Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?
Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat
2016-01-01
[Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex®, ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight® 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young’s modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young’s modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape. PMID:27190472
Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?
Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat
2016-04-01
[Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex(®), ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight(®) 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young's modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young's modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape.
Adler, Thomas A.
1996-01-01
The invention pertains a method of determining elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramics, intermetallics, metals, plastics and other hard, brittle materials which fracture prior to plastically deforming when loads are applied. Elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramic materials are determined using spherical indenters. The method is most useful for measuring and calculating the plastic and elastic deformation of hard, brittle materials with low values of elastic modulus to hardness.
Nonlinear elastic properties of various man-made materials
Darvennes, C.M.; Hou, X.
1998-12-31
Second harmonic generation was measured in several man-made materials for possible application of nonlinear elastic properties to non-destructive testing. Samples included several thicknesses of two types of carbon fiber/polymer matrix composites, three types of concretes, and plywood. Steel and Aluminum specimens were used as references and one of the composite samples was evaluated before and after fatigue cycles. Some interesting observations were made: (1) the two composites were much more nonlinear than the metals, (2) the concretes and the wood were extremely absorptive, (3) one of the concrete samples exhibited a third harmonic but no second harmonic, and (4) fatigue cycles significantly increased the second harmonic, even though no damage was observed by C-scan. The possible applications of these results to NDE will be discussed.
Stress effects on the elastic properties of amorphous polymeric materials.
Caponi, S; Corezzi, S; Mattarelli, M; Fioretto, D
2014-12-01
Brillouin light scattering measurements have been used to study the stress induced modification in the elastic properties of two glass forming polymers: polybutadiene and epoxy-amine resin, prototypes of linear and network polymers, respectively. Following the usual thermodynamic path to the glass transition, polybutadiene has been studied as a function of temperature from the liquid well into the glassy phase. In the epoxy resin, the experiments took advantage of the system ability to reach the glass both via the chemical vitrification route, i.e., by increasing the number of covalent bonds among the constituent molecules, as well as via the physical thermal route, i.e., by decreasing the temperature. Independently from the particular way chosen to reach the glassy phase, the measurements reveal the signature of long range tensile stresses development in the glass. The stress presence modifies both the value of the sound velocities and their mutual relationship, so as to break the generalized Cauchy-like relation. In particular, when long range stresses, by improvise sample cracking, are released, the frequency of longitudinal acoustic modes increases more than 10% in polybutadiene and ∼4% in the epoxy resin. The data analysis suggests the presence of at least two different mechanisms acting on different length scales which strongly affect the overall elastic behaviour of the systems: (i) the development of tensile stress acting as a negative pressure and (ii) the development of anisotropy which increases its importance deeper and deeper in the glassy state. PMID:25481163
Stress effects on the elastic properties of amorphous polymeric materials
Caponi, S. E-mail: silvia.corezzi@unipg.it; Fioretto, D.
2014-12-07
Brillouin light scattering measurements have been used to study the stress induced modification in the elastic properties of two glass forming polymers: polybutadiene and epoxy-amine resin, prototypes of linear and network polymers, respectively. Following the usual thermodynamic path to the glass transition, polybutadiene has been studied as a function of temperature from the liquid well into the glassy phase. In the epoxy resin, the experiments took advantage of the system ability to reach the glass both via the chemical vitrification route, i.e., by increasing the number of covalent bonds among the constituent molecules, as well as via the physical thermal route, i.e., by decreasing the temperature. Independently from the particular way chosen to reach the glassy phase, the measurements reveal the signature of long range tensile stresses development in the glass. The stress presence modifies both the value of the sound velocities and their mutual relationship, so as to break the generalized Cauchy-like relation. In particular, when long range stresses, by improvise sample cracking, are released, the frequency of longitudinal acoustic modes increases more than 10% in polybutadiene and ∼4% in the epoxy resin. The data analysis suggests the presence of at least two different mechanisms acting on different length scales which strongly affect the overall elastic behaviour of the systems: (i) the development of tensile stress acting as a negative pressure and (ii) the development of anisotropy which increases its importance deeper and deeper in the glassy state.
Stress effects on the elastic properties of amorphous polymeric materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caponi, S.; Corezzi, S.; Mattarelli, M.; Fioretto, D.
2014-12-01
Brillouin light scattering measurements have been used to study the stress induced modification in the elastic properties of two glass forming polymers: polybutadiene and epoxy-amine resin, prototypes of linear and network polymers, respectively. Following the usual thermodynamic path to the glass transition, polybutadiene has been studied as a function of temperature from the liquid well into the glassy phase. In the epoxy resin, the experiments took advantage of the system ability to reach the glass both via the chemical vitrification route, i.e., by increasing the number of covalent bonds among the constituent molecules, as well as via the physical thermal route, i.e., by decreasing the temperature. Independently from the particular way chosen to reach the glassy phase, the measurements reveal the signature of long range tensile stresses development in the glass. The stress presence modifies both the value of the sound velocities and their mutual relationship, so as to break the generalized Cauchy-like relation. In particular, when long range stresses, by improvise sample cracking, are released, the frequency of longitudinal acoustic modes increases more than 10% in polybutadiene and ˜4% in the epoxy resin. The data analysis suggests the presence of at least two different mechanisms acting on different length scales which strongly affect the overall elastic behaviour of the systems: (i) the development of tensile stress acting as a negative pressure and (ii) the development of anisotropy which increases its importance deeper and deeper in the glassy state.
Elastic properties of granular materials under uniaxial compaction cycles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warren, N.; Anderson, O. L.
1973-01-01
Data on andesitic and basaltic sands are presented showing compressional sound velocity, density, and creep as functions of uniaxial loading through several compaction cycles. Maximum pressures over which acoustic measurements were made were in the range from 600 to 700 bars. The dynamic elastic modulus varies with pressure in a manner analogous to that of a static elastic modulus defined by small pressure perturbations on a typical compaction cycle. After several compaction cycles, two compressional elastic moduli apparently exist at low pressure (thus two modes of compressional wave propagation through the samples are indicated). The elastic moduli observations are briefly discussed in terms of a general expression for compressibility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penta, Raimondo; Gerisch, Alf
2016-08-01
The classical asymptotic homogenization approach for linear elastic composites with discontinuous material properties is considered as a starting point. The sharp length scale separation between the fine periodic structure and the whole material formally leads to anisotropic elastic-type balance equations on the coarse scale, where the arising fourth rank operator is to be computed solving single periodic cell problems on the fine scale. After revisiting the derivation of the problem, which here explicitly points out how the discontinuity in the individual constituents' elastic coefficients translates into stress jump interface conditions for the cell problems, we prove that the gradient of the cell problem solution is minor symmetric and that its cell average is zero. This property holds for perfect interfaces only (i.e., when the elastic displacement is continuous across the composite's interface) and can be used to assess the accuracy of the computed numerical solutions. These facts are further exploited, together with the individual constituents' elastic coefficients and the specific form of the cell problems, to prove a theorem that characterizes the fourth rank operator appearing in the coarse-scale elastic-type balance equations as a composite material effective elasticity tensor. We both recover known facts, such as minor and major symmetries and positive definiteness, and establish new facts concerning the Voigt and Reuss bounds. The latter are shown for the first time without assuming any equivalence between coarse and fine-scale energies (Hill's condition), which, in contrast to the case of representative volume elements, does not identically hold in the context of asymptotic homogenization. We conclude with instructive three-dimensional numerical simulations of a soft elastic matrix with an embedded cubic stiffer inclusion to show the profile of the physically relevant elastic moduli (Young's and shear moduli) and Poisson's ratio at increasing (up to
Elastic properties of nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Fonseca, Alexandre F.; Malta, C. P.; Galva~O, Douglas S.
2006-05-01
We present a model to study Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the composite material of amorphous nanowires. It is an extension of the model derived by two of us [da Fonseca and Galva~o, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 175502 (2004)] to study the elastic properties of amorphous nanosprings. The model is based on twisting and tensioning a straight nanowire and we propose an experimental setup to obtain the elastic parameters of the nanowire. We used the Kirchhoff rod model to obtain the expressions for the elastic constants of the nanowire.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schindler, Stefan; Mergheim, Julia; Zimmermann, Marco; Aurich, Jan C.; Steinmann, Paul
2016-07-01
A two-scale material modeling approach is adopted in order to determine macroscopic thermal and elastic constitutive laws and the respective parameters for metal matrix composite (MMC). Since the common homogenization framework violates the thermodynamical consistency for non-constant temperature fields, i.e., the dissipation is not conserved through the scale transition, the respective error is calculated numerically in order to prove the applicability of the homogenization method. The thermomechanical homogenization is applied to compute the macroscopic mass density, thermal expansion, elasticity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity for two specific MMCs, i.e., aluminum alloy Al2024 reinforced with 17 or 30 % silicon carbide particles. The temperature dependency of the material properties has been considered in the range from 0 to 500°C, the melting temperature of the alloy. The numerically determined material properties are validated with experimental data from the literature as far as possible.
Dynamic Bending Tolerance and Elastic-Plastic Material Properties of the Human Femur
Funk, J. R.; Kerrigan, J. R.; Crandall, J. R.
2004-01-01
The objective of this study was to provide data on the structural tolerance and material properties of the human femur in dynamic bending. Fifteen (15) isolated femurs from eight (8) males were tested in either posterior-to-anterior or lateral-to-medial three-point bending. The failure moment was 458 ± 95 Nm and did not differ significantly with loading direction. A method was developed to estimate the elastic-plastic material properties of the bone using both force-deflection data and strain gauge measurements. The bone material appeared to yield at about one third of the ultimate strain level prior to fracture. It is hoped that these data will aid in the development of injury criteria and finite element models for predicting injuries to pedestrians and vehicle occupants. PMID:15319127
Evaluation of the Elastic Properties of Thirteen Silicone Interocclusal Recording Materials
Zietek, Marek
2016-01-01
Background. Addition silicones are popular as dental impression materials and are used in bite registration procedures. Objective. This study aimed to compare the postsetting elasticities and other mechanical properties of thirteen addition silicone interocclusal recording materials. Materials and Methods. The following materials were investigated: Colorbite D, Futar D, Genie Bite, Jet Blue Bite fast, Memoreg 2, O-Bite, Occlufast Rock, Omni-Bite Plus, Regidur i, Registrado X-tra, Regofix transparent, StoneBite, and Variotime Bite. Thirty specimens of each material were tested. The elasticities and strengths of the materials were measured with a universal testing machine, and computer software was used to determine the E-moduli, ultimate tensile strengths, and ultimate elongations of the specimens. Results. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p ≤ 0.05). The statistics revealed that the mean E-modulus values varied significantly across the materials (p = 0.000) and were highest for the StoneBite and Registrado X-tra and lowest for the Regofix transparent. The ultimate tensile strengths were highest for the Regofix transparent and Registrado X-tra (p = 0.000) and lowest for the Jet Blue Bite fast and Memoreg 2 (p = 0.000). The elongation percentages at the point of breaking varied significantly across the materials (p = 0.000); the lowest value was observed for the StoneBite, whereas the Regofix transparent nearly doubled original length. Conclusions. The authors concluded that materials with the high E-moduli and great ultimate tensile strengths may be most useful clinically. Registrado X-tra and StoneBite best met these criteria. PMID:27747239
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Choi, Jae-Boong; Kim, Young-Jin; Ji, Kum-Young
2010-05-01
Recently, the reliability assurance of lead-free solder to prevent environmental contamination is quite important issue for chip-scale packaging. Although lots of efforts have been devoted to the solder undergone drop, shear and creep loads, there was a little research on IMC due primarily to its thickness restriction and geometric irregularity. However, the IMC is known as the weakest layer governing failures of the solder joint. The present work is to characterize realistic material properties of the IMC for ENEPIG process. Lee's modified reverse algorithm was adopted to determine elastic-plastic stress-strain curve and so forth, after examining several methods, which requires inherently elastic data. In this context, a series of nano-indentation tests as well as corresponding simulations were carried out by changing indentation depths from 200 to 400 nm and strain rates from 0.05 to 0.10 1/s. It would be conclude that effect of strain rate is relatively small and IMC layer should be more than 5 times of indentation depth when using the recommended method, which are applicable to generate realistic material properties for further diverse structural integrity simulations.
Tan, Jin-Chong; Saines, Paul J; Bithell, Erica G; Cheetham, Anthony K
2012-01-24
We report a new 2-D inorganic-organic framework material, MnDMS [Mn 2,2-dimethylsuccinate], featuring weakly bound hybrid layers in its bulk crystals that can be readily exfoliated into nanosheets via ultrasonication. The fully exfoliated hybrid nanosheets correspond to a unilamellar thickness of about 1 nm, while the partially exfoliated nanosheets (multilayer films) exhibit a typical thickness on the order of 10 nm. We used atomic force microscopy to characterize their surface topography and to map the variation of nanomechanical properties across the surface of the delaminated nanosheets. The morphology and crystallographic orientation of the exfoliated layers were further studied by transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, we investigated the elastic anisotropy underlying the bulk host material by means of single-crystal nanoindentation, from which the critical resolved shear stress (τ(crit)) needed for the micromechanical delamination of individual layers was determined to be relatively small (≲0.4 GPa).
Elastic properties of minerals
Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.
1993-09-01
Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.
Milhans, Jacqueline; Ahzi, Said; Garmestani, Hamid; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.
2009-05-01
In this study, the effective elastic properties and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of a glass-ceramic were predicted using homogenization techniques. Using G18, a glass-ceramic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealant as an initial reference material, the effectiveness of different homogenization models was investigated for a two-phase glass-ceramic. The elastic properties and CTEs of the G18 amorphous phase are currently unknown. Thus, estimated values were used as an input to the models. The predictive model offers accurate macroscopic values on both the elastic modulus and the CTE of glass-ceramic materials, providing the estimated amorphous values are reasonable. This model can be used in designing glass-ceramic SOFC seal materials for its specific operation conditions.
Doyle, Heather; Lohfeld, Stefan; McHugh, Peter
2014-03-01
This study assesses the ability of finite element (FE) models to capture the mechanical behaviour of sintered orthopaedic scaffold materials. Individual scaffold struts were fabricated from a 50:50 wt% poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) blend, using selective laser sintering. The tensile elastic modulus of single struts was determined experimentally. High resolution FE models of single struts were generated from micro-CT scans (28.8 μm resolution) and an effective strut elastic modulus was calculated from tensile loading simulations. Three material assignment methods were employed: (1) homogeneous PCL elastic constants, (2) composite PCL/β-TCP elastic constants based on rule of mixtures, and (3) heterogeneous distribution of micromechanically-determined elastic constants. In comparison with experimental results, the use of homogeneous PCL properties gave a good estimate of strut modulus; however it is not sufficiently representative of the real material as it neglects the β-TCP phase. The rule of mixtures method significantly overestimated strut modulus, while there was no significant difference between strut modulus evaluated using the micromechanically-determined elastic constants and experimentally evaluated strut modulus. These results indicate that the multi-scale approach of linking micromechanical modelling of the sintered scaffold material with macroscale modelling gives an accurate prediction of the mechanical behaviour of the sintered structure.
A NONLINEAR MESOSCOPIC ELASTIC CLASS OF MATERIALS
P. JOHNSON; R. GUYER; L. OSTROVSKY
1999-09-01
It is becoming clear that the elastic properties of rock are shared by numerous other materials (sand, soil, some ceramics, concrete, etc.). These materials have one or more of the following properties in common strong nonlinearity, hysteresis in stress-strain relation, slow dynamics and discrete memory. Primarily, it is the material's compliance, the mesoscopic linkages between the rigid components, that give these materials their unusual elastic properties.
Measurement of relevant elastic and damping material properties in sandwich thick plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rébillat, Marc; Boutillon, Xavier
2011-12-01
An easy-to-implement method to measure relevant elastic and damping properties of the constituents of a sandwich structure, possibly with a heterogeneous core, is proposed. The method makes use of a one-point dynamical measurement on a thick-plate. The hysteretic model for each (possibly orthotropic) constituent is written generically as " E(1+jη)" for all mechanical parameters. The estimation method of the parameters relies on a mixed experimental/numerical procedure. The frequencies and dampings of the natural modes of the plate are obtained from experimental impulse responses by means of a high-resolution modal analysis technique. This allows for considerably more experimental data to be used. Numerical modes (frequencies, dampings, and modal shapes) are computed by means of an extended Rayleigh-Ritz procedure under the "light damping" hypothesis, for given values of the mechanical parameters. Minimising the differences between the modal characteristics yields an estimation of the values of the mechanical parameters describing the hysteretic behaviour. A sensitivity analysis assesses the reliability of the method for each parameter. Validations of the method are proposed by (a) applying it to virtual plates on which a finite-element model replaces the experimental modal analysis, (b) some comparisons with results obtained by static mechanical measurements, and (c) by comparing the results on different plates made of the same sandwich material.
Sewell, T. D.; Bedrov, D.; Menikoff, Ralph; Smith, G. D.
2001-01-01
Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate isothermal elastic properties for {beta}-, {alpha}-, and {delta}-HMX. The complete elastic tensor for each polymorph was determined at room temperature and pressure via analysis of microscopic strain fluctuations using formalism due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76,2662 (1982)]. Additionally, the isothermal compression curve was computed for {beta}-HMX for 0 {le} p {le} 10.6 GPa; the bulk modulus K and its pressure derivative K{prime} were obtained from two fitting forms employed previously in experimental studies of the {beta}-HMX equation of state. Overall, the results indicate good agreement between the bulk modulus predicted from the measured and calculated compression curves. The bulk modulus determined directly from the elastic tensor of {beta}-HMX is in significant disagreement with the compression curve-based results. The explanation for this discrepancy is an area of current research.
Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.
2012-12-01
The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enakoutsa, Koffi
2015-06-01
Recently, the works by Toupin, Mindlin, Sokolowski and Germain have been developed following two research streams. In the first one, higher-order gradient continuum models were developed based on the Cauchy tetrahedron argument (see, e.g., dell'Isola and Seppecher in Comptes Rendus de l Academie de Sciences 17 Serie IIb: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Astronomie 321:303-308, 1995, Meccanica 32:33-52 1997, Zeitschrift fr Angewandte Mathematik und Physik 63(6):1119-1141, 2012). In the second one, the structure of higher-order gradient models is developed with a view to the applications. In particular in the model of linear isotropic solids proposed by Dell'Isola, Sciarra and Vidoli (DSV), the main constitutive equation is obtained for the case of second gradient models. This model introduces in addition to the two well-known Lame's elastic constants five constitutive constants. The practical applications of this model remain in its infancy since the issue of determining the new moduli it introduces is not yet completely addressed. Also, analytical solutions of simple boundary value problems that can be helpful to grasp some of the physical foundations of this model are missing. This paper aims to address these two issues by providing the analytical solutions for two model problems, a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions and the circular bending of a beam in plane strain, both the beam and the shell obeying the DSV second gradient isotropic elastic model. The solution of the circular bending of a beam has served to grasp some of the physical soundness of the model. A framework based on homogenization under inhomogeneous boundary conditions is also suggested to determine the unknown constitutive constants, which are provided in the particular case of elastic porous heterogeneous materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enakoutsa, Koffi
2014-09-01
Recently, the works by Toupin, Mindlin, Sokolowski and Germain have been developed following two research streams. In the first one, higher-order gradient continuum models were developed based on the Cauchy tetrahedron argument (see, e.g., dell'Isola and Seppecher in Comptes Rendus de l Academie de Sciences 17 Serie IIb: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Astronomie 321:303-308, 1995, Meccanica 32:33-52 1997, Zeitschrift fr Angewandte Mathematik und Physik 63(6):1119-1141, 2012). In the second one, the structure of higher-order gradient models is developed with a view to the applications. In particular in the model of linear isotropic solids proposed by Dell'Isola, Sciarra and Vidoli (DSV), the main constitutive equation is obtained for the case of second gradient models. This model introduces in addition to the two well-known Lame's elastic constants five constitutive constants. The practical applications of this model remain in its infancy since the issue of determining the new moduli it introduces is not yet completely addressed. Also, analytical solutions of simple boundary value problems that can be helpful to grasp some of the physical foundations of this model are missing. This paper aims to address these two issues by providing the analytical solutions for two model problems, a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions and the circular bending of a beam in plane strain, both the beam and the shell obeying the DSV second gradient isotropic elastic model. The solution of the circular bending of a beam has served to grasp some of the physical soundness of the model. A framework based on homogenization under inhomogeneous boundary conditions is also suggested to determine the unknown constitutive constants, which are provided in the particular case of elastic porous heterogeneous materials.
Modeling material-degradation-induced elastic property of tissue engineering scaffolds.
Bawolin, N K; Li, M G; Chen, X B; Zhang, W J
2010-11-01
The mechanical properties of tissue engineering scaffolds play a critical role in the success of repairing damaged tissues/organs. Determining the mechanical properties has proven to be a challenging task as these properties are not constant but depend upon time as the scaffold degrades. In this study, the modeling of the time-dependent mechanical properties of a scaffold is performed based on the concept of finite element model updating. This modeling approach contains three steps: (1) development of a finite element model for the effective mechanical properties of the scaffold, (2) parametrizing the finite element model by selecting parameters associated with the scaffold microstructure and/or material properties, which vary with scaffold degradation, and (3) identifying selected parameters as functions of time based on measurements from the tests on the scaffold mechanical properties as they degrade. To validate the developed model, scaffolds were made from the biocompatible polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) mixed with hydroxylapatite (HA) nanoparticles and their mechanical properties were examined in terms of the Young modulus. Based on the bulk degradation exhibited by the PCL/HA scaffold, the molecular weight was selected for model updating. With the identified molecular weight, the finite element model developed was effective for predicting the time-dependent mechanical properties of PCL/HA scaffolds during degradation.
Haycraft, James J
2009-12-01
The acoustic phonons of the epsilon polymorph of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo [5.5.0.0(5,9).0(3,11)] dodecane (epsilon-CL-20) have been studied using Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. Analysis of the acoustic phonon velocities allowed determination of the complete stiffness tensor for this energetic material. The results are compared to a theoretical determination of the epsilon-CL-20 elastic constants, bulk moduli, and shear moduli. The observed ordering of elastic constants, C(22)>C(33)>C(11), is noted to be different from other nitramine energetic materials. Finally, the elasticity of epsilon-CL-20 is compared to recently published reports on cyclotrimethylene trinitramine's (RDX) elasticity and the beta polymorph of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine's (beta-HMX) elasticity. PMID:19968345
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haycraft, James J.
2009-12-01
The acoustic phonons of the epsilon polymorph of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo [5.5.0.05,9.03,11] dodecane (ɛ-CL-20) have been studied using Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. Analysis of the acoustic phonon velocities allowed determination of the complete stiffness tensor for this energetic material. The results are compared to a theoretical determination of the ɛ-CL-20 elastic constants, bulk moduli, and shear moduli. The observed ordering of elastic constants, C22>C33>C11, is noted to be different from other nitramine energetic materials. Finally, the elasticity of ɛ-CL-20 is compared to recently published reports on cyclotrimethylene trinitramine's (RDX) elasticity and the beta polymorph of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine's (β-HMX) elasticity.
Elastic Properties of Plasticine, Silly Putty, and Tennis Strings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cross, Rod
2012-01-01
How would a physicist describe the elastic properties of an apple or a banana? Physics students and teachers are familiar with the elastic properties of metal springs, but are likely to be less familiar with the elastic properties of other common materials. The behavior of a metal spring is commonly examined in the laboratory by adding masses to…
Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials
Johnson, Paul A; Haupert, Sylvain; Renaud, Guillaume; Riviere, Jacques; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal
2010-12-07
Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.
REAL-TIME IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF MATERIAL ELASTIC PROPERTIES IN A HIGH GAMMA IRRADIATION ENVIRONMENT
Ken Telschow; Rob Schley; Dave Cottle
2006-05-01
The first measurements of elastic vibrations of an object in-situ to a high gamma irradiation field using a laser coupled resonant ultrasound method are described. A vibration mode of an Inconel hollow capped cylinder was measured throughout a period of 170 hours as the gamma radiation field was increased to 104 Gray/hour. The vibration mode frequency was observed to change in a manner consistent with the temperature dependence of the elastic stiffness coefficients of the material. These results illustrate the efficacy of the laser approach for real-time resonant ultrasound measurements in this severely hostile nuclear environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, B. D.; Gibson, A. P.; Tan, L. T.; Royle, G. J.
2010-02-01
We have developed a novel phantom material: a solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVAL) in ethanol and water, freeze-thawed to produce a solid yet elastically compressible gel. The x-ray attenuation and mechanical properties of these gels are compared with published measurements of breast tissue. Gels with PVAL concentrations from 5 to 20% w/v were produced. The linear x-ray attenuation coefficients of these gels range from 0.76 to 0.86 cm-1 at 17.5 keV, increasing with PVAL concentration. These values are very similar to the published values of breast tissue at this energy, 0.8-0.9 cm-1. Under compression cancerous breast tissue is approximately ten times stiffer than healthy breast tissue. The Young's moduli of the gels increase with PVAL concentration. Varying the PVAL concentration from 7.5 to 20% w/v produces gels with Young's moduli from 20 to 220 kPa at 15% strain. These values are characteristic of normal and cancerous breast tissue, respectively.
Babu, K. Ephraim; Murali, N.; Babu, K. Vijaya; Veeraiah, V.; Babu, B. Kishore
2015-05-15
The first principles calculation within the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method is applied to study the structural, electronic and elastic properties of cubic perovskite-type compounds KCaF{sub 3} and RbCaF{sub 3}. The exchange correlation effects are included through the LDA, GGA and modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) exchange potential. The calculated structural properties such as equilibrium lattice constant, the bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are in good agreement with the available data. KCaF{sub 3} and RbCaF{sub 3} have wide and indirect band gaps and they agree with experimental values. The elastic properties such as elastic constants, anisotropy factor, shear modulus, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are obtained for the first time. KCaF{sub 3} and RbCaF{sub 3} are elastically anisotropic and the B/G ratio indicate that these are ductile materials.
Elastic and thermal expansion asymmetry in dense molecular materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burg, Joseph A.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.
2016-09-01
The elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion are fundamental properties of elastically stiff molecular materials and are assumed to be the same (symmetric) under both tension and compression loading. We show that molecular materials can have a marked asymmetric elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion that are inherently related to terminal chemical groups that limit molecular network connectivity. In compression, terminal groups sterically interact to stiffen the network, whereas in tension they interact less and disconnect the network. The existence of asymmetric elastic and thermal expansion behaviour has fundamental implications for computational approaches to molecular materials modelling and practical implications on the thermomechanical strains and associated elastic stresses. We develop a design space to control the degree of elastic asymmetry in molecular materials, a vital step towards understanding their integration into device technologies.
Elastic constants of Transversely Isotropically Porous (TIP) materials
Tuchinskii, L.I.; Kalimova, N.L.
1994-11-01
The authors derive formulas describing the dependence of the elastic characteristics of multicapillary materials on the capillary porosity. The investigated materials are classified as transversely isotropic, and the anisotropy in their properties is the result of the directionality of the capillary pores. Analysis of the dependences obtained has shown that the elasticity moduli of these materials may be calculated using formulas suggested for reinforced materials, in which the elastic constants of the fibers are assumed to be equal to zero. The authors derive a relation between the Poisson`s ratios and the capillary porosity.
Weld stresses beyond elastic limit: Materials discontinuity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verderaime, V.
1989-01-01
When welded structures depend on properties beyond the elastic limit to qualify their ultimate safety factor, and weld-parent materials abruptly change at the interface, then stress discontinuity is inevitable. The stress concentration is mildly sensitive to material relative strain hardening and acutely sensitive to applied stress fields. Peak stresses occur on the weld surface, at the interface, and dissipate within a 0.01-inch band. When the stress is intense, the weld will always fracture at the interface. The analysis incorporates a classical mechanics model to more sharply define stress spikes within the bandwidth, and suggests a relative material index and Poisson's ratio related to strain hardening. Implications are discussed which are applicable to industries of high performance structures.
Mesoscale elastic properties of marine sponge spicules.
Zhang, Yaqi; Reed, Bryan W; Chung, Frank R; Koski, Kristie J
2016-01-01
Marine sponge spicules are silicate fibers with an unusual combination of fracture toughness and optical light propagation properties due to their micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structure. We present optical measurements of the elastic properties of Tethya aurantia and Euplectella aspergillum marine sponge spicules using non-invasive Brillouin and Raman laser light scattering, thus probing the hierarchical structure on two very different scales. On the scale of single bonds, as probed by Raman scattering, the spicules resemble a combination of pure silica and mixed organic content. On the mesoscopic scale probed by Brillouin scattering, we show that while some properties (Young's moduli, shear moduli, one of the anisotropic Poisson ratios and refractive index) are nearly the same as those of artificial optical fiber, other properties (uniaxial moduli, bulk modulus and a distinctive anisotropic Poisson ratio) are significantly smaller. Thus this natural composite of largely isotropic materials yields anisotropic elastic properties on the mesoscale. We show that the spicules' optical waveguide properties lead to pronounced spontaneous Brillouin backscattering, a process related to the stimulated Brillouin backscattering process well known in artificial glass fibers. These measurements provide a clearer picture of the interplay of flexibility, strength, and material microstructure for future functional biomimicry.
Mesoscale elastic properties of marine sponge spicules.
Zhang, Yaqi; Reed, Bryan W; Chung, Frank R; Koski, Kristie J
2016-01-01
Marine sponge spicules are silicate fibers with an unusual combination of fracture toughness and optical light propagation properties due to their micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structure. We present optical measurements of the elastic properties of Tethya aurantia and Euplectella aspergillum marine sponge spicules using non-invasive Brillouin and Raman laser light scattering, thus probing the hierarchical structure on two very different scales. On the scale of single bonds, as probed by Raman scattering, the spicules resemble a combination of pure silica and mixed organic content. On the mesoscopic scale probed by Brillouin scattering, we show that while some properties (Young's moduli, shear moduli, one of the anisotropic Poisson ratios and refractive index) are nearly the same as those of artificial optical fiber, other properties (uniaxial moduli, bulk modulus and a distinctive anisotropic Poisson ratio) are significantly smaller. Thus this natural composite of largely isotropic materials yields anisotropic elastic properties on the mesoscale. We show that the spicules' optical waveguide properties lead to pronounced spontaneous Brillouin backscattering, a process related to the stimulated Brillouin backscattering process well known in artificial glass fibers. These measurements provide a clearer picture of the interplay of flexibility, strength, and material microstructure for future functional biomimicry. PMID:26672719
Single-Crystal Elasticity of Earth Materials: An Appraisal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duffy, T. S.
2015-12-01
The elastic properties of minerals are of central importance for interpreting seismic data for the Earth's crust, mantle, and core. Mineral elasticity data also have more general applications towards understanding equations of state, phase equilibria, interatomic forces, material strength, and phase transitions. The singe-crystal elastic properties are the most generally useful as they provide complete information on the anisotropy of elastic moduli (e.g. Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus), sound velocities, and compressibility. Measurement of the full set of single-crystal elastic properties remains challenging especially for lower symmetry crystals. In this talk, I present an overview of our current understanding of single-crystal elasticity based on a newly constructed database of single-crystal elastic properties. At ambient conditions the full elastic tensor of about 150 minerals have now been measured, along with about another 60 related compounds that are not formally minerals. About two-thirds of the measured minerals are oxides or silicates. A limitation of the existing database is that only about 10% of the measurements are on crystals of monoclinic or triclinic symmetry, while these two systems account for about 40% of known minerals. Additionally, only a smaller subset of minerals have been examined at high pressure or temperature conditions. Several applications of the database will be presented emphasizing trends in elastic anisotropy. The pyroxenes will be used as an illustrative example.
Elastic and viscous properties of Silly Putty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cross, Rod
2012-10-01
We consider in this paper the elastic and viscous properties of Silly Putty and confirm the well known fact that the properties depend on the rate at which the material is deformed. Rapid deformations were studied by dropping masses onto one end of a Silly Putty cylinder, and slow deformations were studied by compressing the cylinder in a materials testing machine. The results were compared with a simple engineering model of viscoelastic materials to estimate the stiffness and the viscosity of the Silly Putty cylinder. It was found that stress induced in Silly Putty relaxes with a time constant of about 0.1 s, Young's modulus for a rapid deformation is about 1.7 × 106 N/m2, and the viscosity for a slow compression is about 8 × 104 Pa s. When subject to a short impact, Silly Putty vibrates as a result of compressional wave propagation through the material.
Coupling of elasticity to capillarity in soft aerated materials.
Ducloué, Lucie; Pitois, Olivier; Goyon, Julie; Chateau, Xavier; Ovarlez, Guillaume
2014-07-28
We study the elastic properties of soft solids containing air bubbles. Contrary to standard porous materials, the softness of the matrix allows for a coupling of the matrix elasticity to surface tension forces acting on the bubble surface. Thanks to appropriate experiments on model systems, we demonstrate how the elastic response of the soft porous solid is governed by two dimensionless parameters: the gas volume fraction and a capillary number comparing the elasticity of the matrix with the stiffness of the bubbles. Furthermore, we show that our experimental results are accurately predicted by computations of the shear modulus through a micro-mechanical approach.
Nonlinear elastic properties of particulate composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yi-Chao; Jiang, Xiaohu
1993-07-01
A METHOD of computing effective elastic moduli of isotropic nonlinear composites is developed by using a perturbation scheme. It is demonstrated that only solutions from linear elasticity are needed in computing higher order moduli. As an application of the method, particulate composites of nonlinear elastic materials are analysed.
Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, En-Bo; Gu, Guo-Qing; Poon, Ying-Ming
2010-09-01
Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeppson, T.; Tobin, H. J.
2014-12-01
The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw=9.0) produced large displacements of ~50 meters near the Japan Trench. In order to understand earthquake propagation and slip stabilization in this environment, quantitative values of the real elastic properties of fault zones and their surrounding wall rock material is crucial. Because elastic and mechanical properties of faults and wallrocks are controlling factors in fault strength, earthquake generation and propagation, and slip stabilization, an understanding of these properties and their depth dependence is essential to understanding and accurately modeling earthquake rupture. In particular, quantitatively measured S-wave speeds, needed for estimation of elastic properties, are scarce in the literature. We report laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements performed at elevated pressures, as well as the calculated dynamic elastic moduli, for samples of the rock surrounding the Tohoku earthquake principal fault zone recovered by drilling during IODP Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). We performed measurements on five samples of gray mudstone from the hanging wall and one sample of underthrust brown mudstone from the footwall. We find P- and S-wave velocities of 2.0 to 2.4 km/s and 0.7 to 1.0 km/s, respectively, at 5 MPa effective pressure. At the same effective pressure, the hanging wall samples have shear moduli ranging from 1.4 to 2.2 GPa and the footwall sample has a shear modulus of 1.0 GPa. While these values are perhaps not surprising for shallow, clay-rich subduction zone sediments, they are substantially lower than the 30 GPa commonly assumed for rigidity in earthquake rupture and propagation models [e.g., Ide et al., 1993; Liu and Rice, 2005; Loveless and Meade, 2011]. In order to better understand the elastic properties of shallow subduction zone sediments, our measurements from the Japan Trench are compared to similar shallow drill core samples from the Nankai Trough, Costa Rica
Accurate estimation of the elastic properties of porous fibers
Thissell, W.R.; Zurek, A.K.; Addessio, F.
1997-05-01
A procedure is described to calculate polycrystalline anisotropic fiber elastic properties with cylindrical symmetry and porosity. It uses a preferred orientation model (Tome ellipsoidal self-consistent model) for the determination of anisotropic elastic properties for the case of highly oriented carbon fibers. The model predictions, corrected for porosity, are compared to back-calculated fiber elastic properties of an IM6/3501-6 unidirectional composite whose elastic properties have been determined via resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. The Halpin-Tsai equations used to back-calculated fiber elastic properties are found to be inappropriate for anisotropic composite constituents. Modifications are proposed to the Halpin-Tsai equations to expand their applicability to anisotropic reinforcement materials.
Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy: Elastic properties of some intermetallic compounds
Chu, F.; Thoma, D.J.; He, Y.; Maloy, S.A.; Mitchell, T.E.
1996-09-01
A novel nondestructive evaluation method, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS), is reviewed with an emphasis upon defining the elastic properties of intermetallic phases. The applications and advantages of RUS as compared to other conventional elastic constant measurement methods are explained. RUS has been employed to measure the elastic properties of single crystal and/or polycrystalline intermetallics, such as Laves phases (C15 HfV{sub 2} and NbCr{sub 2}), Nb-modified titanium aluminides, and transition metal disilicides (C11{sub b} MoSi{sub 2}, C40 NbSi{sub 2} and TaSi{sub 2}). For Laves phases, the elastic properties of HfV{sub 2}-based C15 phases show various anomalies and those of C15 NbCr{sub 2} do not. For Nb-modified titanium aluminides, the elastic properties of O-phase alloys are investigated as a function of alloying content. For transition metal disilicides, single crystal elastic constants of MoSi{sub 2}, NbSi{sub 2}, and TaSi{sub 2} are obtained and compared. Based on the experimentally determined elastic properties, the characteristics of interatomic bonding in these materials are examined and the possible impact of the elastic properties on mechanical behavior is discussed.
Introduction to physical properties and elasticity models: Chapter 20
Dvorkin, Jack; Helgerud, Michael B.; Waite, William F.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Nur, Amos
2003-01-01
Estimating the in situ methane hydrate volume from seismic surveys requires knowledge of the rock physics relations between wave speeds and elastic moduli in hydrate/sediment mixtures. The elastic moduli of hydrate/sediment mixtures depend on the elastic properties of the individual sedimentary particles and the manner in which they are arranged. In this chapter, we present some rock physics data currently available from literature. The unreferenced values in Table I were not measured directly, but were derived from other values in Tables I and II using standard relationships between elastic properties for homogeneous, isotropic material. These derivations allow us to extend the list of physical property estimates, but at the expense of introducing uncertainties due to combining property values measured under different physical conditions. This is most apparent in the case of structure II (sII) hydrate for which very few physical properties have been measured under identical conditions.
Elastic Properties of Sedimentary Rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melendez Martinez, Jaime
Sedimentary rocks are an important research topic since such rocks are associated to sources of ground water as well as oil, gas, and mineral reservoirs. In this work, elastic and physical properties of a variety of sedimentary samples that include glacial sediments, carbonates, shales, one evaporite, and one argillite from a variety of locations are investigated. Assuming vertical transverse isotropy, ultrasonic compressional- and shear-waves (at 1 MHz central frequency) were measured as a function of confining pressure on all samples with the exception of glacial samples which were tested assuming isotropy. Tensile strength tests (Brazilian test) were also carried out on selected glacial samples and, in addition, static-train measurements were conducted on shales and argillite samples. Lithological and textural features of samples were obtained through thin section techniques, scanning electron microscopy images and micro-tomography images. X-ray diffraction and X-Ray fluorescence provided the mineralogical oxides content information. Porosity, density, and pore structure were studied by using a mercury intrusion porosimeter and a helium pycnometer. The wide range of porosities of the studied samples (ranging from a minimum of 1% for shales to a maximum 45% for some glacial sediments) influence the measured velocities since high porosity sample shows an noticeable velocity increment as confining pressure increases as a consequence of closure of microcracks and pores, unlike low porosity samples where increment is quasi-lineal. Implementation of Gassmann's relation to ultrasonic velocities obtained from glacial samples has negligible impact on them when assuming water saturated samples, which suggests that state of saturation it is no so important in defining such velocities and instead they are mainly frame-controlled. On the other hand, velocities measured on carbonate and evaporite samples show that samples are at best weak anisotropic, thus the intrinsic
Statistical properties of a folded elastic rod
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayart, Elsa; Deboeuf, Stéphanie; Boué, Laurent; Corson, Francis; Boudaoud, Arezki; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar
2010-03-01
A large variety of elastic structures naturally seem to be confined into environments too small to accommodate them; the geometry of folded structures span a wide range of length-scales. The elastic properties of these confined systems are further constrained by self-avoidance as well as by the dimensionality of both structures and container. To mimic crumpled paper, we devised an experimental setup to study the packing of a dimensional elastic object in 2D geometries: an elastic rod is folded at the center of a circular Hele-Shaw cell by a centripetal force. The initial configuration of the rod and the acceleration of the rotating disk allow to span different final folded configurations while the final rotation speed controls the packing intensity. Using image analysis we measure geometrical and mechanical properties of the folded configurations, focusing on length, curvature and energy distributions.
Anisotropic linear elastic properties of fractal-like composites.
Carpinteri, Alberto; Cornetti, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola; Sapora, Alberto
2010-11-01
In this work, the anisotropic linear elastic properties of two-phase composite materials, made up of square inclusions embedded in a matrix, are investigated. The inclusions present a fractal hierarchical distribution and are supposed to have the same Poisson's ratio as the matrix but a different Young's modulus. The effective elastic moduli of the medium are computed at each fractal iteration by coupling a position-space renormalization-group technique with a finite element analysis. The study allows to obtain and generalize some fundamental properties of fractal composite materials. PMID:21230552
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torti, Russell Guy
1987-09-01
The process of thermooptical generation of Rayleigh waves using a pulsed laser was used to study various physical parameters of materials. The technique of grating enhanced optical probing was employed to detect the Rayleigh waves. Experiments and analyses were performed to measure and calibrate the amplitude of the laser generated surface acoustic waves. The results include: Rayleigh wave velocities, surface displacements, damage thresholds of surfaces, and risetimes of the detected signal. Surface displacement amplitudes as small as 1 times 10^{-2 } A have been detected. Indications of non -linear absorption effects were present in the investigated materials.
Charting the complete elastic properties of inorganic crystalline compounds
de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Angsten, Thomas; Jain, Anubhav; Notestine, Randy; Gamst, Anthony; Sluiter, Marcel; Krishna Ande, Chaitanya; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Plata, Jose J; Toher, Cormac; Curtarolo, Stefano; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin A.; Asta, Mark
2015-01-01
The elastic constant tensor of an inorganic compound provides a complete description of the response of the material to external stresses in the elastic limit. It thus provides fundamental insight into the nature of the bonding in the material, and it is known to correlate with many mechanical properties. Despite the importance of the elastic constant tensor, it has been measured for a very small fraction of all known inorganic compounds, a situation that limits the ability of materials scientists to develop new materials with targeted mechanical responses. To address this deficiency, we present here the largest database of calculated elastic properties for inorganic compounds to date. The database currently contains full elastic information for 1,181 inorganic compounds, and this number is growing steadily. The methods used to develop the database are described, as are results of tests that establish the accuracy of the data. In addition, we document the database format and describe the different ways it can be accessed and analyzed in efforts related to materials discovery and design. PMID:25984348
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djellab, Sihem; Bouhadda, Youcef; Bououdina, Mohamed; Fenineche, Noureddine; Boudouma, Youcef
2016-08-01
The structural, electronic and elastic properties of MgH2, CaH2 and Ca4Mg3H14 have been determined using first principles calculation based on density functional theory. The calculated lattice constants were in good agreement with the experimental values. The electronic density of states revealed that these hydrides are insulators. The calculated elastic constants of MgH2, CaH2 and Ca4Mg3H14 indicated that these hydrides are mechanically stable at zero pressure. The bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio ν were derived, and the ductility was discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perreard, I. M.; Pattison, A. J.; Doyley, M.; McGarry, M. D. J.; Barani, Z.; Van Houten, E. E.; Weaver, J. B.; Paulsen, K. D.
2010-11-01
The mechanical model commonly used in magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is linear elasticity. However, soft tissue may exhibit frequency- and direction-dependent (FDD) shear moduli in response to an induced excitation causing a purely linear elastic model to provide an inaccurate image reconstruction of its mechanical properties. The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of reconstructing FDD data using a linear elastic inversion (LEI) algorithm. Linear and FDD phantoms were manufactured and LEI images were obtained from time-harmonic MRE acquisitions with variations in frequency and driving signal amplitude. LEI responses to artificially imposed uniform phase shifts in the displacement data from both purely linear elastic and FDD phantoms were also evaluated. Of the variety of FDD phantoms considered, LEI appeared to tolerate viscoelastic data-model mismatch better than deviations caused by poroelastic and anisotropic mechanical properties in terms of visual image contrast. However, the estimated shear modulus values were substantially incorrect relative to independent mechanical measurements even in the successful viscoelastic cases and the variations in mean values with changes in experimental conditions associated with uniform phase shifts, driving signal frequency and amplitude were unpredictable. Overall, use of LEI to reconstruct data acquired in phantoms with FDD material properties provided biased results under the best conditions and significant artifacts in the worst cases. These findings suggest that the success with which LEI is applied to MRE data in tissue will depend on the underlying mechanical characteristics of the tissues and/or organs systems of clinical interest.
A cohesive granular material with tunable elasticity
Hemmerle, Arnaud; Schröter, Matthias; Goehring, Lucas
2016-01-01
By mixing glass beads with a curable polymer we create a well-defined cohesive granular medium, held together by solidified, and hence elastic, capillary bridges. This material has a geometry similar to a wet packing of beads, but with an additional control over the elasticity of the bonds holding the particles together. We show that its mechanical response can be varied over several orders of magnitude by adjusting the size and stiffness of the bridges, and the size of the particles. We also investigate its mechanism of failure under unconfined uniaxial compression in combination with in situ x-ray microtomography. We show that a broad linear-elastic regime ends at a limiting strain of about 8%, whatever the stiffness of the agglomerate, which corresponds to the beginning of shear failure. The possibility to finely tune the stiffness, size and shape of this simple material makes it an ideal model system for investigations on, for example, fracturing of porous rocks, seismology, or root growth in cohesive porous media. PMID:27774988
Elastic Properties of Plasticine, Silly Putty, and Tennis Strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cross, Rod
2012-12-01
How would a physicist describe the elastic properties of an apple or a banana? Physics students and teachers are familiar with the elastic properties of metal springs, but are likely to be less familiar with the elastic properties of other common materials. The behavior of a metal spring is commonly examined in the laboratory by adding masses to measure the change in the extension or compression. A banana or an apple or any other relatively soft material could just as easily be examined in the same way, as an additional and entertaining exercise. Even if an apparatus is not readily available to undertake such an experiment, it can easily be constructed.1,2 In this article I compare the elastic properties of Plasticine (a brand of modeling clay), Silly Putty, and tennis strings. All three materials behave in the same qualitative manner when stretched or compressed slowly, despite the fact that they are quite different when stretched or compressed rapidly and despite the fact that Plasticine and Silly Putty are both much softer than a tennis string. Typical results for a slow deformation are shown in Fig. 1.
Propagation of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials.
Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Wieja, K
2016-02-01
This paper presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous functionally graded elastic materials, which is a vital problem in the mechanics of solids. The elastic properties (shear modulus) of a semi-infinite elastic half-space vary monotonically with the depth (distance from the surface of the material). The Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem that describes the propagation of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials is formulated and solved by using two methods: i.e., (1) Finite Difference Method, and (2) Haskell-Thompson Transfer Matrix Method. The dispersion curves of phase and group velocity of surface Love waves in inhomogeneous elastic graded materials are evaluated. The integral formula for the group velocity of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic graded materials has been established. The effect of elastic non-homogeneities on the dispersion curves of Love waves is discussed. Two Love wave waveguide structures are analyzed: (1) a nonhomogeneous elastic surface layer deposited on a homogeneous elastic substrate, and (2) a semi-infinite nonhomogeneous elastic half-space. Obtained in this work, the phase and group velocity dispersion curves of Love waves propagating in the considered nonhomogeneous elastic waveguides have not previously been reported in the scientific literature. The results of this paper may give a deeper insight into the nature of Love waves propagation in elastic nonhomogeneous functionally graded materials, and can provide theoretical guidance for the design and optimization of Love wave based devices.
Charge renormalization of bilayer elastic properties.
Sknepnek, Rastko; Vernizzi, Graziano; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica
2012-09-14
By combining molecular dynamics simulations and analytical arguments, we investigate the elastic properties of charged lipid bilayers. We show that electrostatic interactions between the head groups can lead to solidification of the lipid bilayer that would otherwise be in a liquid state if the charges were absent. All elastic parameters of the bilayer such as the bending rigidity κ and the two-dimensional bulk modulus λ and Young's modulus Y are found to depend on the values of the charges assigned to the lipid head groups. To extract κ and λ, we fit the molecular dynamics data to a standard elastic model for lipid bilayers. Moreover, we analytically obtain the dependence of the Young modulus Y on the relative strengths of electrostatic and van der Waals interactions in the zero temperature limit.
Elastic properties of functionalized carbon nanotubes.
Milowska, Karolina Z; Majewski, Jacek A
2013-09-14
We study the effects of covalent functionalization of single wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) on their elastic properties. We consider simple organic molecules -NH, -NH2, -CH2, -CH3, -OH attached to CNTs' surface at various densities. The studies are based on the first principles calculations in the framework of density functional theory. We have determined the changes in the geometry and the elastic moduli of the functionalized CNTs as a function of the density of adsorbed molecules. It turns out that elastic moduli diminish with increasing concentration of adsorbents, however, the functionalized CNTs remain strong enough to be suitable for reinforcement of composites. The strongest effect is observed for CNTs functionalized with -CH2 radical, where the Young's modulus of the functionalized system is 30% smaller than in the pristine CNTs.
Elastic properties of magnetosome chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiani, Bahareh; Faivre, Damien; Klumpp, Stefan
2015-04-01
Magnetotactic bacteria swim and orient in the direction of a magnetic field thanks to the magnetosome chain, a cellular ‘compass needle’ that consists of a string of vesicle-enclosed magnetic nanoparticles aligned on a cytoskeletal filament. Here we investigate the mechanical properties of such a chain, in particular the bending stiffness. We determine the contribution of magnetic interactions to the bending stiffness and the persistence length of the chain. This contribution is comparable to, but typically smaller than the contribution of the semiflexible filament. For a chain of magnetic nanoparticles without a semiflexible filament, the linear configuration is typically metastable and the lowest energy structures are closed chains (flux closure rings) without a net magnetic moment that are thus not functional as a cellular compass. Our calculations show that the presence of the cytoskeletal filament stabilizes the chain against ring closure, either thermodynamically or kinetically, depending on the stiffness of the filament, confirming that such stabilization is one of the roles of this structure in these bacterial cells.
Membrane Elastic Properties and Cell Function
Pontes, Bruno; Ayala, Yareni; Fonseca, Anna Carolina C.; Romão, Luciana F.; Amaral, Racκele F.; Salgado, Leonardo T.; Lima, Flavia R.; Farina, Marcos; Viana, Nathan B.; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo; Nussenzveig, H. Moysés
2013-01-01
Recent studies indicate that the cell membrane, interacting with its attached cytoskeleton, is an important regulator of cell function, exerting and responding to forces. We investigate this relationship by looking for connections between cell membrane elastic properties, especially surface tension and bending modulus, and cell function. Those properties are measured by pulling tethers from the cell membrane with optical tweezers. Their values are determined for all major cell types of the central nervous system, as well as for macrophage. Astrocytes and glioblastoma cells, which are considerably more dynamic than neurons, have substantially larger surface tensions. Resting microglia, which continually scan their environment through motility and protrusions, have the highest elastic constants, with values similar to those for resting macrophage. For both microglia and macrophage, we find a sharp softening of bending modulus between their resting and activated forms, which is very advantageous for their acquisition of phagocytic functions upon activation. We also determine the elastic constants of pure cell membrane, with no attached cytoskeleton. For all cell types, the presence of F-actin within tethers, contrary to conventional wisdom, is confirmed. Our findings suggest the existence of a close connection between membrane elastic constants and cell function. PMID:23844071
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, V.; Petronyuk, Yu.; Morokov, E.; Chernozatonskii, L.; Kuzhir, P.; Fierro, V.; Celzard, A.; Bellucci, S.; Bistarelli, S.; Mastrucci, M.; Tabacchioni, I.
2016-05-01
Bulk microstructure and elastic properties of epoxy-nanocarbon nanocomposites for diverse types and different content of carbon nanofiller has been studied by using impulse acoustic microscopy technique. It has been shown occurrence of various types of mesoscopic structure formed by nanoparticles inside the bulk of nanocomposite materials, including nanoparticle conglomerates and nanoparticle aerogel systems. In spite of the bulk microstructure, nanocarbon composites demonstrate elastic uniformity and negligible influence of nanofiller on elastic properties of carbon nanocomposite materials.
Elastic properties of woven fabric reinforced composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramnath, V.
1985-01-01
An analytical model for the realistic representation of a woven fabric reinforced composite is presented in this paper. The approach uses a variable cross-section geometric model in order to achieve geometric compatibility at the yarn cross-over regions. Admissible displacement and stress fields are used to determine bounds on the fabric elastic properties. The approach adopted enables the determination of the complete three-dimensional woven fabric composite properties. The in-plane fabric properties obtained through this approach have been compared with results obtained from other approaches existing in the literature. Also, comparisons made with available experimental data indicate good agreement.
Crystal Structure Anisotropy Explains Anomalous Elastic Properties of Metal Nanorods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goupalov, Serguei
2014-03-01
It is demonstrated that the frequency of the extensional vibrational mode of a nanorod made of an elastically anisotropic crystalline material deviates widely from the predictions of the theories based on the analysis of the long-wavelength limit. The dispersion relation for the fundamental extensional mode of a gold rod grown in the [ 100 ] direction is calculated and found to be in an excellent agreement with experimental data obtained from the transient optical absorption measurements on gold nanorods.[1] This explains an anomaly in the elastic properties of nanorods which was previously attributed to a 26% decrease in Young's modulus for nanorods compared to its bulk value.
Linear elastic properties derivation from microstructures representative of transport parameters.
Hoang, Minh Tan; Bonnet, Guy; Tuan Luu, Hoang; Perrot, Camille
2014-06-01
It is shown that three-dimensional periodic unit cells (3D PUC) representative of transport parameters involved in the description of long wavelength acoustic wave propagation and dissipation through real foam samples may also be used as a standpoint to estimate their macroscopic linear elastic properties. Application of the model yields quantitative agreement between numerical homogenization results, available literature data, and experiments. Key contributions of this work include recognizing the importance of membranes and properties of the base material for the physics of elasticity. The results of this paper demonstrate that a 3D PUC may be used to understand and predict not only the sound absorbing properties of porous materials but also their transmission loss, which is critical for sound insulation problems. PMID:24907783
Interface waves in almost incompressible elastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Virta, Kristoffer; Kreiss, Gunilla
2015-12-01
We study the problem of two elastic half-planes in contact and the Stoneley interface wave that may exist at the interface between two different elastic materials, emphasis being put on the case when the half-planes are almost incompressible. We show that numerical simulations involving interface waves require an unexpectedly high number of grid points per wavelength as the materials become more incompressible. Let λ, μ, ρ and λ‧, μ‧, ρ‧ be the Lamé parameters and densities of the first and second half-plane, respectively. A theoretical study shows that if K is a real constant, λ‧ = Kλ, μ‧ = Kμ, ρ‧ = Kρ and μ → 0, then for an accurate solution the required number of grid points per wavelength scales as (μ / λ) - 1 / p, where p is the order of accuracy of the numerical method. This requirement becomes very restrictive close to the incompressible limit μ ≪ λ, especially for lower order methods i.e., a small p. The theoretical findings are supported by numerical experiments that illustrate the demanding resolution requirement as well as the superiority of higher order methods. The scaling is also seen to hold for a more general choice of Lamé parameters. Numerical experiments when one of the half-planes is a vacuum are also presented, where the higher resolution requirement is illustrated in a numerical solution of Lamb's problem.
Elastic properties of hollow colloidal particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zoldesi, C. I.; Ivanovska, I. L.; Quilliet, C.; Wuite, G. J. L.; Imhof, A.
2008-11-01
The elastic properties of micrometer-sized hollow colloidal particles obtained by emulsion templating are probed by nanoindentation measurements in which point forces are applied to solvent-filled particles supported on a flat substrate. We show that the shells respond linearly up to forces of 7-21nN , where the indentation becomes of the order of the shell thickness (20-40nm) . In the linear region, the particle deformation is reversible. The measured Young’s modulus (˜200MPa) is comparable to values for stiff rubbers or soft polymers. At larger applied force, we observe a crossover into a nonlinear regime, where the shells assume a buckled shape. Here, the force increases approximately as the square root of the indentation, in agreement with the theory of elasticity of thin shells. We also observe permanent deformation of the shells after probing them repetitively beyond the linear regime. Finally, the measured elastic properties of the shells nicely explain their spontaneous buckling in solution and due to drying.
Elastic properties of alkali-feldspars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waeselmann, N.; Brown, J.; Angel, R. J.; Ross, N.; Kaminsky, W.
2013-12-01
New measurements of single crystal elastic moduli for a suite of the alkali feldspars are reported. In order to interpret Earth's seismic structure, knowledge of the elastic properties of constituent minerals is essential. The elasticity of feldspar minerals, despite being the most abundant phase in Earth's crust (estimated to be more than 60%), were previously poorly characterized. All prior seismic and petrologic studies have utilized 50-year-old results, of questionable quality, based on 1-bar measurements on pseudo-single crystals. Alkali-feldspars present a large experimental challenge associated with their structural complexity. In the K-end member (KAlSi3O8) the symmetry is governed by Al/Si ordering, in the Na-end member (NaAlSi3O8) the symmetry is governed by whether or not there is a displacive collapse of the framework independent of the Al/Si ordering. K-feldspars exhibit monoclinic (C2/m) symmetry (necessitating determination of 13 elastic moduli) if disordered and triclinic (C-1) symmetry (21 elastic moduli) if ordered. Exsolution of Na-rich and K-rich phases is ubiquitous in natural samples, making it difficult to find suitable single phase and untwinned samples for study. The small single domain samples selected for this study were previously characterized by x-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis to ensure adequate sample quality. Surface wave velocities were measured on oriented surfaces of natural and synthetic single crystals using impulsively stimulated light scattering. A surface corrugation with a spacing of about 2 microns was impulsively created by the overlap of 100 ps infrared light pulses. The time evolution of the stimulated standing elastic waves was detected by measuring the intensity of diffraction from the surface corrugation of a variably delayed probe pulse. This method allows accurate (better than 0.2%) determination of velocities on samples smaller than 100 microns. The combination of measured surface wave velocities and
Learning targeted materials properties from data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lookman, Turab; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Dezhen, Xue; Theiler, James; Hogden, John
We compare several strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young's (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The strategy is decomposed into two steps: a regressor is trained to predict elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sava, Mihaela; Hadǎr, Anton; Pǎrǎuşanu, Ioan; Petrescu, Horia-Alexandru; Baciu, Florin; Marinel, Stǎnescu Marius
2016-06-01
The influence of discontinuities is important for a correct determination of static and dynamic elastic characteristics of the material. In this paper we presented differences arising between the elastic modulus static and dynamic, laminated composite materials reinforced with carbon fiber, aramid and carbon-aramid, depending on the non-uniformity coefficient. For the study were determined static elastic modulus by carrying out traction tests and dynamic elastic modulus by determining the vibration frequency, on specimens of each type of material with and without discontinuities [1]. The elastic properties of composite materials resistance and can be influenced by various defects that arise from technological manufacturing process. This is important for the production of large series of parts of fiber-reinforced composite material, the fibers in the matrix distribution is not uniform. Studies on the mechanical behavior of composites with random distribution of fabrics are made in [2].
Half-oxidized phosphorene: band gap and elastic properties modulation.
Drissi, L B; Sadki, S; Sadki, K
2016-04-13
Based on a first principles approach, we study structural, electronic and elastic properties, as well as stabilities of all possible half-oxidized phosphorene conformers. Stability analysis reveals that oxygen chemisorption is an exothermic process in the six configurations despite the formation of interstitial oxygen bridges in three of them. Electronic structure calculations show that oxidation induces a band gap modulation ranging between 0.54 and 1.57 eV in the generalized gradient approximation corrected to 1.19 and 2.88 eV using GW. The mechanical response of the conformers is sensitively dependent on direction and indicates that the new derivatives are incompressible materials and one configuration has an auxetic behavior. The present results provide a basis for tailoring the electronic and elastic properties of phosphorene via half oxidation. PMID:26964522
Half-oxidized phosphorene: band gap and elastic properties modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drissi, L. B.; Sadki, S.; Sadki, K.
2016-04-01
Based on a first principles approach, we study structural, electronic and elastic properties, as well as stabilities of all possible half-oxidized phosphorene conformers. Stability analysis reveals that oxygen chemisorption is an exothermic process in the six configurations despite the formation of interstitial oxygen bridges in three of them. Electronic structure calculations show that oxidation induces a band gap modulation ranging between 0.54 and 1.57 eV in the generalized gradient approximation corrected to 1.19 and 2.88 eV using GW. The mechanical response of the conformers is sensitively dependent on direction and indicates that the new derivatives are incompressible materials and one configuration has an auxetic behavior. The present results provide a basis for tailoring the electronic and elastic properties of phosphorene via half oxidation.
Simple models of unusual elastic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wojciechowski, K. W.
2004-04-01
Elastic properties of a class of two-dimensional model systems, consisted of hard cyclic multimers, are discussed. Each multimer is composed of m = 3k (where k is a positive integer) hard discs of diameter σ and centers forming a perfect polygon of m-sides, where the side length is l. Close packed structures of such systems, which are isotropic from the point of view of elastic properties, were solved exactly in the close packing limit at zero temperature. It was shown that the Poisson ratio, vP, of the multimers is negative when their roughness parameter, defined as α ≡ l/(2σ), is large. In the limit m → ∞ one obtains hard disc-like particles, which in contrast to the standard hard discs are rough. It is conjectured that the formula obtained for the Poisson ratio of the 3k-multimers, vP = (1 - 2α2)/(3 - 2α2), is valid also for m ≠ 3k in the limit m → ∞.
Contribution of domain 30 of tropoelastin to elastic fiber formation and material elasticity.
Muiznieks, Lisa D; Miao, Ming; Sitarz, Eva E; Keeley, Fred W
2016-05-01
Elastin is a fibrous structural protein of the extracellular matrix that provides reversible elastic recoil to vertebrate tissues such as arterial vessels, lung, and skin. The elastin monomer, tropoelastin, contains a large proportion of intrinsically disordered and flexible hydrophobic sequences that collectively are responsible for the initial phase separation of monomers during assembly, and are essential for driving elastic recoil. While structural disorder of hydrophobic sequences is controlled by a high proline and glycine residue composition, hydrophobic domain 30 of human tropoelastin is atypically proline-poor, and forms β-sheet amyloid-like fibrils as an individual peptide. We explored the contribution of confined regions of secondary structure at the location of domain 30 in human tropoelastin to fiber assembly and mechanical properties using a set of mutations designed to inhibit or enhance the propensity of β-sheet formation at this location. Our data support a dual role for confined β-sheet secondary structure in domain 30 of tropoelastin in guiding the formation of fibers, and as a determinant of stiffness and viscoelastic properties of cross-linked materials. Together, these results suggest a mechanism for specificity in fiber assembly, and elucidate structure-function relationships for the rational design of elastomeric biomaterials with defined mechanical properties. PMID:26763595
Dielectric and elastic properties of liquid crystals.
Zakharov, A V; Dong, R Y
2001-09-01
The structural properties, the static and relaxation dielectric coefficients [epsilon(j) and epsilon(j)(omega) (j= ||, perpendicular)], the rotational diffusion constants D( perpendicular) and D( ||), the orientational correlation times tau(1)(i0) (i=0,1), and the bulk elastic constants K(i) (i=1,2,3) are investigated for polar liquid crystals, such as 4-n-pentyl-4(')-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). epsilon(j) are calculated by a combination of the existing molecular theory and statistical-mechanical approach (SMA) that takes into account translational and orientational correlations as well as their coupling, whereas epsilon(j)(omega) are calculated by combining SMA and nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation theory, both based on a rotational diffusion model in which the reorientation of an individual molecule is assumed as stochastic Brownian motion in a potential of mean torque. Reasonable agreement between the calculated and experimental values of epsilon(j) and epsilon(j)(omega) for 5CB is obtained. The bulk Frank elastic constants K(i) (i=1,2,3), for splay, twist, and bend distortion modes, as well as their ratios K(3)/K(1) and K(2)/K(1) are also obtained.
The elastic properties of fractured rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darcel, C.; Le Goc, R.; Davy, P.
2013-12-01
The consequences of fracturing on rock mass strength still remain an issue for rock engineering practices, including excavation or repository design, support design, slope stability and caving in mines. The difficulty is twice and concerns both the description of the fracturing pattern, and the relationship between fracture characteristics and rock mass mechanical properties. This is generally assessed by empirical knowledge but no complete quantitative and theoretical relations are yet established. To our knowledge, the only theoretical work was to found a relationship between the elastic strength and the percolation parameter (i.e. a normalized sum of the cube of fracture radius) for 3D frictionless fracture networks. The relationship has been demonstrated for Poissonian (randomly distributed) low-density (i.e. where fractures are not almost intersecting) networks, with a narrow range of fracture radius. By means of finite-element models and Green's function methods, we extend the analysis to fracture networks with geologically realistic geometry: i.e. non-Poissonian, relatively high densities, and power-law length distributions. The elastic strength of the fractured rock mass is still found to decrease exponentially with the percolation parameter on average. But large deviations from the mean exist for heavy tailed fracture length distribution, i.e. when the probability of having fractures of the order of the system size is no more negligible. We discuss the way to ameliorate the prediction by taking into account configuration details that are not described by statistical parameters.
Ab Initio Thermochemistry and Elastic Properties of Alkaline Earth Hydrides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hector, Louis, Jr.; Herbst, Jan; Wolf, Walter; Saxe, Paul
2006-03-01
In addition to comprising a scientifically interesting class of materials, the binary alkaline earth hydrides are important components of hydrogen sorption/desorption reactions. Of critical importance for predicting the thermodynamic stability of hydrides is the enthalpy of hydride formation, δH, which links the temperature and pressure of hydrogen sorption via the van't Hoff relation. We compare LDA and GGA predictions of the heats of formation and elastic properties of alkaline earth metals and their binary hydrides BeH2, MgH2, CaH2, SrH2, and BaH2 using a plane wave density functional method. Phonon calculations using the direct method enabled prediction of the zero point energies of each material and the 0K and 298K heats of formation. We also computed the 0K and 298K cohesive energies for the alkaline earth metals. Born effective charge tensors were computed via the Berry phase method and enabled prediction of the phonon dispersion curves with LO/TO zone center splittings. It was found that the LO/TO splittings have no effect on the computed zero point energies and heats of formation. The elastic constants were computed with a least squares fitting method using a set of sequentially-applied strains to improve the accuracy of each calculation. Comparison of results from the least squares methodology with prior results using the Hartree-Fock method suggest that the former is substantially more accurate for predicting hydride elastic properties.
Elastic properties of liquid and solid argon in nanopores.
Schappert, Klaus; Pelster, Rolf
2013-10-16
We have measured sorption isotherms and determined the intrinsic longitudinal elastic modulus β(Ar,ads) of nanoconfined material via ultrasonic measurements combined with a special effective medium analysis. In the liquid regime the adsorbate only contributes to the measured effective properties when the pores are completely filled and the modulus is bulklike. At partial fillings its contribution is cancelled out by the high compressibility of the vapour phase. In contrast, at lower temperatures frozen argon as well as underlying liquid surface layers cause a linear increase of the effective longitudinal modulus upon filling. During sorption the contribution of the liquid surface layers near the pore wall β(Ar,surf) increases with the thickness of the solid layers reaching the bulk value β(Ar,liquid) only in the limit of complete pore filling. We interpret this effect as due to the gradual stiffening of the solid argon membrane. The measurements and their analysis show that longitudinal ultrasonic waves are well suited to the study of the elastic properties and liquid-solid phase transitions in porous systems. This method should also help to detect the influence of nanoconfinement on elastic properties in further research.
Designing a prosthesis to simulate the elastic properties of skin.
Bellamy, K E; Waters, M G J
2005-01-01
The materials which are currently used to make maxillofacial prostheses are far from ideal and require considerable improvement with respect to their ability to mimic the properties of skin. To this aim, a novel three-layered maxillofacial prosthesis has been designed consisting of a silicone rubber base layer, an inner gel layer and an outer polymeric coating (to simulate the elastic properties of skin). The aim of the work in this study was to develop the inner silicone gel layer which displays similar properties to facial skin. Through the use of unique linear extensometry testing, in vivo measurements for the Area under the Curve (AUC), Hysteresis (viscoelastic behaviour), Fmax (maximum force), F30 and F60 (force after 30 and 60 seconds) were obtained from the facial skin of 15 volunteers. The results were used as a basis for developing silicone gel formulations for the inner layer, to closely resemble those of facial skin. Gels were made by the addition of both low and high molecular weight unreactive silicone fluids and were further tested for compression, water absorption and dehydration. Testing showed that a gel has been produced that closely simulates the elastic properties of skin when bonded to a base silicone rubber layer. Further testing will need to deduce whether these properties will be affected by the addition of the outer polymeric layer.
Using dynamic holography for studying the elastic properties of solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamshilin, A. A.; Oliva, A.; Moreno, E.
1990-06-01
The elastic properties of several well-known materials (aluminum, duralumin, steel, and PVC) were investigated using an automatic holographic interferometer with a photorefractive electrooptical titanium sillenite crystal (Bi12TiO20). The Young's moduli determined by this method are in good agreement with the values from reference tables. The method is characterized by high reliability and does not require the use of expensive vibration isolation equipment since the reliability of holographic interferograms depends on the adaptability of the crystals to changing external conditions.
Elastic properties of solids at high pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vekilov, Yu Kh; Krasilnikov, O. M.; Lugovskoy, A. V.
2015-11-01
This review examines the elastic response of solids under load. The definitions of isothermal and adiabatic elastic constants of ( n≥2) for a loaded crystal are given. For the case of hydrostatic pressure, two techniques are proposed for calculating the second-, third-, and fourth-order elastic constants from the energy-strain and stress-strain relations. As an example, using the proposed approach within the framework of the density functional theory, the second- to fourth-order elastic constants of bcc tungsten are calculated for the pressure range of 0-600 GPa.
Elastic, plastic, and fracture mechanisms in graphene materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniels, Colin; Horning, Andrew; Phillips, Anthony; Massote, Daniel V. P.; Liang, Liangbo; Bullard, Zachary; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Meunier, Vincent
2015-09-01
In both research and industry, materials will be exposed to stresses, be it during fabrication, normal use, or mechanical failure. The response to external stress will have an important impact on properties, especially when atomic details govern the functionalities of the materials. This review aims at summarizing current research involving the responses of graphene and graphene materials to applied stress at the nanoscale, and to categorize them by stress-strain behavior. In particular, we consider the reversible functionalization of graphene and graphene materials by way of elastic deformation and strain engineering, the plastic deformation of graphene oxide and the emergence of such in normally brittle graphene, the formation of defects as a response to stress under high temperature annealing or irradiation conditions, and the properties that affect how, and mechanisms by which, pristine, defective, and polycrystalline graphene fail catastrophically during fracture. Overall we find that there is significant potential for the use of existing knowledge, especially that of strain engineering, as well as potential for additional research into the fracture mechanics of polycrystalline graphene and device functionalization by way of controllable plastic deformation of graphene.
Elastic, plastic, and fracture mechanisms in graphene materials.
Daniels, Colin; Horning, Andrew; Phillips, Anthony; Massote, Daniel V P; Liang, Liangbo; Bullard, Zachary; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent
2015-09-23
In both research and industry, materials will be exposed to stresses, be it during fabrication, normal use, or mechanical failure. The response to external stress will have an important impact on properties, especially when atomic details govern the functionalities of the materials. This review aims at summarizing current research involving the responses of graphene and graphene materials to applied stress at the nanoscale, and to categorize them by stress-strain behavior. In particular, we consider the reversible functionalization of graphene and graphene materials by way of elastic deformation and strain engineering, the plastic deformation of graphene oxide and the emergence of such in normally brittle graphene, the formation of defects as a response to stress under high temperature annealing or irradiation conditions, and the properties that affect how, and mechanisms by which, pristine, defective, and polycrystalline graphene fail catastrophically during fracture. Overall we find that there is significant potential for the use of existing knowledge, especially that of strain engineering, as well as potential for additional research into the fracture mechanics of polycrystalline graphene and device functionalization by way of controllable plastic deformation of graphene.
Structural and Elastic Properties of Amorphous Silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldman, Joseph; Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitris; Bernstein, Noam; Mehl, Michael
2003-03-01
In this work we study the elastic and structural properties of amorphous silicon using the NRL tight-binding method (N. Bernstein, et al., Phys. Rev. B 62, 4477 (2000).). Using conjugate gradient energy minimization we have relaxed a 216 atom model. The amorphous-crystal energy difference is 0.017 Ryd/atom, similar to a calculation on a related model using the empirical Stillinger-Weber potential and twice the experimental value. The structure of the relaxed model is consistent with diffraction experiments as well as more indirect experimental results. The model is fully four-fold coordinated with an RMS bond angle deviation of only 11^rc, and is expanded 2% in volume with respect to the TB crystalline value. Using the method of homogeneous deformation we have found a relaxed shear modulus of ˜57 GPa (with an estimated 2% uncertainty due to anisotropy) and relaxed bulk modulus of 87.3 GPa, in very good agreement with a previous (ab initio) calculated value of 82.5 GPa (M. Durandurdu and D. A. Drabold, Phys. Rev. B 64, 014101 (2001).). We find that the distribution of relaxation displacements under shear is markedly skewed towards large values. Finally, we discuss the force constants and vacancy energy distributions for several models.
Novel Super-Elastic Materials for Advanced Bearing Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dellacorte, Christopher
2014-01-01
Tribological surfaces of mechanical components encounter harsh conditions in terrestrial, marine and aerospace environments. Brinell denting, abrasive wear and fatigue often lead to life-limiting bearing and gear failures. Novel superelastic materials based upon Ni-Ti alloys are an emerging solution. Ni-Ti alloys are intermetallic materials that possess characteristics of both metals and ceramics. Ni-Ti alloys have intrinsically good aqueous corrosion resistance (they cannot rust), high hardness, relatively low elastic modulus, are chemically inert and readily lubricated. Ni-Ti alloys also belong to the family of superelastics and, despite high hardness, are able to withstand large strains without suffering permanent plastic deformation. In this paper, the use of hard, resilient Ni-Ti alloys for corrosion-proof, shockproof bearing and gear applications are presented. Through a series of bearing and gear development projects, it is demonstrated that Ni-Tis unique blend of materials properties lead to significantly improved load capacity, reduced weight and intrinsic corrosion resistance not found in any other bearing materials. Ni-Ti thus represents a new materials solution to demanding tribological applications.
Comparative structures and properties of elastic proteins.
Tatham, Arthur S; Shewry, Peter R
2002-01-01
Elastic proteins are characterized by being able to undergo significant deformation, without rupture, before returning to their original state when the stress is removed. The sequences of elastic proteins contain elastomeric domains, which comprise repeated sequences, which in many cases appear to form beta-turns. In addition, the majority also contain domains that form intermolecular cross-links, which may be covalent or non-covalent. The mechanism of elasticity varies between the different proteins and appears to be related to the biological role of the protein. PMID:11911780
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matveenko, V. P.; Fedorov, A. Yu.; Shardakov, I. N.
2016-01-01
The results of analytical and numerical investigations on estimating the character of the singularity of stresses in a vicinity of different variants of special points of the 2D elastic solids made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) are presented. The variant of construction by analytical methods in the polar system of coordinates is considered for eigensolutions in the flat wedges made of the FGM, the elastic properties of which are represented as power series in terms of the radial coordinate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyung Jin; Lee, Heung Son; Ma, Pyung Sik; Kim, Yoon Young
2016-09-01
In this paper, the scattering (S-) parameter retrieval method is presented specifically for anisotropic elastic metamaterials; so far, no retrieval has been accomplished when elastic metamaterials exhibit fully anisotropic behavior. Complex constitutive property and intrinsic scattering behavior of elastic metamaterials make their characterization far more complicated than that for acoustic and electromagnetic metamaterials. In particular, elastic metamaterials generally exhibit anisotropic scattering behavior due to higher scattering modes associated with shear deformation. They also exhibit nonlocal responses to some degrees, which originate from strong multiple scattering interactions even in the long wavelength limit. Accordingly, the conventional S-parameter retrieval methods cannot be directly used for elastic metamaterials, because they determine only the diagonal components in effective tensor property. Also, the conventional methods simply use the analytic inversion formulae for the material characterization so that inherent nonlocality cannot be taken into account. To establish a retrieval method applicable to anisotropic elastic metamaterials, we propose an alternative S-parameter method to deal with full anisotropy of elastic metamaterials. To retrieve the whole effective anisotropic parameter, we utilize not only normal but also oblique wave incidences. For the retrieval, we first retrieve the ratio of the effective stiffness tensor to effective density and then determine the effective density. The proposed retrieval method is validated by characterizing the effective material parameters of various types of non-resonant anisotropic metamaterials. It is found that the whole effective parameters are retrieved consistently regardless of used retrieval conditions in spite of inherent nonlocality.
Slimani, A.; Boukheddaden, K. Varret, F.; Nishino, M.; Miyashita, S.
2013-11-21
The present work is devoted to the spatio-temporal investigations of spin-crossover lattices during their thermal relaxation from high- to low-spin state. The analysis is performed using Monte Carlo simulations on a distortable 2D lattice the sites of which are occupied by high-spin (HS) or low-spin (LS) atoms. The lattice is circular in shape and the HS to LS transformation results in single domain nucleation followed by growth and propagation processes. The evolution of the LS:HS interface is monitored during the relaxation process, through the mapping of spin states, displacement fields, local stresses, and elastic energy. The results show a curved interface, the curvature of which is reversed at the mid-transformation. The local stresses and elastic energy peak at the vicinity of the HS:LS interface, with sizeable dependence upon the position along the front line which evidences the edge effects.
Elastic properties of fly ash-stabilized mixes.
Dimter, Sanja; Rukavina, Tatjana; Minažek, Krunoslav
2015-12-01
Stabilized mixes are used in the construction of bearing layers in asphalt and concrete pavement structures. Two nondestructive methods: resonant frequency method and ultrasonic pulse velocity method, were used for estimation of elastic properties of fly ash-stabilized mixes. Stabilized mixes were designed containing sand from the river Drava and binder composed of different share of cement and fly ash. The aim of the research was to analyze the relationship between the dynamic modulus of elasticity determined by different nondestructive methods. Data showed that average value of elasticity modulus obtained by the ultrasound velocity method is lower than the values of elasticity modulus obtained by resonant frequency method. For further analysis and enhanced discussion of elastic properties of fly ash stabilized mixes, see Dimter et al. [1]. PMID:26702415
Surface elastic properties of human retinal pigment epithelium melanosomes.
Guo, Senli; Hong, Lian; Akhremitchev, Boris B; Simon, John D
2008-01-01
Atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging and nanoindentation measurements in water were used to probe the mechanical properties of retinal pigment epithelium melanosomes isolated from 14-year-old and 76-year-old donors. Topographic imaging reveals surface roughness similar to previous measurements on dry melanosomes. Force-indentation measurements show different types of responses that were catalogued into four different categories. In these measurements no permanent surface damage of melanosomes was observed as revealed by imaging before and after indentation measurements. The indentation measurements that exhibited nearly elastic responses were used to determine the Young's modulus of melanosomes. The average Young's modulus values are similar for 14-year-old and 76-year-old melanosomes with a somewhat narrower distribution for the 14-year-old sample. These elastic modulus values are considerably higher than the modulus of organelles with cytoplasm (<1 MPa) and approaching values of the modulus of protein crystals (approximately 100 MPa) indicating rather high packing density of biologic material in melanosomes. The width of the Young's modulus distributions is considerable spanning from few megapascals to few tens of megapascals indicating large heterogeneity in the structure. A fraction of the force curves cannot be described by the homogeneous elastic sample model; these force curves are consistent with approximately 10 nm structural heterogeneity in melanosomes. The approach-withdraw hysteresis indicates a significant viscoelasticity, particularly in the samples from the 14-year-old sample. Adhesion of the AFM probe was detected on approximately 3% and approximately 20% of the surface of 14-year-old and 76-year-old samples, respectively. In light of previous studies on these same melanosomes using photoelectron emission microscopy, this adhesion is attributed to the presence of lipofuscin on the surface of the melanosomes. This suggestion indicates that part of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bukač, M.
2016-05-01
We model the interaction between an incompressible, viscous fluid, thin elastic structure and a poroelastic material. The poroelastic material is modeled using the Biot's equations of dynamic poroelasticity. The fluid, elastic structure and the poroelastic material are fully coupled, giving rise to a nonlinear, moving boundary problem with novel energy estimates. We present a modular, loosely coupled scheme where the original problem is split into the fluid sub-problem, elastic structure sub-problem and poroelasticity sub-problem. An energy estimate associated with the stability of the scheme is derived in the case where one of the coupling parameters, β, is equal to zero. We present numerical tests where we investigate the effects of the material properties of the poroelastic medium on the fluid flow. Our findings indicate that the flow patterns highly depend on the storativity of the poroelastic material and cannot be captured by considering fluid-structure interaction only.
On the elastic properties of arteries.
Stephanis, C G; Mourmouras, D E; Tsagadopoulos, D G
2003-11-01
A new coefficient of elasticity is proposed that relates to the elastic state of the blood vessels. This measure is proposed as a result of the realization, from personal experience as well as from the international literature, of the difficulty in measuring the thickness of the blood vessels in vivo with acceptable precision. The measurement of E being dependent on the measurement of the thickness of the vessels becomes a highly unreliable proposition. Its relation to E (Young modulus) and to the pulse wave velocity (PWV) is established. We give three examples showing how the proposed coefficient can be measured.
Elastic and electromechanical properties of polypropylene foam ferroelectrets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dansachmüller, M.; Schwödiauer, R.; Bauer-Gogonea, S.; Bauer, S.; Paajanen, M.; Raukola, J.
2005-01-01
Internally charged closed-cell polymer electrets exhibit ferroelectric-like behavior and have been called ferroelectrets. They are attractive for soft electroactive transducers, the high compressibility leads to d33 transducer coefficients exceeding those of ferroelectric polymers. A technique for the measurement of the elastic modulus and the transducer coefficient of ferroelectrets is reported. The elastic behavior of ferroelectretic polypropylene foams is correlated with the piezoelectric-like properties. Prestress treatments linearize the transducer properties.
Elastic properties of gamma-Pu by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy
Migliori, Albert; Betts, J; Trugman, A; Mielke, C H; Mitchell, J N; Ramos, M; Stroe, I
2009-01-01
Despite intense experimental and theoretical work on Pu, there is still little understanding of the strange properties of this metal. We used resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method to investigate the elastic properties of pure polycrystalline Pu at high temperatures. Shear and longitudinal elastic moduli of the {gamma}-phase of Pu were determined simultaneously and the bulk modulus was computed from them. A smooth linear and large decrease of all elastic moduli with increasing temperature was observed. We calculated the Poisson ratio and found that it increases from 0.242 at 519K to 0.252 at 571K.
Low-temperature elastic and electronic properties of MAX phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finkel, Peter
The Mn+1AXn phases (where M is an early transition metal, A is an A-group element and, X is C and/or N and n = 1 to 3) represent a new class of carbides and nitrides and can be best described as polycrystalline nanolaminates. They combine some of the best properties of ceramics and metals. Their physical properties (stiffness, damage and thermal shock resistance, high thermal and electrical conductivity) along with the fact they are readily machinable, make them extremely attractive in terms of the potential technological applications. Knowledge of low-temperature behavior is vital because it can provide insight into Mn+1AXn-phases' physical properties. This work entails the systematic study of the elastic, electrical, galvanomagnetic and thermal properties of these materials in the 4--300 K temperature range. The elastic constants of these compounds (Ti3SiC2, Ti3AlC2 and Ti4AlN3) were measured over the 20--300 K temperature range. Their Young's and shear modulii determined from ultrasonic velocities were in 300--335 and 124--140 GPa range, respectively; both moduli increase slowly with decreasing temperature and reaching a maximum at temperatures below 125 K; Poisson's ratio is 0.2. The Debye temperatures, thetaD, of these compounds calculated from the mean ultrasonic velocity are in 650--780K range which is in agreement with data obtained from low-temperature heat capacity measurements. To characterize the electronic transport properties, the resistivity, magnetoresistance, Hall effect, Seebeck coefficient and magnetic susceptibility were measured in the 4--300K range, and in magnetic fields up to 9T. All MAX-phases exhibit metal-like temperature dependence of the resistivity rho(T). theta D for most of the MAX-phases determined by fitting rho(T) with the Bloch T5 formula were in good agreement with the values determined from elastic and calorimetric measurements. The carrier density of electrons n (or holes, p) and their mobilities were calculated utilizing a
Imaging of the elastic properties of tissue--a review.
Gao, L; Parker, K J; Lerner, R M; Levinson, S F
1996-01-01
Recently, a number of methods have been developed that make it possible to image the elastic properties of soft tissues. Because certain types of tissues such as malignant lesions, for example, have elastic properties that are markedly different from surrounding tissues, elasticity imaging could provide a significant adjunct to current diagnostic ultrasonic methods. Further, elasticity imaging techniques could be used to augment the study of tissues that change their elastic properties, such as skeletal and cardiac muscle. In this paper, we survey some of the previous work done in the related field of biomechanics, and we review measurement techniques from the 1950s to the 1980s. Different approaches to elastic imaging and signal processing are then discussed and a lexicography for elastic imaging is introduced. It is hoped that this nomenclature will provide a meaningful categorization of various approaches and will make evident the inherent parameters displayed and conditions applied in deriving the resulting images. Key assumptions and signal processing approaches are also reviewed. Finally, directions for future work are suggested.
Determination of Viral Capsid Elastic Properties from Equilibrium Thermal Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
May, Eric R.; Brooks, Charles L., III
2011-05-01
We apply two-dimensional elasticity theory to viral capsids to develop a framework for calculating elastic properties of viruses from equilibrium thermal fluctuations of the capsid surface in molecular dynamics and elastic network model trajectories. We show that the magnitudes of the long wavelength modes of motion available in a simulation with all atomic degrees of freedom are recapitulated by an elastic network model. For the mode spectra to match, the elastic network model must be scaled appropriately by a factor which can be determined from an icosahedrally constrained all-atom simulation. With this method we calculate the two-dimensional Young’s modulus Y, bending modulus κ, and Föppl-von Kármán number γ, for the T=1 mutant of the Sesbania mosaic virus. The values determined are in the range of previous theoretical estimates.
Nonlinear elastic behavior of phantom materials for elastography
Pavan, Theo Z.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Frank, Gary R.; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton O.; Hall, Timothy J.
2012-01-01
The development of phantom materials for elasticity imaging is reported in this paper. These materials were specifically designed to provide nonlinear stress/strain relationship that can be controlled independently of the small strain shear modulus of the material. The materials are mixtures of agar and gelatin gels. Oil droplet dispersions in these materials provide further control of the small strain shear modulus and the nonlinear parameter of the material. Since these materials are mostly water, they are assumed to be incompressible under typical experimental conditions in elasticity imaging. The Veronda–Westman model for strain energy density provided a good fit to all materials used in this study. Materials with a constant gelatin concentration (3.0% dry weight) but varying agar concentration (0.6–2.8% dry weight) demonstrated the same power law relationship between elastic modulus and agar concentration found for pure agar (1.89 ± 0.02), consistent with percolation theory, and provided a consistent nonlinearity parameter of 4.5 ± 0.3. The insights provided by this study will form the basis for stable elastography phantoms with stiffness and nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the background that differ from those in the target. PMID:20400811
Elastic properties, strength and damage tolerance of pultruded composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Mrinal Chandra
Pultruded composites are candidate materials for civil engineering infrastructural applications due their higher corrosion resistance and lower life cycle cost. Efficient use of materials like structural members requires thorough understanding of the mechanism that affects their response. The present investigation addresses the modeling and characterization of E-glass fiber/polyester resin matrix pultruded composites in the form of sheets of various thicknesses. The elastic constants were measured using static, vibration and ultrasonic methods. Two types of piezoelectric crystals were used in ultrasonic measurements. Finally, the feasibility of using a single specimen, in the form of a circular disk, was shown in measuring all the elastic constants using ultrasonic technique. The effects of stress gradient on tensile strength were investigated. A large number of specimens, parallel and transverse to the pultrusion direction, were tested in tension, 3-point flexure, and 4-point flexure. A 2-parameter Weibull model was applied to predict the tensile strength from the flexure tests. The measured and Weibull-predicted ratios did not show consistent agreement. Microstructural observations suggested that the flaw distribution in the material was not uniform, which appears to be a basic requirement for the Weibull distribution. Compressive properties were measured using a short-block compression test specimen of 44.4-mm long and 25.4-mm wide. Specimens were tested at 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° orientations. The compression test specimen was modeled using 4-noded isoparametric layered plate and shell elements. The predicted elastic properties for the roving layer and the continuous strand mat layer was used for the finite element study. The damage resistance and damage tolerance were investigated experimentally. Using a quasi-static indentation loading, damage was induced at various incrementally increased force levels to investigate the damage growth process. Damage
Elastic properties of overpressured and unconsolidated sediments
Lee, Myung W.
2003-01-01
Differential pressure affects elastic velocities and Poisson?s ratio of sediments in such a way that velocities increase as differential pressure increases. Overpressured zones in sediments can be detected by observing an increase in Poisson?s ratio with a corresponding drop in elastic velocities. In highly overpressured sands, such as shallow water flow sands, the P-to S-wave velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) is very high, on the order of 10 or higher, due to the unconsolidated and uncemented nature of sediments. In order to predict elastic characteristics of highly overpressured sands, Biot-Gassmann theory by Lee (BGTL) is used with a variable exponent n that depends on differential pressure and the degree of consolidation/compaction. The exponent n decreases as differential pressure and the degree of consolidation increases, and, as n decreases, velocity increases and Vp/Vs decreases. The predicted velocity ratio by BGTL agrees well with the measured velocity ratio at low differential pressure for unconsolidated sediments.
Elasticity theory equations and fracture condition for materials of varying moduli
Oleinikov, A.I.
1986-11-01
Many massive rocks and composite materials belong to the class of materials of varying moduli with definite distinct deformation and strength properties under tension and compression. The results of experiments indicate that the difference between the properties of materials of different moduli is not limited to tension and compression cases but can also appear clearly for any change in the form of the state of stress. Elasticity theory equations are constructed here to describe the strain of materials of varying moduli as well as the dependence of the strength properties on the form of the state of strain. Tests were done on coal, limestone, diabase and cement and results are shown. Using the dependencies obtained, Poisson's ratio and the elastic modulus can be calculated for these rocks. The equations and conditions of fracture proposed, are written in a simple invariant form.
Elastic coupling between layers in two-dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Yang; Kim, Suenne; Zhou, Si; Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Nélias, Daniel; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt; Polloni, Laura; Sordan, Roman; Bongiorno, Angelo; Riedo, Elisa
2015-07-01
Two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and MoS2, are films of a few atomic layers in thickness with strong in-plane bonds and weak interactions between the layers. The in-plane elasticity has been widely studied in bending experiments where a suspended film is deformed substantially; however, little is known about the films’ elastic modulus perpendicular to the planes, as the measurement of the out-of-plane elasticity of supported 2D films requires indentation depths smaller than the films’ interlayer distance. Here, we report on sub-ångström-resolution indentation measurements of the perpendicular-to-the-plane elasticity of 2D materials. Our indentation data, combined with semi-analytical models and density functional theory, are then used to study the perpendicular elasticity of few-layer-thick graphene and graphene oxide films. We find that the perpendicular Young’s modulus of graphene oxide films reaches a maximum when one complete water layer is intercalated between the graphitic planes. This non-destructive methodology can map interlayer coupling and intercalation in 2D films.
A three dimensional calculation of elastic equilibrium for composite materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lustman, Liviu R.; Rose, Milton E.
1986-01-01
A compact scheme is applied to three-dimensional elasticity problems for composite materials, involving simple geometries. The mathematical aspects of this approach are discussed, in particular the iteration method. A vector processor code implementing the compact scheme is presented, and several numerical experiments are summarized.
A three dimensional calculation of elastic equilibrium for composite materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lustman, Liviu R.; Rose, Milton E.
1988-01-01
A compact scheme is applied to three-dimensional elasticity problems for composite materials, involving simple geometries. The mathematical aspects of this approach are discussed, in particular the iteration method. A vector processor code implementing the compact scheme is presented, and several numerical experiments are summarized.
Structure and elastic properties of smectic liquid crystalline elastomer films.
Stannarius, R; Köhler, R; Dietrich, U; Lösche, M; Tolksdorf, C; Zentel, R
2002-04-01
Mechanical measurements, x-ray investigations, and optical microscopy are employed to characterize the interplay of chemical composition, network topology, and elastic response of smectic liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) in various mesophases. Macroscopically ordered elastomer films of submicrometer thicknesses were prepared by cross linking freely suspended smectic polymer films. The cross-linked material preserves the mesomorphism and phase transitions of the precursor polymer. The elastic response of the smectic LCE is entropic, and the corresponding elastic moduli are of the order of MPa. In the tilted ferroelectric smectic-C* phase, the network structure plays an important role. Due to the coupling of elastic network deformations to the orientation of the mesogenic groups in interlayer cross-linked materials (mesogenic cross-linker units), the stress-strain characteristics is found to differ qualitatively from that in the other phases.
Mechanical behavior and elastic properties of prestrained columnar ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snyder, Scott Aaron
Experiments on columnar-grained ice at --10 °C reveal changes to its mechanical behavior and elastic properties due to compressive prestrain. Laboratory-grown (152-mm cube) specimens of freshwater and saline ice were prestrained under uniaxial across-column compression (to levels from epsilon p = 0.003 to epsilonp = 0.20, at constant strain rates in the ductile regime) and then reloaded, again under uniaxial across-column compression (at rates from 1x10--6 s--1 to 3 x 10--2s--1). Prestrain caused solid-state recrystallization as well as damage in the form of non-propagating microcracks. These microstructural changes were quantified by analysis of thin sections. Elastic properties in across-column directions, both parallel (x1) and perpendicular ( x2) to the initial loading direction, were obtained from P-wave and S-wave ultrasonic velocities. As a result (and depending on the level) of the prestrain imparted in both materials, Young's modulus E was reduced by as much as 30%; the ductile-to-brittle (D--B) transition strain rate epsilon D/B was increased up to a factor of 3 to 10; and the ductile behavior with respect to loading along a direction within the horizontal ( x1-x2) plane of the parent ice sheet changed from isotropic to anisotropic. As the prestrain rate approached the nominal D--B transition rate of initially undamaged material, the magnitudes of prestrain effects on elastic compliance increased. The shift in the D--B transition, on the other hand, was less sensitive to the prestrain rate. The results are interpreted within the framework of a recent model that predicts the transition strain rate based on the micromechanical boundary between creep and fracture processes. Prestrain primarily affected certain parameters in the model, specifically the power-law creep coefficient B (more so than the creep exponent n), Young's modulus E and, by extension, the fracture toughness KIc. The physical implications of these effects are discussed.
Elastic constants at low temperatures - Recent measurements on technological materials at NBS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ledbetter, H. M.
1978-01-01
Solid-state low-temperature elastic properties have been experimentally studied at the NBS Cryogenic Division for four years. Most studies were between room temperature and liquid-helium temperature; some were only to liquid-nitrogen temperature. Two dynamic (high-frequency) experimental methods were used, pulse-echo and resonance, resulting in adiabatic elastic constants. The present paper reviews these studies for 47 technological materials - metals, alloys, and composites. The elastic constants primarily discussed are Young's modulus, the shear modulus, the bulk modulus (reciprocal compressibility), and Poisson's ratio. A summary table is presented to show which base metals tend to exhibit regular, irregular, or anomalous behavior in their elastic constant/temperature curves.
Elastic Properties and Internal Friction of Two Magnesium Alloys at Elevated Temperatures
Freels, M.; Liaw, P. K.; Garlea, E.; Morrell, J. S.; Radiovic, M.
2011-06-01
The elastic properties and internal friction of two magnesium alloys were studied from 25 C to 450 C using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS). The Young's moduli decrease with increasing temperature. At 200 C, a change in the temperature dependence of the elastic constants is observed. The internal friction increases significantly with increasing temperature above 200 C. The observed changes in the temperature dependence of the elastic constants and the internal friction are the result of anelastic relaxation by grain boundary sliding at elevated temperatures. Elastic properties govern the behavior of a materials subjected to stress over a region of strain where the material behaves elastically. The elastic properties, including the Young's modulus (E), shear modulus (G), bulk modulus (B), and Poisson's ratio (?), are of significant interest to many design and engineering applications. The choice of the most appropriate material for a particular application at elevated temperatures therefore requires knowledge of its elastic properties as a function of temperature. In addition, mechanical vibration can cause significant damage in the automotive, aerospace, and architectural industries and thus, the ability of a material to dissipate elastic strain energy in materials, known as damping or internal friction, is also important property. Internal friction can be the result of a wide range of physical mechanisms, and depends on the material, temperature, and frequency of the loading. When utilized effectively in engineering applications, the damping capacity of a material can remove undesirable noise and vibration as heat to the surroundings. The elastic properties of materials can be determined by static or dynamic methods. Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS), used in this study, is a unique and sophisticated non-destructive dynamic technique for determining the complete elastic tensor of a solid by measuring the resonant spectrum of mechanical resonance for a
Micromechanics of intraply hybrid composites: Elastic and thermal properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.
1979-01-01
Composite micromechanics are used to derive equations for predicting the elastic and thermal properties of unidirectional intraply hybrid composites. The results predicted using these equations are compared with those predicted using approximate equations based on the rule of mixtures, linear laminate theory, finite element analysis and limited experimental data. The comparisons for three different intraply hybrids indicate that all four methods predict approximately the same elastic properties and are in good agreement with measured data. The micromechanics equations and linear laminate theory predict about the same values for thermal expansion coefficients. The micromechanics equations predict through-the-thickness properties which are in good agreement with the finite element results.
Experimental investigation of Rayleigh Taylor instability in elastic-plastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haley, Aaron Alan; Banerjee, Arindam
2010-11-01
The interface of an elastic-plastic plate accelerated by a fluid of lower density is Rayleigh Taylor (RT) unstable, the growth being mitigated by the mechanical strength of the plate. The instability is observed when metal plates are accelerated by high explosives, in explosive welding, and in volcanic island formation due to the strength of the inner crust. In contrast to the classical case involving Newtonian fluids, RT instability in accelerated solids is not well understood. The difficulties for constructing a theory for the linear growth phase in solids is essentially due to the character of elastic-plastic constitutive properties which has a nonlinear dependence on the magnitude of the rate of deformation. Experimental investigation of the phenomena is difficult due to the exceedingly small time scales (in high energy density experiments) and large measurement uncertainties of material properties. We performed experiments on our Two-Wheel facility to study the linear stage of the incompressible RT instability in elastic-plastic materials (yogurt) whose properties were well characterized. Rotation of the wheels imparted a constant centrifugal acceleration on the material interface that was cut with a small sinusoidal ripple. The controlled initial conditions and precise acceleration amplitudes are levied to investigate transition from elastic to plastic deformation and allow accurate and detailed measurements of flow properties.
Elastic Properties of Compacted Clay Soils by Laser Ultrasonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navarrete, M.; Godínez, F. A.; Villagrán-Muniz, M.
2013-09-01
To evaluate the effect of the excitation frequency on the dynamic properties of soils, the elastic modulus , shear modulus , and Poisson’s ratio for three Mexican compacted clayey soils were determined using two techniques: laser ultrasonic and resonant column (RC) tests. For the first, the parameters were determined by measurements of the P- and S-waves at ultrasonic frequencies and variations of the height of the cylindrical soil specimens and for the second one, a harmonic excitation between 5 Hz and 7 Hz was applied. Large variations in the elastic parameters through an ultrasonic axial scanning of the soil specimens were observed; this reveals the heterogeneity of these materials, while a decrease of the sample aspect ratio mainly affects the determination of Poisson’s ratio. The ultrasonic data were integrated with those from RC data to obtain a shear modulus profile covering both high and low frequencies. The interpolation on whether the data are either linear or not is an indication of the viscoelastic behavior of the compacted clayey soils. The specimens were: (a) clay from Texcoco Valley, (b) clay from Mexico Valley, and (c) granular soils from the Parota. Experimental determination of the mechanical properties of soils is very important because soil constitutive models are traditionally calibrated from global boundary measurements taken from laboratory soil specimens. The most difficult parameter to obtain is the Poisson’s ratio, as well as the shear modulus, which is a fundamental parameter for establishing the soil response under low amplitude vibrations and it is extremely important to foundation design.
Structure and elastic properties of boron suboxide at 240 GPa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Y. P.; He, D. W.
2009-04-01
Structure and elastic properties of boron suboxide at high pressure have been investigated using generalized gradient approximation within the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory. The elastic constants are calculated using the finite strain method. The pressure dependences of lattice parameters, elastic constants, aggregate elastic moduli, and sound velocities of boron suboxide are predicted. It is found that the most stable structure of hcp boron suboxide at zero pressure corresponds to the ratio c /a of about 2.274 and the equilibrium lattice parameters a0 and c0 are about 5.331 and 12.124 Å, respectively. The high-pressure elastic constants indicate that boron suboxide is mechanically stable up to 368 GPa. The pressure dependence of the calculated normalized volume and the aggregate elastic moduli agree well with the recent experimental results. The sound velocities along different directions for the structure of boron suboxide are obtained. It shows that the velocities of the shear wave decrease as pressure increases but those of all the longitudinal waves increase with pressure. Moreover, the azimuthal anisotropy of the compression and shear aggregate wave velocities for different pressures are predicted. They change behavior with increasing pressure around 87 GPa because of an electronic topological transition. A refined analysis has been made to reveal the high pressure elastic anisotropy in boron suboxide.
Temperature Dependent Elastic moduli of Lead-Telluride based Thermoelectric Materials
Ren, Fei; Case, Eldon D; Ni, Jennifer E.; Timm, Edward J; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Trejo, Rosa M; Lin, Chia-Her
2009-01-01
In the open literature, reports of mechanical properties are limited for semiconducting thermoelectric materials, including the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli. In this study, for both cast ingots and hot pressed billets of Ag-, Sb-, Sn-, and S- doped PbTe thermoelectric materials, Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) was utilized to determine the temperature dependence of elastic moduli including Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio. This study is the first to determine the temperature-dependent elastic moduli for these PbTe based thermoelectrics and among the few determinations of elasticity of any thermoelectric material for temperatures above 300 K. The Young s modulus and Poisson s ratio measured from room temperature to 773 K during heating and cooling agreed well. Also, the observed Young s modulus, E, versus temperature, T, relationship E(T) = E0(1 bT) is consistent with predictions for materials in the range well above the Debye temperature. A nanoindentation study of Young s modulus on the specimen faces showed that both the cast and hot pressed specimens were approximately elastically isotropic.
Wang, Qian; Ashley, Dennis W.; Dechow, Paul C.
2010-01-01
Understanding the mechanical features of cortical bone and their changes with growth and adaptation to function plays an important role in our ability to interpret the morphology and evolution of craniofacial skeletons. We assessed the elastic properties of cortical bone of juvenile and adult baboon mandibles using ultrasonic techniques. Results showed that, overall, cortical bone from baboon mandibles could be modeled as an orthotropic elastic solid. There were significant differences in the directions of maximum stiffness, thickness, density, and elastic stiffness among different functional areas, indicating regional adaptations. After maturity, the cortical bone becomes thicker, denser, and stiffer, but less anisotropic. There were differences in elastic properties of the corpus and ramus between male and female mandibles which are not observed in human mandibles. There were correlations between cortical thicknesses and densities, between bone elastic properties and microstructural configuration, and between the directions of maximum stiffness and bone anatomical axes in some areas. The relationships between bone extrinsic and intrinsic properties bring us insights into the integration of form and function in craniofacial skeletons and suggest that we need to consider both macroscopic form, microstructural variation, and the material properties of bone matrix when studying the functional properties and adaptive nature of the craniofacial skeleton in primates. The differences between baboon and human mandibles is at variance to the pattern of differences in crania, suggesting differences in bone adaption to varying skeletal geometries and loading regimes at both phylogenetic and ontogenetic levels. PMID:19927280
Elastic properties of external cortical bone in the craniofacial skeleton of the rhesus monkey.
Wang, Qian; Dechow, Paul C
2006-11-01
Knowledge of elastic properties and of their variation in the cortical bone of the craniofacial skeleton is indispensable for creating accurate finite-element models to explore the biomechanics and adaptation of the skull in primates. In this study, we measured elastic properties of the external cortex of the rhesus monkey craniofacial skeleton, using an ultrasonic technique. Twenty-eight cylindrical cortical specimens were removed from each of six craniofacial skeletons of adult Macaca mulatta. Thickness, density, and a set of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic velocities were measured on each specimen to allow calculation of the elastic properties in three dimensions, according to equations derived from Newton's second law and Hooke's law. The axes of maximum stiffness were determined by fitting longitudinal velocities measured along the perimeter of each cortical specimen to a sinusoidal function. Results showed significant differences in elastic properties between different functional areas of the rhesus cranium, and that many sites have a consistent orientation of maximum stiffness among specimens. Overall, the cortical bones of the rhesus monkey skull can be modeled as orthotropic in many regions, and as transversely isotropic in some regions, e.g., the supraorbital region. There are differences from human crania, suggesting that structural differences in skeletal form relate to differences in cortical material properties across species. These differences also suggest that we require more comparative data on elastic properties in primate craniofacial skeletons to explore effectively the functional significance of these differences, especially when these differences are elucidated through modeling approaches, such as finite-element modeling.
Elastohydrodynamics of elliptical contacts for materials of low elastic modulus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.
1983-01-01
The influence of the ellipticity parameter k and the dimensionless speed U, load W, and materials G parameters on minimum film thickness for materials of low elastic modulus was investigated. The ellipticity parameter was varied from 1 (a ball-on-plane configuration) to 12 (a configuration approaching a line contact); U and W were each varied by one order of magnitude. Seventeen cases were used to generate the minimum- and central-film-thickness relations. The influence of lubricant starvation on minimum film thickness in starved elliptical, elastohydrodynamic configurations was also investigated for materials of low elastic modulus. Lubricant starvation was studied simply by moving the inlet boundary closer to the center of the conjunction in the numerical solutions. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact were presented for both fully flooded and starved lubrication conditions. It is evident from these figures that the inlet pressure contours become less circular and closer to the edge of the Hertzian contact zone and that the film thickness decreases substantially as the serverity of starvation increases. The results presented reveal the essential features of both fully flooded and starved, elliptical, elastohydrodynamic conjunctions for materials of low elastic modulus.
Micromechanics-based elastic model for functionally graded materials with particle interactions
Yin, H.M.; Sun, L.Z.; Paulino, G.H
2004-07-12
A micromechanics-based elastic model is developed for two-phase functionally graded materials with locally pair-wise interactions between particles. While the effective material properties change gradually along the gradation direction, there exist two microstructurally distinct zones: particle-matrix zone and transition zone. In the particle-matrix zone, pair-wise interactions between particles are employed using a modified Green's function method. By integrating the interactions from all other particles over the representative volume element, the homogenized elastic fields are obtained. The effective stiffness distribution over the gradation direction is further derived. In the transition zone, a transition function is constructed to make the homogenized elastic fields continuous and differentiable in the gradation direction. The model prediction is compared with other models and experimental data to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method.
Dynamic properties of ceramic materials
Grady, D.E.; Wise, J.L.
1993-09-01
Controlled impact methods have been employed to obtain dynamic response properties of armor materials. Experimental data have been obtained for high-strength ceramics. Continued analysis of time-resolved velocity interferometer measurements has produced systematic material-property data for Hugoniot and release response, initial and post-yield strength, pressure-induced phase transformation, and dynamic fracture strength. A new technique has been developed to measure hydrodynamic properties of ceramic through shock-wave experiments on metal-ceramic composites and data obtained for silicon carbide. Additional data on several titanium diboride ceramics and high-quality aluminum oxide ceramic have been acquired, and issues regarding the influence of microstructure on dynamic properties have emerged. Comparison of dynamic (Hugoniot elastic limit) strength and indentation hardness data has been performed and important correlations revealed. Innovative impact experiments on confined and unconfined alumina rods using axial and transverse VISAR diagnostics have been demonstrated which permit acquisition of multiaxial dynamic response data. Dynamic failure properties of a high-density aluminosilicate glass, similar in composition to the intergranular glassy phase of some aluminas, have been investigated with regard to yield, spall, and failure-wave propagation.
Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Elastic Properties of Novel Tungsten Nitrides
Wang, Shanmin; Yu, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhijun; Zhang, Ruifeng; He, Duanwei; Qin, Jiaqian; Zhu, Jinlong; Han, Jiantao; Wang, Lin; Mao, Ho-kwang; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yusheng
2012-12-13
Among transition metal nitrides, tungsten nitrides possess unique and/or superior chemical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Preparation of these nitrides, however, is challenging because the incorporation of nitrogen into tungsten lattice is thermodynamically unfavorable at atmospheric pressure. To date, most materials in the W-N system are in the form of thin films produced by nonequilibrium processes and are often poorly crystallized, which severely limits their use in diverse technological applications. Here we report synthesis of tungsten nitrides through new approaches involving solid-state ion exchange and nitrogen degassing under pressure. We unveil a number of novel nitrides including hexagonal and rhombohedral W{sub 2}N{sub 3}. The final products are phase-pure and well-crystallized in bulk forms. For hexagonal W{sub 2}N{sub 3}, hexagonal WN, and cubic W3N4, they exhibit elastic properties rivaling or even exceeding cubic-BN. All four nitrides are prepared at a moderate pressure of 5 GPa, the lowest among high-pressure synthesis of transition metal nitrides, making it practically feasible for massive and industrial-scale production.
First Principles Calculations for X-ray Resonant Spectra and Elastic Properties
Lee, Yongbin
2004-01-01
In this thesis, we discuss applications of first principles methods to x-ray resonant spectra and elastic properties calculation. We start with brief reviews about theoretical background of first principles methods, such as density functional theory, local density approximation (LDA), LDA+U, and the linear augmented plane wave (LAPW) method to solve Kohn-Sham equations. After that we discuss x-ray resonant scattering (XRMS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and the branching problem in the heavy rare earths Ledges. In the last chapter we discuss the elastic properties of the second hardest material AlMgB_{14}.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heyman, J. S.; Allison, S. G.; Salama, K.
1985-01-01
The behavior of higher order elastic properties, which are much more sensitive to material state than are second order properties, has been studied for steel alloys AISI 1016, 1045, 1095, and 8620 by measuring the stress derivative of the acoustic natural velocity to determine the stress acoustic constants (SAC's). Results of these tests show a 20 percent linear variation of SAC's with carbon content as well as even larger variations with prestrain (plastic deformation). The use of higher order elastic characterization permits quantitative evaluation of solids and may prove useful in studies of fatigue and fracture.
Bauer-Gogonea, S.; Camacho-Gonzalez, F.; Schwoediauer, R.; Ploss, B.; Bauer, S.
2007-09-17
Nonlinearities in ferroelectret polymer foam capacitors arise from voltage-dependent thickness changes. Such thickness changes are caused by the converse piezoelectric and electrostrictive effects in these soft materials. The authors show that the higher harmonics of the current response during application of a sinusoidal voltage to ferroelectret capacitors provide information on the elastic and electromechanical properties of the foam. The authors demonstrate the potential of this versatile measurement technique by investigating the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric response and by monitoring the changes in the elastic and electromechanical properties during inflation of cellular polypropylene.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer-Gogonea, S.; Camacho-Gonzalez, F.; Schwödiauer, R.; Ploss, B.; Bauer, S.
2007-09-01
Nonlinearities in ferroelectret polymer foam capacitors arise from voltage-dependent thickness changes. Such thickness changes are caused by the converse piezoelectric and electrostrictive effects in these soft materials. The authors show that the higher harmonics of the current response during application of a sinusoidal voltage to ferroelectret capacitors provide information on the elastic and electromechanical properties of the foam. The authors demonstrate the potential of this versatile measurement technique by investigating the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric response and by monitoring the changes in the elastic and electromechanical properties during inflation of cellular polypropylene.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karami, Keyhan; Abedi, Majid; Zamani Nejad, Mohammad; Lotfian, Mohammad Hassan
2012-12-01
On the basis of plane elasticity theory (PET), the displacement and stress components in a thick-walled spherical pressure vessels made of heterogeneous materials subjected to internal and external pressure is developed. The mechanical properties except the Poisson's ratio are assumed to obey the parabolic variations throughout the thickness. Effect of material inhomogeneity on the elastic deformations and stresses is investigated. The analytical solutions and the solutions carried out through the FEM have a good agreement. The values used in this study are arbitrary chosen to demonstrate the effect of inhomogeneity on displacements, and stresses distributions.
Building Materials Property Table
2010-04-16
This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.
Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and Other Properties of Beryllium
Goldberg, A
2006-02-01
This report is part of a series of documents that provide a background to those involved in the construction of beryllium components and their applications. This report is divided into five sub-sections: Atomic/Crystal Structure, Elastic Properties, Thermal Properties, Nuclear Properties, and Miscellaneous Properties. In searching through different sources for the various properties to be included in this report, inconsistencies were at times observed between these sources. In such cases, the values reported by the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics was usually used. In equations, except where indicated otherwise, temperature (T) is in degrees Kelvin.
Determining the frequency dependence of elastic properties of fractured rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahrens, Benedikt; Renner, Jörg
2016-04-01
In the brittle crust, rocks often contain joints or faults on various length scales that have a profound effect on fluid flow and heat transport, as well as on the elastic properties of rocks. Improving the understanding of the effect of fractures and the role of stress state and heterogeneity along the fractures on elastic properties of rocks is potentially important for the characterization of deep geothermal reservoirs. Seismic surveys, typically covering a frequency range of about 1 to 1000 Hz, are a valuable tool to investigate fractured rocks but the extraction of fracture properties remains difficult. The elementary frequency-dependent interaction between fractured rock matrix and viscous pore fluids and the resulting effects on wave propagation require well-founded dispersion analyses of heterogeneous rocks. In this laboratory study, we investigate the stress dependence of the effective elastic properties of fractured reservoir rocks over a broad frequency range. To assess the effect of faults on the effective elastic properties, we performed cyclic axial loading tests on intact and fractured samples of Solnhofen limestone and Padang granodiorite. The samples contained an idealized fault, which was created by stacking two sample discs on top of each other that experienced various surface treatments to vary their roughness. The dynamic loading tests were conducted with frequencies up to 10 Hz and amplitudes reaching 10% of the statically applied stress. Simultaneously, P- and S-wave measurements were performed in the ultrasonic frequency range (above 100 kHz) with a total of 16 sensors, whose positioning above and below the samples guarantees a wide range of transmission and reflection angles. Preliminary results of static and dynamic elastic properties of intact Padang granodiorite show a pronounced increase in Young's moduli and Poisson's ratio with increasing axial stress. Stress relaxation is accompanied by a decrease of the modulus and the Poisson
Erba, A. Mahmoud, A.; Dovesi, R.; Belmonte, D.
2014-03-28
A computational strategy is devised for the accurate ab initio simulation of elastic properties of crystalline materials under pressure. The proposed scheme, based on the evaluation of the analytical stress tensor and on the automated computation of pressure-dependent elastic stiffness constants, is implemented in the CRYSTAL solid state quantum-chemical program. Elastic constants and related properties (bulk, shear and Young moduli, directional seismic wave velocities, elastic anisotropy index, Poisson's ratio, etc.) can be computed for crystals of any space group of symmetry. We apply such a technique to the study of high-pressure elastic properties of three silicate garnet end-members (namely, pyrope, grossular, and andradite) which are of great geophysical interest, being among the most important rock-forming minerals. The reliability of this theoretical approach is proved by comparing with available experimental measurements. The description of high-pressure properties provided by several equations of state is also critically discussed.
Revisit of the relationship between the elastic properties and sound velocities at high pressures
Wang, Chenju; Yan, Xiaozhen; Xiang, Shikai Chen, Haiyan; Gu, Jianbing; Yu, Yin; Kuang, Xiaoyu
2014-09-14
The second-order elastic constants and stress-strain coefficients are defined, respectively, as the second derivatives of the total energy and the first derivative of the stress with respect to strain. Since the Lagrangian and infinitesimal strain are commonly used in the two definitions above, the second-order elastic constants and stress-strain coefficients are separated into two categories, respectively. In general, any of the four physical quantities is employed to characterize the elastic properties of materials without differentiation. Nevertheless, differences may exist among them at non-zero pressures, especially high pressures. Having explored the confusing issue systemically in the present work, we find that the four quantities are indeed different from each other at high pressures and these differences depend on the initial stress applied on materials. Moreover, the various relations between the four quantities depicting elastic properties of materials and high-pressure sound velocities are also derived from the elastic wave equations. As examples, we calculated the high-pressure sound velocities of cubic tantalum and hexagonal rhenium using these nexus. The excellent agreement of our results with available experimental data suggests the general applicability of the relations.
First-principles elastic properties of (alpha)-Pu
Soderlind, P; Klepeis, J
2009-02-18
Density-functional electronic-structure calculations have been used to investigate the ambient pressure and low temperature elastic properties of the ground-state {alpha} phase of plutonium metal. The electronic structure and correlation effects are modeled within a fully relativistic antiferromagnetic treatment with a generalized gradient approximation for the electron exchange and correlation functional. The 13 independent elastic constants, for the monoclinic {alpha}-Pu system, are calculated for the observed geometry. A comparison of the results with measured data from recent resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for a cast sample is made.
First-principles elastic properties of (alpha)-Pu
Soderlind, P; Klepeis, J E
2008-11-04
Density-functional electronic structure calculations have been used to investigate the ambient pressure and low temperature elastic properties of the ground-state {alpha} phase of plutonium metal. The electronic structure and correlation effects are modeled within a fully relativistic anti-ferromagnetic treatment with a generalized gradient approximation for the electron exchange and correlation functionals. The 13 independent elastic constants, for the monoclinic {alpha}-Pu system, are calculated for the observed geometry. A comparison of the results with measured data from resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for a cast sample is made.
High pressure phase transition and elastic properties of americium telluride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aynyas, Mahendra; Rukmangad, Aditi; Arya, B. S.; Sanyal, S. P.
2013-06-01
The structural and elastic properties of Americium Telluride (AmTe) have been investigated by using a modified inter-ionic potential theory (MIPT). This theory is capable of explaining first order phase transition with a crystallographic change NaCl to CsCl structure for this compound. The values of optimized lattice constant, phase transition pressure, zero pressure bulk modulus and second order elastic constants (C11, C44) agree well with their corresponding experimental data. Debye temperature (θD) is also calculated for this compound for the first time.
Elastic properties of Pu metal and Pu-Ga alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Söderlind, Per; Landa, Alex; Klepeis, J. E.; Suzuki, Y.; Migliori, A.
2010-06-01
We present elastic properties, theoretical and experimental, of Pu metal and Pu-Ga (δ) alloys together with ab initio equilibrium equation of state for these systems. For the theoretical treatment we employ density-functional theory in conjunction with spin-orbit coupling and orbital polarization for the metal and coherent-potential approximation for the alloys. Pu and Pu-Ga alloys are also investigated experimentally using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. We show that orbital correlations become more important proceeding from α→β→γ plutonium, thus suggesting increasing f -electron correlation and a corresponding softening of the elastic moduli. For the δ-Pu-Ga alloys we find a softening with larger Ga content, i.e., atomic volume, bulk modulus, and elastic constants imply a weakened chemical bonding with addition of Ga. Our measurements confirm qualitatively the theory but uncertainties remain when comparing the model with experiments.
Elastic properties of nematoid arrangements formed by amoeboid cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kemkemer, R.; Kling, D.; Kaufmann, D.; Gruler, H.
2000-02-01
In culture migrating and interacting amoeboid cells can form nematoid arrangements in analogy to a nematic liquid crystal phase. A nematoid arrangement is formed if the interaction has an apolar symmetry. Different cell types like human melanocytes (=pigment cells of the skin), human fibroblasts (=connective tissue cells), human osteoblasts (=bone cells), human adipocytes (=fat cells) etc., form a nematoid structure. Our hypothesis is that elastic properties of these nematoid structures can be described in analogy to that of classical nematic liquid crystals. The orientational elastic energy is derived and the orientational defects (disclination) of nematoid arrangements are investigated. The existence of half-numbered disclinations shows that the nematoid structure has an apolar symmetry. The density- and order parameter dependence of the orientational elastic constants and their absolute values are estimated. From the defect structure, one finds that the splay elastic constant is smaller than the bend elastic constant (melanocytes). The core of a disclination is either a cell free space or occupied by non oriented cells (isotropic state), by a cell with a different symmetry, or by another cell type.
Wang, Ji; Yang, Jiashi; Li, Jiangyu
2007-03-01
Energy trapping has important applications in the design of thickness-shear resonators. Considerable efforts have been made for the effective utilization and improvement of energy trapping with variations of plate configurations, such as adding electrodes and contouring. As a new approach in seeking improved energy trapping feature, we analyze thickness-shear vibrations in an elastic plate with functionally graded material (FGM) of in-plane variation of mechanical properties, such as elastic constants and density. A simple and general equation governing the thickness-shear modes is derived from a variational analysis. A plate with piecewise constant material properties is analyzed as an example. It is shown that such a plate can support thickness-shear vibration modes with obvious energy trapping. Bechmann's number for the existence of only one trapped mode also can be determined accordingly.
Elastic properties of sulphur and selenium doped ternary PbTe alloys by first principles
Bali, Ashoka Chetty, Raju Mallik, Ramesh Chandra
2014-04-24
Lead telluride (PbTe) is an established thermoelectric material which can be alloyed with sulphur and selenium to further enhance the thermoelectric properties. Here, a first principles study of ternary alloys PbS{sub x}Te{sub (1−x)} and PbSe{sub x}Te{sub (1−x)} (0≤x≤1) based on the Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA) is presented for different ratios of the isoelectronic atoms in each series. Equilibrium lattice parameters and elastic constants have been calculated and compared with the reported data. Anisotropy parameter calculated from the stiffness constants showed a slight improvement in anisotropy of elastic properties of the alloys over undoped PbTe. Furthermore, the alloys satisfied the predicted stability criteria from the elastic constants, showing stable structures, which agreed with the previously reported experimental results.
On the theory of elastic properties of two-dimensional hexagonal structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davydov, S. Yu.; Posrednik, O. V.
2015-04-01
The properties of graphene and graphene-like materials (GLMs) have been considered using the Harrison bond-orbital method, within which the stability of GLMs with a high bond ionicity has been analyzed. For purely covalent crystals (graphene, silicene, and germanen) and GLMs with a low bond ionicity, the anharmonic elastic properties (Grüneisen constant, pressure and temperature dependences of the bulk modulus) have been considered. Within the Keating force constant model, the second- and third-order elastic constants and the pressure dependence of the second-order elastic constants have been determined. The parameters of the previously proposed empirical potential have been determined. The results obtained are compared with the available experimental data and calculation results of other studies.
Plate and butt-weld stresses beyond elastic limit, material and structural modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verderaime, V.
1991-01-01
Ultimate safety factors of high performance structures depend on stress behavior beyond the elastic limit, a region not too well understood. An analytical modeling approach was developed to gain fundamental insights into inelastic responses of simple structural elements. Nonlinear material properties were expressed in engineering stresses and strains variables and combined with strength of material stress and strain equations similar to numerical piece-wise linear method. Integrations are continuous which allows for more detailed solutions. Included with interesting results are the classical combined axial tension and bending load model and the strain gauge conversion to stress beyond the elastic limit. Material discontinuity stress factors in butt-welds were derived. This is a working-type document with analytical methods and results applicable to all industries of high reliability structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ze-Jin; Guo, Yun-Dong; Wang, Guang-Chang; Li, Jin; Dai, Wei; Liu, Jin-Chao; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Yang, Xiang-Dong
2009-11-01
This paper calculates the elastic, thermodynamic and electronic properties of pyrite (Pabar 3) RuO2 by the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) method. The lattice parameters, normalized elastic constants, Cauchy pressure, brittle-ductile relations, heat capacity and Debye temperature are successfully obtained. The Murnaghan equation of state shows that pyrite RuO2 is a potential superhard material. Internal coordinate parameter increases with pressure, which disagrees with experimental data. An analysis based on electronic structure and the pseudogap reveals that the bonding nature in RuO2 is a combination of covalent, ionic and metallic bonding. A study of the elastic properties indicates that the pyrite phase is isotropic under usual conditions. The relationship between brittleness and ductility shows that pyrite RuO2 behaves in a ductile matter at zero pressure and the degree of ductility increases with pressure.
Elastic properties of sub-stoichiometric nitrogen ion implanted silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarmanova, M. F.; Karl, H.; Mändl, S.; Hirsch, D.; Mayr, S. G.; Rauschenbach, B.
2015-04-01
Elastic properties of sub-stoichiometric nitrogen implanted silicon were measured with nanometer-resolution using contact resonance atomic force microscopy (CR-AFM) as function of ion fluence and post-annealing conditions. The determined range of indentation moduli was between 100 and 180 GPa depending on the annealing duration and nitrogen content. The high indentation moduli can be explained by formation of Si-N bonds, as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Prediction of elastic properties for polymer-particle nanocomposites exhibiting an interphase.
Deng, Fei; Van Vliet, Krystyn J
2011-04-22
Particle-polymer nanocomposites often exhibit mechanical properties described poorly by micromechanical models that include only the particle and matrix phases. Existence of an interfacial region between the particle and matrix, or interphase, has been posited and indirectly demonstrated to account for this effect. Here, we present a straightforward analytical approach to estimate effective elastic properties of composites comprising particles encapsulated by an interphase of finite thickness and distinct elastic properties. This explicit solution can treat nanocomposites that comprise either physically isolated nanoparticles or agglomerates of such nanoparticles; the same framework can also treat physically isolated nanoparticle aggregates or agglomerates of such aggregates. We find that the predicted elastic moduli agree with experiments for three types of particle-polymer nanocomposites, and that the predicted interphase thickness and stiffness of carbon black-rubber nanocomposites are consistent with measured values. Finally, we discuss the relative influence of the particle-polymer interphase thickness and stiffness to identify maximum possible changes in the macroscale elastic properties of such materials. PMID:21393814
Elastic, electronic and thermal properties of YSZ from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Lei; Yu, Qinghe; Rauf, Abdul; Zhou, Chungen
2012-01-01
First principles calculations were performed to investigate the elastic, electronic and thermal properties of 14% cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) using the pseudo potential plane-wave method within the gradient generalized approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation potential. Computed lattice constant parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental results. The three independent elastic constants were computed by means of the stress-strain method, indicating that 14% cubic YSZ is a mechanically stable structure. From the knowledge of the elastic constants, a set of related properties, namely bulk, shear modulus, Young's modulus, sound velocity, Debye temperature, thermal capacity and minimum thermal conductivity are numerically estimated in the frame work of the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation for YSZ polycrystalline. The calculated bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, sound velocity, Debye temperature, thermal capacity and minimum thermal conductivity are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental and theory data. Density of states, charge density and Mulliken population analysis show that the 14% cubic YSZ is covalent and possess ionic character.
Elastic and thermal properties of the layered thermoelectrics BiOCuSe and LaOCuSe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, S. K.; Dutta, G.
2016-09-01
We determine the elastic properties of the layered thermoelectrics BiOCuSe and LaOCuSe using first-principles density functional theory calculations. To predict their stability, we calculate six distinct elastic constants, where all of them are positive, and suggest mechanically stable tetragonal crystals. As elastic properties relate to the nature and the strength of the chemical bond, the latter is analyzed by means of real-space descriptors, such as the electron localization function (ELF) and Bader charge. From elastic constants, a set of related properties, namely, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, sound velocity, Debye temperature, Grüneisen parameter, and thermal conductivity, are evaluated. Both materials are found to be ductile in nature and not brittle. We find BiOCuSe to have a smaller sound velocity and, hence, within the accuracy of the used Slack's model, a smaller thermal conductivity than LaOCuSe. Our calculations also reveal that the elastic properties and the related lattice thermal transport of both materials exhibit a much larger anisotropy than their electronic band properties that are known to be moderately anisotropic because of a moderate effective-electron-mass anisotropy. Finally, we determine the lattice dynamical properties, such as phonon dispersion, atomic displacement, and mode Grüneisen parameters, in order to correlate the elastic response, chemical bonding, and lattice dynamics.
Ab initio investigations of the elastic properties of chlorates and perchlorates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korabel'nikov, D. V.; Zhuravlev, Yu. N.
2016-06-01
Elastic properties of NaClO3, KClO3, LiClO4, NaClO4, and KClO4 have been investigated from first principles by the method of linear combination of atomic orbitals in the gradient approximation of the density functional theory using CRYSTAL software. The elastic constants and moduli, hardness, Poisson's ratio, and the anisotropy parameters have been calculated. The velocities of sound, the Debye temperature, the thermal conductivity, and the Grüneisen parameter have been estimated. It has been found that these compounds are mechanically stable, anisotropic, and ductile materials. The dependences of their elastic parameters on the atomic number of the cation have been calculated. The obtained results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Elastic properties of Pu metal and Pu-Ga alloys
Soderlind, P; Landa, A; Klepeis, J E; Suzuki, Y; Migliori, A
2010-01-05
We present elastic properties, theoretical and experimental, of Pu metal and Pu-Ga ({delta}) alloys together with ab initio equilibrium equation-of-state for these systems. For the theoretical treatment we employ density-functional theory in conjunction with spin-orbit coupling and orbital polarization for the metal and coherent-potential approximation for the alloys. Pu and Pu-Ga alloys are also investigated experimentally using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. We show that orbital correlations become more important proceeding from {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} plutonium, thus suggesting increasing f-electron correlation (localization). For the {delta}-Pu-Ga alloys we find a softening with larger Ga content, i.e., atomic volume, bulk modulus, and elastic constants, suggest a weakened chemical bonding with addition of Ga. Our measurements confirm qualitatively the theory but uncertainties remain when comparing the model with experiments.
Hardness, elastic, and electronic properties of chromium monoboride
Han, Lei; Wang, Shanmin; Zhu, Jinlong; Han, Songbai; Li, Wenmin; Chen, Bijuan; Wang, Xiancheng; Yu, Xiaohui E-mail: liubc@jlu.edu.cn Long, Youwen; Cheng, Jinguang; Jin, Changqing; Liu, Baochang E-mail: liubc@jlu.edu.cn; Zhang, Ruifeng E-mail: liubc@jlu.edu.cn; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yusheng
2015-06-01
We report high-pressure synthesis of chromium monoboride (CrB) at 6 GPa and 1400 K. The elastic and plastic behaviors have been investigated by hydrostatic compression experiment and micro-indentation measurement. CrB is elastically incompressible with a high bulk modulus of 269.0 (5.9) GPa and exhibits a high Vickers hardness of 19.6 (0.7) GPa under the load of 1 kg force. Based on first principles calculations, the observed mechanical properties are attributed to the polar covalent Cr-B bonds interconnected with strong zigzag B-B covalent bonding network. The presence of metallic Cr bilayers is presumably responsible for the weakest paths in shear deformation.
Elastic properties of epithelial cells probed by atomic force microscopy.
Brückner, Bastian R; Janshoff, Andreas
2015-11-01
Cellular mechanics plays a crucial role in many biological processes such as cell migration, cell growth, embryogenesis, and oncogenesis. Epithelia respond to environmental cues comprising biochemical and physical stimuli through defined changes in cell elasticity. For instance, cells can differentiate between certain properties such as viscoelasticity or topography of substrates by adapting their own elasticity and shape. A living cell is a complex viscoelastic body that not only exhibits a shell architecture composed of a membrane attached to a cytoskeleton cortex but also generates contractile forces through its actomyosin network. Here we review cellular mechanics of single cells in the context of epithelial cell layers responding to chemical and physical stimuli. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology. PMID:26193077
Elastic properties of thin poly(vinyl alcohol)-cellulose nanocrystal membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pakzad, A.; Simonsen, J.; Yassar, R. S.
2012-03-01
In spite of extensive studies on the preparation and characterization of nanocomposite materials, the correlation of their properties at the nanoscale with those in bulk is a relatively unexplored area. This is of great importance, especially for materials with potential biomedical applications, where surface properties are as important in determining their applicability as bulk characteristics. In this study, the nanomechanical characteristics of thin poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) membranes were studied using the nanoindentation module in an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the properties were compared with the macro-scale properties obtained by tensile tests. In general, the elastic properties measured by nanoindentation followed the same trend as macro-scale tensile tests except for the PVOH 85-PAA 0-CNC 15 sample. In comparison to the macro-scale elastic properties, the measured elastic moduli with AFM were higher. Macro-scale tensile test results indicated that, in the presence of PAA, incorporation of CNCs up to 20 wt% improved the elastic modulus of PVOH, but when no PAA was added, increasing the CNC content above 10 wt% resulted in their agglomeration and degradation in mechanical properties of PVOH. The discrepancy between macro-scale tensile tests and nanoindentation in the PVOH 85-PAA 0-CNC 15 sample was correlated to the high degree of inhomogeneity of CNC dispersion in the matrix. It was found that the composites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals had smaller indentation imprints and the pile-up effect increased with the increase of cellulose nanocrystal content.
The Thermal Expansion, Elastic and Fracture Properties of Porous Cordierite at Elevated Temperatures
Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Pandey, Amit; Watkins, Thomas R; More, Karren
2012-01-01
The properties that determine the thermal shock resistance in materials are reported for porous cordierite, a leading candidate material for the fabrication of diesel particulate filters. Fracture toughness and slow crack growth tests were performed on test specimens obtained from the walls of diesel particulate filter monolithic substrates using the double-torsion test method at temperatures between 20 C and 900 C. The thermal expansion and elastic properties were characterized between 20 C and 1000 C. The role of the microstructure of porous cordierite in determining its unusual thermal expansion and elevated temperature Young's modulus and fracture toughness are discussed.
Unprecedented activation and CO2 capture properties of an elastic single-molecule trap.
Wriedt, Mario; Sculley, Julian P; Verdegaal, Wolfgang M; Yakovenko, Andrey A; Zhou, Hong-Cai
2013-10-25
The activation and CO2 capture properties of a microporous metal-organic framework with elastic single-molecule traps were systematically investigated. This material shows a unique low-energy gas-purge activation capability, high CO2 adsorption selectivities over various gases and optimized working capacities per energy of 2.9 mmol kJ(-1) at 128 °C. PMID:24022838
Biaglow, J.A.
1995-09-01
Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biaglow, James A.
1995-01-01
Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.
Materials property measurements
Boyd, D.M.; Green, E.R.; Doctor, S.R.; Good, M.S.
1990-04-19
An in-depth review of the measurement techniques that could be used in materials characterization is presented. The measurement techniques to non-destructively determine the in-service or time-related aging of materials considered include ultrasonic velocity and attenuation, eddy current conductivity, neutron scattering and absorption, conventional and tomographic imaging for ultrasonic and radiation imaging, x-ray scattering, thermal impedance, and magnetic hysteresis. The three sections of the report include a review of failure mechanisms in steel and a discussion of nondestructive evaluation techniques and fracture mechanics, a description of a chart on Measurement Techniques versus Material Properties, and recommendations on the techniques and tests to be performed for the experimental investigations and analysis task of the project. 49 refs., 7 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rassoulinejad-Mousavi, Seyed Moein; Mao, Yijin; Zhang, Yuwen
2016-06-01
Choice of appropriate force field is one of the main concerns of any atomistic simulation that needs to be seriously considered in order to yield reliable results. Since investigations on the mechanical behavior of materials at micro/nanoscale have been becoming much more widespread, it is necessary to determine an adequate potential which accurately models the interaction of the atoms for desired applications. In this framework, reliability of multiple embedded atom method based interatomic potentials for predicting the elastic properties was investigated. Assessments were carried out for different copper, aluminum, and nickel interatomic potentials at room temperature which is considered as the most applicable case. Examined force fields for the three species were taken from online repositories of National Institute of Standards and Technology, as well as the Sandia National Laboratories, the LAMMPS database. Using molecular dynamic simulations, the three independent elastic constants, C11, C12, and C44, were found for Cu, Al, and Ni cubic single crystals. Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation was then implemented to convert elastic constants of the single crystals into isotropic polycrystalline elastic moduli including bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Young's modulus as well as Poisson's ratio. Simulation results from massive molecular dynamic were compared with available experimental data in the literature to justify the robustness of each potential for each species. Eventually, accurate interatomic potentials have been recommended for finding each of the elastic properties of the pure species. Exactitude of the elastic properties was found to be sensitive to the choice of the force fields. Those potentials that were fitted for a specific compound may not necessarily work accurately for all the existing pure species. Tabulated results in this paper might be used as a benchmark to increase assurance of using the interatomic potential that was designated for a problem.
Spontaneous Oscillations of Elastic Contractile Materials with Turnover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dierkes, Kai; Sumi, Angughali; Solon, Jérôme; Salbreux, Guillaume
2014-10-01
Single and collective cellular oscillations driven by the actomyosin cytoskeleton have been observed in numerous biological systems. Here, we propose that these oscillations can be accounted for by a generic oscillator model of a material turning over and contracting against an elastic element. As an example, we show that during dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryo, experimentally observed changes in actomyosin concentration and oscillatory cell shape changes can, indeed, be captured by the dynamic equations studied here. We also investigate the collective dynamics of an ensemble of such contractile elements and show that the relative contribution of viscous and friction losses yields different regimes of collective oscillations. Taking into account the diffusion of force-producing molecules between contractile elements, our theoretical framework predicts the appearance of traveling waves, resembling the propagation of actomyosin waves observed during morphogenesis.
Power laws and elastic nonlinearity in materials with complex microstructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scalerandi, M.
2016-01-01
Nonlinear ultrasonic methods have been widely used to characterize the microstructure of damaged solids and consolidated granular media. Besides distinguishing between materials exhibiting classical nonlinear behaviors from those exhibiting hysteresis, it could be of importance the discrimination between ultrasonic indications from different physical sources (scatterers). Elastic hysteresis could indeed be due to dislocations, grain boundaries, stick-slip at interfaces, etc. Analyzing data obtained on various concrete samples, we show that the power law behavior of the nonlinear indicator vs. the energy of excitation could be used to classify different microscopic features. In particular, the power law exponent ranges between 1 and 3, depending on the nature of nonlinearity. We also provide a theoretical interpretation of the collected data using models for clapping and hysteretic nonlinearities.
Polymorphism and Elastic Response of Molecular Materials from First Principles: How Hard Can it Be?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre
2014-03-01
Molecular materials are of great fundamental and applied importance in science and industry, with numerous applications in pharmaceuticals, electronics, sensing, and catalysis. A key challenge for theory has been the prediction of their stability, polymorphism and response to perturbations. While pairwise models of van der Waals (vdW) interactions have improved the ability of density functional theory (DFT) to model these systems, substantial quantitative and even qualitative failures remain. In this contribution we show how a many-body description of vdW interactions can dramatically improve the accuracy of DFT for molecular materials, yielding quantitative description of stabilities and polymorphism for these challenging systems. Moreover, the role of many-body vdW interactions goes beyond stabilities to response properties. In particular, we have studied the elastic properties of a series of molecular crystals, finding that many-body vdW interactions can account for up to 30% of the elastic response, leading to quantitative and qualitative changes in elastic behavior. We will illustrate these crucial effects with the challenging case of the polymorphs of aspirin, leading to a better understanding of the conflicting experimental and theoretical studies of this system.
Monitoring the Elastic Properties of Ice with Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Wijk, K.; Vaughan, M. J.; Prior, D. J.
2015-12-01
The elastic properties of ice are of interest in understanding (theevolution of) sea ice, glaciers and ice sheets, in general. Such dataare crucial if we are to use elastic (ultrasonic to seismic) data toconstrain the internal structure and fabric of ice bodies and theirenvironmental conditions. Fabric (crystallographic preferredorientation) and temperature are two key factors that control therheology of ice sheets. Fabric and temperature data at depth arelimited to the very small number of ice drill holes in Antarctica andGreenland, mostly at ice divides. Thus, there is a need to develop ourunderstanding of elastic properties and wave propagation in ice toextract better ice information from seismic data sets. Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) is used to measure the resonantmodes of samples, from which we can invert for the full elastictensor, and estimate the attenuation quality factor. Compared to moretraditional time-of-flight ultrasound measurements, there a fewobvious advantages. First, RUS is typically done at an order ofmagnitude lower in frequency, which brings it closer to seismicfrequencies. This is important when attempting to map out thedispersive nature of these elastic properties. Second, it is often farfrom trivial to pick the shear wave arrivals in ultrasound inheterogeneous media. RUS does not rely on this distinctionbetween primary and shear wave. After having developed and applied RUS successfully to rocksamples, an extension of RUS to ice cores in the Physical AcousticsLaboraty shows great promise. For example, we successfully invertedfor the isotropic parameters (bulk and shear modulus) of crystallineman-made ice, and estimated the attenuation quality factor Q. Bycontrolling the freezer settings in the set-up, we were able tomonitor changes in these properties as a function of temperature. Theresultant data are consistent with published results from otherapproaches in the laboratory and the field. RUS is sufficiently fast and portable that
Characterization of nuclear graphite elastic properties using laser ultrasonic methods
Zeng, Fan W; Han, Karen; Olasov, Lauren R; Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Spicer, James B
2015-01-01
Laser ultrasonic methods have been used to characterize the elastic behaviors of commercially-available and legacy nuclear graphites. Since ultrasonic techniques are sensitive to various aspects of graphite microstructure including preferred grain orientation, microcrack orientation and porosity, laser ultrasonics is a candidate technique for monitoring graphite degradation and structural integrity in environments expected in high-temperature, gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Aspects of materials texture can be assessed by studying ultrasonic wavespeeds as a function of propagation direction and polarization. Shear wave birefringence measurements, in particular, can be used to evaluate elastic anisotropy. In this work, laser ultrasonic measurements of graphite moduli have been made to provide insight into the relationship between the microstructures and the macroscopic stiffnesses of these materials. In particular, laser ultrasonic measurements have been made using laser line sources to produce shear waves with specific polarizations. By varying the line orientation relative to the sample, shear wave birefringence measurements have been recorded. Results from shear wave birefringence measurements show that an isostatically molded graphite, such as PCIB, behaves isotropically, while an extruded graphite, such as H-451, displays significant ultrasonic texture. Graphites have complicated microstructures that depend on the manufacturing processes used, and ultrasonic texture in these materials could originate from grain orientation and preferred microcrack alignment. Effects on material isotropy due to service related microstructural changes are possible and the ultimate aim of this work is to determine the degree to which these changes can be assessed nondestructively using laser ultrasonics measurements
Elastic properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments
Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.
2001-01-01
Downhole-measured compressional- and shear-wave velocities acquired in the Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well, northwestern Canada, reveal that the dominant effect of gas hydrate on the elastic properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments is as a pore-filling constituent. As opposed to high elastic velocities predicted from a cementation theory, whereby a small amount of gas hydrate in the pore space significantly increases the elastic velocities, the velocity increase from gas hydrate saturation in the sediment pore space is small. Both the effective medium theory and a weighted equation predict a slight increase of velocities from gas hydrate concentration, similar to the field-observed velocities; however, the weighted equation more accurately describes the compressional- and shear-wave velocities of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. A decrease of Poisson's ratio with an increase in the gas hydrate concentration is similar to a decrease of Poisson's ratio with a decrease in the sediment porosity. Poisson's ratios greater than 0.33 for gas hydrate-bearing sediments imply the unconsolidated nature of gas hydrate-bearing sediments at this well site. The seismic characteristics of gas hydrate-bearing sediments at this site can be used to compare and evaluate other gas hydrate-bearing sediments in the Arctic.
Al4SiC4 wurtzite crystal: Structural, optoelectronic, elastic, and piezoelectric properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedesseau, L.; Even, J.; Modreanu, M.; Chaussende, D.; Sarigiannidou, E.; Chaix-Pluchery, O.; Durand, O.
2015-12-01
New experimental results supported by theoretical analyses are proposed for aluminum silicon carbide (Al4SiC4). A state of the art implementation of the density functional theory is used to analyze the experimental crystal structure, the Born charges, the elastic properties, and the piezoelectric properties. The Born charge tensor is correlated to the local bonding environment for each atom. The electronic band structure is computed including self-consistent many-body corrections. Al4SiC4 material properties are compared to other wide band gap wurtzite materials. From a comparison between an ellipsometry study of the optical properties and theoretical results, we conclude that the Al4SiC4 material has indirect and direct band gap energies of about 2.5 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively.
Hardrock Elastic Physical Properties: Birch's Seismic Parameter Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, M.; Milkereit, B.
2014-12-01
Identifying rock composition and properties is imperative in a variety of fields including geotechnical engineering, mining, and petroleum exploration, in order to accurately make any petrophysical calculations. Density is, in particular, an important parameter that allows us to differentiate between lithologies and estimate or calculate other petrophysical properties. It is well established that compressional and shear wave velocities of common crystalline rocks increase with increasing densities (i.e. the Birch and Nafe-Drake relationships). Conventional empirical relations do not take into account S-wave velocity. Physical properties of Fe-oxides and massive sulfides, however, differ significantly from the empirical velocity-density relationships. Currently, acquiring in-situ density data is challenging and problematic, and therefore, developing an approximation for density based on seismic wave velocity and elastic moduli would be beneficial. With the goal of finding other possible or better relationships between density and the elastic moduli, a database of density, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio was compiled based on a multitude of lab samples. The database is comprised of isotropic, non-porous metamorphic rock. Multi-parameter cross plots of the various elastic parameters have been analyzed in order to find a suitable parameter combination that reduces high density outliers. As expected, the P-wave velocity to S-wave velocity ratios show no correlation with density. However, Birch's seismic parameter, along with the bulk modulus, shows promise in providing a link between observed compressional and shear wave velocities and rock densities, including massive sulfides and Fe-oxides.
Elastic properties of a porous titanium-bone tissue composite.
Rubshtein, A P; Makarova, E B; Rinkevich, A B; Medvedeva, D S; Yakovenkova, L I; Vladimirov, A B
2015-01-01
The porous titanium implants were introduced into the condyles of tibias and femurs of sheep. New bone tissue fills the pore, and the porous titanium-new bone tissue composite is formed. The duration of composite formation was 4, 8, 24 and 52 weeks. The formed composites were extracted from the bone and subjected to a compression test. The Young's modulus was calculated using the measured stress-strain curve. The time dependence of the Young's modulus of the composite was obtained. After 4 weeks the new bone tissue that filled the pores does not affect the elastic properties of implants. After 24 and 52 weeks the Young's modulus increases by 21-34% and 62-136%, respectively. The numerical calculations of the elasticity of porous titanium-new bone tissue composite were conducted using a simple polydisperse model that is based on the consideration of heterogeneous structure as a continuous medium with spherical inclusions of different sizes. The kinetics of the change in the elasticity of the new bone tissue is presented via the intermediate characteristics, namely the relative ultimate tensile strength or proportion of mature bone tissue in the bone tissue. The calculated and experimentally measured values of the Young's modulus of the composite are in good agreement after 8 weeks of composite formation. The properties of the porous titanium-new bone tissue composites can only be predicted when data on the properties of new bone tissue are available after 8 weeks of contact between the implant and the native bone. PMID:25953540
Elastic properties of dry clay mineral aggregates, suspensions and sandstones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanorio, Tiziana; Prasad, Manika; Nur, Amos
2003-10-01
The presence of clay minerals can alter the elastic behaviour of rocks significantly. Although clay minerals are common in sedimentary formations and seismic measurements are our main tools for studying subsurface lithologies, measurements of elastic properties of clay minerals have proven difficult. Theoretical values for the bulk modulus of clay are reported between 20 and 50 GPa. The only published experimental measurement of Young's modulus in a clay mineral using atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) gave a much lower value of 6.2 GPa. This study has concentrated on using independent experimental methods to measure the elastic moduli of clay minerals as functions of pressure and saturation. First, ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities were measured as functions of hydrostatic pressure in cold-pressed clay aggregates with porosity and grain density ranging from 4 to 43 per cent and 2.13 to 2.83 g cm-3, respectively. In the second experiment, P- and S-wave velocities in clay powders were measured under uniaxial stresses compaction. In the third experiment, P-wave velocity and attenuation in a kaolinite-water suspension with clay concentrations between 0 and 60 per cent were measured at ambient conditions. Our elastic moduli measurements of kaolinite, montmorillonite and smectite are consistent for all experiments and with reported AFAM measurements on a nanometre scale. The bulk modulus values of the solid clay phase (Ks) lie between 6 and 12 GPa and shear (μs) modulus values vary between 4 and 6 GPa. A comparison is made between the accuracy of velocity prediction in shaley sandstones and clay-water and clay-sand mixtures using the values measured in this study and those from theoretical models. Using Ks= 12 GPa and μs= 6 GPa from this study, the models give a much better prediction both of experimental velocity reduction due to increase in clay content in sandstones and velocity measurements in a kaolinite-water suspension.
Analytical modeling of elastic-plastic wave behavior near grain boundaries in crystalline materials
Loomis, Eric; Greenfield, Scott; Luo, Shengnian; Swift, Damian; Peralta, Pedro
2009-01-01
It is well known that changes in material properties across an interface will produce differences in the behavior of reflected and transmitted waves. This is seen frequently in planar impact experiments, and to a lesser extent, oblique impacts. In anisotropic elastic materials, wave behavior as a function of direction is usually accomplished with the aid of velocity surfaces, a graphical method for predicting wave scattering configurations. They have expanded this method to account for inelastic deformation due to crystal plasticity. The set of derived equations could not be put into a characteristic form, but instead led to an implicit problem. to overcome this difficulty an algorithm was developed to search the parameters space defined by a wave normal vector, particle velocity vector, and a wave speed. A solution was said to exist when a set from this parameter space satisfied the governing vector equation. Using this technique they can predict the anisotropic elastic-plastic velocity surfaces and grain boundary scattering configuration for crystalline materials undergoing deformation by slip. Specifically, they have calculated the configuration of scattered elastic-plastic waves in anisotropic NiAl for an incident compressional wave propagating along a <111> direction and contacting a 45 degree inclined grain boundary and found that large amplitude transmitted waves exist owing to the fact that the wave surface geometry forces it to propagate near the zero Schmid factor direction <100>.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Zhi-Gang; Stan, Marius; Pichler, Benjamin
2013-09-01
The structural, elastic, electronic, phonon and thermodynamic properties of UN are studied by density functional theory (DFT) within local-density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and GGA + U. The GGA calculations of the ground state structural and elastic properties of UN show an overall better agreement with experimental data compared to LDA or GGA + U. The melting temperature of UN (Tm) is estimated from the calculated elastic constant, with GGA predicting Tm = 2944 ± 300 K, in excellent agreement with experimental data. The calculated phonon dispersions of UN agree well with the low temperature measurements. Furthermore, the thermodynamic properties of UN are studied using quasiharmonic approximation by including both lattice vibrational and thermal electronic contributions. The predicted thermodynamic properties, such as enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs energy, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient, agree well with experimental data. The derived thermodynamic functions of UN are useful to the thermodynamic modeling of phase stabilities in UN-based materials. This study shows that the thermal electronic energy and entropy due to U 5f electrons are important to describe the free energy of UN, due to the metallic character of UN. The calculated thermodynamic properties also suggest that the anharmonic effects are less important in UN even at high-temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
M, Shakil; Muhammad, Zafar; Shabbir, Ahmed; Muhammad Raza-ur-rehman, Hashmi; M, A. Choudhary; T, Iqbal
2016-07-01
The plane wave pseudo-potential method was used to investigate the structural, electronic, and elastic properties of CdSe1‑x Te x in the zinc blende phase. It is observed that the electronic properties are improved considerably by using LDA+U as compared to the LDA approach. The calculated lattice constants and bulk moduli are also comparable to the experimental results. The cohesive energies for pure CdSe and CdTe binary and their mixed alloys are calculated. The second-order elastic constants are also calculated by the Lagrangian theory of elasticity. The elastic properties show that the studied material has a ductile nature.
Janson, Isaac A; Putnam, Andrew J
2015-03-01
Chemical, mechanical, and topographic extracellular matrix (ECM) cues have been extensively studied for their influence on cell behavior. These ECM cues alter cell adhesion, cell shape, and cell migration and activate signal transduction pathways to influence gene expression, proliferation, and differentiation. ECM elasticity and topography, in particular, have emerged as material properties of intense focus based on strong evidence these physical cues can partially dictate stem cell differentiation. Cells generate forces to pull on their adhesive contacts, and these tractional forces appear to be a common element of cells' responses to both elasticity and topography. This review focuses on recently published work that links ECM topography and mechanics and their influence on differentiation and other cell behaviors. We also highlight signaling pathways typically implicated in mechanotransduction that are (or may be) shared by cells subjected to topographic cues. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the potential implications of these commonalities for cell based therapies and biomaterial design.
Elastic-plastic characterization of a cast stainless steep pipe elbow material
Joyce, J.A.; Hackett, E.M.; Roe, C.
1992-01-01
Tests conducted in Japan as part of the High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program for reactor piping systems revealed fatigue crack growth in a cast stainless steel pipe elbow. The material tested was equivalent to ASME SA-351CF8M. The David Taylor Research Center (DTRC) was tasked to developed the appropriate material property data to characterize cyclic deformation, cyclic elastic-plastic crack growth and ductile tearing resistance in the pipe elbow material. It was found that the cast stainless steel was very resistant to ductile crack extension. J-R curves essentially followed a blunting behavior to very high J levels. Low cycle fatigue crack growth rate data obtained on this material using a cyclic J integral approach was consistent with the high cycle fatigue crack growth rate and with a standard textbook correlation equation typical for this type of material. Evaluation of crack closure effects was essential to accurately determine the crack driving force for cyclic elastic- plastic crack growth in this material. SEM examination of several of the cyclic J test fracture surfaces indicated that fatigue was the primary mode of fracture with ductile crack extension intervening only during the last few cycles of loading.
Phase stability and elastic properties of Cr-V alloys
Gao, M C; Suzuki, Y; Schweiger, H; Doğan, Ö N; Hawk, J; Widom, M
2013-01-23
V is the only element in the periodic table that forms a complete solid solution with Cr and thus is particularly important in alloying strategy to ductilize Cr. This study combines first-principles density functional theory calculations and experiments to investigate the phase stability and elastic properties of Cr–V binary alloys. The cluster expansion study reveals the formation of various ordered compounds at low temperatures that were not previously known. These compounds become unstable due to the configurational entropy of bcc solid solution as the temperature is increased. The elastic constants of ordered and disordered compounds are calculated at both T = 0 K and finite temperatures. The overall trends in elastic properties are in agreement with measurements using the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method. The calculations predict that addition of V to Cr decreases both the bulk modulus and the shear modulus, and enhances the Poisson’s ratio, in agreement with experiments. Decrease in the bulk modulus is correlated to decrease in the valence electron density and increase in the lattice constant. An enhanced Poisson’s ratio for bcc Cr–V alloys (compared to pure Cr) is associated with an increased density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, the difference charge density in the bonding region in the (110) slip plane is highest for pure Cr and decreases gradually as V is added. The present calculation also predicts a negative Cauchy pressure for pure Cr, and it becomes positive upon alloying with V. The intrinsic ductilizing effect from V may contribute, at least partially, to the experimentally observed ductilizing phenomenon in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mozafari, E.; Shulumba, N.; Steneteg, P.; Alling, B.; Abrikosov, Igor A.
2016-08-01
We present a theoretical scheme to calculate the elastic constants of magnetic materials in the high-temperature paramagnetic state. Our approach is based on a combination of disordered local moments picture and ab initio molecular dynamics (DLM-MD). Moreover, we investigate a possibility to enhance the efficiency of the simulations of elastic properties using the recently introduced method: symmetry imposed force constant temperature-dependent effective potential (SIFC-TDEP). We have chosen cubic paramagnetic CrN as a model system. This is done due to its technological importance and its demonstrated strong coupling between magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom. We have studied the temperature-dependent single-crystal and polycrystalline elastic constants of paramagentic CrN up to 1200 K. The obtained results at T = 300 K agree well with the experimental values of polycrystalline elastic constants as well as the Poisson ratio at room temperature. We observe that the Young's modulus is strongly dependent on temperature, decreasing by ˜14 % from T = 300 K to 1200 K. In addition we have studied the elastic anisotropy of CrN as a function of temperature and we observe that CrN becomes substantially more isotropic as the temperature increases. We demonstrate that the use of Birch law may lead to substantial errors for calculations of temperature induced changes of elastic moduli. The proposed methodology can be used for accurate predictions of mechanical properties of magnetic materials at temperatures above their magnetic order-disorder phase transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramovich, A.
2012-12-01
Cermets is a ceramic-metal composite usually produced by sintering a precompacted mixture of the initial powders. These composite materials were created for industrial applications to produce engineering structures possessing a high strength, thermal stability and resistance to aggressive media. In the present work elastic properties of cermets samples, obtained by sintering of corundum (α-Al2O3) and stainless steel powders were investigated in dependence on steel concentration 5 - 35% wt. and on temperature of sintering in vacuum 1400-1700°C. It was stated that values of elastic moduli are in complex dependence on concentration and temperature, reach maxima at steel concentration 15 - 20% wt. and increase with sintering temperature rise. In the work also the results of cermets microstructure researches and discussion of these results are presented. The results are discussed from stand view of ultrasound propagation through medium having grain boundaries which influence on the physical properties of composite.
Duboeuf, François; Liebgott, Hervé; Basarab, Adrian; Brusseau, Elisabeth; Delachartre, Philippe; Vray, Didier
2007-01-01
Emerging medical imaging techniques usually provide quantitative diagnostic parameters. Since the description of a method for quantitative imaging of strain and elastic modulus distributions in soft tissues by Ophir et al. in 1991, research in elastography is progressing and experimental in vitro validation of new displacement estimators appears crucial for clinical applications. Materials mimicking biological tissues appear very useful to reach this goal. Nevertheless, correct validation necessitates knowledge of mechanical properties of the investigated material, which are often difficult to obtain. This study describes a simple method for mechanical characterization of gels used in elastography. We demonstrated the possibility to assess elasticity modulus with a reasonable reproducibility using simple tools and methods. For validation, the described method was further tested with 5 samples of Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel having different values of elasticity. Young's moduli, from 24 to 135 kPa according to the number of freeze-thaw cycles (from 1 to 5) have been measured with a reproducibility varying from 2 to 7%, in the respect of strict measurements conditions. The method demonstrates good feasibility and acceptable reproducibility to mechanically characterize phantoms.
Recent developments in testing techniques for elastic mechanical properties of 1-D nanomaterials.
Wang, Weidong; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Hongti; Lu, Yang
2015-01-01
One-dimensional (1-D) nanomaterials exhibit great potentials in their applications to functional materials, nano-devices and systems owing to their excellent properties. In the past decade, considerable studies have been done, with new patents being developed, on these 1-D building blocks for for their mechanical properties, especially elastic properties, which provide a solid foundation for the design of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and predictions of reliability and longevity for their devices. This paper reviews some of the recent investigations on techniques as well as patents available for the quantitative characterization of the elastic behaviors of various 1-D nanomaterials, with particular focus on on-chip testing system. The review begins with an overview of major testing methods for 1-D nanostructures' elastic properties, including nanoindentation testing, AFM (atomic force microscopy) testing, in situ SEM (scanning electron microscopy) testing, in situ TEM (transmission electron microscopy) testing and the testing system on the basis of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) technology, followed by advantages and challenges of each testing approach. This review also focuses on the MEMS-based testing apparatus, which can be actuated and measured inside SEM and TEM with ease, allowing users to highly magnify the continuous images of the specimen while measuring load electronically and independently. The combination of on-chip technologies and the in situ electron microscopy is expected to be a potential testing technique for nanomechanics. Finally, details are presented on the key challenges and possible solutions in the implementation of the testing techniques referred above.
Effective elastic properties of nanocomposites using a novel atomistic-continuum interphase model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paliwal, Bhasker; Cherkaoui, Mohammed; Fassi-Fehri, Omar
We have introduced the concept of interphase and revised classical micromechanics to predict the effective elastic properties of heterogeneous materials containing nano-inhomogeneities. An interphase is described as an additional phase between the matrix and inhomogeneity whose constitutive properties are derived from atomistic simulations and then incorporated in a micromechanics model to compute effective properties of nanocomposites. This scale transition approach bridges the gap between discrete atomic level interactions and continuum mechanics. An advantage of this approach is that it combines atomistic with continuum models that consider inhomogeneity and interphase morphology. It thereby enables us to account simultaneously for both the shape and the anisotropy of a nano-inhomogeneity and interphase at the continuum level when we compute material's overall properties. In so doing, it frees us from making any assumptions about the interface characteristics between matrix and the nano-inhomogeneity.
Galo, Rodrigo; Contente, Marta Maria Martins Giamatei; Galafassi, Daniel; Borsatto, Maria Cristina
2015-01-01
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the Young's modulus and the hardness of deciduous and permanent teeth following wear challenges using different dental materials. Materials and Methods: Wear challenges were performed against four dental materials: A resin-based fissure sealant (Fluoroshield®), a glass ionomer based fissure sealant (Vitremer®), and two microhybrid composite resins (Filtek Z250 and P90®). Using the pin-on-plate design, a deciduous or a permanent tooth was made into a pin (4 mm × 4 mm × 2 mm) working at a 3 N vertical load, 1 Hz frequency, and 900 cycles (15 min) with Fusayama artificial saliva as a lubricant. Before and after the tribological tests, the hardness and elasticity modulus of the tooth samples were measured by creating a nanoindentation at load forces up to 50 mN and 150 mN. All of the results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and post-hoc Duncan's tests (P < 0.05). Results: No difference in hardness was encountered between deciduous and permanent teeth (P < 0.05) or modulus of elasticity (P < 0.05) before or after the wear challenges for all of the dental materials tested. Conclusions: Wear challenges against the studied dental materials did not alter the properties of permanent or deciduous teeth after the application of a 3 N load. PMID:26929700
A first principle study of the pressure dependent elastic properties of monazite LaPO4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Kawsar; Arya, A.; Ghosh, P. S.; Dey, G. K.
2016-05-01
DFT based ab-initio simulations have been performed to study the effect of pressure on the elastic properties of monazite LaPO4 which is a promising host material for immobilization of high level nuclear waste. The phase is found to be stable up to 30 GPa. The calculated polycrystalline bulk, shear and Young moduli show an increasing trend as a function of pressure. The ductility and anisotropy in shear modulus of the material have been found to increase with pressure; whilethe bulk modulus anisotropy decreases with pressure.
Hard tissue as a composite material. I - Bounds on the elastic behavior.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, J. L.
1971-01-01
Recent determination of the elastic moduli of hydroxyapatite by ultrasonic methods permits a re-examination of the Voigt or parallel model of the elastic behavior of bone, as a two phase composite material. It is shown that such a model alone cannot be used to describe the behavior of bone. Correlative data on the elastic moduli of dentin, enamel and various bone samples indicate the existence of a nonlinear dependence of elastic moduli on composition of hard tissue. Several composite models are used to calculate the bounds on the elastic behavior of these tissues. The limitations of these models are described, and experiments to obtain additional critical data are discussed.
An In-Depth Tutorial on Constitutive Equations for Elastic Anisotropic Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.
2011-01-01
An in-depth tutorial on the constitutive equations for elastic, anisotropic materials is presented. Basic concepts are introduced that are used to characterize materials, and notions about how anisotropic material deform are presented. Hooke s law and the Duhamel-Neuman law for isotropic materials are presented and discussed. Then, the most general form of Hooke s law for elastic anisotropic materials is presented and symmetry requirements are given. A similar presentation is also given for the generalized Duhamel-Neuman law for elastic, anisotropic materials that includes thermal effects. Transformation equations for stress and strains are presented and the most general form of the transformation equations for the constitutive matrices are given. Then, specialized transformation equations are presented for dextral rotations about the coordinate axes. Next, concepts of material symmetry are introduced and criteria for material symmetries are presented. Additionally, engineering constants of fully anisotropic, elastic materials are derived from first principles and the specialized to several cases of practical importance.
Anisotropic Elastic Properties of Muscle-like Nematic Elastomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratna, Banahalii; Thomseniii, Donald L.; Shenoy, Devanand; Srinivasan, Amritha; Keller, Patrick
2001-03-01
De Gennes suggested in 1997 that the liquid crystal elastomers are an excellent framework to mimic muscular action. We have prepared anisotropic freestanding films of nematic elastomers from laterally attached side-chain polymers that show muscle-like mechanical properties. The orientational order of the liquid crystal side groups imposes a conformational anisotropy in the polymer backbone. When the order parameter drops at the nematic-isotropic phase transition, there is a concomitant loss of order in the backbone which results in a contraction of the film in the direction of the director orientation. Dynamic mechanical data along directions parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis, show anisotropic stress-strain behavior. The film exhibits soft elasticity when strained in the perpendicular direction when the liquid crystal mesogens reorient without appreciable stress build up. Thermostrictive studies in the parallel direction show 40constriction at the nematic-isotropic phase transition. Isometric studies show that the elastic energy stored is purely entropic in origin and the elastomer acts like a spring with unusually large spring constant at the NI transition. The maximum stress measured is 300kPa. A strain rate of 5s-1 is estimated from shear relaxation studies.
Visco-Elastic Properties of Sodium Hyaluronate Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulicke, Werner-Michael; Meyer, Fabian; Bingöl, Ali Ö.; Lohmann, Derek
2008-07-01
Sodium Hyaluronate (NaHA) is a member of the glycosaminoglycans and is present in the human organism as part of the synovial fluid and the vitreous body. HA is mainly commercialized as sodium or potassium salt. It can be extracted from cockscombs or can be produced by bacterial fermentation ensuring a low protein content. Because of its natural origin and toxicological harmlessness, NaHA is used to a great extent for pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. In medical applications, NaHA is already being used as a component of flushing and stabilizing fluids in the treatment of eye cataract and as a surrogate for natural synovial fluid. Another growing domain in the commercial utilization of NaHA is the field of skin care products like dermal fillers or moisturizers. In this spectrum, NaHA is used in dilute over semidilute up to concentrated (0
The Elastic Properties of the Cryptococcus neoformans Capsule
Frases, Susana; Pontes, Bruno; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Viana, Nathan B.; Casadevall, Arturo
2009-01-01
Abstract Microbial capsules are important for virulence, but their architecture and physical properties are poorly understood. The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a large polysaccharide capsule that is necessary for virulence and is the target of protective antibody responses. To study the C. neoformans capsule we developed what we believe is a new approach whereby we probed the capsular elastic properties by applying forces using polystyrene beads manipulated with optical tweezers. This method allowed us to determine the Young's modulus for the capsule in various conditions that affect capsule growth. The results indicate that the Young's modulus of the capsule decreases with its size and increases with the Ca2+ concentration in solution. Also, capsular polysaccharide manifests an unexpected affinity for polystyrene beads, a property that may function in attachment to host cells and environmental structures. Bead probing with optical tweezers provides a new, nondestructive method that may have wide applicability for studying the effects of growth conditions, immune components, and drugs on capsular properties. PMID:19686640
The elastic properties of the Cryptococcus neoformans capsule.
Frases, Susana; Pontes, Bruno; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Viana, Nathan B; Casadevall, Arturo
2009-08-19
Microbial capsules are important for virulence, but their architecture and physical properties are poorly understood. The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a large polysaccharide capsule that is necessary for virulence and is the target of protective antibody responses. To study the C. neoformans capsule we developed what we believe is a new approach whereby we probed the capsular elastic properties by applying forces using polystyrene beads manipulated with optical tweezers. This method allowed us to determine the Young's modulus for the capsule in various conditions that affect capsule growth. The results indicate that the Young's modulus of the capsule decreases with its size and increases with the Ca(2+) concentration in solution. Also, capsular polysaccharide manifests an unexpected affinity for polystyrene beads, a property that may function in attachment to host cells and environmental structures. Bead probing with optical tweezers provides a new, nondestructive method that may have wide applicability for studying the effects of growth conditions, immune components, and drugs on capsular properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almanna Lubis, Luluan; Ghosh, Deva P.; Hermana, Maman
2016-07-01
The elastic and electrical properties of low resistivity pays clastics reservoirs in Malay Basin are strongly dependent on the complex nature of the clay content, either dispersed or laminated/layered. Estimating the hydrocarbon pore volume from conventional electrical log, i.e. resistivity log, is quite a challenge. The low elastic impedance contrast also found as one of the challenge thus create a problem to map the distribution of the low resistivity reservoirs. In this paper, we evaluate the electrical properties and elastic rock properties to discriminate the pay from the adjacent cap rock or shale. Forward modeling of well log responses including electrical properties are applied to analyze the nature of the possible pays on laminated reservoir rocks. In the implementation of rock properties analysis, several conventional elastic properties are comparatively analyzed for the sensitivity and feasibility analysis on each elastic parameters. Finally, we discussed the advantages of each elastic parameters in detail. In addition, cross-plots of elastic and electrical properties attributes help us in the clear separation of anomalous zone and lithologic properties of sand and shale facies over conventional elastic parameter crossplots attributes. The possible relationship on electrical and elastic properties are discussed for further studies.
Menzel, Andreas M
2016-08-01
One possibility to adjust material properties to a specific need is to embed units of one substance into a matrix of another substance. Even materials that are readily tunable during operation can be generated in this way. In (visco)elastic substances, both the matrix material as well as the inclusions and/or their immediate environment can be dynamically deformed. If the typical dynamic response time of the inclusions and their surroundings approach the macroscopic response time, their deformation processes need to be included into a dynamic macroscopic characterization. Along these lines, we present a hydrodynamic description of (visco)elastic composite materials. For this purpose, additional strain variables reflect the state of the inclusions and their immediate environment. These additional strain variables in general are not set by a coarse-grained macroscopic displacement field. Apart from that, during our derivation, we also include the macroscopic variables of relative translations and relative rotations that were previously introduced in different contexts. As a central point, our approach reveals and classifies the importance of a macroscopic variable termed relative strains. We analyze two simplified minimal example geometries as an illustration. PMID:27627384
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menzel, Andreas M.
2016-08-01
One possibility to adjust material properties to a specific need is to embed units of one substance into a matrix of another substance. Even materials that are readily tunable during operation can be generated in this way. In (visco)elastic substances, both the matrix material as well as the inclusions and/or their immediate environment can be dynamically deformed. If the typical dynamic response time of the inclusions and their surroundings approach the macroscopic response time, their deformation processes need to be included into a dynamic macroscopic characterization. Along these lines, we present a hydrodynamic description of (visco)elastic composite materials. For this purpose, additional strain variables reflect the state of the inclusions and their immediate environment. These additional strain variables in general are not set by a coarse-grained macroscopic displacement field. Apart from that, during our derivation, we also include the macroscopic variables of relative translations and relative rotations that were previously introduced in different contexts. As a central point, our approach reveals and classifies the importance of a macroscopic variable termed relative strains. We analyze two simplified minimal example geometries as an illustration.
Elastic properties and atomic bonding character in metallic glasses
Rouxel, T.; Yokoyama, Y.
2015-07-28
The elastic properties of glasses from different metallic systems were studied in the light of the atomic packing density and bonding character. We found that the electronegativity mismatch (Δe{sup −}) between the host- and the major solute-elements provides a plausible explanation to the large variation observed for Poisson's ratio (ν) among metallic glasses (MGs) (from 0.28 for Fe-based to 0.43 for Pd-based MGs), notwithstanding a similar atomic packing efficiency (C{sub g}). Besides, it is found that ductile MGs correspond to Δe{sup −} smaller than 0.5 and to a relatively steep atomic potential well. Ductility is, thus, favored in MGs exhibiting a weak bond directionality on average and opposing a strong resistance to volume change.
Aortic elastic properties in athletes using anabolic-androgenic steroids.
Kasikcioglu, Erdem; Oflaz, Huseyin; Arslan, Armagan; Topcu, Berrin; Kasikcioglu, Hulya A; Umman, Berrin; Bugra, Zehra; Kayserilioglu, Abidin
2007-01-01
The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) has been linked to acute cardiovascular events in athletes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the aortic elastic properties in athletes who had been self-administering AAS compared with a group of athletes not using these drugs. Fourteen male bodybuilders using AAS and 27 male wrestlers (non-users) volunteered to the study. All subjects were placed in a mild recumbent position and the ascending aorta was recorded in the two-dimensional guided M-mode tracings. Although the aortic distensibility was found to be reduced in user athletes (2.1+/-1.1 vs. 3.8+/-1.4 cm(2) dyn(-1) 10(-6), p=0.01; 9.3+/-3.7 vs. 5.9+/-2.5, p=0.003, respectively). The results of this study indicate that aortic stiffness is increasing in athletes using AAS.
Quantitative microstructure characterization and elastic properties upscaling of carbonate rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vialle, Stephanie; Lebedev, Maxim
2016-04-01
Most Rock Physics models commonly used to predict elastic properties rely on a very simplified representation of the pore and grains geometry. Initially developed for siliclastic rocks, they do not apply easily and/or with as much success, to rocks with more complicated microstructure such as carbonates, which exhibit complex relationships between geophysical attributes and rock properties, such as P-wave velocity versus porosity. Furthermore, until recently, most microstructure imaging techniques such as optical microscopy, SEM, X-ray micro-CT, etc., only give a qualitative description of the pore and grain arrangement. Nano-indentation technique is a method that gives quantitative information by mean of local (micrometer size) measurements of elastic moduli. We used this technique to obtain 300 μm * 300 μm maps of Young's moduli (around 1000 data points) of two microporous carbonates of same mineralogy but of two different microstructures. As the size of the indenter tip is much smaller than the characteristic length of the heterogeneities in microstructure, the distribution of the Young's moduli can be deconvolved into its component parts (i.e. phases). SEM imaging of the same areas than the ones mapped by nano-indentation shows correlations between type of micrite and phases of different mean Young's modulus: tight micrites exhibiting a higher Young's modulus (up to 64 GPa) than microporous micrites (as low as 9 GPa). We then investigate different ways to upscale the measurements in order to get the effective bulk and shear moduli, from simply using volume fractions of the different phases, classical Hashin-Shrikman bounds, and Hill average; to using micro-CT imaging and analysis combined with rock physics models. Though more work is still needed to render nano-indentation technique a robust method for rock physics, both on the theory behind and on the upscaling of the measurements, these results that use nano-indentation method in a statistical way are very
Elastic wave propagation in adaptive honeycomb-based materials with high connectivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zhi-Wei; Deng, Zi-Chen
2016-08-01
Beam-type periodic materials with high connectivity have displayed unique band gap behaviors analogous to locally resonant band gaps in acoustic metamaterials. In this study, structurally square re-entrant honeycomb, one highly connected lattice configuration featuring eight folded beams connected at each joint, is introduced to be the host structure of a smart material to tailor the elastic wave propagation. Finite length piezoelectric patches connected with negative capacitance shunting circuits are arranged on the beam surfaces, providing active adjustment via altering the parameters of shunting circuits. The characteristics of band structure of this smart structured material are investigated through the application of finite element method in conjunction with the Bloch theorem. Results demonstrate that the variation of internally resonant band gaps induced by the alteration of the piezoelectric patches to those positions and mechanical properties, can be precisely estimated by simple heuristic models proposed according to deformation characteristics of standing wave modes. This founding could promote the practical implementation of the highly connected honeycombs in the adaptive control to elastic wave.
Elastic properties of a polyimide film determined by Brillouin scattering and mechanical techniques
Kumar, R.S.; Schuller, I.K.; Kumar, S.S.; Fartash, A.; Grimsditch, M.
1993-06-01
We discuss here the complete determination of the elastic properties of a polyimide film using two experimental techniques. One technique employs the polymer film as a vibrating membrane and allows a direct determination of the ``macroscopic`` biaxial modulus. Brillouin scattering, which measures the elastic properties on a {approximately} 100{mu} scale, allows for a complete characterization of the elastic behavior. Results obtained by the two techniques are in agreement within reported error bars.
Modeling of the wave transmission properties of large arteries using nonlinear elastic tubes.
Pythoud, F; Stergiopulos, N; Meister, J J
1994-11-01
We propose a new, simple way of constructing elastic tubes which can be used to model the nonlinear elastic properties of large arteries. The tube models are constructed from a silicon elastomer (Sylgard 184, Dow Corning), which exhibits a nonlinear behavior with increased stiffness at high strains. Tests conducted on different tube models showed that, with the proper choice of geometric parameters, the elastic properties, in terms of area-pressure relation and compliance, can be similar to that of real arteries.
Lakel, S.; Okbi, F.; Ibrir, M.; Almi, K.
2015-03-30
We have performed first-principles calculations to investigate the behavior under hydrostatic pressure of the structural, elastic and lattice dynamics properties of aluminum phosphide crystal (AlP), in both zinc-blende (B3) and nickel arsenide (B8) phases. Our calculated structural and electronic properties are in good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental results. The elastic constants, bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), and Young's modulus (E), Born effective charge and static dielectric constant ε{sub 0}, were calculated with the generalized gradient approximations and the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). Our results in the pressure behavior of the elastic and dielectric properties of both phases are compared and contrasted with the common III–V materials. The Born effective charge ZB decreases linearly with pressure increasing, while the static dielectric constant decreases quadratically with the increase of pressure.
Materials properties data base computerization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baur, R. G.; Donthnier, M. L.; Moran, M. C.; Mortman, I.; Pinter, R. S.
1984-01-01
Material property data plays a key role in the design of jet engine components. Consistency, accuracy and efficient use of material property data is of prime importance to the engineering community. The system conception, development, implementation, and future plans for computer software that captures the Material Properties Handbook into a scientific data base are described. The engineering community is given access to raw data and property curves, display of multiple curves for material evaluation and selection, direct access by design analysis computer programs, display of the material specification, and a historical repository for the material evolution. The impact of this activity includes significant productivity gains and cost reductions; all users have access to the same information nd provides consistent, rapid response to the needs of the engineering community. Future plans include incorporating the materials properties data base into a network environment to access information from other data bases and download information to engineering work stations.
Atomistic simulations of the elastic properties of helium bubble embedded aluminum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhu, Wen-Jun; Liu, Shao-Jun; Song, Zhen-Fei; Deng, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Xiang-Rong; He, Hong-Liang
2009-03-01
The helium bubble has significant consequence to the mechanical properties of irradiated materials. The influence of embedded helium bubble to the elastic properties of aluminum has been investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The interaction between aluminum atoms and the interaction between helium atoms are described by an embedded-atom-method (EAM) many-body potential and a pair potential, respectively. Another pair potential, which is parameterized based on ab initio calculation, is used to describe the interaction between aluminum and helium atoms, and its validation under pressure up to 10 GPa is reasonable demonstrated by the electron density calculation. For the composite system consisting of 62,500 aluminum atoms and one helium bubble with various diameters, its elastic constants are calculated properly by stress-strain relation rather than by energy-strain relation. The results show that elastic constants c11, c12 and c44 decrease with increasing of the volume of the helium bubble, and remain almost invariable with the internal pressure of the helium bubble. The main reason is under high-pressure the helium is softer than aluminum, and the soft effect overwhelms the hard effect of internal pressure of helium bubble.
Elastic properties and mechanical stability of chiral and filled viral capsids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buenemann, Mathias; Lenz, Peter
2008-11-01
The elasticity and mechanical stability of empty and filled viral capsids under external force loading are studied in a combined analytical and numerical approach. We analyze the influence of capsid structure and chirality on the mechanical properties. We find that generally skew shells have lower stretching energy. For large Föppl-von Kármán numbers γ (γ≈105) , skew structures are stiffer in their elastic response than nonchiral ones. The discrete structure of the capsules not only leads to buckling for large γ but also influences the breakage behavior of capsules below the buckling threshold: the rupture force shows a γ1/4 scaling rather than a γ1/2 scaling as expected from our analytical results for continuous shells. Filled viral capsids are exposed to internal anisotropic pressure distributions arising from regularly packaged DNA coils. We analyze their influence on the elastic properties and rupture behavior and we discuss possible experimental consequences. Finally, we numerically investigate specific sets of parameters corresponding to specific phages such as ϕ29 and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). From the experimentally measured spring constants we make predictions about specific material parameters (such as bending rigidity and Young’s modulus) for both empty and filled capsids.
Modeling the Elastic Properties of Lipid Bilayer Membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barry, Edward; Gibaud, Thomas; Zakhary, Mark; Dogic, Zvonimir
2011-03-01
Model membranes such as lipid bilayers have been indispensable tools for our understanding of the elastic properties of biological membranes. In this talk, I will introduce a colloidal model for membranes and demonstrate that the physical properties of these colloidal membranes are identical to lipid bilayers. The model system is unique in that the constituent molecules are homogenous and non-amphiphilic, yet their self-assembly into membranes and other hierarchical assemblages, such as a lamellar type phases and chiral ribbons, proceeds spontaneously in solution. Owing to the large size of the constituent molecules, individual molecules can be directly visualized and simultaneous observations at the continuum and molecular lengthscales are used to characterize the behavior of model membranes with unprecedented detail. Moreover, once assembled in solution, molecular interactions can be controlled in situ. In particular, the strength of chiral interactions can be varied, leading to fascinating transitions in behavior that resembles the formation of starfish vesicles. These observations point towards the important role of line tension, and have potential implications for phase separated lipid mixtures or lipid rafts.
Laser-Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Properties of Anodized Aluminum Coatings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singer, F.
Anodized aluminum oxide plays a great role in many industrial applications, e.g. in order to achieve greater wear resistance. Since the hardness of the anodized films strongly depends on its processing parameters, it is important to characterize the influence of the processing parameters on the film properties. In this work the elastic material parameters of anodized aluminum were investigated using a laser-based ultrasound system. The anodized films were characterized analyzing the dispersion of Rayleigh waves with a one-layer model. It was shown that anodizing time and temperature strongly influence Rayleigh wave propagation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venetis, J.; Sideridis, E.
2015-03-01
In this paper, a model to find the approximate equations for determining the elastic constants of unidirectional fiber - reinforced composite materials in terms of the constituent material properties is described. The novelty of this work is that the fibers are considered to be transversely isotropic. To simulate the microstructure of the composite, we will take into account the concept of interphase with the concurrent assumption that the fibers are parallel to the line formed by the centers of the bases of a three - phase cylinder model, having a uniform distribution inside the matrix without agglomeration. The results were compared with the respective values of some reliable theoretical models as well as with experimental data obtained from other researchers, and they were found to be in reasonable agreement.
Nonuniform elastic properties of macromolecules and effect of prestrain on their continuum nature.
Aggarwal, Ankush; May, Eric R; Brooks, Charles L; Klug, William S
2016-01-01
Many experimental and theoretical methods have been developed to calculate the coarse-grained continuum elastic properties of macromolecules. However, all of those methods assume uniform elastic properties. Following the continuum mechanics framework, we present a systematic way of calculating the nonuniform effective elastic properties from atomic thermal fluctuations obtained from molecular dynamics simulation at any coarse-grained scale using a potential of the mean-force approach. We present the results for a mutant of Sesbania mosaic virus capsid, where we calculate the elastic moduli at different scales and observe an apparent problem with the chosen reference configuration in some cases. We present a possible explanation using an elastic network model, where inducing random prestrain results in a similar behavior. This phenomenon provides a novel insight into the continuum nature of macromolecules and defines the limits on details that the elasticity theory can capture. Further investigation into prestrains could elucidate important aspects of conformational dynamics of macromolecules.
Elasticity and electrical properties of porous bodies described as an agglomerate-of-spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Höpfinger, H.; Winsel, A.
The phenomenological characterization of a sintered, pressed or electrolytically produced porous body as an 'agglomerate-of-spheres' (AOS), estimated by the properties of their connections — the so-called necks—, was used to predict its break-force, elasticity and resistance. To this, the previous theoretical description of the AOS could be expanded by the definition of an ideal AOS. Furthermore, it could be shown, that the behaviour of the AOS is re-inforced by the relation of the radii of the sphere and neck. The description of the mechanical properties correlates well in the case of elasticity and breaktension with data of experiments at the University of Kassel with PbO 2-electrodes. The theoretically predicted values of the electrical properties are about a hundred times smaller than the experimental ones. This may be caused by the material-specific circuit capacity used for the PbO 2, since there are no data concerning the stoichiometric variance of the oxygen phase width in the neck region. An attempt to approach to real electrodes is only a trial, which, for the first time, takes experimental data into consideration. The lack of dependable material-specific sizes of lead dioxide is still the greatest inaccuracy in comparison with experimental data.
Cuenca, Jacques; Göransson, Peter
2012-08-01
This paper presents a method for simultaneously identifying both the elastic and anelastic properties of the porous frame of anisotropic open-cell foams. The approach is based on an inverse estimation procedure of the complex stiffness matrix of the frame by performing a model fit of a set of transfer functions of a sample of material subjected to compression excitation in vacuo. The material elastic properties are assumed to have orthotropic symmetry and the anelastic properties are described using a fractional-derivative model within the framework of an augmented Hooke's law. The inverse estimation problem is formulated as a numerical optimization procedure and solved using the globally convergent method of moving asymptotes. To show the feasibility of the approach a numerically generated target material is used here as a benchmark. It is shown that the method provides the full frequency-dependent orthotropic complex stiffness matrix within a reasonable degree of accuracy.
Material modeling of biofilm mechanical properties.
Laspidou, C S; Spyrou, L A; Aravas, N; Rittmann, B E
2014-05-01
A biofilm material model and a procedure for numerical integration are developed in this article. They enable calculation of a composite Young's modulus that varies in the biofilm and evolves with deformation. The biofilm-material model makes it possible to introduce a modeling example, produced by the Unified Multi-Component Cellular Automaton model, into the general-purpose finite-element code ABAQUS. Compressive, tensile, and shear loads are imposed, and the way the biofilm mechanical properties evolve is assessed. Results show that the local values of Young's modulus increase under compressive loading, since compression results in the voids "closing," thus making the material stiffer. For the opposite reason, biofilm stiffness decreases when tensile loads are imposed. Furthermore, the biofilm is more compliant in shear than in compression or tension due to the how the elastic shear modulus relates to Young's modulus. PMID:24560820
Berryman, J.G.
2007-10-02
Some arguments of Bristow (1960) concerning the effects of cracks on elastic and transport (i.e., electrical or thermal conduction) properties of cold-worked metals are reexamined. The discussion is posed in terms of a modern understanding of bounds and estimates for physical properties of polycrystals--in contrast to Bristow's approach using simple mixture theory. One type of specialized result emphasized here is the cross-property estimates and bounds that can be obtained using the methods presented. Our results ultimately agree with those of Bristow, i.e., confirming that microcracking is not likely to be the main cause of the observed elastic behavior of cold-worked metals. However, it also becomes clear that the mixture theory approach to the analysis is too simple and that crack-crack interactions are necessary for proper quantitative study of Bristow's problem.
Davis, Frances M; Luo, Yuanming; Avril, Stéphane; Duprey, Ambroise; Lu, Jia
2015-10-01
In this manuscript, we present a combined experimental and computational technique that can identify the heterogeneous elastic properties of planar soft tissues. By combining inverse membrane analysis, digital image correlation, and bulge inflation tests, we are able to identify a tissue's mechanical properties locally. To show how the proposed method could be implemented, we quantified the heterogeneous material properties of a human ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA). The ATAA was inflated at a constant rate using a bulge inflation device until it ruptured. Every 3 kPa images were taken using a stereo digital image correlation system. From the images, the three-dimensional displacement of the sample surface was determined. A deforming NURBS mesh was derived from the displacement data, and the local strains were computed. The wall stresses at each pressure increment were determined using inverse membrane analysis. The local material properties of the ATAA were then identified using the pointwise stress and strain data. To show that it is necessary to consider the heterogeneous distribution of the mechanical properties in the ATAA, three different forward finite element simulations using pointwise, elementwise, and homogeneous material properties were compared. The forward finite element predictions revealed that heterogeneous nature of the ATAA must be accounted for to accurately reproduce the stress-strain response.
Packaging Materials Properties Data
Leduc, D.
1991-10-30
Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection . data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.
Packaging materials properties data
Walker, M.S.
1991-01-01
Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the US Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun-Fei; Fu, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jun-Tao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Zhen-Yi
2016-08-01
The structural, elastic, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of thermoelectric material MgAgSb in γ,β,α phases are studied with first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The optimized lattice constants accord well with the experimental data. According to the calculated total energy of the three phases, the phase transition order is determined from α to γ phase with cooling, which is in agreement with the experimental result. The physical properties such as elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and anisotropy factor are also discussed and analyzed, which indicates that the three structures are mechanically stable and each has a ductile feature. The Debye temperature is deduced from the elastic properties. The total density of states (TDOS) and partial density of states (PDOS) of the three phases are investigated. The TDOS results show that the γ phase is most stable with a pseudogap near the Fermi level, and the PDOS analysis indicates that the conduction band of the three phases is composed mostly of Mg-3s, Ag-4d, and Sb-5p. In addition, the changes of the free energy, entropy, specific heat, thermal expansion of γ-MgAgSb with temperature are obtained successfully. The obtained results above are important parameters for further experimental and theoretical tuning of doped MgAgSb as a thermoelectric material at high temperature. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11504088), the Fund from Henan University of Technology, China (Grant Nos. 2014YWQN08 and 2013JCYJ12), the Natural Science Fund from the Henan Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 16A140027), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province of China (Grant Nos. 2013JQ1018 and 15JK1759), and the Science Foundation of Northwest University of China (Grant No. 14NW23).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun-Fei; Fu, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jun-Tao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Zhen-Yi
2016-08-01
The structural, elastic, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of thermoelectric material MgAgSb in γ,β,α phases are studied with first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The optimized lattice constants accord well with the experimental data. According to the calculated total energy of the three phases, the phase transition order is determined from α to γ phase with cooling, which is in agreement with the experimental result. The physical properties such as elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and anisotropy factor are also discussed and analyzed, which indicates that the three structures are mechanically stable and each has a ductile feature. The Debye temperature is deduced from the elastic properties. The total density of states (TDOS) and partial density of states (PDOS) of the three phases are investigated. The TDOS results show that the γ phase is most stable with a pseudogap near the Fermi level, and the PDOS analysis indicates that the conduction band of the three phases is composed mostly of Mg-3s, Ag-4d, and Sb-5p. In addition, the changes of the free energy, entropy, specific heat, thermal expansion of γ-MgAgSb with temperature are obtained successfully. The obtained results above are important parameters for further experimental and theoretical tuning of doped MgAgSb as a thermoelectric material at high temperature. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11504088), the Fund from Henan University of Technology, China (Grant Nos. 2014YWQN08 and 2013JCYJ12), the Natural Science Fund from the Henan Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 16A140027), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province of China (Grant Nos. 2013JQ1018 and 15JK1759), and the Science Foundation of Northwest University of China (Grant No. 14NW23).
Influence of exogenous pigmentation on the optical properties of orthodontic elastic ligatures
FERNANDES, Alline Birra Nolasco; RIBEIRO, Alexandre Antonio; de ARAUJO, Marcus Vinicius Almeida; RUELLAS, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira
2012-01-01
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the optical properties of orthodontic elastic ligatures under the influence of exogenous pigments contained in the daily diet. Material and methods For the analysis, colorless (clear) elastic segments (ORTHO Organizers, lot 660625A10) were used as received from the manufacturer, and were divided into 8 groups of 3 segments each. Each group was immersed in 200 mL of a solution containing a determined substance, as follows: distilled water (control group), Coca-Cola®, Pomarola brand tomato sauce (Cica®), açai, Jasmine® brand green tea, Royal Blend® black tea brand, Pilão® brand coffee and Palmares® wine brand. All test specimens were immersed in the solutions and kept in an appropriate receptacle for 7 days at 37ºC14. After the staining session, the test specimens were washed with distilled water in an ultrasonic vat for 5 min and dried with paper tissues6. The portable digital spectrophotometer Vita Easyshade Compact was used to assess if there was color variation of the test specimens. This variation was quantified and qualified at the initial time (T0) and after staining (T1). Results These results were analyzed statistically using the software SPSS version 18.0. The Shapiro-Wilk test of normality was applied followed by the one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey's post hoc test. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Conclusions From the substances evaluated in this study, those with higher staining potential on esthetic elastic ligatures were black tea, coffee and wine, respectively. Knowing this information, the dentist may advise their patients to avoid certain foods because of elastic staining may occur thus decreasing the aesthetics of the material. PMID:23032209
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silverberg, Jesse; Bonassar, Lawrence; Cohen, Itai
2013-03-01
Contemporary developments in therapeutic tissue engineering have been enabled by basic research efforts in the field of biomechanics. Further integration of technology in medicine requires a deeper understanding of the mechanical properties of soft biological materials and the structural origins of their response under extreme stresses and strains. Drawing on the science generated by the ``Extreme Mechanics'' community, we present experimental results on the mechanical properties of articular cartilage, a hierarchically structured soft biomaterial found in the joints of mammalian long bones. Measurements of the spatially localized structure and mechanical properties will be compared with theoretical descriptions based on networks of deformed rods, poro-visco-elasticity, and standard continuum models. Discrepancies between experiment and theory will be highlighted, and suggestions for how models can be improved will be given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, Sidney B.; Ringgaard, Erling
2012-06-01
The introduction of porosity into ferroelectric ceramics has been of great interest in recent years. In particular, studies of porous lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic (PZT) have been made. In the research reported, samples of Ferroperm Pz27 with porosities of 20, 25 and 30% were studied. Very complete measurements were made of all of the physical properties relevant for ferroelectric applications including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, heat capacity, dielectric, pyroelectric, piezoelectric and elastic properties. Scanning electron micrographs indicated a change from 3-0 to 3-3 connectivity with increasing porosity. Although most of the physical properties are degraded by the presence of porosity, both piezoelectric and pyroelectric figures-of-merit are improved because of the markedly reduced relative permittivity. Porous ferroelectric ceramics are very promising materials for a number of applications.
Ultrasonic measurement of the elastic properties of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Washer, Glenn; Fuchs, Paul; Rezai, Ali; Ghasemi, Hamid
2005-05-01
This paper discusses research to develop ultrasonic methods for materials characterization of an innovative new material known as Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC). Also known as Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), this relatively new material has been proposed for the construction of civil structures. UHPC mix designs typically include no aggregates larger than sand, and include steel fibers 0.2 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length. These steel fibers increase the strength and toughness of the UHPC significantly relative to more traditional concretes. Compressive strengths of 200 to 800 MPa have been achieved with UHPC, compared with maximum compressive strength of 50 to 100 MPa for more traditional concrete materials. Young"s modulus of 50 to 60 GPa are common for UHPC. However, the curing methods employed have a significant influence on the strength and modulus of UHPC. This paper reports on the development of ultrasonic methods for monitoring the elastic properties of UHPC under a series of curing scenarios. Ultrasonic velocity measurements are used to estimate the bulk elastic modulus of UHPC and results are compared with traditional, destructive methods. Measurements of shear moduli and Poisson's ratio based on ultrasonic velocity are also reported. The potential for the development of quality control techniques for the future implementation of UHPC is discussed.
Elastic, micro- and macroplastic properties of polycrystalline beryllium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kardashev, B. K.; Kupriyanov, I. B.
2011-12-01
The Young's modulus and the internal friction of beryllium polycrystals (size grain from 6 to 60 μm) prepared by the powder metallurgy method have been studied as functions of the amplitude and temperature in the range from 100 to 873 K. The measurements have been performed using the composite piezoelectric vibrator method for longitudinal vibrations at frequencies about 100 kHz. Based on the acoustic measurements, the data have been obtained on the elastic and inelastic (microplastic) properties as functions of vibration stress amplitudes within the limits from 0.2 to 30-60 MPa. The microplastic deformation diagram is shown to become nonlinear at the amplitudes higher than 5 MPa. The beryllium mechanical characteristics (the yield strength σ 0.2, the ultimate strength σ u , and the conventional microscopic yield strength σ y ) obtained with various grain sizes are compared. At room temperature, all the parameters satisfactorily obey the Hall-Petch relationship, although there is no complete similarity. The temperature dependences are quite different, namely: σ 0.2( T) and σ u ( T) decrease monotonically during heating from room temperature to higher temperatures; however, σ y ( T) behaves unusually, and it has a minimum near 400 K. The different levels of stresses and the absence of similarity indicate that the scattering of the ultrasound energy and the formation of a level of the macroscopic flow stresses in beryllium occur on dislocation motion obstacles of different origins.
Microstructures and elastic properties of sheared calcite flowstone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitrovic, Ivanka; Grasemann, Bernhard; Plan, Lukas; Tesei, Telemaco; Baron, Ivo
2016-04-01
Flowstone is a monomineralic rock precipitated along cave walls and floors, composed of columnar centimeter-scale calcite crystals with strong growth orientation perpendicular to the growth surface. Broken and scratched flowstone can serve as evidence for active faulting and has been found in several alpine caves in Austria. In order to understand the fault mechanics, and associated potential earthquake hazard, experimentally deformed flowstone is studied using microstructural analysis and EBSD-measured physical properties of calcite crystals. For that purpose, we have performed sliding experiments using a rock deformation biaxial apparatus on rectangular blocks of flowstone that were sheared perpendicular to the calcite growth direction. The experiments were performed under room conditions, with sub-seismic sliding velocity (0.001-0.01 mm/s) and constant effective normal stress (3-10 MPa). The deformed samples show diverse brittle features, including high fracture density, the development of calcite-rich fault gouge with Riedel shears within a foliated cataclasite, and drastic grain size reduction down to nm-scale grains. The dominant plastic microstructure is mechanical twinning. Due to the strong growth orientation of calcite in flowstone, crystals can be bent due to shearing. We examine the bending by applying orientation distribution, Schmid factor and elasticity tensor calculations using MTEX Toolbox from EBSD data. In this unique case the flowstone deformation experiments bridge the gap between single crystal and rock powder experiments. This study is supported by the Austrian Science Foundation: SPELEOTECT project (P25884-N29).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Guo-Yang; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Yanlin; Destrade, Michel; Cao, Yanping
2016-11-01
A body force concentrated at a point and moving at a high speed can induce shear-wave Mach cones in dusty-plasma crystals or soft materials, as observed experimentally and named the elastic Cherenkov effect (ECE). The ECE in soft materials forms the basis of the supersonic shear imaging (SSI) technique, an ultrasound-based dynamic elastography method applied in clinics in recent years. Previous studies on the ECE in soft materials have focused on isotropic material models. In this paper, we investigate the existence and key features of the ECE in anisotropic soft media, by using both theoretical analysis and finite element (FE) simulations, and we apply the results to the non-invasive and non-destructive characterization of biological soft tissues. We also theoretically study the characteristics of the shear waves induced in a deformed hyperelastic anisotropic soft material by a source moving with high speed, considering that contact between the ultrasound probe and the soft tissue may lead to finite deformation. On the basis of our theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, we propose an inverse approach to infer both the anisotropic and hyperelastic parameters of incompressible transversely isotropic (TI) soft materials. Finally, we investigate the properties of the solutions to the inverse problem by deriving the condition numbers in analytical form and performing numerical experiments. In Part II of the paper, both ex vivo and in vivo experiments are conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the inverse method in practical use.
Pressure effect on structural, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of tetragonal B{sub 4}C{sub 4}
Zheng, Baobing; Zhang, Meiguang; Luo, Hong-Gang
2015-03-15
The compressibility, elastic anisotropy, and thermodynamic properties of the recently proposed tetragonal B{sub 4}C{sub 4} (t-B{sub 4}C{sub 4}) are investigated under high temperature and high pressure by using of first-principles calculations method. The elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Vickers hardness, Pugh’s modulus ratio, and Poisson’s ratio for t-B{sub 4}C{sub 4} under various pressures are systematically explored, the obtained results indicate that t-B{sub 4}C{sub 4} is a stiffer material. The elastic anisotropies of t-B{sub 4}C{sub 4} are discussed in detail under pressure from 0 GPa to 100 GPa. The thermodynamic properties of t-B{sub 4}C{sub 4}, such as Debye temperature, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient are investigated by the quasi-harmonic Debye model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.
1987-01-01
The theoretical treatment of linear and nonlinear elasticity in a unidirectionally fiber reinforced composite as well as measurements for a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite (T300/5208) are presented. Linear elastic properties were measured by both ultrasonic and strain gage measurements. The nonlinear properties were determined by measuring changes in ultrasonic natural phase velocity with a pulsed phase locked loop interferometer as a function of stress and temperature. These measurements provide the basis for further investigations into the relationship between nonlinear elastic properties and other important properties such as strength and fiber-matrix interfacial stength in graphite/epoxy composites.
Elastic properties of crystalline and liquid gallium at high pressures
Lyapin, A. G.; Gromnitskaya, E. L.; Yagafarov, O. F. Stal'gorova, O. V.; Brazhkin, V. V.
2008-11-15
The elastic properties of gallium, such as the bulk modulus B, the shear modulus G, and the Poisson's ratio {sigma}, are investigated and the relative change in the volume is determined in the stability regions of the Ga I, Ga II, and liquid phases at pressures of up to 1.7 GPa. The observed lines of the Ga I-Ga II phase transition and the melting curves of the Ga I and Ga II phases are in good agreement with the known phase diagram of gallium; in this case, the coordinates of the Ga I-Ga II-melt triple point are determined to be 1.24 {+-} 0.40 GPa and 277 {+-} 2 K. It is shown that the Ga I-Ga II phase transition is accompanied by a considerable decrease in the moduli B (by 30%) and G (by 55%) and an increase in the density by 5.7%. The Poisson's ratio exhibits a jump from typically covalent values of approximately 0.22-0.25 to values of approximately 0.32-0.33, which are characteristic of metals. The observed behavior of the elastic characteristics is described in the framework of the model of the phase transition from a 'quasi-molecular' (partially covalent) metal state to a 'normal' metal state. An increase in the Poisson's ratio in the Ga I phase from 0.22 to 0.25 with an increase in the pressure can be interpreted as a decrease in the degree of covalence, i.e., the degree of spatial anisotropy of the electron density along the bonds, whereas the large value of the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus (equal to approximately 8) observed up to the transition to the Ga II phase or the melt is associated not only with the quasicovalent nature of the Ga I phase but also with the structural features. In view of the presence of seven neighbors for each gallium atom in the Ga I phase, the gallium lattice can be treated as a structure intermediate between typical open-packed and close-packed structures. Premelting effects, such as a flattening of the isothermal dependence of the shear modulus G(p) with increasing pressure and an increase in the slope of the
Influence of anisotropic elasticity on the mechanical properties of fivefold twinned nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niekiel, Florian; Spiecker, Erdmann; Bitzek, Erik
2015-11-01
Previous atomistic simulations and experiments have shown an increased Young's modulus and yield strength of fivefold twinned (FT) face-centered cubic metal nanowires (NWs) when compared to single crystalline (SC) NWs of the same orientation. Here we report the results of atomistic simulations of SC and FT Ag, Al, Au, Cu and Ni NWs with diameters between 2 and 50 nm under tension and compression. The simulations show that the differences in Young's modulus between SC and FT NWs are correlated with the elastic anisotropy of the metal, with Al showing a decreased Young's modulus. We develop a simple analytical model based on disclination theory and constraint anisotropic elasticity to explain the trend in the difference of Young's modulus between SC and FT NWs. Taking into account the role of surface stresses and the elastic properties of twin boundaries allows to account for the observed size effect in Young's modulus. The model furthermore explains the different relative yield strengths in tension and compression as well as the material and loading dependent failure mechanisms in FTNWs.
The mechanical properties of the rubber elastic polymer polydimethylsiloxane for sensor applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lötters, J. C.; Olthuis, W.; Veltink, P. H.; Bergveld, P.
1997-09-01
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a commercially available physically and chemically stable silicone rubber. It has a unique flexibility with a shear elastic modulus 0960-1317/7/3/017/img1 due to one of the lowest glass transition temperatures of any polymer 0960-1317/7/3/017/img2. Further properties of PDMS are a low change in the shear elastic modulus versus temperature 0960-1317/7/3/017/img3, virtually no change in G versus frequency and a high compressibility. Because of its clean room processability, its low curing temperature, its high flexibility, the possibility to change its functional groups and the very low drift of its properties with time and temperature, PDMS is very well suited for micromachined mechanical and chemical sensors, such as accelerometers (as the spring material) and ISFETs (as the ion selective membrane). It can also be used as an adhesive in wafer bonding, as a cover material in tactile sensors and as the mechanical decoupling zone in sensor packagings.
Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fishbein, Meyer
1939-01-01
A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.
Elastic properties of model 3-D porous ceramics and foams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Anthony; Garboczi, Edward
2000-03-01
The novel properties of many new porous materials are related to their interesting internal microstructure. Apart from simple cases, there exist no theoretical means of predicting the bulk properties of these materials. This limits our ability to guide microstructure optimization for a particular purpose. We use a large scale finite element method to demonstrate the complex relationship between microstructure and the effective properties of realistic three-dimensional model porous ceramics and foams. We find that pore-shape and interconnectivity strongly influence the properties of sintered ceramics. For porous foams we have studied the role of coordination number, random disorder, and strut shape on the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We find that that Voronoi tesselations, commonly used to model solid foams, show unphysical behavior, in particular they are incompressible (rubber-like) at low densities. Deletion of just 10% of the bonds in the model reduces the bulk modulus by 75%, more in line with experimental evidence. The FEM results are generally in good agreement with experimental data for ceramics and foams, and can be used as both a predictive and interpretative tool by experimentalists.
Fast tool for evaluation of iliac crest tissue elastic properties using the reduced-basis methods.
Lee, Taeyong; Garlapati, Revanth Reddy; Lam, Kathy; Lee, Peter Vee Sin; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Choi, Jae Bong; Vincent, Tan Beng Chye; Das De, Shamal
2010-12-01
Computationally expensive finite element (FE) methods are generally used for indirect evaluation of tissue mechanical properties of trabecular specimens, which is vital for fracture risk prediction in the elderly. This work presents the application of reduced-basis (RB) methods for rapid evaluation of simulation results. Three cylindrical transiliac crest specimens (diameter: 7.5 mm, length: 10-12 mm) were obtained from healthy subjects (20 year-old, 22 year-old, and 24 year-old females) and scanned using microcomputed tomography imaging. Cubic samples of dimensions 5×5×5 mm(3) were extracted from the core of the cylindrical specimens for FE analysis. Subsequently, a FE solution library (test space) was constructed for each of the specimens by varying the material property parameters: tissue elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio, to develop RB algorithms. The computational speed gain obtained by the RB methods and their accuracy relative to the FE analysis were evaluated. Speed gains greater than 4000 times, were obtained for all three specimens for a loss in accuracy of less than 1% in the maxima of von-Mises stress with respect to the FE-based value. The computational time decreased from more than 6 h to less than 18 s. RB algorithms can be successfully utilized for real-time reliable evaluation of trabecular bone elastic properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, H. Alicia; Hardie, Robert; Yamakov, Vesselin; Park, Cheol
2015-01-01
This paper is the second part of a two-part series where the first part presents a molecular dynamics model of a single Boron Nitride Nanotube (BNNT) and this paper scales up to multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix. This paper presents finite element (FE) models to investigate the effective elastic and piezoelectric properties of (BNNT) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites studied in this paper are thin films of polymer matrix with aligned co-planar BNNTs. The FE modelling approach provides a computationally efficient way to gain an understanding of the material properties. We examine several FE models to identify the most suitable models and investigate the effective properties with respect to the BNNT volume fraction and the number of nanotube walls. The FE models are constructed to represent aligned and randomly distributed BNNTs in a matrix of resin using 2D and 3D hollow and 3D filled cylinders. The homogenisation approach is employed to determine the overall elastic and piezoelectric constants for a range of volume fractions. These models are compared with an analytical model based on Mori-Tanaka formulation suitable for finite length cylindrical inclusions. The model applies to primarily single-wall BNNTs but is also extended to multi-wall BNNTs, for which preliminary results will be presented. Results from the Part 1 of this series can help to establish a constitutive relationship for input into the finite element model to enable the modeling of multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix.
Using structural modularity in cocrystals to engineer properties: elasticity.
Saha, Subhankar; Desiraju, Gautam R
2016-06-01
Cocrystal formation of heterocyclic bases with halogenated aromatic acids increases the tendency for stacking and with this, an increase in structural isotropy occurs that leads to crystal elasticity. PMID:27228952
Dynamic properties of ceramic materials
Grady, D.E.
1995-02-01
The present study offers new data and analysis on the transient shock strength and equation-of-state properties of ceramics. Various dynamic data on nine high strength ceramics are provided with wave profile measurements, through velocity interferometry techniques, the principal observable. Compressive failure in the shock wave front, with emphasis on brittle versus ductile mechanisms of deformation, is examined in some detail. Extensive spall strength data are provided and related to the theoretical spall strength, and to energy-based theories of the spall process. Failure waves, as a mechanism of deformation in the transient shock process, are examined. Strength and equation-of-state analysis of shock data on silicon carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, silicon dioxide and aluminum nitride is presented with particular emphasis on phase transition properties for the latter two. Wave profile measurements on selected ceramics are investigated for evidence of rate sensitive elastic precursor decay in the shock front failure process.
Seung-Kyu Park; Sung-Hoon Baik; Hyung-Ki Cha; Stephen J. Reese; David H. Hurley
2010-08-01
Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a useful technique for measuring the elastic properties of materials. In this study, two experimental approaches for performing RUS are experimentally analyzed and compared: 1) contact transduction using piezoelectric transducers (PZT) and 2) laser transduction using pulse laser excitation and laser interferometric detection. A single Zircaloy sample cut from a nuclear pressure tube was used for this study. By virtue of the non-contact nature, the quality factor, Q, for laser RUS is shown to be higher than the contact RUS. In addition, the probe beam for laser-RUS can be scanned to form a 2D image of each vibrational mode, which in turn enables unique mode identification. These defining characteristics of laser-RUS enable straightforward discrimination of closely spaced resonant modes and provide key advantages for improving the resolution of resonant ultrasound spectroscopy.
High-pressure elastic properties of gallium phosphide
Polian, A.; Grimsditch, M.
1999-07-01
The pressure dependence of the elastic constants C{sub ij} of GaP have been measured up to 15 GPa in a diamond anvil cell. Brillouin backscattering experiments along the principal crystallographic directions yielded four combinations of elastic constants from which the three independent C{sub ij} were extracted. Above 15 GPa the closure of the energy band gap prevents the detection of the signal. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Capps, Gary J.; Smith, David B.; White, Clifford P.
1994-01-01
Fiber optic sensing means for the detection and measurement of events such as dynamic loadings imposed upon elastic materials including cementitious materials, elastomers, and animal body components and/or the attrition of such elastic materials are provided. One or more optical fibers each having a deformable core and cladding formed of an elastomeric material such as silicone rubber are embedded in the elastic material. Changes in light transmission through any of the optical fibers due the deformation of the optical fiber by the application of dynamic loads such as compression, tension, or bending loadings imposed on the elastic material or by the attrition of the elastic material such as by cracking, deterioration, aggregate break-up, and muscle, tendon, or organ atrophy provide a measurement of the dynamic loadings and attrition. The fiber optic sensors can be embedded in elastomers subject to dynamic loadings and attrition such as commonly used automobiles and in shoes for determining the amount and frequency of the dynamic loadings and the extent of attrition. The fiber optic sensors are also useable in cementitious material for determining the maturation thereof.
A novel method to determine the elastic modulus of extremely soft materials.
Stirling, Tamás; Zrínyi, Miklós
2015-06-01
Determination of the elastic moduli of extremely soft materials that may deform under their own weight is a rather difficult experimental task. A new method has been elaborated by means of which the elastic modulus of such materials can be determined. This method is generally applicable to all soft materials with purely neo-Hookean elastic deformation behaviour with elastic moduli lower than 1 kPa. Our novel method utilises the self-deformation of pendent gel cylinders under gravity. When suspended, the material at the very top bears the weight of the entire gel cylinder, but that at the bottom carries no load at all. Due to the non-uniform stress distribution along the gel sample both the stress and the resulting strain show position dependence. The cross-sectional area of the material is lowest at the top of the sample and gradually increases towards its bottom. The equilibrium geometry of the pendant gel is used to evaluate the elastic modulus. Experimental data obtained by the proposed new method were compared to the results obtained from underwater measurements. The parameters affecting the measurement uncertainty were studied by a Pareto analysis of a series of adaptive Monte Carlo simulations. It has been shown that our method provides an easily achievable method to provide an accurate determination of the elastic modulus of extremely soft matter typically applicable for moduli below 1 kPa.
A novel method to determine the elastic modulus of extremely soft materials.
Stirling, Tamás; Zrínyi, Miklós
2015-06-01
Determination of the elastic moduli of extremely soft materials that may deform under their own weight is a rather difficult experimental task. A new method has been elaborated by means of which the elastic modulus of such materials can be determined. This method is generally applicable to all soft materials with purely neo-Hookean elastic deformation behaviour with elastic moduli lower than 1 kPa. Our novel method utilises the self-deformation of pendent gel cylinders under gravity. When suspended, the material at the very top bears the weight of the entire gel cylinder, but that at the bottom carries no load at all. Due to the non-uniform stress distribution along the gel sample both the stress and the resulting strain show position dependence. The cross-sectional area of the material is lowest at the top of the sample and gradually increases towards its bottom. The equilibrium geometry of the pendant gel is used to evaluate the elastic modulus. Experimental data obtained by the proposed new method were compared to the results obtained from underwater measurements. The parameters affecting the measurement uncertainty were studied by a Pareto analysis of a series of adaptive Monte Carlo simulations. It has been shown that our method provides an easily achievable method to provide an accurate determination of the elastic modulus of extremely soft matter typically applicable for moduli below 1 kPa. PMID:25873419
Jiang, Jian-jun; Li, He-ping; Dai, Li-dong; Hu, Hai-ying; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Chao-shuai
2015-09-01
In-situ experimental results on the elastic wave velocity of Earth materials at high pressure and high temperature in combination with data from seismic observation can help to inverse the chemical composition, state and migration of materials in Earth's interior, providing an important approach to explore information of deep earth. Applying the Brillouin scattering into the Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) to obtain the in situ elastic wave velocities of minerals, is the important approach to investigate elastic properties of Earth's Interior. With the development of DAC technology, on the one hand, the high temperature and high pressure experimental environment to simulate different layers of the earth can be achieved; on the other hand, the optical properties of DAC made many kinds of optical analysis and test methods have been widely applied in this research field. In order to gain the elastic wave velocity under high temperature and high pressure, the accurate experimental pressure and heating temperature of the sample in the cavity should be measured and calibrated first, then the scattering signal needs to dealt with, using the Brillouin frequency shift to calculate the velocity in the sample. Combined with the lattice constants obtained from X ray technique, by a solid elastic theory, all the elastic parameters of minerals can be solved. In this paper, firstly, application of methods based on optical spectrum such as Brillouin and Raman scattering in elasticity study on materials in Earth's interior, and the basic principle and research progress of them in the velocity measurement, pressure and temperature calibration are described in detail. Secondly, principle and scope of application of two common methods of spectral pressure calibration (fluorescence and Raman spectral pressure standard) are analyzed, in addition with introduce of the application of two conventional means of temperature calibration (blackbody radiation and Raman temperature scale) in
Jiang, Jian-jun; Li, He-ping; Dai, Li-dong; Hu, Hai-ying; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Chao-shuai
2015-09-01
In-situ experimental results on the elastic wave velocity of Earth materials at high pressure and high temperature in combination with data from seismic observation can help to inverse the chemical composition, state and migration of materials in Earth's interior, providing an important approach to explore information of deep earth. Applying the Brillouin scattering into the Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) to obtain the in situ elastic wave velocities of minerals, is the important approach to investigate elastic properties of Earth's Interior. With the development of DAC technology, on the one hand, the high temperature and high pressure experimental environment to simulate different layers of the earth can be achieved; on the other hand, the optical properties of DAC made many kinds of optical analysis and test methods have been widely applied in this research field. In order to gain the elastic wave velocity under high temperature and high pressure, the accurate experimental pressure and heating temperature of the sample in the cavity should be measured and calibrated first, then the scattering signal needs to dealt with, using the Brillouin frequency shift to calculate the velocity in the sample. Combined with the lattice constants obtained from X ray technique, by a solid elastic theory, all the elastic parameters of minerals can be solved. In this paper, firstly, application of methods based on optical spectrum such as Brillouin and Raman scattering in elasticity study on materials in Earth's interior, and the basic principle and research progress of them in the velocity measurement, pressure and temperature calibration are described in detail. Secondly, principle and scope of application of two common methods of spectral pressure calibration (fluorescence and Raman spectral pressure standard) are analyzed, in addition with introduce of the application of two conventional means of temperature calibration (blackbody radiation and Raman temperature scale) in
Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Paquette, Joshua
2010-08-01
Fiber-reinforced polymer composites can offer important advantages over metals where lightweight, cost-effective manufacturing and high mechanical performance can be achieved. To date, these materials have not been used in hydropower systems. In view of the possibility to tailor their mechanical properties to specific applications, they now have become a subject of research for potential use in hydropower systems. The first step in any structural design that uses composite materials consists of evaluating the basic composite mechanical properties as a function of the as-formed composite microstructure. These basic properties are the elastic stiffness, stress-strain response, and strength. This report describes the evaluation of the elastic stiffness for a series of common discontinuous fiber polymer composites processed by injection molding and compression molding in order to preliminarily estimate whether these composites could be used in hydropower systems for load-carrying components such as turbine blades. To this end, the EMTA (Copyright © Battelle 2010) predictive modeling tool developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been applied to predict the elastic properties of these composites as a function of three key microstructural parameters: fiber volume fraction, fiber orientation distribution, and fiber length distribution. These parameters strongly control the composite mechanical performance and can be tailored to achieve property enhancement. EMTA uses the standard and enhanced Mori-Tanaka type models combined with the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method to predict the thermoelastic properties of the composite based on its microstructure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oudry, Jennifer; Lynch, Ted; Vappou, Jonathan; Sandrin, Laurent; Miette, Véronique
2014-10-01
Elastographic techniques used in addition to imaging techniques (ultrasound, resonance magnetic or optical) provide new clinical information on the pathological state of soft tissues. However, system-dependent variation in elastographic measurements may limit the clinical utility of these measurements by introducing uncertainty into the measurement. This work is aimed at showing differences in the evaluation of the elastic properties of phantoms performed by four different techniques: quasi-static compression, dynamic mechanical analysis, vibration-controlled transient elastography and hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy. Four Zerdine® gel materials were tested and formulated to yield a Young’s modulus over the range of normal and cirrhotic liver stiffnesses. The Young’s modulus and the shear wave speed obtained with each technique were compared. Results suggest a bias in elastic property measurement which varies with systems and highlight the difficulty in finding a reference method to determine and assess the elastic properties of tissue-mimicking materials. Additional studies are needed to determine the source of this variation, and control for them so that accurate, reproducible reference standards can be made for the absolute measurement of soft tissue elasticity.
Determination of elastic properties of a film-substrate system by using the neural networks
Xu Baiqiang; Shen Zhonghua; Ni Xiaowu; Wang Jijun; Guan Jianfei; Lu Jian
2004-12-20
An inverse method based on artificial neural network (ANN) is presented to determine the elastic properties of films from laser-genrated surface waves. The surface displacement responses are used as the inputs for the ANN model; the outputs of the ANN are the Young's modulus, density, Poisson's ratio, and thickness of the film. The finite element method is used to calculate the surface displacement responses in a film-substrate system. Levenberg Marquardt algorithm is used as numerical optimization to speed up the training process for the ANN model. In this method, the materials parameters are not recovered from the dispersion curves but rather directly from the transient surface displacement. We have also found that this procedure is very efficient for determining the materials parameters of layered systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, C.; Li, Q.; Liu, C. M.; Duan, M. Y.; Wang, H. K.
2016-05-01
First-principles calculations are employed to investigate the structural and elastic properties, formation enthalpies and chemical bonding features as well as hardness values of chromium tetraboride (CrB4) with different structures. The lattice parameters, Poisson’s ratio and B/G ratio are also derived. Our calculations indicate that the orthorhombic structure with Pnnm symmetry is the most energetically stable one for CrB4. Except for WB4P63/mmc structure with imaginary frequencies, another six new structures are investigated through the full phonon dispersion calculations. Their mechanical and thermodynamic stabilities are also studied by calculating the elastic constants and formation enthalpies. Our calculations show that the thermodynamic stabilities of all these CrB4 phases can be enhanced under high pressure. The large shear moduli, Young’s moduli and hardness values indicate that these CrB4 phases are potential hard materials. Analyses of the densities of states (DOSs) and electron localization functions (ELFs) provide further understandings of the chemical and physical properties of these CrB4 phases. It is observed that the large occupations and high strengths of the B-B covalent bonds are important for the stabilities, incompressibility and hardnesses of these CrB4 phases.
Studies on Effective Elastic Properties of CNT/Nano-Clay Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thakur, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Puneet; Srinivas, J.
2016-02-01
This paper presents a computational approach to predict elastic propertiesof hybrid nanocomposite material prepared by adding nano-clayplatelets to conventional CNT-reinforced epoxy system. In comparison to polymers alone/single-fiber reinforced polymers, if an additional fiber is added to the composite structure, it was found a drastic improvement in resultant properties. In this regard, effective elastic moduli of a hybrid nano composite are determined by using finite element (FE) model with square representative volume element (RVE). Continuum mechanics based homogenization of the nano-filler reinforced composite is considered for evaluating the volumetric average of the stresses and the strains under different periodic boundary conditions.A three phase Halpin-Tsai approach is selected to obtain the analytical result based on micromechanical modeling. The effect of the volume fractions of CNTs and nano-clay platelets on the mechanical behavior is studied. Two different RVEs of nano-clay platelets were used to investigate the influence of nano-filler geometry on composite properties. The combination of high aspect ratio of CNTs and larger surface area of clay platelets contribute to the stiffening effect of the hybrid samples. Results of analysis are validated with Halpin-Tsai empirical formulae.
Electronic, magnetic, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Cu2MnGa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Sukriti; Gupta, Dinesh C.
2016-08-01
The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method in the stable Fm-3m phase has been implemented to investigate the structural, elastic, magnetic and electronic properties of Cu2MnGa. The optimized equilibrium lattice parameter in stable phase is found to be 5.9495 Å. By the spin resolved density of states calculations, we have shown that the exchange splitting due to Mn atom is the main reason of ferromagnetic behavior of Cu2MnGa. The absence of energy gap in both the spin channels predicts that the material is metallic. The total and partial density of states, elastic constants, Shear, Bulk and Young's moduli, Zener isotropy factor, Cauchy pressure, Pugh's ductility, Kleinman parameter and Poisson's ratio are reported for the first time for the alloy. Cauchy's pressure and Pugh's index of ductility label Cu2MnGa as ductile. Cu2MnGa is found to be ferromagnetic and anisotropic in nature. The quasi-harmonic approximations have been employed to study the pressure and temperature dependent thermodynamic properties of Cu2MnGa.
Davis, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo
2011-12-14
First-principles molecular dynamics calculations of the structural, elastic, vibrational and electronic properties of amorphous Al(2)O(3), in a system consisting of a supercell of 80 atoms, are reported. A detailed analysis of the interatomic correlations allows us to conclude that the short-range order is mainly composed of AlO(4) tetrahedra, but, in contrast with previous results, also an important number of AlO(6) octahedra and AlO(5) units are present. The vibrational density of states presents two frequency bands, related to bond-bending and bond-stretching modes. It also shows other recognizable features present in similar amorphous oxides. We also present the calculation of elastic properties (bulk modulus and shear modulus). The calculated electronic structure of the material, including total and partial electronic density of states, charge distribution, electron localization function and the ionicity for each species, gives evidence of correlation between the ionicity and the coordination for each Al atom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuping, Cang; Xiaoling, Yao; Dong, Chen; Fan, Yang; Huiming, Yang
2016-07-01
The ultrasoft pseudo-potential plane wave method combined with the quasi-harmonic approach have been used to study the electronic, elastic and thermodynamic properties of the tetragonal, monoclinic and orthorhombic Ge3N4. The negative formation enthalpies, the satisfactory of Born's criteria and the linear variations of elastic constants with pressure indicate that the three polymorphs can retain their stabilities in the pressure range of 0–25 GPa. The three Ge3N4 are brittle solids at 0 GPa, while they behave in ductile manners in the pressure range of 5–25 GPa. t- and o-Ge3N4 are hard materials but anisotropic. m-Ge3N4 has the largest ductility among the three phases. The results reveal that m-Ge3N4 belongs to an indirect band gap semiconductor, while t- and o-Ge3N4 have direct band gaps. For the thermal properties, several interesting features can be observed above 300 K. o-Ge3N4 exhibits the largest heat capacity, while m-Ge3N4 shows the highest Debye temperature. The results predicted in this work can provide reference data for future experiments. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61475132, 11475143, 61501392, 11304141) and the National Training Programs of Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Undergraduates (No. 201510477001).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuping, Cang; Xiaoling, Yao; Dong, Chen; Fan, Yang; Huiming, Yang
2016-07-01
The ultrasoft pseudo-potential plane wave method combined with the quasi-harmonic approach have been used to study the electronic, elastic and thermodynamic properties of the tetragonal, monoclinic and orthorhombic Ge3N4. The negative formation enthalpies, the satisfactory of Born's criteria and the linear variations of elastic constants with pressure indicate that the three polymorphs can retain their stabilities in the pressure range of 0-25 GPa. The three Ge3N4 are brittle solids at 0 GPa, while they behave in ductile manners in the pressure range of 5-25 GPa. t- and o-Ge3N4 are hard materials but anisotropic. m-Ge3N4 has the largest ductility among the three phases. The results reveal that m-Ge3N4 belongs to an indirect band gap semiconductor, while t- and o-Ge3N4 have direct band gaps. For the thermal properties, several interesting features can be observed above 300 K. o-Ge3N4 exhibits the largest heat capacity, while m-Ge3N4 shows the highest Debye temperature. The results predicted in this work can provide reference data for future experiments. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61475132, 11475143, 61501392, 11304141) and the National Training Programs of Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Undergraduates (No. 201510477001).
Temperature-dependent elastic properties of α -beryllium from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kádas, K.; Vitos, L.; Ahuja, R.; Johansson, B.; Kollár, J.
2007-12-01
Using density functional theory formulated within the framework of the exact muffin-tin orbitals method, we investigate the temperature dependence of the structural parameters and the elastic properties of the hexagonal closed-packed phase of Be (α-Be) . We find that the elastic constants follow a normal behavior with temperature: decrease with increasing temperature with a slightly increasing slope. Up to the melting point, the monocrystalline elastic constants decrease by an average of 16% and the polycrystalline elastic constants by 10%. These trends contradict the large temperature factor observed in high-temperature direct pulse ultrasonic experiments. At the same time, the low-temperature pulse echo measurements confirm the present theoretical findings. Our results call for further accurate experimental studies on the elastic properties of α-Be at high temperatures.
Structural and elastic properties of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} from first-principles calculations
Luo, Tao-Peng; Ma, Li; Pan, Rong-Kai; Zhou, Si-Chen; Wang, Hai-Chen; Tang, Bi-Yu
2013-10-15
Structural and elastic properties of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} with layer structure have been investigated within framework of the density functional theory. Different from the general layer-structured materials, the obtained c/a is less than unity. The calculated elastic constants C{sub 33} is larger than C{sub 11}, being novel in comparison with other alloys with layer structure. The calculated bulk, shear and Young’s modulus of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} are higher than other Mg–La alloys with higher La content, implying the stronger covalent bonding. Moreover, the elastic isotropies of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} are more excellent. The electronic structure within basal plane is highly symmetric, and the electronic interaction within basal plane is slightly weaker than one between basal planes, which reveal the underlying mechanism for the structural and elastic properties of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17}. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure (a) and the atomic positions for (b) (0 0 0 2), (c) (0 0 0 4) and (d) (1 2{sup ¯} 1 0) plane of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17}. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The c/a of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} is anomalously less than unity. • It is novel that for La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} the elastic constants C{sub 33} is larger than C{sub 11}. • The elastic modulus of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} is higher than other Mg–La alloys. • The elastic isotropy of La{sub 2}Mg{sub 17} is excellent. • The electronic structure within basal plane is highly symmetric.
Stokes, Ian A F; Laible, Jeffrey P; Gardner-Morse, Mack G; Costi, John J; Iatridis, James C
2011-01-01
Intervertebral disks support compressive forces because of their elastic stiffness as well as the fluid pressures resulting from poroelasticity and the osmotic (swelling) effects. Analytical methods can quantify the relative contributions, but only if correct material properties are used. To identify appropriate tissue properties, an experimental study and finite element analytical simulation of poroelastic and osmotic behavior of intervertebral disks were combined to refine published values of disk and endplate properties to optimize model fit to experimental data. Experimentally, nine human intervertebral disks with adjacent hemi-vertebrae were immersed sequentially in saline baths having concentrations of 0.015, 0.15, and 1.5 M and the loss of compressive force at constant height (force relaxation) was recorded over several hours after equilibration to a 300-N compressive force. Amplitude and time constant terms in exponential force-time curve-fits for experimental and finite element analytical simulations were compared. These experiments and finite element analyses provided data dependent on poroelastic and osmotic properties of the disk tissues. The sensitivities of the model to alterations in tissue material properties were used to obtain refined values of five key material parameters. The relaxation of the force in the three bath concentrations was exponential in form, expressed as mean compressive force loss of 48.7, 55.0, and 140 N, respectively, with time constants of 1.73, 2.78, and 3.40 h. This behavior was analytically well represented by a model having poroelastic and osmotic tissue properties with published tissue properties adjusted by multiplying factors between 0.55 and 2.6. Force relaxation and time constants from the analytical simulations were most sensitive to values of fixed charge density and endplate porosity.
Structural, electronic and elastic properties of the cubic CaTiO{sub 3} under pressure: A DFT study
Tariq, Saad Ahmed, Afaq; Tariq, Samar; Saad, Saher
2015-07-15
Using highly accurate FP-LAPW method with GGA approximation structural, electronic and elastic properties of cubic CaTiO{sub 3} have been calculated from 0-120 GPa range of pressure. It is observed that lattice constant, bond length and anisotropy factor decrease with increase in pressure. Also the brittle nature and indirect band-gap of the compound become ductile and direct band-gap respectively at 120 GPa. Moduli of elasticity, density of the material, Debye temperature and wave elastic wave velocities increase with increase in pressure. Spin dependent DOS’s plots show invariant anti-ferromagnetic nature of the compound under pressure. Our calculated results are in good agreement with available theoretical and experimental results.
Elasto-Mammography: Elastic Property Reconstruction in Breast Tissues
Wang, Z. G.; Liu, Y.; Wang, G.; Sun, L. Z.
2008-02-15
Mammography is the primary method for screening and detecting breast cancers. However, it frequently fails to detect small tumors and is not quite specific in terms of tumor benignity and malignancy. The objective of this paper is to develop a new imaging modality called elasto-mammography that generates the modulus elastograms based on conventional mammographs. A new elastic reconstruction method is described based on elastography and mammography for breast tissues. Elastic distribution can be reconstructed through the measurement of displacement provided by mammographic projection. It is shown that the proposed elasto-mammography provides higher sensitivity and specificity than the conventional mammography on its own for breast cancer diagnosis.
Simulation study of the elastic mechanical properties of HMX
Sewell, T. D.
2002-01-01
Results of calculations of the elastic mechanical response of crystalline HMX polymorphs are summarized. The work is based on atomistic molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Principal achievements are: (1) prediction of room temperature and pressure elastic tensors for {beta}-, {alpha}- and {delta}-HMX; (2) calculation of room temperature isotherms for each polymorph; (3) extraction of initial bulk modulus and pressure derivative from the isotherm; and (4) 'discovery' of a pressure induced phase transition in {alpha}-HMX (preliminary result). Details of the work, and implications, will be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanchana, V.; Yedukondalu, N.; Vaitheeswaran, G.
2013-09-01
A systematic investigation of structural properties at ambient as well as at high pressure has been carried out for layered scintillators CaClF, CaBrF, SrClF, SrBrF and SrIF based on density functional theory. Semi-empirical dispersion correction scheme has been used to account for the van der Waals interactions and the obtained results are in good agreement with experimental data. The pressure-dependent structural and elastic properties reveal that the c-axis is more compressible than the a-axis (C ? ? ) in all these materials due to weakly bonded layers stacked along the c-axis. In addition, the electronic structure and optical properties of these materials are calculated using Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. Among the five investigated compounds which are structurally anisotropic, a weak optical anisotropy is found in CaClF and SrClF and strong optical anisotropy in CaBrF, SrBrF and SrIF. The present study suggests that unlike alkaline-earth dihalides which are fast scintillators, these materials can act as storage phosphors and the possible reason is speculated from the band structure calculations.
Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Song, Jizhou; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Hoon-Sik; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Liu, Zhuangjian; Huang, Yonggang Y.; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Zhang, Yong-wei; Rogers, John A.
2008-01-01
Electronic systems that offer elastic mechanical responses to high-strain deformations are of growing interest because of their ability to enable new biomedical devices and other applications whose requirements are impossible to satisfy with conventional wafer-based technologies or even with those that offer simple bendability. This article introduces materials and mechanical design strategies for classes of electronic circuits that offer extremely high stretchability, enabling them to accommodate even demanding configurations such as corkscrew twists with tight pitch (e.g., 90° in ≈1 cm) and linear stretching to “rubber-band” levels of strain (e.g., up to ≈140%). The use of single crystalline silicon nanomaterials for the semiconductor provides performance in stretchable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits approaching that of conventional devices with comparable feature sizes formed on silicon wafers. Comprehensive theoretical studies of the mechanics reveal the way in which the structural designs enable these extreme mechanical properties without fracturing the intrinsically brittle active materials or even inducing significant changes in their electrical properties. The results, as demonstrated through electrical measurements of arrays of transistors, CMOS inverters, ring oscillators, and differential amplifiers, suggest a valuable route to high-performance stretchable electronics. PMID:19015528
Finite element analysis of 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact problem for Cosserat materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, S.; Xie, Z. Q.; Chen, B. S.; Zhang, H. W.
2013-06-01
The objective of this paper is to develop a finite element model for 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact problem of Cosserat materials. Because 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact problems belong to the unspecified boundary problems with nonlinearities in both material and geometric forms, a large number of calculations are needed to obtain numerical results with high accuracy. Based on the parametric variational principle and the corresponding quadratic programming method for numerical simulation of frictional contact problems, a finite element model is developed for 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact analysis of Cosserat materials. The problems are finally reduced to linear complementarity problems (LCP). Numerical examples show the feasibility and importance of the developed model for analyzing the contact problems of structures with materials which have micro-polar characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muraviev, V. V.; Muravieva, O. V.; Gabbasova, M. A.
2015-10-01
Application opportunities of acoustic structural analysis methods for evaluation of elastic properties and anisotropy by the example of cold-rolled sheets and spring steel rods are presented. Methods are based on application of non-contact electromagnetic-acoustic transducers of encircling and laid-on types developed by the authors and measurements of volume, Rayleigh and Lamb waves parameters. The methods developed can be used as a research tool of material structural analysis, anisotropy of properties when choosing heat treatment techniques and conditions, under intensive plastic deformation and other external energy deposition, including non-conventional material production with hierarchy structure and development of new technologies and safe constructions.
Calculation of the elastic properties of a triangular cell core for lightweight composite mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penado, F. Ernesto; Clark, James H., III; Walton, Joshua P.; Romeo, Robert C.; Martin, Robert N.
2007-09-01
The use of composite materials in the fabrication of optical telescope mirrors offers many advantages over conventional methods, including lightweight, portability and the potential for lower manufacturing costs. In the construction of the substrate for these mirrors, sandwich construction offers the advantage of even lower weight and higher stiffness. Generally, an aluminum or Nomex honeycomb core is used in composite applications requiring sandwich construction. However, the use of a composite core offers the potential for increased stiffness and strength, low thermal distortion compatible with that of the facesheets, the absence of galvanic corrosion and the ability to readily modify the core properties. In order to design, analyze and optimize these mirrors, knowledge of the mechanical properties of the core is essential. In this paper, the mechanical properties of a composite triangular cell core (often referred to as isogrid) are determined using finite element analysis of a representative unit cell. The core studied offers many advantages over conventional cores including increased thermal and dimensional stability, as well as low weight. Results are provided for the engineering elastic moduli of cores made of high stiffness composite material as a function of the ply layup and cell size. Finally, in order to illustrate the use of these properties in a typical application, a 1.4-m diameter composite mirror is analyzed using the finite element method, and the resulting stiffness and natural frequencies are presented.
Computation of elastic properties of 3D digital cores from the Longmaxi shale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wen-Hui; Fu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Yan; Jin, Wei-Jun
2016-06-01
The dependence of elastic moduli of shales on the mineralogy and microstructure of shales is important for the prediction of sweet spots and shale gas production. Based on 3D digital images of the microstructure of Longmaxi black shale samples using X-ray CT, we built detailed 3D digital images of cores with porosity properties and mineral contents. Next, we used finite-element (FE) methods to derive the elastic properties of the samples. The FE method can accurately model the shale mineralogy. Particular attention is paid to the derived elastic properties and their dependence on porosity and kerogen. The elastic moduli generally decrease with increasing porosity and kerogen, and there is a critical porosity (0.75) and kerogen content (ca. ≤3%) over which the elastic moduli decrease rapidly and slowly, respectively. The derived elastic moduli of gas- and oil-saturated digital cores differ little probably because of the low porosity (4.5%) of the Longmaxi black shale. Clearly, the numerical experiments demonstrated the feasibility of combining microstructure images of shale samples with elastic moduli calculations to predict shale properties.
Elastic Properties of Nucleic Acids by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy.
Camunas-Soler, Joan; Ribezzi-Crivellari, Marco; Ritort, Felix
2016-07-01
We review the current knowledge on the use of single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques to extrapolate the elastic properties of nucleic acids. We emphasize the lesser-known elastic properties of single-stranded DNA. We discuss the importance of accurately determining the elastic response in pulling experiments, and we review the simplest models used to rationalize the experimental data as well as the experimental approaches used to pull single-stranded DNA. Applications used to investigate DNA conformational transitions and secondary structure formation are also highlighted. Finally, we provide an overview of the effects of salt and temperature and briefly discuss the effects of contour length and sequence dependence. PMID:27145878
Elastic properties of alpha quartz and the alkali halides based on an interatomic force model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weidner, D. J.; Simmons, G.
1972-01-01
A two-body central-force atomic model can be used to describe accurately the elastic properties of alpha quartz if the nontetrahedral O:O forces are included. The strength of the Si:O interaction has little effect on the bulk modulus. The technique is sufficiently general to allow calculations of the elastic properties of a specified structure under arbitrary pressure from a complete description of the interatomic forces. The elastic constants for the NaCl structure and the CsCl structure are examined. Our model includes two-body, central, anion-anion, anion-cation, and electrostatic interactions.
Elastic Properties of Nucleic Acids by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy.
Camunas-Soler, Joan; Ribezzi-Crivellari, Marco; Ritort, Felix
2016-07-01
We review the current knowledge on the use of single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques to extrapolate the elastic properties of nucleic acids. We emphasize the lesser-known elastic properties of single-stranded DNA. We discuss the importance of accurately determining the elastic response in pulling experiments, and we review the simplest models used to rationalize the experimental data as well as the experimental approaches used to pull single-stranded DNA. Applications used to investigate DNA conformational transitions and secondary structure formation are also highlighted. Finally, we provide an overview of the effects of salt and temperature and briefly discuss the effects of contour length and sequence dependence.
Effect of Water on Elastic and Creep Properties of Self-Standing Clay Films.
Carrier, Benoit; Vandamme, Matthieu; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Bornert, Michel; Ferrage, Eric; Hubert, Fabien; Van Damme, Henri
2016-02-01
We characterized experimentally the elastic and creep properties of thin self-standing clay films, and how their mechanical properties evolved with relative humidity and water content. The films were made of clay montmorillonite SWy-2, obtained by evaporation of a clay suspension. Three types of films were manufactured, which differed by their interlayer cation: sodium, calcium, or a mixture of sodium with calcium. The orientational order of the films was characterized by X-ray diffractometry. The films were mechanically solicited in tension, the resulting strains being measured by digital image correlation. We measured the Young's modulus and the creep over a variety of relative humidities, on a full cycle of adsorption-desorption for what concerns the Young's modulus. Increasing relative humidity made the films less stiff and made them creep more. Both the elastic and creep properties depended significantly on the interlayer cation. For the Young's modulus, this dependence must originate from a scale greater than the scale of the clay layer. Also, hysteresis disappeared when plotting the Young's modulus versus water content instead of relative humidity. Independent of interlayer cation and of relative humidity greater than 60%, after a transient period, the creep of the films was always a logarithmic function of time. The experimental data gathered on these mesoscale systems can be of value for modelers who aim at predicting the mechanical behavior of clay-based materials (e.g., shales) at the engineering macroscopic scale from the one at the atomistic scale, for them to validate the first steps of their upscaling scheme. They provide also valuable reference data for bioinspired clay-based hybrid materials.
Material Properties of Titanium Diboride
Munro, Ronald G.
2000-01-01
The physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of polycrystalline TiB2 are examined with an emphasis on the significant dependence of the properties on the density and grain size of the material specimens. Using trend analysis, property relations, and interpolation methods, a coherent set of trend values for the properties of polycrystalline TiB2 is determined for a mass fraction of TiB2 ⩾ 98 %, a density of (4.5±0.1) g/cm3, and a mean grain size of (9±1) µm. PMID:27551633
The role of material properties in adhesion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buckley, D. H.
1984-01-01
When two solid surfaces are brought into contact strong adhesive bond forces can develop between the materials. The magnitude of the forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between solids is addressed from a theoretical consideration of the electronic nature of the surfaces and experimentally relating bond forces to the nature of the interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties correlated with adhesion include, atomic or molecular orientation, reconstruction and segregation as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where dissimilar solids are in contact the contribution of each is considered as is the role of their interactive chemistry on bond strength. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structure, crystallographic orientation and state. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include metals, alloys, ceramics, polymers and diamond. They are reviewed both in single and polycrystalline form. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.
Acoustic cloaking transformations from attainable material properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Ghezzo, Fabrizia; Hunt, John; Smith, David R.
2010-07-01
We propose a general methodology and a set of practical recipes for the construction of ultra-broadband acoustic cloaks—structures that can render themselves and a concealed object undetectable by means of acoustic scattering. The acoustic cloaks presented here are designed and function analogously to electromagnetic cloaks. However, acoustic cloaks in a fluid medium do not suffer the bandwidth limitations imposed on their electromagnetic counterparts by the finite speed of light in vacuum. In the absence of specific metamaterials having arbitrary combinations of quasi-static speed of sound and mass density, we explore the flexibility of continuum transformations that produce approximate cloaking solutions. We show that an imperfect, eikonal acoustic cloak (that is, one which is not impedance matched but is valid in the geometrical optics regime) with negligible dispersion can be designed using a simple layered geometry. Since a practical cloaking device will probably be composed of combinations of solid materials rather than fluids, it is necessary to consider the full elastic properties of such media, which support shear waves in addition to the compression waves associated with the acoustic regime. We perform a systematic theoretical and numerical investigation of the role of shear waves in elastic cloaking devices. We find that for elastic metamaterials with Poisson's ratio ν>0.49, shear waves do not alter the cloaking effect. Such metamaterials can be built from nearly incompressible rubbers (with ν≈0.499) and fluids. We expect this finding to have applications in other acoustic devices based on the form-invariance of the scalar acoustic wave equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chuanguo; Hou, Songjun; Zeng, Z.
2015-10-01
We have investigated the elastic and thermodynamic properties of ZrO2 under pressure up to 120 Gpa by the plane wave pseudopotential density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) method. The elastic constants of ZrO2 are calculated and meet the generalized stability criteria, suggesting that ZrO2 is mechanically stable within this pressure range. The pressure effects on the elastic properties reveal that the elastic modulus B, shear modulus G and Young's modulus Y increase linearly with the pressure increasing, implying that the resistance to deformation is enhanced. In addition, by analyzing the Poisson's ratio ν and the value of B/G, we notice that ZrO2 is regarded as being a ductile material under high pressure and the ductility can be improved by the pressure increasing. Then, we employ the quasi-harmonic Debye model considering the phononic effects to obtain the thermodynamic properties of ZrO2. Debye temperature ΘD, thermal expansion coefficient α, heat capacity Cp and Grüneisen parameter γ are systematically explored at pressure of 0-80 Gpa and temperature of 0-1000 K. Our results have provided fundamental facts and evidences for further experimental and theoretical researches.
Residual stresses calculation in autofrettage using variable material properties method
Jahed, H.; Dubey, R.N.
1996-12-01
Autofrettaged cylinders are used for variety of applications in chemical and nuclear industries where large internal pressures have to be withstood. Autofrettage is in the process by which beneficial residual stresses are introduced into thick-walled tubes by initially subjected the tube to high internal pressure which causes inelastic deformation. Here, the variable material properties method is employed to obtain elastic-plastic analysis of an autofrettaged tube. This method develops inelastic solution from the elastic solution by treating the material properties as field variables. The distribution of these parameters are obtained in an iterative manner as a part of the solution. An energy based scheme is used to update these variables. The residual stress field of autofrettaged tubes based on the actual material curve and isotropic and kinematic hardening models are obtained. The results are shown to be in good agreement with the published experimental and finite element results.
Property Status of Lunar Material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pop, V.
Most of the lunar material in private hands is of meteoric origin, and its property sta- tus does not present many challenges. The intention of Applied Space Resources, Inc, to fly a commercial lunar sample return mission and to subsequently offer lunar ma- terial for sale, raises the issue of the legality of exploitation and private ownership of retrieved lunar material. Lunar samples have been returned in the past by means of the Apollo (US) and Luna (USSR) missions and, while most of the material re- mains government property and is used for scientific means, a small fraction has been transferred abroad and some has entered the private market. Apollo-collected moon- rocks have been offered, symbolically, to heads of States, and some foreign nations have subsequently transferred ownership to private individuals. The same, lunar ma- terial of Soviet provenience has entered the private market, this forming a valuable legal precedent for the lawfulness of sale of lunar material. Recently, plans were made public to award the Apollo astronauts with lunar rocks. While in the US there is a popular misconception that it is illegal to own lunar material, the truth lies elsewhere. As the Apollo samples are the property of the US government and a small fraction was stolen, lost, or misplaced, the US government intends to recover this material, unlawfully owned. In the same time, a significant number of individuals have been prosecuted for offering for sale fake lunar rocks. The present paper will analyse the different categories of lunar material according to its ownership status, and will as- sert that private property of lunar material is lawful, and lunar material that will be returned in the future will be able to enter the market without hindrances.
Bouvier, Adeline; Deleaval, Flavien; Doyley, Marvin M; Yazdani, Saami K; Finet, Gérard; Le Floc'h, Simon; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I; Ohayon, Jacques
2016-01-01
The peak cap stress (PCS) amplitude is recognized as a biomechanical predictor of vulnerable plaque (VP) rupture. However, quantifying PCS in vivo remains a challenge since the stress depends on the plaque mechanical properties. In response, an iterative material finite element (FE) elasticity reconstruction method using strain measurements has been implemented for the solution of these inverse problems. Although this approach could resolve the mechanical characterization of VPs, it suffers from major limitations since (i) it is not adapted to characterize VPs exhibiting high material discontinuities between inclusions, and (ii) does not permit real time elasticity reconstruction for clinical use. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop a direct material-FE algorithm for elasticity reconstruction problems which accounts for material heterogeneities. We originally modified and adapted the extended FE method (Xfem), used mainly in crack analysis, to model material heterogeneities. This new algorithm was successfully applied to six coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with intravascular ultrasound. The results demonstrated that the mean relative absolute errors of the reconstructed Young's moduli obtained for the arterial wall, fibrosis, necrotic core, and calcified regions of the VPs decreased from 95.3±15.56%, 98.85±72.42%, 103.29±111.86% and 95.3±10.49%, respectively, to values smaller than 2.6 × 10−8±5.7 × 10−8% (i.e. close to the exact solutions) when including modified-Xfem method into our direct elasticity reconstruction method. PMID:24240392
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziółkowski, Andrzej
2016-09-01
An apparatus of micromechanics is used to isolate the key ingredients entering macroscopic Gibbs free energy function of a shape memory alloy (SMA) material. A new self-equilibrated eigenstrains influence moduli (SEIM) method is developed for consistent estimation of effective (macroscopic) thermostatic properties of solid materials, which in microscale can be regarded as amalgams of n-phase linear thermoelastic component materials with eigenstrains. The SEIM satisfy the self-consistency conditions, following from elastic reciprocity (Betti) theorem. The method allowed expressing macroscopic coherency energy and elastic complementary energy terms present in the general form of macroscopic Gibbs free energy of SMA materials in the form of semilinear and semiquadratic functions of the phase composition. Consistent SEIM estimates of elastic complementary energy, coherency energy and phase transformation strains corresponding to classical Reuss and Voigt conjectures are explicitly specified. The Voigt explicit relations served as inspiration for working out an original engineering practice-oriented semiexperimental SEIM estimates. They are especially conveniently applicable for an isotropic aggregate (composite) composed of a mixture of n isotropic phases. Using experimental data for NiTi alloy and adopting conjecture that it can be treated as an isotropic aggregate of two isotropic phases, it is shown that the NiTi coherency energy and macroscopic phase strain are practically not influenced by the difference in values of austenite and martensite elastic constants. It is shown that existence of nonzero fluctuating part of phase microeigenstrains field is responsible for building up of so-called stored energy of coherency, which is accumulated in pure martensitic phase after full completion of phase transition. Experimental data for NiTi alloy show that the stored coherency energy cannot be neglected as it considerably influences the characteristic phase transition
Elastic properties of sand-peat moss mixtures from ultrasonic measurements
Trombino, C N
1998-09-02
Effective remediation of an environmental site requires extensive knowledge of the geologic setting, as well as the amount and distribution of contaminants. Seismic investigations provide a means to examine the subsurface with minimum disturbance, Laboratory measurements are needed to interpret field data. In this experiment, laboratory tests were performed to characterize manufactured soil samples in terms of their elastic properties. The soil samples consisted of small (mass) percentages (1 to 20 percent) of peat moss mixed with pure quartz sand. Sand was chosen as the major component because its elastic properties are well known except at the lowest pressures. The ultrasonic pulse transmission technique was used to collect elastic wave velocity data. These data were analyzed and mathematically processed to calculate the other elastic properties such as the modulus of elasticity. This experiment demonstrates that seismic data are affected by the amount~of peat moss added to pure sand samples. Elastic wave velocities, velocity gradients, and elastic moduli vary with pressure and peat moss amounts. In particular, ultrasonic response changes dramatically when pore space fills with peat. With some further investigation, the information gathered in this experiment could be applied to seismic field research.
Material and Flexural Properties of Fiber-reinforced Rubber Concrete
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helminger, Nicholas P.
The purpose of this research is to determine the material properties of rubber concrete with the addition of fibers, and to determine optimal mixture dosages of rubber and fiber in concrete for structural applications. Fiber-reinforced concrete and rubberized concrete have been researched separately extensively, but this research intends to combine both rubber and fiber in a concrete matrix in order to create a composite material, fiber-reinforced rubber concrete (FRRC). Sustainability has long been important in engineering design, but much of the previous research performed on sustainable concrete does not result in a material that can be used for practical purposes. While still achieving a material that can be used for structural applications, economical considerations were given when choosing the proportions and types of constituents in the concrete mix. Concrete mixtures were designed, placed, and tested in accordance with common procedures and standards, with an emphasis on practicality. Properties that were investigated include compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility. The basis for determining the optimal concrete mixture is one that is economical, practical, and exhibits ductile properties with a significant strength. Results show that increasing percentages of rubber tend to decrease workability, unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity while the toughness is increased. The addition of steel needle fibers to rubber concrete increases unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility of the composite material.
Pedesseau, L. E-mail: jacky.even@insa-rennes.fr; Even, J. E-mail: jacky.even@insa-rennes.fr; Durand, O.; Modreanu, M.; Chaussende, D.; Sarigiannidou, E.; Chaix-Pluchery, O.
2015-12-01
New experimental results supported by theoretical analyses are proposed for aluminum silicon carbide (Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4}). A state of the art implementation of the density functional theory is used to analyze the experimental crystal structure, the Born charges, the elastic properties, and the piezoelectric properties. The Born charge tensor is correlated to the local bonding environment for each atom. The electronic band structure is computed including self-consistent many-body corrections. Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} material properties are compared to other wide band gap wurtzite materials. From a comparison between an ellipsometry study of the optical properties and theoretical results, we conclude that the Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} material has indirect and direct band gap energies of about 2.5 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively.
Materials with controllable signature properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dickman, O.; Holmberg, B.; Karlsson, T.; Savage, S.
1995-02-01
We have in this report considered some types of material with potential for use in signature control of structures. The material types selected for inclusion in this study were electrically conductive polymers, fullerenes, nanostructured materials and Langmuir-Blodgett films. To control the signature of a structure in real time it must be possible to vary the material emissivity, structural transmission, and reflection or absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the relevant wavelength region. This may be achieved by changes in temperature, pressure, electrical or magnetic field or by the concentration of a chemical substance within the material. It is concluded that it is feasible to develop electrically conductive polymeric materials with controllable properties for practical signature control application within 5 to 10 years.
Spatial mapping of the electrical and elastic properties of granular media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greeney, Nathan S.
The goal of this research is to design a set of methods to spatially map the electrical and physical properties of a spatially complex granular material. Aiming for a resolution of sub-millimeter allows the the possibility for developing a relationship between the electrical and physical properties at this scale as well as the ability to upscale to larger scales. Spatial mapping at this scale fills a unique niche between existing methods in the microscopic and macroscopic scales. Using methods analogous with optical near-field scanning, we develop a millimeter near-field scanning system. This system spatially scans thin samples between two dielectric probes to map the spatially varying dielectric properties of the sample. Using a millimeter wave vector network analyzer allows us to directly measure the phase and amplitude of the reflected and transmitted fields allowing mapping of both the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric properties. With this system we achieve a resolution of 100 mum (smaller than lambda/10). This resolution is not limited by diffraction but limited by the size of our probe and has the possibility of improvement. In order to develop a high resolution spatial mapping of the physical properties we developed an unconventional laser ultrasound scanning system. This system measures the travel time of shear waves directly through the sample to localize measurements allowing high resolution mapping of the spatially varying elastic properties of the sample. Using a focused infrared laser and laser Doppler vibrometer on opposite sides of a thin sample, we are able to achieve sub-millimeter resolution limited by the spot size and thickness of the sample. In testing these systems we looked at various applications. We have mapped the mineralogy of heterogeneous granite and have looked into a correlation between electrical and mechanical properties properties. By looking at maps of oil shale we are able to see the spatial hydrocarbon content before
High-pressure elastic properties of cubic Ir2P from ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Xiao-Wei; Bioud, Nadhira; Fu, Zhi-Jian; Wei, Xiao-Ping; Song, Ting; Li, Zheng-Wei
2016-10-01
A study of the high-pressure elastic properties of new synthetic Ir2P in the anti-fluorite structure is conducted using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The elastic constants C11, C12 and C44 for the cubic Ir2P are obtained by the stress-strain method and the elastic stability calculations under pressure indicate that it is stable at least 100 GPa. Additionally, the electronic density of states, the aggregate elastic moduli, that is bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Young's modulus along with the Debye temperature, Poisson's ratio, and elastic anisotropy factor are all successfully obtained. Moreover, the pressure dependence of the longitudinal and shear wave velocities in three different directions [100], [110], and [111] for Ir2P are also predicted for the first time.
First-principles study of structural, elastic, and electronic properties of chromium carbides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Chao
2008-01-01
Using first-principles calculations, we systematically studied the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of the technologically important chromium carbides: Cr3C2, Cr7C3, Cr23C6, Cr3C, and CrC. Our calculations show that the ground state structure for Cr7C3 is hexagonal, not orthorhombic. We further predict WC to be the energetically most stable structure for CrC. Our results indicate that all chromium carbides considered in this study are metallic and mechanically stable under the ambient condition. Among all chromium carbides, WC-type CrC exhibits the highest bulk and shear moduli and the lowest Poisson's ratio, and is a potential low-compressibility and hard material.
Coupled magnetic and elastic properties in LaPr(CaSr)MnO manganites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eslava, G. G.; Parisi, F.; Bernardo, P. L.; Quintero, M.; Leyva, G.; Cohen, L. F.; Ghivelder, L.
2016-09-01
We investigate a series of manganese oxides, the La0.225Pr0.4(Ca1-xSrx)0.375MnO3 system. The x = 0 sample is a prototype compound for the study of phase separation in manganites, where ferromagnetic and charge ordered antiferromagnetic phases coexist. Replacing Ca2+ by Sr2+ gradually turns the system into a homogeneous ferromagnet. Our results show that the material structure plays a major role in the observed magnetic properties. On cooling, at temperatures below ∼ 100 K, a strong contraction of the lattice is followed by an increase in the magnetization. This is observed both through thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements, providing distinct evidence of magneto-elastic coupling in these phase separated compounds.
Elastic properties of silver borate glasses doped with praseodymium oxide
Gowda, G. V. Jagadeesha; Eraiah, B.
2014-04-24
A series of glasses xPr{sub 6}O{sub 11−}(35−x) Ag{sub 2}O−65B{sub 2}O{sub 3} with x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mol % were synthesized by melt quenching technique. Longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocity were measured at 5 MHz frequency and at room temperature. Elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and Debye temperature have been calculated from the measured density and ultrasonic velocity at room temperature. The experimental results indicate that the elastic constants depend upon the composition of the glasses. The role of the Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} inside the glass network was discussed.
Elastic properties of a-C :N:H films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chengbing; Yang, Shengrong; Li, Hongxuan; Zhang, Junyan
2007-01-01
Dual dc-rf plasma system has been used to deposit hydrogenated carbon nitride (CNx:H) films that exhibit high elastic recovery (75%). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and Raman spectra were subsequently used to study the microstructure and bonding of the resultant films. The structure of the films from TEM is seen to consist of many particles embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix, and the films can be described as graphitelike or onionlike with interplanar distances of ≈1.15, 1.95, and 3.5Å, as obtained from selected area electron diffraction (SAED). FTIR shows that nitrogen promotes the formation of sp2 C C/CN aromatic rings in the films. Raman spectra shows two apparent peaks at about 700 and 1200cm-1 in addition to the G and D peaks. Only by adding two extra peaks at approximately 1230 and 1470cm-1 can we deconvolute the Raman spectra of CNx:H in the region of 1000-2000cm-1. Combining TEM and SAED, we attribute the three peaks at about 700, 1200, and 1470cm-1 to fullerene or onion structure. However, the elastic recovery is relatively lower than elastic hydrogenated free carbon nitride films. We think that this is due to the fact that hydrogen is mainly incorporated to sp3 carbon and suppresses cross-linking three-dimensional (3D) network growth.
Elasticity and hydrodynamic properties of ``doped solvent dilute'' lamellar phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nallet, Frédéric; Roux, Didier; Quilliet, Catherine; Fabre, Pascale; Milner, Scott T.
1994-09-01
The equilibrium fluctuations and weakly out-of-equilibrium relaxation properties of “doped solvent" dilute lamellar phases are investigated, both theoretically and experimentally, in the low-frequency, long-wavelength limit. The physical system of interest is a three-component smectic A lyotropic liquid crystal where surfactant bilayers infinite in extent are periodically stacked along one direction in space and separated by a colloidal solution. Two experimentally relevant modes are found in the lowest frequency part of the fluctuation spectrum of such multicomponent systems. Both are associated to the relaxation of coupled layer displacement and colloid concentration waves. In the limit of small coupling, one mode is close to the well-known undulation/baroclinic mode of two-component lamellar phases, while the other corresponds to the Brownian diffusive motion of the colloid in an anisotropic medium. Elastic constants of the smectic liquid crystal and diffusion parameters of the colloidal solution may be deduced from a measurement of the anisotropic dispersion relation of these two modes, as illustrated by dynamic light scattering experiments on the ferrosmectic system. Les fluctuations à l'équilibre ainsi que la relaxation des états légèrement en dehors de l'équilibre des phases lamellaires à “solvant dopé” sont étudiées, aussi bien d'un point de vue théorique qu'expérimental, dans la limite de basses fréquences et de grandes longueurs d'onde. Les systèmes décrits sont des cristaux-liquides smectiques A lyotropes formés de trois constituants : un tensioactif en solution dans une suspension colloïdale forme des bicouches de grande extension latérale qui s'empilent de façon périodique le long d'une direction dans l'espace. Avec de tels systèmes anisotropes et à plusieurs constituants deux modes présents dans la partie à basse fréquence du spectre des fluctuations (associés à la relaxation d'ondes, couplées, de concentration collo
Quantitative nondestructive characterization of visco-elastic materials at high pressure
Aizawa, Tatsuhiko; Kihara, Junji; Ohno, Jun
1995-11-01
New anvil apparatus was developed to realize high pressure atmosphere suitable to investigation of viscoelastic behaviors of such soft materials as polymers, lubricants, proteins and so forth. In addition, ultrasonic spectroscopy system was also newly constructed to make quantitative nondestructive evaluation of elasticity and viscosity of soft materials at high pressure. In order to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the developed system and methodology for quantitative nondestructive visco-elastic characterization, various silicone oils are employed, and measured spectra are compared to the theoretical results calculated by the three linear element model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varshney, Dinesh; Jain, S.; Shriya, S.; Khenata, R.
2016-09-01
Pressure- and temperature-dependent mechanical, elastic, and thermodynamical properties of rock salt to CsCl structures in semiconducting Sr X ( X = O, S, Se, and Te) chalcogenides are presented based on model interatomic interaction potential with emphasis on charge transfer interactions, covalency effect, and zero point energy effects apart from long-range Coulomb, short-range overlap repulsion extended and van der Waals interactions. The developed potential with non-central forces validates the Cauchy discrepancy among elastic constants. The volume collapse ( V P/ V 0) in terms of compressions in Sr X at higher pressure indicates the mechanical stiffening of lattice. The expansion of Sr X lattice is inferred from steep increase in V T/ V 0 and is attributed to thermal softening of Sr X lattice. We also present the results for the temperature-dependent behaviors of hardness, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient. From the Pugh's ratio (ϕ = B T /G H), the Poisson's ratio ( ν) and the Cauchy's pressure ( C 12- C 44), we classify SrO as ductile but SrS, SrSe, and SrTe are brittle material. To our knowledge these are the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the pressure and temperature dependence of mechanical stiffening, thermally softening, and brittle nature of Sr X ( X = O, S, Se, and Te) and still await experimental confirmations.
Salguero, Laura; Saadat, Fatemeh; Sevostianov, Igor
2014-10-17
The paper analyzes the connection between microstructure of the osteonal cortical bone and its overall elastic properties. The existing models either neglect anisotropy of the dense tissue or simplify cortical bone microstructure (accounting for Haversian canals only). These simplifications (related mostly to insufficient mathematical apparatus) complicate quantitative analysis of the effect of microstructural changes - produced by age, microgravity, or some diseases - on the overall mechanical performance of cortical bone. The present analysis fills this gap; it accounts for anisotropy of the dense tissue and uses realistic model of the porous microstructure. The approach is based on recent results of Sevostianov et al. (2005) and Saadat et al. (2012) on inhomogeneities in a transversely-isotropic material. Bone's microstructure is modeled according to books of Martin and Burr (1989), Currey (2002), and Fung (1993) and includes four main families of pores. The calculated elastic constants for porous cortical bone are in agreement with available experimental data. The influence of each of the pore types on the overall moduli is examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reddy, Babu; Badari Narayana, K.
2016-09-01
Unlike the case of continuous fiber composites, the prediction of elastic properties of short fiber composites using the corresponding elastic properties of constituents is not a straight forward task. Many authors have attempted to predict the properties using completely either by analytical or by experimental methods or a combination of both leading to empirical solutions. The current trend is to use the well known numerical solution Finite element method (FEM) to model the short fiber composite to predict their properties. In this paper, a RVE (Representative Volume Element) approach is used to model, with appropriate boundary and loading conditions and application of homogenization process to estimate elastic properties. The present values are compared with the available experimental and analytical solutions. The methods that best match with the current FE solutions are highlighted.
Zhang, Da-Guang; Li, Meng-Han; Zhou, Hao-Miao
2015-10-15
For magnetostrictive rods under combined axial pre-stress and magnetic field, a general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model was built in this paper. First, the elastic Gibbs free energy was expanded into polynomial, and the relationship between stress and strain and the relationship between magnetization and magnetic field with the polynomial form were obtained with the help of thermodynamic relations. Then according to microscopic magneto-elastic coupling mechanism and some physical facts of magnetostrictive materials, a nonlinear magneto-elastic constitutive with concise form was obtained when the relations of nonlinear strain and magnetization in the polynomial constitutive were instead with transcendental functions. The comparisons between the prediction and the experimental data of different magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, Metglas and Ni showed that the predicted magnetostrictive strain and magnetization curves were consistent with experimental results under different pre-stresses whether in the region of low and moderate field or high field. Moreover, the model can fully reflect the nonlinear magneto-mechanical coupling characteristics between magnetic, magnetostriction and elasticity, and it can effectively predict the changes of material parameters with pre-stress and bias field, which is useful in practical applications.
Thermal properties of granulated materials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wechsler, A. E.; Glaser, P. E.; Fountain, J. A.
1972-01-01
Review of the thermophysical properties of granular materials or silicates believed to simulate the lunar surface layer. Emphasis is placed on thermal conductivity data and the effects of material and environmental variables on the thermal conductivity. There are three basic mechanisms of heat transfer in particulate materials: conduction by the gas contained in the void spaces between the particles; conduction within the solid particles and across the interparticle contacts; and thermal radiation within the particles, across the void spaces between particle surfaces, and between void spaces themselves. Gas and solid conduction, thermal radiation, and the interaction between conduction and radiation are considered.
Ikezoe, Tome; Umegaki, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Nishisita, Satoru; Ichihashi, Noriaki
2016-01-01
Background Passive mechanical properties are important in muscle function because they are related to the muscle extensibility. Recently, the assessment of muscle shear elastic modulus using shear-wave elastographic (SWE) imaging was developed. However, reliability and validity of shear elastic modulus measurements during passive stretching remain undefined. Purpose To investigate the reproducibility and validity of the shear elastic modulus measured by SWE imaging during passive stretching. Material and Methods Ten healthy men volunteered for this study. The shear elastic modulus of medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle belly was measured using ultrasonic SWE imaging during passive dorsiflexion. To assess the intra-session and inter-day reliabilities, the protocol was performed twice by the same investigator with a 5-min rest period between measurement sessions and twice on two different days by the same investigator with a 1–2-week interval between the two sessions. To assess the inter-investigator reliability, the protocol was performed on the same day by two investigators with a 5-min rest between measurement sessions. In addition, B-mode ultrasonography was used to determine the displacement of myotendinous junction (MTJ) of MG during passive ankle dorsiflexion. Results The intra-session, inter-day, and inter-investigator reliabilities of the method was confirmed on the basis of acceptably low coefficient of variations and substantially high intraclass correlation coefficients. In addition, a significant correlation was found between MTJ displacement and shear elastic modulus. Conclusion These results suggested that shear elastic modulus measured using SWE imaging is a reproducible index reflecting the passive mechanical properties. PMID:27170845
Ni, Yilu; Tang, Zhurong; Cao, Wanxu; Lin, Hai; Fan, Yujiang; Guo, Likun; Zhang, Xingdong
2015-03-01
Natural polysaccharides are extensively investigated as cell scaffold materials for cellular adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation due to their excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, and biofunctions. However, their application is often severely limited by their mechanical behavior. In this study, a tough and elastic hydrogel scaffold was prepared with hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). HA and CS were conjugated with tyramine (TA) and the degree of substitution (DS) was 10.7% and 11.3%, respectively, as calculated by (1)H NMR spectra. The hydrogel was prepared by mixing HA-TA and CS-TA in presence of H2O2 and HRP. The sectional morphology of hydrogels was observed by SEM, static and dynamic mechanical properties were analyzed by Shimadzu electromechanical testing machine and dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer Q800. All samples showed good ability to recover their appearances after deformation, the storage modulus (E') of hydrogels became higher as the testing frequency went up. Hydrogels also showed fatigue resistance to cyclic compression. Mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in hydrogels showed good cell viability as detected by CLSM. This study suggests that the hydrogels have both good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, and may serve as model systems to explore mechanisms of deformation and energy dissipation or find some applications in tissue engineering. PMID:25445680
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taghizadeh, K.; Kumar, N.; Magnanimo, V.; Luding, S.
2015-09-01
Understanding the mechanical stiffness of closely packed, dense granular systems is of interest in many fields, such as soil mechanics, material science and physics. The main difficulty arises due to discreteness and disorder in granular materials at the microscopic scale which requires a multi-scale approach. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a powerful tool to inspect the influence of the microscopic contact properties of its individual constituents on the bulk behavior of granular assemblies. In this study, the isotropic deformation mode of polydisperse packings of frictionless and frictional spheres are modeled by using DEM, to investigate the effective stiffness of the granular assembly. At various volume fractions, for every sample, we determine the stress and fabric incremental response that result from the application of strain-probes. As we are interested first in the reversible, elastic response, the amplitude of the applied perturbations has to be small enough to avoid opening and closing of too many contacts, which would lead to irreversible rearrangements in the sample. Counterintuitively, with increasing inter-particle contact friction, the bulk modulus decreases systematically with the coefficient of friction for samples with the same volume fraction. We explain this by the difference in microstructure (isotropic fabric) the samples get when compressed to the same density.
Estimating elastic properties of tissues from standard 2D ultrasound images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kybic, Jan; Smutek, Daniel
2005-04-01
We propose a way of measuring elastic properties of tissues in-vivo, using standard medical image ultrasound machine without any special hardware. Images are acquired while the tissue is being deformed by a varying pressure applied by the operator on the hand-held ultrasound probe. The local elastic shear modulus is either estimated from a local displacement field reconstructed by an elastic registration algorithm, or both the modulus and the displacement are estimated simultaneously. The relation between modulus and displacement is calculated using a finite element method (FEM). The estimation algorithms were tested on both synthetic, phantom and real subject data.
Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals.
Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Grabar, A; Vlokh, R
2009-07-01
We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed.
Static and dynamic elastic properties of rocks from the Canadian Shield
King, M.S.
1983-01-01
As part of a number of research studies in the Canadian Shield associated with the stability of underground mine openings, seismic reflection surveys, and the proposed use of a tunnel-boring machine (TBM) for developing mine headings, a long-term laboratory rock mechanics program has been conducted to determine the static and dynamic elastic properties of samples of igneous and metamorphic rocks from the Canadian Shield. This paper reports the results of 174 measurements of static elastic modulus and 152 measurements of uniaxial compressive strength for these rocks as a function of dynamic elastic modulus. 20 references, 5 figures.
Super-elastic and fatigue resistant carbon material with lamellar multi-arch microstructure
Gao, Huai-Ling; Zhu, Yin-Bo; Mao, Li-Bo; Wang, Feng-Chao; Luo, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yang-Yi; Lu, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Ge, Jin; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Ya-Rong; Xu, Liang; Wang, Lin-Jun; Xu, Wei-Hong; Wu, Heng-An; Yu, Shu-Hong
2016-01-01
Low-density compressible materials enable various applications but are often hindered by structure-derived fatigue failure, weak elasticity with slow recovery speed and large energy dissipation. Here we demonstrate a carbon material with microstructure-derived super-elasticity and high fatigue resistance achieved by designing a hierarchical lamellar architecture composed of thousands of microscale arches that serve as elastic units. The obtained monolithic carbon material can rebound a steel ball in spring-like fashion with fast recovery speed (∼580 mm s−1), and demonstrates complete recovery and small energy dissipation (∼0.2) in each compress-release cycle, even under 90% strain. Particularly, the material can maintain structural integrity after more than 106 cycles at 20% strain and 2.5 × 105 cycles at 50% strain. This structural material, although constructed using an intrinsically brittle carbon constituent, is simultaneously super-elastic, highly compressible and fatigue resistant to a degree even greater than that of previously reported compressible foams mainly made from more robust constituents. PMID:27676215
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henann, David; Wang, Yuhao
Surface energy is an important factor in the deformation of fluids but is typically a minimal or negligible effect in solids. However, when a solid is soft and its characteristic dimension is small, forces due to surface energy can become important and induce significant elastic deformation. The interplay between surface energy and elasticity can lead to interesting elasto-capillary phenomena. We have developed a finite-element formulation for problems involving these effects in both 2D and 3D settings and will demonstrate the simulation capability by examining two elasto-capillary problems. (1) The Rayleigh-Plateau instability in an elastic material - In a fluid, this instability causes fluid jets to break up into droplets; however, as shown in recent experiments (Mora et al., PRL, 2010), break-up is prohibited in an elastic material, resulting in a stable undulatory configuration. (2) The effect of fluid-filled droplet inclusions on a soft solid - When the matrix material is stiff, the presence of fluid-filled inclusions leads to a more compliant composite material; however, recent experiments (Style, et al., Nature Physics, 2014) have shown that when the matrix material is more compliant, the presence of droplets leads to stiffening. In this talk, we will show that our simulation capability predicts all experimentally observed phenomena and provides a straightforward route for describing nonlinear aspects of elasto-capillarity, which are difficult to address via analytics.
Improved rigorous bounds on the effective elastic moduli of a composite material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kantor, Y.; Bergman, D. J.
A NEW METHOD for deriving rigorous bounds on the effective elastic constants of a composite material is presented and used to derive a number of known as well as some new bounds. The new approach is based on a presentation of those constants as a sum of simple poles. The locations and strengths of the poles are treated as variational parameters, while different kinds of available information are translated into constraints on these parameters. Our new results include an extension of the range of validity of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds to the case of composites made of isotropic materials but with an arbitrary microgeometry. We also use information on the effective elastic constants of one composite in order to obtain improved bounds on the effective elastic constants of another composite with the same or a similar microgeometry.
García-Arribas, Alfredo; Gutiérrez, Jon; Kurlyandskaya, Galina V.; Barandiarán, José M.; Svalov, Andrey; Fernández, Eduardo; Lasheras, Andoni; de Cos, David; Bravo-Imaz, Iñaki
2014-01-01
The outstanding properties of selected soft magnetic materials make them successful candidates for building high performance sensors. In this paper we present our recent work regarding different sensing technologies based on the coupling of the magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials with their electric or elastic properties. In first place we report the influence on the magneto-impedance response of the thickness of Permalloy films in multilayer-sandwiched structures. An impedance change of 270% was found in the best conditions upon the application of magnetic field, with a low field sensitivity of 140%/Oe. Second, the magneto-elastic resonance of amorphous ribbons is used to demonstrate the possibility of sensitively measuring the viscosity of fluids, aimed to develop an on-line and real-time sensor capable of assessing the state of degradation of lubricant oils in machinery. A novel analysis method is shown to sensitively reveal the changes of the damping parameter of the magnetoelastic oscillations at the resonance as a function of the oil viscosity. Finally, the properties and performance of magneto-electric laminated composites of amorphous magnetic ribbons and piezoelectric polymer films are investigated, demonstrating magnetic field detection capabilities below 2.7 nT. PMID:24776934
García-Arribas, Alfredo; Gutiérrez, Jon; Kurlyandskaya, Galina V; Barandiarán, José M; Svalov, Andrey; Fernández, Eduardo; Lasheras, Andoni; de Cos, David; Bravo-Imaz, Iñaki
2014-04-25
The outstanding properties of selected soft magnetic materials make them successful candidates for building high performance sensors. In this paper we present our recent work regarding different sensing technologies based on the coupling of the magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials with their electric or elastic properties. In first place we report the influence on the magneto-impedance response of the thickness of Permalloy films in multilayer-sandwiched structures. An impedance change of 270% was found in the best conditions upon the application of magnetic field, with a low field sensitivity of 140%/Oe. Second, the magneto-elastic resonance of amorphous ribbons is used to demonstrate the possibility of sensitively measuring the viscosity of fluids, aimed to develop an on-line and real-time sensor capable of assessing the state of degradation of lubricant oils in machinery. A novel analysis method is shown to sensitively reveal the changes of the damping parameter of the magnetoelastic oscillations at the resonance as a function of the oil viscosity. Finally, the properties and performance of magneto-electric laminated composites of amorphous magnetic ribbons and piezoelectric polymer films are investigated, demonstrating magnetic field detection capabilities below 2.7 nT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Mayanglambam Suheshkumar; Jiang, Huabei
2016-02-01
We report our study that shows selection in operating frequency of US-transducer used for boundary detection of PA-signals, which result due to the contrast in elastic property distribution ( E ( r → ) ) in sample material other than that of optical absorption coefficient (μa). Studies were carried out, experimentally, in tissue-mimicking Agar phantoms employing acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM) system as an imaging unit. In the experiments, various transducers having different operating frequencies, ranging from 1MHz to 50MHz, were employed for studying frequency response of the photoacoustic signals. The study shows that, for detecting photoacoustic signals due to the contrast in elastic property, ultrasound transducer with higher operating frequency (˜50MHz) is demanded.
Stress analysis of thermally affected rotating nanoshafts with varying material properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiani, Keivan
2016-04-01
Based on the surface elasticity theory of Gurtin-Murdoch, thermo-elastic fields within rotating nanoshafts with varying material properties subjected to a thermal field are explicitly examined. Accounting for the surface energy effect, the nonclassical boundary conditions are enforced in the cases of fixed-free and free-free conditions. The effects of variation of material properties, temperature of the environment, angular velocity, and radius of the outer radius on the radial displacement, hoop and radial stresses are investigated. In all performed studies, the role of the surface effect on the thermo-elastic field of the nanostructure is methodically discussed.
Seiner, Hanuš; Sedlák, Petr; Bodnárová, Lucie; Drahokoupil, Jan; Kopecký, Vít; Kopeček, Jaromír; Landa, Michal; Heczko, Oleg
2013-10-23
The evolution of elastic properties with temperature and magnetic field was studied in two differently heat-treated single crystals of the Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. Quenching and slow furnace cooling were used to obtain different densities of antiphase boundaries. We found that the crystals exhibited pronounced differences in the c' elastic coefficient and related shear damping in high-temperature ferromagnetic phases (austenite and premartensite). The difference can be ascribed to the formation of fine magnetic domain patterns and pinning of the magnetic domain walls on antiphase boundaries in the material with a high density of antiphase boundaries due to quenching. The fine domain pattern arising from mutual interactions between antiphase boundaries and ferromagnetic domain walls effectively reduces the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and amplifies the contribution of magnetostriction to the elastic response of the material. As a result, the anomalous elastic softening prior to martensite transformation is significantly enhanced in the quenched sample. Thus, for any comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations the microstructural changes induced by specific heat treatment must be taken into account.
Material Characterization of In Vivo and In Vitro Porcine Brain using Shear Wave Elasticity
Urbanczyk, Caryn A.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Bass, Cameron R.
2015-01-01
Realistic computer simulation of closed head trauma requires accurate mechanical properties of brain tissue, ideally in vivo. A substantive deficiency of most existing experimental brain data is that properties were identified through in vitro mechanical testing. This study develops a novel application of shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) to assess porcine brain tissue shear modulus in vivo. SWEI is a quantitative ultrasound technique that has been used here to examine changes in brain tissue shear modulus as a function of several experimental and physiological parameters. Animal studies were performed using two different ultrasound transducers to explore the differences between physical response with closed skull and open skull arrangements. In vivo intracranial pressure (ICP) in four animal subjects was varied over a relevant physiological range (2-40 mmHg), and was correlated with shear wave speed and stiffness estimates in brain tissue. We found that stiffness does not vary with modulation of ICP. Additional in vitro porcine specimens (n=14) were used to investigate variation in brain tissue stiffness with temperature, confinement, spatial location, and transducer orientation. We found a statistically significant decrease in stiffness with increased temperature (23%) and an increase in stiffness with decreasing external confinement (22 - 37%). This study demonstrated the feasibility of using SWEI to characterize porcine brain tissue both in vitro and in vivo. Our results underline the importance of temperature and skull derived boundary conditions on brain stiffness and suggests that physiological ranges of ICP do not significantly affect in situ brain tissue properties. SWEI allowed for brain material properties to be experimentally-characterized in a physiological setting and provides a stronger basis for assessing brain injury in computational models. PMID:25683220
Ab-initio study of electronic structure and elastic properties of ZrC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mund, H. S.; Ahuja, B. L.
2016-05-01
The electronic and elastic properties of ZrC have been investigated using the linear combination of atomic orbitals method within the framework of density functional theory. Different exchange-correlation functionals are taken into account within generalized gradient approximation. We have computed energy bands, density of states, elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, lattice parameters and pressure derivative of the bulk modulus by calculating ground state energy of the rock salt structure type ZrC.
Dimpled elastic sheets: a new class of non-porous negative Poisson’s ratio materials
Javid, Farhad; Smith-Roberge, Evelyne; Innes, Matthew C.; Shanian, Ali; Weaver, James C.; Bertoldi, Katia
2015-01-01
In this study, we report a novel periodic material with negative Poisson’s ratio (also called auxetic materials) fabricated by denting spherical dimples in an elastic flat sheet. While previously reported auxetic materials are either porous or comprise at least two phases, the material proposed here is non-porous and made of a homogeneous elastic sheet. Importantly, the auxetic behavior is induced by a novel mechanism which exploits the out-of-plane deformation of the spherical dimples. Through a combination of experiments and numerical analyses, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed concept, paving the way for developing a new class of auxetic materials that significantly expand their design space and possible applications. PMID:26671169
Dimpled elastic sheets: a new class of non-porous negative Poisson’s ratio materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javid, Farhad; Smith-Roberge, Evelyne; Innes, Matthew C.; Shanian, Ali; Weaver, James C.; Bertoldi, Katia
2015-12-01
In this study, we report a novel periodic material with negative Poisson’s ratio (also called auxetic materials) fabricated by denting spherical dimples in an elastic flat sheet. While previously reported auxetic materials are either porous or comprise at least two phases, the material proposed here is non-porous and made of a homogeneous elastic sheet. Importantly, the auxetic behavior is induced by a novel mechanism which exploits the out-of-plane deformation of the spherical dimples. Through a combination of experiments and numerical analyses, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed concept, paving the way for developing a new class of auxetic materials that significantly expand their design space and possible applications.
The Elastic and Vibrational Properties of Co to 120 GPa
Crowhurst, J; Goncharov, A F; Zaug, J M
2003-11-21
Impulsive stimulated light scattering and Raman spectroscopy measurements have been made on hcp cobalt to a static pressure of 120 GPa. This is the highest static pressure to date at which acoustic velocities have been directly measured. We find that at pressures above 60 GPa the shear elastic modulus and the Raman frequency of the E{sub 2g} transverse optical phonon exhibit a departure from a linear dependence on density. We relate this behavior to a collapse of the magnetic moment under pressure that has been predicted theoretically, but until now not observed experimentally.
From Process Modeling to Elastic Property Prediction for Long-Fiber Injection-Molded Thermoplastics
Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Frame, Barbara J.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Holbery, James D.; Smith, Mark T.
2007-09-13
This paper presents an experimental-modeling approach to predict the elastic properties of long-fiber injection-molded thermoplastics (LFTs). The approach accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in LFTs. LFT samples were injection-molded for the study, and fiber length and orientation distributions were measured at different locations for use in the computation of the composite properties. The current fiber orientation model was assessed to determine its capability to predict fiber orientation in LFTs. Predicted fiber orientations for the studied LFT samples were also used in the calculation of the elastic properties of these samples, and the predicted overall moduli were then compared with the experimental results. The elastic property prediction was based on the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka method combined with the orientation averaging technique. The predictions reasonably agree with the experimental LFT data
Theoretical Investigations on the Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Rhenium Phosphide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Qun; Yan, Haiyan; Zhu, Xuanmin; Lin, Zhengzhe; Yao, Ronghui
2016-01-01
Structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of orthorhombic rhenium phosphide (Re2P) are systematically investigated by using first principles calculations. The elastic constants and anisotropy of elastic properties are obtained. The metallic character of Re2P is demonstrated by density of state calculations. The quasi-harmonic Debye model is applied to the study of the thermodynamic properties. The thermal expansion, heat capacities, and Grüneisen parameter on the temperature and pressure have been determined as a function of temperature and pressure in the pressure range from 0 to 100 GPa and the temperature range from 0 to 1600 K.
Elastic and viscoelastic properties of α iron at high temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaak, Donald G.; Masuda, Koji
1995-09-01
Recent experiments done at low driving frequencies suggest that a large degree of dispersion exists in the measured value of the shear modulus, μ, of α iron at high temperature. Discrepancies between values for μ from ultrasonic measurements and those from low-frequency torsional measurements have been interpreted in terms of viscoelastic relaxation. However, the ultrasonic data are not in agreement with one another, and the degree of dispersion is not accurately known. We present new high-temperature data for the elastic moduli of single-crystal iron (α phase). The elastic moduli were measured using the rectangular parallelepiped resonance method (0.27-0.59 MHz) from room temperature to 925 K. Our data show that the difference in μ at high temperature between ultrasonic-based measurements and low-frequency (1 Hz) torsional measurements is only 14 GPa, rather than 29 GPa, as inferred from previous analyses. Thus the possible effects of viscoelastic relaxation are reduced but not eliminated. We find no dispersion in measurements for μ of α iron when considering frequencies ranging from 0.27 to 70 MHz and discuss the possibility that significant viscoelastic effects on measurements of μ at high temperature are limited to frequencies below 3 Hz.
Maccabi, A; Taylor, Z; Bajwa, N; Mallen-St Clair, J; St John, M; Sung, S; Grundfest, W; Saddik, G
2016-02-01
Tissue hardness, often quantified in terms of elasticity, is an important differentiating criterion for pathological identity and is extensively used by surgeons for tumor localization. Delineation of malignant regions from benign regions is typically performed by visual inspection and palpation. Although practical, this method is highly subjective and does not provide quantitative metrics. We have previously reported on Vibro-Acoustography (VA) for tumor delineation. VA is unique in that it uses the specific, non-linear properties of tumor tissue in response to an amplitude modulated ultrasound beam to generate spatially resolved, high contrast maps of tissue. Although the lateral and axial resolutions (sub-millimeter and sub-centimeter, respectively) of VA have been extensively characterized, the relationship between static stiffness assessment (palpation) and dynamic stiffness characterization (VA) has not been explicitly established. Here we perform a correlative exploration of the static and dynamic properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms, specifically elasticity, using VA and a muscle motor system. Muscle motor systems, commonly used to probe the mechanical properties of materials, provide absolute, quantitative point measurements of the elastic modulus, analogous to Young's modulus, of a target. For phantoms of varying percent-by-weight concentrations, parallel VA and muscle motor studies conducted on 18 phantoms reveal a negative correlation (p < - 0.85) between mean signal amplitude levels observed with VA and calculated elastic modulus values from force vs. indentation depth curves. Comparison of these elasticity measurements may provide additional information to improve tissue modeling, system characterization, as well as offer valuable insights for in vivo applications, specifically surgical extirpation of tumors. PMID:26931880
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccabi, A.; Taylor, Z.; Bajwa, N.; Mallen-St. Clair, J.; St. John, M.; Sung, S.; Grundfest, W.; Saddik, G.
2016-02-01
Tissue hardness, often quantified in terms of elasticity, is an important differentiating criterion for pathological identity and is extensively used by surgeons for tumor localization. Delineation of malignant regions from benign regions is typically performed by visual inspection and palpation. Although practical, this method is highly subjective and does not provide quantitative metrics. We have previously reported on Vibro-Acoustography (VA) for tumor delineation. VA is unique in that it uses the specific, non-linear properties of tumor tissue in response to an amplitude modulated ultrasound beam to generate spatially resolved, high contrast maps of tissue. Although the lateral and axial resolutions (sub-millimeter and sub-centimeter, respectively) of VA have been extensively characterized, the relationship between static stiffness assessment (palpation) and dynamic stiffness characterization (VA) has not been explicitly established. Here we perform a correlative exploration of the static and dynamic properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms, specifically elasticity, using VA and a muscle motor system. Muscle motor systems, commonly used to probe the mechanical properties of materials, provide absolute, quantitative point measurements of the elastic modulus, analogous to Young's modulus, of a target. For phantoms of varying percent-by-weight concentrations, parallel VA and muscle motor studies conducted on 18 phantoms reveal a negative correlation (p < - 0.85) between mean signal amplitude levels observed with VA and calculated elastic modulus values from force vs. indentation depth curves. Comparison of these elasticity measurements may provide additional information to improve tissue modeling, system characterization, as well as offer valuable insights for in vivo applications, specifically surgical extirpation of tumors.
Satellite material contaminant optical properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, B. E.; Bertrand, W. T.; Seiber, B. L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, P. M.; Holt, J. D.
1990-01-01
The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. Presented here are infrared (4000 to 700 cm(-1)) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K geranium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contents determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing and properties for other materials will be available in the future.
Satellite material contaminant optical properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, B. E.; Bertrand, W. T.; Seiber, B. L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, P. M.
The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. Presented here are infrared (4000 to 700/cm) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K germanium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contents determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing, and properties for other materials will be available in the future.
Satellite material contaminant optical properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, B. E.; Bertrand, W. T.; Seiber, B. L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, P. M.; Holt, J. D.
1990-03-01
The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. Presented here are infrared (4000 to 700 cm(-1)) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K germanium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contents determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing and properties for other materials will be available in the future.
Satellite Material Contaminant Optical Properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, Bobby E.; Bertrand, William T.; Seiber, Bryan L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, Patrick M.; Holt, J. D.
1990-01-01
The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. This paper presents infrared (4000 to 700 cm-1) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K geranium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contants determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing and properties for other materials will be available in the future.
Material properties for asteroid deflection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruck Syal, M.; Bernier, J.; Chen, L.; Coppari, F.; Dearborn, D.; Herbold, E.; Howley, K.; Kraus, R.; Kumar, M.; Millot, M.; Owen, J. M.; Swift, D.; Wasem, J.; Mulford, R.; Root, S.; Cotto-Figueroa, D.; Asphaug, E.; Schultz, P.; Nuth, J.; Arnold, J.; Burkhard, C.; Dotson, J.; Lee, T.; Sears, D.; Miller, P.
2015-06-01
Impulsive strategies to prevent asteroid impacts depend upon knowledge of asteroidal material state and response at extreme conditions. Numerical modeling of kinetic impactor and nuclear ablation scenarios to deflect or disrupt asteroids reveals sensitivities to equation of state, strength, and porosity. We report advances in material models for asteroid mitigation simulations. Equation of state development focuses on asteroidal materials, such as hydrated silicates. Shock experiments are being performed to measure properties of meteoritic material; initial sample temperature can be controlled from 100-1000 K, important for different intercept scenarios. New constitutive models allow improved thermomechanical response predictions for porous asteroids. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Determining the elastic properties of aptamer-ricin single molecule multiple pathways
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Ricin and an anti-ricin aptamer showed three stable binding conformations with their special chemomechanical properties. The elastic properties of the ricin-aptamer single-molecule interactions were investigated by the dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS). The worm-like-chain model and Hook’s law were ...
The influence of phonon anharmonicity on thermal and elastic properties of neptunium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filanovich, A.; Povzner, A.
2013-06-01
A self-consistent thermodynamic model describing the thermal and elastic properties of α- and β-phases of neptunium was developed. The presence of strong phonon anharmonicity of Np is established. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data and enable to predict the Np properties in wide temperature range.
Elastically driven cooperative response of a molecular material impacted by a laser pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertoni, Roman; Lorenc, Maciej; Cailleau, Hervé; Tissot, Antoine; Laisney, Jérôme; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian; Collet, Eric
2016-06-01
Photoinduced phase transformations occur when a laser pulse impacts a material, thereby transforming its electronic and/or structural orders, consequently affecting the functionalities. The transient nature of photoinduced states has thus far severely limited the scope of applications. It is of paramount importance to explore whether structural feedback during the solid deformation has the capacity to amplify and stabilize photoinduced transformations. Contrary to coherent optical phonons, which have long been under scrutiny, coherently propagating cell deformations over acoustic timescales have not been explored to a similar degree, particularly with respect to cooperative elastic interactions. Herein we demonstrate, experimentally and theoretically, a self-amplified responsiveness in a spin-crossover material during its delayed volume expansion. The cooperative response at the material scale prevails above a threshold excitation, significantly extending the lifetime of photoinduced states. Such elastically driven cooperativity triggered by a light pulse offers an efficient route towards the generation and stabilization of photoinduced phases in many volume-changing materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirgina, N. V.; Korobov, A. I.; Kokshaiskii, A. I.
2013-09-01
We have studied the influence of external static (pressure) and dynamic (caused by an elastic wave with a finite amplitude) actions on the linear and nonlinear elastic properties of a granulated unconsolidated medium, which was simulated by steel spheres with diameters of 2 and 4 mm. We have analyzed the equation of state for such a medium taking into account the presence of weakly and strongly deformed contacts between individual spheres. We have obtained expressions for the elasticity coefficient and second- and third-order nonlinear elastic parameters, and we have experimentally studied the influence of external static pressure on their values. We have measured the dependence of the velocity of elastic waves on external static pressure and the probing signal amplitude. In the studied medium, a number of structural phase transitions were observed, related to rearrangement of the packing of spheres, which were caused by both static and dynamic actions. The structural phase transition was accompanied by an anomalous change in the nonlinear elastic parameters of the medium and the velocity of elastic waves. We have analyzed the results based on the Hertz theory of contact interaction.
Soft-materials elastic and shear moduli measurement using piezoelectric cantilevers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markidou, Anna; Shih, Wan Y.; Shih, Wei-Heng
2005-06-01
We have developed a soft-material elastic modulus and shear modulus sensor using piezoelectric cantilevers. A piezoelectric cantilever is consisted of a highly piezoelectric layer, e.g., lead-zirconate-titanate bonded to a nonpiezoelectric layer, e.g., stainless steel. Applying an electric field in the thickness direction causes a piezoelectric cantilever to bend, generating an axial displacement or force. When a piezoelectric cantilever is in contact with an object, this electric field-generated axial displacement is reduced due to the resistance by the object. With a proper design of the piezoelectric cantilever's geometry, its axial displacements with and without contacting the object could be accurately measured. From these measurements the elastic modulus of the object can be deduced. In this study, we tailored the piezoelectric cantilevers for measuring the elastic and shear moduli of tissue-like soft materials with forces in the submilli Newton to milliNewton range. Elastic moduli and shear moduli of soft materials were measured using piezoelectric cantilevers with a straight tip and an L-shaped tip, respectively. Using gelatin and commercial rubber material as model soft tissues, we showed that a piezoelectric cantilever 1.5-2cm long could measure the elastic modulus and the shear modulus of a small soft material sample (1-3mm wide) in the small strain range (<1%). For samples 5mm high, the resultant compressive (shear) strains were less than 0.5% (1%). The measurements were validated by (1) comparing the measured Young's modulus of the commercial rubber sample with its known value and (2) by measuring both the Young's modulus and shear modulus on the samples and confirming the thus deduced Poisson's ratios with the separately measured Poisson's ratios.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, B.; Arsenlis, A.; Aubry, S.
2016-06-01
Driven by the growing interest in numerical simulations of dislocation–interface interactions in general crystalline materials with elastic anisotropy, we develop algorithms for the integration of interface tractions needed to couple dislocation dynamics with a finite element or boundary element solver. The dislocation stress fields in elastically anisotropic media are made analytically accessible through the spherical harmonics expansion of the derivative of Green’s function, and analytical expressions for the forces on interface elements are derived by analytically integrating the spherical harmonics series recursively. Compared with numerical integration by Gaussian quadrature, the newly developed analytical algorithm for interface traction integration is highly beneficial in terms of both computation precision and speed.
Gap Formations in Simulations of Shpb Tests on Elastic Materials Soft in Shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raftenberg, M. N.; Scheidler, M. J.
2009-12-01
The LS-DYNA code was applied to split Hopkinson pressure bar tests on a material at least two orders of magnitude stiffer in dilatation than in shear. Two constitutive models were applied, linear elasticity and a compressible form of Mooney-Rivlin elasticity. The latter was fitted to data from ballistic gelatin. The incident and transmission bars were aluminum. The nominal strain rate was 2500/s. Gaps appeared at the interfaces between the specimen and both bars. Unloading of the specimen and bars accompanied these gaps. The input-velocity rise time was varied to observe pulse shaping effects. Mesh sensitivity and contact-parameter sensitivity studies were performed.
Elastic properties of protein functionalized nanoporous polymer films
Charles T. Black; Wang, Haoyu; Akcora, Pinar
2015-12-16
Retaining the conformational structure and bioactivity of immobilized proteins is important for biosensor designs and drug delivery systems. Confined environments often lead to changes in conformation and functions of proteins. In this study, lysozyme is chemically tethered into nanopores of polystyrene thin films, and submicron pores in poly(methyl methacrylate) films are functionalized with streptavidin. Nanoindentation experiments show that stiffness of streptavidin increases with decreasing submicron pore sizes. Lysozymes in polystyrene nanopores are found to behave stiffer than the submicron pore sizes and still retain their specific bioactivity relative to the proteins on flat surfaces. Lastly, our results show that proteinmore » functionalized ordered nanoporous polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) films present heterogeneous elasticity and can be used to study interactions between free proteins and designed surfaces.« less
Elastic Properties of Lysozyme Confined in Nanoporous Polymer Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Haoyu; Akcora, Pinar
Retaining the conformational structure and bioactivity of immobilized proteins is important for biosensor designs and drug delivery systems. It is known that confined media provide a protective environment to the encapsulated proteins and prevent diffusion of the denaturant. In this study, different types of proteins (streptavidin, lysozyme and fibrinogen) were chemically attached into the nanopores of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films. Heterogeneous flat surfaces with varying cylinder pore sizes (10-50 nm) were used to confine proteins of different sizes and shapes. Stiffness of protein functionalized nanopores was measured in nanoindentation experiments. Our results showed that streptavidin behaved more stiffly when pore dimension changed from micron to nanosize. Further, it was found that lysozyme confined within nanopores showed higher specific bioactivity than proteins on flat surfaces. These results on surface elasticity and protein activity may help in understanding protein interactions with surfaces of different topologies and chemistry.
Elastic properties of protein functionalized nanoporous polymer films
Charles T. Black; Wang, Haoyu; Akcora, Pinar
2015-12-16
Retaining the conformational structure and bioactivity of immobilized proteins is important for biosensor designs and drug delivery systems. Confined environments often lead to changes in conformation and functions of proteins. In this study, lysozyme is chemically tethered into nanopores of polystyrene thin films, and submicron pores in poly(methyl methacrylate) films are functionalized with streptavidin. Nanoindentation experiments show that stiffness of streptavidin increases with decreasing submicron pore sizes. Lysozymes in polystyrene nanopores are found to behave stiffer than the submicron pore sizes and still retain their specific bioactivity relative to the proteins on flat surfaces. Lastly, our results show that protein functionalized ordered nanoporous polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) films present heterogeneous elasticity and can be used to study interactions between free proteins and designed surfaces.
Thermal stress fracture in elastic-brittle materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emery, A. F.
1980-01-01
The reported investigation shows that the assessment of the possibility of the thermal fracture of brittle materials depends upon an accurate evaluation of the thermal stresses and the determination of the resulting stress intensity factors. The stress intensity factors can be calculated in a variety of ways ranging from the very precise to approximate, but only for a limited number of geometries. The main difficulty is related to the determination of the thermal stress field because of its unusual character and its dependence upon boundary conditions at points far from the region of thermal activity. Examination of a number of examples suggests that the best visualization of the thermal stresses and any associated fracture can be made by considering the problem to be the combination of thermal and isothermal problems or by considering that the prime effect of the temperature is in the generation of thermal strains and that the thermal stresses are simply the result of the region trying to accommodate these strains.
Non-contacting transfer of elastic energy into explosive simulants for dynamic property estimation
Greeney, Nathan S.; Strovink, Kurt M.; Scales, John A.; Jessop, Andrew M.; Stuart Bolton, J.; Watson, Christopher C.; Adams, Douglas E.
2014-05-21
Non-contacting acoustical methods can be used to extract various material properties of liquid or solid samples without disturbing the sample. These methods are useful even in the lab since they do not involve coupling anything to the sample, which might change its properties. A forteriori, when dealing with potentially dangerous materials, non-contacting methods may be the only safe solutions to mechanical characterization. Here, we show examples of using laser ultrasound to remotely insonify and monitor the elastic properties of several granular explosive simulants. The relatively short near-infrared laser pulse length (a few hundred nanoseconds) provides a broad-band thermoelastic source of ultrasound; we intentionally stay in the thermoelastic regime to avoid damaging the material. Then, we use a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer to measure the ultrasonic response of the sample. LDV technology is well established and very sensitive at ultrasonic frequencies; atomic level motions can be measured with modest averaging. The resulting impulse response of the explosive simulant can be analyzed to determine decay rates and wave speeds, with stiffer samples showing faster wave speeds and lower decay rates. On the other hand, at the low-frequency end of the acoustic spectrum, we use an electronically phased array to couple into a freely suspended sample's normal modes. This allows us to gently heat up the sample (3 °C in just under 5 min, as shown with a thermal IR camera). In addition to the practical interest in making the sample more chemically visible through heat, these two measurements (low-frequency resonant excitation vs high-frequency wave propagation) bracket the frequency range of acoustic non-destructive evaluation methods available.
Non-contacting transfer of elastic energy into explosive simulants for dynamic property estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greeney, Nathan S.; Strovink, Kurt M.; Scales, John A.; Jessop, Andrew M.; Stuart Bolton, J.; Watson, Christopher C.; Adams, Douglas E.
2014-05-01
Non-contacting acoustical methods can be used to extract various material properties of liquid or solid samples without disturbing the sample. These methods are useful even in the lab since they do not involve coupling anything to the sample, which might change its properties. A forteriori, when dealing with potentially dangerous materials, non-contacting methods may be the only safe solutions to mechanical characterization. Here, we show examples of using laser ultrasound to remotely insonify and monitor the elastic properties of several granular explosive simulants. The relatively short near-infrared laser pulse length (a few hundred nanoseconds) provides a broad-band thermoelastic source of ultrasound; we intentionally stay in the thermoelastic regime to avoid damaging the material. Then, we use a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer to measure the ultrasonic response of the sample. LDV technology is well established and very sensitive at ultrasonic frequencies; atomic level motions can be measured with modest averaging. The resulting impulse response of the explosive simulant can be analyzed to determine decay rates and wave speeds, with stiffer samples showing faster wave speeds and lower decay rates. On the other hand, at the low-frequency end of the acoustic spectrum, we use an electronically phased array to couple into a freely suspended sample's normal modes. This allows us to gently heat up the sample (3 °C in just under 5 min, as shown with a thermal IR camera). In addition to the practical interest in making the sample more chemically visible through heat, these two measurements (low-frequency resonant excitation vs high-frequency wave propagation) bracket the frequency range of acoustic non-destructive evaluation methods available.
Saturation effects on the joint elastic-dielectric properties of carbonates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Tongcheng; Clennell, Michael Ben; Pervukhina, Marina; Josh, Matthew
2016-06-01
We used a common microstructural model to investigate the cross-property relations between elastic wave velocities and dielectric permittivity in carbonate rocks. A unified model based on validated self-consistent effective medium theory was used to quantify the effects of porosity and water saturation on both elastic properties (compressional and shear wave velocities) and electromagnetic properties (dielectric permittivity). The results of the forward models are presented as a series of cross-plots covering a wide range of porosities and water saturations and for microstructures that correspond to different predominant aspect ratios. It was found that dielectric permittivity correlated approximately linearly with elastic wave velocity at each saturation stage, with slopes varying gradually from positive at low saturation conditions to negative at higher saturations. The differing sensitivities of the elastic and dielectric rock properties to changes in porosity, pore morphology and water saturation can be used to reduce uncertainty in subsurface fluid saturation estimation when co-located sonic and dielectric surveys are available. The joint approach is useful for cross-validation of rock physics models for analysing pore structure and saturation effects on elastic and dielectric responses.
Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Reverdy, F.; Meyer, L.R.; Duranti, L.; Ball, G.
2010-12-15
Sediments undergoing compaction typically exhibit transversely isotropic (TI) elastic properties. We present a new experimental apparatus, the phased array compaction cell, for measuring the TI elastic properties of clay-rich sediments during compaction. This apparatus uses matched sets of P- and S-wave ultrasonic transducers located along the sides of the sample and an ultrasonic P-wave phased array source, together with a miniature P-wave receiver on the top and bottom ends of the sample. The phased array measurements are used to form plane P-waves that provide estimates of the phase velocities over a range of angles. From these measurements, the five TI elastic constants can be recovered as the sediment is compacted, without the need for sample unloading, recoring, or reorienting. This paper provides descriptions of the apparatus, the data processing, and an application demonstrating recovery of the evolving TI properties of a compacting marine sediment sample.
First principle study of elastic and thermodynamic properties of FeB4 under high pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xinyu; Qin, Jiaqian; Ning, Jinliang; Sun, Xiaowei; Li, Xinting; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping
2013-11-01
The elastic properties, elastic anisotropy, and thermodynamic properties of the lately synthesized orthorhombic FeB4 at high pressures are investigated using first-principles density functional calculations. The calculated equilibrium parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. The obtained normalized volume dependence of high pressure is consistent with the previous experimental data investigated using high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The complete elastic tensors and crystal anisotropies of the FeB4 are also determined in the pressure range of 0-100 GPa. By the elastic stability criteria and vibrational frequencies, it is predicted that the orthorhombic FeB4 is stable up to 100 GPa. In addition, the calculated B/G ratio reveals that FeB4 possesses brittle nature in the range of pressure from 0 to 100 GPa. The calculated elastic anisotropic factors suggest that FeB4 is elastically anisotropic. By using quasi-harmonic Debye model, the compressibility, bulk modulus, the coefficient of thermal expansion, the heat capacity, and the Grüneisen parameter of FeB4 are successfully obtained in the present work.
A theoretical study of the elastic and thermal properties of ScRu compound under pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Shuo; Li, Rui-Zi; Qi, San-Tao; Chen, Bao; Shen, Jiang
2014-06-01
The elastic and thermal properties of ScRu under pressure are studied using a first-principles pseudopotential method within the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameter and formation enthalpy are in good agreement with the previous experimental and theoretical results. From the static finite strain technique, we obtained three independent elastic constants (C 11, C 12 and C 44) and various secondary elasticity parameters such as shear modulus, Young’s modulus and elastic anisotropy, as functions of pressure. This study also provided the pressure and temperature variations of the bulk modulus, Debye temperature, thermal expansion coefficient and heat capacity in wide pressure (0-60 GPa) and temperature (0-1800 K) ranges.
Influence of elasticity on the syneresis properties of κ-carrageenan gels.
Ako, Komla
2015-01-22
Kappa-carrageenan hydrogels spontaneously release fluid (syneresis) under certain elasticity conditions, which depend on the temperature, the salt concentration in the gel (KCl) and the polysaccharide concentration. Strong and weak gels exhibit notably weak syneresis properties. The maximum syneresis was found at intermediate elasticity where the gel was neither strong nor weak. The variation in the gel composition indicated that the fluid is released according to the thermal retraction coefficient, which depends on the elasticity. Experiments revealed a dynamic equilibrium of the syneresis process where syneresis fluid was not withdrawn. However, once the fluid was removed from the gel surface, the release of solvent starts again if the elasticity is below the compressive pressure in the gel. Therefore, swelling of the gel is suggested as an explanation for the dynamic equilibrium of the syneresis process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Růžek, M.; Sedlák, P.; Seiner, H.; Landa, M.
2011-01-01
This paper deals with determination of in-plane elastic constants of thin layers deposited on substrates. Modified resonant ultrasound spectroscopy is used to measure resonant spectra before and after layer deposition . These two spectra are compared and changes in the position of the resonant peaks are associated with layer properties. It is shown that for thin layers either the elastic moduli or the surface mass density can be determined, providing the complementary information (the surface mass density for the determination of the moduli, the elastic moduli for the determination of the surface mass density) is known. As an experimental demonstration of this approach, the elastic moduli of diamond-like-carbon film deposited on a silicon substrate and the surface mass density of a thin spray paint on a silicon substrate are determined.
A model for compression-weakening materials and the elastic fields due to contractile cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosakis, Phoebus; Notbohm, Jacob; Ravichandran, Guruswami
2015-12-01
We construct a homogeneous, nonlinear elastic constitutive law that models aspects of the mechanical behavior of inhomogeneous fibrin networks. Fibers in such networks buckle when in compression. We model this as a loss of stiffness in compression in the stress-strain relations of the homogeneous constitutive model. Problems that model a contracting biological cell in a finite matrix are solved. It is found that matrix displacements and stresses induced by cell contraction decay slower (with distance from the cell) in a compression weakening material than linear elasticity would predict. This points toward a mechanism for long-range cell mechanosensing. In contrast, an expanding cell would induce displacements that decay faster than in a linear elastic matrix.
Ganeshraj, C.; Santhosh, P. N.
2014-10-14
We report first-principles study of structural, electronic, vibrational, dielectric, and elastic properties of Ba₂YTaO₆, a pinning material in high temperature superconductors (HTS), by using density functional theory. By using different exchange-correlation potentials, the accuracy of the calculated lattice constants of Ba₂YTaO₆ has been achieved with GGA-RPBE, since many important physical quantities crucially depend on change in volume. We have calculated the electronic band structure dispersion, total and partial density of states to study the band gap origin and found that Ba₂YTaO₆ is an insulator with a direct band gap of 3.50 eV. From Mulliken population and charge density studies, we conclude that Ba₂YTaO₆ have a mixed ionic-covalent character. Moreover, the vibrational properties, born effective charges, and the dielectric permittivity tensor have been calculated using linear response method. Vibrational spectrum determined through our calculations agrees well with the observed Raman spectrum, and allows assignment of symmetry labels to modes. We perform a detailed analysis of the contribution of the various infrared-active modes to the static dielectric constant to explain its anisotropy, while electronic dielectric tensor of Ba₂YTaO₆ is nearly isotropic, and found that static dielectric constant is in good agreement with experimental value. The six independent elastic constants were calculated and found that tetragonal Ba₂YTaO₆ is mechanically stable. Other elastic properties, including bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and elastic anisotropy ratios are also investigated and found that Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of Ba₂YTaO₆ are similar to that of other pinning materials in HTS.
Detecting Damage in Composite Material Using Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meo, Michele; Polimeno, Umberto; Zumpano, Giuseppe
2008-05-01
Modern aerospace structures make increasing use of fibre reinforced plastic composites, due to their high specific mechanical properties. However, due to their brittleness, low velocity impact can cause delaminations beneath the surface, while the surface may appear to be undamaged upon visual inspection. Such damage is called barely visible impact damage (BVID). Such internal damages lead to significant reduction in local strengths and ultimately could lead to catastrophic failures. It is therefore important to detect and monitor damages in high loaded composite components to receive an early warning for a well timed maintenance of the aircraft. Non-linear ultrasonic spectroscopy methods are promising damage detection and material characterization tools. In this paper, two different non-linear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) methods are presented: single mode nonlinear resonance ultrasound (NRUS) and nonlinear wave modulation technique (NWMS). The NEWS methods were applied to detect delamination damage due to low velocity impact (<12 J) on various composite plates. The results showed that the proposed methodology appear to be highly sensitive to the presence of damage with very promising future NDT and structural health monitoring applications.
Ortiz, Aurélie U; Boutin, Anne; Fuchs, Alain H; Coudert, François-Xavier
2012-11-01
We performed ab initio calculations of the elastic constants of five flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs): MIL-53(Al), MIL-53(Ga), MIL-47, and the square and lozenge structures of DMOF-1. Tensorial analysis of the elastic constants reveals a highly anisotropic elastic behavior, some deformation directions exhibiting very low Young's modulus and shear modulus. This anisotropy can reach a 400:1 ratio between the most rigid and weakest directions, in stark contrast to the case of nonflexible MOFs such as MOF-5 and ZIF-8. In addition, we show that flexible MOFs can display extremely large negative linear compressibility. These results uncover the microscopic roots of stimuli-induced structural transitions in flexible MOFs, by linking the local elastic behavior of the material and its multistability. PMID:23215398
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz, Aurélie U.; Boutin, Anne; Fuchs, Alain H.; Coudert, François-Xavier
2012-11-01
We performed ab initio calculations of the elastic constants of five flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs): MIL-53(Al), MIL-53(Ga), MIL-47, and the square and lozenge structures of DMOF-1. Tensorial analysis of the elastic constants reveals a highly anisotropic elastic behavior, some deformation directions exhibiting very low Young’s modulus and shear modulus. This anisotropy can reach a 400∶1 ratio between the most rigid and weakest directions, in stark contrast to the case of nonflexible MOFs such as MOF-5 and ZIF-8. In addition, we show that flexible MOFs can display extremely large negative linear compressibility. These results uncover the microscopic roots of stimuli-induced structural transitions in flexible MOFs, by linking the local elastic behavior of the material and its multistability.
Structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of KAlQ2 (Q = Se, Te): A DFT study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benmakhlouf, A.; Bentabet, A.; Bouhemadou, A.; Maabed, S.; Khenata, R.; Bin-Omran, S.
2015-10-01
First-principles calculations in the framework of density functional theory have been conducted to explore the structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of two layered ternary compounds chalcogenides of aluminum KAlSe2 and KAlTe2. We have calculated all of the equilibrium structural parameters; the lattice parameters (a, b and c), angle β and twenty three internal atomic coordinates. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. We have predicted the single-crystal elastic constants Cij of the title materials using stress-strain approach and then derived the elastic moduli of the polycrystalline aggregates and related properties via the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximations. The band structure and density of states diagrams have been calculated and analyzed. Both compounds demonstrate semiconducting behavior with direct band gap. The linear optical properties, namely the frequency-dependent dielectric function, absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient, reflectivity and energy-loss function, have been calculated and analyzed in a wide energy range up to 20 eV.
Sato, Akihiro; Pennec, Yan; Shingne, Nitin; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Knoll, Wolfgang; Steinhart, Martin; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Fytas, George
2010-06-22
Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) containing arrays of aligned cylindrical nanopores infiltrated with polymers is a well-defined model system for the study of hypersound propagation in polymer nanocomposites. Hypersonic phononic properties of AAO/polymer nanocomposites such as phonon localization and anisotropic sound propagation can be tailored by adjusting elastic contrast and density contrast between the components. Changes in density and elastic properties of the component located in the nanopores induced by phase transitions allow reversible modification of the phononic band structure and mode switching. As example in case, the crystallization and melting of poly(vinylidene difluoride) inside AAO was investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Tei-Chen; Lin, Wen-Jong; Chen, Dao-Long
2004-10-01
Some specific experimental methods to simultaneously determine the thermal expansion coefficients αF and biaxial elastic modulus EF/(1-νF) of thin film materials have been reported recently. In these methods, the deflections or the curvature change of the thin films, deposited on two different types of circular disks with known material properties, generally can be measured with a variety of optical techniques. The temperature-dependent deflection behaviors of thin films are then obtained by heating the samples in the range from room temperature to a slightly higher temperature level at which the physical properties and microstructures of thin film materials still remain unchanged. By using the relations between stress, deflection, and temperature, the physical properties of thin films can be finally calculated by using the slopes of two lines in the stress versus temperature plot. These relations, however, are formulated under the condition of uniform temperature rise. If the heating processes of samples are conducted in the condition that there exists a small steady-state temperature gradient along the thickness of samples due to the effect of natural heat convection on the upper surface of thin film, the formulation mentioned above shall be modified. It is found that the deflection of sample induced by the small temperature gradient along the thickness due to natural heat convection is very significant and comparable to that induced by uniform temperature rise. Consequently, if the effect of this temperature gradient is carelessly disregarded in physical modeling, a significantly different value of elastic modulus may be misleadingly obtained. Some cases are exemplified and illustrated to show the influence of temperature gradient on the evaluation of material properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattesini, Maurizio; Magnuson, Martin; Tasnádi, Ferenc; Höglund, Carina; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Hultman, Lars
2009-03-01
We have performed ab initio calculations for the cubic inverse-perovskite Sc3EN (E=Al,Ga,In) systems to study their electronic band-structures and elastic properties. In this study, we used the accurate augmented plane wave plus local orbital method to find the equilibrium structural parameters and to compute the full elastic tensors. The obtained single-crystal elastic constants were used to quantify the stiffness of the Sc-based ternary nitrides and to appraise their mechanical stability. The site-projected density of states, Fermi surfaces, and the charge-density plots have also been used to analyze the chemical bonding between the Sc6N cluster and the surrounding metallic lattice of either Al, Ga, or In atoms. Our calculations show that Sc3GaN has the largest covalent Sc-N bonding-type character with the highest Young, shear, and bulk moduli. Compared with the other two isoelectronic systems, it also behaves as the most brittle material with a relatively large elastic anisotropy.
Dispersion properties of helical waves in radially inhomogeneous elastic media.
Syresin, D E; Zharnikov, T V; Tyutekin, V V
2012-06-01
In this paper, a method describing dispersion curve calculation for waves propagating in radially layered, inhomogeneous isotropic elastic waveguides is developed. Particular emphasis is placed on the helical waves with noninteger azimuthal wavenumbers, which can be potentially applied in such fields as nondestructive evaluation, acoustic tomography, etc., stipulating their practical importance. To solve the problem under consideration, the matrix Riccati equation is formulated for an impedance matrix. The use of the latter yields a simple form of the dispersion equation. Numerical computation of dispersion curves can encounter difficulties, which are due to potential singularities of the impedance matrix and the necessity to separate roots of the dispersion equation. These difficulties are overcome by employing the Cayley transform and invoking the parametric continuation method. The method developed by the authors is demonstrated by calculating dispersion diagrams in support of helical waves for several models of practical interest. Such computations for an inhomogeneous layer and its approximation by a set of homogeneous layers using a transfer matrix and Riccati equation methods revealed higher computational accuracy of the latter. Dispersion curves calculated for layers with different types of inhomogeneity demonstrated significant discrepancies at low frequencies. PMID:22712901
Dispersion properties of helical waves in radially inhomogeneous elastic media.
Syresin, D E; Zharnikov, T V; Tyutekin, V V
2012-06-01
In this paper, a method describing dispersion curve calculation for waves propagating in radially layered, inhomogeneous isotropic elastic waveguides is developed. Particular emphasis is placed on the helical waves with noninteger azimuthal wavenumbers, which can be potentially applied in such fields as nondestructive evaluation, acoustic tomography, etc., stipulating their practical importance. To solve the problem under consideration, the matrix Riccati equation is formulated for an impedance matrix. The use of the latter yields a simple form of the dispersion equation. Numerical computation of dispersion curves can encounter difficulties, which are due to potential singularities of the impedance matrix and the necessity to separate roots of the dispersion equation. These difficulties are overcome by employing the Cayley transform and invoking the parametric continuation method. The method developed by the authors is demonstrated by calculating dispersion diagrams in support of helical waves for several models of practical interest. Such computations for an inhomogeneous layer and its approximation by a set of homogeneous layers using a transfer matrix and Riccati equation methods revealed higher computational accuracy of the latter. Dispersion curves calculated for layers with different types of inhomogeneity demonstrated significant discrepancies at low frequencies.
Effective elastic properties for lower limb soft tissues from manual indentation experiment.
Zheng, Y; Mak, A F
1999-09-01
Quantitative assessment of the biomechanical properties of limb soft tissues has become more important during the last decade because of the introduction of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and finite element analysis to the prosthetic socket design. Because of the lack of a clinically easy-to-use apparatus, the site and posture dependences of the material properties of lower limb soft tissues have not been fully reported in the literature. In this study, an ultrasound indentation system with a pen-size hand-held probe developed earlier by the authors was used to obtain the indentation responses of lower limb soft tissues. Indentation tests were conducted on normal young subjects with four females and four males at four sites with three body postures. A linear elastic indentation solution was used to extract the effective Young's modulus from the indentation responses. The determined modulus ranged from 10.4 to 89.2 kPa for the soft tissues tested. These results were in a similar range as those reported in the literature. The thickness of the lower limb soft tissues varied slightly with body posture changes. The Young's modulus determined was demonstrated to be significantly dependent on site, posture, subject and gender. The overall mean modulus of male subjects was 40% larger than that of female subjects. No significant correlation was established between the effective Young's modulus and the thickness of entire soft tissue layers.
Prediction of the mechanical response of the femur with uncertain elastic properties.
Wille, Hagen; Rank, Ernst; Yosibash, Zohar
2012-04-30
A mandatory requirement for any reliable prediction of the mechanical response of bones, based on quantitative computer tomography, is an accurate relationship between material properties (usually Young's modulus E) and bone density ρ. Many such E-ρ relationships are available based on different experiments on femur specimens with a large spread due to uncertainties. The first goal of this study is to pool and analyze the relevant available experimental data and develop a stochasticE-ρ relationship. This analysis highlights that there is no experimental data available to cover the entire density range of the human femur and that some "popular" E-ρ relationships are based on data that contains extreme scatter, while others are based on a very limited amount of information. The second goal is to use the newly developed stochastic E-ρ relationship in high-order finite element analyses (FEAs) for the computation of strains and displacements in two human proximal femurs, mimicking in vitro experiments. When compared with the experimental observations, the FEA predictions using the median of the stochastic E-ρ relationship follow the underlying distribution of the stochastic E-ρ relationship. Thus, most deviations of the FEA predictions from experimental observations can possibly be explained by uncertain elastic properties of the femur.
Fritsch, Andreas; Hellmich, Christian
2007-02-21
Bone materials are characterized by an astonishing variability and diversity. Still, because of 'architectural constraints' due to once chosen material constituents and their physical interaction, the fundamental hierarchical organization or basic building plans of bone materials remain largely unchanged during biological evolution. Such universal patterns of microstructural organization govern the mechanical interaction of the elementary components of bone (hydroxyapatite, collagen, water; with directly measurable tissue-independent elastic properties), which are here quantified through a multiscale homogenization scheme delivering effective elastic properties of bone materials: at a scale of 10nm, long cylindrical collagen molecules, attached to each other at their ends by approximately 1.5nm long crosslinks and hosting intermolecular water inbetween, form a contiguous matrix called wet collagen. At a scale of several hundred nanometers, wet collagen and mineral crystal agglomerations interpenetrate each other, forming the mineralized fibril. At a scale of 5-10microm, the extracellular solid bone matrix is represented as collagen fibril inclusions embedded in a foam of largely disordered (extrafibrillar) mineral crystals. At a scale above the ultrastructure, where lacunae are embedded in extracellular bone matrix, the extravascular bone material is observed. Model estimates predicted from tissue-specific composition data gained from a multitude of chemical and physical tests agree remarkably well with corresponding acoustic stiffness experiments across a variety of cortical and trabecular, extracellular and extravascular materials. Besides from reconciling the well-documented, seemingly opposed concepts of 'mineral-reinforced collagen matrix' and 'collagen-reinforced mineral matrix' for bone ultrastructure, this approach opens new possibilities in the exploitation of computer tomographic data for nano-to-macro mechanics of bone organs.
Food material properties and early hominin processing techniques.
Zink, Katherine D; Lieberman, Daniel E; Lucas, Peter W
2014-12-01
Although early Homo is hypothesized to have used tools more than australopiths to process foods prior to consumption, it is unknown how much the food processing techniques they used altered the material properties of foods, and therefore the masticatory forces they generated, and how well they were able to comminute foods. This study presents experimental data on changes to food material properties caused by mechanical tenderization (pounding with a stone tool) and cooking (dry roasting) of two foods likely to have been important components of the hominin diet: meat and tubers. Mechanical tenderization significantly decreased tuber toughness by 42%, but had no effect on meat toughness. Roasting significantly decreased several material properties of tubers correlated with masticatory effort including toughness (49%), fracture stress (28%) and elastic modulus (45%), but increased the toughness (77%), fracture stress (50%-222%), and elastic modulus of muscle fibers in meat (308%). Despite increasing many material properties of meat associated with higher masticatory forces, roasting also decreased measured energy loss by 28%, which likely makes it easier to chew. These results suggest that the use of food processing techniques by early Homo probably differed for meat and tubers, but together would have reduced masticatory effort, helping to relax selection to maintain large, robust faces and large, thickly enameled teeth.
Elastic and Thermal Properties of Silicon Compounds from First-Principles Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Haijun; Zhu, H. J.; Cheng, W. H.; Xie, L. H.
2016-07-01
The structural and elastic properties of V-Si (V3Si, VSi2, V5Si3, and V6Si5) compounds are studied by using first-principles method. The calculated equilibrium lattice parameters and formation enthalpy are in good agreement with the available experimental data and other theoretical results. The calculated results indicate that the V-Si compounds are mechanically stable. Elastic properties including bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio are also obtained. The elastic anisotropies of V-Si compounds are investigated via the three-dimensional (3D) figures of directional dependences of reciprocals of Young's modulus. Finally, based on the quasi-harmonic Debye model, the internal energy, Helmholtz free energy, entropy, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, Grüneisen parameter, and Debye temperature of V-Si compounds have been calculated.
Structural and elastic properties of Ce2O3 under pressure from LDA+ U method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Yuan-Yuan; Niu, Zhen-Wei; Cheng, Cai; Cheng, Yan
2013-08-01
We investigate the structural and elastic properties of hexagonal Ce2O3 under pressure using LDA+ U scheme in the frame of density functional theory (DFT). The obtained lattice constants and bulk modulus agree well with the available experimental and other theoretical data. The pressure dependences of normalized lattice parameters a/a 0 and c/c 0, ratio c/a, and normalized primitive volume V/V 0 of Ce2O3 are obtained. Moreover, the pressure dependences of elastic properties and three anisotropies of elastic waves of Ce2O3 are investigated for the first time. We find that the negative value of C 44 is indicative of the structural instability of the hexagonal structure Ce2O3 at zero temperature and 30 GPa. Finally, the density of states (DOS) of Ce2O3 under pressure is investigated.
Mathematical optimization of elastic properties: application to cementless hip stem design.
Kuiper, J H; Huiskes, R
1997-05-01
The designer of a cementless hip stem in total hip replacement must find a balance between two conflicting demands. On the one hand, a stiff stem shields the surrounding bone from mechanical loading (stress shielding), which may lead to bone loss, particularly around the proximal part of the stem. Reducing the stem stiffness decreases the amount of stress shielding and hence the amount of bone loss. However, this measure inevitably promotes higher proximal interface stresses and thereby increases the risk of proximal interface failure. The designer's task therefore is to optimize the stem stiffness in order to find the best compromise in the conflict. Yet, a better compromise might be found when the stem material was nonhomogeneous, in other words when an arbitrary distribution of the elastic properties inside the stem was allowed. The number of conceivable designs would increase enormously, making the designer's task almost impossible. In the present paper, we develop a numerical design optimization method to determine the optimal stiffness characteristics for a hip stem. A finite element program is coupled with a numerical optimization method, thus producing a design optimization scheme. The scheme minimizes the probability for interface failure while limiting the amount of bone loss, by adapting the parameters describing the nonhomogeneous elastic modulus distribution. As an example, a simplified model of a hip stem is made, whose modulus distribution is optimized. Assuming equal long-term bone loss, the maximum interface stress can be reduced by over 50 percent when compared to a homogeneous flexible stem, thus demonstrating the value of the new approach. PMID:9168392
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauter, N.; Lammering, R.
2015-04-01
In order to detect micro-structural damages accurately new methods are currently developed. A promising tool is the generation of higher harmonic wave modes caused by the nonlinear Lamb wave propagation in plate like structures. Due to the very small amplitudes a cumulative effect is used. To get a better overview of this inspection method numerical simulations are essential. Previous studies have developed the analytical description of this phenomenon which is based on the five-constant nonlinear elastic theory. The analytical solution has been approved by numerical simulations. In this work first the nonlinear cumulative wave propagation is simulated and analyzed considering micro-structural cracks in thin linear elastic isotropic plates. It is shown that there is a cumulative effect considering the S1-S2 mode pair. Furthermore the sensitivity of the relative acoustical nonlinearity parameter regarding those damages is validated. Furthermore, an influence of the crack size and orientation on the nonlinear wave propagation behavior is observed. In a second step the micro-structural cracks are replaced by a nonlinear material model. Instead of the five-constant nonlinear elastic theory hyperelastic material models that are implemented in commonly used FEM software are used to simulate the cumulative effect of the higher harmonic Lamb wave generation. The cumulative effect as well as the different nonlinear behavior of the S1-S2 and S2-S4 mode pairs are found by using these hyperelastic material models. It is shown that, both numerical simulations, which take into account micro-structural cracks on the one hand and nonlinear material on the other hand, lead to comparable results. Furthermore, in comparison to the five-constant nonlinear elastic theory the use of the well established hyperelastic material models like Neo-Hooke and Mooney-Rivlin are a suitable alternative to simulate the cumulative higher harmonic generation.
Determination of the elastic properties of tomato fruit cells with an atomic force microscope.
Zdunek, Artur; Kurenda, Andrzej
2013-09-11
Since the mechanical properties of single cells together with the intercellular adhesive properties determine the macro-mechanical properties of plants, a method for evaluation of the cell elastic properties is needed to help explanation of the behavior of fruits and vegetables in handling and food processing. For this purpose, indentation of tomato mesocarp cells with an atomic force microscope was used. The Young's modulus of a cell using the Hertz and Sneddon models, and stiffness were calculated from force-indentation curves. Use of two probes of distinct radius of curvature (20 nm and 10,000 nm) showed that the measured elastic properties were significantly affected by tip geometry. The Young's modulus was about 100 kPa ± 35 kPa and 20 kPa ± 14 kPa for the sharper tip and a bead tip, respectively. Moreover, large variability regarding elastic properties (>100%) among cells sampled from the same region in the fruit was observed. We showed that AFM provides the possibility of combining nano-mechanical properties with topography imaging, which could be very useful for the study of structure-related properties of fruits and vegetables at the cellular and sub-cellular scale.
Sound Transmission Through Multi-Panel Structures Lined with Elastic Porous Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolton, J. S.; Shiau, N.-M.; Kang, Y. J.
1996-04-01
Theory and measurements related to sound transmission through double panels lined with elastic porous media are presented. The information has application to the design of noise control barriers and to the optimization of aircraft fuselage transmission loss, for example. The major difference between the work described here and earlier research in this field relates to the treatment of the porous material that is used to line the cavity between the two panels of the double panel structure. Here we have used the porous material theory proposed by Biot since it takes explicit account of all the wave types known to propagate in elastic porous materials. As a result, it is possible to use the theory presented here to calculate the transmission loss of lined double panels at arbitrary angles of incidence; results calculated over a range of incidence angles may then be combined to yield the random incidence transmission loss. In this paper, the equations governing wave propagation in an elastic porous material are first considered briefly and then the general forms for the stresses and displacements within the porous material are given. Those solutions are expressed in terms of a number of constants that can be determined by application of appropriate boundary conditions. The boundary conditions required to model double panels having linings that are either directly attached to the facing panels or separated?!from them by air gaps are presented and discussed. Measurements of the random incidence transmission loss of aluminium double-panel structures lined with polyurethane foam are presented and have been found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Both the theoretical predictions and the measured results have shown that the method by which an elastic porous lining material is attached to the facing panels can have a profound influence on the transmission loss of the panel system. It has been found, for example, that treatments in which the lining material
Point defect modeling in materials: Coupling ab initio and elasticity approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varvenne, Céline; Bruneval, Fabien; Marinica, Mihai-Cosmin; Clouet, Emmanuel
2013-10-01
Modeling point defects at an atomic scale requires careful treatment of the long-range atomic relaxations. This elastic field can strongly affect point defect properties calculated in atomistic simulations because of the finite size of the system under study. This is an important restriction for ab initio methods which are limited to a few hundred atoms. We propose an original approach coupling ab initio calculations and linear elasticity theory to obtain the properties of an isolated point defect for reduced supercell sizes. The reliability and benefit of our approach are demonstrated for three problematic cases: the self-interstitial in zirconium, clusters of self-interstitials in iron, and the neutral vacancy in silicon.
Yuan, Justin S.; Heden, Gregory J.; Szivek, John A.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Latt, L. Daniel; Witte, Russell S.
2016-01-01
Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a common degenerative condition leading to a severe impairment of gait. There is currently no effective method to determine whether a patient with advanced PTTD would benefit from several months of bracing and physical therapy or ultimately require surgery. Tendon degeneration is closely associated with irreversible degradation of its collagen structure, leading to changes to its mechanical properties. If these properties could be monitored in vivo, they could be used to quantify the severity of tendonosis and help determine the appropriate treatment. The goal of this cadaveric study was, therefore, to develop and validate ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) as a potentially noninvasive technique for quantifying tendon mechanical properties. Five human cadaver feet were mounted in a materials testing system (MTS), while the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) was attached to a force actuator. A portable ultrasound scanner collected 2-D data during loading cycles. Young’s modulus was calculated from the strain, loading force, and cross-sectional area of the PTT. Average Young’s modulus for the five tendons was (0.45 ± 0.16 GPa) using UEI, which was consistent with simultaneous measurements made by the MTS across the whole tendon (0.52 ± 0.18 GPa). We also calculated the scaling factor (0.12 ± 0.01) between the load on the PTT and the inversion force at the forefoot, a measurable quantity in vivo. This study suggests that UEI could be a reliable in vivo technique for estimating the mechanical properties of the PTT, and as a clinical tool, help guide treatment decisions for advanced PTTD and other tendinopathies. PMID:25532163
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuang, Houlong; Chen, Mohan; Carter, Emily A.
2016-06-01
Magnesium-aluminum (Mg-Al) alloys are important metal alloys with a wide range of engineering applications. We investigate the elastic and thermodynamic properties of Mg, Al, and four stoichiometric Mg-Al compounds including Mg17Al12 , Mg13Al14 , and Mg23Al30 , and MgAl2 with orbital-free density-functional theory (OFDFT). We first calculate the lattice constants, zero-temperature formation energy, and independent elastic constants of these six materials and compare the results to those computed via Kohn-Sham DFT (KSDFT) benchmarks. We obtain excellent agreement between these two methods. Our calculated elastic constants of hexagonal close-packed Mg and face-centered-cubic Al are also consistent with available experimental data. We next compute their phonon spectra using the force constants extracted from the very fast OFDFT calculations, because such calculations are computationally challenging using KSDFT. This is especially the case for the Mg23Al30 compound, whose 3 ×3 ×3 supercell consists of 1431 atoms. We finally employ the quasiharmonic approximation to investigate temperature-dependent thermodynamic properties, including formation energies, heat capacities, and thermal expansion of the four Mg-Al intermetallic compounds. The calculated heat capacity and thermal expansion of both Mg and Al agree well with experimental data. We additionally find that Mg13Al14 and MgAl2 are both unstable, consistent with their absence from the equilibrium Mg-Al phase diagram. Our work demonstrates that OFDFT is an efficient and accurate quantum-mechanical computational tool for predicting elastic and thermodynamic properties of complicated Mg-Al alloys and also should be applicable to many other engineering alloys.
Elastic property ratios of a triple-stranded stainless steel arch wire.
Kusy, R P; Dilley, G J
1984-09-01
The general elastic property ratio equations for nth-stranded wires are derived and then specified for the case of a triple-stranded arch wire. Several parameters are defined, including the modulus of elasticity (E) and the helical spring (kappa) and bending plane (lambda) shape factors. Thereafter, the elastic property ratios of a wide range of compositional/configurational combinations are determined, using a representative triple-stranded 0.0175 inch (3 X 0.008 inch) stainless steel wire as the base line. These results show that the particular 3 X 0.008 inch wire studied possesses the stiffness of an 0.010 inch stainless steel wire but has at least 20% more strength and range. Furthermore, the stiffness of the 3 X 0.008 inch multistranded wire is similar to an 0.016 inch nickel-titanium wire but only 40% that of an 0.016 inch beta titanium wire. When these elastic property ratios are compared with the previous results reported by Thurow, Burstone, and Kusy, differences are noted which can be explained on the basis of the mechanical property values and/or the geometric modeling assumed.
Qiang, Bo; Greenleaf, James; Oyen, Michelle; Zhang, Xiaoming
2011-07-01
A two-step viscoelastic spherical indentation method is proposed to compensate for 1) material relaxation and 2) sample thickness. In the first step, the indenter is moved at a constant speed and the reaction force is measured. In the second step, the indenter is held at a constant position and the relaxation response of the material is measured. Then the relaxation response is fit with a multi-exponential function which corresponds to a three-branch general Maxwell model. The relaxation modulus is derived by correcting the finite ramp time introduced in the first step. The proposed model takes into account the sample thickness, which is important for applications in which the sample thickness is less than ten times the indenter radius. The model is validated numerically by finite element simulations. Experiments are carried out on a 10% gelatin phantom and a chicken breast sample with the proposed method. The results for both the gelatin phantom and the chicken breast sample agree with the results obtained from a surface wave method. Both the finite element simulations and experimental results show improved elasticity estimations by incorporating the sample thickness into the model. The measured shear elasticities of the 10% gelatin sample are 6.79 and 6.93 kPa by the proposed finite indentation method at sample thickness of 40 and 20 mm, respectively. The elasticity of the same sample is estimated to be 6.53 kPa by the surface wave method. For the chicken breast sample, the shear elasticity is measured to be 4.51 and 5.17 kPa by the proposed indentation method at sample thickness of 40 and 20 mm, respectively. Its elasticity is measured by the surface wave method to be 4.14 kPa.
Elastic and Electronic Properties of CsI to 19 GPa: An Analog for Xe Deep Inside Planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arveson, S. M.; Jeanloz, R.
2015-12-01
The isoelectronic analogs xenon and CsI (i.e. having the same, noble-gas electronic configuration) both undergo a fundamental change in chemical bonding under pressure, becoming metallic by 135 (±20) GPa, the pressure at Earth's core-mantle boundary. Using Brillouin spectroscopy and diamond-anvil cells to 19 GPa at 290 K, we find that the electronic polarizability of CsI increases with pressure, quantifying the delocalization of electron charge density as the initially ionic salt is compressed toward the metallic state. Our results show a different trend from a previous measurement of refractive index under pressure and are consistent with the Herzfeld criterion that metallization is achieved when electron polarization is comparable to (or exceeds) inter-atomic distances. Our measurements of longitudinal elastic-wave velocity, VP, are in good accord with prior ultrasonic determinations below 1 GPa but suggest a slightly larger pressure derivative for the average shear modulus than previously thought. This conclusion is based on using Eulerian finite-strain descriptions of the equation of state and elastic moduli under pressure, and assumes that nonhydrostatic effects are unimportant. Our measurements were made on decompression as well as compression, using polycrystalline samples. Experimental measurements of changes in electronic and elastic properties under pressure can be used to validate and improve first-principles quantum mechanical calculations of bonding and other material properties, and can characterize the evolution of noble-gas toward chemically bonded systems at conditions deep inside planets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zun-Lue; Fu, Hong-Zhi; Sun, Jin-Feng; Liu, Yu-Fang; Shi, De-Heng; Xu, Guo-Liang
2009-08-01
The first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential method using the generalized gradient approximation within the framework of density functional theory is applied to anaylse the equilibrium lattice parameters, six independent elastic constants, bulk moduli, thermal expansions and heat capacities of MoSi2. The quasi-harmonic Debye model, using a set of total energy versus cell volume obtained with the plane-wave pseudopotential method, is applied to the study of the elastic properties, thermodynamic properties and vibrational effects. The calculated zero pressure elastic constants are in overall good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated heat capacities and the thermal expansions agree well with the observed values under ambient conditions and those calculated by others. The results show that the temperature has hardly any effect under high pressure.
Ultrasonic measurement of the moduli of elasticity of refractory materials at high temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fargeot, D.; Gault, C.; Platon, F.
1980-02-01
A method of ultrasonic measurement of moduli of elasticity of refractory materials up to temperatures of the order of 2000 K is described. The use of magnetostrictive transducers allows operation in the 150-350 kHz frequency range of filamentary test samples with a diameter of about 2 mm and a length of 40-50 mm. Two practical examples are considered, for alpha alumina and for gamma alumina obtained by plasma torch projection.
A 3D Orthotropic Strain-Rate Dependent Elastic Damage Material Model.
English, Shawn Allen
2014-09-01
A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage and cohesive based fracture is implemented for a general polymer matrix composite lamina. The formulation assumes the possibility of distributed (continuum) damage followed b y localized damage. The current damage activation functions are simply partially interactive quadratic strain criteria . However, the code structure allows for changes in the functions without extraordinary effort. The material model formulation, implementation, characterization and use cases are presented.
Characterization of the Nonlinear Elastic Properties of Graphite/Epoxy Composites Using Ultrasound
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Green, Robert E., Jr.
1990-01-01
The normalized change in ultrasonic "natural" velocity as a function of stress and temperature was measured in a unidirectional laminate of T300/5208 graphite/epoxy composite using a pulsed phase locked loop ultrasonic interferometer. These measurements were used together with the linear (second order) elastic moduli to calculate some of the nonlinear (third order) moduli of this material.
Structural phase transition and elastic properties of hafnium dihydride: A first principles study
Santhosh, M. Rajeswarapalanichamy, R. Sudhapriyanga, G.; Murugan, A.; Chinthia, A. Jemmy; Kanagaprabha, S.; Iyakutti, K.
2014-04-24
The structural and elastic properties of Hafnium dihydride (HfH{sub 2}) are investigated by first principles calculation based on density functional theory using Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP). The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. A pressure induced structural phase transition from CaF{sub 2} to FeS{sub 2} phase is observed in HfH{sub 2} at 10.75 GPa. The calculated elastic constants indicate that this hydride is mechanically stable at ambient condition.
Investigation of the elastic, hardness, and thermodynamic properties of actinide oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wen; Chen, Haichuan
2014-09-01
The elastic and thermodynamic properties of actinide oxides (AO2) compounds have been investigated by using the first-principle density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated lattice constants of AO2 are in agreement with the available experiments data. The calculated elastic constants reveal that all AO2 compounds are mechanically stable. The shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio σ, the ratio B/G and the anisotropy factor are also calculated. Finally, the Vickers hardness, Debye temperature, melting point and thermal conductivity have been predicted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maibam, Jameson; Indrajit Sharma, B.; Bhattacharjee, Ramendu; Thapa, R. K.; Brojen Singh, R. K.
2011-11-01
We have studied the electronic, structural, and elastic properties of scandium carbide and yttrium carbide by means of accurate first principles total energy calculations using the full-potential linearized plane wave method (FP-LAPW). We have used the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation potential. Volume optimization, energy band structure, and density of states (DOS) of the systems are presented. The second order elastic constants have been calculated and other related quantities such as the Zener anisotropy factor, Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, Kleinman parameter, Debye temperature, and sound velocities have been determined. The band gap calculation shows that YC is relatively more ionic than ScC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Y.; Jacobsen, S. D.; Holl, C. M.; Bina, C. R.
2009-12-01
Elastic properties of solids are fundamentally important in Earth and materials science because they govern seismic wave propagation at the geophysical scale, but are controlled at the atomic scale by the nature of interatomic bonding. GHz-ultrasonic interferometry utilizes thin-film piezoelectric transducers driven by pulse modulated, microwave-range carrier frequencies at 0.5-2.0 GHz to measure sound wave travel times in sub-millimeter sized samples (Spetzler et al. 1993). Travel times are determined from the spacing of interference fringes produced by measuring the amplitude of overlapping echoes scanned in frequency (wavelength) from opposite polished faces of single crystals. The ultrasonic signals are near-optical in wavelength at 5-20 km/s in high-modulus materials, allowing study of samples as small as a few tens of micrometers in thickness, including micro-crystals loaded in diamond-anvil cells at high pressures and temperatures. Following Jacobsen et al. (2004), both longitudinal and shear-wave measurements are possible. Although relative changes in travel time on compression or heating are measured with standard deviation of about 0.02 nanoseconds out of 20-200 ns (depending on sample thickness), the absolute accuracy of ultrasonic measurements at standard conditions, required to anchor high P-T measurements, has been limited by our ability to measure sample thickness mechanically at STP, with only 1-2 micrometer accuracy out of 20-200 μm for typical samples. Thus, we have recently installed a commercial heterodyne optical interferometer to determine ultrasonic sample lengths at STP conditions. Using a double-pass laser interferometer we achieve λ/4 fundamental optical resolution with λ/128 (about 5 nm) system resolution through software-based interpolation. By adding real-time corrections for air temperature, humidity, and pressure applied to the laser wavelength, we achieve high accuracy with standard deviations of about 0.02 micrometers in the
A new model to simulate the elastic properties of mineralized collagen fibril
Yuan, F.; Stock, S.R.; Haeffner, D.R.; Almer, J.D.; Dunand, D.C.; Brinson, L.C.
2012-05-02
Bone, because of its hierarchical composite structure, exhibits an excellent combination of stiffness and toughness, which is due substantially to the structural order and deformation at the smaller length scales. Here, we focus on the mineralized collagen fibril, consisting of hydroxyapatite plates with nanometric dimensions aligned within a protein matrix, and emphasize the relationship between the structure and elastic properties of a mineralized collagen fibril. We create two- and three-dimensional representative volume elements to represent the structure of the fibril and evaluate the importance of the parameters defining its structure and properties of the constituent mineral and collagen phase. Elastic stiffnesses are calculated by the finite element method and compared with experimental data obtained by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The computational results match the experimental data well, and provide insight into the role of the phases and morphology on the elastic deformation characteristics. Also, the effects of water, imperfections in the mineral phase and mineral content outside the mineralized collagen fibril upon its elastic properties are discussed.
A new model to simulate the elastic properties of mineralized collagen fibril.
Yuan, F.; Stock, S.R.; Haeffner, D.R.; Almer, J.D.; Dunand , D.C.; Brinson, K.
2011-01-01
Bone, because of its hierarchical composite structure, exhibits an excellent combination of stiffness and toughness, which is due substantially to the structural order and deformation at the smaller length scales. Here, we focus on the mineralized collagen fibril, consisting of hydroxyapatite plates with nanometric dimensions aligned within a protein matrix, and emphasize the relationship between the structure and elastic properties of a mineralized collagen fibril. We create two- and three-dimensional representative volume elements to represent the structure of the fibril and evaluate the importance of the parameters defining its structure and properties of the constituent mineral and collagen phase. Elastic stiffnesses are calculated by the finite element method and compared with experimental data obtained by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The computational results match the experimental data well, and provide insight into the role of the phases and morphology on the elastic deformation characteristics. Also, the effects of water, imperfections in the mineral phase and mineral content outside the mineralized collagen fibril upon its elastic properties are discussed.
Dutta, Parikshit; Urban, Matthew W.; Le Maître, Olivier P.; Greenleaf, James F.; Aquino, Wilkins
2015-01-01
The elastic and geometric properties of arteries have been long recognized as important predictors of cardiovascular disease. This work presents a robust technique for the noninvasive characterization of anisotropic elastic properties as well as thickness and diameter in arterial vessels. In our approach, guided waves are excited along arteries using the radiation force of ultrasound. Group velocity is used as the quantity of interest to reconstruct elastic and geometric features of the vessels. One of the main contributions of this work is a systematic approach based on sparse-grid collocation interpolation to construct surrogate models of arteries. These surrogate models are in turn used with direct-search optimization techniques to produce fast and accurate estimates of elastic properties, diameter, and thickness. One of the attractive features of the proposed approach is that once a surrogate model is built, it can be used for near real-time identification across many different types of arteries. We demonstrate the feasibility of the method using simulated and in vitro laboratory experiments on a silicon rubber tube and a porcine carotid artery. Our results show that using our proposed method, we can reliably identify the longitudinal modulus, thickness, and diameter of arteries. The circumferential modulus was found to have little influence in the group velocity, which renders the former quantity unidentifiable using the current experimental setting. Future work will consider the measurement of circumferential waves with the objective of improving the identifiability of the circumferential modulus. PMID:26109582
Contractile and elastic ankle joint muscular properties in young and older adults.
Hasson, Christopher J; Miller, Ross H; Caldwell, Graham E
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related differences in contractile and elastic properties of both dorsi- (DF) and plantarflexor (PF) muscles controlling the ankle joint in young and older adults. Experimental data were collected while twelve young and twelve older male and female participants performed maximal effort isometric and isovelocity contractions on a dynamometer. Equations were fit to the data to give torque-angle (Tθ) and torque-angular velocity (Tω) relations. Muscle series-elasticity was measured during ramped dynamometer contractions using ultrasonography to measure aponeurosis extension as a function of torque; second order polynomials were used to characterize the torque-extension (TΔL) relation. The results showed no age differences in DF maximal torque and none for female PF; however, older males had smaller maximal PF torques compared to young males. In both muscle groups and genders, older adults had decreased concentric force capabilities. Both DF and PF TΔL relations were more nonlinear in the older adults. Older PF, but not DF muscles, were stiffer compared to young. A simple antagonism model suggested age-related differences in Tθ and Tω relations would be magnified if antagonistic torque contributions were included. This assessment of static, dynamic, and elastic joint properties affords a comprehensive view of age-related modifications in muscle function. Although many clinical studies use maximal isometric strength as a marker of functional ability, the results demonstrate that there are also significant age-related modifications in ankle muscle dynamic and elastic properties.
Manipulating lipid bilayer material properties using biologically active amphipathic molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashrafuzzaman, Md; Lampson, M. A.; Greathouse, D. V.; Koeppe, R. E., II; Andersen, O. S.
2006-07-01
Lipid bilayers are elastic bodies with properties that can be manipulated/controlled by the adsorption of amphipathic molecules. The resulting changes in bilayer elasticity have been shown to regulate integral membrane protein function. To further understand the amphiphile-induced modulation of bilayer material properties (thickness, intrinsic monolayer curvature and elastic moduli), we examined how an enantiomeric pair of viral anti-fusion peptides (AFPs)—Z-Gly-D-Phe and Z-Gly-Phe, where Z denotes a benzyloxycarbonyl group, as well as Z-Phe-Tyr and Z-D-Phe-Phe-Gly—alters the function of enantiomeric pairs of gramicidin channels of different lengths in planar bilayers. For both short and long channels, the channel lifetimes and appearance frequencies increase as linear functions of the aqueous AFP concentration, with no apparent effect on the single-channel conductance. These changes in channel function do not depend on the chirality of the channels or the AFPs. At pH 7.0, the relative changes in channel lifetimes do not vary when the channel length is varied, indicating that these compounds exert their effects primarily by causing a positive-going change in the intrinsic monolayer curvature. At pH 4.0, the AFPs are more potent than at pH 7.0 and have greater effects on the shorter channels, indicating that these compounds now change the bilayer elastic moduli. When AFPs of different anti-fusion potencies are compared, the rank order of the anti-fusion activity and the channel-modifying activity is similar, but the relative changes in anti-fusion potency are larger than the changes in channel-modifying activity. We conclude that gramicidin channels are useful as molecular force transducers to probe the influence of small amphiphiles upon lipid bilayer material properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haddadi, K.; Bouhemadou, A.; Bin-Omran, S.; Maabed, S.; Khenata, R.
2015-01-01
The structural parameters, elastic constants, electronic structure and optical properties of the recently reported monoclinic quaternary nitridoaluminate LiCaAlN2 are investigated in detail using the ab initio plane-wave pseudopotential method within the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated equilibrium structural parameters are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which validate the reliability of the applied theoretical method. The chemical and structural stabilities of LiCaAlN2 are confirmed by calculating the cohesion energy and enthalpy of formation. Chemical band stiffness is calculated to explain the pressure dependence of the lattice parameters. Through the band structure calculation, LiCaAlN2 is predicted to be an indirect band gap of 2.725 eV. The charge-carrier effective masses are estimated from the band structure dispersions. The frequency-dependent dielectric function, absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient, reflectivity coefficient and electron energy loss function spectra are calculated for polarized incident light in a wide energy range. Optical spectra exhibit a noticeable anisotropy. Single-crystal and polycrystalline elastic constants and related properties, including isotropic sound velocities and Debye temperatures, are numerically estimated. The calculated elastic constants and elastic compliances are used to analyse and visualize the elastic anisotropy of LiCaAlN2. The calculated elastic constants demonstrate the mechanical stability and brittle behaviour of the considered material.
Structural, elastic, electronic, magnetic and vibrational properties of CuCoMnGa under pressure
İyigör, Ahmet; Uğur, Şule
2014-10-06
First principles calculations for the structural, electronic, elastic and phonon properties of the cubic quaternary heusler alloy CuCoMnGa on pressure have been reported by density functional theory (DFT) within generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated values of the elastic constants were used for estimations of the Debye temperatures, the bulk modulus, the shear modulus, the young modulus E, the poisson's ratio σ and the B/G ratio. The elastic constants satisfy all of the mechanical stability criteria. The electronic structures of the ferromagnetic configuration for CuCoMnGa have a metallic character. The estimated magnetic moment per formula unit is 3.76 μ{sub B}. The phonon dispersion is studied using the supercell approach, and the stable nature at 0.2 GPa pressure is observed.
Elastic properties of yttrium-doped BaCeO3 perovskite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yusheng; Xu, Hongwu; Li, Baosheng; Weidner, Donald J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra
2007-04-01
Based on ambient ultrasonic measurements and x-ray diffraction under hydrostatic compression, the authors report here a comparative study of elasticity on oxygen-deficient perovskite, BaCe1-xYxO3-0.5x, with x =0.00 and 0.15. The results show that the presence of 2.5% oxygen vacancy has no measurable effect on the elastic bulk modulus. The shear modulus, however, decreases by approximately 5% in BaCe0.85Y0.15O2.925 perovskite. The differences between Y3+-doped cerate and Al3+-doped silicate suggest that the effect of oxygen vacancy on the elastic properties could be system dependent and may also be sensitive to distribution of oxygen vacancies within structures of the parent compounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shankar, A.; Rai, D. P.; Chettri, Sandeep; Khenata, R.; Thapa, R. K.
2016-08-01
We have investigated the electronic structure, elastic and thermoelectric properties of the filled skutterudite CeRu4Sb12 using the density functional theory (DFT). The full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within a framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) approach is used to perform the calculations presented here. The electronic structure calculation suggests an indirect band gap semiconducting nature of the material with energy band gap of 0.08 eV. The analysis of the elastic constants at relaxed positions reveals the ductile nature of the sample material with covalent contribution in the inter-atomic bonding. The narrow band gap semiconducting nature with high value of Seebeck coefficient suggests the possibility of the thermoelectric application of the material. The analysis of the thermal transport properties confirms the result obtained from the energy band structure of the material with high thermopower and dimensionless figure of merit 0.19 at room temperature.
Pressure and temperature induced elastic properties of rare earth chalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shriya, S.; Singh, N.; Sapkale, R.; Varshney, M.; Varshney, Dinesh
2016-05-01
The pressure and temperature dependent mechanical properties as Young modulus, Thermal expansion coefficient of rare earth REX (RE = La, Pr, Eu; X = O, S, Se, and Te) chalcogenides are studied. The rare earth chalcogenides showed a structural phase transition (B1-B2). Pressure dependence of Young modulus discerns an increase in pressure inferring the hardening or stiffening of the lattice as a consequence of bond compression and bond strengthening. Suppressed Young modulus as functions of temperature infers the weakening of the lattice results in bond weakening in REX. Thermal expansion coefficient demonstrates that REX (RE = La, Pr, Eu; X = O, S, Se, and Te) chalcogenides is mechanically stiffened, and thermally softened on applied pressure and temperature.
Significance of 1B and 2B domains in modulating elastic properties of lamin A
Bera, Manindra; Ainavarapu, Sri Rama Koti; Sengupta, Kaushik
2016-01-01
Nuclear lamins are type V intermediate filament proteins which form an elastic meshwork underlying the inner nuclear membrane. Lamins directly contribute to maintain the nuclear shape and elasticity. More than 400 mutations have been reported in lamin A that are involved in diseases known as laminopathies. These mutations are scattered mainly in the lamin rod domain along with some in its C-terminal domain. The contribution of the rod domain towards the elasticity of lamin A molecule was hitherto unknown. Here, we have elucidated the significance of the 1B and 2B domains of the rod in modulating the elastic behavior of lamin A by single-molecule force spectroscopy. In addition, we have also studied the network forming capacity of these domains and their corresponding viscoelastic behavior. We have shown that the 1B domain has the ability to form a lamin-like network and resists larger deformation. However at the single-molecular level, both the domains have comparable mechanical properties. The self-assembly of the 1B domain contributes to the elasticity of the lamin A network. PMID:27301336
Elastic properties of Thiel-embalmed human ankle tendon and ligament.
Liao, Xiaochun; Kemp, Sandy; Corner, George; Eisma, Roos; Huang, Zhihong
2015-10-01
Thiel embalming is recommended as an alternative to formalin-based embalming because it preserves tissue elasticity, color, and flexibility in the long term, with low infection and toxicity risk. The degree to which Thiel embalming preserves elasticity has so far been assessed mainly by subjective scoring, with little quantitative verification. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of Thiel embalming on the elastic properties of human ankle tendons and ligament. Biomechanical tensile tests were carried out on six Thiel-embalmed samples each of the peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and calcaneal tendons, and the calcaneofibular ligament, with strain rates of 0.25%s(-1), 2%s(-1), and 8%s(-1). The stress-strain relationship was calculated from the force-extension response with cross-sectional area and gauge length. Young's modulus was determined from the stress-strain curve. The results showed that the tendon and ligament elasticity were lower after Thiel embalming than the literature values for fresh nonembalmed tendons and ligament. The biomechanical tensile test showed that the measured elasticity of Thiel-embalmed tendons and ligaments increased with the strain rate. The Thiel embalming method is useful for preserving human ankle tendons and ligaments for anatomy and surgery teaching and research, but users need to be aware of its softening effects. The method retains the mechanical strain rate effect on tendons and ligament.
Bocskai, Zoltán I; Sándor, Gábor L; Kiss, Zoltán; Bojtár, Imre; Nagy, Zoltán Z
2014-10-17
The mechanical behaviour of zonular fibres greatly affects the accommodation process in mammalian eyes. This paper introduces a detailed measurement procedure for the purpose of obtaining the force-displacement diagram necessary to evaluate the mechanical properties of porcine zonular fibres in situ. It is a complex technique, keeping the integrity of the zonular bundles between the crystalline lens and the ciliary muscle cells. We present a brief description of the measurement procedure both in theory and in practice, along with the force-displacement diagrams acquired from a porcine sample group. The strengths of this newly developed method are the unequivocal force transmission between the sample and the transducer, and the intact connection between the ciliary body and the crystalline lens via zonular fibres. With the aid of these measurements, we define an estimated material model for the zonular apparatus both analytically and using the finite element method. The two different evaluation methods show close agreement in the calculated Young's modulus for the zonular fibres. The range of the calculated elastic modulus is 200-250 kPa. This new measuring method is adaptable to human specimens. Despite its complexity, the entire procedure and the evaluation part are reproducible. The constitutive model aims to shed light on the mechanics of the accommodation process. PMID:25242131
Microstructure and mechanical properties of synthetic brow-suspension materials.
Kwon, Kyung-Ah; Shipley, Rebecca J; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Ezra, Daniel George; Rose, Geoffrey E; Rayment, Andrew W; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E
2014-02-01
Levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) is a muscle responsible for lifting the upper eyelid and its malfunction leads to a condition called "ptosis", resulting in disfigurement and visual impairment. Severe ptosis is generally treated with "brow-suspension" surgery, whereby the eyelid is cross-connected to the mobile tissues above the eyebrow using a cord-like material, either natural (e.g. fascia lata harvested from the patient) or a synthetic cord. Synthetic brow-suspension materials are widely used, due to not requiring the harvesting of fascia lata that can be associated with pain and donor-site complications. The mechanical properties of some commonly-used synthetic brow-suspension materials were investigated--namely, monofilament polypropylene (Prolene®), sheathed braided polyamide (Supramid Extra® II), silicone frontalis suspension rod (Visitec® Seiff frontalis suspension set), woven polyester (Mersilene® mesh), and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Ptose-Up). Each material underwent a single tensile loading to the failure of the material, at three different displacement rates (1, 750 and 1500 mm/min). All the materials exhibited elastic-plastic tensile stress-strain behaviour with considerable differences in elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength, elastic limit and work of fracture. The results suggest that, as compared to other materials, the silicone brow-suspension rod (Visitec® SFSS) might be the most suitable, providing relatively long-lasting stability and desirable performance. These findings, together with other factors such as commercial availability, cost and clinical outcomes, will provide clinicians with a more rational basis for selection of brow-suspension materials.
The super-elastic property of the Japanese NiTi alloy wire for use in orthodontics.
Miura, F; Mogi, M; Ohura, Y; Hamanaka, H
1986-07-01
A new Japanese nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy wire was developed by the Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. of Japan. This wire was subjected to uniaxial tensile testing and a specially designed three-point bending test to determine the wire stiffness, and to evaluate spring-back, shape memory, and super-elasticity. The Japanese NiTi wire exhibited an unusual property termed "super-elasticity," which no other orthodontic wire has shown. This phenomenon was researched thoroughly. The wire delivered a constant force over an extended portion of the deactivation range. Among all the wires compared, Japanese NiTi alloy wire was the least likely to undergo permanent deformation during activation. The new alloy exhibited a specific stress-strain curve unlike those of the other tested materials. Stress remained nearly constant despite the strain change within a specific range. This unique feature is the manifestation of so-called super-elasticity. Heat treatment enabled the load magnitude at which super-elasticity is reflected to be influenced and controlled by both temperature and time. A unique and useful process was also developed so that an arch wire delivering various magnitudes of force for a given activation could be fabricated from the wire of the same diameter. The clinical application of wires of this new alloy should be more likely to generate a physiologic tooth movement because of the relatively constant force delivered for a long period of time during the deactivation of the wire. Japanese NiTi alloy should be considered an important material addition to clinical orthodontic metallurgy. PMID:3460342
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, Y. C.; Hefetz, M.; Rokhlin, S. I.; Baaklini, G. Y.
1992-01-01
Ultrasonic techniques are employed to develop methods for nondestructive evaluation of elastic properties and damage in SiC/RBSN composites. To incorporate imperfect boundary conditions between fibers and matrix into a micromechanical model, a model of fibers having effective anisotropic properties is introduced. By inverting Hashin's (1979) microstructural model for a composite material with microscopic constituents the effective fiber properties were found from ultrasonic measurements. Ultrasonic measurements indicate that damage due to thermal shock is located near the surface, so the surface wave is most appropriate for estimation of the ultimate strength reduction and critical temperature of thermal shock. It is concluded that bonding between laminates of SiC/RBSN composites is severely weakened by thermal oxidation. Generally, nondestructive evaluation of thermal oxidation effects and thermal shock shows good correlation with measurements previously performed by destructive methods.
Predicting Elastic Properties of β-HMX from First-principles Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Qing; Rahul, -; Wang, Guangyu; Liu, Gui-Rong; Grimme, Stefan; de, Suvranu
2015-03-01
We investigate the performance of the van der Waals (vdW) functions in predicting the elastic constants of the β-polymorph of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) energetic molecular crystal using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We confirm that the accuracy of the elastic constants is significantly improved using the vdW corrections with environment dependent C6 together with PBE and revised PBE exchange-correlation functionals. The elastic constants obtained using PBE-D3(0) calculations yield the most accurate mechanical response of β-HMX, with compared to the experimental stress-strain data. The PBEsol without vdW corrections can also predict the elastic constants well. Our results suggest that PBE-D3 calculations are reliable in predicting the elastic constants of this material. The authors would like to acknowledge the generous financial support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Grant # HDTRA1-13-1-0025, and the Office of Naval Research grants ONR Award # N00014-08-1-0462 and # N00014-12-1-0527.
Assessing the elastic properties and ductility of Fe-Cr-Al alloys from ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nurmi, E.; Wang, G.; Kokko, K.; Vitos, L.
2016-01-01
Fe-Al is one of the best corrosion resistant alloys at high temperatures. The flip side of Al addition to Fe is the deterioration of the mechanical properties. This problem can be solved by adding a suitable amount of third alloying component. In the present work, we use ab initio calculations based on density functional theory to study the elastic properties of Fe?Cr?Al? alloys for Al and Cr contents up to 20 at.%. We assess the ductility as a function of chemistry by making use of the semi-empirical correlations between the elastic parameters and mechanical properties. In particular, we derive the bulk modulus to shear modulus ratio and the Cauchy pressure and monitor their trends in terms of chemical composition. The present findings are contrasted with the previously established oxidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Al alloys.
Shirazi, Reza; Vena, Pasquale; Sah, Robert L.; Klisch, Stephen M.
2012-01-01
Despite distinct mechanical functions, biological soft tissues have a common microstructure in which a ground matrix is reinforced by a collagen fibril network. The microstructural properties of the collagen network contribute to continuum mechanical tissue properties that are strongly anisotropic with tensile-compressive asymmetry. In this study, a novel approach based on a continuous distribution of collagen fibril volume fractions is developed to model fibril reinforced soft tissues as a nonlinearly elastic and anisotropic material. Compared with other approaches that use a normalized number of fibrils for the definition of the distribution function, this representation is based on a distribution parameter (i.e. volume fraction) that is commonly measured experimentally while also incorporating pre-stress of the collagen fibril network in a tissue natural configuration. After motivating the form of the collagen strain energy function, examples are provided for two volume fraction distribution functions. Consequently, collagen second-Piola Kirchhoff stress and elasticity tensors are derived, first in general form and then specifically for a model that may be used for immature bovine articular cartilage. It is shown that the proposed strain energy is a convex function of the deformation gradient tensor and, thus, is suitable for the formation of a polyconvex tissue strain energy function. PMID:23390357
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, H. J.; Schilling, F. R.; Lauterjung, J.; Lathe, C.
2001-12-01
The high pressure SiO2-polymorph coesite seems to be an important mineral in the subduction process including crustal material (Chopin, 1984; Schreyer, 1995). The quartz to coesite transition is thus of fundamental importance to understand the processes within a subducting crust. Furthermore, the nature of the quartz to coesite transition is discussed controversially, because high pressure XRD-studies suggest an intermediate phase during the transformation process (Zinn et al., 1997). For the combined determination of elastic properties and structure a cubic multi-anvil high pressure apparatus (MAX80) was used. For the maximum sample volume of 20 mm3 the pressure limit is about 7GPa. The pressure is measured by use of NaCl as an internal pressure marker with calibrated PVT-data. The maximum temperature of about 2,000K is generated by an internal graphite heater and controlled by a thermocouple. The synchrotron beam (100x100 microns) is guided by a collimator through the sample between the anvils. For energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction, a Ge-solid state detector analyses the diffracted white beam at a fixed angle. The compressional and shear wave velocities were determined simultaneously by ultrasonic interferometry inside MAX80. Two of the six anvils are equipped with overtone polished lithium niobate transducers at their rear side, outside the volume under pressure, for generation and detection of ultrasonic waves between 10 and 60 MHz. Different buffer - reflector combinations and transducer arrangements were used to optimize the critical interference between both sample echoes. Therefore MAX80 is equipped for asymmetrical and symmetrical interferometric set-ups, i.e. compressional and shear waves are generated from the same or from two anvils, opposite to each other. We used for our transient measurements 3 natural fine-grained quartzites from Turkey and Germany. As a first step the pressure was increased gradually up to 4GPa at ambient temperature. At each
Energy dissipation associated with crack extension in an elastic-plastic material
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Crews, J. H., Jr.
1987-01-01
Crack extension in elastic-plastic material involves energy dissipation through the creation of new crack surfaces and additional yielding around the crack front. An analytical procedure, using a two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element method, was developed to calculate the energy dissipation components during a quasi-static crack extension. The fracture of an isotropic compact specimen was numerically simulated using the critical crack-tip-opening-displacement (CTOD) growth criterion. Two specimen sizes were analyzed for three values of critical CTOD. Results from the analyses showed that the total energy dissipation rate consisted of three components: the crack separation energy rate, the plastic energy dissipation rate, and the residual strain energy rate. All three energy dissipation components and the total energy dissipation rate initially increased with crack extension and finally reached constant values.
Energy dissipation associated with crack extension in an elastic-plastic material
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Crews, J. H., Jr.
1987-01-01
Crack extension in elastic-plastic material involves energy dissipation through the creation of new crack surfaces and additional yielding around the crack front. An analytical procedure, using a two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element method, was developed to calculate the energy dissipation components during a quasi-static crack extension. The fracture of an isotropic compact specimen was numerically simulated using the critical crack-tip-opening-displacement (CTOD) growth criterion. Two specimen sizes were analyzed for three values of critical CTOD. Results from the analysis showed that the total energy dissipation rate consisted of three components: the crack separation energy rate, the plastic energy dissipation rate, and the residual strain energy rate. All three energy dissipation components and the total energy dissipation rate initially increased with crack extension and finally reached constant values.
Cyclic Material Properties Test to Determine Hardening/Softening Characteristics of HY-80 Steel
S.C. Hodge; J.M. Minicucci; T.F. Trimble
2003-04-30
The Cyclic Material Properties Test was structured to obtain and provide experimental data for determining cyclic hardening/softening characteristics of HY-80 steel. The inelastic strain history data generated by this test program and the resulting cyclic stress-strain curve will be used to enhance material models in the finite element codes used to perform nonlinear elastic-plastic analysis.
Elastic and electronic properties of select M2AX phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lofland, S. E.; Hettinger, J. D.; Harrell, K.; Finkel, P.; Gupta, S.; Barsoum, M. W.; Hug, G.
2004-01-01
In this letter we report on the low-temperature specific heat of several M2AX phases: Ti2AlC, V2AlC, V2AsC, Nb2SnC, Ti2AlN, Hf2InC, Nb2AlC, and Cr2AlC. The Debye temperatures are quite high. The density of states at the Fermi level, N(EF) varies from ≈1.4 (eV formula unit)-1 to 6 (eV formula unit)-1. Ab initio calculations show that N(EF) is dictated by the transition metal d-d bands; the A-group element has little effect. We also measured the velocity of sound in V2AlC, V2AsC, Ti2AlC, and Ti2AlN. The average bulk modulus of these materials is over 100 GPa, with a high of ≈140 GPa for Ti2AlN. Our theoretical calculations correctly predict the trend in both the density of states and the bulk modulus, although there is some disagreement in the actual values.
Peng, Qing; De, Suvranu
2014-10-21
Silicane is a fully hydrogenated silicene-a counterpart of graphene-having promising applications in hydrogen storage with capacities larger than 6 wt%. Knowledge of its elastic limit is critical in its applications as well as tailoring its electronic properties by strain. Here we investigate the mechanical response of silicane to various strains using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We illustrate that non-linear elastic behavior is prominent in two-dimensional nanomaterials as opposed to bulk materials. The elastic limits defined by ultimate tensile strains are 0.22, 0.28, and 0.25 along armchair, zigzag, and biaxial directions, respectively, an increase of 29%, 33%, and 24% respectively in reference to silicene. The in-plane stiffness and Poisson ratio are reduced by a factor of 16% and 26%, respectively. However, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation has little effect on its ultimate tensile strengths. We obtained high order elastic constants for a rigorous continuum description of the nonlinear elastic response. The limitation of second, third, fourth, and fifth order elastic constants are in the strain range of 0.02, 0.08, and 0.13, and 0.21, respectively. The pressure effect on the second order elastic constants and Poisson's ratio were predicted from the third order elastic constants. Our results could provide a safe guide for promising applications and strain-engineering the functions and properties of silicane monolayers. PMID:25190587
Elastic properties and composition of the aortic wall in old spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Marque, V; Kieffer, P; Atkinson, J; Lartaud-Idjouadiene, I
1999-09-01
We hypothesized that age-linked changes in the composition and elastic properties of the arterial wall occur earlier in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. We evaluated the consequences of hypertension and aging on aortic mechanics, geometry, and composition in 3-, 9-, and 15-month-old awake Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) (normotensive) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (hypertensive). The elastic modulus of the thoracic aorta, calculated from aortic pulse wave velocity and geometry, was higher in young and adult SHR than in age-matched WKY, as was wall stress; however, isobaric pulse wave velocity and pulse wave velocity-pressure curves were similar. Elastic modulus, isobaric pulse wave velocity, and the slope of the pulse wave velocity-pressure curve dramatically increased in old SHR compared with age-matched WKY; there was no further elevation of blood pressure or wall thickness. Fibrosis did not develop with age in SHR, and the ratio of elastin to collagen decreased in a similar fashion with aging in both strains. In conclusion, although elastic properties of the aortic wall are not intrinsically modified in young and adult SHR in comparison to age-matched WKY, aging is associated with a dramatic stiffening of the aortic wall in old SHR but not in WKY. Changes in blood pressure, aortic wall geometry, or scleroprotein composition do not appear to explain this age-linked aortic stiffening in SHR, suggesting that other mechanisms of disorganization of the media may be involved.
Basis Function Sampling: A New Paradigm for Material Property Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Chiu, Chi-cheng; Joshi, Abhijeet A.; de Pablo, Juan J.
2014-11-01
Wang-Landau sampling, and the associated class of flat histogram simulation methods have been remarkably helpful for calculations of the free energy in a wide variety of physical systems. Practically, convergence of these calculations to a target free energy surface is hampered by reliance on parameters which are unknown a priori. Here, we derive and implement a method built upon orthogonal functions which is fast, parameter-free, and (importantly) geometrically robust. The method is shown to be highly effective in achieving convergence. An important feature of this method is its ability to attain arbitrary levels of description for the free energy. It is thus ideally suited to in silico measurement of elastic moduli and other material properties related to free energy perturbations. We demonstrate the utility of such applications by applying our method to calculate the Frank elastic constants of the Lebwohl-Lasher model of liquid crystals.
Turner, C H; Rho, J; Takano, Y; Tsui, T Y; Pharr, G M
1999-04-01
Acoustic microscopy (30-60 microm resolution) and nanoindentation (1-5 microm resolution) are techniques that can be used to evaluate the elastic properties of human bone at a microstructural level. The goals of the current study were (1) to measure and compare the Young's moduli of trabecular and cortical bone tissues from a common human donor, and (2) to compare the Young's moduli of bone tissue measured using acoustic microscopy to those measured using nanoindentation. The Young's modulus of cortical bone in the longitudinal direction was about 40% greater than (p<0.01) the Young's modulus in the transverse direction. The Young's modulus of trabecular bone tissue was slightly higher than the transverse Young's modulus of cortical bone, but substantially lower than the longitudinal Young's modulus of cortical bone. These findings were consistent for both measurement methods and suggest that elasticity of trabecular tissue is within the range of that of cortical bone tissue. The calculation of Young's modulus using nanoindentation assumes that the material is elastically isotropic. The current results, i.e., the average anisotropy ratio (E(L)/E(T)) for cortical bone determined by nanoindentation was similar to that determined by the acoustic microscope, suggest that this assumption does not limit nanoindentation as a technique for measurement of Young's modulus in anisotropic bone.
Material Property Measurement in Hostile Environments using Laser Acoustics
Ken L. Telschow
2004-08-01
Acoustic methods are well known and have been used to measure various intrinsic material properties, such as, elastic coefficients, density, crystal axis orientation, microstructural texture, and residual stress. Extrinsic properties, such as, dimensions, motion variables or temperature are also readily determined from acoustic methods. Laser acoustics, employing optical generation and detection of elastic waves, has a unique advantage over other acoustic methods—it is noncontacting, uses the sample surface itself for transduction, requires no couplant or invasive sample surface preparation and can be utilized in any hostile environment allowing optical access to the sample surface. In addition, optical generation and detection probe beams can be focused to the micron scale and/or shaped to alter the transduction process with a degree of control not possible using contact transduction methods. Laser methods are amenable to both continuous wave and pulse-echo measurements and have been used from Hz to 100’s of GHz (time scales from sec to psec) and with amplitudes sufficient to fracture materials. This paper shall review recent applications of laser acoustic methods to determining material properties in hostile environments that preclude the use of contacting transduction techniques. Example environments include high temperature (>1000C) sintering and molten metal processing, thin film deposition by plasma techniques, materials moving at high velocity during the fabrication process and nuclear high radiation regions. Recent technological advances in solid-state lasers and telecommunications have greatly aided the development and implementation of laser acoustic methods, particularly at ultra high frequencies. Consequently, laser acoustic material property measurements exhibit high precision and reproducibility today. In addition, optical techniques provide methods of imaging acoustic motion that is both quantitative and rapid. Possible future directions for
Sermeus, J.; Glorieux, C.; Sinha, R.; Vereecken, P. M.; Vanstreels, K.
2014-07-14
MnO{sub 2} is a material of interest in the development of high energy-density batteries, specifically as a coating material for internal 3D structures, thus ensuring rapid energy deployment. Its electrochemical properties have been mapped extensively, but there are, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no records of the elastic properties of thin film MnO{sub 2}. Impulsive stimulated thermal scattering (ISTS), also known as the heterodyne diffraction or transient grating technique, was used to determine the Young's modulus (E) and porosity (ψ) of a 500 nm thick MnO{sub 2} coating on a Si(001) substrate. ISTS is an all optical method that is able to excite and detect surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on opaque samples. From the measured SAW velocity dispersion, the Young's modulus and porosity were determined to be E = 25 ± 1 GPa and ψ=42±1%, respectively. These values were confirmed by independent techniques and determined by a most-squares analysis of the carefully fitted SAW velocity dispersion. This study demonstrates the ability of the presented technique to determine the elastic parameters of a thin, porous film on an anisotropic substrate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poole, L. R.
1972-01-01
A computer program is presented by which the effects of nonlinear suspension-system elastic characteristics on parachute inflation loads and motions can be investigated. A mathematical elastic model of suspension-system geometry is coupled to the planar equations of motion of a general vehicle and canopy. Canopy geometry and aerodynamic drag characteristics and suspension-system elastic properties are tabular inputs. The equations of motion are numerically integrated by use of an equivalent fifth-order Runge-Kutta technique.
Processing and nanostructure influences on mechanical properties of thermoelectric materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Robert David
Thermoelectric (TE) materials are materials that can generate an electric current from a thermal gradient, with possible service in recovery of waste heat such as engine exhaust. Significant progress has been made in improving TE conversion efficiency, typically reported according to the figure of merit, ZT, with several recent papers publishing ZT values above 2. Furthermore, cost reductions may be made by the use of lower cost elements such as Mg, Si, Sn, Pb, Se and S in TE materials, while achieving ZT values between 1.3 and 1.8. To be used in a device, the thermoelectric material must be able to withstand the applied thermal and mechanical forces without failure. However, these materials are brittle, with low fracture toughness typically less than 1.5 MPa-m1/2, and often less than 0.5 MPa-m1/2. For comparison, window glass is approximately 0.75 MPa-m1/2. They have been optimized with nanoprecipitates, nanoparticles, doping, alterations in stoichiometry, powder processing and other techniques, all of which may alter the mechanical properties. In this study, the effect of SiC nanoparticle additions in Mg2Si, SnTe and Ag nanoparticle additions in the skutterudite Ba0.3Co 4Sb12 on the elastic moduli, hardness and fracture toughness are measured. Large changes (˜20%) in the elastic moduli in SnTe 1+x as a function of x at 0 and 0.016 are shown. The effect on mechanical properties of doping and precipitates of CdS or ZnS in a PbS or PbSe matrix have been reported. Changes in sintering behavior of the skutterudite with the Ag nanoparticle additions were explored. Possible liquid phase sintering, with associated benefits in lower processing temperature, faster densification and lower cost, has been shown. A technique has been proposed for determining additional liquid phase sintering aids in other TE materials. The effects of porosity, grain size, powder processing method, and sintering method were explored with YbAl3 and Ba0.3Co4Sb 12, with the porosity dependence of
Maciel, Alfredo; Presbítero, Gerardo; Piña, Cristina; del Pilar Gutiérrez, María; Guzmán, José; Munguía, Nadia
2015-01-01
A clear understanding of the dependence of mechanical properties of bone remains a task not fully achieved. In order to estimate the mechanical properties in bones for implants, pore cross-section area, calcium content, and apparent density were measured in trabecular bone samples for human implants. Samples of fresh and defatted bone tissue, extracted from one year old bovines, were cut in longitudinal and transversal orientation of the trabeculae. Pore cross-section area was measured with an image analyzer. Compression tests were conducted into rectangular prisms. Elastic modulus presents a linear tendency as a function of pore cross-section area, calcium content and apparent density regardless of the trabecular orientation. The best variable to estimate elastic modulus of trabecular bone for implants was pore cross-section area, and affirmations to consider Nukbone process appropriated for marrow extraction in trabecular bone for implantation purposes are proposed, according to bone mechanical properties. Considering stress-strain curves, defatted bone is stiffer than fresh bone. Number of pores against pore cross-section area present an exponential decay, consistent for all the samples. These graphs also are useful to predict elastic properties of trabecular samples of young bovines for implants.
Ab initio simulation of elastic and mechanical properties of Zn- and Mg-doped hydroxyapatite (HAP).
Aryal, Sitaram; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Ching, Wai-Yim
2015-07-01
Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is an important bioceramic which constitutes the mineral components of bones and hard tissues in mammals. It is bioactive and used as bioceramic coatings for metallic implants and bone fillers. HAP readily absorbs a large amount of impurities. Knowledge on the elastic and mechanical properties of impurity-doped HAP is a subject of great importance to its potential for biomedical applications. Zn and Mg are the most common divalent cations HAP absorbs. Using density function theory based ab initio methods, we have carried out a large number of ab initio calculations to obtain the bulk elastic and mechanical properties of HAP with Zn or Mg doped in different concentration at the Ca1 and Ca2 sites using large 352-atom supercells. Detailed information on their dependece on the concetraion of the substitued impurity is obtained. Our results show that Mg enhances overall elastic and bulk mechanical properties whereas Zn tends to degrade except at low concentrations. At a higher concentration, the mechanical properties of Zn and Mg doped HAP also depend significantly on impurity distribution between the Ca1 and Ca2 sites. There is a strong evidence that Zn prefers Ca2 site for substituion whereas Mg has no such preference. These results imply that proper control of dopant concentration and their site preference must carefully considered in using doped HAP for specific biomedical applications.
Inferring the viscous and elastic properties of a suture zone in Larsen C
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Leary, Martin; Kulessa, Bernd; Booth, Adam; Holland, Paul; Jansen, Daniela; King, Ed; Luckman, Adrian; McGrath, Dan; Zwinger, Thomas
2016-04-01
After the collapse of its neighbours, Larsen A and B, the Larsen C ice shelf is widely considered at risk of future climate-driven instability. Recent work has shown that the ice shelf is stabilized by soft melange in its suture zones, where adjacent flow units merge. Little is known about the mechanical properties of melange however, so that the quantification of its effect on the stability of Larsen C Ice Shelf has remained challenging. To identify the structural and elastic properties of the Joerg Peninsula suture zone in Larsen C Ice Shelf, we integrate seismic reflection and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) geophysical measurements. GPR transects reveal the presence of a stiff layer of meteoric ice, trapped between the softer melange beneath and the firn layer above. Monte Carlo analysis reveals that the seismic velocity of this melange is noticeably reduced compared to meteoric ice. By applying Hashin-Shtrikman bounds on the elastic moduli of a two-phase mixture of ice and water to the velocities, we are able to derive the elastic properties of the melange. We ascertain, significantly, that the melange is softer than meteoric ice because it contains a substantial volume fraction of water. The meteoric ice layer is buckling due to compressive lateral stresses. We suggest this process is analogous to fold buckling in sedimentary rocks. Using the ice flow model Elmer/Ice we are able to replicate this process, and thereby derive bounds on the rheological properties of the suture zone melange.
Elastic properties and apparent density of human edentulous maxilla and mandible.
Seong, W-J; Kim, U-K; Swift, J Q; Heo, Y-C; Hodges, J S; Ko, C-C
2009-10-01
The aim of this study was to determine whether elastic properties and apparent density of bone differ in different anatomical regions of the maxilla and mandible. Additional analyses assessed how elastic properties and apparent density were related. Four pairs of edentulous maxilla and mandibles were retrieved from fresh human cadavers. Bone samples from four anatomical regions (maxillary anterior, maxillary posterior, mandibular anterior, mandibular posterior) were obtained. Elastic modulus (EM) and hardness (H) were measured using the nano-indentation technique. Bone samples containing cortical and trabecular bone were used to measure composite apparent density (cAD) using Archimedes' principle. Statistical analyses used repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations. Bone physical properties differed between regions of the maxilla and mandible. Generally, mandible had higher physical property measurements than maxilla. EM and H were higher in posterior than in anterior regions; the reverse was true for cAD. Posterior maxillary cAD was significantly lower than that in the three other regions. PMID:19647417
Elastically driven cooperative response of a molecular material impacted by a laser pulse.
Bertoni, Roman; Lorenc, Maciej; Cailleau, Hervé; Tissot, Antoine; Laisney, Jérôme; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian; Collet, Eric
2016-06-01
Photoinduced phase transformations occur when a laser pulse impacts a material, thereby transforming its electronic and/or structural orders, consequently affecting the functionalities. The transient nature of photoinduced states has thus far severely limited the scope of applications. It is of paramount importance to explore whether structural feedback during the solid deformation has the capacity to amplify and stabilize photoinduced transformations. Contrary to coherent optical phonons, which have long been under scrutiny, coherently propagating cell deformations over acoustic timescales have not been explored to a similar degree, particularly with respect to cooperative elastic interactions. Herein we demonstrate, experimentally and theoretically, a self-amplified responsiveness in a spin-crossover material during its delayed volume expansion. The cooperative response at the material scale prevails above a threshold excitation, significantly extending the lifetime of photoinduced states. Such elastically driven cooperativity triggered by a light pulse offers an efficient route towards the generation and stabilization of photoinduced phases in many volume-changing materials. PMID:27019383
Material properties of brachiopod shell ultrastructure by nanoindentation.
Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Cusack, Maggie; Zhu, Wenzhong; England, Jennifer; Hughes, John
2007-02-22
Mineral-producing organisms exert exquisite control on all aspects of biomineral production. Among shell-bearing organisms, a wide range of mineral fabrics are developed reflecting diverse modes of life that require different material properties. Our knowledge of how biomineral structures relate to material properties is still limited because it requires the determination of these properties on a detailed scale. Nanoindentation, mostly applied in engineering and materials science, is used here to assess, at the microstructural level, material properties of two calcite brachiopods living in the same environment but with different modes of life and shell ultrastructure. Values of hardness (H) and the Young modulus of elasticity (E) are determined by nanoindentation. In brachiopod shells, calcite semi-nacre provides a harder and stiffer structure (H approximately 3-6 GPa; E=60-110/120 GPa) than calcite fibres (H=0-3 GPa; E=20-60/80 GPa). Thus, brachiopods with calcite semi-nacre can cement to a substrate and remain immobile during their adult life cycle. This correlation between mode of life and material properties, as a consequence of ultrastructure, begins to explain why organisms produce a wide range of structures using the same chemical components, such as calcium carbonate.
Evolutions of elastic-plastic shock compression waves in different materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanel, G. I.; Zaretsky, E. B.; Razorenov, S. V.; Savinykh, A. S.; Garkushin, G. V.
2015-06-01
Measurements of decay of the elastic precursor wave are used to determine the initial plastic strain rate as a function of the stress. Last years we performed large series of such kind experiments with metals and alloys at various temperatures, ceramics and glasses. In course of these measurements we observed several unexpected effects which have not got exhaustive explanations yet. In the presentation, we'll discuss a departure from self-similar development of the wave process which is accompanied with apparent sub-sonic wave propagation, changes of shape of elastic precursor wave as a result of variations in the material structure and the temperature, unexpected peculiarities of reflection of elastic-plastic waves from free surface, effects of internal friction at shock compression of glasses and some other effects. It seems the experimental data contain more information about kinetics of the time-dependent phenomena than we are able to get from their analysis now. Financial support from the Russian Science Foundation via Grant No 14-12-01127 is gratefully acknowledged.
Elastic Properties of 4-6 nm-thick Glassy Carbon Thin Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manoharan, M. P.; Lee, H.; Rajagopalan, R.; Foley, H. C.; Haque, M. A.
2010-01-01
Glassy carbon is a disordered, nanoporous form of carbon with superior thermal and chemical stability in extreme environments. Freestanding glassy carbon specimens with 4-6 nm thickness and 0.5 nm average pore size were synthesized and fabricated from polyfurfuryl alcohol precursors. Elastic properties of the specimens were measured in situ inside a scanning electron microscope using a custom-built micro-electro-mechanical system. The Young’s modulus, fracture stress and strain values were measured to be about 62 GPa, 870 MPa and 1.3%, respectively; showing strong size effects compared to a modulus value of 30 GPa at the bulk scale. This size effect is explained on the basis of the increased significance of surface elastic properties at the nanometer length-scale.
THE ELASTIC AND THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF Lu DOPED ScVO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parveen, Atahar; Gaur, N. K.
2012-12-01
We have investigated the elastic, cohesive and thermal properties of (Lu, Sc) VO3 and Sc1-xLuxVO3(0.6 ≤ x ≤ 0.9) perovskites by means of a modified rigid ion model (MRIM). The variation of specific heat is determined following the temperature driven structural phase transitions. Also, the effect of lattice distortions on the elastic and thermal properties of the present pure and doped vanadates has been studied by an atomistic approach. The calculated bulk modulus (BT), reststrahlen frequency (ν0), cohesive energy (ϕ), Debye temperature (θD) and Gruneisen parameter (γ) reproduce well with the corresponding experimental data. The specific heat results can further be improved by including the magnetic ordering contributions to the specific heat.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Mengjiang; Li, Binhua; Yu, Zhengtao; Chen, Qi
2016-04-01
The structural, mechanical, electronic and thermodynamic properties of the tetragonal structure germanium carbonitride (t-GeCN) were first investigated using the density function theory with the ultrasoft psedopotential scheme in the frame of the generalized gradient approximation and the local density approximation. The elastic constants have confirmed that the t-GeCN is mechanically stable and phonon spectra have confirmed that the t-GeCN is dynamically stable. The anisotropy studies show that t-GeCN exhibits a larger anisotropy in its Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, shear modulus, sound velocities and universal elastic anisotropy index. Electronic structure study shows that t-GeCN is an indirect semiconductor with band gap of 0.628 eV. The thermodynamic properties of t-GeCN, including Debye temperature, heat capacity, Grüneisen parameter and thermal expansion coefficient are investigated utilizing the quasi-harmonic Debye model.
Jahan, Ali; Arumugam, Manohar; Hassan, Mohd Roshdi
2013-01-01
Contact pressure in the knee joint is a key element in the mechanisms of knee pain and osteoarthritis. Assessing the contact pressure in tibiofemoral joint is a challenging mechanical problem due to uncertainty in material properties. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of tibiofemoral peak contact pressure to the material properties of the soft tissue was carried out through fractional factorial and Box-Behnken designs. The cartilage was modeled as linear elastic material, and in addition to its elastic modulus, interaction effects of soft tissue material properties were added compared to previous research. The results indicated that elastic modulus of the cartilage is the most effective factor. Interaction effects of axial/radial modulus with elastic modulus of cartilage, circumferential and axial/radial moduli of meniscus were other influential factors. Furthermore this study showed how design of experiment methods can help designers to reduce the number of finite element analyses and to better interpret the results. PMID:27006925
Lin, Jung-Fu; Liu, Jin; Jacobs, Caleb; Prakapenka, Vitali B.
2012-05-10
Ferromagnesite [(Mg,Fe)CO{sub 3}] has been proposed as a candidate host mineral for carbon in the Earth's mantle. Studying its physical and chemical properties at relevant pressures and temperatures helps our understanding of deep-carbon storage in the planet's interior and on its surface. Here we have studied high-pressure vibrational and elastic properties of magnesian siderite [(Mg{sub 0.35}Fe{sub 0.65})CO{sub 3}] across the electronic spin transition by Raman and X-ray diffraction spectroscopies in a diamond-anvil cell. Our results show an increase in Raman shift of the observed lattice modes of magnesian siderite across the spin transition at 45 GPa as a result of an {approx}8% unit-cell volume collapse and a 10% stiffer lattice (higher bulk modulus). C-O bond lengthening in the strong, rigid (CO{sub 3}){sup 2-} unit across the spin transition contributes to a competitive decrease in Raman shift, most evident in the Raman shift decrease of the symmetric stretching mode. Combined vibrational and elastic results are used to derive the mode Grueneisen parameter of each mode, which drops significantly across the transition. These results suggest that the low-spin state has distinctive vibrational and elastic properties compared to the high-spin state. Analyses of all recent experimental results on the (Mg,Fe)CO{sub 3} system show no appreciable compositional effect on the transition pressure, indicating weak iron-iron exchange interactions. Our results provide new insight into understanding the effects of the spin transition on the vibrational, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of (Mg,Fe)CO{sub 3} as a candidate carbon-host in the deep mantle.
Self-switching of displacement waves in elastic nonlinearly deformed materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rushchitsky, Jeremiah
The problem of self-switching plane waves in elastic nonlinearly deformed materials is formulated. Reduced and evolution equations, which describe the interaction of two waves the power pumping wave and the faint signal wave are obtained. For the case of wave numbers matching the pumping and signal waves, a procedure of finding the exact solution of evolution equations is described. The solution is expressed by elliptic Jacobi functions. The existence of the power wave self-switching is shown and commented. To cite this article: J. Rushchitsky, C. R. Mecanique 330 (2002) 175-180.
Monteseguro, V.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.
2015-12-28
The structural, elastic, and vibrational properties of yttrium aluminum garnet Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} are studied under high pressure by ab initio calculations in the framework of the density functional theory. The calculated ground state properties are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Pressure dependences of bond length and bulk moduli of the constituent polyhedra are reported. The evolution of the elastic constants and the major elastic properties, Young and shear modulus, Poisson's ratios, and Zener anisotropy ratio, are described. The mechanical stability is analyzed, on the light of “Born generalized stability criteria,” showing that the garnet is mechanically unstable above 116 GPa. Symmetries, frequencies, and pressure coefficients of the Raman-active modes are discussed on the basis of the calculated total and partial phonon density of states, which reflect the dynamical contribution of each atom. The relations between the phonon modes of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} and the internal and external molecular modes of the different polyhedra are discussed. Infrared-active modes, as well as the silent modes, and their pressure dependence are also investigated. No dynamical instabilities were found below 116 GPa.
Effect of high-energy X-ray doses on bone elastic properties and residual strains.
Singhal, A; Deymier-Black, Alix C; Almer, J D; Dunand, D C
2011-11-01
Bone X-ray irradiation occurs during medical treatments, sterilization of allografts, space travel and in vitro studies. High doses are known to affect the post-yield properties of bone, but their effect on the bone elastic properties is unclear. The effect of such doses on the mineral-organic interface has also not been adequately addressed. Here, the evolution of elastic properties and residual strains with increasing synchrotron X-ray dose (5-3880 kGy) is examined on bovine cortical bone. It is found that these doses affect neither the degree of nanometer-level load transfer between the hydroxyapatite (HAP) platelets and the collagen up to stresses of -60 MPa nor the microscopic modulus of collagen fibrils (both measured by synchrotron X-ray scattering during repeated in situ loading and unloading). However, the residual elastic strains in the HAP phase decrease markedly with increased irradiation, indicating damage at the HAP-collagen interface. The HAP residual strain also decreases after repeated loading/unloading cycles. These observations can be explained by temporary de-bonding at the HAP/collagen interface (thus reducing the residual strain), followed by rapid re-bonding (so that load transfer capability is not affected).
Outstanding mechanical properties of monolayer MoS2 and its application in elastic energy storage.
Peng, Qing; De, Suvranu
2013-11-28
The structural and mechanical properties of graphene-like honeycomb monolayer structures of MoS2 (g-MoS2) under various large strains are investigated using density functional theory (DFT). g-MoS2 is mechanically stable and can sustain extra large strains: the ultimate strains are 0.24, 0.37, and 0.26 for armchair, zigzag, and biaxial deformation, respectively. The in-plane stiffness is as high as 120 N m(-1) (184 GPa equivalently). The third, fourth, and fifth order elastic constants are indispensable for accurate modeling of the mechanical properties under strains larger than 0.04, 0.07, and 0.13 respectively. The second order elastic constants, including in-plane stiffness, are predicted to monotonically increase with pressure while the Poisson ratio monotonically decreases with increasing pressure. With the prominent mechanical properties including large ultimate strains and in-plane stiffness, g-MoS2 is a promising candidate of elastic energy storage for clean energy. It possesses a theoretical energy storage capacity as high as 8.8 MJ L(-1) and 1.7 MJ kg(-1), or 476 W h kg(-1), larger than a Li-ion battery and is environmentally friendly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhangwei; Wang, Xin; Giuliani, Finn; Atkinson, Alan
2015-01-01
Mechanical properties of porous SOFC electrodes are largely determined by their microstructures. Measurements of the elastic properties and microstructural parameters can be achieved by modelling of the digitally reconstructed 3D volumes based on the real electrode microstructures. However, the reliability of such measurements is greatly dependent on the processing of raw images acquired for reconstruction. In this work, the actual microstructures of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) cathodes sintered at an elevated temperature were reconstructed based on dual-beam FIB/SEM tomography. Key microstructural and elastic parameters were estimated and correlated. Analyses of their sensitivity to the grayscale threshold value applied in the image segmentation were performed. The important microstructural parameters included porosity, tortuosity, specific surface area, particle and pore size distributions, and inter-particle neck size distribution, which may have varying extent of effect on the elastic properties simulated from the microstructures using FEM. Results showed that different threshold value range would result in different degree of sensitivity for a specific parameter. The estimated porosity and tortuosity were more sensitive than surface area to volume ratio. Pore and neck size were found to be less sensitive than particle size. Results also showed that the modulus was essentially sensitive to the porosity which was largely controlled by the threshold value.
Optimised robot-based system for the exploration of elastic joint properties.
Frey, M; Burgkart, R; Regenfelder, F; Riener, R
2004-09-01
Numerous publications provide measured biomechanical data relating to synovial joints. However, in general, they do not reflect the non-linear elastic joint properties in detail or do not consider all degrees of freedom (DOF), or the quantity of data is sparse. To perform more comprehensive, extended measurements of elastic joint properties, an optimised robot-based approach was developed. The basis was an industrial, high-precision robot that was capable of applying loads to the joint and measuring the joint displacement in 6 DOF. The system was equipped with novel, custom-made control hardware. In contrast to the commonly used sampling rates that are below 100 Hz, a rate of 4 kHz was realised for each DOF. This made it possible to implement advanced, highly dynamic, quasi-continuous closed-loop controllers. Thus oscillations of the robot were avoided, and measurements were speeded up. The stiffness of the entire system was greater than 44 kNm(-1) and 22 Nm deg(-1), and the maximum difference between two successive measurements was less than 0.5 deg. A sophisticated CT-based referencing routine facilitated the matching of kinematic data with the individual anatomy of the tested joint. The detailed detection of the elastic varus-valgus properties of a human knee joint is described, and the need for high spatial resolution is demonstrated.
The structure and properties of gluten: an elastic protein from wheat grain.
Shewry, Peter R; Halford, Nigel G; Belton, Peter S; Tatham, Arthur S
2002-02-28
The wheat gluten proteins correspond to the major storage proteins that are deposited in the starchy endosperm cells of the developing grain. These form a continuous proteinaceous matrix in the cells of the mature dry grain and are brought together to form a continuous viscoelastic network when flour is mixed with water to form dough. These viscoelastic properties underpin the utilization of wheat to give bread and other processed foods. One group of gluten proteins, the HMM subunits of glutenin, is particularly important in conferring high levels of elasticity (i.e. dough strength). These proteins are present in HMM polymers that are stabilized by disulphide bonds and are considered to form the 'elastic backbone' of gluten. However, the glutamine-rich repetitive sequences that comprise the central parts of the HMM subunits also form extensive arrays of interchain hydrogen bonds that may contribute to the elastic properties via a 'loop and train' mechanism. Genetic engineering can be used to manipulate the amount and composition of the HMM subunits, leading to either increased dough strength or to more drastic changes in gluten structure and properties.
An existence result for a model of complete damage in elastic materials with reversible evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonetti, Elena; Freddi, Francesco; Segatti, Antonio
2016-07-01
In this paper, we consider a model describing evolution of damage in elastic materials, in which stiffness completely degenerates once the material is fully damaged. The model is written by using a phase transition approach, with respect to the damage parameter. In particular, a source of damage is represented by a quadratic form involving deformations, which vanishes in the case of complete damage. Hence, an internal constraint is ensured by a maximal monotone operator. The evolution of damage is considered "reversible", in the sense that the material may repair itself. We can prove an existence result for a suitable weak formulation of the problem, rewritten in terms of a new variable (an internal stress). Some numerical simulations are presented in agreement with the mathematical analysis of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.
2008-05-01
We have studied the correlation between chemical composition, structure, chemical bonding and elastic properties of amorphous B6O based solids using ab initio molecular dynamics. These solids are of different chemical compositions, but the elasticity data appear to be a function of density. This is in agreement with previous experimental observations. As the density increases from 1.64 to 2.38 g cm-3, the elastic modulus increases from 74 to 253 GPa. This may be understood by analyzing the cohesive energy and the chemical bonding of these compounds. The cohesive energy decreases from -7.051 to -7.584 eV/atom in the elastic modulus range studied. On the basis of the electron density distributions, Mulliken analysis and radial distribution functions, icosahedral bonding is the dominating bonding type. C and N promote cross-linking of icosahedra and thus increase the density, while H hinders the cross-linking by forming OH groups. The presence of icosahedral bonding is independent of the density.
Electronic, thermal, and elastic properties of Ti3Si1-xGexC2 solid solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finkel, P.; Seaman, B.; Harrell, K.; Palma, J.; Hettinger, J. D.; Lofland, S. E.; Ganguly, A.; Barsoum, M. W.; Sun, Z.; Li, Sa; Ahuja, R.
2004-08-01
In this paper we report on the electronic, elastic, and thermal properties of Ti3Si1-xGexC2 . The conductivities, Hall coefficients, and magnetoresistances are analyzed within a two-band framework assuming temperature-independent charge carrier concentrations. In this framework, Ti3Si1-xGexC2 is shown to be a compensated material, i.e., the concentration of electrons is nearly equal to that of the holes. Aside from effects of solid solution scattering at low temperature, there appears to be surprisingly little effect on any of the physical properties due to Ge substitution, with the exception of the thermal expansion, which is smallest in x=1 .
Tooth and bone deformation: structure and material properties by ESPI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaslansky, Paul; Shahar, Ron; Barak, Meir M.; Friesem, Asher A.; Weiner, Steve
2006-08-01
In order to understand complex-hierarchical biomaterials such as bones and teeth, it is necessary to relate their structure and mechanical-properties. We have adapted electronic speckle pattern-correlation interferometry (ESPI) to make measurements of deformation of small water-immersed specimens of teeth and bones. By combining full-field ESPI with precision mechanical loading we mapped sub-micron displacements and determined material-properties of the samples. By gradually and elastically compressing the samples, we compensate for poor S/N-ratios and displacement differences of about 100nm were reliably determined along samples just 2~3mm long. We produced stress-strain curves well within the elastic performance range of these materials under biologically relevant conditions. For human tooth-dentin, Young's modulus in inter-dental areas of the root is 40% higher than on the outer sides. For cubic equine bone samples the compression modulus of axial orientations is about double the modulus of radial and tangential orientations (20 GPa versus 10 GPa respectively). Furthermore, we measured and reproduced a surprisingly low Poisson's ratio, which averaged about 0.1. Thus the non-contact and non-destructive measurements by ESPI produce high sensitivity analyses of mechanical properties of mineralized tissues. This paves the way for mapping deformation-differences of various regions of bones, teeth and other biomaterials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zerr, A.; Kuriakose, M.; Raetz, S.; Chigarev, N.; Nikitin, S. M.; Gasteau, D.; Tournat, V.; Bulou, A.; Castagnede, B.; Gusev, V. E.; Lomonosov, A.
2015-12-01
In picosecond ultrasonic interferometry [1], femto- or picosecond pump laser pulses are first used to generate acoustic pulses ranging from several to a few tens of nanometres length, thanks to the optoacoustic transduction in a light absorbing generator. Time-delayed femto- or picosecond probe laser pulses are then used to follow the propagation of these ultrashort acoustic pulses through a transparent medium that is in contact with the generator surface. The transient signal thus contains, at each moment in time, information on the local elastic, optical and elasto-optical properties of the tested material at the position where the laser-generated picosecond acoustic pulse is located during its propagation in the sample depth. Hence, the technique allows evaluation of sound velocities and elastic anisotropy of micro-crystallites composing a transparent material compressed to high pressures in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). This interferometry technique also helps to understand the micro-crystallite orientations in a case of elastically anisotropic material. Here we report the preliminary results of picosecond ultrasonic interferometry applied to the evaluation of homogeneities and elastic properties of polycrystalline solid argon compressed to 10 GPa and 15 GPa. In comparison with the earlier reported experiments on H2O ice at Mbar pressures [2], more efforts were spent to the evaluation of the lateral microstructure of the sample at high pressures, i.e., to inhomogeneities along the surface of the optoacoustic generator, rather than to the in-depth imaging along the axis of the DAC. The lateral imaging is performed over a distance of 60 - 90 µm, nearly corresponding to the complete sample diameter. In addition to the presence of expected lateral inhomogeneities the obtained results demonstrate important changes in their distribution upon pressure increase from 10 to 15 GPa. On the basis of the analysis of the statistic probability in the detection of differently
The Effect of VMoS3 Point Defect on the Elastic Properties of Monolayer MoS2 with REBO Potentials.
Li, Minglin; Wan, Yaling; Tu, Liping; Yang, Yingchao; Lou, Jun
2016-12-01
Structural defects in monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have significant influence on the electric, optical, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties of the material. Among all the types of structural defects of the chemical vapor phase-grown monolayer MoS2, the VMoS3 point defect (a vacancy complex of Mo and three nearby S atoms) is another type of defect preferentially generated by the extended electron irradiation. Here, using the classical molecular dynamics simulation with reactive empirical bond-order (REBO) potential, we first investigate the effect of VMoS3 point defects on the elastic properties of monolayer MoS2 sheets. Under the constrained uniaxial tensile test, the elastic properties of monolayer MoS2 sheets containing VMoS3 vacancies with defect fraction varying from 0.01 to 0.1 are obtained based on the plane anisotropic constitutive relations of the material. It is found that the increase of VMoS3 vacancy concentration leads to the noticeable decrease in the elastic modulus but has a slight effect on Poisson's ratio. The maximum decrease of the elastic modulus is up to 25 %. Increasing the ambient temperature from 10 K to 500 K has trivial influences on the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio for the monolayer MoS2 without defect and with 5 % VMoS3 vacancies. However, an anomalous parabolic relationship between the elastic modulus and the temperature is found in the monolayer MoS2 containing 0.1 % VMoS3 vacancy, bringing a crucial and fundamental issue to the application of monolayer MoS2 with defects.
Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 150 NIST Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials (Web, free access) Property Data Summaries are topical collections of property values derived from surveys of published data. Thermal, mechanical, structural, and chemical properties are included in the collections.
Dynamic material properties of refractory materials: Tantalum and tantalum/tungsten alloys
Furnish, M.D.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Lassila, D.H.; Steinberg, D.J.
1995-08-01
We have made a careful set of impact wave-profile measurements (16 profiles) on tantalum and tantalum-tungsten alloys at relatively low stresses (to 15 GPa). Alloys used were Ta{sub 97.5}W{sub 2.5} and Ta{sub 90}W{sub 10} (wt. %) with oxygen contents of 30--70 ppM. Information available from these experiments includes Hugoniot, elastic limits, loading fates, spall strength, unloading paths, reshock structure and specimen thickness effects. Hugoniot and spall properties are illustrated, and are consistent with expectations from earlier work. Modeling the tests with the Steinberg-Lund rate-dependent material model provides for an excellent match of the shape of the plastic wave, although the release wave is not well modeled. There is also a discrepancy between experiments and calculations regarding the relative timing of the elastic and plastic waves that may be due to texture effects.
Contractile and Elastic Ankle Joint Muscular Properties in Young and Older Adults
Hasson, Christopher J.; Miller, Ross H.; Caldwell, Graham E.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related differences in contractile and elastic properties of both dorsi- (DF) and plantarflexor (PF) muscles controlling the ankle joint in young and older adults. Experimental data were collected while twelve young and twelve older male and female participants performed maximal effort isometric and isovelocity contractions on a dynamometer. Equations were fit to the data to give torque-angle (Tθ) and torque-angular velocity (Tω) relations. Muscle series-elasticity was measured during ramped dynamometer contractions using ultrasonography to measure aponeurosis extension as a function of torque; second order polynomials were used to characterize the torque-extension (TΔL) relation. The results showed no age differences in DF maximal torque and none for female PF; however, older males had smaller maximal PF torques compared to young males. In both muscle groups and genders, older adults had decreased concentric force capabilities. Both DF and PF TΔL relations were more nonlinear in the older adults. Older PF, but not DF muscles, were stiffer compared to young. A simple antagonism model suggested age-related differences in Tθ and Tω relations would be magnified if antagonistic torque contributions were included. This assessment of static, dynamic, and elastic joint properties affords a comprehensive view of age-related modifications in muscle function. Although many clinical studies use maximal isometric strength as a marker of functional ability, the results demonstrate that there are also significant age-related modifications in ankle muscle dynamic and elastic properties. PMID:21264315
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saeedi Vahdat, Armin
mathematical model is introduced to characterize the mechanical properties of solid materials based on the attenuation and dispersion of ultrasonic waves propagating in a medium. Further, in order to increase the adhesion measurements in the introduced in vibrational spectroscopy-based technique, thermoelastic damping as an important internal loss mechanism of elastic waves in nano/micro-scale structures is introduced and potential applications of smart materials to control this loss mechanism is discussed theoretically. Also at nano/micro-scale levels, size effect phenomena affect the mechanics of structures which cannot be explained with classical elasticity theories. Therefore, a higher order elasticity theory is adopted to study the thermoelastic damping at nano/micro-scales (such as vibrating adhesion bond and nano-film layers). Finally, potential applications of the discussed works are identified.
The Effect of Iron on the Elastic Properties of Ringwoodite at High Pressure
Higo,Y.; Inoue, T.; Li, B.; Irifune, T.; Liebermann, R.
2006-01-01
Elastic wave velocities of ringwoodite with compositions of Mg2SiO4, (Mg0.8Fe0.2)2SiO4 and (Mg0.5Fe0.5)2SiO4 have been measured to address the effect of iron on the elastic properties of silicate spinel under high pressure. Ultrasonic measurements on specimens produced by hot-pressing at about 19 GPa and at 1200 C were conducted at pressures up to 14 GPa at room temperature in a multianvil apparatus. Pressure was estimated from a relationship between the travel time in an Al2O3 buffer rod and the pressure estimated from in situ X-ray diffraction measurements. Thus, measured bulk modulus (K) of ringwoodite slightly increases with increasing iron content, while the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus remains virtually the same (K' = 4.4 for XFe = Fe/(Fe + Mg) = 0-0.5). In contrast, the shear modulus (G) decreases significantly with increasing iron content, while the pressure derivative of the shear modulus slightly decreases or remains almost unchanged (G' = 1.4-1.0 for XFe = 0-0.5). The effects of iron content on the elastic moduli are somewhat different from those of an earlier study using Brillion scattering method, but are consistent with the elastic moduli of the Fe2SiO4 end-member measured in a piston-cylinder apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry. The effects of iron on the elastic moduli of ringwoodite are described as K = 184(1) + 16(1)XFe (GPa) and G = 124(2) - 45(3)XFe (GPa), by combining the present and earlier results based on the ultrasonic interferometry at high pressure. The present result suggests that the temperature anomalies, rather than the variations of iron content in ringwoodite, are more likely causes for the observed variations in seismic velocities in the mantle transition region.
Towards the elastic properties of 3D spin-crossover thin films: Evidence of buckling effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boukheddaden, Kamel; Bailly-Reyre, Aurélien
2013-07-01
This work addresses the macroscopic deformations of spin-crossover (SC) thin sheets upon their cooperative transformation between the low-spin (LS) and the high-spin (HS) states from the viewpoint of electro-elastic interactions among molecules. When the size of each molecule changes depending on its spin state, the elastic interaction among the lattice distortions provides the cooperative interactions between the spin states, resulting in a macroscopic volume change. In this prospective contribution, we study the elasto-electronic properties of SC sheets in which the atoms can move according to the three directions of space. We predict that when HS and LS domains coexist, the system undergoes tremendous strain by compressing and expanding to differing degrees along the sheet, and it becomes far more favourable energetically to the sheet to buckle out of the plane. According to the elastic interaction between the SC atoms, we found the existence of a phase transition between flat and highly crumpled surfaces. This phenomenon was also investigated on two elastically coupled SC membranes where we demonstrate the existence of specific features of electro-elastic HS:LS interface. To enhance the quality of the surface layers, we have implemented the radial basis functions (RBF) interpolation which allowed to study small systems in a very accurate way. This method gives rise to a functional representation of a solid model, where gradients can be determined analytically, thus promising better understanding of the macroscopic crystal deformations and morphologies during the phase transition. Dedicated to Prof. François Varret on the occasion of his 72nd birthday.
Elastic Anisotropy and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Cu3SbSe4 and Cu3SbS4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xiangdan; Sun, Yunzhou; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yusheng; Yi, Lin
2014-09-01
Copper-based ternary chalcogenide semiconductors with zincblende-related crystal structures have recently emerged as some of the best performing p-type thermoelectric materials. Here, first-principles calculations are used to investigate the structural, elastic, and thermoelectric properties of Cu3SbSe4 and Cu3SbS4. The calculated lattice constants and atomic coordinates are in good agreement with those obtained in the previous experiments, which shows that our method is reliable. We found that the hybridization among atoms forms [SbSe4] and [CuSe4] tetrahedral structures. The spin-orbit (SO) interaction is included in the calculations for electronic structures and thermoelectric properties. It is predicted that Cu3SbSe4 and Cu3SbS4 are mechanically stable, relatively soft materials with high compressibility, and are low small-hardness ionic materials, and with more anisotropy in shear than in compressibility. The results also show that the mechanical stability of these materials is limited by the shear modulus G. Furthermore, Cu3SbSe4 can be classified as a brittle material, whereas Cu3SbS4 can be classified as a ductile material. The semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory was used to calculate the Seebeck coefficients, electrical conductivities, electronic thermal conductivities, power factors, and thermoelectric figures of merit ZeT of Cu3SbSe4 and Cu3SbS4 along two crystallographic directions, and the optimal doping concentrations were estimated on the basis of the predicted thermoelectric properties. The temperature dependences of the thermoelectric transport properties of Cu3SbSe4 and Cu3SbS4 were also estimated and compared with experimental data, with good agreement observed.
Correlation of materials properties with the atomic density concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
Based on the hypothesis that the number of atoms per unit volume, accurately calculable for any substance of known real density and chemical composition, various characterizing parameters (energy levels of electrons interacting among atoms of the same or different kinds, atomic mass, bond intensity) were chosen for study. A multiple exponential equation was derived to express the relationship. Various properties were examined, and correlated with the various parameters. Some of the properties considered were: (1) heat of atomization, (2) boiling point, (3) melting point, (4) shear elastic modulus of cubic crystals, (5) thermal conductivity, and (6) refractive index for transparent substances. The solid elements and alkali halides were the materials studied. It is concluded that the number of different properties can quantitively be described by a common group of parameters for the solid elements, and a wide variety of compounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Ning-Chao; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Zheng-Tang
2014-07-01
Titanium dioxide is well known as a semiconductor material, which attracts a great deal of attention for promising applications in many fields due to its outstanding physical and chemical properties. To investigate the structural, elastic, mechanical, electronic and optical properties of various TiO2 phases systematically, we present the ultrasoft pseudopotential planewave method within local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation, as well as the norm-conserving pseudopotential within hybrid functional B3LYP by first-principles calculations on fluorite, pyrite, rutile, anatase, hollandite, brookite, columbite, cotunnite, bronze and baddeleyite TiO2 phases. The structural parameters of ten phases are calculated, which are shown to be consistent with previous theoretical and experimental data. We obtain the elastic constants of ten phases and then estimate the bulk, shear and Young’s moduli, Poisson’s coefficient and Lamé’s constants using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. The energy band structures, density of states and charge populations of ten phases were obtained and indicated there is covalency in TiO2. Moreover, the complex dielectric function, refractive index and extinction coefficient of the ten phases were calculated; this data can aid future experimental research.
Li, Chunhui; Huang, Zhihong; Wang, Ruikang K
2011-05-23
Advances in the field of laser ultrasonics have opened up new possibilities in medical applications. This paper evaluates this technique as a method that would allow for rapid characterization of the elastic properties of soft biological tissue. In doing so, we propose a novel approach that utilizes a low coherence interferometer to detect the laser-induced surface acoustic waves (SAW) from the tissue-mimicking phantoms. A Nd:YAG focused laser line-source is applied to one- and two-layer tissue-mimicking agar-agar phantoms, and the generated SAW signals are detected by a time domain low coherence interferometry system. SAW phase velocity dispersion curves are calculated, from which the elasticity of the specimens is evaluated. We show that the experimental results agree well with those of the theoretical expectations. This study is the first report that a laser-generated SAW phase velocity dispersion technique is applied to soft materials. This technique may open a way for laser ultrasonics to detect the mechanical properties of soft tissues, such as skin.
Higher-order analysis of crack tip fields in elastic power-law hardening materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, L.; Wang, T. C.; Shih, C. F.
1993-04-01
A HIGHER-ORDER asymptotic analysis of a stationary crack in an elastic power-law hardening material has been carried out for plane strain, Mode I. The extent to which elasticity affects the near-tip fields is determined by the strain hardening exponent n. Five terms in the asymptotic series for the stresses have been derived for n = 3. However, only three amplitudes can be independently prescribed. These are K1, K2 and K5 corresponding to amplitudes of the first-, second- and fifth-order terms. Four terms in the asymptotic series have been obtained for n = 5, 7 and 10; in these cases, the independent amplitudes are K1, K2 and K4. It is found that appropriate choices of K2 and K4 can reproduce near-tip fields representative of a broad range of crack tip constraints in moderate and low hardening materials. Indeed, fields characterized by distinctly different stress triaxiality levels (established by finite element analysis) have been matched by the asymptotic series. The zone of dominance of the asymptotic series extends over distances of about 10 crack openings ahead of the crack tip encompassing length scales that are microstructurally significant. Furthermore, the higher-order terms collectively describe a spatially uniform hydrostatic stress field (of adjustable magnitude) ahead of the crack. Our results lend support to a suggestion that J and a measure of near-tip stress triaxiality can describe the full range of near-tip states.
Sun, Qicheng; Jin, Feng; Wang, Guangqian; Song, Shixiong; Zhang, Guohua
2015-01-01
Mesoscopic structures form in dense granular materials due to the self-organisation of the constituent particles. These structures have internal structural degrees of freedom in addition to the translational degree of freedom. The resultant granular elasticity, which exhibits intrinsic variations and inevitable relaxation, is a key quantity that accounts for macroscopic solid- or fluid-like properties and the transitions between them. In this work, we propose a potential energy landscape (PEL) with local stable basins and low elastic energy barriers to analyse the nature of granular elasticity. A function for the elastic energy density is proposed for stable states and is further calibrated with ultrasonic measurements. Fluctuations in the elastic energy due to the evolution of internal structures are proposed to describe a so-called configuration temperature Tc as a counterpart of the classical kinetic granular temperature Tk that is attributed to the translational degrees of freedom. The two granular temperatures are chosen as the state variables, and a fundamental equation is established to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics for granular materials. Due to the relatively low elastic energy barrier in the PEL, granular elasticity relaxes more under common mechanical loadings, and a simple model based on mean-field theory is developed to account for this behaviour. PMID:25951049
Non-invasive ultrasonic measurement of the elastic properties of the human abdominal aorta.
Imura, T; Yamamoto, K; Kanamori, K; Mikami, T; Yasuda, H
1986-03-01
A new echo tracking device linked to real time ultrasonic B mode equipment was developed to measure non-invasively the elastic properties of the human abdominal aorta. Pulsatile diameter change and mean diameter of the abdominal aorta were measured in 61 subjects with this ultrasonic device. Strain and pressure-strain elastic modulus Ep were calculated from pulsatile diameter change, diameter, and pulse pressure obtained by the auscultatory method. Strain significantly decreased with age; 0.076(0.024) (mean(SD)) in group 1 (20 young adults below the age of 35 years); 0.048(0.024) in group 2 (21 middle aged subjects between the ages of 35 and 60 years); and 0.030(0.010) in group 3 (20 elderly subjects over the age of 60 years). Ep values were 0.99(0.34) X 10(5), 1.55(0.68) X 10(5), and 3.80(2.05) X 10(5) N X m-2 in groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively. Ep in group 3 was significantly higher than in groups 1 and 2. The regression equation relating Ep to age was Ep = (-0.72 + 0.058 X age) X 10(5) N X m-2 (r = 0.73). The Ep value and its age related increase agreed with the findings in postmortem arteries. The elastic properties of the abdominal aorta could, therefore, be determined non-invasively by this ultrasonic method.
Topology of charge density and elastic properties of Ti3SiC2 polymorphs
Yu, Rong; Zhang, Xiao Feng; He, Lian Long; Ye, Heng Qiang
2004-06-24
Using an all-electron, full potential first-principles method, we have investigated the topology of charge density and elastic properties of the two polymorphs, alpha and beta, of Ti3SiC2. The bonding effect was analyzed based on Bader's quantum theory of ''atoms in molecules'' (AIM). It was found that the Ti-Si bonding effect is significantly weaker in beta than in alpha, giving less stabilizing effect for beta. The Si-C bonds, which are absent in alpha, are formed in beta and provide additional stabilizing effect for beta. In contrast to conventional thinking, there is no direction interaction between Ti atoms in both alpha and beta. The calculated elastic properties are in good agreement with the experimental results, giving the bulk modulus of about 180 GPa and the Poisson's ratio of 0.2. The beta phase is generally softer than the alpha phase. As revealed by the direction dependent Young's modulus, there is only slight elastic anisotropy in Ti3SiC2. For alpha, Young's modulus is minimum in the c direction and maximum in the directions 42o from c. For beta, the maximum lies in the c direction, in part due to the formation of Si-C bonds in this direction.
Measurement of material properties of 6000 Al-sheet for car body application using thermal imaging
Schleich, Ralf; Liewald, Mathias; Dillenz, Alexander
2007-04-07
The paper presents experimental results of thermo-graphical measurement of material properties. The analytical expression for the temperature variation of the specimen deformed in the elastic state is determined starting from the first law of thermodynamics. The experimental method for determining material properties based on the Joule-Thompson effect is presented in detail. The thermo-graphical method has been used to determine formability in different state of stresses of the AA 6016-T4 aluminium alloys.
Lu, Jinwen; Zhao, Yongqing; Niu, Hongzhi; Zhang, Yusheng; Du, Yuzhou; Zhang, Wei; Huo, Wangtu
2016-05-01
The present study is to investigate the microstructural characteristics, electrochemical corrosion behavior and elasticity properties of Ti-6Al-xFe alloys with Fe addition for biomedical application, and Ti-6Al-4V alloy with two-phase (α+β) microstructure is also studied as a comparison. Microstructural characterization reveals that the phase and crystal structure are sensitive to the Fe content. Ti-6Al alloy displays feather-like hexagonal α phase, and Ti-6Al-1Fe exhibits coarse lath structure of hexagonal α phase and a small amount of β phase. Ti-6Al-2Fe and Ti-6Al-4Fe alloys are dominated by elongated, equiaxed α phase and retained β phase, but the size of α phase particle in Ti-6Al-4Fe alloy is much smaller than that in Ti-6Al-2Fe alloy. The corrosion resistance of these alloys is determined in SBF solution at 37 °C. It is found that the alloys spontaneously form a passive oxide film on their surface after immersion for 500 s, and then they are stable for polarizations up to 0 VSCE. In comparison with Ti-6Al and Ti-6Al-4V alloys, Ti-6Al-xFe alloys exhibit better corrosion resistance with lower anodic current densities, larger polarization resistances and higher open-circuit potentials. The passive layers show stable characteristics, and the wide frequency ranges displaying capacitive characteristics occur for high iron contents. Elasticity experiments are performed to evaluate the elasticity property at room temperature. Ti-6Al-4Fe alloy has the lowest Young's modulus (112 GPa) and exhibits the highest strength/modulus ratios as large as 8.6, which is similar to that of c.p. Ti (8.5). These characteristics of Ti-6Al-xFe alloys form the basis of a great potential to be used as biomedical implantation materials. PMID:26952395
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, L. P.; Sharma, P.
2013-03-01
Thermal fluctuations renormalize the bending elasticity of lipid bilayers. This well-studied effect is a cornerstone in the study of several membrane biophysical phenomena. Analogously, nearly all membranes are endowed with an electromechanical coupling called flexoelectricity that admits membrane polarization due to curvature changes. Flexoelectricity is found to be important in a number of biological functions, including hearing, ion transport, and in some situations where mechanotransduction is necessary. Very little is known about the interplay between thermal fluctuations and flexoelectricity. In this work, we explore how the apparent flexoelectricity is altered due to thermal fluctuations and, further, how the elastic and dielectric properties are renormalized due to flexoelectricity. We find that the apparent bending rigidity is softened by flexoelectricity and discuss the ramifications for interpreting existing experimental work.
Elastic Properties of the Sarcolemma-Costamere Complex of Muscle Cells in Normal Mice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Pelagio, Karla P.; Bloch, Robert J.; Ortega, Alicia; González-Serratos, Hugo
2006-09-01
Costameres at the sarcolemma of skeletal myofibers are thought to mediate the lateral transmission of force from the myofibrils to the extracellular matrix. We applied elastimetry to single myofibers from the Extensor digitorum longus muscles of mice to measure the biomechanical properties of the sarcolemma and the costameres as a function of sarcomere length. Suction pressure (P) applied by the elastimeter to the sarcolemma generated a bleb of variable height, which depended on P and sarcomere length. Connections between the sarcolemma and nearby myofibrils broke as P increased. Pressure, tension, force and stiffness (k) were calculated using the displacement pressure curves. With Laplace's and Hooke's equations, we estimated tensions generated by the sarcolemma attached to the myofibrils (Tc+s) and the sarcolemma after detachment (Ts). Tc+s - Ts = Tc, the maximal tension sustained by the costameres. The sarcolemma-costamere complex was represented as a lumped elastic model, in which the elasticity of each spring changed with sarcomere length.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyaw, S. T.; Sun, W.; Becker, A. A.
2015-02-01
Physical mechanisms at different length scales have to be taken into account while predicting the overall failure of nuclear graphite structures of advanced gas cooled graphite reactors. In this paper, the effect of composition of meso graphite phases and porosity on the aggregate elastic properties is predicted using the Eshelby homogenisation method. Results indicate an overall decrease in elastic modulus with an increase in porosity. Subsequently, the moduli at different porosity levels are used to predict the critical strain energy release rates for crack propagation of graphite, and fracture behaviour is studied using compact tension and four point bending tests. Compared to flexural strength at zero porosity level, significant reduction in strength of up to 80% at 30% porosity level is observed. Evolution of flexural strength due to porosity is also compared against available experimental values of graphite from UK nuclear plants.
Yan, Jia; Wu, Tianhao; Ding, Zezun; Li, Xiaokang
2016-01-20
Carbon nanotubes/chitosan (CNTs/CHI) composite foams with ordered lamellar structure were prepared by unidirectionally freezing a dispersion of CNTs in chitosan aqueous solution and subsequent freeze drying. The structure and thermal stability of the composite foams have been characterized by wide-angle X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetry analysis. And their elastic behaviors were investigated by cyclic compression tests. The produced CNTs/CHI composite foams have better recoverability and improved elastic properties compared with the pure chitosan foams. Freezing rate, fraction of CNTs and density are the important factors affecting on the micro morphology, elasticity and mechanical strength of CNTs/CHI composite foams. Due to less ice dendrites and thicker lamellas being formed under low freezing rate, the CNTs/CHI composite foams prepared under low freezing rate (6 mm min(-1)) possesses better mechanical properties than those prepared under high freezing rate (10 cm min(-1)). With the increasing CNTs fraction, the recovery ability of CNTs/CHI composite increases and achieves the maximum at a critical point, and then decreases dramatically due to the inadequate chitosan matrix and aggregation of CNTs. The critical point herein appears at the CNTs fraction ≥ 0.5 and ≥ 0.3, respectively, for the samples with density of 0.02 and 0.01 g cm(-3). The CNTs/CHI composite foams with high density (0.02 g cm(-3)) possess better elasticity and mechanical strength than the ones with low density (0.01 g cm(-3)). PMID:26572473
Yan, Jia; Wu, Tianhao; Ding, Zezun; Li, Xiaokang
2016-01-20
Carbon nanotubes/chitosan (CNTs/CHI) composite foams with ordered lamellar structure were prepared by unidirectionally freezing a dispersion of CNTs in chitosan aqueous solution and subsequent freeze drying. The structure and thermal stability of the composite foams have been characterized by wide-angle X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetry analysis. And their elastic behaviors were investigated by cyclic compression tests. The produced CNTs/CHI composite foams have better recoverability and improved elastic properties compared with the pure chitosan foams. Freezing rate, fraction of CNTs and density are the important factors affecting on the micro morphology, elasticity and mechanical strength of CNTs/CHI composite foams. Due to less ice dendrites and thicker lamellas being formed under low freezing rate, the CNTs/CHI composite foams prepared under low freezing rate (6 mm min(-1)) possesses better mechanical properties than those prepared under high freezing rate (10 cm min(-1)). With the increasing CNTs fraction, the recovery ability of CNTs/CHI composite increases and achieves the maximum at a critical point, and then decreases dramatically due to the inadequate chitosan matrix and aggregation of CNTs. The critical point herein appears at the CNTs fraction ≥ 0.5 and ≥ 0.3, respectively, for the samples with density of 0.02 and 0.01 g cm(-3). The CNTs/CHI composite foams with high density (0.02 g cm(-3)) possess better elasticity and mechanical strength than the ones with low density (0.01 g cm(-3)).
Influence of fluids on the elastic properties of sedimentary rocks at high pressure and temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebedev, E.
2009-04-01
At present the principal information about the structural and material composition of the Earth's interior is derived from seismic measurements. However, the interpretation of the elastic wave velocity data in terms of distribution of the material and structural composition with depth is still difficult especially in the presence of fluids. Water and mineralized fluids in the crust have essential influence on elastic wave velocities in rocks and melts. A description of methods is given in the investigation (Lebedev, Burkhardt et al., 1996). The increase of elastic wave velocity in sandstone at the temperature range 150-400Ë C in presence of alkaline fluid was explained by reaction connected with partial dehydration of kaolinite and formation of mica. The increase of elastic P- wave velocity of sandstone at temperatures of 525-640oC in presence of neutral and acid fluids is explained by reaction of silicification (the formation of amorphous silica in intergranular space of rock between crystals of quartz). Silicification is process connected with partial melting, cementation of rock, transformation of rock's microstructure and increase of density. Silicification is connected with a change of the seismic velocities in the Earth's interior. Geophysical investigations revealed the existence of zones in the Earth's middle and upper crust with anomalous seismic velocities. The nature of these zones is still under debate, although there are some indications that they might be correlated with change of microstructure, porosity, permeability and with the presence of fluids. In this study high temperature centrifuge was also used. These studies can contribute to the petrophysical and geochemical interpretation of seismic measurements.
Peterson, Brandon W; Busscher, Henk J; Sharma, Prashant K; van der Mei, Henny C
2012-01-01
Centrifugal compaction causes changes in the surface properties of bacterial cells. It has been shown previously that the surface properties of planktonic cells change with increasing centrifugal compaction. This study aimed to analyze the influences of centrifugal compaction and environmental conditions on the visco-elastic properties of oral biofilms. Biofilms were grown out of a layer of initially adhering streptococci, actinomyces or a combination of these. Different uni-axial deformations were induced on the biofilms and the load relaxations were measured over time. Linear-Regression-Analysis demonstrated that both the centrifugation coefficient for streptococci and induced deformation influenced the percentage relaxation. Centrifugal compaction significantly influenced relaxation only upon compression of the outermost 20% of the biofilm (p < 0.05), whereas biofilm composition became influential when 50% deformation was induced, invoking re-arrangement of the bacteria in deeper biofilm structures. In summary, the effects of centrifugal compaction of initially adhering, centrifuged bacteria extend to the visco-elastic properties of biofilms, indicating that the initial bacterial layer influences the structure of the entire biofilm.
Mechanical properties of low dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saini, Deepika
Recent advances in low dimensional materials (LDMs) have paved the way for unprecedented technological advancements. The drive to reduce the dimensions of electronics has compelled researchers to devise newer techniques to not only synthesize novel materials, but also tailor their properties. Although micro and nanomaterials have shown phenomenal electronic properties, their mechanical robustness and a thorough understanding of their structure-property relationship are critical for their use in practical applications. However, the challenges in probing these mechanical properties dramatically increase as their dimensions shrink, rendering the commonly used techniques inadequate. This dissertation focuses on developing techniques for accurate determination of elastic modulus of LDMs and their mechanical responses under tensile and shear stresses. Fibers with micron-sized diameters continuously undergo tensile and shear deformations through many phases of their processing and applications. Significant attention has been given to their tensile response and their structure-tensile properties relations are well understood, but the same cannot be said about their shear responses or the structure-shear properties. This is partly due to the lack of appropriate instruments that are capable of performing direct shear measurements. In an attempt to fill this void, this dissertation describes the design of an inexpensive tabletop instrument, referred to as the twister, which can measure the shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of micron-sized individual fibers. An automated system applies a pre-determined twist to the fiber sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and KevlarRTM 119, were found to have G = 17 and 2.4 GPa, respectively. In addition to measuring the shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Zhi
2008-11-01
Structural, elastic and electronic properties of ReO2 are investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The ground state of ReO2 has an orthorhombic symmetry which belongs to space group Pbcn with α = 4.7868 Å b = 5.5736 Å and c = 4.5322 Å. The calculated bulk moduli are 322 GPa, 353 GPa, and 345 GPa for orthorhombic, tetragonal, and monoclinic ReO2, respectively, indicating that ReO2 has a strong incompressibility. ReO2 is a metal ductile solid and presents large elastic anisotropy. The obtained Debye temperatures are 850K for orthorhombic, 785K for tetragonal, and 791K for monoclinic ReO2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubin, M. B.; Vorobiev, O.; Vitali, E.
2016-07-01
A large deformation thermomechanical model is developed for shock loading of a material that can exhibit elastic and inelastic anisotropy. Use is made of evolution equations for a triad of microstructural vectors mathbf{m}i (hbox {i}=1,2,3) which model elastic deformations and directions of anisotropy. Specific constitutive equations are presented for a material with orthotropic elastic response. The rate of inelasticity depends on an orthotropic yield function that can be used to model weak fault planes with failure in shear and which exhibits a smooth transition to isotropic response at high compression. Moreover, a robust, strongly objective numerical algorithm is proposed for both rate-independent and rate-dependent response. The predictions of the continuum model are examined by comparison with exact steady-state solutions. Also, the constitutive equations are used to obtain a simplified continuum model of jointed rock which is compared with high fidelity numerical solutions that model a persistent system of joints explicitly in the rock medium.
Mechanical properties of a porous mullite material
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viens, Michael J.
1991-01-01
Modulus of rupture specimens were used to determine crack growth parameters of a porous mullite material. Strength testing was performed in ambient and moist environments. The power law crack growth rate parameters n and 1n B in 50 percent relative humidity were found to be 44.98 and 0.94, respectively. The inert strength, fracture toughness, and elastic modulus were also determined and found to be 19 MPa, 055 MPa(m) exp 1/2, and 11.6 GPa, respectively.
Dynamic viscoelastic properties of vinyl polysiloxane denture soft lining materials.
Abe, Y; Taji, T; Hiasa, K; Tsuga, K; Akagawa, Y
2009-12-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic viscoelastic properties of seven commercially available vinyl polysiloxane denture soft lining materials. Five rectangular specimens (2 x 10 x 30 mm) were prepared from each material. The complex modulus E* (MPa) and loss tangent (tan delta) of each specimen were determined with a non-resonance forced vibration method using an automatic dynamic viscoelastometer at 1 Hz after 1 day of dry storage, and after 1, 30, 60, 90 and 180 days of wet storage at 37 degrees C. All data were analysed using one-way anova and Bonferroni/Dunn's test for multiple comparisons with a significance level of P < 0.01. All materials varied widely in terms of viscoelasticities and showed both an increase in E* and a decrease in tan delta at 1 Hz after the 1-day wet storage. After 60 days of wet storage, both E* and tan delta did not change significantly. The stiffer materials (>30% filler content) with high E* values (>2.00 MPa) showed elastic behaviour with tan delta values of around 0.03. The softer materials (6% filler content) with high tan delta values (initial value > 0.10) showed viscous behaviour and were easily affected by water absorption after the 1-day wet storage. It can be concluded that for the proper selection of vinyl polysiloxane denture soft lining materials, it is very important to evaluate the viscoelastic properties after 60 days of wet storage. PMID:19840358
Defect imaging with elastic waves in inhomogeneous-anisotropic materials with composite geometries.
Shlivinski, A; Langenberg, K J
2007-03-01
Imaging of defects in composite structures plays an important role in non-destructive testing (NDT) with elastic waves, i.e., ultrasound. Traditionally the imaging of such defects is performed using the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) algorithm assuming homogeneous isotropic materials. However, if parts of the structure are inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic, this algorithm fail to produce correct results that are needed in order to asses the lifetime of the part under test. Here we present a modification of this algorithm which enables a correct imaging of defects in inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic composite structures, whence it is termed InASAFT. The InASAFT is based on the exact modelling of the structure in order to account for the true nature of the elastic wave propagation using travel time ray tracing techniques. The algorithm is validated upon several numerical and real life examples yielding satisfactory results for imaging of cracks. The modified algorithm suffers, though, from the same difficulties encountered in the SAFT algorithm, namely "ghost" images and eventual lack of clear focused images. However, these artifacts can be identified using a forward wave propagation analysis of the structure.
Wang, Weizhong; Hu, Jinwei; He, Chuanglong; Nie, Wei; Feng, Wei; Qiu, Kexin; Zhou, Xiaojun; Gao, Yu; Wang, Guoqing
2015-05-01
The success of tissue engineered vascular grafts depends greatly on the synthetic tubular scaffold, which can mimic the architecture, mechanical, and anticoagulation properties of native blood vessels. In this study, small-diameter tubular scaffolds were fabricated with different weight ratios of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(l-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (PLCL) by means of thermally induced phase separation technique. To improve the anticoagulation property of materials, heparin was covalently linked to the tubular scaffolds by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide coupling chemistry. The as-prepared PLLA/PLCL scaffolds retained microporous nanofibrous structure as observed in the neat PLLA scaffolds, and their structural and mechanical properties can be fine-tuned by changing the ratio of two components. The scaffold containing 60% PLCL content was found to be the most promising scaffold for engineering small-diameter blood vessel in terms of elastic properties and structural integrity. The heparinized scaffolds showed higher hydrophilicity, lower protein adsorption ability, and better in vitro anticoagulation property than their untreated counterparts. Pig iliac endothelial cells seeded on the heparinized scaffold showed good cellular attachment, spreading, proliferation, and phenotypic maintenance. Furthermore, the heparinized scaffolds exhibited neovascularization after subcutaneous implantation into the New Zealand white rabbits for 1 and 2 months. Taken together, the heparinized PLLA/PLCL nanofibrous scaffolds have the great potential for vascular tissue engineering application.
Elastic Properties of the Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO)
Yu, Seungho; Schmidt, Robert D.; Garcia-mendez, Regina; Herbert, Erik G.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Wolfenstine, Jeff; Sakamoto, Jeff; Seigel, Donald
2015-12-16
The oxide known as LLZO, with nominal composition Li_{7}La_{3}Zr_{2}O_{12}, is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-based batteries due to its high Li-ion conductivity and chemical stability with respect to lithium. Solid electrolytes may also enable the use of metallic Li anodes by serving as a physical barrier that suppresses dendrite initiation and propagation during cycling. Prior linear elasticity models of the Li electrode/solid electrolyte interface suggest that the stability of this interface is highly dependent on the elastic properties of the solid separator. For example, dendritic suppression is predicted to be enhanced as the electrolyte s shear modulus increases. In the present study a combination of first-principles calculations, acoustic impulse excitation measurements, and nanoindentation experiments are used to determine the elastic constants and moduli for highconductivity LLZO compositions based on Al and Ta doping. The calculated and measured isotropic shear moduli are in good agreement and fall within the range of 56-61 GPa. These values are an order of magnitude larger than that for Li metal and far exceed the minimum value ( 8.5 GPa) believed to be necessary to suppress dendrite initiation. These data suggest that LLZO exhibits sufficient stiffness to warrant additional development as a solid electrolyte for Li batteries.
Elastic Properties of the Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO)
Yu, Seungho; Schmidt, Robert D.; Garcia-mendez, Regina; Herbert, Erik G.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Wolfenstine, Jeff; Sakamoto, Jeff; Seigel, Donald
2015-12-16
The oxide known as LLZO, with nominal composition Li7La3Zr2O12, is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-based batteries due to its high Li-ion conductivity and chemical stability with respect to lithium. Solid electrolytes may also enable the use of metallic Li anodes by serving as a physical barrier that suppresses dendrite initiation and propagation during cycling. Prior linear elasticity models of the Li electrode/solid electrolyte interface suggest that the stability of this interface is highly dependent on the elastic properties of the solid separator. For example, dendritic suppression is predicted to be enhanced as the electrolyte s shear modulus increases. Inmore » the present study a combination of first-principles calculations, acoustic impulse excitation measurements, and nanoindentation experiments are used to determine the elastic constants and moduli for highconductivity LLZO compositions based on Al and Ta doping. The calculated and measured isotropic shear moduli are in good agreement and fall within the range of 56-61 GPa. These values are an order of magnitude larger than that for Li metal and far exceed the minimum value ( 8.5 GPa) believed to be necessary to suppress dendrite initiation. These data suggest that LLZO exhibits sufficient stiffness to warrant additional development as a solid electrolyte for Li batteries.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Güler, M.; Güler, E.
2016-07-01
Although several theoretical works were performed to describe the high pressure behavior of typical cubic elastic constants of cubic diamond silicon (dc-Si), some of the obtained results of these studies still remain inadequate and disagree with the experimental findings. To get more satisfactory results, we have investigated the phase transition, elasticity and other relevant mechanical properties of dc-Si were under pressures up to 14 GPa by applying original form of modified embedded atom method type interatomic potential for the first time with geometry optimization calculations. Phase transition pressure from dc-Si to β-Sn phase was found to be as 13 GPa which agree well with experiments. As well, under pressure, typical cubic elastic constants mimic the increasing behavior of experimental data and removes the earlier theoretical conflicts, in particular for C 44. Further, bulk, Young and shear moduli, longitudinal and shear wave velocities, structural stability and brittle (ductile) character of dc-Si were also investigated under pressure. Obtained data of these surveyed quantities for the ground state of dc-Si well compare the previous experiments and other theoretical findings.
Elastic anisotropy of crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kube, Christopher M.
2016-09-01
An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material (ftp://ftp.aip.org/epaps/aip_advances/E-AAIDBI-6-041609) provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.
Determination of the elasticity of parachute materials under dynamic loading conditions
Behr, V.L.; Clements, P.J.; Silbert, M.N.
1996-12-31
In the design of parachute systems it is important to use material properties that have been acquired under representative strain rates expected in flight. Without such data the designer is potentially forced to incorporate unrealistic safety margins resulting in a heavier and costlier than required design. Laboratory test data has generally been limited to that which can be acquired at quasi-steady strain rates. This paper investigates a technique, which takes advantage of advances in solid state electronics in the past ten years, to achieve an economical means of acquiring material properties under dynamic strain conditions. Data obtained with this technique is compared to standard test data for representative parachute materials.
Breathing mode vibrations and elastic properties of single-crystal and penta-twinned gold nanorods.
Gan, Yong; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Zhen
2016-08-10
The acoustic vibrations of individual single-crystal and penta-twinned gold nanorods with widths from ∼7 to ∼26 nm are studied using atomic-level simulations and finite element calculations. It is demonstrated that the continuum model in the limit of an infinite rod length could be used to describe the breathing periods of nanorods with an aspect ratio as small as ∼2.5, in combination with bulk material elastic constants. The elastic moduli of gold nanorods are determined via their atomistically simulated extensional periods and the dispersion relation based on long-wavelength approximation. The twinned nanorods become stiffer as the width is reduced, which is in contrast to the size dependence of the modulus in single-crystal nanorods. Further finite element calculations for the breathing periods of nanorods are performed using isotropic elastic constants of bulk gold. We find that the breathing vibrations of the penta-twinned nanorods are more affected by the crystal structure effect than those of single-crystal nanorods, because a smaller range of crystal directions perpendicular to the long axis is involved in the breathing vibrations of twinned nanorods.
Designing functionally graded materials with superior load-bearing properties.
Zhang, Yu; Sun, Ming-Jie; Zhang, Denzil
2012-03-01
Ceramic prostheses often fail from fracture and wear. We hypothesize that these failures may be substantially mitigated by an appropriate grading of elastic modulus at the ceramic surface. In this study, we elucidate the effect of elastic modulus profile on the flexural damage resistance of functionally graded materials (FGMs), providing theoretical guidelines for designing FGMs with superior load-bearing property. The Young's modulus of the graded structure is assumed to vary in a power-law relation with a scaling exponent n; this is in accordance with experimental observations from our laboratory and elsewhere. Based on the theory for bending of graded beams, we examine the effect of n value and bulk-to-surface modulus ratio (E(b)/E(s)) on stress distribution through the graded layer. Theory predicts that a low exponent (0.15
Elastic properties of poly(vinyldene fluoride) (PVDF) crystals: A density functional theory study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pei, Yong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng
2011-05-01
We computed structural and elastic properties of totally nine phases of poly(vinyldene fluoride) (PVDF) crystals using the density-functional theory (DFT) method with and without inclusion of the dispersion corrections. In addition to the four known crystalline forms, mechanic properties of five theoretically predicted crystalline forms of PVDF are also investigated. The all-trans form Ip exhibits the largest cohesive energy, bulk, and Young's modulus among the nine crystalline forms. The DFT calculations suggest that the δ crystalline forms (IIIau, IIIpu, IIIpd, and IIIad) possess poor chain rigidity among the nine PVDF crystalline forms. In contrast, a change of relative orientation of PVDF chains does not lead to significant change in cohesive energy and mechanic properties. A comparison of the cohesive energies of nine crystalline forms of PVDF suggests that the theoretically proposed crystalline forms of PVDF are quite stable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alsteens, David; Dupres, Vincent; McEvoy, Kevin; Wildling, Linda; Gruber, Hermann J.; Dufrêne, Yves F.
2008-09-01
Although the chemical composition of yeast cell walls is known, the organization, assembly, and interactions of the various macromolecules remain poorly understood. Here, we used in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) in three different modes to probe the ultrastructure, cell wall elasticity and polymer properties of two brewing yeast strains, i.e. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and S. cerevisiae. Topographic images of the two strains revealed smooth and homogeneous cell surfaces, and the presence of circular bud scars on dividing cells. Nanomechanical measurements demonstrated that the cell wall elasticity of S. carlsbergensis is homogeneous. By contrast, the bud scar of S. cerevisiae was found to be stiffer than the cell wall, presumably due to the accumulation of chitin. Notably, single molecule force spectroscopy with lectin-modified tips revealed major differences in polysaccharide properties of the two strains. Polysaccharides were clearly more extended on S. cerevisiae, suggesting that not only oligosaccharides, but also polypeptide chains of the mannoproteins were stretched. Consistent with earlier cell surface analyses, these findings may explain the very different aggregation properties of the two organisms. This study demonstrates the power of using multiple complementary AFM modalities for probing the organization and interactions of the various macromolecules of microbial cell walls.
Elastic, Electronic, Optical and Thermal Properties of Na2Po: An Ab Initio Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baki, N.; Eithiraj, R. D.; Khachai, H.; Khenata, R.; Murtaza, G.; Bouhemadou, A.; Seddik, T.; Bin-Omran, S.
2016-01-01
The structural, elastic, electronic, optical and thermodynamic properties of the sodium polonide Na2Po compound have been studied through the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-LAPW + lo) and tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) methods. The exchange-correlation potential was treated within the local density approximation for the TB-LMTO calculations and within the generalized gradient approximation for the FP-LAPW + lo calculations. In addition, Tran and Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential and Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation were used for the electronic and optical properties. Ground state properties such as the equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative were calculated and compared with available data. The single-crystal and polycrystalline elastic constants of the considered compound were calculated via the total energy versus strain in the framework of the FP-LAPW + lo approach. The calculated electronic structure reveals that Na2Po is a direct band gap semiconductor. The frequency-dependent dielectric function, refractive index, extinction coefficient, reflectivity coefficient and electron energy loss function spectra are calculated for a wide energy range. The variations of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, heat capacity, volume expansion coefficient and Debye temperature with temperature and pressure were calculated successfully using the FP-LAPW + lo method in combination with the quasi-harmonic Debye model.
Asymptotic estimates on scatter ranges for elastic properties of completely random polycrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chinh, Pham Duc
2003-06-01
One observes that the shape and crystalline orientations of the anisotropic grains in a completely random polycrystal are uncorrelated, hence the polycrystal appears (we say, nearly) macroscopically homogeneous and isotropic, and has relatively (almost) definite macroscopic elastic properties. However, because of the polycrystalline irregular microgeometry, the macroscopic properties of the aggregate may be not unique (even in principle and for the large representative element limit), and the macroscopic homogeneity and isotropy hypotheses for it may be not exact (but approximate with some accuracy). With these statements we abandon the conventional strict uniqueness and exactness viewpoint and, in fact, adopt weaker but perhaps more realistic hypotheses that allow for small uncertainties. Our upper and lower bounds on elastic moduli of random polycrystals, though based on (approximate) statistical isotropy and symmetry hypotheses, can still provide asymptotic estimates on possible ranges for the properties of the aggregates with certain accuracy, provided the intervals between bounds are sufficiently small. The formal bounds are used to derive explicit estimates for the aggregates of tetragonal crystals (classes 4, 4¯,4/m ). The numerical results appear reliable, as the stated asymptotic condition is met.
Theoretical study of atomic structure and elastic properties of branched silicon nanowires.
Sorokin, Pavel B; Kvashnin, Alexander G; Kvashnin, Dmitry G; Filicheva, Julia A; Avramov, Pavel V; Fedorov, Alexander S; Chernozatonskii, Leonid A
2010-05-25
The atomic structure and elastic properties of Y-shaped silicon nanowires of "fork"- and "bough"-types were theoretically studied, and effective Young moduli were calculated using Tersoff interatomic potential. The oscillation of fork Y-type branched nanowires with various branch lengths and diameters was studied. In the final stages of the bending, the formation of new bonds between different parts of the wires was observed. It was found that the stiffness of the nanowires is comparable with the stiffness of Y-shaped carbon nanotubes.
Elastic properties of polyelectrolyte capsules studied by atomic-force microscopy and RICM.
Dubreuil, F; Elsner, N; Fery, A
2003-10-01
Mechanical properties of polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules were studied using a new method combining atomic-force microscopy and reflection interference contrast microscopy. By measuring the force vs. deformation for poly(styrene sulfonate)/poly(allylamine) capsules the existence of different deformation regimes depending on the applied deformation was shown. The present paper focuses on the small-deformation regime. The elastic response of the deformed capsule was studied as a function of the wall thickness and the capsule size, and showed the theoretically expected variations. The Young modulus obtained from the experiments ranges between 1.3 and 1.9 GPa.
Mobility of vacancies under deformation and their effect on the elastic properties of graphene
Fedorov, A. S.; Fedorov, D. A.; Popov, Z. I.; Anan'eva, Yu. E.; Eliseeva, N. S.; Kuzubov, A. A.
2011-05-15
The effect of isolated vacancies on the elastic properties of a graphene sheet has been investigated by the ab initio density functional method. An almost inverse linear dependence of the Young's modulus on the concentration of vacancies has been revealed. The height of potential barriers for the motion of vacancies in various directions has been calculated as a function of various independent applied strains. The velocity of vacancies at various temperatures has been calculated as a function of applied strains using the transition state theory.
Characterization of elastic-plastic properties of AS4/APC-2 thermoplastic composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, C. T.; Yoon, K. J.
1988-01-01
Elastic and inelastic properties of AS4/APC-2 composites were characterized with respect to temperature variation by using a one-parameter orthotropic plasticity model and a one parameter failure criterion. Simple uniaxial off-axis tension tests were performed on coupon specimens of unidirectional AS4/APC-2 thermoplastic composite at various temperatures. To avoid the complication caused by the extension-shear coupling effect in off-axis testing, new tabs were designed and used on the test specimens. The experimental results showed that the nonlinear behavior of constitutive relations and the failure strengths can be characterized quite well using the one parameter plasticity model and the failure criterion, respectively.
Deformation and elastic properties of WC-Co system sintered carbides in micro- and macroindentation
Tumanov, V.I.; Gerasechko, N.N.; Konyukhova, L.A.; Ochkasov, V.F.; Ragozin, I.P.
1985-11-01
This paper investigates the deformation properties of the WC-Co alloys and their constituents in micro- and macroindentation with recording of the force-indentation depth curve. The investigatins in microindenttion were made on an MINT-6 microinterference hardness tester. Tests were made both on specimens and on finished sintered carbide parts with a rate of movement of the indentor of 8 X 10/sup -7/ m/sec. For the WC-Co alloys with different cobalt contents the modulus of elasticity determined from the indentation curve agrees satisfactorily with that obtained by the ultrasonic method.
Measuring the elastic properties of living cells with atomic force microscopy indentation.
Mackay, Joanna L; Kumar, Sanjay
2013-01-01
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful and versatile tool for probing the mechanical properties of biological samples. This chapter describes the procedures for using AFM indentation to measure the elastic moduli of living cells. We include step-by-step instructions for cantilever calibration and data acquisition using a combined AFM/optical microscope system, as well as a detailed protocol for data analysis. Our protocol is written specifically for the BioScope™ Catalyst™ AFM system (Bruker AXS Inc.); however, most of the general concepts can be readily translated to other commercial systems.
Characterization of elastic-viscoplastic properties of an AS4/PEEK thermoplastic composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, K. J.; Sun, C. T.
1991-01-01
The elastic-viscoplastic properties of an AS4/PEEK (APC-2) thermoplastic composite were characterized at 24 C (75 F) and 121 C (250 F) by using a one-parameter viscoplasticity model. To determine the strain-rate effects, uniaxial tension tests were performed on unidirectional off-axis coupon specimens with different monotonic strain rates. A modified Bodner and Partom's model was also used to describe the viscoplasticity of the thermoplastic composite. The experimental results showed that viscoplastic behavior can be characterized quite well using the one-parameter overstress viscoplasticity model.
Elastic airtight container for the compaction of air-sensitive materials.
Shoulders, W Taylor; Locke, Richard; Gaume, Romain M
2016-06-01
We report on the design and fabrication of a simple and versatile elastic canister for the compaction and hot-pressing of air-sensitive materials. This device consists of a heated double-ended floating die assembly, enclosed in a compressible stainless steel bellows that allows the action of an external hydraulic press in a uniaxial motion. The enclosure is fitted with vacuum, gas, and electrical feedthroughs to allow for atmosphere control, heating, and in situ process monitoring. The overall chamber is compact enough to be portable and transferrable into and out of a standard laboratory glovebox, thus eliminating the problem of exposing samples to ambient atmosphere during loading and unloading. Our design has been tested up to 600 °C and 7500 kg-force applied load, conditions within which transparent ceramics of anhydrous halides can be produced.
Elastic airtight container for the compaction of air-sensitive materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shoulders, W. Taylor; Locke, Richard; Gaume, Romain M.
2016-06-01
We report on the design and fabrication of a simple and versatile elastic canister for the compaction and hot-pressing of air-sensitive materials. This device consists of a heated double-ended floating die assembly, enclosed in a compressible stainless steel bellows that allows the action of an external hydraulic press in a uniaxial motion. The enclosure is fitted with vacuum, gas, and electrical feedthroughs to allow for atmosphere control, heating, and in situ process monitoring. The overall chamber is compact enough to be portable and transferrable into and out of a standard laboratory glovebox, thus eliminating the problem of exposing samples to ambient atmosphere during loading and unloading. Our design has been tested up to 600 °C and 7500 kg-force applied load, conditions within which transparent ceramics of anhydrous halides can be produced.
Sound transmission through double panel constructions lined with elastic porous materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolton, J. S.; Green, E. R.
1986-07-01
Attention is given to a theory governing one-dimensional wave motion in elastic porous materials which is capable of reproducing experimental transmission measurements for unfaced polyurethane foam layers. Calculations of the transmission loss of fuselage-like foam-lined double panels are presented and it is shown that the foam/panel boundary conditions have a large effect on the panel performance; a hybrid arrangement whereby the foam is bonded directly to one panel and separated from the other by a thin air gap appears to be the most advantageous under practical circumstances. With this configuratiom, the mass-air-mass resonance is minimized and increased low-frequency performance is offered.
MACKEY TC; ABATT FG; JOHNSON KI
2009-01-16
The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10{sup 3} Pa and 4.135 x 10{sup 9} Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shengsi
The knowledge of seismic and elastic properties of polyphase crystalline rocks under high pressure and temperature conditions is fundamental in interpreting in-situ seismic data (e.g., reflections, refractions, received functions, and tomography). These data may be understood in terms of lithology, mineralogy, and physical state and as such they allow establishing lithospheric structure and composition models of continents. The present study aims to better understand how the seismic and elastic properties [e.g., compressional- and shear-wave velocities (Vp and Vs), anisotropy, and elastic parameters] under confining pressure are affected by modal and chemical compositions, microstructures, lattice preferred orientations (LPO) of rocks and by the geometry and state of microcracks. This thesis consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 addresses the framework of rock seismic property studies, focusing on the concepts of elasticity and mixture rules, and providing an overview on results of statistical analysis on previous laboratory-measured seismic data of different lithologies and rock-forming minerals, and on the seismic anisotropy of the continental crust and upper mantle. Chapter 2 deals with seismic and elastic properties measured at hydrostatic pressures up to 800 MPa for 12 representative samples from the Longmen Shan complex in which the great 2008 Wenchuan earthquake took place. These allowed understanding how coseismic ruptures nucleated and propagated. This study also offers necessary information for broadband simulations of strong ground motions in the assessment and forecast of earthquake hazards in the region. Furthermore, the study, which yields a moment magnitude of 7.9-8.0 given the variation in the dip of the coseismic ruptures and the uncertainty in the depth to which the coseismic rupture may propagate downwards below the depth of the mainshock hypocenter, presents the first accurate quantification of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake’s size. Chapter 3 is
Yano, Shinya; Mori, Megumi; Teramoto, Naozumi; Iisaka, Makoto; Suzuki, Natsumi; Noto, Masanari; Kaimoto, Yasuko; Kakimoto, Masashi; Yamada, Michio; Shiratsuchi, Eri; Shimasaki, Toshiaki; Shibata, Mitsuhiro
2015-01-09
Photocrosslinked hydrogels reinforced by microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) were prepared from a methacrylate-functionalized fish elastin polypeptide and MFC dispersed in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). First, a water-soluble elastin peptide with a molecular weight of ca. 500 g/mol from the fish bulbus arteriosus was polymerized by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), a condensation reagent, and then modified with 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (MOI) to yield a photocrosslinkable fish elastin polypeptide. The product was dissolved in DMSO and irradiated with UV light in the presence of a radical photoinitiator. We obtained hydrogels successfully by substitution of DMSO with water. The composite gel with MFC was prepared by UV irradiation of the photocrosslinkable elastin polypeptide mixed with dispersed MFC in DMSO, followed by substitution of DMSO with water. The tensile test of the composite gels revealed that the addition of MFC improved the tensile properties, and the shape of the stress-strain curve of the composite gel became more similar to the typical shape of an elastic material with an increase of MFC content. The rheology measurement showed that the elastic modulus of the composite gel increased with an increase of MFC content. The cell proliferation test on the composite gel showed no toxicity.
Yano, Shinya; Mori, Megumi; Teramoto, Naozumi; Iisaka, Makoto; Suzuki, Natsumi; Noto, Masanari; Kaimoto, Yasuko; Kakimoto, Masashi; Yamada, Michio; Shiratsuchi, Eri; Shimasaki, Toshiaki; Shibata, Mitsuhiro
2015-01-01
Photocrosslinked hydrogels reinforced by microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) were prepared from a methacrylate-functionalized fish elastin polypeptide and MFC dispersed in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). First, a water-soluble elastin peptide with a molecular weight of ca. 500 g/mol from the fish bulbus arteriosus was polymerized by N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), a condensation reagent, and then modified with 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (MOI) to yield a photocrosslinkable fish elastin polypeptide. The product was dissolved in DMSO and irradiated with UV light in the presence of a radical photoinitiator. We obtained hydrogels successfully by substitution of DMSO with water. The composite gel with MFC was prepared by UV irradiation of the photocrosslinkable elastin polypeptide mixed with dispersed MFC in DMSO, followed by substitution of DMSO with water. The tensile test of the composite gels revealed that the addition of MFC improved the tensile properties, and the shape of the stress–strain curve of the composite gel became more similar to the typical shape of an elastic material with an increase of MFC content. The rheology measurement showed that the elastic modulus of the composite gel increased with an increase of MFC content. The cell proliferation test on the composite gel showed no toxicity. PMID:25584682
Design of meta-materials with novel thermoelastic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watts, Seth
The development of new techniques in micro-manufacturing in recent years has enabled the fabrication of material microstructures with essentially arbitrary designs, including those with multiple constituent materials and void space in nearly any geometry. With an essentially open design space, the onus is now on the engineer to design composite materials which are optimal for their purpose. These new materials, called meta-materials or materials with architected microstructures, offer the potential to mix and match properties in a way that exceeds that of traditional composites. We concentrate on the thermal and elastic properties of isotropic meta-materials, and design microstructures with combinations of Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, and mass density which are not found among naturally-occurring or traditional composite materials. We also produce designs with thermal expansion far below other materials. We use homogenization theory to predict the material properties of a bulk meta-material comprised of a periodic lattice of unit cells, then use topology optimization to rearrange two constituent materials and void space within the unit cell in order to extremize an objective function which yields the combinations of properties we seek. This method is quite general and can be extended to consider additional properties of interest. We constrain the design space to satisfy material isotropy directly (2D), or to satisfy cubic symmetry (3D), from which point an isotropy constraint function is easily applied. We develop and use filtering, nonlinear interpolation, and thresholding methods to render the design problem well-posed, and as a result ensure our designs are manufacturable. We have written two computer implementations of this design methodology. The first is for creating two-dimensional designs, which can run on a serial computer in approximately half an hour. The second is a parallel implementation to allow
Fundamental properties of semiconductor materials, and material performance in detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Casper, K. J.
1973-01-01
Procedures for determining fundamental properties of semiconductor materials, their performance as radiation detectors, and their service life as such detectors are given. Relationships were established between the minority carrier lifetime in the bulk of the material and the charge collection efficiency of the detector.
Micro-mechanical properties of bio-materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakiev, V.; Markovsky, A.; Aznakayev, E.; Zakiev, I.; Gursky, E.
2005-09-01
Investigation of physical-mechanical characteristics of stomatologic materials (ceramics for crowns, silver amalgam, cements and materials on a polymeric basis) properties by the modern methods and correspondence their physical-mechanical properties to the physical-mechanical properties of native teeth is represented. The universal device "Micron-Gamma" is built for this purpose. This device allows investigate the physical-mechanical characteristics of stomatologic materials (an elastic modulus, micro-hardness, destruction energy, resistance to scratching) by the methods of continuous indentation, scanning and pricking. A new effective method as well as its device application for the investigation of surface layers of materials and their physical-mechanical properties by means of the constant indenting of an indenter is realized. This method is based on the automatic registration of loading (P) on the indenter with the simultaneous measurement of its indentation depth (h). The results of investigations are presented on a loading diagram P=f(h) and as a digital imaging on the PC. This diagram allows get not only more diverse characteristics in the real time regime but also gives new information about the stomatologic material properties. Therefore, we can to investigate the wide range of the physical-mechanical properties of stomatologic materials. "Micron-alpha" is digital detection device for light imaging applications. It enables to detect the very low material surface relief heights and restoration of surface micro topography by a sequence data processing of interferential data of partially coherent light also. "Micron-alpha" allows: to build 2D and 3D imaging of a material surface; to estimate the quantitatively characteristics of a material surface; to observe the imaging interferential pictures both in the white and in the monochromatic light; to carry out the investigation of blood cells, microbes and biological macromolecules profiles. The method allows
Comparative study of mechanical properties of direct core build-up materials
Kumar, Girish; Shivrayan, Amit
2015-01-01
Background and Objectives: The strength greatly influences the selection of core material because core must withstand forces due to mastication and para-function for many years. This study was conducted to evaluate certain mechanical properties of commonly used materials for direct core build-up, including visible light cured composite, polyacid modified composite, resin modified glass ionomer, high copper amalgam, and silver cermet cement. Materials and Methods: All the materials were manipulated according to the manufacturer's recommendations and standard test specimens were prepared. A universal testing machine at different cross-head speed was used to determine all the four mechanical properties. Mean compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, and elastic modulus with standard deviations were calculated. Multiple comparisons of the materials were also done. Results: Considerable differences in compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength were observed. Visible light cured composite showed relatively high compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength compared with the other tested materials. Amalgam showed the highest value for elastic modulus. Silver cermet showed less value for all the properties except for elastic modulus. Conclusions: Strength is one of the most important criteria for selection of a core material. Stronger materials better resist deformation and fracture provide more equitable stress distribution, greater stability, and greater probability of clinical success. PMID:25684905
Mapping Elasticity at the Nanoscale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stan, Gheorghe; Price, William
2006-03-01
In the last few years Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy has been developed to investigate the elastic response of materials at the nanoscale ^[1],[2]. We have extended this technique to the real-time mapping of nanomechanical properties of material surfaces. This mapping allows us to investigate the local variation of elastic properties with nanometer resolution and to reduce the uncertainties that arise from single measurements. Quantitative measurements are acquired by first performing an accurate calibration of the elastic properties of the Atomic Force Microscope’s probes with respect to single crystal reference materials. A wide variety of surfaces with different mechanical properties have been investigated to illustrate the applicability of this technique. ^[1] U. Rabe et al., Surf. Interface Anal. 33 , 65 (2002)^[2] D.C. Hurley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2347 (2003)
Mechanics of extended continua: modeling and simulation of elastic microstretch materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirchner, N.; Steinmann, P.
2007-09-01
The investigation of microstretch and micromorphic continua (which are prominent examples of so-called extended continua) dates back to Eringens pioneering works in the mid 1960, cf. (Eringen in Mechanics of micromorphic materials. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 131-138, 1966; Eringen in Int J Eng Sci 8:819-828; Eringen in Microcontinuum field theories. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1999). Here, we re-derive the governing equations of microstretch continua in a variational setting, providing a natural framework within which numerical implementations of the model equations by means of the finite element method can be obtained straightforwardly. In the application of Dirichlets principle, the postulation of an appropriate form of the Helmholtz free energy turns out to be crucial to the derivation of the balance laws and constitutive relations for microstretch continua. At present, the material parameters involved in the free energy have been assigned fixed values throughout all numerical simulations—this simplification is addressed in detail as the influence of those parameters must not be underestimated. Since only few numerical results demonstrating elastic microstretch material behavior in engineering applications are available, the focus is here on the presentation of numerical results for simple twodimensional test specimens subjected to a plane strain condition and uniaxial tension. Confidence in the simulations for microstretch materials is gained by showing that they exhibit a “downward-compatibility” to Cosserat continuum formulation: by switching off all stretch-related effects, the governing set of equations reduces to the one used for polar materials. Further, certain material parameters can be chosen to act as penalty parameters, forcing stretch-related contributions to an almost negligible range in a full microstretch model so that numerical results obtained for a polar model can be obtained as a limiting case from the full
Quantitative measurement of nanomechanical properties in composite materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Wei
results significantly, and new, power-law body of revolution models of the probe tip geometry have been applied. Due to the low yield strength of polymers compared with other engineering materials, elastic-plastic contact is considered to better represent the epoxy surface response and was used to acquire more accurate quantitative measurements. Visco-elastic contact response was introduced in the boundary condition of the AFAM cantilever vibration model, due to the creep nature of epoxy, to determine time-dependent effects. These methods have direct impact on the quantitative measurement capabilities of near-filler interphase regions in polymers and composites and the long-term influence of environmental conditions on composites. In addition, quantitative AFAM scans were made on distal surfaces of human bicuspids and molars, to determine the microstructural and spatial variation in nanomechanical properties of the enamel biocomposite. Single point AFAM measurements were performed on individual enamel prism and sheath locations to determine spatial elastic modulus. Mechanical property variation of enamel is associated to the differences in the mineral to organic content and the apatite crystal orientations within the enamel microstructure. Also, variation in the elastic modulus of the enamel ultrastructure was observed in measurements at the outer enamel versus near the dentine enamel junction (DEJ).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Otterloo, Jozua; Cruden, Alexander R.
2016-06-01
Gelatine is a viscoelastic polymer that has been employed widely in geological analogue experiments to study processes related to the elastic behaviour of rocks such as tensile fracturing, seismicity and magma intrusion. However, the elastic domain of this material has not yet been clearly defined by rheological tests. Here we describe the rheology and define the elastic domain of 250 bloom/20 mesh pigskin gelatine at concentrations ≤ 10 wt.% and temperatures of 5-25 °C; however, these results are strongly comparable with gelatine of 245-260 bloom. New equations are given for the shear and elastic moduli in relationship to temperature and gelatine concentration. It is found that at concentrations ≤ 3 wt.% the tested gelatine is best described by a rheological model composed of a combination of Kelvin-Voight and Maxwell elements and, therefore, is not suitable to model elastic behaviour in geological analogue experiments. At higher concentrations it is best described by a simpler viscoelastic model comprising a single Maxwell element. In order to ensure that geological analogue experiments remain within the elastic domain where the elastic component is far greater than the viscous component, strain rates should range between 0.1 and 10 s- 1 and temperature values should be < 15 °C. With a Poisson's ratio of ~ 0.45 for concentrations > 3 wt.% analogue experiments using gelatine approximate the elastic behaviour of natural rocks more closely than previously assumed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yedukondalu, N.; Ghule, Vikas D.; Vaitheeswaran, G.
2016-08-01
Ammonium DiNitramide (ADN) is one of the most promising green energetic oxidizers for future rocket propellant formulations. In the present work, we report a detailed theoretical study on structural, elastic, and vibrational properties of the emerging oxidizer under hydrostatic compression using various dispersion correction methods to capture weak intermolecular (van der Waals and hydrogen bonding) interactions. The calculated ground state lattice parameters, axial compressibilities, and equation of state are in good accord with the available experimental results. Strength of intermolecular interactions has been correlated using the calculated compressibility curves and elastic moduli. Apart from this, we also observe discontinuities in the structural parameters and elastic constants as a function of pressure. Pictorial representation and quantification of intermolecular interactions are described by the 3D Hirshfeld surfaces and 2D finger print maps. In addition, the computed infra-red (IR) spectra at ambient pressure reveal that ADN is found to have more hygroscopic nature over Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) due to the presence of strong hydrogen bonding. Pressure dependent IR spectra show blue- and red-shift of bending and stretching frequencies which leads to weakening and strengthening of the hydrogen bonding below and above 5 GPa, respectively. The abrupt changes in the calculated structural, mechanical, and IR spectra suggest that ADN might undergo a first order structural transformation to a high pressure phase around 5-6 GPa. From the predicted detonation properties, ADN is found to have high and low performance characteristics (DCJ = 8.09 km/s and PCJ = 25.54 GPa) when compared with ammonium based energetic oxidizers (DCJ = 6.50 km/s and PCJ = 17.64 GPa for AP, DCJ = 7.28 km/s and PCJ = 18.71 GPa for ammonium nitrate) and well-known secondary explosives for which DCJ = ˜8-10 km/s and PCJ = ˜30-50 GPa, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Lei; Du, Jianguo; Liu, Hong; Yi, Li
2014-08-01
To understand the effect of differential stress on the properties of forsterite, changes of its structural parameters and elastic properties under different differential stress were calculated by first-principles simulations. Totally, 5 sets of different stresses results (namely x = 0, ±1 and ±2 GPa, x is the stress difference among σzz, σyy or σxx), were calculated. The effect of differential stresses on lattice constants show Poisson effect. Compared with the results under hydrostatic stress, all lattice strain (εa, εb, and εc) significantly increased at differential stress conditions. Furthermore, when the largest differential stresses are positive they more effect on lattice strain than the differential stresses are negative. Effect of different differential stress on density of forsterite is different. Compared with the density under hydrostatic pressure, positive differential stresses applied in the x direction or negative differential stresses applied in the y direction make forsterite density decreasing; however, positive differential stresses applied in the y direction or negative differential stresses applied in the x direction make forsterite density increasing. The density differences caused by differential stress are close to the upper mantle density anomaly. The effect of differential stress on density and lattice parameters is more notable when the absolutely value of Δσxx or Δσyy are the biggest among the differential stresses, namely stresses distributing along a and b axis orientation are more influenced on forsterite structural parameters than c axis orientation. Full elastic constants, bulk and shear modulus of forsterite (C11, C22, C33, C44, C55, C66, C12, C13, C23) were calculated under different stress conditions. Bulk modulus, shear modulus and elastic constants of differential stress are also different with the values at hydrostatic pressure, but the calculated results do not show any significant trends.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breuer, S.; Schilling, F. R.; Mueller, B.; Scheffzuek, C.
2015-12-01
Mechanical properties of sedimentary rocks such as stress-strain-relations are essential for understanding dynamic processes within the Earth's crust. The measurement of in-situ lattice strain in bulk samples is possible with diffraction methods, e.g. with neutrons. The advantage of neutron diffraction is their high penetration depth, which enables to gather a statistically relevant number of grains by diffraction. The neutron time-of-flight diffraction at the strain diffractometer EPSILON which is located at the pulsed neutron source IBR-2M (JINR Dubna, RUS) enables the detection of the complete diffraction pattern up to λ = 7.1 Å (d = 5.1 Å). Uniaxial cyclic deformation experiments were carried out up to 50 MPa (three steps) on a macroscopically isotropic sandstone from Kuhbach / Lahr (Germany). The aim of the present study is to model diffraction patterns for different applied stress-levels, based on the zero-stress diffraction pattern and known elastic properties of Quartz single crystals. The as received model-predictions are compared to observations, both, in the direction of maximum stress (along the cylindric axis) and perpendicular to it. The results show that the shape of the grains has an influence on the macroscopic elastic behavior of the rock whereas the microscopic strain is affected in a different manner. The model is based on spherical quartz grains. The spheres are divided into slices. By removing some slices, the shape of sand grains is approximated. The reaction of each slice through the applied stress is modelled. Together with the relative volume of each slice and it´s elastic behavior, the diffraction pattern is predicted for different applied loads. Measured and modelled diffraction-patterns at different applied loads are in good agreement.
Second-order and third-order elastic properties of diamond: An ab initio study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clerc, Daryl G.; Ledbetter, Hassel
2005-10-01
Diamond's second-order elastic properties, and several third-order properties associated with uniform deformation, were calculated using ab initio all-electron density-functional theory. The predicted second-order elastic properties and equilibrium lattice parameter, in units of GPa and nm, are c11=1043(5), c12=128(5), c44=534(17), bulk modulus B=433(5), shear modulus G=502(10), Poisson ratio μ=0.082(5), and a=0.35569(2), where the parenthetic number is the uncertainty. The second-order force constants, in units of GPa, are kI=3843(108), kII=2346(17), kIII=2847(35), and kIV=5635(45). Here, subscripts I IV denote four strains whose tensor elements are [ɛ, ɛ, ɛ, 0, 0, 0], [ɛ, ɛ, 0, 0, 0, 0], [ɛ, ɛ, -ɛ, 0, 0, 0], and [ɛ, ɛ, ɛ, ɛ, ɛ, ɛ], respectively, using 6-component notation in the format [ɛ1, ɛ2, ɛ3, ɛ4, ɛ5, ɛ6]. Predicted inelastic properties include the third-order force constant corresponding to uniform dilation gI=-55,000(3,500) GPa, the bulk-modulus pressure derivative ∂B/∂P=4.7(3), and the overall Gruneisen parameter γG=0.85(15). Both our second-order and third-order properties agree well with measured values obtained by ultrasonics and by Raman spectroscopy.
Investigation of structural, electronic, elastic and optical properties of Cd1-x-yZnxHgyTe alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamer, M.
2016-06-01
Structural, optical and electronic properties and elastic constants of Cd1-x-yZnx HgyTe alloys have been studied by employing the commercial code Castep based on density functional theory. The generalized gradient approximation and local density approximation were utilized as exchange correlation. Using elastic constants for compounds, bulk modulus, band gap, Fermi energy and Kramers-Kronig relations, dielectric constants and the refractive index have been found through calculations. Apart from these, X-ray measurements revealed elastic constants and Vegard's law. It is seen that results obtained from theory and experiments are all in agreement.
First-principles investigation of the elastic and thermodynamic properties of ReC2 (Re = Ho, Nd, Pr)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wen; Chen, Haichuan
2015-01-01
The elastic and thermodynamic properties of ReC2 (Re = Ho, Nd, Pr) have been investigated by using the first-principles density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. The computed lattice constants of ReC2 are in agreement with the experimental data. The calculated elastic constants reveal that all compounds are mechanically stable. The shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio σ, the ratio B/G, shear anisotropy and elastic anisotropy are also calculated. Finally, the Vicker hardness, Debye temperature, melting point and thermal conductivity have been predicted.
Elastic properties of boron nitride nanotubes and their comparison with carbon nanotubes.
Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K; Sood, A K
2009-09-01
Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) have alternating boron and nitrogen atoms in graphite like network and are strongly polar in nature due to a large charge on boron and nitrogen atoms. Hence electrostatic interactions are expected to play an important role in determining the elastic properties of BNNTs. In the absence of specific partial atomic charge information for boron and nitrogen, we have studied the elastic properties BNNTs varying the partial atomic charges on boron and nitrogen. We have computed Young modulus (Y) and Shear modulus (G) of BNNT as a function of the tube radius and number of walls using molecular mechanics calculation. Our calculation shows that Young modulus of BNNTs increases with increase in magnitude of the partial atomic charge on B and N and can be larger than the Young modulus of CNTs of same radius. This is in contrast to the earlier finding that CNTs has the largest tensile strength (PRL, 80, 4502, 1998). Shear modulus, on the other hand depends weakly on the magnitude of partial atomic charge and is less than the shear modulus of the CNT The values obtained for Young modulus and Shear modulus are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results.
Temperature dependence of elastic and strength properties of T300/5208 graphite-epoxy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milkovich, S. M.; Herakovich, C. T.
1984-01-01
Experimental results are presented for the elastic and strength properties of T300/5208 graphite-epoxy at room temperature, 116K (-250 F), and 394K (+250 F). Results are presented for unidirectional 0, 90, and 45 degree laminates, and + or - 30, + or - 45, and + or - 60 degree angle-ply laminates. The stress-strain behavior of the 0 and 90 degree laminates is essentially linear for all three temperatures and that the stress-strain behavior of all other laminates is linear at 116K. A second-order curve provides the best fit for the temperature is linear at 116K. A second-order curve provides the best fit for the temperature dependence of the elastic modulus of all laminates and for the principal shear modulus. Poisson's ratio appears to vary linearly with temperature. all moduli decrease with increasing temperature except for E (sub 1) which exhibits a small increase. The strength temperature dependence is also quadratic for all laminates except the 0 degree - laminate which exhibits linear temperature dependence. In many cases the temperature dependence of properties is nearly linear.
Monteseguro, V; Rodríguez-Hernández, P; Ortiz, H M; Venkatramu, V; Manjón, F J; Jayasankar, C K; Lavín, V; Muñoz, A
2015-04-14
An ab initio study of the structural, elastic and vibrational properties of the lutetium gallium garnet (Lu3Ga5O12) under pressure has been performed in the framework of the density functional theory, up to 95 GPa. Pressure dependence of the elastic constants and the mechanical stability are analyzed, showing that the garnet structure is mechanically unstable above 87 GPa. Lattice-dynamics calculations in bulk at different pressures have been performed and compared with Raman scattering measurements of the nanocrystalline Tm(3+)-doped Lu3Ga5O12 up to 60 GPa. The theoretical frequencies and pressure coefficients of the Raman active modes for bulk Lu3Ga5O12 are in good agreement with the experimental data measured for the nano-crystals. The contributions of the different atoms to the vibrational modes have been analyzed based on the calculated total and partial phonon density of states. The vibrational modes have been discussed in relation to the internal and external modes of the GaO4 tetrahedron and the GaO6 octahedron. The calculated infrared modes and their pressure dependence are also reported. Our results show that with this nano-garnet size the sample has essentially bulk properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernabe, Y.; Evans, J.
2012-12-01
In a previous work we investigated stress transfer in a pair of grain contacts undergoing pressure solution (PS) creep, showed that stress transfer resulted in a significant decrease in overall strain rate, and concluded that PS creep rates of a randomly packed granular aggregate should be affected by packing evolution and the formation of new contacts during creep. To test these conclusions further, we are numerically simulating the "elastic" hydrostatic compression of a random pack of spheres, using a numerical method similar to that of Cundall and Strack [1979]. We assumed that the spheres were frictionless (i.e., spheres in contact only interacted through normal forces) and that the contact forces obeyed the non-linear Digby [1981] model. In order to determine the PS creep compression of the sphere pack subjected to a constant confining pressure pc, we calculated the thicknesses of the dissolved layers at each individual grain contact during a small time increment and, from these, the overall deformation of the sphere pack. We used an analytical expression discussed in our previous paper and originating from Lehner and Leroy [2004]. During these simulations, we also computed the mean coordination number of the grain contact z, the effective bulk modulus K of the sphere pack and others parameters characterizing the topological and mechanical properties of the sphere assembly. Our results show strong non-linear increase of z and K with pc during "elastic" compression and, with time, during PS creep. The packing rearrangements associated with PS creep produce complex time dependence of the overall deformation ɛ(t). We observed a regular transition from ɛ∝t^3/4 at early times (i.e., less than 0.1 years) and ɛ∝t^1/3 at late times (i.e., more than 1000 years). Cundall, P.A., and O.D.L. Strack (1979), A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies, Geotech., 29, 47-65. Digby, P.J. (1981), The effective elastic moduli of porous rocks, J. Appl. Mech., 48, 803
Materials Properties Research at MSFC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Presson, Joan B.; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
MSFC is currently planning, organizing and directing test coupon fabrication and subsequent CTE testing for two mirror materials of specific interest to the AMSD and NGST programs, Beryllium 0-30H (Be 0-30H) and Ultra Low Expansion glass (ULE). The ULE test coupons are being fabricated at MSFC from AMSD core residuals provided by Kodak, The Be 0-30H test coupons are being fabricated at Brush Wellman using residuals from the SBMD. Both sets of test coupons will be sent to a test vendor selected through the NASA competitive proposal process with the test results being provided by written report to MSFC by the end of the fiscal year. The test results will become model input data for the AMSD analysts, both MSFC and contractor, providing an enhancement to the historical CTE data currently available.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tahouneh, Vahid; Naei, Mohammad Hasan
2016-03-01
The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of bidirectional continuously graded nanocomposite materials on free vibration of thick shell panels rested on elastic foundations. The elastic foundation is considered as a Pasternak model after adding a shear layer to the Winkler model. The panels reinforced by randomly oriented straight single-walled carbon nanotubes are considered. The volume fractions of SWCNTs are assumed to be graded not only in the radial direction, but also in axial direction of the curved panel. This study presents a 2-D six-parameter power-law distribution for CNTs volume fraction of 2-D continuously graded nanocomposite that gives designers a powerful tool for flexible designing of structures under multi-functional requirements. The benefit of using generalized power-law distribution is to illustrate and present useful results arising from symmetric, asymmetric and classic profiles. The material properties are determined in terms of local volume fractions and material properties by Mori-Tanaka scheme. The 2-D differential quadrature method as an efficient numerical tool is used to discretize governing equations and to implement boundary conditions. The fast rate of convergence of the method is shown and results are compared against existing results in literature. Some new results for natural frequencies of the shell are prepared, which include the effects of elastic coefficients of foundation, boundary conditions, material and geometrical parameters. The interesting results indicate that a graded nanocomposite volume fraction in two directions has a higher capability to reduce the natural frequency than conventional 1-D functionally graded nanocomposite materials.
First-principles study of electronic and elastic properties of LuAl3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Pushplata; Shrivastava, Deepika; Sanyal, Sankar P.
2016-05-01
A systematic theoretical study of electronic structure of rare earth intermetallic LuAl3 has been carried out using full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation(GGA) for exchange and correlation potential. The ground state properties such as lattice constant (ao), bulk modulus (B) and pressure derivative of bulk modulus (Bˈ) were evaluated. LuAl3 has the cubic AuCu3 type crystal structure. The electronic properties of this compound have been analyzed quantatively from band structure and DOS. It is clear from band structure that this compound is metallic in nature. The calculated elastic constants infer that this compound is mechanically stable.