone-like bands appear near B and D points. For the first time we calculated the elastic properties and found that CaFeAs2 is a mechanically stable and moderately hard material, it has elastic anisotropy and brittleness, which agrees well with the bonding picture and the calculation of Debye temperature (ΘD).
Pressure effect on structural, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of tetragonal B{sub 4}C{sub 4}
Zheng, Baobing; Zhang, Meiguang; Luo, Hong-Gang
2015-03-15
The compressibility, elastic anisotropy, and thermodynamic properties of the recently proposed tetragonal B{sub 4}C{sub 4} (t-B{sub 4}C{sub 4}) are investigated under high temperature and high pressure by using of first-principles calculations method. The elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Vickers hardness, Pugh’s modulus ratio, and Poisson’s ratio for t-B{sub 4}C{sub 4} under various pressures are systematically explored, the obtained results indicate that t-B{sub 4}C{sub 4} is a stiffer material. The elastic anisotropies of t-B{sub 4}C{sub 4} are discussed in detail under pressure from 0 GPa to 100 GPa. The thermodynamic properties of t-B{sub 4}C{sub 4}, such as Debye temperature, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient are investigated by the quasi-harmonic Debye model.
Dynamic properties of ceramic materials
Grady, D.E.
1995-02-01
The present study offers new data and analysis on the transient shock strength and equation-of-state properties of ceramics. Various dynamic data on nine high strength ceramics are provided with wave profile measurements, through velocity interferometry techniques, the principal observable. Compressive failure in the shock wave front, with emphasis on brittle versus ductile mechanisms of deformation, is examined in some detail. Extensive spall strength data are provided and related to the theoretical spall strength, and to energy-based theories of the spall process. Failure waves, as a mechanism of deformation in the transient shock process, are examined. Strength and equation-of-state analysis of shock data on silicon carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, silicon dioxide and aluminum nitride is presented with particular emphasis on phase transition properties for the latter two. Wave profile measurements on selected ceramics are investigated for evidence of rate sensitive elastic precursor decay in the shock front failure process.
Self-consistent T-matrix solution for the effective elastic properties of noncubic polycrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Middya, T. R.; Basu, A. N.
1986-04-01
The multiple scattering theory has been a powerful tool in estimating the effective elastic properties of polycrystalline substances and different types of composite materials in terms of the component elastic properties. Both perturbative and self-consistent solutions within the framework of multiple scattering theory have been developed for cubic polycrystals by R. Zeller and P. H. Dederichs [Phys. Status. Solidi B 55, 831 (1973)]. Recently we have suggested [T. R. Middya, Mala Paul, and A. N. Basu, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 4095 (1985)] a perturbative method of calculation for all the noncubic polycrystals up to orthorhombic symmetry. Although the method has been quite successful in dealing with noncubic polycrystals with low anisotropy factors, it becomes too complex to handle the high anisotropy cases. Moreover, the results for many crystals for such cases with perturbation carried up to second order are inconsistent as they fall outside the well-known Hashin-Shtrikman (H-S) bounds. In order to overcome this difficulty, in this work we discuss a self-consistent T-matrix solution for the effective elastic properties of hexagonal, tetragonal, trigonal, and orthorhombic polycrystals. Within the approximation of multiple scattering of all orders from a single grain, we have obtained the self-consistent solution by exploiting the symmetry of each class. Next we have employed the formulas thus obtained to calculate the effective bulk and shear moduli of hexagonal, tetragonal, trigonal, and orthorhombic polycrystals. Finally the results are compared with our previous perturbative calculations, the H-S bounds and experiment. Unlike the previous calculations, all the self-consistent results fall within the H-S bounds. In addition to providing simple analytical formulas which can tackle polycrystals with arbitrary values of anisotropy factors, these formulas may also be used for evaluation of mechanical properties of composites having components belonging to different
Microstructures and elastic properties of sheared calcite flowstone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitrovic, Ivanka; Grasemann, Bernhard; Plan, Lukas; Tesei, Telemaco; Baron, Ivo
2016-04-01
Flowstone is a monomineralic rock precipitated along cave walls and floors, composed of columnar centimeter-scale calcite crystals with strong growth orientation perpendicular to the growth surface. Broken and scratched flowstone can serve as evidence for active faulting and has been found in several alpine caves in Austria. In order to understand the fault mechanics, and associated potential earthquake hazard, experimentally deformed flowstone is studied using microstructural analysis and EBSD-measured physical properties of calcite crystals. For that purpose, we have performed sliding experiments using a rock deformation biaxial apparatus on rectangular blocks of flowstone that were sheared perpendicular to the calcite growth direction. The experiments were performed under room conditions, with sub-seismic sliding velocity (0.001-0.01 mm/s) and constant effective normal stress (3-10 MPa). The deformed samples show diverse brittle features, including high fracture density, the development of calcite-rich fault gouge with Riedel shears within a foliated cataclasite, and drastic grain size reduction down to nm-scale grains. The dominant plastic microstructure is mechanical twinning. Due to the strong growth orientation of calcite in flowstone, crystals can be bent due to shearing. We examine the bending by applying orientation distribution, Schmid factor and elasticity tensor calculations using MTEX Toolbox from EBSD data. In this unique case the flowstone deformation experiments bridge the gap between single crystal and rock powder experiments. This study is supported by the Austrian Science Foundation: SPELEOTECT project (P25884-N29).
Transport properties of elastically coupled fractional Brownian motors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Wangyong; Wang, Huiqi; Lin, Lifeng; Wang, Fei; Zhong, Suchuan
2015-11-01
Under the background of anomalous diffusion, which is characterized by the sub-linear or super-linear mean-square displacement in time, we proposed the coupled fractional Brownian motors, in which the asymmetrical periodic potential as ratchet is coupled mutually with elastic springs, and the driving source is the external harmonic force and internal thermal fluctuations. The transport mechanism of coupled particles in the overdamped limit is investigated as the function of the temperature of baths, coupling constant and natural length of the spring, the amplitude and frequency of driving force, and the asymmetry of ratchet potential by numerical stimulations. The results indicate that the damping force involving the information of historical velocity leads to the nonlocal memory property and blocks the traditional dissipative motion behaviors, and it even plays a cooperative role of driving force in drift motion of the coupled particles. Thus, we observe various non-monotonic resonance-like behaviors of collective directed transport in the mediums with different diffusion exponents.
Elastic, micro- and macroplastic properties of polycrystalline beryllium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kardashev, B. K.; Kupriyanov, I. B.
2011-12-01
The Young's modulus and the internal friction of beryllium polycrystals (size grain from 6 to 60 μm) prepared by the powder metallurgy method have been studied as functions of the amplitude and temperature in the range from 100 to 873 K. The measurements have been performed using the composite piezoelectric vibrator method for longitudinal vibrations at frequencies about 100 kHz. Based on the acoustic measurements, the data have been obtained on the elastic and inelastic (microplastic) properties as functions of vibration stress amplitudes within the limits from 0.2 to 30-60 MPa. The microplastic deformation diagram is shown to become nonlinear at the amplitudes higher than 5 MPa. The beryllium mechanical characteristics (the yield strength σ 0.2, the ultimate strength σ u , and the conventional microscopic yield strength σ y ) obtained with various grain sizes are compared. At room temperature, all the parameters satisfactorily obey the Hall-Petch relationship, although there is no complete similarity. The temperature dependences are quite different, namely: σ 0.2( T) and σ u ( T) decrease monotonically during heating from room temperature to higher temperatures; however, σ y ( T) behaves unusually, and it has a minimum near 400 K. The different levels of stresses and the absence of similarity indicate that the scattering of the ultrasound energy and the formation of a level of the macroscopic flow stresses in beryllium occur on dislocation motion obstacles of different origins.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.
1987-01-01
The theoretical treatment of linear and nonlinear elasticity in a unidirectionally fiber reinforced composite as well as measurements for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite (T300/5208) are presented. Linear elastic properties were measured by both ultrasonic and strain gage measurements. The nonlinear properties were determined by measuring changes in ultrasonic natural phase velocity with a pulsed phase locked loop interferometer as a function of stress and temperature. These measurements provide the basis for further investigations into the relationship between nonlinear elastic properties and other important properties such as strength and fiber-matrix interfacial stength in graphite/epoxy composites.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Green, Robert E., Jr.
1987-01-01
The theoretical treatment of linear and nonlinear elasticity in a unidirectionally fiber reinforced composite as well as measurements for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite (T300/5208) are presented. Linear elastic properties were measured by both ultrasonic and strain gage measurements. The nonlinear properties were determined by measuring changes in ultrasonic natural phase velocity with a pulsed phase locked loop interferometer as a function of stress and temperature. These measurements provide the basis for further investigations into the relationship between nonlinear elastic properties and other important properties such as strength and fiber-matrix interfacial strength in graphite/epoxy composites.
Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Capps, Gary J.; Smith, David B.; White, Clifford P.
1994-01-01
Fiber optic sensing means for the detection and measurement of events such as dynamic loadings imposed upon elastic materials including cementitious materials, elastomers, and animal body components and/or the attrition of such elastic materials are provided. One or more optical fibers each having a deformable core and cladding formed of an elastomeric material such as silicone rubber are embedded in the elastic material. Changes in light transmission through any of the optical fibers due the deformation of the optical fiber by the application of dynamic loads such as compression, tension, or bending loadings imposed on the elastic material or by the attrition of the elastic material such as by cracking, deterioration, aggregate break-up, and muscle, tendon, or organ atrophy provide a measurement of the dynamic loadings and attrition. The fiber optic sensors can be embedded in elastomers subject to dynamic loadings and attrition such as commonly used automobiles and in shoes for determining the amount and frequency of the dynamic loadings and the extent of attrition. The fiber optic sensors are also useable in cementitious material for determining the maturation thereof.
Seung-Kyu Park; Sung-Hoon Baik; Hyung-Ki Cha; Stephen J. Reese; David H. Hurley
2010-08-01
Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a useful technique for measuring the elastic properties of materials. In this study, two experimental approaches for performing RUS are experimentally analyzed and compared: 1) contact transduction using piezoelectric transducers (PZT) and 2) laser transduction using pulse laser excitation and laser interferometric detection. A single Zircaloy sample cut from a nuclear pressure tube was used for this study. By virtue of the non-contact nature, the quality factor, Q, for laser RUS is shown to be higher than the contact RUS. In addition, the probe beam for laser-RUS can be scanned to form a 2D image of each vibrational mode, which in turn enables unique mode identification. These defining characteristics of laser-RUS enable straightforward discrimination of closely spaced resonant modes and provide key advantages for improving the resolution of resonant ultrasound spectroscopy.
A novel method to determine the elastic modulus of extremely soft materials.
Stirling, Tamás; Zrínyi, Miklós
2015-06-07
Determination of the elastic moduli of extremely soft materials that may deform under their own weight is a rather difficult experimental task. A new method has been elaborated by means of which the elastic modulus of such materials can be determined. This method is generally applicable to all soft materials with purely neo-Hookean elastic deformation behaviour with elastic moduli lower than 1 kPa. Our novel method utilises the self-deformation of pendent gel cylinders under gravity. When suspended, the material at the very top bears the weight of the entire gel cylinder, but that at the bottom carries no load at all. Due to the non-uniform stress distribution along the gel sample both the stress and the resulting strain show position dependence. The cross-sectional area of the material is lowest at the top of the sample and gradually increases towards its bottom. The equilibrium geometry of the pendant gel is used to evaluate the elastic modulus. Experimental data obtained by the proposed new method were compared to the results obtained from underwater measurements. The parameters affecting the measurement uncertainty were studied by a Pareto analysis of a series of adaptive Monte Carlo simulations. It has been shown that our method provides an easily achievable method to provide an accurate determination of the elastic modulus of extremely soft matter typically applicable for moduli below 1 kPa.
Elasticity and Dynamic Properties of Ionic Micellar Nematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plumley, Sulakshana Sathi
1990-01-01
Micellar liquid crystals are formed in aqueous solutions of surfactants. Three ionic surfactant systems were used in this dissertation research: Potassium laurate system (KL/1-dec/D_2O), Sodium decyl sulfate system (SDS/1-dec/D_2O) and Cesium perfluorooctanoate system (CsPFO/H_2 O). The KL and SDS systems show three nematic phases: two uniaxial nematic and an intervening biaxial nematic phase. The nematic-nematic transitions are all second order. The aim of this research is to study the similarities and dissimilarities in physical properties of the different systems. In the CsPFO system, the birefringence and density were studied over the N-S transition which shows an unusual hysteresis. Rotational viscosities of micellar nematics were measured by monitoring the relaxation of the optical axes as a function of time in the presence of magnetic field. The KL and SDS systems show significant differences in viscosities and elastic constants. The elastic constants in KL and SDS systems were measured to be of the order of 10^{ -7}-10^{-8} dynes which is an order smaller than for thermotropic systems. The viscosity measured in the middle of N_{ rm C} phase is about 60 poise in SDS system while it is about 10 poise in the KL system. In the SDS system, a strong pretransitional effect is seen at the N_{rm BX} -N_{rm C} transition resulting in a decrease in viscosity. It is probably due to a change in short range interaction of the micelles. Birefringence measurements were taken for CsPFO system over the N-S transition to study the hysteresis at N-S transition. Density measurements were also done for the same purpose. Measurements taken at the different scan rate showed that there was still a small hysteresis even at rates as slow as 1mk/min. It is remarkable that in the SDS and CsPFO systems the density change at N-I transition is negative while the density change is positive at N-S transition. It indicates that there are different changes in the micellar structure. An
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybyanets, A. N.; Konstantinov, G. M.; Naumenko, A. A.; Shvetsova, N. A.; Makar'ev, D. I.; Lugovaya, M. A.
2015-03-01
The technology of producing ceramic lead zirconate titanate/α-Al2O3 composites has been developed. Elements of piezoactive composites containing from 0 to 60 vol % α-Al2O3 have been prepared. The elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric parameters of the synthesized ceramic composites have been measured, and their microstructure has been studied. It has been found that the concentration dependences of the elastic and piezoelectric properties exhibit anomalies. The obtained data have been interpreted based on the percolation theory and the concept of microstructural constructing polycrystalline composition materials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, H. Alicia; Hardie, Robert; Yamakov, Vesselin; Park, Cheol
2015-01-01
This paper is the second part of a two-part series where the first part presents a molecular dynamics model of a single Boron Nitride Nanotube (BNNT) and this paper scales up to multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix. This paper presents finite element (FE) models to investigate the effective elastic and piezoelectric properties of (BNNT) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites studied in this paper are thin films of polymer matrix with aligned co-planar BNNTs. The FE modelling approach provides a computationally efficient way to gain an understanding of the material properties. We examine several FE models to identify the most suitable models and investigate the effective properties with respect to the BNNT volume fraction and the number of nanotube walls. The FE models are constructed to represent aligned and randomly distributed BNNTs in a matrix of resin using 2D and 3D hollow and 3D filled cylinders. The homogenisation approach is employed to determine the overall elastic and piezoelectric constants for a range of volume fractions. These models are compared with an analytical model based on Mori-Tanaka formulation suitable for finite length cylindrical inclusions. The model applies to primarily single-wall BNNTs but is also extended to multi-wall BNNTs, for which preliminary results will be presented. Results from the Part 1 of this series can help to establish a constitutive relationship for input into the finite element model to enable the modeling of multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shuai; Duan, Yong-Hua; Huang, Bo; Hu, Wen-Cheng
2015-11-01
The structural properties, phase stabilities, anisotropic elastic properties and electronic structures of Cu-Ti intermetallics have been systematically investigated using first principles based on the density functional theory. The calculated equilibrium structural parameters agree well with available experimental data. The ground-state convex hull of formation enthalpies as a function of Cu content is slightly symmetrical at CuTi with a minimal formation enthalpy (-13.861 kJ/mol of atoms), which indicates that CuTi is the most stable phase. The mechanical properties, including elastic constants, polycrystalline moduli and anisotropic indexes, were evaluated. G/B is more pertinent to hardness than to the shear modulus G due to the high power indexes of 1.137 for G/B. The mechanical anisotropy was also characterized by describing the three-dimensional (3D) surface constructions. The order of elastic anisotropy is Cu4Ti3 > Cu3Ti2 > α-Cu4Ti > Cu2Ti > CuTi > β-Cu4Ti > CuTi2. Finally, the electronic structures were discussed and Cu2Ti is a semiconductor.
Influence of exogenous pigmentation on the optical properties of orthodontic elastic ligatures.
Fernandes, Alline Birra Nolasco; Ribeiro, Alexandre Antonio; Araujo, Marcus Vinicius Almeida de; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira
2012-01-01
The aim of this study was to assess the optical properties of orthodontic elastic ligatures under the influence of exogenous pigments contained in the daily diet. For the analysis, colorless (clear) elastic segments (ORTHO Organizers, lot 660625A10) were used as received from the manufacturer, and were divided into 8 groups of 3 segments each. Each group was immersed in 200 mL of a solution containing a determined substance, as follows: distilled water (control group), Coca-Cola®, Pomarola brand tomato sauce (Cica®), açai, Jasmine® brand green tea, Royal Blend® black tea brand, Pilão® brand coffee and Palmares® wine brand. All test specimens were immersed in the solutions and kept in an appropriate receptacle for 7 days at 37°C14. After the staining session, the test specimens were washed with distilled water in an ultrasonic vat for 5 min and dried with paper tissues6. The portable digital spectrophotometer Vita Easyshade Compact was used to assess if there was color variation of the test specimens. This variation was quantified and qualified at the initial time (T0) and after staining (T1). These results were analyzed statistically using the software SPSS version 18.0. The Shapiro-Wilk test of normality was applied followed by the one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey's post hoc test. The level of significance adopted was 5%. From the substances evaluated in this study, those with higher staining potential on esthetic elastic ligatures were black tea, coffee and wine, respectively. Knowing this information, the dentist may advise their patients to avoid certain foods because of elastic staining may occur thus decreasing the aesthetics of the material.
Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Paquette, Joshua
2010-08-01
Fiber-reinforced polymer composites can offer important advantages over metals where lightweight, cost-effective manufacturing and high mechanical performance can be achieved. To date, these materials have not been used in hydropower systems. In view of the possibility to tailor their mechanical properties to specific applications, they now have become a subject of research for potential use in hydropower systems. The first step in any structural design that uses composite materials consists of evaluating the basic composite mechanical properties as a function of the as-formed composite microstructure. These basic properties are the elastic stiffness, stress-strain response, and strength. This report describes the evaluation of the elastic stiffness for a series of common discontinuous fiber polymer composites processed by injection molding and compression molding in order to preliminarily estimate whether these composites could be used in hydropower systems for load-carrying components such as turbine blades. To this end, the EMTA (Copyright © Battelle 2010) predictive modeling tool developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been applied to predict the elastic properties of these composites as a function of three key microstructural parameters: fiber volume fraction, fiber orientation distribution, and fiber length distribution. These parameters strongly control the composite mechanical performance and can be tailored to achieve property enhancement. EMTA uses the standard and enhanced Mori-Tanaka type models combined with the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method to predict the thermoelastic properties of the composite based on its microstructure.
Mechanical properties of nanophase materials
Siegel, R.W.; Fougere, G.E.
1993-11-01
It has become possible in recent years to synthesize new materials under controlled conditions with constituent structures on a nanometer size scale (below 100 nm). These novel nanophase materials have grain-size dependent mechanical properties significantly different than those of their coarser-grained counterparts. For example, nanophase metals are much stronger and apparently less ductile than conventional metals, while nanophase ceramics are more ductile and more easily formed than conventional ceramics. The observed mechanical property changes are related to grain size limitations and/or the large percentage of atoms in grain boundary environments; they can also be affected by such features as flaw populations, strains and impurity levels that can result from differing synthesis and processing methods. An overview of what is presently known about the mechanical properties of nanophase materials, including both metals and ceramics, is presented. Some possible atomic mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior in these materials are considered in light of their unique structures.
Liu, Kai; Yan, Qimin; Chen, Michelle; Fan, Wen; Sun, Yinghui; Suh, Joonki; Fu, Deyi; Lee, Sangwook; Zhou, Jian; Tongay, Sefaattin; Ji, Jie; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Wu, Junqiao
2014-09-10
Elastic properties of materials are an important factor in their integration in applications. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) monolayer semiconductors are proposed as key components in industrial-scale flexible devices and building blocks of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures. However, their mechanical and elastic properties have not been fully characterized. Here we report high 2D elastic moduli of CVD monolayer MoS2 and WS2 (∼170 N/m), which is very close to the value of exfoliated MoS2 monolayers and almost half the value of the strongest material, graphene. The 2D moduli of their bilayer heterostructures are lower than the sum of 2D modulus of each layer but comparable to the corresponding bilayer homostructure, implying similar interactions between the hetero monolayers as between homo monolayers. These results not only provide deep insight into understanding interlayer interactions in 2D van der Waals structures but also potentially allow engineering of their elastic properties as desired.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oudry, Jennifer; Lynch, Ted; Vappou, Jonathan; Sandrin, Laurent; Miette, Véronique
2014-10-01
Elastographic techniques used in addition to imaging techniques (ultrasound, resonance magnetic or optical) provide new clinical information on the pathological state of soft tissues. However, system-dependent variation in elastographic measurements may limit the clinical utility of these measurements by introducing uncertainty into the measurement. This work is aimed at showing differences in the evaluation of the elastic properties of phantoms performed by four different techniques: quasi-static compression, dynamic mechanical analysis, vibration-controlled transient elastography and hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy. Four Zerdine® gel materials were tested and formulated to yield a Young’s modulus over the range of normal and cirrhotic liver stiffnesses. The Young’s modulus and the shear wave speed obtained with each technique were compared. Results suggest a bias in elastic property measurement which varies with systems and highlight the difficulty in finding a reference method to determine and assess the elastic properties of tissue-mimicking materials. Additional studies are needed to determine the source of this variation, and control for them so that accurate, reproducible reference standards can be made for the absolute measurement of soft tissue elasticity.
Oudry, Jennifer; Lynch, Ted; Vappou, Jonathan; Sandrin, Laurent; Miette, Véronique
2014-10-07
Elastographic techniques used in addition to imaging techniques (ultrasound, resonance magnetic or optical) provide new clinical information on the pathological state of soft tissues. However, system-dependent variation in elastographic measurements may limit the clinical utility of these measurements by introducing uncertainty into the measurement. This work is aimed at showing differences in the evaluation of the elastic properties of phantoms performed by four different techniques: quasi-static compression, dynamic mechanical analysis, vibration-controlled transient elastography and hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy. Four Zerdine® gel materials were tested and formulated to yield a Young's modulus over the range of normal and cirrhotic liver stiffnesses. The Young's modulus and the shear wave speed obtained with each technique were compared. Results suggest a bias in elastic property measurement which varies with systems and highlight the difficulty in finding a reference method to determine and assess the elastic properties of tissue-mimicking materials. Additional studies are needed to determine the source of this variation, and control for them so that accurate, reproducible reference standards can be made for the absolute measurement of soft tissue elasticity.
Identifying the inhomogeneous properties of an orthotropic elastic layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vatul'yan, A. O.; Yavruyan, O. V.; Bogachev, I. V.
2013-11-01
A scheme is proposed for reconstructing inhomogeneously thick elasticity modules of an orthotropic layer from acoustic sounding data. The problem of reconstruction has been reduced to stepwise reconstruction of the functions characterizing the elasticity modules, based on iteration regularization and A.N. Tikhonov's regularization method, which utilize analysis of the averaged characteristics. A computer experiment is performed for different inhomogeneity layers, the effective frequency sounding regions for identification are revealed, and various aspects of numerical realization are discussed.
Evolutions of elastic-plastic shock compression waves in different materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanel, G. I.; Zaretsky, E. B.; Razorenov, S. V.; Savinykh, A. S.; Garkushin, G. V.
2017-01-01
In the paper, we discuss such unexpected features in the wave evolution in solids as a departure from self-similar development of the wave process which is accompanied with apparent sub-sonic wave propagation, changes of shape of elastic precursor wave as a result of variations in the material structure and the temperature, unexpected peculiarities of reflection of elastic-plastic waves from free surface, effects of internal friction at shock compression of glasses and some other effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirzaali, M. J.; Hedayati, R.; Vena, P.; Vergani, L.; Strano, M.; Zadpoor, A. A.
2017-07-01
The elastic properties of mechanical metamaterials are direct functions of their topological designs. Rational design approaches based on computational models could, therefore, be used to devise topological designs that result in the desired properties. It is of particular importance to independently tailor the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of metamaterials. Here, we present patterned randomness as a strategy for independent tailoring of both properties. Soft mechanical metamaterials incorporating various types of patterned randomness were fabricated using an indirect additive manufacturing technique and mechanically tested. Computational models were also developed to predict the topology-property relationship in a wide range of proposed topologies. The results of this study show that patterned randomness allows for independent tailoring of the elastic properties and covering a broad area of the elastic modulus-Poisson's ratio plane. The uniform and homogenous topologies constitute the boundaries of the covered area, while topological designs with patterned randomness fill the enclosed area.
Elastic properties and auxetic behavior of Galfenol for a range of compositions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schurter, Holly M.; Flatau, Alison B.
2008-03-01
Iron-gallium alloys (known as Galfenol), are one of only a few metal alloys known to exhibit large auxetic or negative Poisson's ratio behavior. The mechanical properties, including the auxeticity, of Galfenol are strongly dependent on the composition. This research seeks to measure the elastic properties of Galfenol through a range of practical compositions in order to create a thorough database as well as present trends in the elastic properties. This is achieved through tensile testing of single-crystal Galfenol dog-bone-shaped specimens of varying compositions. For each composition, there is one specimen aligned along the [100] crystallographic axis and one aligned along the [110] axis. This project will enable future researchers to confidently know the elastic properties of the alloy, as well as enable them to select the alloy with optimum elastic properties for their applications.
Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Song, Jizhou; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Hoon-Sik; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Liu, Zhuangjian; Huang, Yonggang Y.; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Zhang, Yong-wei; Rogers, John A.
2008-01-01
Electronic systems that offer elastic mechanical responses to high-strain deformations are of growing interest because of their ability to enable new biomedical devices and other applications whose requirements are impossible to satisfy with conventional wafer-based technologies or even with those that offer simple bendability. This article introduces materials and mechanical design strategies for classes of electronic circuits that offer extremely high stretchability, enabling them to accommodate even demanding configurations such as corkscrew twists with tight pitch (e.g., 90° in ≈1 cm) and linear stretching to “rubber-band” levels of strain (e.g., up to ≈140%). The use of single crystalline silicon nanomaterials for the semiconductor provides performance in stretchable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits approaching that of conventional devices with comparable feature sizes formed on silicon wafers. Comprehensive theoretical studies of the mechanics reveal the way in which the structural designs enable these extreme mechanical properties without fracturing the intrinsically brittle active materials or even inducing significant changes in their electrical properties. The results, as demonstrated through electrical measurements of arrays of transistors, CMOS inverters, ring oscillators, and differential amplifiers, suggest a valuable route to high-performance stretchable electronics. PMID:19015528
The role of material properties in adhesion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buckley, D. H.
1984-01-01
When two solid surfaces are brought into contact strong adhesive bond forces can develop between the materials. The magnitude of the forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between solids is addressed from a theoretical consideration of the electronic nature of the surfaces and experimentally relating bond forces to the nature of the interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties correlated with adhesion include, atomic or molecular orientation, reconstruction and segregation as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where dissimilar solids are in contact the contribution of each is considered as is the role of their interactive chemistry on bond strength. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structure, crystallographic orientation and state. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include metals, alloys, ceramics, polymers and diamond. They are reviewed both in single and polycrystalline form. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.
Abnormalities in the membrane material properties of hereditary spherocytes
Waugh, R.E.; La Celle, P.L.
1980-08-01
Mechanical measurements of intrinsic membrane material properties are used to characterize the defect in hereditary spherocyte membrane at a continuum level. The value of the surface elastic shear modulus is two-thirds as large as normal values, and the value of the yield shear resultant is one-third as large as normal values. The viscosity of the surface above th elastic-plastic transition appears normal. Under similar geometric conditions, the force required to fragment a hereditary spherocyte is about one-third as large as the force required to fragment a normal cell.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Page, Yvon; Saxe, Paul
2002-03-01
generality of the approach described here enabled the creation of a robust user interface going seamlessly from the database search to the printout of the elastic coefficients. With it, even nonspecialist users can reliably produce technologically relevant results like those discussed here in a simple point-and-click fashion from corresponding entries in the CRYSTMET® and ICSD® structure databases, i.e., for all pure-phase nonorganic materials with known crystal structure. The case of Ti4As3 exposes, on a first cluster of properties, stiffness, compliance, and the isotropic properties that can be derived from them, the current reality of mining crystal structure databases with ab initio software for technological properties that were never measured before. Further developments in that direction are currently underway.
Davis, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo
2011-12-14
First-principles molecular dynamics calculations of the structural, elastic, vibrational and electronic properties of amorphous Al(2)O(3), in a system consisting of a supercell of 80 atoms, are reported. A detailed analysis of the interatomic correlations allows us to conclude that the short-range order is mainly composed of AlO(4) tetrahedra, but, in contrast with previous results, also an important number of AlO(6) octahedra and AlO(5) units are present. The vibrational density of states presents two frequency bands, related to bond-bending and bond-stretching modes. It also shows other recognizable features present in similar amorphous oxides. We also present the calculation of elastic properties (bulk modulus and shear modulus). The calculated electronic structure of the material, including total and partial electronic density of states, charge distribution, electron localization function and the ionicity for each species, gives evidence of correlation between the ionicity and the coordination for each Al atom. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, C.; Li, Q.; Liu, C. M.; Duan, M. Y.; Wang, H. K.
2016-05-01
First-principles calculations are employed to investigate the structural and elastic properties, formation enthalpies and chemical bonding features as well as hardness values of chromium tetraboride (CrB4) with different structures. The lattice parameters, Poisson’s ratio and B/G ratio are also derived. Our calculations indicate that the orthorhombic structure with Pnnm symmetry is the most energetically stable one for CrB4. Except for WB4P63/mmc structure with imaginary frequencies, another six new structures are investigated through the full phonon dispersion calculations. Their mechanical and thermodynamic stabilities are also studied by calculating the elastic constants and formation enthalpies. Our calculations show that the thermodynamic stabilities of all these CrB4 phases can be enhanced under high pressure. The large shear moduli, Young’s moduli and hardness values indicate that these CrB4 phases are potential hard materials. Analyses of the densities of states (DOSs) and electron localization functions (ELFs) provide further understandings of the chemical and physical properties of these CrB4 phases. It is observed that the large occupations and high strengths of the B-B covalent bonds are important for the stabilities, incompressibility and hardnesses of these CrB4 phases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuping, Cang; Xiaoling, Yao; Dong, Chen; Fan, Yang; Huiming, Yang
2016-07-01
The ultrasoft pseudo-potential plane wave method combined with the quasi-harmonic approach have been used to study the electronic, elastic and thermodynamic properties of the tetragonal, monoclinic and orthorhombic Ge3N4. The negative formation enthalpies, the satisfactory of Born's criteria and the linear variations of elastic constants with pressure indicate that the three polymorphs can retain their stabilities in the pressure range of 0-25 GPa. The three Ge3N4 are brittle solids at 0 GPa, while they behave in ductile manners in the pressure range of 5-25 GPa. t- and o-Ge3N4 are hard materials but anisotropic. m-Ge3N4 has the largest ductility among the three phases. The results reveal that m-Ge3N4 belongs to an indirect band gap semiconductor, while t- and o-Ge3N4 have direct band gaps. For the thermal properties, several interesting features can be observed above 300 K. o-Ge3N4 exhibits the largest heat capacity, while m-Ge3N4 shows the highest Debye temperature. The results predicted in this work can provide reference data for future experiments. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61475132, 11475143, 61501392, 11304141) and the National Training Programs of Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Undergraduates (No. 201510477001).
Studies on Effective Elastic Properties of CNT/Nano-Clay Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thakur, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Puneet; Srinivas, J.
2016-02-01
This paper presents a computational approach to predict elastic propertiesof hybrid nanocomposite material prepared by adding nano-clayplatelets to conventional CNT-reinforced epoxy system. In comparison to polymers alone/single-fiber reinforced polymers, if an additional fiber is added to the composite structure, it was found a drastic improvement in resultant properties. In this regard, effective elastic moduli of a hybrid nano composite are determined by using finite element (FE) model with square representative volume element (RVE). Continuum mechanics based homogenization of the nano-filler reinforced composite is considered for evaluating the volumetric average of the stresses and the strains under different periodic boundary conditions.A three phase Halpin-Tsai approach is selected to obtain the analytical result based on micromechanical modeling. The effect of the volume fractions of CNTs and nano-clay platelets on the mechanical behavior is studied. Two different RVEs of nano-clay platelets were used to investigate the influence of nano-filler geometry on composite properties. The combination of high aspect ratio of CNTs and larger surface area of clay platelets contribute to the stiffening effect of the hybrid samples. Results of analysis are validated with Halpin-Tsai empirical formulae.
Structural and elastic properties of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} from first-principles calculations
Luo, Tao-Peng; Ma, Li; Pan, Rong-Kai; Zhou, Si-Chen; Wang, Hai-Chen; Tang, Bi-Yu
2013-10-15
Structural and elastic properties of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} with layer structure have been investigated within framework of the density functional theory. Different from the general layer-structured materials, the obtained c/a is less than unity. The calculated elastic constants C{sub 33} is larger than C{sub 11}, being novel in comparison with other alloys with layer structure. The calculated bulk, shear and Young’s modulus of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} are higher than other Mg–La alloys with higher La content, implying the stronger covalent bonding. Moreover, the elastic isotropies of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} are more excellent. The electronic structure within basal plane is highly symmetric, and the electronic interaction within basal plane is slightly weaker than one between basal planes, which reveal the underlying mechanism for the structural and elastic properties of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17}. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure (a) and the atomic positions for (b) (0 0 0 2), (c) (0 0 0 4) and (d) (1 2{sup ¯} 1 0) plane of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17}. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The c/a of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} is anomalously less than unity. • It is novel that for La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} the elastic constants C{sub 33} is larger than C{sub 11}. • The elastic modulus of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} is higher than other Mg–La alloys. • The elastic isotropy of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} is excellent. • The electronic structure within basal plane is highly symmetric.
MaterialCloning: Acquiring Elasticity Parameters from Images for Medical Applications.
Yang, Shan; Lin, Ming C
2016-09-01
We present a practical approach for automatically estimating the material properties of soft bodies from two sets of images, taken before and after deformation. We reconstruct 3D geometry from the given sets of multiple-view images; we use a coupled simulation-optimization-identification framework to deform one soft body at its original, non-deformed state to match the deformed geometry of the same object in its deformed state. For shape correspondence, we use a distance-based error metric to compare the estimated deformation fields against the actual deformation field from the reconstructed geometry. The optimal set of material parameters is thereby determined by minimizing the error metric function. This method can simultaneously recover the elasticity parameters of multiple types of soft bodies using Finite Element Method-based simulation (of either linear or nonlinear materials undergoing large deformation) and particle-swarm optimization methods. We demonstrate this approach on real-time interaction with virtual organs in patient-specific surgical simulation, using parameters acquired from low-resolution medical images. We also highlight the results on physics-based animation of virtual objects using sketches from an artist's conception.
A thermodynamic framework for thermo-chemo-elastic interactions in chemically active materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, XiaoLong; Zhong, Zheng
2017-08-01
In this paper, a general thermodynamic framework is developed to describe the thermo-chemo-mechanical interactions in elastic solids undergoing mechanical deformation, imbibition of diffusive chemical species, chemical reactions and heat exchanges. Fully coupled constitutive relations and evolving laws for irreversible fluxes are provided based on entropy imbalance and stoichiometry that governs reactions. The framework manifests itself with a special feature that the change of Helmholtz free energy is attributed to separate contributions of the diffusion-swelling process and chemical reaction-dilation process. Both the extent of reaction and the concentrations of diffusive species are taken as independent state variables, which describe the reaction-activated responses with underlying variation of microstructures and properties of a material in an explicit way. A specialized isothermal formulation for isotropic materials is proposed that can properly account for volumetric constraints from material incompressibility under chemo-mechanical loadings, in which inhomogeneous deformation is associated with reaction and diffusion under various kinetic time scales. This framework can be easily applied to model the transient volumetric swelling of a solid caused by imbibition of external chemical species and simultaneous chemical dilation arising from reactions between the diffusing species and the solid.
Structural, electronic and elastic properties of the cubic CaTiO{sub 3} under pressure: A DFT study
Tariq, Saad Ahmed, Afaq; Tariq, Samar; Saad, Saher
2015-07-15
Using highly accurate FP-LAPW method with GGA approximation structural, electronic and elastic properties of cubic CaTiO{sub 3} have been calculated from 0-120 GPa range of pressure. It is observed that lattice constant, bond length and anisotropy factor decrease with increase in pressure. Also the brittle nature and indirect band-gap of the compound become ductile and direct band-gap respectively at 120 GPa. Moduli of elasticity, density of the material, Debye temperature and wave elastic wave velocities increase with increase in pressure. Spin dependent DOS’s plots show invariant anti-ferromagnetic nature of the compound under pressure. Our calculated results are in good agreement with available theoretical and experimental results.
Elastic properties of Sierpinski-like carpets: finite-element-based simulation.
Oshmyan, V G; Patlazhan, S A; Timan, S A
2001-11-01
The elastic properties of two-dimensional continuous composites of fractal structures are studied with the set of Sierpinski-like carpets filled by voids or rigid inclusions. The effective elastic moduli of these carpets are calculated numerically using the finite-element and position-space renormalization group techniques. The fixed-point problem is analyzed by flow diagrams in the plane of the current Poisson ratios and coefficients of anisotropy of the composites. It is found that in the general case the effective elastic moduli asymptotically approach a power-law behavior. Moreover, the common exponent characterizes the scaling behavior of each component of the elastic modulus tensor of a definite carpet. The values of the scaling exponents and positions of the fixed points are shown to be independent of the elastic properties of the host and depend significantly on the fractal dimension of the composite.
Elastic properties of Sierpinski-like carpets: Finite-element-based simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oshmyan, V. G.; Patlazhan, S. A.; Timan, S. A.
2001-11-01
The elastic properties of two-dimensional continuous composites of fractal structures are studied with the set of Sierpinski-like carpets filled by voids or rigid inclusions. The effective elastic moduli of these carpets are calculated numerically using the finite-element and position-space renormalization group techniques. The fixed-point problem is analyzed by flow diagrams in the plane of the current Poisson ratios and coefficients of anisotropy of the composites. It is found that in the general case the effective elastic moduli asymptotically approach a power-law behavior. Moreover, the common exponent characterizes the scaling behavior of each component of the elastic modulus tensor of a definite carpet. The values of the scaling exponents and positions of the fixed points are shown to be independent of the elastic properties of the host and depend significantly on the fractal dimension of the composite.
Material and Flexural Properties of Fiber-reinforced Rubber Concrete
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helminger, Nicholas P.
The purpose of this research is to determine the material properties of rubber concrete with the addition of fibers, and to determine optimal mixture dosages of rubber and fiber in concrete for structural applications. Fiber-reinforced concrete and rubberized concrete have been researched separately extensively, but this research intends to combine both rubber and fiber in a concrete matrix in order to create a composite material, fiber-reinforced rubber concrete (FRRC). Sustainability has long been important in engineering design, but much of the previous research performed on sustainable concrete does not result in a material that can be used for practical purposes. While still achieving a material that can be used for structural applications, economical considerations were given when choosing the proportions and types of constituents in the concrete mix. Concrete mixtures were designed, placed, and tested in accordance with common procedures and standards, with an emphasis on practicality. Properties that were investigated include compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility. The basis for determining the optimal concrete mixture is one that is economical, practical, and exhibits ductile properties with a significant strength. Results show that increasing percentages of rubber tend to decrease workability, unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity while the toughness is increased. The addition of steel needle fibers to rubber concrete increases unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility of the composite material.
1994-07-01
WLF theory), which explains the influence of the glass transition on the elastic properties of polymers, is used to describe temperature dependence ...of the elastic and dielectric properties of the composite materials. The temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity is shown to be similar...in form to the temperature dependence of the elastic properties. The application of the time-temperature superposition principle for shifting
Modeling of porous elastic viscoplastic material with tensile failure
Glenn, L A; Rubin, M; Vorobiev, O
1998-11-01
This work describes simple but comprehensive constitutive equations that model a number of physical phenomena exhibited by dry porous geological materials and metals. Moreover, formulas have been developed for robust numerical integration of the evolution equations at the element level that can be easily implemented into standard computer programs for dynamic response of materials.
Properties of aircraft tire materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dodge, Richard N.; Clark, Samuel K.
1988-01-01
A summary is presented of measured elastomeric composite response suitable for linear structural and thermoelastic analysis in aircraft tires. Both real and loss properties are presented for a variety of operating conditions including the effects of temperature and frequency. Suitable micro-mechanics models are used for predictions of these properties for other material combinations and the applicability of laminate theory is discussed relative to measured values.
Low temperature elastic constants and nonlinear acoustic response in rocks and complex materials
Darling, T. W.; Ulrich, T. J.; Johnson, P. A.; Tencate, J. A.
2001-01-01
The 'P-M Space' model of Guyer and McCall has some success in describing the large nonlinear effects ('slow dynamics') observed by Johnson et al. in rocks. The model uses elements which couple classical nonlinear elasticity with hysteretic components. The actual processes and scales corresponding to the model elements are not yet defined, however it is reasonable to seek energy scales by studying the low-temperature dependence of the elastic constants. We have measured qualitative elastic properties of basalt and Berea sandstone from room temperature down to 4 K using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS). A simple elastic solid should show a monotonic increase in the elastic constants as temperature decreases. The basalt samples show this gross behavior but the sandstone shows a very unexpected anomalous regime between 40 K and 200 K where the elastic constants decrease with decreasing temperature. Both rocks show temperature-dependent structure in both the modulus and internal friction, and also significant hysteresis, indicating history and rate-dependent properties. This data provides insight into the time and energy scales of dynamical effects observed in sandstones.
Adhesive and Elastic Properties of DOPA-Containing Hydrogels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webber, Rebecca; Shull, Ken; Messersmith, Phillip; Madhav, Priti
2001-03-01
It was recently determined that L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is primarily responsible for both the adhesion and crosslinking that occurs in mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs). In wet environments, MAPs form strong adhesive bonds to a large variety of substrates, making DOPA-modified polymers very interesting for adhesion studies. Polymer materials modified from or modeled after DOPA have large potential as biomedical adhesives and as adhesives in aqueous environments. The mechanical and adhesive properties of a DOPA-containing hydrogel were tested using an axisymmetric adhesion test modified from the method of Johnson, Kendall and Roberts. In accordance with this technique, a rigid, hemispherical indenter was brought into contact with hydrogel samples, generating load and displacement data. In addition, images were taken of the contact between the sample and indenter. Using the collected data and images, the adhesive properties of the material were calculated. Separate experiments were conducted in conditions of varying humidity and aqueous environments in order to determine any changes in the adhesive behavior of the hydrogel. Data resulting from experiments in each type of environment will be presented.
Bouvier, Adeline; Deleaval, Flavien; Doyley, Marvin M; Yazdani, Saami K; Finet, Gérard; Le Floc'h, Simon; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I; Ohayon, Jacques
2016-01-01
The peak cap stress (PCS) amplitude is recognized as a biomechanical predictor of vulnerable plaque (VP) rupture. However, quantifying PCS in vivo remains a challenge since the stress depends on the plaque mechanical properties. In response, an iterative material finite element (FE) elasticity reconstruction method using strain measurements has been implemented for the solution of these inverse problems. Although this approach could resolve the mechanical characterization of VPs, it suffers from major limitations since (i) it is not adapted to characterize VPs exhibiting high material discontinuities between inclusions, and (ii) does not permit real time elasticity reconstruction for clinical use. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop a direct material-FE algorithm for elasticity reconstruction problems which accounts for material heterogeneities. We originally modified and adapted the extended FE method (Xfem), used mainly in crack analysis, to model material heterogeneities. This new algorithm was successfully applied to six coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with intravascular ultrasound. The results demonstrated that the mean relative absolute errors of the reconstructed Young's moduli obtained for the arterial wall, fibrosis, necrotic core, and calcified regions of the VPs decreased from 95.3±15.56%, 98.85±72.42%, 103.29±111.86% and 95.3±10.49%, respectively, to values smaller than 2.6 × 10−8±5.7 × 10−8% (i.e. close to the exact solutions) when including modified-Xfem method into our direct elasticity reconstruction method. PMID:24240392
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziółkowski, Andrzej
2017-01-01
An apparatus of micromechanics is used to isolate the key ingredients entering macroscopic Gibbs free energy function of a shape memory alloy (SMA) material. A new self-equilibrated eigenstrains influence moduli (SEIM) method is developed for consistent estimation of effective (macroscopic) thermostatic properties of solid materials, which in microscale can be regarded as amalgams of n-phase linear thermoelastic component materials with eigenstrains. The SEIM satisfy the self-consistency conditions, following from elastic reciprocity (Betti) theorem. The method allowed expressing macroscopic coherency energy and elastic complementary energy terms present in the general form of macroscopic Gibbs free energy of SMA materials in the form of semilinear and semiquadratic functions of the phase composition. Consistent SEIM estimates of elastic complementary energy, coherency energy and phase transformation strains corresponding to classical Reuss and Voigt conjectures are explicitly specified. The Voigt explicit relations served as inspiration for working out an original engineering practice-oriented semiexperimental SEIM estimates. They are especially conveniently applicable for an isotropic aggregate (composite) composed of a mixture of n isotropic phases. Using experimental data for NiTi alloy and adopting conjecture that it can be treated as an isotropic aggregate of two isotropic phases, it is shown that the NiTi coherency energy and macroscopic phase strain are practically not influenced by the difference in values of austenite and martensite elastic constants. It is shown that existence of nonzero fluctuating part of phase microeigenstrains field is responsible for building up of so-called stored energy of coherency, which is accumulated in pure martensitic phase after full completion of phase transition. Experimental data for NiTi alloy show that the stored coherency energy cannot be neglected as it considerably influences the characteristic phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouvier, Adeline; Deleaval, Flavien; Doyley, Marvin M.; Yazdani, Saami K.; Finet, Gérard; Le Floc'h, Simon; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Ohayon, Jacques
2013-12-01
The peak cap stress (PCS) amplitude is recognized as a biomechanical predictor of vulnerable plaque (VP) rupture. However, quantifying PCS in vivo remains a challenge since the stress depends on the plaque mechanical properties. In response, an iterative material finite element (FE) elasticity reconstruction method using strain measurements has been implemented for the solution of these inverse problems. Although this approach could resolve the mechanical characterization of VPs, it suffers from major limitations since (i) it is not adapted to characterize VPs exhibiting high material discontinuities between inclusions, and (ii) does not permit real time elasticity reconstruction for clinical use. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop a direct material-FE algorithm for elasticity reconstruction problems which accounts for material heterogeneities. We originally modified and adapted the extended FE method (Xfem), used mainly in crack analysis, to model material heterogeneities. This new algorithm was successfully applied to six coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with intravascular ultrasound. The results demonstrated that the mean relative absolute errors of the reconstructed Young's moduli obtained for the arterial wall, fibrosis, necrotic core, and calcified regions of the VPs decreased from 95.3±15.56%, 98.85±72.42%, 103.29±111.86% and 95.3±10.49%, respectively, to values smaller than 2.6 × 10-8±5.7 × 10-8% (i.e. close to the exact solutions) when including modified-Xfem method into our direct elasticity reconstruction method.
Nonlinear elastic multi-path reciprocal method for damage localisation in composite materials.
Boccardi, S; Callá, D B; Ciampa, F; Meo, M
2017-09-05
Nonlinear ultrasonic techniques rely on the measurement of nonlinear elastic effects caused by the interaction of ultrasonic waves with the material damage, and have shown high sensitivity to detect micro-cracks and defects in the early stages. This paper presents a nonlinear ultrasonic technique, here named nonlinear elastic multi-path reciprocal method, for the identification and localisation of micro-damage in composite laminates. In the proposed methodology, a sparse array of surface bonded ultrasonic transducers is used to measure the second harmonic elastic response associated with the material flaw. A reciprocal relationship of nonlinear elastic parameters evaluated from multiple transmitter-receiver pairs is then applied to locate the micro-damage. Experimental results on a damaged composite panel revealed that an accurate damage localisation was obtained using the normalised second order nonlinear parameter with a high signal-to-noise-ratio (∼11.2dB), whilst the use of bicoherence coefficient provided high localisation accuracy with a lower signal-to-noise-ratio (∼1.8dB). The maximum error between the calculated and the real damage location was nearly 13mm. Unlike traditional linear ultrasonic techniques, the proposed nonlinear elastic multi-path reciprocal method allows detecting material damage on composite materials without a priori knowledge of the ultrasonic wave velocity nor a baseline with the undamaged component. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Elastic properties of silver borate glasses doped with praseodymium oxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gowda, G. V. Jagadeesha; Eraiah, B.
2014-04-01
A series of glasses xPr6O11-(35-x) Ag2O-65B2O3 with x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mol % were synthesized by melt quenching technique. Longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocity were measured at 5 MHz frequency and at room temperature. Elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and Debye temperature have been calculated from the measured density and ultrasonic velocity at room temperature. The experimental results indicate that the elastic constants depend upon the composition of the glasses. The role of the Pr6O11 inside the glass network was discussed.
Simulation study of the elastic mechanical properties of HMX
Sewell, T. D.
2002-01-01
Results of calculations of the elastic mechanical response of crystalline HMX polymorphs are summarized. The work is based on atomistic molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Principal achievements are: (1) prediction of room temperature and pressure elastic tensors for {beta}-, {alpha}- and {delta}-HMX; (2) calculation of room temperature isotherms for each polymorph; (3) extraction of initial bulk modulus and pressure derivative from the isotherm; and (4) 'discovery' of a pressure induced phase transition in {alpha}-HMX (preliminary result). Details of the work, and implications, will be discussed.
Elasto-Mammography: Elastic Property Reconstruction in Breast Tissues
Wang, Z. G.; Liu, Y.; Wang, G.; Sun, L. Z.
2008-02-15
Mammography is the primary method for screening and detecting breast cancers. However, it frequently fails to detect small tumors and is not quite specific in terms of tumor benignity and malignancy. The objective of this paper is to develop a new imaging modality called elasto-mammography that generates the modulus elastograms based on conventional mammographs. A new elastic reconstruction method is described based on elastography and mammography for breast tissues. Elastic distribution can be reconstructed through the measurement of displacement provided by mammographic projection. It is shown that the proposed elasto-mammography provides higher sensitivity and specificity than the conventional mammography on its own for breast cancer diagnosis.
A modified direct method for the calculation of elastic moduli of composite materials
Wang, J.A.; Lubliner, J.; Monteiro, P.J.M.
1996-02-01
The modified direct method is a scheme for the estimation of elastic moduli of composite materials and is based on micromechanical theory and classical elasticity. Using the statistical homogeneous assumption and the two-phase composite approach, one takes the average field of the composite. Due to the complexity of composite materials, the modeling parameters for the exact analytical theory are not always available and then the effective bounds are usually too wide for practical application. For engineering purposes a more practical and general model is desired. The modified direct method was developed to approach the above requirements. In this work the modified direct method is compared with different available experiment data and methods, for example, Kuster-Toksoez, Christensen-Lo. The comparison results show that the modified direct method provides a very good estimation of the elastic moduli in different kinds of problems, such as the soft and hard inclusion cases, porous materials, at various concentrations and/or various porosities.
Effect of Carbon Doping on the Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties of Boron Suboxide
2015-06-01
of Boron Suboxide by Amol B Rahane, Jennifer S Dunn, and Vijay Kumar Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Laboratory Effect of Carbon Doping on the Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties of Boron Suboxide by Amol B Rahane and Vijay Kumar Dr...SUBTITLE Effect of Carbon Doping on the Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties of Boron Suboxide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c
Effect of Water on Elastic and Creep Properties of Self-Standing Clay Films.
Carrier, Benoit; Vandamme, Matthieu; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Bornert, Michel; Ferrage, Eric; Hubert, Fabien; Van Damme, Henri
2016-02-09
We characterized experimentally the elastic and creep properties of thin self-standing clay films, and how their mechanical properties evolved with relative humidity and water content. The films were made of clay montmorillonite SWy-2, obtained by evaporation of a clay suspension. Three types of films were manufactured, which differed by their interlayer cation: sodium, calcium, or a mixture of sodium with calcium. The orientational order of the films was characterized by X-ray diffractometry. The films were mechanically solicited in tension, the resulting strains being measured by digital image correlation. We measured the Young's modulus and the creep over a variety of relative humidities, on a full cycle of adsorption-desorption for what concerns the Young's modulus. Increasing relative humidity made the films less stiff and made them creep more. Both the elastic and creep properties depended significantly on the interlayer cation. For the Young's modulus, this dependence must originate from a scale greater than the scale of the clay layer. Also, hysteresis disappeared when plotting the Young's modulus versus water content instead of relative humidity. Independent of interlayer cation and of relative humidity greater than 60%, after a transient period, the creep of the films was always a logarithmic function of time. The experimental data gathered on these mesoscale systems can be of value for modelers who aim at predicting the mechanical behavior of clay-based materials (e.g., shales) at the engineering macroscopic scale from the one at the atomistic scale, for them to validate the first steps of their upscaling scheme. They provide also valuable reference data for bioinspired clay-based hybrid materials.
Elastic moduli of MoSi sub 2 -based materials
Srinivasan, S.R.; Schwarz, R.B. )
1992-07-01
We prepared MoSi{sub 2}, two-phase MoSi{sub 2}/Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, and (Mo,W)Si{sub 2} solid-solution alloy powders by mechanically alloying mixtures of elemental molybdenum, silicon, and tungsten. These powders were consolidated by hot-pressing them at 1500 {degree}C in graphite dies. We measured the elastic moduli of these alloys by a recently developed technique for non-contact ultrasonic spectroscopy. Second-phase Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} additions to MoSi{sub 2} result in decreased values for {ital G} and {ital E}, whereas alloying MoSi{sub 2} with WSi{sub 2} results in increased values for {ital G} and {ital E}. An analysis of these Young's moduli and of data from the literature for various intermetallic alloys suggests that for any given alloy system, the Young's moduli for its various intermetallics as a function of density fall on a straight line. Further, the lines for the different alloy systems are approximately parallel.
Ab Initio Study of Electronic Structure, Elastic and Transport Properties of Fluoroperovskite LiBeF3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benmhidi, H.; Rached, H.; Rached, D.; Benkabou, M.
2016-12-01
The aim of this work is to investigate the electronic, mechanical, and transport properties of the fluoroperovskite compound LiBeF3 by first-principles calculations using the full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method based on density functional theory within the local density approximation. The independent elastic constants and related mechanical properties including the bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), Young's modulus (E), and Poisson's ratio (ν) have been studied, yielding the elastic moduli, shear wave velocities, and Debye temperature. According to the electronic properties, this compound is an indirect-bandgap material, in good agreement with available theoretical data. The electron effective mass, hole effective mass, and energy bandgaps with their volume and pressure dependence are investigated for the first time.
Ab Initio Study of Electronic Structure, Elastic and Transport Properties of Fluoroperovskite LiBeF3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benmhidi, H.; Rached, H.; Rached, D.; Benkabou, M.
2017-04-01
The aim of this work is to investigate the electronic, mechanical, and transport properties of the fluoroperovskite compound LiBeF3 by first-principles calculations using the full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method based on density functional theory within the local density approximation. The independent elastic constants and related mechanical properties including the bulk modulus ( B), shear modulus ( G), Young's modulus ( E), and Poisson's ratio ( ν) have been studied, yielding the elastic moduli, shear wave velocities, and Debye temperature. According to the electronic properties, this compound is an indirect-bandgap material, in good agreement with available theoretical data. The electron effective mass, hole effective mass, and energy bandgaps with their volume and pressure dependence are investigated for the first time.
Computation of elastic properties of 3D digital cores from the Longmaxi shale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wen-Hui; Fu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Yan; Jin, Wei-Jun
2016-06-01
The dependence of elastic moduli of shales on the mineralogy and microstructure of shales is important for the prediction of sweet spots and shale gas production. Based on 3D digital images of the microstructure of Longmaxi black shale samples using X-ray CT, we built detailed 3D digital images of cores with porosity properties and mineral contents. Next, we used finite-element (FE) methods to derive the elastic properties of the samples. The FE method can accurately model the shale mineralogy. Particular attention is paid to the derived elastic properties and their dependence on porosity and kerogen. The elastic moduli generally decrease with increasing porosity and kerogen, and there is a critical porosity (0.75) and kerogen content (ca. ≤3%) over which the elastic moduli decrease rapidly and slowly, respectively. The derived elastic moduli of gas- and oil-saturated digital cores differ little probably because of the low porosity (4.5%) of the Longmaxi black shale. Clearly, the numerical experiments demonstrated the feasibility of combining microstructure images of shale samples with elastic moduli calculations to predict shale properties.
Computer Simulation of the Elastic Properties of Titanium Alloys for Medical Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estevez, Elsa Paz; Burganova, R. M.; Lysogorskii, Yu. V.
2016-09-01
Results of a computer simulation of the elastic properties of α+β- and β-titanium alloys, used for medical purposes, within the framework of the molecular-dynamics method are presented. It is shown that β-titanium alloys are best suited for the use as bone implants because of their small moduli of elasticity. The advisability of the use of the molecular-dynamics method for the study of the elastic properties of titanium alloys, serving as bone implants, is demonstrated.
Elastic properties of alpha quartz and the alkali halides based on an interatomic force model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weidner, D. J.; Simmons, G.
1972-01-01
A two-body central-force atomic model can be used to describe accurately the elastic properties of alpha quartz if the nontetrahedral O:O forces are included. The strength of the Si:O interaction has little effect on the bulk modulus. The technique is sufficiently general to allow calculations of the elastic properties of a specified structure under arbitrary pressure from a complete description of the interatomic forces. The elastic constants for the NaCl structure and the CsCl structure are examined. Our model includes two-body, central, anion-anion, anion-cation, and electrostatic interactions.
Elastic properties of alpha quartz and the alkali halides based on an interatomic force model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weidner, D. J.; Simmons, G.
1972-01-01
A two-body central-force atomic model can be used to describe accurately the elastic properties of alpha quartz if the nontetrahedral O:O forces are included. The strength of the Si:O interaction has little effect on the bulk modulus. The technique is sufficiently general to allow calculations of the elastic properties of a specified structure under arbitrary pressure from a complete description of the interatomic forces. The elastic constants for the NaCl structure and the CsCl structure are examined. Our model includes two-body, central, anion-anion, anion-cation, and electrostatic interactions.
Elastic Properties of Nucleic Acids by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy.
Camunas-Soler, Joan; Ribezzi-Crivellari, Marco; Ritort, Felix
2016-07-05
We review the current knowledge on the use of single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques to extrapolate the elastic properties of nucleic acids. We emphasize the lesser-known elastic properties of single-stranded DNA. We discuss the importance of accurately determining the elastic response in pulling experiments, and we review the simplest models used to rationalize the experimental data as well as the experimental approaches used to pull single-stranded DNA. Applications used to investigate DNA conformational transitions and secondary structure formation are also highlighted. Finally, we provide an overview of the effects of salt and temperature and briefly discuss the effects of contour length and sequence dependence.
Periodically Modulated Size-Dependent Elastic Properties of Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons.
Li, X; Zhang, Tong-Yi; Su, Y J
2015-08-12
First-principles calculations were conducted on armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) to simulate the elastic behavior of AGNRs with hydrogen-terminated and bare edges. The results show width-dependent elastic properties with a periodicity of three, which depends on the nature of edge. The edge eigenstress and eigendisplacement models are able to predict the width-dependent nominal Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, while the Clar structure explains the crucial role of edges in the periodically modulated size-dependent elastic properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Wenyan; Cai, Jianghui; Chen, Haichuan
2017-07-01
The structural, electronic, elastic properties of superconductivity SrPt6P2 have been investigated and analyzed using generalized gradient approximation within the density functional theory. The optimized lattice constant is in well agreement with the experimental data. The total density of states (DOS) results demonstrates that SrPt6P2 is metallic in character, and the Fermi level is mainly the contribution of 5d orbitals of Pt and with small contributions from P-p and Sr-d states. The elastic constants, bulk modulus, Young's modulus and shear modulus are also successfully obtained. The calculated elastic constants meet the mechanical stability criteria. The B/G ratio, Poission's ratio and Cauchy pressure indicated that it possesses ductile. The Vickers hardness is 7.49 GPa, suggesting that it is a soft material. Though the quasi-harmonic Debye model, the thermodynamics properties of SrPt6P2 have been obtained. The results show the Cv,Cp and α is about 863.5 J/mol K, 895.6 J/mol K and 4.05×105 K-1 at 0 GPa and 300 K, respectively. The Debye temperature is 273.7 K, melting temperature is 2271±300 K and the minimum thermal conductivities kmin is 0.495 W m-1 K-1. It has also been shown that the Cv,Cp and α decrease with increasing pressure at given temperature while increase with increasing temperature at given pressure. Finally, the superconducting parameters are evaluated by the McMillan equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altenbach, H.; Naumenko, K.; L'vov, G. I.; Pilipenko, S. N.
2003-05-01
A model which allows us to estimate the elastic properties of thin-walled structures manufactured by injection molding is presented. The starting step is the numerical prediction of the microstructure of a short-fiber-reinforced composite developed during the filling stage of the manufacturing process. For this purpose, the Moldflow Plastic Insight® commercial program is used. As a result of simulating the filling process, a second-rank orientation tensor characterizing the microstructure of the material is obtained. The elastic properties of the prepared material locally depend on the orientational distribution of fibers. The constitutive equation is formulated by means of orientational averaging for a given orientation tensor. The tensor of elastic material properties is computed and translated into the format for a stress-strain analysis based on the ANSYSÒ finite-element code. The numerical procedure and the convergence of results are discussed for a thin strip, a rectangular plate, and a shell of revolution. The influence of manufacturing conditions on the stress-strain state of statically loaded thin-walled elements is illustrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chuanguo; Hou, Songjun; Zeng, Z.
2015-10-01
We have investigated the elastic and thermodynamic properties of ZrO2 under pressure up to 120 Gpa by the plane wave pseudopotential density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) method. The elastic constants of ZrO2 are calculated and meet the generalized stability criteria, suggesting that ZrO2 is mechanically stable within this pressure range. The pressure effects on the elastic properties reveal that the elastic modulus B, shear modulus G and Young's modulus Y increase linearly with the pressure increasing, implying that the resistance to deformation is enhanced. In addition, by analyzing the Poisson's ratio ν and the value of B/G, we notice that ZrO2 is regarded as being a ductile material under high pressure and the ductility can be improved by the pressure increasing. Then, we employ the quasi-harmonic Debye model considering the phononic effects to obtain the thermodynamic properties of ZrO2. Debye temperature ΘD, thermal expansion coefficient α, heat capacity Cp and Grüneisen parameter γ are systematically explored at pressure of 0-80 Gpa and temperature of 0-1000 K. Our results have provided fundamental facts and evidences for further experimental and theoretical researches.
Rheological properties of polymer melts with high elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feranc, Jozef; Matvejová, Martina; Alexy, Pavol; Pret'o, Jozef; Hronkovič, Ján
2017-05-01
In the recent years efforts to complex description of the rheological characteristic increase even in the case of polymeric blends with high part of elastic deformation. However, unlike the most thermoplastic these blends have a certain specific features. Besides the already mentioned the higher part of elastic deformation it is especially higher viscosity, which are shown mainly for the measurement in the range of high shear rates. For this reason, the presented work is focused on the description of measurement methodology for blends with high part of elastic deformation using capillary rheometer. The measurements were carried out on a commercial polymer blend with trade name A517 based on rubbery polymer. Capillary rheometer Gottfert RG 75 was used, with diameter of chamber 15 mm. Measurements were performed using capillaries with different ratio of length/diameter at temperature 100°C. Because of existence elastic part of deformation, it is not possible to achieve a steady state pressure using measurements at constant volumetric flow at high shear rates. Therefore we decided to measure the flow characteristic using isobaric mode.
Room temperature elastic properties of V-5Cr-5Ti
Simpson, W.A.
1994-09-01
Elastic moduli were measured for a specimen of the alloy V-5Cr-5Ti in the annealed condition using pulse-echo techniques. The value of Young`s modulus was determined to be 125.6 GPa, the shear modulus was determined to be 45.9 GPa, and the Poisson`s ratio to be 0.367.
Tissue elasticity properties as biomarkers for prostate cancer.
Hoyt, Kenneth; Castaneda, Benjamin; Zhang, Man; Nigwekar, Priya; di Sant'agnese, P Anthony; Joseph, Jean V; Strang, John; Rubens, Deborah J; Parker, Kevin J
2008-01-01
In this paper we evaluate tissue elasticity as a longstanding but qualitative biomarker for prostate cancer and sonoelastography as an emerging imaging tool for providing qualitative and quantitative measurements of prostate tissue stiffness. A Kelvin-Voigt Fractional Derivative (KVFD) viscoelastic model was used to characterize mechanical stress relaxation data measured from human prostate tissue samples. Mechanical testing results revealed that the viscosity parameter for cancerous prostate tissue is greater than that derived from normal tissue by a factor of approximately 2.4. It was also determined that a significant difference exists between normal and cancerous prostate tissue stiffness (p < 0.01) yielding an average elastic contrast that increases from 2.1 at 0.1 Hz to 2.5 at 150 Hz. Qualitative sonoelastographic results show promise for cancer detection in prostate and may prove to be an effective adjunct imaging technique for biopsy guidance. Elasticity images obtained with quantitative sonoelastography agree with mechanical testing and histological results. Overall, results indicate tissue elasticity is a promising biomarker for prostate cancer.
Quantitative nondestructive characterization of visco-elastic materials at high pressure
Aizawa, Tatsuhiko; Kihara, Junji; Ohno, Jun
1995-11-01
New anvil apparatus was developed to realize high pressure atmosphere suitable to investigation of viscoelastic behaviors of such soft materials as polymers, lubricants, proteins and so forth. In addition, ultrasonic spectroscopy system was also newly constructed to make quantitative nondestructive evaluation of elasticity and viscosity of soft materials at high pressure. In order to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the developed system and methodology for quantitative nondestructive visco-elastic characterization, various silicone oils are employed, and measured spectra are compared to the theoretical results calculated by the three linear element model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacFarlane, J.; Vanorio, T.
2016-12-01
Calcium-Silicate-Hydrates (C-S-H) are a complex family of hydrates known to form within hyper-alkaline geothermal systems as well as concrete. Within both environments the formation of C-S-H can be linked to the lime-pozzolan reaction. Pozzolan's defined as a siliceous or alumino-siliceous material, which in itself possesses little or no cementing property, but in the presence of moisture chemically reacts with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperatures to form cementitious compounds. C-S-H fibers have been discovered in a low permeability, caprock layer beneath the Campi Flegrei caldera, as well as within ancient Roman concrete made using volcanic ash and fluids from the Campi Flegrei region over 2000 years ago. By replicating the recipe for Roman concrete, fibrous minerals have been formed in laboratory experiments and imaged using a scanning electron microscope. The formation of C-S-H within concrete has been shown to depend on the mineral ions present, among other factors. Here, we report on how the geothermal fluid composition effects the elastic and transport properties of laboratory samples. Samples were made using the same volcanic ash as the Romans, called Pozzolana, slaked lime and geothermal fluid. Two geothermal fluids from the Campi Flegrei region were compared, as well as deionized water as a control. Preliminary results have shown changes in both the elastic and transport properties between sample sets made with geothermal fluid and the control. These changes are attributed to the structure of the C-S-H that forms in the lime-pozzolan reaction. Understanding how the geothermal fluid composition controls the properties of this reaction has implications for the understanding of both geothermal systems and concrete engineering.
A first principles study of the electronic structure, elastic and thermal properties of UB2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jossou, Ericmoore; Malakkal, Linu; Szpunar, Barbara; Oladimeji, Dotun; Szpunar, Jerzy A.
2017-07-01
Uranium diboride (UB2) has been widely deployed for refractory use and is a proposed material for Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) due to its high thermal conductivity. However, the applicability of UB2 towards high temperature usage in a nuclear reactor requires the need to investigate the thermomechanical properties, and recent studies have failed in highlighting applicable properties. In this work, we present an in-depth theoretical outlook of the structural and thermophysical properties of UB2, including but not limited to elastic, electronic and thermal transport properties. These calculations were performed within the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) + U approach, using Quantum ESPRESSO (QE) code considering the addition of Coulomb correlations on the uranium atom. The phonon spectra and elastic constant analysis show the dynamic and mechanical stability of UB2 structure respectively. The electronic structure of UB2 was investigated using full potential linear augmented plane waves plus local orbitals method (FP-LAPW+lo) as implemented in WIEN2k code. The absence of a band gap in the total and partial density of states confirms the metallic nature while the valence electron density plot reveals the presence of covalent bond between adjacent B-B atoms. We predicted the lattice thermal conductivity (kL) by solving Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) using ShengBTE. The second order harmonic and third-order anharmonic interatomic force constants required as input to ShengBTE was calculated using the Density-functional perturbation theory (DFPT). However, we predicted the electronic thermal conductivity (kel) using Wiedemann-Franz law as implemented in Boltztrap code. We also show that the sound velocity along 'a' and 'c' axes exhibit high anisotropy, which accounts for the anisotropic thermal conductivity of UB2.
Pedesseau, L. E-mail: jacky.even@insa-rennes.fr; Even, J. E-mail: jacky.even@insa-rennes.fr; Durand, O.; Modreanu, M.; Chaussende, D.; Sarigiannidou, E.; Chaix-Pluchery, O.
2015-12-01
New experimental results supported by theoretical analyses are proposed for aluminum silicon carbide (Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4}). A state of the art implementation of the density functional theory is used to analyze the experimental crystal structure, the Born charges, the elastic properties, and the piezoelectric properties. The Born charge tensor is correlated to the local bonding environment for each atom. The electronic band structure is computed including self-consistent many-body corrections. Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} material properties are compared to other wide band gap wurtzite materials. From a comparison between an ellipsometry study of the optical properties and theoretical results, we conclude that the Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} material has indirect and direct band gap energies of about 2.5 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively.
Zhang, Da-Guang; Li, Meng-Han; Zhou, Hao-Miao
2015-10-15
For magnetostrictive rods under combined axial pre-stress and magnetic field, a general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model was built in this paper. First, the elastic Gibbs free energy was expanded into polynomial, and the relationship between stress and strain and the relationship between magnetization and magnetic field with the polynomial form were obtained with the help of thermodynamic relations. Then according to microscopic magneto-elastic coupling mechanism and some physical facts of magnetostrictive materials, a nonlinear magneto-elastic constitutive with concise form was obtained when the relations of nonlinear strain and magnetization in the polynomial constitutive were instead with transcendental functions. The comparisons between the prediction and the experimental data of different magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, Metglas and Ni showed that the predicted magnetostrictive strain and magnetization curves were consistent with experimental results under different pre-stresses whether in the region of low and moderate field or high field. Moreover, the model can fully reflect the nonlinear magneto-mechanical coupling characteristics between magnetic, magnetostriction and elasticity, and it can effectively predict the changes of material parameters with pre-stress and bias field, which is useful in practical applications.
Ni, Yilu; Tang, Zhurong; Cao, Wanxu; Lin, Hai; Fan, Yujiang; Guo, Likun; Zhang, Xingdong
2015-03-01
Natural polysaccharides are extensively investigated as cell scaffold materials for cellular adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation due to their excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, and biofunctions. However, their application is often severely limited by their mechanical behavior. In this study, a tough and elastic hydrogel scaffold was prepared with hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). HA and CS were conjugated with tyramine (TA) and the degree of substitution (DS) was 10.7% and 11.3%, respectively, as calculated by (1)H NMR spectra. The hydrogel was prepared by mixing HA-TA and CS-TA in presence of H2O2 and HRP. The sectional morphology of hydrogels was observed by SEM, static and dynamic mechanical properties were analyzed by Shimadzu electromechanical testing machine and dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer Q800. All samples showed good ability to recover their appearances after deformation, the storage modulus (E') of hydrogels became higher as the testing frequency went up. Hydrogels also showed fatigue resistance to cyclic compression. Mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in hydrogels showed good cell viability as detected by CLSM. This study suggests that the hydrogels have both good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, and may serve as model systems to explore mechanisms of deformation and energy dissipation or find some applications in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Elastic properties of sand-peat moss mixtures from ultrasonic measurements
Trombino, C N
1998-09-02
Effective remediation of an environmental site requires extensive knowledge of the geologic setting, as well as the amount and distribution of contaminants. Seismic investigations provide a means to examine the subsurface with minimum disturbance, Laboratory measurements are needed to interpret field data. In this experiment, laboratory tests were performed to characterize manufactured soil samples in terms of their elastic properties. The soil samples consisted of small (mass) percentages (1 to 20 percent) of peat moss mixed with pure quartz sand. Sand was chosen as the major component because its elastic properties are well known except at the lowest pressures. The ultrasonic pulse transmission technique was used to collect elastic wave velocity data. These data were analyzed and mathematically processed to calculate the other elastic properties such as the modulus of elasticity. This experiment demonstrates that seismic data are affected by the amount~of peat moss added to pure sand samples. Elastic wave velocities, velocity gradients, and elastic moduli vary with pressure and peat moss amounts. In particular, ultrasonic response changes dramatically when pore space fills with peat. With some further investigation, the information gathered in this experiment could be applied to seismic field research.
Stress analysis of thermally affected rotating nanoshafts with varying material properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiani, Keivan
2016-10-01
Based on the surface elasticity theory of Gurtin-Murdoch, thermo-elastic fields within rotating nanoshafts with varying material properties subjected to a thermal field are explicitly examined. Accounting for the surface energy effect, the nonclassical boundary conditions are enforced in the cases of fixed-free and free-free conditions. The effects of variation of material properties, temperature of the environment, angular velocity, and radius of the outer radius on the radial displacement, hoop and radial stresses are investigated. In all performed studies, the role of the surface effect on the thermo-elastic field of the nanostructure is methodically discussed.
Spatial mapping of the electrical and elastic properties of granular media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greeney, Nathan S.
The goal of this research is to design a set of methods to spatially map the electrical and physical properties of a spatially complex granular material. Aiming for a resolution of sub-millimeter allows the the possibility for developing a relationship between the electrical and physical properties at this scale as well as the ability to upscale to larger scales. Spatial mapping at this scale fills a unique niche between existing methods in the microscopic and macroscopic scales. Using methods analogous with optical near-field scanning, we develop a millimeter near-field scanning system. This system spatially scans thin samples between two dielectric probes to map the spatially varying dielectric properties of the sample. Using a millimeter wave vector network analyzer allows us to directly measure the phase and amplitude of the reflected and transmitted fields allowing mapping of both the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric properties. With this system we achieve a resolution of 100 mum (smaller than lambda/10). This resolution is not limited by diffraction but limited by the size of our probe and has the possibility of improvement. In order to develop a high resolution spatial mapping of the physical properties we developed an unconventional laser ultrasound scanning system. This system measures the travel time of shear waves directly through the sample to localize measurements allowing high resolution mapping of the spatially varying elastic properties of the sample. Using a focused infrared laser and laser Doppler vibrometer on opposite sides of a thin sample, we are able to achieve sub-millimeter resolution limited by the spot size and thickness of the sample. In testing these systems we looked at various applications. We have mapped the mineralogy of heterogeneous granite and have looked into a correlation between electrical and mechanical properties properties. By looking at maps of oil shale we are able to see the spatial hydrocarbon content before
Ultrasonic Measurement of Localized Elastic Properties and Thickness of Silicon Carbide Mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, R. W.; Sathish, Shamachary; Jata, Kumar V.; Welter, John T.; Matson, Larry E.
2009-03-01
Silicon Carbide (SiC) mirrors have significant advantages compared to glass mirrors. They are less dense, possess very high elastic stiffness and have a low thermal expansion coefficient over a wide temperature range, and hence suitable for aerospace applications. However, the manufacturing process induces significant residual stress and thickness variation. The polishing process used to produce high quality mirrors, alters both the residual stress and thickness of the mirror. In some cases this might produce local damage and limit the usability of the mirror. At present there is a need for NDE techniques to evaluate the damage and ensure the quality of SiC mirrors. To address this issue, we have developed ultrasonic methods to measure simultaneously the local variation in thickness and the through-thickness longitudinal wave velocity in SiC mirrors. The impact of the variations in the material properties are discussed with reference to the changes in residual stress distribution after polishing.
Coupled magnetic and elastic properties in LaPr(CaSr)MnO manganites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eslava, G. G.; Parisi, F.; Bernardo, P. L.; Quintero, M.; Leyva, G.; Cohen, L. F.; Ghivelder, L.
2016-09-01
We investigate a series of manganese oxides, the La0.225Pr0.4(Ca1-xSrx)0.375MnO3 system. The x = 0 sample is a prototype compound for the study of phase separation in manganites, where ferromagnetic and charge ordered antiferromagnetic phases coexist. Replacing Ca2+ by Sr2+ gradually turns the system into a homogeneous ferromagnet. Our results show that the material structure plays a major role in the observed magnetic properties. On cooling, at temperatures below ∼ 100 K, a strong contraction of the lattice is followed by an increase in the magnetization. This is observed both through thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements, providing distinct evidence of magneto-elastic coupling in these phase separated compounds.
Elastic and structural properties of zeolites: Sodalite and dehydrated zeolite A
Kim, S.; Keskar, N.R.; McCormick, A.V.; Chelikowsky, J.R.; Davis, H.T.
1995-06-01
A pairwise interatomic potential has been used to investigate elastic and structural properties of two cubic zeolites: sodalite and dehydrated zeolite A. Constant volume energy minimization has been used to determine the variation of lattice constants and atomic coordinates with pressure. The calculated structures of sodalite and dehydrated zeolite A obtained at zero pressure are in reasonably good agreement with the available experimental values. We find that the structures at zero pressure are largely determined by the Coulomb potential. The pressure dependence of bond lengths and bond angles show that both sodalite and dehydrated zeolite A are easily deformed by bending the Si--O--Al angles. As expected for a less dense crystal, the dehydrated zeolite A is softer than the sodalite. We have also obtained the equation of state of these materials.
Elastic wave propagation through a material with voids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, Thomas W.
1998-10-01
An exact mathematical analogy exists between plane wave propagation through a material with voids and axial wave propagation along a circular cylindrical rod with radial shear and inertia. In both cases the internal energy can be regarded as a function of a displacement gradient, an internal variable, and the gradient of the internal variable. In the rod the internal variable represents radial strain, and in the material with voids it is related to changes in void volume fraction. In both cases kinetic energy is associated not only with particle translation, but also with the internal variable. In the rod this microkinetic energy represents radial inertia ; in the material with voids it represents dilitational inertia around the voids. Thus, the basis for the analogy is that in both cases there are two kinematic degrees of freedom, the Lagrangians are identical in form, and therefore, the Euler-Lagrange equations are also identical in form. Of course, the constitutive details and the internal length scales for the two cases are very different, but insight into the behavior of rods can be transferred directly to interpreting the effects of wave propagation in a material with voids. The main result is that just as impact on the end of a rod produces a pulse that first travels with the longitudinal wave speed and then transfers the bulk of its energy into a dispersive wave that travels with the bar speed (calculated using Youngs modulus), so impact on the material with voids produces a pulse that also begins with the longitudinal speed but then transfers to a slower dispersive wave whose speed is determined by an effective longitudinal modulus. The rate of transfer and the strength of the dispersive effect depend on the details in the two cases.
Super-elastic and fatigue resistant carbon material with lamellar multi-arch microstructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Huai-Ling; Zhu, Yin-Bo; Mao, Li-Bo; Wang, Feng-Chao; Luo, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yang-Yi; Lu, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Ge, Jin; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Ya-Rong; Xu, Liang; Wang, Lin-Jun; Xu, Wei-Hong; Wu, Heng-An; Yu, Shu-Hong
2016-09-01
Low-density compressible materials enable various applications but are often hindered by structure-derived fatigue failure, weak elasticity with slow recovery speed and large energy dissipation. Here we demonstrate a carbon material with microstructure-derived super-elasticity and high fatigue resistance achieved by designing a hierarchical lamellar architecture composed of thousands of microscale arches that serve as elastic units. The obtained monolithic carbon material can rebound a steel ball in spring-like fashion with fast recovery speed (~580 mm s-1), and demonstrates complete recovery and small energy dissipation (~0.2) in each compress-release cycle, even under 90% strain. Particularly, the material can maintain structural integrity after more than 106 cycles at 20% strain and 2.5 × 105 cycles at 50% strain. This structural material, although constructed using an intrinsically brittle carbon constituent, is simultaneously super-elastic, highly compressible and fatigue resistant to a degree even greater than that of previously reported compressible foams mainly made from more robust constituents.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henann, David; Wang, Yuhao
Surface energy is an important factor in the deformation of fluids but is typically a minimal or negligible effect in solids. However, when a solid is soft and its characteristic dimension is small, forces due to surface energy can become important and induce significant elastic deformation. The interplay between surface energy and elasticity can lead to interesting elasto-capillary phenomena. We have developed a finite-element formulation for problems involving these effects in both 2D and 3D settings and will demonstrate the simulation capability by examining two elasto-capillary problems. (1) The Rayleigh-Plateau instability in an elastic material - In a fluid, this instability causes fluid jets to break up into droplets; however, as shown in recent experiments (Mora et al., PRL, 2010), break-up is prohibited in an elastic material, resulting in a stable undulatory configuration. (2) The effect of fluid-filled droplet inclusions on a soft solid - When the matrix material is stiff, the presence of fluid-filled inclusions leads to a more compliant composite material; however, recent experiments (Style, et al., Nature Physics, 2014) have shown that when the matrix material is more compliant, the presence of droplets leads to stiffening. In this talk, we will show that our simulation capability predicts all experimentally observed phenomena and provides a straightforward route for describing nonlinear aspects of elasto-capillarity, which are difficult to address via analytics.
Super-elastic and fatigue resistant carbon material with lamellar multi-arch microstructure
Gao, Huai-Ling; Zhu, Yin-Bo; Mao, Li-Bo; Wang, Feng-Chao; Luo, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yang-Yi; Lu, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Ge, Jin; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Ya-Rong; Xu, Liang; Wang, Lin-Jun; Xu, Wei-Hong; Wu, Heng-An; Yu, Shu-Hong
2016-01-01
Low-density compressible materials enable various applications but are often hindered by structure-derived fatigue failure, weak elasticity with slow recovery speed and large energy dissipation. Here we demonstrate a carbon material with microstructure-derived super-elasticity and high fatigue resistance achieved by designing a hierarchical lamellar architecture composed of thousands of microscale arches that serve as elastic units. The obtained monolithic carbon material can rebound a steel ball in spring-like fashion with fast recovery speed (∼580 mm s−1), and demonstrates complete recovery and small energy dissipation (∼0.2) in each compress-release cycle, even under 90% strain. Particularly, the material can maintain structural integrity after more than 106 cycles at 20% strain and 2.5 × 105 cycles at 50% strain. This structural material, although constructed using an intrinsically brittle carbon constituent, is simultaneously super-elastic, highly compressible and fatigue resistant to a degree even greater than that of previously reported compressible foams mainly made from more robust constituents. PMID:27676215
High-pressure elastic properties of cubic Ir2P from ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Xiao-Wei; Bioud, Nadhira; Fu, Zhi-Jian; Wei, Xiao-Ping; Song, Ting; Li, Zheng-Wei
2016-10-01
A study of the high-pressure elastic properties of new synthetic Ir2P in the anti-fluorite structure is conducted using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The elastic constants C11, C12 and C44 for the cubic Ir2P are obtained by the stress-strain method and the elastic stability calculations under pressure indicate that it is stable at least 100 GPa. Additionally, the electronic density of states, the aggregate elastic moduli, that is bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Young's modulus along with the Debye temperature, Poisson's ratio, and elastic anisotropy factor are all successfully obtained. Moreover, the pressure dependence of the longitudinal and shear wave velocities in three different directions [100], [110], and [111] for Ir2P are also predicted for the first time.
Calculated elastic and thermal properties of MGO at high pressures and temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaak, Donald G.; Cohen, Ronald E.; Mehl, Michael J.
1990-05-01
Using the potential-induced breathing model, we calculate the pressure and temperature dependence of the thermoelastic properties of MgO. These calculations represent the first attempt to obtain a consistent set of thermodynamic elastic moduli for an oxide from an ab initio model over a wide range of pressure and temperature. By assuming the quasi-harmonic approximation for the free energies, we find excellent agreement between the temperature dependence of calculated elastic moduli and those obtained from experiments. Comparison of the calculated athermal and isothermal elastic moduli shows approximations using athermal values to be unreliable at high temperature. The elastic moduli for MgO are presented for pressures and temperatures appropriate for the lower mantle, a regime in which elastic moduli cannot be obtained by direct measurement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolin, Alexey Yu.; Eremina, Galina M.; Shilko, Evgeny V.; Psakhie, Sergey G.
2016-11-01
Deformation of heterogeneous material containing internal interfaces or/and free surfaces is accompanied by collective vortex motion near such boundaries. Nevertheless, such fundamental factor as elastic vortex motion in material formed during dynamic loading still remains out of the discussion. The aim of this paper is to reveal the role of vortex displacements in contact interaction of heterogeneous coatings with hard counter-body by means of 3D computer simulation using movable cellular automata. The research is mainly focused on the role of vortex structures in the velocity field in elastic and non-elastic deformation of the coating. The peculiarities of the velocity vortex formation and propagation, as well as interaction with the structural elements are studied.
Improved rigorous bounds on the effective elastic moduli of a composite material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kantor, Y.; Bergman, D. J.
A NEW METHOD for deriving rigorous bounds on the effective elastic constants of a composite material is presented and used to derive a number of known as well as some new bounds. The new approach is based on a presentation of those constants as a sum of simple poles. The locations and strengths of the poles are treated as variational parameters, while different kinds of available information are translated into constraints on these parameters. Our new results include an extension of the range of validity of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds to the case of composites made of isotropic materials but with an arbitrary microgeometry. We also use information on the effective elastic constants of one composite in order to obtain improved bounds on the effective elastic constants of another composite with the same or a similar microgeometry.
Role of Elastic Compatibility and Disorder in Texture Evolution in Martensitic Materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerr, W. C.; Shenoy, S. R.; Saxena, A.; Swart, P. J.; Bishop, A. R.; Killough, M. G.
1997-03-01
Based on a k-space analysis of the 2D elastic compatibility condition, we derive an anisotropic long-range elastic interaction that is responsible for twinning in martensitic materials. This 2D condition is operational only for textures that have nonzero "elastic quadrupole" moment such as twins impinging on a martensite-austenite interface or tweed intersections. The long-range interaction, previously obtained (G.R. Barsch, B. Horovitz, and J.A. Krumhansl, PRL 59, 1251 (1987); PR B 43, 1021 (1991).) by integrating out the elastic fringing field energy contribution in the austenite, is thus shown as a direct consequence of elastic compatibility. Using both annealed and quenched averaging over compositional disorder, we derive an effective cross-gradient elastic energy contribution that is fourth-order in gradient and second-order in strain. The coefficient of this term is negative in a limited temperature range, indicating the presence of tweed texture and its coarsening with cooling. These results are borne out by integration of the equations of motion for rectangular and shear strains, obtained from the Ginzburg-Landau functional with the compatibility condition.
García-Arribas, Alfredo; Gutiérrez, Jon; Kurlyandskaya, Galina V.; Barandiarán, José M.; Svalov, Andrey; Fernández, Eduardo; Lasheras, Andoni; de Cos, David; Bravo-Imaz, Iñaki
2014-01-01
The outstanding properties of selected soft magnetic materials make them successful candidates for building high performance sensors. In this paper we present our recent work regarding different sensing technologies based on the coupling of the magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials with their electric or elastic properties. In first place we report the influence on the magneto-impedance response of the thickness of Permalloy films in multilayer-sandwiched structures. An impedance change of 270% was found in the best conditions upon the application of magnetic field, with a low field sensitivity of 140%/Oe. Second, the magneto-elastic resonance of amorphous ribbons is used to demonstrate the possibility of sensitively measuring the viscosity of fluids, aimed to develop an on-line and real-time sensor capable of assessing the state of degradation of lubricant oils in machinery. A novel analysis method is shown to sensitively reveal the changes of the damping parameter of the magnetoelastic oscillations at the resonance as a function of the oil viscosity. Finally, the properties and performance of magneto-electric laminated composites of amorphous magnetic ribbons and piezoelectric polymer films are investigated, demonstrating magnetic field detection capabilities below 2.7 nT. PMID:24776934
Dimpled elastic sheets: a new class of non-porous negative Poisson’s ratio materials
Javid, Farhad; Smith-Roberge, Evelyne; Innes, Matthew C.; Shanian, Ali; Weaver, James C.; Bertoldi, Katia
2015-01-01
In this study, we report a novel periodic material with negative Poisson’s ratio (also called auxetic materials) fabricated by denting spherical dimples in an elastic flat sheet. While previously reported auxetic materials are either porous or comprise at least two phases, the material proposed here is non-porous and made of a homogeneous elastic sheet. Importantly, the auxetic behavior is induced by a novel mechanism which exploits the out-of-plane deformation of the spherical dimples. Through a combination of experiments and numerical analyses, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed concept, paving the way for developing a new class of auxetic materials that significantly expand their design space and possible applications. PMID:26671169
Dimpled elastic sheets: a new class of non-porous negative Poisson's ratio materials.
Javid, Farhad; Smith-Roberge, Evelyne; Innes, Matthew C; Shanian, Ali; Weaver, James C; Bertoldi, Katia
2015-12-16
In this study, we report a novel periodic material with negative Poisson's ratio (also called auxetic materials) fabricated by denting spherical dimples in an elastic flat sheet. While previously reported auxetic materials are either porous or comprise at least two phases, the material proposed here is non-porous and made of a homogeneous elastic sheet. Importantly, the auxetic behavior is induced by a novel mechanism which exploits the out-of-plane deformation of the spherical dimples. Through a combination of experiments and numerical analyses, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed concept, paving the way for developing a new class of auxetic materials that significantly expand their design space and possible applications.
Dimpled elastic sheets: a new class of non-porous negative Poisson’s ratio materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javid, Farhad; Smith-Roberge, Evelyne; Innes, Matthew C.; Shanian, Ali; Weaver, James C.; Bertoldi, Katia
2015-12-01
In this study, we report a novel periodic material with negative Poisson’s ratio (also called auxetic materials) fabricated by denting spherical dimples in an elastic flat sheet. While previously reported auxetic materials are either porous or comprise at least two phases, the material proposed here is non-porous and made of a homogeneous elastic sheet. Importantly, the auxetic behavior is induced by a novel mechanism which exploits the out-of-plane deformation of the spherical dimples. Through a combination of experiments and numerical analyses, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed concept, paving the way for developing a new class of auxetic materials that significantly expand their design space and possible applications.
Satellite material contaminant optical properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, B. E.; Bertrand, W. T.; Seiber, B. L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, P. M.; Holt, J. D.
1990-01-01
The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. Presented here are infrared (4000 to 700 cm(-1)) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K geranium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contents determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing and properties for other materials will be available in the future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varshney, Dinesh; Jain, S.; Shriya, S.; Khenata, R.
2016-09-01
Pressure- and temperature-dependent mechanical, elastic, and thermodynamical properties of rock salt to CsCl structures in semiconducting Sr X ( X = O, S, Se, and Te) chalcogenides are presented based on model interatomic interaction potential with emphasis on charge transfer interactions, covalency effect, and zero point energy effects apart from long-range Coulomb, short-range overlap repulsion extended and van der Waals interactions. The developed potential with non-central forces validates the Cauchy discrepancy among elastic constants. The volume collapse ( V P/ V 0) in terms of compressions in Sr X at higher pressure indicates the mechanical stiffening of lattice. The expansion of Sr X lattice is inferred from steep increase in V T/ V 0 and is attributed to thermal softening of Sr X lattice. We also present the results for the temperature-dependent behaviors of hardness, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient. From the Pugh's ratio (ϕ = B T /G H), the Poisson's ratio ( ν) and the Cauchy's pressure ( C 12- C 44), we classify SrO as ductile but SrS, SrSe, and SrTe are brittle material. To our knowledge these are the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the pressure and temperature dependence of mechanical stiffening, thermally softening, and brittle nature of Sr X ( X = O, S, Se, and Te) and still await experimental confirmations.
Salguero, Laura; Saadat, Fatemeh; Sevostianov, Igor
2014-10-17
The paper analyzes the connection between microstructure of the osteonal cortical bone and its overall elastic properties. The existing models either neglect anisotropy of the dense tissue or simplify cortical bone microstructure (accounting for Haversian canals only). These simplifications (related mostly to insufficient mathematical apparatus) complicate quantitative analysis of the effect of microstructural changes - produced by age, microgravity, or some diseases - on the overall mechanical performance of cortical bone. The present analysis fills this gap; it accounts for anisotropy of the dense tissue and uses realistic model of the porous microstructure. The approach is based on recent results of Sevostianov et al. (2005) and Saadat et al. (2012) on inhomogeneities in a transversely-isotropic material. Bone's microstructure is modeled according to books of Martin and Burr (1989), Currey (2002), and Fung (1993) and includes four main families of pores. The calculated elastic constants for porous cortical bone are in agreement with available experimental data. The influence of each of the pore types on the overall moduli is examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elastic properties of silver borate glasses doped with praseodymium oxide
Gowda, G. V. Jagadeesha; Eraiah, B.
2014-04-24
A series of glasses xPr{sub 6}O{sub 11−}(35−x) Ag{sub 2}O−65B{sub 2}O{sub 3} with x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mol % were synthesized by melt quenching technique. Longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocity were measured at 5 MHz frequency and at room temperature. Elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and Debye temperature have been calculated from the measured density and ultrasonic velocity at room temperature. The experimental results indicate that the elastic constants depend upon the composition of the glasses. The role of the Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} inside the glass network was discussed.
Material Characterization of In Vivo and In Vitro Porcine Brain using Shear Wave Elasticity
Urbanczyk, Caryn A.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Bass, Cameron R.
2015-01-01
Realistic computer simulation of closed head trauma requires accurate mechanical properties of brain tissue, ideally in vivo. A substantive deficiency of most existing experimental brain data is that properties were identified through in vitro mechanical testing. This study develops a novel application of shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) to assess porcine brain tissue shear modulus in vivo. SWEI is a quantitative ultrasound technique that has been used here to examine changes in brain tissue shear modulus as a function of several experimental and physiological parameters. Animal studies were performed using two different ultrasound transducers to explore the differences between physical response with closed skull and open skull arrangements. In vivo intracranial pressure (ICP) in four animal subjects was varied over a relevant physiological range (2-40 mmHg), and was correlated with shear wave speed and stiffness estimates in brain tissue. We found that stiffness does not vary with modulation of ICP. Additional in vitro porcine specimens (n=14) were used to investigate variation in brain tissue stiffness with temperature, confinement, spatial location, and transducer orientation. We found a statistically significant decrease in stiffness with increased temperature (23%) and an increase in stiffness with decreasing external confinement (22 - 37%). This study demonstrated the feasibility of using SWEI to characterize porcine brain tissue both in vitro and in vivo. Our results underline the importance of temperature and skull derived boundary conditions on brain stiffness and suggests that physiological ranges of ICP do not significantly affect in situ brain tissue properties. SWEI allowed for brain material properties to be experimentally-characterized in a physiological setting and provides a stronger basis for assessing brain injury in computational models. PMID:25683220
[Mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials].
Zhang, Ning; Bai, Yu-xing; Zhang, Kun-ya
2010-09-14
To investigate the mechanical properties of various brands of thermoplastic materials under different test conditions so as to analyze their influencing factors so as to provide a reference for improving the effect of invisible orthodontics. Three brands of thermoplastic materials, DR, Biolon and Erkodent, were selected. They were tested by Instron testing machine to measure their maximal stress and modulus under different processing modes, including pre-thermoforming, post-thermoforming and dipped in artificial saliva for two weeks after thermoforming. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Analyzed the mechanical properties change-trend under each test condition. The modulus (MPa) and maximum stress (MPa) of control group were significantly higher than those of thermoforming group (DR: 9.63±0.68 vs 7.85±0.61, 267±8 vs 199±6; Erkodent: 8.28±0.28 vs 7.59±0.45, 226±6 vs 199±6; Biolon: 8.85±0.41 vs 7.07±0.22, 237±6 vs 169±7, all P<0.05). The modulus (MPa) and maximum stress (MPa) of thermoforming group were significantly lower than those of saliva immersion group (DR: 7.85±0.61 vs 9.14±0.41, 199±6 vs 243±7; Erkodent: 7.59 ± 0.45 vs 8.38±0.29, 199±6 vs 212±7; Biolon: 7.07±0.22 vs 7.90±0.31, 169±7 vs 197±5, all P<0.05). The different brands of thermoplastic materials have different mechanical properties. The different processing modes influence the mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials. The mechanical properties decrease after thermoforming and increase after saliva immersion.
Ikezoe, Tome; Umegaki, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Nishisita, Satoru; Ichihashi, Noriaki
2016-01-01
Background Passive mechanical properties are important in muscle function because they are related to the muscle extensibility. Recently, the assessment of muscle shear elastic modulus using shear-wave elastographic (SWE) imaging was developed. However, reliability and validity of shear elastic modulus measurements during passive stretching remain undefined. Purpose To investigate the reproducibility and validity of the shear elastic modulus measured by SWE imaging during passive stretching. Material and Methods Ten healthy men volunteered for this study. The shear elastic modulus of medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle belly was measured using ultrasonic SWE imaging during passive dorsiflexion. To assess the intra-session and inter-day reliabilities, the protocol was performed twice by the same investigator with a 5-min rest period between measurement sessions and twice on two different days by the same investigator with a 1–2-week interval between the two sessions. To assess the inter-investigator reliability, the protocol was performed on the same day by two investigators with a 5-min rest between measurement sessions. In addition, B-mode ultrasonography was used to determine the displacement of myotendinous junction (MTJ) of MG during passive ankle dorsiflexion. Results The intra-session, inter-day, and inter-investigator reliabilities of the method was confirmed on the basis of acceptably low coefficient of variations and substantially high intraclass correlation coefficients. In addition, a significant correlation was found between MTJ displacement and shear elastic modulus. Conclusion These results suggested that shear elastic modulus measured using SWE imaging is a reproducible index reflecting the passive mechanical properties. PMID:27170845
Elastic properties of a-C :N:H films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chengbing; Yang, Shengrong; Li, Hongxuan; Zhang, Junyan
2007-01-01
Dual dc-rf plasma system has been used to deposit hydrogenated carbon nitride (CNx:H) films that exhibit high elastic recovery (75%). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and Raman spectra were subsequently used to study the microstructure and bonding of the resultant films. The structure of the films from TEM is seen to consist of many particles embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix, and the films can be described as graphitelike or onionlike with interplanar distances of ≈1.15, 1.95, and 3.5Å, as obtained from selected area electron diffraction (SAED). FTIR shows that nitrogen promotes the formation of sp2 C C/CN aromatic rings in the films. Raman spectra shows two apparent peaks at about 700 and 1200cm-1 in addition to the G and D peaks. Only by adding two extra peaks at approximately 1230 and 1470cm-1 can we deconvolute the Raman spectra of CNx:H in the region of 1000-2000cm-1. Combining TEM and SAED, we attribute the three peaks at about 700, 1200, and 1470cm-1 to fullerene or onion structure. However, the elastic recovery is relatively lower than elastic hydrogenated free carbon nitride films. We think that this is due to the fact that hydrogen is mainly incorporated to sp3 carbon and suppresses cross-linking three-dimensional (3D) network growth.
Elasticity and hydrodynamic properties of ``doped solvent dilute'' lamellar phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nallet, Frédéric; Roux, Didier; Quilliet, Catherine; Fabre, Pascale; Milner, Scott T.
1994-09-01
The equilibrium fluctuations and weakly out-of-equilibrium relaxation properties of “doped solvent" dilute lamellar phases are investigated, both theoretically and experimentally, in the low-frequency, long-wavelength limit. The physical system of interest is a three-component smectic A lyotropic liquid crystal where surfactant bilayers infinite in extent are periodically stacked along one direction in space and separated by a colloidal solution. Two experimentally relevant modes are found in the lowest frequency part of the fluctuation spectrum of such multicomponent systems. Both are associated to the relaxation of coupled layer displacement and colloid concentration waves. In the limit of small coupling, one mode is close to the well-known undulation/baroclinic mode of two-component lamellar phases, while the other corresponds to the Brownian diffusive motion of the colloid in an anisotropic medium. Elastic constants of the smectic liquid crystal and diffusion parameters of the colloidal solution may be deduced from a measurement of the anisotropic dispersion relation of these two modes, as illustrated by dynamic light scattering experiments on the ferrosmectic system. Les fluctuations à l'équilibre ainsi que la relaxation des états légèrement en dehors de l'équilibre des phases lamellaires à “solvant dopé” sont étudiées, aussi bien d'un point de vue théorique qu'expérimental, dans la limite de basses fréquences et de grandes longueurs d'onde. Les systèmes décrits sont des cristaux-liquides smectiques A lyotropes formés de trois constituants : un tensioactif en solution dans une suspension colloïdale forme des bicouches de grande extension latérale qui s'empilent de façon périodique le long d'une direction dans l'espace. Avec de tels systèmes anisotropes et à plusieurs constituants deux modes présents dans la partie à basse fréquence du spectre des fluctuations (associés à la relaxation d'ondes, couplées, de concentration collo
Mechanical properties of some materials used in airplane construction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolff, E B; Van Ewijk, L J G
1928-01-01
Since lightness is desirable in airplane construction, greater stresses must be tolerated than in other kinds of construction. It is therefore necessary to have a more accurate knowledge of the greatest stresses that may occur and of the actual properties of the materials used. The Aeronautic Research Laboratories took the limit of elasticity as the basis of the strength calculations. Many tests were made of different steels, woods, aluminum alloys, and fabrics.
Distribution of mesoscale elastic properties and mass density in the human femoral shaft.
Rohrbach, Daniel; Grimal, Quentin; Varga, Peter; Peyrin, Francoise; Langer, Max; Laugier, Pascal; Raum, Kay
2015-04-01
Cortical bone properties are determined by tissue composition and structure at several hierarchical length scales. In this study, the spatial distribution of micro- and mesoscale elastic properties within a human femoral shaft has been investigated. Microscale tissue degree of mineralization (DMB), cortical vascular porosity Ct.Po and the average transverse isotropic stiffness tensor C(Micro) of cylindrical-shaped samples (diameter: 4.4 mm, N = 56) were obtained from cortical regions between 20 and 85% of the total femur length and around the periphery (anterior, medial, posterior and lateral quadrants) by means of synchrotron radiation µCT (SRµCT) and 50-MHz scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). Within each cylinder, the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and the mesoscale stiffness tensor C(Meso) were derived using a numerical homogenization approach. Moreover, microelastic maps of the axial elastic coefficient c33 measured by SAM at distinct cross-sectional locations along the femur were used to construct a 3-D multiscale elastic model of the femoral shaft. Variations of vBMD (6.1%) were much lower than the variations of mesoscale elastic coefficients (11.1-21.3%). The variation of DMB was only a minor predictor for variations of the mesoscale elastic properties (0.05 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.34). Instead, variations of the mesoscale elastic properties could be explained by variations of cortical porosity and microscale elastic properties. These data were suitable inputs for numerical evaluations and may help to unravel the relations between structure and composition on the elastic function in cortical bone.
Thermoacoustic properties of fibrous materials.
Jensen, Carl; Raspet, Richard
2010-06-01
The thermoacoustic properties of fibrous materials are studied using a computational fluid simulation as a test of proposed analytical models for propagation in porous materials with an ambient temperature gradient. The acoustic properties of porous materials have been understood in terms of microstructural models that approximate the material as an array of pores with empirical shape factors used to fit the pore theory to the material. An extension of these theories of acoustics to the thermoacoustic case with an ambient temperature gradient has been proposed by Roh et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 1413-1422 (2007)] and a model based on Wilson's relaxation approximation for porous acoustics [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 1136-1145 (1993)] is proposed herein, but the predictions of these analytical models have not been tested successfully against measurements. Accurately characterizing the effects of the applied temperature gradient in a wide bandwidth laboratory setup have proven difficult; as a result, the authors conducted a numerical simulation of propagation within a fibrous geometry in order to test the predictions of the analytical models. The results for several fibrous samples show that the models yield a reliable prediction of thermoacoustic performance from the shape factors and relaxation times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paimushin, V. N.; Firsov, V. A.; Gyunal, I.; Shishkin, V. M.
2016-11-01
A hardware and software system for studying the damping and elastic properties of soft materials in a low-frequency range of deformation up to 100 Hz, which most fully corresponds to the range of dynamic actions in actual service conditions of structures, is proposed. A novel identification method for evaluating the elastic and damping properties of soft materials in shear is developed. It employs the frequency and amplitude characteristics of the resonance flexural vibrations of three-layer test specimens with a soft inner layer. Identification of the elastic shear properties is based on a comparison of calculated and experimental frequencies of resonance vibrations of test specimens. To evaluate the shear damping properties of soft materials, the condition of minimum of an objective function containing experimental and calculated amplitudes of vibrations of the free end of a test specimen is used. The possibility of evaluating the properties mentioned from the experimental and calculated internal damping parameters of test specimens, which significantly reduces the laboriousness of the problem considered, is shown. Numerical calculations are carried out for identifying the elastic and damping characteristics of a technical rubber in shear based on an analysis of resonance flexural vibrations of seven test specimens with outer layers made of a D16AT aluminum alloy.
The role of elasticity in the wetting and adhesion of soft materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webber, Rebecca Elisabeth
In this work, the effect of elasticity on the adhesive behavior of soft materials is investigated by studying three model systems: an elastic gel, a viscoelastic hydrogel, and nonelastic liquid interfaces. These systems span the elastic spectrum and represent a wide range of matter in the increasingly important category of soft materials. The first system is a thermally reversible gel made from a triblock copolymer, wherein physical gelation occurs upon dissolution in a selective solvent for the midblock. The triblock copolymer gel is perfectly elastic at room temperature, with debonding behavior affected by the degree of geometric confinement. The effect of confinement on the mechanical and adhesive response of the triblock gels is investigated and quantified using an axisymmetric probe tack test and a compliance-based analysis method. It is found that as confinement increases, the debonding morphology of elastic gels changes, with finger-like interfacial instabilities appearing at very high confinement. Additionally, four dimensionless ratios that predict the tensile detachment behavior of soft materials have been defined as a result of this work. The viscoelastic material is an ionically-crosslinked alginate hydrogel with a strain-dependent mechanical response. These soft hydrogels exhibit elastic behavior at small strains, but possess dissipative ability that allows toughness at higher strains. The stress relaxation and strain hardening behavior of alginate hydrogels has been investigated and quantified using an axisymmetric probe tack apparatus. It was found that stress relaxation serves to regain an elastic response in the hydrogels at strains as high as 4.4 and that permanent deformation is induced above strains of 0.23. A study of the strain-dependent rheological response revealed time-dependent adhesion in these materials. To complete the elastic spectrum, the adhesive interactions created by wetting a polymer surface with various liquids were explored. A
Role of non-covalent interactions in the production of visco-elastic material from zein
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Zein has been used in the production of a wide variety of materials during the last century. One of the more intriguing developments in zein utilization has been the discovery that zein can be made to form a visco-elastic dough for bread production. Although significant research has been conducted t...
Mechanical Properties and Elastic Constants Due to Damage Accumulation and Amorphization in SiC
Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.
2004-06-28
Damage accumulation due to cascade overlap, which was simulated previously, has been used to study the changes of elastic constants, bulk and elastic moduli as a function of dose. These mechanical properties generally decrease with increasing dose, and the rapid decrease at low-dose level indicates that point defects and small clusters play an important role in the changes of elastic constants rather than topological disorder. The internal strain relaxation has no effect on the elastic constants, C11 and C12, in perfect SiC, but it has a significant influence on all elastic constants calculated in damaged SiC. The elastic constants in the cascade-amorphized (CA) SiC decrease about 19%, 29% and 46% for C11, C12 and C44, respectively. The bulk modulus decrease 23% and the elastic modulus decreases 29%, which is consistent with experimental measurements. The stability of both the perfect SiC and CA-SiC under hydrostatic tension has been also investigated. All mechanical properties in the CA-SiC exhibit behavior similar to that in perfect SiC, but the critical stress at which the CA-SiC becomes structurally unstable is one order of magnitude smaller than that for perfect SiC.
Seiner, Hanuš; Sedlák, Petr; Bodnárová, Lucie; Drahokoupil, Jan; Kopecký, Vít; Kopeček, Jaromír; Landa, Michal; Heczko, Oleg
2013-10-23
The evolution of elastic properties with temperature and magnetic field was studied in two differently heat-treated single crystals of the Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. Quenching and slow furnace cooling were used to obtain different densities of antiphase boundaries. We found that the crystals exhibited pronounced differences in the c' elastic coefficient and related shear damping in high-temperature ferromagnetic phases (austenite and premartensite). The difference can be ascribed to the formation of fine magnetic domain patterns and pinning of the magnetic domain walls on antiphase boundaries in the material with a high density of antiphase boundaries due to quenching. The fine domain pattern arising from mutual interactions between antiphase boundaries and ferromagnetic domain walls effectively reduces the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and amplifies the contribution of magnetostriction to the elastic response of the material. As a result, the anomalous elastic softening prior to martensite transformation is significantly enhanced in the quenched sample. Thus, for any comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations the microstructural changes induced by specific heat treatment must be taken into account.
Berahmani, Sanaz; Janssen, Dennis; Verdonschot, Nico
2017-08-16
It is essential to calculate micromotions at the bone-implant interface of an uncemented femoral total knee replacement (TKR) using a reliable computational model. In the current study, experimental measurements of micromotions were compared with predicted micromotions by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) using two bone material models: linear elastic and post-yield material behavior, while an actual range of interference fit was simulated. The primary aim was to investigate whether a plasticity model is essential in order to calculate realistic micromotions. Additionally, experimental bone damage at the interface was compared with the FEA simulated range. TKR surgical cuts were applied to five cadaveric femora and micro- and clinical CT- scans of these un-implanted specimens were made to extract geometrical and material properties, respectively. Micromotions at the interface were measured using digital image correlation. Cadaver-specific FEA models were created based on the experimental set-up. The average experimental micromotion of all specimens was 53.1±42.3µm (mean±standard deviation (SD)), which was significantly higher than the micromotions predicted by both models, using either the plastic or elastic material model (26.5±23.9µm and 10.1±10.1µm, respectively; p-value<0.001 for both material models). The difference between the two material models was also significant (p-value<0.001). The predicted damage had a magnitude and distribution which was comparable to the experimental bone damage. We conclude that, although the plastic model could not fully predict the micro motions, it is more suitable for pre-clinical assessment of a press-fit TKR implant than using an elastic bone model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, C. A.; Torquato, S.
1991-01-01
Improved rigorous bounds were computed on the effective elastic and transport properties (including the effective axial shear modulus, effective transverse bulk modulus, and effective transverse shear modulus) of a transversely isotropic fiber-reinforced material composed of infinitely-long oriented multisized impenetrable circular cylinders distributed throughout a matrix. Results were used to study the effect of fiber-radius polydispersivity on the elastic and transport properties of such unidirectional composites. It was found that increasing the degree of polydispersivity increases the effective transverse conductivity (or axial shear modulus) and the effective transverse bulk modulus, and slightly decreases the effective transverse shear modulus for cases in which the fibers are more conducting or stiffer than the matrix.
Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals.
Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Grabar, A; Vlokh, R
2009-07-01
We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed.
Elastic properties of compressed rare-gas crystals in a model of deformable atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbenko, Ie. Ie.; Troitskaya, E. P.; Pilipenko, E. A.
2017-01-01
The elastic properties of compressed Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe rare-gas crystals were studied in a model of deformable and polarizable atoms. The second-order Fuchs elasticity moduli, their pressure derivatives, and the Zener elastic anisotropy ratio were calculated with allowance for three-body interaction and quadrupole deformation in electron shells within a wide pressure range. Comparison with the experiment and results of other authors was performed. In xenon at a compression of 0.6, the shear modulus B 44 was observed to become zero, thus corresponding to the FCC-HCP transition at 75 GPa.
Optical, elastic and thermal properties of ZB-AlN semiconductor from first-principle calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, V.; Singh, Bhanu P.; Chandra, Satish
2016-12-01
The optical, elastic and thermal properties of zincblende aluminium nitride have been studied. The refractive index, absorption coefficient, reflectivity, dielectric constant, extinction coefficient, and energy-loss spectrum have been calculated using the pseudo-potential method under density functional theory at different pressures. The heat capacity, Debye temperature and phonon frequencies have been calculated using CASTEP code at 0 GPa. The elastic stiffness constants, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus and pressure derivatives of elastic constants have also been calculated. The calculated results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. Reasonably good agreement has been found between them.
Static and dynamic elastic properties of rocks from the Canadian Shield
King, M.S.
1983-01-01
As part of a number of research studies in the Canadian Shield associated with the stability of underground mine openings, seismic reflection surveys, and the proposed use of a tunnel-boring machine (TBM) for developing mine headings, a long-term laboratory rock mechanics program has been conducted to determine the static and dynamic elastic properties of samples of igneous and metamorphic rocks from the Canadian Shield. This paper reports the results of 174 measurements of static elastic modulus and 152 measurements of uniaxial compressive strength for these rocks as a function of dynamic elastic modulus. 20 references, 5 figures.
Ab initio calculations of elastic properties of Ru1-xNixAl superalloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleskov, I. D.; Smirnova, E. A.; Vekilov, Yu. Kh.; Korzhavyi, P. A.; Johansson, B.; Katsnelson, M.; Vitos, L.; Abrikosov, I. A.; Isaev, E. I.
2009-04-01
Ab initio total energy calculations based on the exact muffin-tin orbitals method, combined with the coherent potential approximation, have been used to study the thermodynamical and elastic properties of substitutional refractory Ru1-xNixAl alloys. We have found that the elastic constants C' and C11 exhibit pronounced peculiarities near the concentration of about 40 at. % Ni, which we ascribe to electronic topological transitions. Our suggestion is supported by the Fermi surface calculations in the whole concentration range. Results of our calculations show that one can design Ru-Ni-Al alloys substituting Ru by Ni (up to 40 at. %) with almost invariable elastic constants and reduced density.
Optical, elastic and thermal properties of ZB-AlN semiconductor from first-principle calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, V.; Singh, Bhanu P.; Chandra, Satish
2017-04-01
The optical, elastic and thermal properties of zincblende aluminium nitride have been studied. The refractive index, absorption coefficient, reflectivity, dielectric constant, extinction coefficient, and energy-loss spectrum have been calculated using the pseudo-potential method under density functional theory at different pressures. The heat capacity, Debye temperature and phonon frequencies have been calculated using CASTEP code at 0 GPa. The elastic stiffness constants, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus and pressure derivatives of elastic constants have also been calculated. The calculated results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. Reasonably good agreement has been found between them.
Acoustic and Elastic Properties of Glycerol in Oil-Based Gel Phantoms.
Cabrelli, Luciana C; Grillo, Felipe W; Sampaio, Diego R T; Carneiro, Antonio A O; Pavan, Theo Z
2017-09-01
Phantoms are important tools for image quality control and medical training. Many phantom materials have been proposed for ultrasound; most of them use water as the solvent, but these materials have disadvantages such as dehydration and low temporal stability if not properly stored. To overcome these difficulties, copolymer-in-oil gel was proposed as an inert and stable material; however, speed of sound for these materials is still lower than what is described for most biological tissues. Here, we propose the glycerol dispersion in oil-based gels to modify the acoustic and elastic properties of copolymer-in-oil phantoms. We manufactured copolymer-in-oil gels using styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) in concentrations 8%-15%. We used 2 types of mineral oils with different viscosities. Glycerol was added in a volume fraction 0%-30% of the total amount of liquid. The acoustic (i.e., speed of sound, attenuation and backscattering) and the mechanical (i.e., density and Young's modulus) properties of the samples were within the range of values observed for soft tissues. The acoustic parameters of the samples were dependent on oil viscosity and glycerol concentration. The speed of sound ranged 1423 m/s - 1502 m/s, while the acoustic attenuation and the ultrasonic backscattering increased by adding glycerol. The density and the Young's moduli were less affected by the presence of glycerol. We conclude that glycerol can be used to control the acoustic parameters of copolymer-in-oil gels. Additionally, it opens the possibility of incorporating other oil-insoluble substances to control further properties of the phantom. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Modeling Non-Linear Material Properties in Composite Materials
2016-06-28
Technical Report ARWSB-TR-16013 MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS Michael F. Macri Andrew G...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS ...systems are increasingly incorporating composite materials into their design. Many of these systems subject the composites to environmental conditions
Metal-ceramic materials. Study and prediction of effective mechanical properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karakulov, Valerii V.; Smolin, Igor Yu.
2016-08-01
Mechanical behavior of stochastic metal-ceramic composite materials was numerically simulated on mesoscopic scale level. Deformation of mesoscopic volumes of composites, whose structure consists of a metal matrix and randomly distributed ceramic inclusions, was numerically simulated. The results of the numerical simulation were used for evaluation of the effective elastic and strength properties of metal-ceramic materials with different parameters of the structure. The values of the effective mechanical properties of investigated materials were obtained, and the character of the dependence of the effective elastic and strength properties on the structure parameters of composites was determined.
Metal-ceramic materials. Study and prediction of effective mechanical properties
Karakulov, Valerii V.; Smolin, Igor Yu.
2016-08-02
Mechanical behavior of stochastic metal-ceramic composite materials was numerically simulated on mesoscopic scale level. Deformation of mesoscopic volumes of composites, whose structure consists of a metal matrix and randomly distributed ceramic inclusions, was numerically simulated. The results of the numerical simulation were used for evaluation of the effective elastic and strength properties of metal-ceramic materials with different parameters of the structure. The values of the effective mechanical properties of investigated materials were obtained, and the character of the dependence of the effective elastic and strength properties on the structure parameters of composites was determined.
Gap Formations in Simulations of Shpb Tests on Elastic Materials Soft in Shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raftenberg, M. N.; Scheidler, M. J.
2009-12-01
The LS-DYNA code was applied to split Hopkinson pressure bar tests on a material at least two orders of magnitude stiffer in dilatation than in shear. Two constitutive models were applied, linear elasticity and a compressible form of Mooney-Rivlin elasticity. The latter was fitted to data from ballistic gelatin. The incident and transmission bars were aluminum. The nominal strain rate was 2500/s. Gaps appeared at the interfaces between the specimen and both bars. Unloading of the specimen and bars accompanied these gaps. The input-velocity rise time was varied to observe pulse shaping effects. Mesh sensitivity and contact-parameter sensitivity studies were performed.
Xu, Yingjie; Gao, Tian
2016-03-23
Carbon fiber-reinforced multi-layered pyrocarbon-silicon carbide matrix (C/C-SiC) composites are widely used in aerospace structures. The complicated spatial architecture and material heterogeneity of C/C-SiC composites constitute the challenge for tailoring their properties. Thus, discovering the intrinsic relations between the properties and the microstructures and sequentially optimizing the microstructures to obtain composites with the best performances becomes the key for practical applications. The objective of this work is to optimize the thermal-elastic properties of unidirectional C/C-SiC composites by controlling the multi-layered matrix thicknesses. A hybrid approach based on micromechanical modeling and back propagation (BP) neural network is proposed to predict the thermal-elastic properties of composites. Then, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is interfaced with this hybrid model to achieve the optimal design for minimizing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composites with the constraint of elastic modulus. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid model and optimization method.
Xu, Yingjie; Gao, Tian
2016-01-01
Carbon fiber-reinforced multi-layered pyrocarbon–silicon carbide matrix (C/C–SiC) composites are widely used in aerospace structures. The complicated spatial architecture and material heterogeneity of C/C–SiC composites constitute the challenge for tailoring their properties. Thus, discovering the intrinsic relations between the properties and the microstructures and sequentially optimizing the microstructures to obtain composites with the best performances becomes the key for practical applications. The objective of this work is to optimize the thermal-elastic properties of unidirectional C/C–SiC composites by controlling the multi-layered matrix thicknesses. A hybrid approach based on micromechanical modeling and back propagation (BP) neural network is proposed to predict the thermal-elastic properties of composites. Then, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is interfaced with this hybrid model to achieve the optimal design for minimizing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composites with the constraint of elastic modulus. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid model and optimization method. PMID:28773343
‘Granular Elasticity’ and the loss of elastic stability in granular materials
P. W. Humrickhouse
2009-07-01
A recently proposed hyperelastic model for granular materials, called "granular elasticity", identifies a yield angle as a result of thermodynamic instability. GE gives yield angles that are smaller than those found in real materials; a generalization of the theory is considered here that includes dependence on the third strain invariant. This generalization proves unsuccessful, as it gives smaller, not larger, yield angles. Fully convex hyperelastic models are identified as a point for future investigation.
From Process Modeling to Elastic Property Prediction for Long-Fiber Injection-Molded Thermoplastics
Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Frame, Barbara J.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Holbery, James D.; Smith, Mark T.
2007-09-13
This paper presents an experimental-modeling approach to predict the elastic properties of long-fiber injection-molded thermoplastics (LFTs). The approach accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in LFTs. LFT samples were injection-molded for the study, and fiber length and orientation distributions were measured at different locations for use in the computation of the composite properties. The current fiber orientation model was assessed to determine its capability to predict fiber orientation in LFTs. Predicted fiber orientations for the studied LFT samples were also used in the calculation of the elastic properties of these samples, and the predicted overall moduli were then compared with the experimental results. The elastic property prediction was based on the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka method combined with the orientation averaging technique. The predictions reasonably agree with the experimental LFT data
Elastic properties and apparent density of human edentulous maxilla and mandible.
Seong, W-J; Kim, U-K; Swift, J Q; Heo, Y-C; Hodges, J S; Ko, C-C
2009-10-01
The aim of this study was to determine whether elastic properties and apparent density of bone differ in different anatomical regions of the maxilla and mandible. Additional analyses assessed how elastic properties and apparent density were related. Four pairs of edentulous maxilla and mandibles were retrieved from fresh human cadavers. Bone samples from four anatomical regions (maxillary anterior, maxillary posterior, mandibular anterior, mandibular posterior) were obtained. Elastic modulus (EM) and hardness (H) were measured using the nano-indentation technique. Bone samples containing cortical and trabecular bone were used to measure composite apparent density (cAD) using Archimedes' principle. Statistical analyses used repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations. Bone physical properties differed between regions of the maxilla and mandible. Generally, mandible had higher physical property measurements than maxilla. EM and H were higher in posterior than in anterior regions; the reverse was true for cAD. Posterior maxillary cAD was significantly lower than that in the three other regions.
A first principle study of the pressure dependent elastic properties of monazite LaPO{sub 4}
Ali, Kawsar Arya, A.; Ghosh, P. S.; Dey, G. K.
2016-05-06
DFT based ab-initio simulations have been performed to study the effect of pressure on the elastic properties of monazite LaPO{sub 4} which is a promising host material for immobilization of high level nuclear waste. The phase is found to be stable up to 30 GPa. The calculated polycrystalline bulk, shear and Young moduli show an increasing trend as a function of pressure. The ductility and anisotropy in shear modulus of the material have been found to increase with pressure; whilethe bulk modulus anisotropy decreases with pressure.
The Elastic and Vibrational Properties of Co to 120 GPa
Crowhurst, J; Goncharov, A F; Zaug, J M
2003-11-21
Impulsive stimulated light scattering and Raman spectroscopy measurements have been made on hcp cobalt to a static pressure of 120 GPa. This is the highest static pressure to date at which acoustic velocities have been directly measured. We find that at pressures above 60 GPa the shear elastic modulus and the Raman frequency of the E{sub 2g} transverse optical phonon exhibit a departure from a linear dependence on density. We relate this behavior to a collapse of the magnetic moment under pressure that has been predicted theoretically, but until now not observed experimentally.
Properties of elastic waves in quasiregular structures with planar defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aynaou, H.; Velasco, V. R.; Nougaoui, A.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Bria, D.
2002-07-01
We have studied the elastic waves in quasiregular structures following the Fibonacci and Rudin-Shapiro sequences, and having planar defects, that is breaks of the quasiregular structure in different parts of the system. It is seen that the different kinds of defects produce effects on different ranges of the frequency spectrum, and can introduce more localized states in the gaps, or modify the frequencies of the states in the gaps. We have also studied the phase time and transmission coefficients, thus seeing how these localized modes can be used as frequency filters.
Maccabi, A; Taylor, Z; Bajwa, N; Mallen-St Clair, J; St John, M; Sung, S; Grundfest, W; Saddik, G
2016-02-01
Tissue hardness, often quantified in terms of elasticity, is an important differentiating criterion for pathological identity and is extensively used by surgeons for tumor localization. Delineation of malignant regions from benign regions is typically performed by visual inspection and palpation. Although practical, this method is highly subjective and does not provide quantitative metrics. We have previously reported on Vibro-Acoustography (VA) for tumor delineation. VA is unique in that it uses the specific, non-linear properties of tumor tissue in response to an amplitude modulated ultrasound beam to generate spatially resolved, high contrast maps of tissue. Although the lateral and axial resolutions (sub-millimeter and sub-centimeter, respectively) of VA have been extensively characterized, the relationship between static stiffness assessment (palpation) and dynamic stiffness characterization (VA) has not been explicitly established. Here we perform a correlative exploration of the static and dynamic properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms, specifically elasticity, using VA and a muscle motor system. Muscle motor systems, commonly used to probe the mechanical properties of materials, provide absolute, quantitative point measurements of the elastic modulus, analogous to Young's modulus, of a target. For phantoms of varying percent-by-weight concentrations, parallel VA and muscle motor studies conducted on 18 phantoms reveal a negative correlation (p < - 0.85) between mean signal amplitude levels observed with VA and calculated elastic modulus values from force vs. indentation depth curves. Comparison of these elasticity measurements may provide additional information to improve tissue modeling, system characterization, as well as offer valuable insights for in vivo applications, specifically surgical extirpation of tumors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccabi, A.; Taylor, Z.; Bajwa, N.; Mallen-St. Clair, J.; St. John, M.; Sung, S.; Grundfest, W.; Saddik, G.
2016-02-01
Tissue hardness, often quantified in terms of elasticity, is an important differentiating criterion for pathological identity and is extensively used by surgeons for tumor localization. Delineation of malignant regions from benign regions is typically performed by visual inspection and palpation. Although practical, this method is highly subjective and does not provide quantitative metrics. We have previously reported on Vibro-Acoustography (VA) for tumor delineation. VA is unique in that it uses the specific, non-linear properties of tumor tissue in response to an amplitude modulated ultrasound beam to generate spatially resolved, high contrast maps of tissue. Although the lateral and axial resolutions (sub-millimeter and sub-centimeter, respectively) of VA have been extensively characterized, the relationship between static stiffness assessment (palpation) and dynamic stiffness characterization (VA) has not been explicitly established. Here we perform a correlative exploration of the static and dynamic properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms, specifically elasticity, using VA and a muscle motor system. Muscle motor systems, commonly used to probe the mechanical properties of materials, provide absolute, quantitative point measurements of the elastic modulus, analogous to Young's modulus, of a target. For phantoms of varying percent-by-weight concentrations, parallel VA and muscle motor studies conducted on 18 phantoms reveal a negative correlation (p < - 0.85) between mean signal amplitude levels observed with VA and calculated elastic modulus values from force vs. indentation depth curves. Comparison of these elasticity measurements may provide additional information to improve tissue modeling, system characterization, as well as offer valuable insights for in vivo applications, specifically surgical extirpation of tumors.
Exploring the local elastic properties of bilayer membranes using molecular dynamics simulations.
Pieffet, Gilles; Botero, Alonso; Peters, Günther H; Forero-Shelton, Manu; Leidy, Chad
2014-11-13
Membrane mechanical elastic properties regulate a variety of cellular processes involving local membrane deformation, such as ion channel function and vesicle fusion. In this work, we used molecular dynamics simulations to estimate the local elastic properties of a membrane. For this, we calculated the energy needed to extract a DOPE lipid molecule, modified with a linker chain, from a POPC bilayer membrane using the umbrella sampling technique. Although the extraction energy entails several contributions related not only to elastic deformation but also to solvation, careful analysis of the potential of mean force (PMF) allowed us to dissect the elastic contribution. With this information, we calculated an effective linear spring constant of 44 ± 4 kJ·nm(-2)·mol(-1) for the DOPC membrane, in agreement with experimental estimates. The membrane deformation profile was determined independently during the stretching process in molecular detail, allowing us to fit this profile to a previously proposed continuum elastic model. Through this approach, we calculated an effective membrane spring constant of 42 kJ·nm(-2)·mol(-1), which is in good agreement with the PMF calculation. Furthermore, the solvation energy we derived from the data is shown to match the solvation energy estimated from critical micelle formation constants. This methodology can be used to determine how changes in lipid composition or the presence of membrane modifiers can affect the elastic properties of a membrane at a local level.
Thermal stress fracture in elastic-brittle materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emery, A. F.
1980-01-01
The reported investigation shows that the assessment of the possibility of the thermal fracture of brittle materials depends upon an accurate evaluation of the thermal stresses and the determination of the resulting stress intensity factors. The stress intensity factors can be calculated in a variety of ways ranging from the very precise to approximate, but only for a limited number of geometries. The main difficulty is related to the determination of the thermal stress field because of its unusual character and its dependence upon boundary conditions at points far from the region of thermal activity. Examination of a number of examples suggests that the best visualization of the thermal stresses and any associated fracture can be made by considering the problem to be the combination of thermal and isothermal problems or by considering that the prime effect of the temperature is in the generation of thermal strains and that the thermal stresses are simply the result of the region trying to accommodate these strains.
Material Properties of the Posterior Human Sclera☆
Grytz, Rafael; Fazio, Massimo A.; Girard, Michael J.A.; Libertiaux, Vincent; Bruno, Luigi; Gardiner, Stuart; Girkin, Christopher A.; Downs, J. Crawford
2013-01-01
To characterize the material properties of posterior and peripapillary sclera from human donors, and to investigate the macro- and micro-scale strains as potential control mechanisms governing mechanical homeostasis. Posterior scleral shells from 9 human donors aged 57–90 years were subjected to IOP elevations from 5 to 45 mmHg and the resulting full-field displacements were recorded using laser speckle interferometry. Eye-specific finite element models were generated based on experimentally measured scleral shell surface geometry and thickness. Inverse numerical analyses were performed to identify material parameters for each eye by matching experimental deformation measurements to model predictions using a microstructure-based constitutive formulation that incorporates the crimp response and anisotropic architecture of scleral collagen fibrils. The material property fitting produced models that fit both the overall and local deformation responses of posterior scleral shells very well. The nonlinear stiffening of the sclera with increasing IOP was well reproduced by the uncrimping of scleral collagen fibrils, and a circumferentially-aligned ring of collagen fibrils around the scleral canal was predicted in all eyes. Macroscopic in-plane strains were significantly higher in peripapillary region then in the mid-periphery. In contrast, the meso- and micro-scale strains at the collagen network and collagen fibril level were not significantly different between regions. The elastic response of the posterior human sclera can be characterized by the anisotropic architecture and crimp response of scleral collagen fibrils. The similar collagen fibril strains in the peripapillary and mid-peripheral regions support the notion that the scleral collagen architecture including the circumpapillary ring of collagen fibrils evolved to establish optimal load bearing conditions at the collagen fibril level. PMID:23684352
Bulk electronic, elastic, structural, and dielectric properties of the Weyl semimetal TaAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckeridge, J.; Jevdokimovs, D.; Catlow, C. R. A.; Sokol, A. A.
2016-03-01
We present results of electronic structure calculations of the bulk properties of the Weyl semimetal TaAs. The emergence of Weyl (massless) fermions in TaAs, due to its electronic band structure, is indicative of a new state of matter in the condensed phase that is of great interest for fundamental physics and possibly new applications. Many of the physical properties of the material, however, are unknown. We have calculated the structural parameters, dielectric function, elastic constants, phonon dispersion, electronic band structure, and Born effective charges using density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation, including spin-orbit coupling where necessary. Our results provide essential information on the material; and our calculations agree well with the relatively small number of experimental data available. Moreover, we have determined the relative stability of the ground state body-centered tetragonal phase with respect to other common binary phases as a function of pressure at the athermal limit, predicting a transition to the CsCl cubic structure at 23.3 GPa. Finally, we have determined the band structure using an unbiased hybrid density functional that includes 25% exact exchange, in order to refine the previously determined positions in k space of the Weyl points.
Vishnuvardhan, J; Krishnamurthy, C V; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan
2009-02-01
A novel blind inversion method using Lamb wave S(0) and A(0) mode velocities is proposed for the complete determination of elastic moduli, material symmetries, as well as principal plane orientations of anisotropic plates. The approach takes advantage of genetic algorithm, introduces the notion of "statistically significant" elastic moduli, and utilizes their sensitivities to velocity data to reconstruct the elastic moduli. The unknown material symmetry and the principal planes are then evaluated using the method proposed by Cowin and Mehrabadi [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 40, 451-476 (1987)]. The blind inversion procedure was verified using simulated ultrasonic velocity data sets on materials with transversely isotropic, orthotropic, and monoclinic symmetries. A modified double ring configuration of the single transmitter and multiple receiver compact array was developed to experimentally validate the blind inversion approach on a quasi-isotropic graphite-epoxy composite plate. This technique finds application in the area of material characterization and structural health monitoring of anisotropic platelike structures.
The influence of phonon anharmonicity on thermal and elastic properties of neptunium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filanovich, A.; Povzner, A.
2013-06-01
A self-consistent thermodynamic model describing the thermal and elastic properties of α- and β-phases of neptunium was developed. The presence of strong phonon anharmonicity of Np is established. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data and enable to predict the Np properties in wide temperature range.
Determining the elastic properties of aptamer-ricin single molecule multiple pathways
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Ricin and an anti-ricin aptamer showed three stable binding conformations with their special chemomechanical properties. The elastic properties of the ricin-aptamer single-molecule interactions were investigated by the dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS). The worm-like-chain model and Hook’s law were ...
Thermal and elastic properties of oxy-fluoro zinc tellurite glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmmad, Shaik Kareem; Samee, M. A.; Taqiullah, S. M.; Rahman, Syed
2014-04-01
A glass system based on ZnF2-ZnO-As2O3-TeO2 was prepared. A number of properties such as glass transition temperature, glass stability, Elastic moduli, Debye temperature, poisons ratio studies. The results indicated that most of the properties are observed to be dependent on ZnF2 content.
A model for compression-weakening materials and the elastic fields due to contractile cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosakis, Phoebus; Notbohm, Jacob; Ravichandran, Guruswami
2015-12-01
We construct a homogeneous, nonlinear elastic constitutive law that models aspects of the mechanical behavior of inhomogeneous fibrin networks. Fibers in such networks buckle when in compression. We model this as a loss of stiffness in compression in the stress-strain relations of the homogeneous constitutive model. Problems that model a contracting biological cell in a finite matrix are solved. It is found that matrix displacements and stresses induced by cell contraction decay slower (with distance from the cell) in a compression weakening material than linear elasticity would predict. This points toward a mechanism for long-range cell mechanosensing. In contrast, an expanding cell would induce displacements that decay faster than in a linear elastic matrix.
Structural and elastic properties of β-brass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jona, F.; Marcus, P. M.
2001-06-01
First-principles calculations have been made for the 50-50 ordered alloy CuZn, β-brass, of the energy per atom in tetragonal structure as a function of the tetragonal lattice parameters a and c. A full-potential electronic-structure program was used with both the local-density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Both formulations confirm the existence of a shallow energy minimum (the ground state) at c/a = 1 (β-brass has CsCl structure), and reveal the occurrence of a shallow secondary minimum at approximately c/a = 1.26. With decreasing electronic charge on the Zn atom this minimum becomes deeper, and moves toward larger c/a values, reaching the value c/a = 21/2 when one full electron is taken away from Zn, i.e., when Zn is replaced with Cu. The three elastic constants of β-brass have been calculated and compared with experiment. The large elastic shear anisotropy of β-brass discussed by Clarence Zener in 1947 has been confirmed in this work, although the anisotropy is not quite as large as the then available experimental data indicate.
Dynamic elastic properties from micro-CT images: modeling and experimental validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebedev, M.; Pervukhina, M.; de Paula, O.; Clennell, B.; Gurevich, B.
2009-04-01
Knowledge of the elastic properties of rocks is a key factor in seismic interpretation. Elastic properties of rock are determined by its microstructure and their prediction relies on the availability of accurate microstructural models. X-ray computer tomography (CT) as a unique non-destructive technique is becoming a powerful tool in geophysics research which reveals detailed 3D microstructure of rock with special resolution of 1 micron. Recent breakthrough in computational capabilities allows simulation of elastic properties directly using the micro-CT images. In this study we simulate acoustic velocities of sandstones, based on high resolution 3D images and compare simulation results with ultrasonic measurements. Synchrotron images of two sandstones are segmented to separate grain from pore space. The porosity obtained as a result of the segmentation process is compared with the measured porosity for the segmentation quality control. Parallel 3D finite difference (FD) code is used to simulate elastic wave propagation through the digitized two phase media where the total solid phase is supposed to have elastic properties of intact quartz and the pore space is either dry or saturated with water. Attenuation and dispersion of acoustic velocities are obtained at a range of frequencies. The numerical results noticeably overestimate velocities obtained at laboratory experiments at ultrasonic frequencies. The discrepancy can be explained with the fact that grain contacts have strong effect on elastic moduli and are the most speculative part of the simulations. To validate our FD code and calibrate the properties of grain contacts, we simulated elastic wave propagation in aluminum foam with porosity of 40%. All grain contacts in the foam are "solid" and its microstructure is similar to that of moldic carbonates. Preliminary results of FD modeling and comparison with experiment of carbonates are presented as well.
Shelke, Amit; Blume, Maximilian; Mularczyk, Michael; Landes, Constantin; Sader, Robert; Bereiter-Hahn, Jurgen
2013-05-01
The elastic properties of human canine and supporting alveolar bone are measured by the distribution of localized speed of sound using scanning acoustic microscopy. Methods for the dynamic, non-destructive diagnostics of dental hard tissues can have a key role in the early detection of demineralization processes and carious lesions, and they are supposed to open the possibility of early dental restorations. The localized distribution of the ultrasound velocity in canine tooth and alveolar bone was obtained using scanning acoustic microscopy with a 5- and 30-MHz transducer. An acoustic material signature curve signifies the interference of the waves and quantitatively maps the localized speed of sound in alveolar bone and the canine tooth. Seven samples, consisting of alveolar jawbone and tooth sliced along the coronally apical axis, were investigated. The average speed of sound was determined along three independent cross sections at enamel, dentin and cortical bone. The average speed of sound in enamel, bone and dentin was SD 3460 ± 193 m/s, 3232 ± 113 m/s and 2928 ± 106 m/s. The distribution of sound wave propagation reveals a decrease in sound speed from the peripheral parts within the enamel and dentin layers toward the proximal zones. These results prove the possibility of linking the elastic properties to different areas within the osseous and dental hard tissues and visualize them in an extremely high local resolution. The results serve as a basis for further study and substantiate the enormous potential of ultrasound based analysis in the field of dento-alveolar diagnosis.
Elastic modulus and stress-transfer properties of tunicate cellulose whiskers.
Sturcová, Adriana; Davies, Geoffrey R; Eichhorn, Stephen J
2005-01-01
Experimental deformation micromechanics of natural cellulose fibers using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been widely reported. However, little has been published on the direct measurements of the mechanical properties, and in particular the elastic modulus, of the highly crystalline material in the native state. Here we report on measurements of the elastic modulus of tunicate cellulose using a Raman spectroscopic technique. A dispersed sample of the material is deformed using a four-point bending test, and a shift in a characteristic Raman band (located at 1095 cm(-1)) is used as an indication of the stress in the material. Relatively little intensity change of the Raman band located at 1095 cm(-1) is shown to occur for samples oriented parallel and perpendicular to the polarization direction of the laser, as compared to a highly oriented flax sample. This indicates that the tunicate sample is a two-dimensional in-plane random network of fibers. By use of this result, the Raman shift, and calibrations with strain from other materials, it is shown that the modulus of the material is very high, at about 143 GPa, and a lack of Raman band broadening is thought to be due to the fact that there is pure crystalline deformation occurring without the effect of crystalline/amorphous fractions. A strain sensitivity of the shift in the 1095-cm(-1) Raman peak for this specimen is shown to be -2.4 +/- 0.2 cm(-1)/%. A molecular mechanics approach, using computer simulation and an empirical force field, was used to predict the modulus of a highly oriented chain of the material, and this is found to be 145 GPa, which is in agreement with the experimental data. However, by use of a normal-mode analysis, it is found that a number of modes have positions close to the central positions of the experimental Raman band. One in particular is found to shift at a rate of 2.5 cm(-1)/%, but due to the complex nature of the structure, it is not entirely conclusive that this band
Structural interfaces in linear elasticity. Part II: Effective properties and neutrality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertoldi, K.; Bigoni, D.; Drugan, W. J.
2007-01-01
The model of structural interfaces developed in Part I of this paper allows us to analytically attack and solve different problems of stress concentration and composites. In particular, (i) new formulae are given for effective properties of composite materials containing dilute suspensions of (randomly oriented) reinforced elliptical voids or inclusions; (ii) a new definition is proposed for inclusion neutrality (to account for the fact that the matrix is always 'overstressed', and thus non-neutral in a classical sense, at the contacts with the interfacial structure), which is shown to provide interesting stress optimality conditions. More generally, it is shown that the incorporation of an interfacial structure at the contact between two elastic solids exhibits properties that cannot be obtained using the more conventional approach of the zero-thickness, linear interface. For instance: contrary to the zero-thickness interface, both bulk and shear effective moduli can be optimized for a structural interface; effective properties higher that those possible with a perfect interface can be attained with a structural interface; and neutrality holds with a structural interface for a substantially broader range of parameters than for a zero-thickness interface.
Raum, Kay; Leguerney, Ingrid; Chandelier, Florent; Bossy, Emmanuel; Talmant, Maryline; Saïed, Amena; Peyrin, Françoise; Laugier, Pascal
2005-09-01
Accurate clinical interpretation of the sound velocity derived from axial transmission devices requires a detailed understanding of the propagation phenomena involved and of the bone factors that have an impact on measurements. In the low megahertz range, ultrasonic propagation in cortical bone depends on anisotropic elastic tissue properties, porosity and the cortical geometry (e.g., thickness). We investigated 10 human radius samples from a previous biaxial transmission study using a 50-MHz scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) and synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography. The relationships between low-frequency axial transmission sound speed at 1 and 2 MHz, structural properties (cortical width Ct.Wi, porosity, Haversian canal density and material properties (acoustic impedance, mineral density) on site-matched cross-sections were investigated. Significant linear multivariate regression models (1 MHz: R(2) = 0.84, p < 10(-4), root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 38 m/s, 2 MHz: R(2) = 0.65, p < 10(-4), RMSE = 48 m/s) were found for the combination of Ct.Wi with porosity and impedance. A new model was derived that accounts for the nonlinear dispersion relation with Ct.Wi and predicts axial transmission velocities measured at different ultrasonic frequencies (R(2) = 0.69, p < 10(-4), RMSE = 52 m/s).
Lim, Jin Ik; Kim, Ji Hye
2015-09-01
Despite cyanoacrylate's numerous advantages such as good cosmetic results and fast application for first aid, drawbacks such as brittleness and local tissue toxicity have limited their applicability. In this study, to improve both the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of cyanoacrylate, allyl 2-cyanoacrylate (AC) was pre-polymerized and mixed with poly(L-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (PLCL, 50:50) as biodegradable elastomer. For various properties of pre-polymerized AC (PAC)/PLCL mixtures, bond strength, elasticity of flexure test as bending recovery, cell viability, and in vivo test using rat were conducted and enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility were confirmed. Especially, optimal condition for pre-polymerization of AC was determined to 150°C for 40min through cytotoxicity test. Bond strength of PAC/PLCL mixture was decreased (over 10 times) with increasing of PLCL. On the other hand, biocompatibility and flexibility were improv