Science.gov

Sample records for material process quarterly

  1. Properties and processing of nanocrystalline materials. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Valiev, R.Z.

    1996-01-22

    The present Report completes the investigations in the frame of the project for the first year. It is important to estimate our achievements in the investigation of properties of nanocrystalline materials obtained by severe plastic deformation and their production. We think that the main results obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) We performed an improvement of the die-set for equal channel (ECA) pressing and torsion under high pressure with the aim to increase dimensions of the samples produced and to conduct processing of low ductile materials. (2) It was established that in pure metals severe plastic deformation led to the formation of an ultra fine-grained structure with a mean grain size of 100-200 nm, while in alloys due to severe plastic deformation and/or special methods of treatment (a decrease in the temperature of deformation, an increase of the pressure applied etc.) the grain size could be decreased down to a few tens of manometers.

  2. Process research on Semix Silicon Material (PROSSM). Quarterly report No. 5, December 1, 1981-February 28, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J H; Warfield, D B

    1982-01-01

    Emphasis was shifted from the development of a cost-effective process sequence to research designed to understand the mechanisms of photovoltaic conversion in semicrystalline silicon. With this change has gone a change of title from Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU) to Process Research of Semix Silicon Material (PROSSM). Efforts are now underway to prepare a revised program plan with emphasis on determining the mechanisms limiting voltage and current collection in the semicrystalline silicon. The efforts reported concern work done before the change in emphasis and so the continued development of the cost-effective process sequence is reported. A cost-effective process sequence was identified, equipment was designed to implement a 6.6 MW per year automated production line, and a cost analysis projected a $0.56 per watt cell add-on cost for this line. Four process steps were developed for this program: glass bead back clean-up; hot spray antireflective coating; wave-soldering of fronts; ion milling for edging. While spray dopants were advertised as an off the shelf developed product, they proved to be unreliable with shorter than advertised shelf life. Equipment for handling and processing solar cells is available for all of the cell processing steps identified in this program. During this quarter efforts included work on spray dopant, edging, AR coating, wave soldering and fluxing, ion milling and cost analysis.

  3. Silicon dendritic web material process development. First quarterly report, March 28-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R. B.; Stapleton, R. E.; Sienkiewicz, L.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

    1980-01-01

    Initial values of pressure, power, and speed have been determined for seam bonding interconnects to dendritic web solar cells. Satisfactory bond strengths and high yield have been achieved without cell damage. However, in case of processing large numbers of cells for module fabrication, further testing is required to assure reproducibility of this technique. Various techniques have been developed for fabricating solar modules by lamination using ethylene vinyl acetate with a glass superstrate, and no cell breakage has been noted.

  4. Investigation of test methods material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Fifteenth quarterly progress report, November 12, 1979-February 12, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

    1980-03-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Work performed during this quarter included the development of anti-blocking treatments for EVA sheet intended for use as a lamination pottant. Initial evaluation studies were begun on a new pottant compound, polybutyl acrylate, to assess its preparation and handling characteristics. Corrosion studies using a standard salt spray test wre conducted to determine the degree of protection afforded to a number of metals when encapsulated in candidate pottant compounds. Pottants and outer cover candidates were exposed to intervals of accelerated uv stress aging using the RS/4 fluorescent sunlamp. Results are discussed. (WHK)

  5. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Eighteenth quarterly progress report, August 12-November 12, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Davis, M.

    1980-12-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. A survey was made of elastomers for use as gaskets for the photovoltaic module. Of the wide variety of materials examined EPDM offered the optimum combination of low compression set and low cost. The preference for EPDM is borne out by its long history of use as an automobile gasket. The commercial availability of materials that would be useful for sealants between the edge of the module and the gasket was investigated. Butyl sealants have the best combination of physical properties, low cost and a well-documented history of performance. A preferred composition has not yet been identified. One laminating type pottant ethylene/methyl acrylate copolymer (EMA), and two casting polymers, polybutyl acrylate and polyurethane, have been under investigation this past quarter. An EMA formulation has been developed which is easily extrudable and cures to a high gel content. So far only one commercial US source (Quinn) of aliphatic polyurethane has been located. Work is continuing to improve reaction rate as well as to eliminate source(s) of bubble formation during module fabrication. Considerable effort was spent in developing an improved polybutyl acrylate casting formulation providing high gel. Many viable curing systems are now available: however, the best formulation considering physical properties, freedom from bubbles as well as cure time utilizes Lupersol II (aliphatic peroxide) initiator. This initiator gives the desired gel after 20 minute cure at 45/sup 0/C or 12 minute cure at 55/sup 0/C.

  6. Field demonstration of the conventional steam-drive process with ancillary materials. Quarterly report No. 1, October 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-10

    The objective of this contract is to field test the potential of chemical blocking foams to increase the efficiency of steam drive operations, particularly in shallow, heavy oil reservoirs. The initial work under the contract has consisted of laboratory work to test foaming materials. The state-of-the art was surveyed through a review of current work and through meetings held with university and industry laboratories. Discussed was equipment, data, and agents in the generation and evaluation of foams. Testing during the first quarter was conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure to screen the foaming agent. These tests were conducted in distilled water, saline water, and water with crude oil added, as described in detail in the appendix. The preliminary results, also included in the appendix, indicate that several chemicals appear promising.

  7. 77 FR 39447 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process AGENCY... Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) proposes to amend a Rule which governs the filing of Electric... Electric Quarterly Reports (EQRs). Due to technological changes that will render the current filing process...

  8. Natural gas conversion process. Sixth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  9. Nuclear materials stabilization and packaging. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, K.M.

    1996-05-01

    Progress is reported for Los Alamos Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Packaging projects for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1996. Development and production activities in Plutonium Recovery and Processing, Plutonium Packaging, and Uranium Recovery and Processing are covered. Packaging quality assurance activities are reported.

  10. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Seventeenth quarterly progress report, May 12-August 12, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

    1980-09-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Development efforts have emphasized the reformulation of polybutyl acrylate, a liquid pottant used in the casting encapsulation process. This material has been modified to yield a composition with much faster cure at lower temperatures. Minimodules have been successfully prepared from this low cost compound and are currently being evaluated by thermal/humidity cycling. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was used for the examination of thermal stability in some of the pottant compounds of current interest. This method was useful in determining the temperatures at which oxidative or pyrolysis reactions resulted in degradation of the polymers. All the candidate pottants showed degradation onsets of over 200/sup 0/C. The effectiveness of a new primer was determined during this period. This formulation was similar to the silane coupling agent used in past experimentation but was modified with a peroxide to enhance the activity. Excellent bound strengths were obtained to glass, and mild steel that were resistant to immersion in boiling water. EVA to low iron glass gave an average bond strength of 35 lbs per inch of width. This new primer was also evaluated for the corrosion protection that could be provided to metal surfaces when primed and encapsulated in EVA. (WHK)

  11. 77 FR 71288 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ...The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) amends its regulations to change the process for filing Electric Quarterly Reports (EQR). Due to technology changes that will render the current filing process outmoded, ineffective, and unsustainable, the Commission will discontinue the use of Commission-distributed software to file an EQR. Instead, the Commission adopts a web-based......

  12. Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials. [Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    The major emphasis this quarter has been in two areas. The first is to continue working the bugs out of the new particle pressure transducer. The second was to try and measure the particle pressures generated in a bed of FCC catalyst that is undergoing particulate fluidization. The results indicate that the stabilization of fluidized beds in that regime cannot be explained in terms of particle pressure generation. Instead, consistent with other recent observations,the observations can be explained by a material is that not completely fluidized but, instead, retains much of the properties of a solid and, in particular, can transmit particle pressure like a solid. 2 figs.

  13. Investigations of test methods, material properties, and processes, for solar-cell encapsulants. Twenty-second quarterly progress report for period ending November 12, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Investigations were continued into pottants, soil resistant coatings and low cost substrate materials. Two component aliphatic urethane casting syrups for use as solar module pottants were evaluated for suitability on the basis of optical, physical and fabrication characteristics. One formulation was selected as being acceptable for industrial evaluation. This urethane is characterized by high transparency, low mix viscosity, fast cure time and surprising lack of moisture sensitivity that has given trouble with previous urethane compositions. This material is produced with an ultraviolet stabilizer system already blended in. An experimental program was continued to determine the effectiveness of soil resistant coatings. These treatments have been applied to Sunadex glass, Tedlar and oriented acrylic film. The treatments are based on silicone, acrylic and fluorosilane chemistries. Test specimens are being exposed to outdoor soiling conditions with subsequent testing for short circuit-current loss using a standard cell device. After nine months of outdoor exposure, the most effective treatment appears to be a silane modified adduct of perfluorodecanoic acid. The degree of soiling also appears to correlate to the amount of rainfall that results in a natural cleaning of the surface. Wood products, such as hardboard, are potentially the lowest cost candidate substrates identified to date. The difficulty with the use of these materials lies in the very high hygroscopic expansion coefficients. Periods of dryout followed by subsequent moisture regain results in large expansions and contractions that result in cell fracture. Experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of occlusive coatings to prevent this effect. Both metal foils and organic films bonded to the hardboard with appropriate adhesives were found to dramatically decrease the hygroscopic response and lower the expansion coefficient by four orders of magnitude.

  14. Gravimelt process development. Quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-20

    During the current reporting period, the Mod 2, bench-scale Gravimelt reactor was installed, shaken down and operated using a sample of 40% ash run of mine Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal which had been mine cleaned to a level of 10.3% ash. Operation was successful and an excellent overall mass balance was achieved. Preliminary ash analyses from the test site show the above 97% ash removal calculated from run of mine was obtained as expected from previous laboratory scale tests. Large processed coal samples, prepared during the week of round-the-clock operation, were obtained for the planned washing studies and other protect requirements. 3 tables.

  15. Coal liquefaction process research quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Bickel, T.C.; Curlee, R.M.; Granoff, B.; Stohl, F.V.; Thomas, M.G.

    1980-03-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the activities of Sandia's continuing program in coal liquefaction process research. The overall objectives are to: (1) provide a fundamental understanding of the chemistry of coal liquefaction; (2) determine the role of catalysts in coal liquefaction; and (3) determine the mechanism(s) of catalyst deactivation. The program is composed of three major projects: short-contact-time coal liquefaction, mineral effects, and catalyst studies. These projects are interdependent and overlap significantly.

  16. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-12-31

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the twelfth quarter of activities. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) Thirty-nine samples from four run conditions of HTI Run PB-07 were received. Appropriate samples were characterized by proton NMR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vacuum distillation, and solvent quality tests. (2) The University of Delaware completed their subcontract this quarter. A meeting was held on April 30, 1997 at the University to close out the subcontract. (3) Twelve sets of samples were chosen from the CONSOL sample bank for the study of the insoluble and presumed unreactive material from process stream samples. Each set consists of the whole process stream and the 454 C{sup +} (850 F{sup +}) distillation resid derived from that process stream. Processing data for all samples were compiled. The samples represent four Wilsonville pilot plant runs and two HTI runs.

  17. Silicon materials task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project (Phase IV). Effects of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Nineteenth quarterly report, April 1980-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R.B.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Hanes, M.H.; Mollenkopf, H.C.; McCormick, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    The overall objective of this program is to define the effects of impurities, various thermochemical processes, and any impurity-process interactions upon the performance of terrestrial solar cells. The results of the study form a basis for silicon producers, wafer manufacturers, and cell fabricators to develop appropriate cost-benefit relationships for the use of less pure, less costly solar grade silicon. Nine 4 ohm-cm p type silicon ingots were grown and evaluated in support of the experimental program this quarter. Of these, three were polycrystalline ingots doped with Cr, Mo, and V, respectively, produced under conditions which successfully eliminated the metal-rich inclusions formed when growth of these heavily-doped specimens was attempted during the last quarter. Evaluation of polycrystalline ingots doped to the mid 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ range with Ti or V showed little evidence for grain boundary segregation. Deep level spectroscopy on both as-grown wafers and solar cells showed little variation in impurity concentration from place to place across the ingot regardless of the presence of grain boundaries or other structural features. Deep level spectroscopy was also used to monitor the electrically active impurity concentrations in ingots to be used for process studies, aging experiments, and high efficiency cells. The basic aspects of a model to describe efficiency behavior in high efficiency cells have been formulated and a computer routine is being implemented for back field type devices to analyze the functional relationships between impurity concentrations and cell performance.

  18. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 2 of 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment composite data products for data through the second quarter of 2012.

  19. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data Through Quarter 4 of 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.; Post, M.; Peters, M.; Ramsden, T.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment composite data products for data through the fourth quarter of 2012.

  20. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and possible advantages of processing materials in a nongravitational field are considered. Areas of investigation include biomedical applications, the processing of inorganic materials, and flight programs and funding.

  1. Quiet Quincy Quarter. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zishka, Phyllis

    This document suggests learning activities, teaching methods, objectives, and evaluation measures for a second grade consumer education unit on quarters. The unit, which requires approximately six hours of class time, reinforces basic social studies and mathematics skills including following sequences of numbers, distinguishing left from right,…

  2. Indian Educational Material. Annotated Quarterly Bibliography. Volume 6, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, A., Ed.

    This bibliography is a compilation of educational articles appearing in periodicals and newspapers in India during the period of January through March, 1971. Published quarterly, the index abstracts articles from 28 periodicals and 6 newspapers. Abstracts are entered by author and are arranged alphabetically under subject. The comprehensive…

  3. Materials processing in space

    SciTech Connect

    Oran, W.A.

    1982-11-01

    A brief overview of the current Materials Processing in Space Program is given, including a tentative schedule of flight experiments. Some recent results of processing materials (e.g., polymers and eutectic materials) in a microgravity environment are given, along with a discussion on additional proposed flight experiments. Ground-based results and the rationale for flight experimentation will be presented for other materials processes, including crystal growth.

  4. Quarterly Report: Microchannel-Assisted Nanomaterial Deposition Technology for Photovoltaic Material Production

    SciTech Connect

    Palo, Daniel R.

    2011-04-26

    Quarterly report to ITP for Nanomanufacturing program. Report covers FY11 Q2. The primary objective of this project is to develop a nanomanufacturing process which will reduce the manufacturing energy, environmental discharge, and production cost associated with current nano-scale thin-film photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing approaches. The secondary objective is to use a derivative of this nanomanufacturing process to enable greener, more efficient manufacturing of higher efficiency quantum dot-based photovoltaic cells now under development. The work is to develop and demonstrate a scalable (pilot) microreactor-assisted nanomaterial processing platform for the production, purification, functionalization, and solution deposition of nanomaterials for photovoltaic applications. The high level task duration is shown. Phase I consists of a pilot platform for Gen II PV films along with parallel efforts aimed at Gen III PV quantum dot materials. Status of each task is described.

  5. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Processing-refining of raw materials from extraterrestrial sources is detailed for a space materials handling facility. The discussion is constrained to those steps necessary to separate desired components from raw or altered input ores, semi-purified feedstocks, or process scrap and convert the material into elements, alloys, and consumables. The materials are regarded as originating from dead satellites and boosters, lunar materials, and asteroids. Strong attention will be given to recycling reagent substances to avoid the necessity of transporting replacements. It is assumed that since no aqueous processes exist on the moon, the distribution of minerals will be homogeneous. The processing-refining scenario will include hydrochemical, pyrochemical, electrochemical, and physical techniques selected for the output mass rate/unit plant mass ratio. Flow charts of the various materials processing operations which could be performed with lunar materials are provided, noting the necessity of delivering several alloying elements from the earth due to scarcities on the moon.

  6. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.; Komashko, Aleksey M.; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Perry, Michael D.

    2000-05-01

    The use of femtosecond lasers allows materials processing of practically any material with extremely high precision and minimal collateral damage. Advantages over conventional laser machining (using pulses longer than a few tens of picoseconds) are realized by depositing the laser energy into the electrons of the material on a time scale short compared to the transfer time of this energy to the bulk of the material, resulting in increased ablation efficiency and negligible shock or thermal stress. The improvement in the morphology by using femtosecond pulses rather than nanosecond pulses has been studied in numerous materials from biological materials to dielectrics to metals. During the drilling process, we have observed the onset of small channels which drill faster than the surrounding material.

  7. Femtosecond Laser Materials Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P.S.; Stuart, B.C.; Komashko, A.M.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Perry, M.D.

    2000-03-06

    The use of femtosecond lasers allows materials processing of practically any material with extremely high precision and minimal collateral damage. Advantages over conventional laser machining (using pulses longer than a few tens of picoseconds) are realized by depositing the laser energy into the electrons of the material on a time scale short compared to the transfer time of this energy to the bulk of the material, resulting in increased ablation efficiency and negligible shock or thermal stress. The improvement in the morphology by using femtosecond pulses rather than nanosecond pulses has been studied in numerous materials from biologic materials to dielectrics to metals. During the drilling process, we have observed the onset of small channels which drill faster than the surrounding material.

  8. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B. C., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to making high-aspect ratio cuts in metals with no heat-affected zone are made possible by this technology For material removal at reasonable rates, we developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

  9. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B

    1998-08-05

    Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area. Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to precision cuts in composites are possible by using this technology. For material removal at reasonable rates, we have developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

  10. Materials Processing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A report describes investigations of materials processing in low-gravity environment. Ultimately, research could lead to new commercially-applicable materials and processes and to an understanding of constraints imposed by gravity. NASA-supported work is carried out in 46 academic, industrial, and Government laboratories, and covers a number of areas. An overview is given of objective and current state of development for over 100 tasks.

  11. Extraterrestrial materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The first year results of a multi-year study of processing extraterrestrial materials for use in space are summarized. Theoretically, there are potential major advantages to be derived from the use of such materials for future space endeavors. The types of known or postulated starting raw materials are described including silicate-rich mixed oxides on the Moon, some asteroids and Mars; free metals in some asteroids and in small quantities in the lunar soil; and probably volatiles like water and CO2 on Mars and some asteroids. Candidate processes for space materials are likely to be significantly different from their terrestrial counterparts largely because of: absence of atmosphere; lack of of readily available working fluids; low- or micro-gravity; no carbon-based fuels; readily available solar energy; and severe constraints on manned intervention. The extraction of metals and oxygen from lunar material by magma electrolysis or by vapor/ion phase separation appears practical.

  12. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

  13. AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The ORNL Fossil Energy Materials Program Office compiles and issues this combined quarterly progress report from camera-ready copies submitted by each of the participating subcontractor organizations. This report of activities on the program is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FY 1982-1986 in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. This report is divided into parts and chapters with each part describing projects related to a particular fossil energy technology. Chapters within a part provide details of the various projects associated with that technology. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program. Plans for the program will be issued annually. A draft of the program plan for FY 1982 to 1986 has been prepared and is in the review process. The implementation of these plans will be reflected by these quarterly progress reports, and this dissemination of information will bw augmented by topical or final reports as appropriate.

  14. Superconducting materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, John S.; Karikari, Emmanuel K.; Hiamang, S. O.; Danjaji, M.; Bassey, Affiong; Morgan, Andre

    1995-08-01

    The effects of materials processing on the properties and behavior of high temperature yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconductors were investigated. Electrical, magnetic, and structural characteristics of thin films (300 nm) YBA2CU3O(delta) structures grown by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates were used to evaluate processing. Pole projection and thin film diffraction measurements were used to establish grain orientation and verify structural integrity of the samples. Susceptibility magnetization, and transport measurements were used to evaluate the magnetic and electrical transport properties of the samples. Our results verified that an unfortunate consequence of processing is inherent changes to the internal structure of the material. This effect translates into modifications in the properties of the materials, and undesired feature that makes it very difficult to consistently predict material behavior. The results show that processing evaluation must incorporate a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the materials. Future studies will emphasize microstructural characteristics of the materials, in particular, those microscopic properties that map macroscopic behavior.

  15. Superconducting materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, John S.; Karikari, Emmanuel K.; Hiamang, S. O.; Danjaji, M.; Bassey, Affiong; Morgan, Andre

    1995-01-01

    The effects of materials processing on the properties and behavior of high temperature yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconductors were investigated. Electrical, magnetic, and structural characteristics of thin films (300 nm) YBA2CU3O(delta) structures grown by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates were used to evaluate processing. Pole projection and thin film diffraction measurements were used to establish grain orientation and verify structural integrity of the samples. Susceptibility magnetization, and transport measurements were used to evaluate the magnetic and electrical transport properties of the samples. Our results verified that an unfortunate consequence of processing is inherent changes to the internal structure of the material. This effect translates into modifications in the properties of the materials, and undesired feature that makes it very difficult to consistently predict material behavior. The results show that processing evaluation must incorporate a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the materials. Future studies will emphasize microstructural characteristics of the materials, in particular, those microscopic properties that map macroscopic behavior.

  16. Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosek, J.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of this coordinated research program is optimization of the Rockwell/Cities Service Short Residence Time Hydrogasification (SRTH) and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) processes in the acid gas removal and cryogenic areas. Progress reports of eight subtasks are presented along with process flowsheets, heat and material balances and economic evaluation, summarized in tables. Each subtask studied the effect of variation of a key design parameter on the treatment cost of the SNG produced.

  17. Quarterly report: Pumps-status of slurry pumps in coal liquefaction processes. Third quarter - CY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This paper summarizes recent slurry pumps (centrifugal and reciprocal) operating experience in the liquefaction pilot plants. In addition, the activities concerning slurry pumps conducted in supporting research facilities are also noted. The purpose of the summary is to concentrate on the critical component problems common to all the liquefaction plants to avoid duplication of efforts, and to help provide timely solutions to the pump problems. The summary information used in this paper was obtained primarily from the Critical Component and Materials Meetings which are sponsored by the Office of Coal Processing of the Fossil Energy. The Department of Energy. Information from various Technical Reports published by the liquefaction plant personnel are also reviewed based on availability and relevance to topics covered in this report. It is intended that this report will be followed by updates as pertinent information concerning problem pumps becomes available. The following section s of the paper will provide a brief outline of early slurry pump experience as background material followed by a summary of recent slurry pump operating experience at liquefaction pilot plants.

  18. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

  19. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qingyou

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation of high-energy ultrasonic vibration in metals and alloys generates oscillating strain and stress fields in solids, and introduces nonlinear effects such as cavitation, acoustic streaming, and radiation pressure in molten materials. These nonlinear effects can be utilized to assist conventional material processing processes. This article describes recent research at Oak Ridge National Labs and Purdue University on using high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations for degassing molten aluminum, processing particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites, refining metals and alloys during solidification process and welding, and producing bulk nanostructures in solid metals and alloys. Research results suggest that high-intensity ultrasonic vibration is capable of degassing and dispersing small particles in molten alloys, reducing grain size during alloy solidification, and inducing nanostructures in solid metals.

  20. Materials and Processes Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.; And Others

    This instructional resource guide is intended to assist the industrial arts (IA) teacher in implementing a comprehensive materials and Processes Technology program at the technical level in Virginia high schools. The course is designed to help students make informed educational and occupational choices and prepare them for advanced technical or…

  1. Processing Materials in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoller, L. K.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested program of material processing experiments in space described in 81 page report. For each experiment, report discusses influence of such gravitational effects as convection, buoyancy, sedimentation, and hydrostatic pressure. Report contains estimates of power and mission duration required for each experiment. Lists necessary equipment and appropriate spacecraft.

  2. Laser material processing system

    DOEpatents

    Dantus, Marcos

    2015-04-28

    A laser material processing system and method are provided. A further aspect of the present invention employs a laser for micromachining. In another aspect of the present invention, the system uses a hollow waveguide. In another aspect of the present invention, a laser beam pulse is given broad bandwidth for workpiece modification.

  3. Space processing of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, N.

    1996-12-31

    Materials processing in space derives unique benefits from reduced levels of gravity and hydrostatic pressure. The attenuation of buoyancy-driven convection and sedimentation have led to the realization of close-to-diffusion-limited conditions for the growth of semiconductors, metals/alloys, proteins, etc., in novel crystal growth configurations. One of the aims of the conference was to bring together scientists, experiment designers/engineers, and educators in a common forum to highlight different aspects of low-gravity research. Two spotlight topics were picked for the conference: materials for detectors and electronics, and thin film technology--theory and applications. In addition, the conference focused on space hardware, low-gravity experiment design, and educational outreach programs. Presentations in materials processing included low-gravity and terrestrial experiments on the growth of mercury cadmium telluride, crystal characterization techniques, and modeling efforts. The growth of heavy metal fluoride glasses and metal alloys in low gravity was also featured in presentations. The session on thin film technology was mainly comprised of papers reporting on investigations in nonlinear optics. The growth, response, and characterization of organic and polymeric thin film materials were discussed. Microgravity experiments ranging from the diverse areas of diffusion studies and thermo-solutal convection to optical pyrometry and the behavior of granular materials in low gravity, were presented in a separate session devoted to space experiment design and implementation. Educational outreach programs for student involvement in ground-based and low-gravity research for materials processing and device fabrication were also featured in a separate conference session. Existing hardware for experiments in low gravity and future hardware concepts for the International Space Station and beyond were presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers.

  4. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Encapsulation task of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array project. Thirteenth quarterly progress report, May 12, 1979-August 12, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Springborn Laboratories is engaged in a study of evaluating potentially useful encapsulating materials for Task 3 of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array project (LSA) funded by DOE. The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the product of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Current technical activities are directed primarily towards the development of a solar module encapsulation technology that employs ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer as the pottant. Due to the surface tack of EVA, a slip sheet of release paper is required between each layer to prevent the plies from adhering. Manufacturers were surveyed and a source for inexpensive release paper in roll form was identified. A survey of separator materials was also conducted. Corrosion studies using a standard salt spray test were used to determine the degree of protection offered to a variety of metals by encapsulation in EVA pottant. Due to the low surface hardness of EVA and the remaining sensitivity to ultraviolet light, outer covers are required to prevent soiling and improve the weatherability. Two candidate films (Korad 212 and Tedlar UT) have been identified for this function. These films are somewhat scratch and abrasion sensitive, however, and their useful life can be prolonged with the application of thin layers of abrasion resistant hard coats. A survey of manufacturers of these coatings was performed and the products compared. Field trials of outdoor performance must be performed to fully assess the durability of these coatings.

  5. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly project status report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly project status report discusses research projects being conducted on hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River basin. We continued to seek improvement in our methods of communication and interactions to support the inter-disciplinary, inter-university collaborators within this program. In addition to the defined collaborative research teams, there is increasing interaction among investigators across projects. Planning for the second year of the project has included the development of our internal request for proposals, and refining the review process for selection of proposals for funding.

  6. Pickliq{reg_sign} Process Pilot Program. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-22

    Work on the funded project was completed during this period. The final report will be issued within the next week. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process has been found to be economically viable in the copper industry and is expected to be viable in steel-hydrochloric acid applications with the development of a new hydrochloric acid regeneration process associated with the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process.

  7. Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosek, J.

    1981-02-13

    The objective of this coordinated research program is to obtain the most attractive combinations of acid gas removal, methane separation for the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) and the Rockwell/Cities Service Hydrogasification processes. The program is divided into nine subtasks with each subtask studying the effect of variation of a key design parameter on the treatment cost of the SNG produced. Progress reports of 8 subtasks are presented. The following are some of the highlights. Subtask 1 - Heat and material balance and equipment sizing was completed for the cryogenic methane separation. The overall material balance is presented in a table. Subtask 2 - Preliminary designs for MEA and DEA gas removal systems were established. Subtasks 3 to 5 - Economic evaluation is in proress. Subtask 6 - The SNG product compressor train was simulated for the case where sufficient SNG fuel is withdrawn from the product compressors to fire the dryer reactivation heater. Subtask 7 - Acid gas removal and cryogenic separation equipment was resized to accommodate Exxon's request for a two-train plant design. Subtask 8 - The Benfield and Selexol systems will be evaluated for acid gas removal.

  8. 78 FR 34370 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Notice of Availability of Video Showing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Availability of Video Showing How To File Electric Quarterly Reports Using the Web Interface Take notice that... interface. Order No. 770 revised the process for filing EQRs. Pursuant to Order No. 770, one of the new processes for filing EQRs allows an EQR seller and its agent to file using a web interface that generally...

  9. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  10. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  11. Low-cost-silicon-process development. Phase IV: process improvement. Second quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Giraudi, R. V.; Newman, C. G.

    1981-04-01

    A number of promising techniques for improving the overall yield and economics of the tribromosilane based process to produce solar cell grade silicon is investigated. The current work is aimed at the identification of an optimum process and the characterization of that process through mini-plant operation and analysis. The three project tasks include process improvement studies, kinetic studies, and process economic studies. During this second quarter reporting period process improvement studies continued in the mini-plant, focusing on the correlation of current mini-plant yield results with prior laboratory scale work. Silicon bromination in the synthesis unit and tribromosilane purification in the distillation unit proceeded efficiently and without complication during this reporting period. Tribromosilane yields in the synthesis unit were low due to unobtainable higher reaction temperatures. Initial polycrystalline silicon production studies have indicated consistent yields of 85%. The laboratory scale static bulb reactor system was calibrated by observing the decomposition of t-butyl chloride. These results compared very well to results obtained by previous investigators for the same decomposition. Upon the conclusion of the calibration tests, the tribromosilane decomposition rate study was initiated. Two decompositions were completed and it was concluded that the reaction order can not be determined at this time. A free space reactor apparatus was assembled and tribromosilane decompositions, as a function of dilution in argon, was studied.

  12. Plasma separation process: Quarterly technical report for period 1 October 1987 through 31 December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The closeout plan was modified during the quarter to reflect a no cost extension of the Phase II period of performance from 15 November 1987 through 15 January 1988 and a delay of the PPM magnet warmup to the first quarter of CY 1988. The magnet warmup delay was instituted to allow the possible use of the PPM for an application demonstration. To maintain the overall closeout schedule, the resources associated with the magnet warmup are being used to accelerate the PPM process hardware decontamination. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Quarterly progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  14. 78 FR 53452 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Notice of Extended Availability of Sandbox...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Notice of Extended Availability of Sandbox Electronic Test Site Take notice that the opportunity to use the Sandbox Electronic... to eqr@ferc.gov . Please include ``Sandbox Electronic Test Site'' in the subject line of any...

  15. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Bowen, H. K.; Kenney, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The goals and activities of the center are discussed. The center activities encompass all engineering materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, composites, superconductors, and thin films. Processes include crystallization, solidification, nucleation, and polymer synthesis.

  16. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1979-June 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project for the period March 25, 1979, through June 24, 1979. SRC-I turnaround activities at the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant and several other problems delayed successful startup until April 11. Slurry was injected to the Lummus Deashing Unit for the first time April 12. After approximately eight days, slurry feed was diverted because of indications that solids were accumulating in the settler vessel. The Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down from April 28 to May 12, 1979, while the Lummus Unit settler vessel was hydroblasted. Cleaning of the settler vessel was complete May 10. Modifications to the unit were nearly complete at the end of the reporting period. Slurry feed to the Lummus Unit was reestablished June 15. To date, continuous production of specification product at design rates has not been achieved. One material balance run, MBR 79-1, was completed using Kentucky No. 9/14 coal at proposed design conditions for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Process Development Unit P-99 was on-stream for all of the second quarter of 1979, with the exception of a two-week scheduled turn-around. Six different run conditions were tested feeding Pittsburgh Seam coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine.

  17. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to ``calibrate`` the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850{degrees}F{sup +} , 1050{degrees}F{sup +}, and 850 {times} 1050{degrees}F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  18. Silicon materials task of the low cost solar array project (Phase III). Effects of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Phase III summary and seventeenth quarterly report, Volume 2: analysis of impurity behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R.B.; Blais, P.D.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Stapleton, R.E.; Mollenkopf, H.C.; McCormick, J.R.

    1980-01-23

    The object of this phase of the program has been to investigate the effects of various processes, metal contaminants and contaminant-process interactions on the properties of silicon and on the performance of terrestrial silicon solar cells. The study encompassed topics including thermochemical (gettering) treatments, base doping concentration, base doping type (n vs. p), grain boundary-impurity interaction, non-uniformity of impurity distribution, long term effects of impurities, as well as synergic and complexing phenomena. The program approach consists in: (1) the growth of doubly and multiply-doped silicon single crystals containing a baseline boron or phosphorus dopant and specific impurities which produce deep levels in the forbidden band gap; (2) assessment of these crystals by chemical, microstructural, electrical and solar cell tests; (3) correlation of the impurity type and concentration with crystal quality and device performance; and (4) delineation of the role of impurities and processing on subsequent silicon solar cell performance. The overall results reported are based on the assessment of nearly 200 silicon ingots. (WHK)

  19. Plasma Processing of Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-22

    inorganic films is possible. Some applications are photovoltaics , mic’roelectronics, surface protection, polymer ,membrane formation, and textiles... photovoltaics for solar energy conversion. (This material has immense potential for the manufacture of inexpensive photovoltaic devices--e.g., solar...8217"-.’ Mexico Barium 41 Peru, Ireland, Mexico, • Morocco Titanium (ilmenite) 23 Australia, Canada, South Africa - Mercury 28 Spain, Algeria , Italy

  20. Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosek, J.

    1981-08-01

    In both the Rockwell and the Exxon gasification processors, the desired product methane needs to be separated from the reaction products and some of the other synthesis gas products recycled. This separation is not easy and cryogenic methane separation results from the Rockwell process gas at 932 psia and containing 3725 ppM of benzene are reported. The benzene was recovered by partial condensation and carbon adsorption. Other details are given. In the Exxon process three preliminary plant designs for acid gas removal and cryogenic methane separation from the raw gas at 250 psig were evaluated. (LTN)

  1. Silicon materials task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project: Phase IV. Effects of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Twenty-first quarterly report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, R.H.; Hanes, M.H.; Davis, J.R.; Rohatgi, A.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Mollenkopf, H.C.

    1981-01-30

    The overall objective of this program is to define the effects of impurities, various thermochemical processes, and any impurity-process interactions upon the performance of terrestrial solar cells. The results of the study form a basis for silicon producers, wafer manufacturers, and cell fabricators to develop appropriate cost-benefit relationships for the use of less pure, less costly solar grade silicon. Cr is highly mobile in silicon even at temperatures as low as 600/sup 0/C. Contrasting with earlier data for Mo, Ti, and V, Cr concentrations vary from place to place in polycrystalline silicon wafers and the electrically-active Cr concentration in the polysilicon is more than an order of magnitude smaller than would be projected from single crystal impurity data. We hypothesize that Cr diffuses during ingot cooldown after groth, preferentially segregates to grain boundaries and becomes electrically deactivated. Both Al and Au introduce deep levels when grown into silicon crystals. Accelerated aging data from Ni-contaminated silicon imply that no significant impurity-induced cell performance reduction should be expected over a twenty-year device lifetime. Combined electrical bias and thermal stressing of silicon solar cells containing Nb, Fe, Cu, Ti, Cr, and Ag, respectively produces no performance loss after 100 hour exposures up to 225/sup 0/C. Ti and V, but not Mo, can be gettered from polycrystalline silicon by POCl/sub 3/ or HCl at temperatures of 1000 and 1100/sup 0/C.

  2. Processing composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The fabrication of several composite structural articles including DC-10 upper aft rudders, L-1011 vertical fins and composite biomedical appliances are discussed. Innovative composite processing methods are included.

  3. Transparent materials processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A zero gravity processing furnace system was designed that will allow acquisition of photographic or other visual information while the sample is being processed. A low temperature (30 to 400 C) test model with a flat specimen heated by quartz-halide lamps was constructed. A high temperature (400 to 1000 C) test model heated by resistance heaters, utilizing a cylindrical specimen and optics, was also built. Each of the test models is discussed in detail. Recommendations are given.

  4. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Sindo

    1996-10-01

    An extremely useful guide to the theory and applications of transport phenomena in materials processing This book defines the unique role that transport phenomena play in materials processing and offers a graphic, comprehensive treatment unlike any other book on the subject. The two parts of the text are, in fact, two useful books. Part I is a very readable introduction to fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer for materials engineers and anyone not yet thoroughly familiar with the subject. It includes governing equations and boundary conditions particularly useful for studying materials processing. For mechanical and chemical engineers, and anyone already familiar with transport phenomena, Part II covers the many specific applications to materials processing, including a brief description of various materials processing technologies. Readable and unencumbered by mathematical manipulations (most of which are allocated to the appendixes), this book is also a useful text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in materials, mechanical, and chemical engineering. It includes hundreds of photographs of materials processing in action, single and composite figures of computer simulation, handy charts for problem solving, and more. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing: * Describes eight key materials processing technologies, including crystal growth, casting, welding, powder and fiber processing, bulk and surface heat treating, and semiconductor device fabrication * Covers the latest advances in the field, including recent results of computer simulation and flow visualization * Presents special boundary conditions for transport phenomena in materials processing * Includes charts that summarize commonly encountered boundary conditions and step-by-step procedures for problem solving * Offers a unique derivation of governing equations that leads to both overall and differential balance equations * Provides a list of publicly available computer

  5. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  6. Evaluation of selected chemical processes for production of low-cost silicon: Phase III. Silicon Material Task, Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Sixteenth/seventeenth quarterly progress report, July-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Blocher, J.M. Jr.; Browning, M.F.

    1980-03-07

    The method under development for the production of semiconductor grade silicon is based on the zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride in a fluidized bed of seed particles. Construction of the PDU was completed during the report period, the fluidized-bed reactor was coated internally with silicon/SiC, and the operation of several systems was checked out. However, problems with the zinc feed system, unrelated to its basic operability, delayed introduction of zinc vapor to the PDU. At the end of the report period, the zinc feed system stood ready for tests of the control of zinc vapor feed rate by regulation of r.f. induction heating directly coupled to the liquid zinc. A study of the zinc distribution in miniplant silicon products containing zinc at the 300 and 3000 ppM levels suggests that the occlusion of zinc is caused by zinc mist entrained from the vaporizer, and it should be possible to drive the level to below 300 ppM by proper equipment design and process control.

  7. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.; Kujak, S.

    1992-07-23

    During this last quarter, evaluations were complete on the motor materials after 500-hr exposures to refrigerants CFC-123, HFC-134a and HCFC-22 at 90{degrees}C. Materials were also evaluated after exposure to nitrogen at 127{degrees}C to determine effect of the thermal exposure. Other exposures were started during this quarter with refrigerants HCFC-124, HFC-125, HFC-143a, HFC-32 and HFC-152a. One 500 hr exposure is set up per week and one is analyzed the same week. This will enable Trane to complete the 500 hour exposures by the end of the year.

  8. [Paste deposition and chip bonding process development]. IBM, Endicott tenth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The scope of Endicott activity during this quarter includes: paste deposition process development and chip bonding process development. It was discovered that small voids exist in the photobumps. These are typically at the base of the bump and are believed to have always been present. Although the reliability test results have been positive and no failure is attributed to voids, the process development work during the last quarter has focused on understanding how these form and how to reduce them. High feed pressure, slow nozzle speed and lower viscosity reduce void formation. Nozzle design changes have been identified. One change will increase the shearing of the paste during feed, thus reducing the viscosity, a second change will allow higher feed pressures. Chip bonding process development has focused on correlating bonding results between the IBM in-house chip bonder made by Research Devices, Inc. and the Universal development bond tool. Two variables have been identified that correlate with poor bond results. The report describes more detail of the activity during the tenth quarter for paste deposition and chip bonding in each of these areas.

  9. Library Materials: Selection and Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Michael; And Others

    This script of a slide-tape presentation, which describes the selection and processing of materials for a university library, includes commentary with indicators for specific slide placement. Distinction is made between books and serial publications and the materials are followed from the ordering decision through processing. The role of the…

  10. Telerobotic electronic materials processing experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, Stanford

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Commercial Programs (OCP), working in conjunction with NASA engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center, is supporting research efforts in robot technology and microelectronics materials processing that will provide many spinoffs for science and industry. The Telerobotic Materials Processing Experiment (TRMPX) is a Shuttle-launched materials processing test payload using a Get Away Special can. The objectives of the project are to define, develop, and demonstrate an automated materials processing capability under realistic flight conditions. TRMPX will provide the capability to test the production processes that are dependent on microgravity. The processes proposed for testing include the annealing of amorphous silicon to increase grain size for more efficient solar cells, thin film deposition to demonstrate the potential of fabricating solar cells in orbit, and the annealing of radiation damaged solar cells.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamics in Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to melt, pump, stir, and stabilize liquid metals. This provides a nonintrusive means of controlling the flow of metal in commercial casting and refining operations. The quest for greater efficiency and more control in the production of steel, aluminum, and high-performance superalloys has led to a revolution in the application of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to process metallurgy. Three typical applications are described here, chosen partially on the basis of their general interest to fluid dynamicists, and partially because of their considerable industrial importance. We look first at magnetic stirring, where a rotating magnetic field is used to agitate and homogenize the liquid zone of a partially-solidified ingot. This is a study in Ekman pumping. Next, we consider magnetic damping, where an intense, static magnetic field is used to suppress fluid motion. In particular, we look at the damping of jets, vortices, and turbulence. We conclude with a discussion of the magnetic destabilization of liquid-liquid interfaces. This is of particular importance in aluminum production.

  12. PROCESS OF FORMING POWDERED MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Glatter, J.; Schaner, B.E.

    1961-07-14

    A process of forming high-density compacts of a powdered ceramic material is described by agglomerating the powdered ceramic material with a heat- decompossble binder, adding a heat-decompossble lubricant to the agglomerated material, placing a quantity of the material into a die cavity, pressing the material to form a compact, pretreating the compacts in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to remove the binder and lubricant, and sintering the compacts. When this process is used for making nuclear reactor fuel elements, the ceramic material is an oxide powder of a fissionsble material and after forming, the compacts are placed in a cladding tube which is closed at its ends by vapor tight end caps, so that the sintered compacts are held in close contact with each other and with the interior wall of the cladding tube.

  13. Bench-scale co-processing. Quarterly report No. 9, March 1, 1990--June 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Liu, L.L.; Lea, C.L.; Miller, M.A.

    1990-10-08

    This is the ninth quarterly report. Objective is to extend and optimize UOP`s single-stage slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. Emphasis is given to defining and improving catalyst utilization and costs, evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems, and improving catalyst recycle and recovery. During this quarter, a temperature survey was completed with the reference V catalyst and liquid recycle. Objective of this study was to determine whether the improved high-severity performance observed for the Mo catalyst with liquid recycle was also possible with the reference V catalyst. In Run 5, a temperature-space velocity study was performed with the V catalyst but without liquid recycle. In that run, plant operability dropped dramatically above 425 C. Recycle was added in Run 21, but the temperature was kept constant at the reference 426 C. This report covers results of bench-scale Run 29, which examined combined effects of liquid recycle and increased temperature.

  14. Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Szymurski, S.R.

    1996-02-01

    The quarterly status report for the Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research Program is presented. Objectives for 1 October 1995--31 December 1995 include completion of contract negotiations for Study of Foaming Characteristics project, and finalizing Phase IV and Phase V projects.

  15. Extraterrestrial materials processing and construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Applications of available terrestrial skills to the gathering of lunar materials and the processing of raw lunar materials into industrial feed stock were investigated. The literature on lunar soils and rocks was reviewed and the chemical processes by which major oxides and chemical elements can be extracted were identified. The gathering of lunar soil by means of excavation equipment was studied in terms of terrestrial experience with strip mining operations on earth. The application of electrostatic benefication techniques was examined for use on the moon to minimize the quantity of materials requiring surface transport and to optimize the stream of raw materials to be transported off the moon for subsequent industrial use.

  16. Microstructural processes in irradiated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Morgan, Dane; Jiao, Zhijie; Almer, Jonathan; Brown, Donald

    2016-04-01

    This is an editorial article (preface) for the publication of symposium papers in the Journal of Nuclear materials: These proceedings contain the papers presented at two symposia, the Microstructural Processes in Irradiated Materials (MPIM) and Characterization of Nuclear Reactor Materials and Components with Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation, held in the TMS 2015, 144th Annual Meeting & Exhibition at Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida, USA on March 15–19, 2015.

  17. Processes for treating cellulosic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladisch, Michael R. (Inventor); Kohlman, Karen L. (Inventor); Westgate, Paul L. (Inventor); Weil, Joseph R. (Inventor); Yang, Yiqi (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed are processes for pretreating cellulosic materials in liquid water by heating the materials in liquid water at a temperature at or above their glass transition temperature but not substantially exceeding 220.degree. C., while maintaining the pH of the reaction medium in a range that avoids substantial autohydrolysis of the cellulosic materials. Such pretreatments minimize chemical changes to the cellulose while leading to physical changes which substantially increase susceptibility to hydrolysis in the presence of cellulase.

  18. Energy Implications of Materials Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Earl T.

    1976-01-01

    Processing of materials could become energy-limited rather than resource-limited. Methods to extract metals, industrial minerals, and energy materials and convert them to useful states requires more than one-fifth of the United States energy budget. Energy accounting by industries must include a total systems analysis of costs to insure net energy…

  19. Microstructural processes in irradiated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Morgan, Dane; Jiao, Zhijie; Almer, Jonathan; Brown, Donald

    2016-04-01

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at two symposia, the Microstructural Processes in Irradiated Materials (MPIM) and Characterization of Nuclear Reactor Materials and Components with Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation, held in the TMS 2015, 144th Annual Meeting & Exhibition at Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida, USA on March 15-19, 2015.

  20. Laser Material Processing in Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Marshall

    2014-03-01

    This presentation will address some of the past, present, and potential uses of lasers for material processing in manufacturing. Laser processing includes welding, drilling, cutting, cladding, etc. The U.S. was the hot bed for initial uses of lasers for material processing in the past with Europe, especially Germany, presently leading the way. The future laser processing leader may still be Germany. Selected uses, past and present, of lasers within GE will also be highlighted as seen in such business units as Aviation, Lighting, Power and Water, Healthcare, and Transportation.

  1. Long-term materials test program. Quarterly report, January-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1984-03-01

    Exposure of gas turbine materials to a PFBC effluent under the Long-Term Materials Test Program has reached 1507 hours. Unprotected nickel and cobalt base blade and vane alloys show susceptibility to hot corrosion at 1500/sup 0/F (gas temperature), 1300/sup 0/F, and 1100/sup 0/F (air-cooled pins). Precious metal aluminide and M (Co,Fe) CrAlY overlay coatings continue to show good resistance to corrosion above 1450/sup 0/F, but are susceptible to varying degrees of pitting attack between 1050 and 1300/sup 0/F. Significant erosion/corrosion degradation of both base alloys and protective coatings/claddings has been observed on airfoil specimens exposed at 1350/sup 0/F, 800 to 900 fps and dust loadings less than 100 ppM for 1085 hours. Corrosion predominately occurred in areas of direct particle impaction; i.e., leading edge and pressure surface, indicating an erosion/corrosion synergism. At gas velocities of 1200 to 1400 fps, a platinum-aluminide coated IN-738 pin experienced a metal recession rate of 8 mils/1000-hours. The PFBC facility continues to show excellent operational reliability, accumulating over 1100 test hours this quarter. The only concern from an operations standpoint is the gradual thinning of the in-bed heat exchanger tubing at a rate of about 5 mils/100 hours off the diameter.

  2. EPA`s overview of the Acid Rain Program`s emissions tracking system (ETS) quarterly report process

    SciTech Connect

    Wockenfuss, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Acid Rain Program`s Emission Tracking System (ETS) was developed to collect, quality assure and publish the monitored and sampled emissions data collected and reported by the electric utility industry. Data are collected from fossil-fuel burning electrical generating stations that are affected by the Acid Rain Program. Since its operational start in 1993 the ETS and the data collection that surrounds it, the quarterly report process, has evolved to handle the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) increased expectations of quarterly report data quality. The quarterly report process that supports the ETS provides utilities with multiple data submission options. It also provides software tools so that utilities can perform their own data assessment. This paper highlights the quarterly report process and the systems that are at the center of that process. It also analyzes utility performance relating to their 1995 and 1996 quarterly data reports and previews how the EPA`s quarterly report process will evolve over the next year.

  3. Process for separating bituminous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.W.; Roach, J.W.

    1981-06-16

    A process is disclosed for separating a solvent from a bituminous material by pressure reduction and steam stripping without carry-over of entrained bituminous material. A fluid-like phase comprising of bituminous material and solvent is reduced in pressure by passage through a pressure reduction valve to vaporize a portion of the solvent. The reduction in pressure also results in dispersing a mist of fine bituminous material particles in the vaporized solvent. The stream of vaporized solvent, mist and fluid-like bituminous material then is introduced into a static mixer. The static mixer intimately mixes the mist with the fluid-like material and causes the mist to recombine with the fluid-like material from which it was formed. The resulting stream is introduced into a steam stripper to separate the solvent remaining in the bituminous material. The vaporized solvent and steam are withdrawn from the stripper substantially free of entrained bituminous material and condensed. The liquid stream is introduced into a solvent surge vessel having a water draw. The solvent then is recycled in the process.

  4. CPT Word Processing Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaymaker, Josephine; Eakman, Donna

    A project to develop a student word processing manual was developed by using input from: (1) information specialists, employees, and educators; and (2) students using the manual. These instructional materials provide workbook assignments and reading for an individualized unit on CPT word processing to be used by 30 to 40 high school students per…

  5. Quarterly Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program tasks for April 2000 through June 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.P.

    2000-10-23

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems (OSDPS) of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVSs) and weld shields (WSs). This quarterly report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from OSDPS for fiscal year (FY) 2000. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, clad vent sets (CVSs), and weld shields (WSs). In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of flight quality (FQ) components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for two new RPS. The last section is dedicated to studies of the potential for the production of 238Pu at ORNL.

  6. Quarterly Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program tasks for January 2000 through March 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.P.

    2000-08-18

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems (OSDPS) of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides radioisotope Power Systems (BPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of .I 997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVSs) and weld shields (WSs). This quarterly report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from OSDPS for fiscal year (FY) 2000. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, clad vent sets (CVSs), and weld shields (WSs). In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of flight quality (FQ) components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for two new RPS. The last section is dedicated to studies of the potential for the production of 238Pu at OBNL.

  7. Materials processing in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    Activities of the Materials Processing in Low Gravity Program in which the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) designed, fabricated, and performed various low gravity experiments in materials processing between October 26, 1988 through October 25, 1989 are discussed. Details of low gravity experiments using the Drop Facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the KC-135 aircraft at Ellington Field are discussed. This effort included the defining of experimental requirements and equipment, experiment-facility integration requirements, building/assembling the necessary experiment apparatus, and conducting experiments which will contribute to the knowledge base for commercialization of materials processing in low gravity. UAH also performed logistical support needed to execute the experimentation, the necessary sample preparation, metallography analysis, and physical properties measurements of the processed samples.

  8. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly report No. 8, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the work performed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) during the eighth program quarter from April 1 to June 30, 1995, under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92114. This program has coordinated funding for Task 1 from IGT`s Sustaining Membership Program (SMP), while DOE is funding Tasks 2 through 8. Progress in all tasks is reported here. The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this quarter, progress in the following areas has been made: (1) Short duration activity. test on catalyst IGT-MS-103 showed that no deactivation over a 10 hour period. (2) A preliminary economic estimate for the application of the HSM process technology in a refinery showed potential for profitable commercialization. Engineers at oil companies have requested further information. (3) Tests with equimolar amounts of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in the feed showed that CS{sub 2} yield decrease with the addition of CO{sub 2}.

  9. Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU). Quarterly report No. 1, November 26, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Technical work during the first quarter of the program was directed toward completing all design and documentation tasks associated with the MEPSDU Preliminary Design Review Data Package submittal. Highlights of this effort consisted of: (1) preparation of a preliminary specification for MEPSDU input sheet material (dendritic web silicon); (2) preparation of a MEPSDU module preliminary design layout drawing and all associated detail drawings; (3) analysis of the performance of the MEPSDU module over a range of operating conditions; (4) definition of all steps in the baseline process sequence; (5) initiation of equipment specifications for all long lead time items in the MEPSDU; (6) initiation of preliminary design work on the cassette unload element and interconnect feed element of the automated cell interconnect station; and (7) preparation of the preliminary quality assurance plan. (WHK)

  10. Materials processing in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    Work is reported on the Materials Processing Low Gravity Program in which the University of Alabama worked with scientists and engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center to design, implement and perform low gravity experiments with various scientific investigators in materials processing science through March 15, 1989. The facilities used in these short duration low gravity experiments include the Drop Tube and Drop Tower at MSFC, and the KC-135 aircraft at Ellington Field. The utilization of these ground-based low gravity facilities for materials processing was instrumental in determining the feasibility of either performing a particular experiment in the microgravity of Space or continuing on-going activities which may have been delayed due to the absence of shuttle flights during this contractual effort.

  11. [Development of the Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation process]. [Quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, known as Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy since 1986 (Contracts DE-AC22-86PC91221 and DE-AC22-90PC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear flocculation, polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. Often, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (2) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. When the coal is superficially oxidized, a small dosage of reagents may be used to promote coagulation. During the last quarter, work was completed on the collection of the surface force and hydrophobicity data required for the estimation of the parameters in the hydrophobic interaction energy function. The estimation of these parameters will be completed in May, and the development of the extended DLVO equation for coal should be completed by the end of the next quarter. In Task 3, the mixing/coagulation characteristics of in-line mixers have been established and work with the ultrasonic horn has begun. The study of the recovery of coagula by column flotation will be completed in early May, and work on the remaining sub-tasks of Advanced Separation Methods has been accelerated in an effort to complete this task on schedule.

  12. The materials processing sciences glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traweek, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Processing Sciences Glovebox is a rack mounted workstation which allows on orbit sample preparation and characterization of specimens from various experiment facilities. It provides an isolated safe, clean, and sterile environment for the crew member to work with potentially hazardous materials. It has to handle a range of chemicals broader than even PMMS. The theme is that the Space Station Laboratory experiment preparation and characterization operations provide the fundamental glovebox design characteristics. Glovebox subsystem concepts and how internal material handling operations affect the design are discussed.

  13. Bench-scale co-processing. Quarterly report No. 11, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.

    1992-02-19

    The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP`s single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. The particular emphasis is one evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems. During the current quarter, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the manner in which the resid is upgraded at high-severity conditions to help understand the function of the resid during co-processing. This report coves Bench-Scale Runs 30 to 34. In Runs 30 to 34, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal using a 0.05 wt % molybdenum-based catalyst at 465{degrees}C.

  14. Residual stresses in material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Watkins, T.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    1994-09-01

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then adresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  15. Scaleup of mild gasification to be a process development. Quarterly report, February 1995--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, E.P.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

    1995-06-01

    The work performed during the Fourteenth quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1995) on the research program, {open_quotes}Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit{close_quotes} is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team that is performing the initial phases of the PDU development are: Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal), the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel), and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degrees}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter, the formal HAZOP review was completed and a report detailing action items for resolution by the parties responsible was prepared.

  16. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  17. Fiber lasers for material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiner, Bill

    2005-03-01

    Low power fiber lasers began entering the commercial markets in the early 1990s. Since their introduction, fiber lasers have rapidly progressed in power levels level with greatly improved beam quality to the point where they now exceed any other commercial material processing laser. These lasers, with single mode operation to 1 kilowatt and multi-mode operation to beyond 20 kilowatts, have high wall plug efficiency, an extremely compact footprint, are maintenance free and have a predicted diode life beyond 100,000 hours of continuous operation. Fiber lasers are making inroads into the scientific, medical, government, and in particular, material processing markets. These lasers have greatly expanded the application umbrella due to their unparallel performance combined with the ability to operate at different wavelengths, address remote applications and be propagated great distances in fiber. In the material processing markets, fiber lasers are rapidly gaining share in the automotive, microelectronic, medical device and marking markets, to name a few. The single mode lasers are redefining process parameters that have been accepted for decades. The high brightness multimode-kilowatt class lasers are achieving speeds and depths greater than comparable powered conventional lasers while providing the only commercial material processing lasers operating beyond 6 kilowatts at the 1 micron region.

  18. Process for separating bituminous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, J.W.

    1981-07-21

    A process is claimed for separating a solvent from a bituminous material by pressure reduction and steam stripping without carry-over of entrained bituminous material. The fluid-like phase of bituminous material and solvent is reduced in pressure and introduced into a steam stripper. The solvent vaporizes upon pressure reduction and a mist of fine bituminous material particles forms and becomes dispersed in the vaporized solvent. The vaporized solvent and associated mist is separated from the bituminous material in the stripper and is withdrawn from the steam stripper and introduced into a condenser. The solvent and steam from the stripper condense, a substantial portion of the mist of entrained particles solidifies and an emulsion of water and fluid-like bituminous material from the mist forms. The liquid stream is withdrawn from the condenser and introduced into a separator. The liquid stream separates in the separator into an upper fraction of solvent, a middle fraction of emulsion and a lower fraction of water and the solidified particles of bituminous material. The liquid solvent is removed by passage over a weir in the separator and recovered. The emulsion, water and solids can be removed from the base of the separator for disposal.

  19. FNAS materials processing and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golben, John P.

    1991-01-01

    Research on melt-sintered high temperature superconducting materials is presented. The vibrating sample magnetometer has become a useful characterization tool for the study of high temperature superconductors. Important information regarding the superconducting properties of a sample can be obtained without actually making contact with the sample itself. A step toward microgravity processing of high temperature superconductors was taken. In the future, the samples need to be optimized prior to this processing of the sample before the specific effects of the microgravity environment can be isolated. A series of melt-sintered samples show that bulk processing of high temperature superconductors is getting better.

  20. Space processing of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.

    1975-01-01

    Materials and processes for the testing of aluminum-base fiber and particle composites, and of metal foams under extended-time low-g conditions were investigated. A wetting and dispersion technique was developed, based on the theory that under the absence of a gas phase all solids are wetted by liquids. The process is characterized by a high vacuum environment and a high temperature cycle. Successful wetting and dispersion experiments were carried out with sapphire fibers, whiskers and particles, and with fibers of silicon carbide, pyrolytic graphite and tungsten. The developed process and facilities permit the preparation of a precomposite which serves as sample material for flight experiments. Low-g processing consists then merely in the uniform redistribution of the reinforcements during a melting cycle. For the preparation of metal foams, gas generation by means of a thermally decomposing compound was found most adaptable to flight experiments. For flight experiments, the use of compacted mixture of the component materials limits low-g processing to a simple melt cycle.

  1. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latanision, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    An annual report of the research activities of the Materials Processing Center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is given. Research on dielectrophoresis in the microgravity environment, phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids, transport properties of droplet clusters in gravity-free fields, probes and monitors for the study of solidification of molten semiconductors, fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth, and heat flow control and segregation in directional solidification are discussed.

  2. Investigation of materials processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Douglas R.; Seetharaman, Venkat; Goetz, Robert

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in materials processing research over the 45-month period from April 1989 through December 1992. The research work included projects on measuring the interface heat transfer coefficient in casting, predicting macro-segregation in casting, hot extrusion of TiAl alloy, canned extrusion of TiAl with core insulation, visioplasticity study of 6061 Al, cold rolling of Bi-based superconductor, and die design and process modeling of Mg+B4C alloy. The processing work in the Processing Laboratory included 2,357 extrusion, forging, rolling, vacuum arc melting, vacuum induction melting, and evacuation/outgas operations. The Processing Laboratory was also relocated as part of this program and the 700-ton Lombard extrusion press was completely rebuilt and modernized.

  3. Advanced research and technology development fossil energy materials program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.

    1981-12-01

    This is the fourth combined quarterly progress report for those projects that are part of the Advanced Research and Technology Development Fossil Energy Materials Program. The objective is to conduct a program of research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Work performed on the program generally falls into the Applied Research and Exploratory Development categories as defined in the DOE Technology Base Review, although basic research and engineering development are also conducted. A substantial portion of the work on the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program is performed by participating cntractor organizations. All subcontractor work is monitored by Program staff members at ORNL and Argonne National Laboratory. This report is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FY 1981 in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program.

  4. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing: Quarterly progress report, September 15, 1988--December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Because of their unusual solvating and mass transfer properties, supercritical fluids show potential for a variety of coal processing applications. To establish a database of coal model compound equilibria, this quarter we have measured the solubility of 5,6-dimethyl-benzimidazole and anthraquinone in supercritical butane. In addition, we have used fluorescence spectroscopy to study the nature of the intermolecular interactions in the systems of pyrene and naphthalene in supercritical CO/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, and CF/sub 3/H. The spectroscopy measurements are being used to guide the development of an equation of state that can be used to predict the solubility behavior so systems can be designed for the processing of coal with supercritical fluids. 4 figs.

  5. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.; Robbins, G.A.

    1993-10-01

    The Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. is conducted a program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects sponsored by the Department of Energy. In this program, CONSOL obtains samples from current process development activities in coal liquefaction and coal-oil coprocessing, and characterizes them using established analytical techniques. In addition, selected samples are characterized by other analytical techniques to evaluate their potential for aiding process development. These analyses and interpretation of the results in relation to process operations are provided by the subcontractor. Major topics reported in this thirteenth quarterly report are the following: (1) Analyses were performed on three coals and eleven process oils from HRI, Inc. process development unit Run 260--03, which was the first process development unit test of Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal, significant operating problems were encountered, and sample properties are discussed in context to the operational problems; (2) a summary of the status of the Participants Program is given; (3) summaries of the final reports produced by the University of Chicago, the University of Utah, Iowa State University, and the University of Kentucky under the Participants Program, are presented.

  6. Process for preparing energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Lee, Ronald S [Livermore, CA; Tillotson, Thomas M [Tracy, CA; Hrubesh, Lawrence W [Pleasanton, CA; Swansiger, Rosalind W [Livermore, CA; Fox, Glenn A [Livermore, CA

    2011-12-13

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  7. 27 CFR 18.51 - Processing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processing material. 18.51... material. (a) General. A proprietor may produce processing material or receive processing material produced elsewhere. Fermented processing material may not be used in the manufacture of concentrate....

  8. 27 CFR 18.51 - Processing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Processing material. 18.51... material. (a) General. A proprietor may produce processing material or receive processing material produced elsewhere. Fermented processing material may not be used in the manufacture of concentrate....

  9. 27 CFR 18.51 - Processing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processing material. 18.51... material. (a) General. A proprietor may produce processing material or receive processing material produced elsewhere. Fermented processing material may not be used in the manufacture of concentrate....

  10. Ultrastructure Processing of Macromolecular Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-25

    Amherst, MA 01003 I U 93 12 6032 n FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT ULTRASTRUCTURE PROCESSING OF MACROMOLECULARI MATERIALS MIRP GRANT AFOSR 90-C-0019 10 February...members of the Directorate, for their unfailing cooperation, help and courtesy extended to him during the period of this grant.I U I I i DTIC qu1...I. TITLE II. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR III. GRANT NUMBERS/DATES I IV. SENIOR RESEARCH PERSONNEL V. JUNIOR RESEARCH PERSONNEL VI . ABSTRACT OF

  11. Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation: HEDL stabilizer materials program, October-December quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, R.L.; Cash, R.J.

    1981-12-15

    The objective of the Spent Fuel Stabilizer Materials Program is to identify, test, select, and qualify stabilizer materials for use in the design of spent fuel waste packages. Emphasis is placed on the selection of stabilizer materials with minimal interactions. The preliminary screening of candidate spent fuel stabilizer materials was completed and reported to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation in November 1980. Based on criteria set for thermally induced stresses, material cost, and material availability, an initial list of potential stabilizers was reduced to 34 that are recommended for additional screening tests. The spent fuel stabilizer temperature limit test was completed during this report period. Tests were conducted to establish a conservative temperature limit for spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel during the stabilizer emplacement process. Melting of metals and metal alloys, fusing of glass stabilizers,or other possible emplacement processes may require elevation of the spent fuel temperature above levels desirable for maintaining fuel rod integrity (intact cladding) or reasonable inter-rod spacing for stabilizer flow. This test was conducted to establish the temperature below which these concerns would not exist. Stabilizers that require emplacement process temperatures above the limit will be eliminated from the screening program.

  12. Laser processing of siliceous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzner, Michael; Lenk, Andreas; Wiedemann, Guenter R.; Hauptmann, Jan; Weiss, Hans J.; Ruemenapp, Thomas; Morgenthal, Lothar; Beyer, Eckhard

    2000-08-01

    Laser processing of siliceous materials becomes increasingly important. Analogous to the laser processing of conventional materials there are applications in the fields of cleaning, surface processing, cutting, etc. The present paper concerns the state of the art and new applications: (1) Laser cleaning of natural stone surfaces. The good disability allows restoration work to be carried out conveniently, as for example the complete removal of crusts or the removal to such degree that moisture is not trapped beneath. (2) Non-slip finish of polished natural stone surfaces: The excellent focusing of laser beams on spots as small as 100 micrometer and below can be exploited to produce macroscopically invisible structures on the surfaces of different materials. This permits microscopically small craters and lentil shaped depressions to be generated on the stone surface. Therefore it is possible to provide a non-slip finish to polished natural stone surfaces without noticeably impairing the gloss. (3) Concrete cutting: In Europe, and particularly in Germany, there is a growing demand for redevelopment of concrete apartment buildings, involving the removal of non-bearing walls and the cutting of openings. The temporal relocation of residents due to the noise and moisture from the use of diamond tools could be avoided by applying a laser cutting technology. With a 3 kW-Nd-YAG-laser, 70 mm concrete can be cut with rates up to 25 mm/min.

  13. 25th anniversary article: Colloidal quantum dot materials and devices: a quarter-century of advances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Zhitomirsky, David; Sargent, Edward H

    2013-09-25

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) optoelectronics offers a compelling combination of low-cost, large-area solution processing, and spectral tunability through the quantum size effect. Since early reports of size-tunable light emission from solution-synthesized CQDs over 25 years ago, tremendous progress has been made in synthesis and assembly, optical and electrical properties, materials processing, and optoelectronic applications of these materials. Here some of the major developments in this field are reviewed, touching on key milestones as well as future opportunities.

  14. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, November 1991--January 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. Accomplishments for this past quarter are as follows: The 9th quarterly measurements at the Colorado site took place in December, 1991. Permeability and neutron absorption moisture content measurements were made and on site data was collected from the data logger; The 9th quarterly sampling at the Ohio site took place in November 1991. Permeability and moisture content measurements were made, and water samples were collected from the wells and lysimeters; The second quarterly core and water samples from the first Illinois test case were collected in mid November, and field data were collected from the data logger; Chemical analysis of all core and water samples continued; all chemical analyses except for some tests on Illinois second quarter cores are now complete.

  15. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: Summaries of the final reports produced by Lehigh University, West Virginia University, and Vander Sande Associates under the Participants Program are presented. Analytical data produced by CONSOL are provided in Appendix I for all samples employed in the Participants Program and issued with the samples to research groups in the Participants Program. A paper was presented at the 1992 US Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Liquefaction Contractors` Review Conference, held in Pittsburgh September 23--24, 1992, entitled ``The Chemical Nature of Coal Liquid Resids and the Implications for Process Development``. It appears as Appendix 2 in this report.

  16. Indian Educational Material: Annotated Quarterly Bibliography. Volume 7, Number 3. (Period Covered: July-September 1972)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, A.; And Others

    One hundred and sixty abstracts of articles appearing in periodicals and newspapers make up this quarterly publication on education in India. Many topics are covered, some of which are policy and planning, academic achievement, administration and organization, adult education, curriculum and educational psychology. The abstracts are indexed by the…

  17. Indian Educational Material. Annotated Quarterly Bibliography. Volume 6, Number 4, (Period Covered October-December 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, A., Ed.

    One hundred and sixty-five abstracts of articles appearing in periodicals and newspapers comprise this quarterly publication of annotated bibliographies on the subject of education in India. Some of the many topics covered by the documents include organization, curriculum and methods, educational psychology and sociology, academic achievement,…

  18. Indian Educational Material. Annotated Quarterly Bibliography. Volume 7, Number 2, (Period Covered April-June 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, A., Ed.

    One hundred and forty nine abstracts of articles appearing in periodicals and newspapers make up this quarterly publications on education in India. Many topics are covered, some of which are: adult education, finance, guidance and counselling, moral education, physical education, and history. A second longer section is on technical education. The…

  19. Indian Educational Material. Annotated Quarterly Bibliography. Volume 6, Number 3 (Period Covered: July-September 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, A., Ed.

    Abstracts of articles appearing in periodicals and newspapers comprise this quarterly publication of annotated bibliographies on the subject of education in India. Some of the many topics, briefly described in ED 049 989, covered by the 182 documents include organization, curriculum and methods, educational psychology and sociology, teacher…

  20. Indian Educational Material. Annotated Quarterly Bibliography. Volume 7, Number 4, (Period Covered October-December 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, A., Ed.

    The quarterly publication consists of one hundred and fifty-two abstracts of periodical and newspaper articles on education in India. Some of the many topics covered are courses of study, curriculum, examination and evaluation, guidance and counseling, technical and vocational education, educational psychology, teaching methods, and history. A…

  1. Instructional Materials Development Program: Winter and Spring Quarters, 1976. OASIS Evaluation Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Majer, Kenneth

    The Office of Academic Support and Instructional Services (OASIS) at the University of California, San Diego administers an Instructional Materials Development Program. An overview of the program is presented along with a description of the product development/evaluation cycle. Program evaluation is generic to this process, since several formative…

  2. Computational Material Processing in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Working with Professor David Matthiesen at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) a computer model of the DPIMS (Diffusion Processes in Molten Semiconductors) space experiment was developed that is able to predict the thermal field, flow field and concentration profile within a molten germanium capillary under both ground-based and microgravity conditions as illustrated. These models are coupled with a novel nonlinear statistical methodology for estimating the diffusion coefficient from measured concentration values after a given time that yields a more accurate estimate than traditional methods. This code was integrated into a web-based application that has become a standard tool used by engineers in the Materials Science Department at CWRU.

  3. Lightweight combustion residues-based structural materials for use in mines. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Zhang, Yuzhuo; Ghosh, A.K.; Palmer, S.R.; Peng, Suping; Xiao, Y

    1995-12-31

    The overall goal of this PrOject is to develop, design, and test artificial supports (post and crib members), for use in mines, which will be manufactured from coal combustion by-products (CCB) based lightweight structural materials. During the last quarter (Dec. 1, 1994--Feb. 28, 1995), it was reported that low LOI ({approx}5%) F-fly ash-based lightweight materials with density ranging from 70-1 110 pcf and compressive strength ranging from about 1,500 psi to 5,000 psi had been developed. During this quarter, 1) similar materials were developed using higher LOI ({approx}1O%) F-fly ash, 2) performance of materials using nylon fibers rather than polypropylene fibers was examined, 3) effect of addition of small amounts of FBC spent bed material on strength-deformation properties was evaluated, 4) flexural strength tests were performed on 2 in. X 2 in. X 12 in. cast beams, 5) compressive strength tests were performed on cast hollow cylinders (6 in. outer diameter, 2.762 in. inner diameter and 12 in. long) and 6) limited number of tests were conducted to determine the effect of mixing speed on strength of developed materials. The results of these studies indicate that 1) suitable lightweight materials using 60--65% higher LOI F-fly ash can be developed for fabrication of artificial supports, 2) nylon fibers perform significantly better than Polypropylene fibers, 3) loss of strength and deformability due to the use of higher LOI fly ash can be offset to some extent by adding 5--10% FBC spent bed material, 4) relationship between flexural strength and compressive strength, similar to that in concrete exists, 5) strength-deformation properties of hollow cylinders are similar to 3 in. X 6 in. solid cylinders, and 6) strength and deformation modulus increase with mixing speed. Two mixes for final development of lightweight materials have been identified and final test` will begin June 1, 1995.

  4. 27 CFR 18.51 - Processing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processing material. 18.51... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.51 Processing material. (a) General. A proprietor may produce processing material or receive processing material produced...

  5. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited using a new procedure and 47 days of operation were completed in the quarter. For retort No. 28 air injection and off gas piping and manifolding was completed along with the installation of electrical and instrumentation wiring. The off gas processing plant for the two retorts was completed and an initial shakedown run made.

  6. Develop apparatus and process for second-stage drying. Quarterly progress report, September 26--December 26, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, F.

    1995-01-05

    Progress is reported on Task 1, Computer simulation refinement and extension, and its two subtasks: Verification of computer model simulation of the drying process for lumber in a superheated kiln and Establishment of energy loss predictions for specific kiln designs for the first stage kiln. A report of a trip to the Irvington Moore Corporation facility and plans for next quarter are described.

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees (non-medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  8. Material development of polymer/metal paste for flip-chip attach interconnection technology. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Saraf, R.F.; Roldan, J.M.; Sambucetti, C.J.

    1997-11-04

    In the last leg of the project the major thrust has been on the assembly process using the conductive adhesive, viz., the optimization of the process conditions and the bonding equipment. The past at this point is deemed optimum in terms of the three basic properties: adhesion, screenability and conductivity. The reliability and wafer level screening is proven reproducibly over several experiment constituting assembly of more than one part. Using the optimum paste the authors have provided an uninterrupted supply of reproducible (optimum) paste. By tweaking the compounding conditions a first-level scale-up was successfully achieved. The initial 30g batch to Endicott is increased to as high as 300 g batches with similar properties. The large batch material is shown to behave similar to the small batch materials. Also, it has been essential to do large wafer level studies: Endicott has scaled up their screening from 5 inch wafer to 8 inch wafer.

  9. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  10. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  11. Lunar materials processing system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    The theme of this paper is that governmental resources will not permit the simultaneous development of all viable lunar materials processing (LMP) candidates. Choices will inevitably be made, based on the results of system integration trade studies comparing candidates to each other for high-leverage applications. It is in the best long-term interest of the LMP community to lead the selection process itself, quickly and practically. The paper is in five parts. The first part explains what systems integration means and why the specialized field of LMP needs this activity now. The second part defines the integration context for LMP -- by outlining potential lunar base functions, their interrelationships and constraints. The third part establishes perspective for prioritizing the development of LMP methods, by estimating realistic scope, scale, and timing of lunar operations. The fourth part describes the use of one type of analytical tool for gaining understanding of system interactions: the input/output model. A simple example solved with linear algebra is used to illustrate. The fifth and closing part identifies specific steps needed to refine the current ability to study lunar base system integration. Research specialists have a crucial role to play now in providing the data upon which this refinement process must be based.

  12. Complex Fluids and Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, L. Gary

    1998-11-01

    Complex fluids, such as polymeric liquids, colloidal dispersions, surfactant solutions, immiscible fluid blends and fiber suspensions are the basis of many manufactured products. These fluids are distinct from common Newtonian liquids in that there is a strong coupling between flow and the microstructural state of the fluid. Thus, when processed in the liquid state, the macroscopic properties of the material may be changed. This can either be detrimental or it may offer an opportunity to tailor the processing flow to optimize the property of interest. In any case, there is a tremendous need and an opportunity for fluid mechanicians to develop a theoretical and experimental basis for understanding the fluid mechanics of complex fluids, including the coupling between flow and the microstructural state of the material. In the present talk, I discuss (a personal view of) the underlying basis of current fluid mechanics research on the dynamics of complex fluids. The general principles are then illustrated using the specific example of nematic liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs). At the theoretical model level, LCPs resemble a concentrated suspension of rod-like fibers with the addition of a so-called nematic potential energy that is minimized when the system is in a state of uniform alignment. The primary technological interest in LCPs is their potential for high modulus, low weight, structural materials. The one very successful example of a product which realizes this potential is the DuPont fiber known as Kevlar.® To date, however, no two- or three-dimensional object with comparable strength has been made successfully. The main problem is the tendency for the fluid to spontaneously degenerate into a polydomain structure in the shear-like flows that exist in injection molding a sea of small, well-oriented microdomains, each of which is oriented randomly relative to its neighbors. The predecessor to this polydomain state is the appearance in flow of orientational

  13. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    This report is the twenty-first Quarterly Technical Progress Report for US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-77ET10069 for EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development Phase V. A detailed comparison of RCLU, CLPP, and ECLP yields has been initiated. This study builds off previous yield modeling results, which found that RCLU, CLPP, and ECLP yields were generally consistent given the scatter of the data, although some differences were noted. These pilot unit yield differences have now been quantified, and operating/configurational differences which account for some of them have been identified. Preliminary yield comparison results after correcting for these known process differences between the pilot plants indicate that: RCLU and CLPP yields are generally consistent; ECLP's conversion is about 5 lb/100 lb DAF coal lower than RCLU/CLPP at comparable operating conditions; and work has been initiated to define the EDS slurry preheater feed system design (based on slurry distributor manifold guidelines and coking correlation predictions, which influence furnace pass control issues such as slurry flow measurement). EDS hydrotreated naphtha showed a low level of systemic toxicity to rats exposed to the vapor six hours per day, five days per week for thirteen weeks.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-03-01

    This is the Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: Fifty-eight process samples from HRI CTSL Bench Unit Run CC-15 (227-75) were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run CC-15 was operated for 14 periods (days) from October 21 through November 3, 1992 in the thermal/catalytic configuration with Black Thunder Mine (Wyodak and Anderson seams) coal and Shell S-317 Ni/Mo supported extrudate catalyst. The run was made to test performance with and without a dispersed hydrous iron hydroxide catalyst precursor impregnated in the coal. Results are compared with those of previous HRI CTSL bench unit Run CC-1, which was operated in the catalytic/catalytic configuration, also with Shell S-317 catalyst. Several HRI Run CC-15 product distillate fractions prepared by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) for petroleum inspection tests were further characterized by CONSOL. These characterization data are presented. MicroAutoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to evaluate the solvent quality of two potential solvents for Alberta Research Council ARC. Eight product samples from catalytic dehydrogenation experiments were characterized for the University of Pittsburgh. A description is presented of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method for determination of resid concentration/resid conversion, which was adapted for use in-house from HRI`s standard method. A brief summary of the status of the Participants Program is given.

  15. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-01

    This report is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report for US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC01-77ET10069 (formerly EF-77-A-01-2893) for Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) Coal Liquefaction Process Development - Phase V. The Laboratory Process Research and Development studies were conducted at various Exxon Research and Engineering Co. (ER and E) facilities: Research and Development Division at Baytown, Texas; Products Research Division at Linden, New Jersey; and the Exxon Research and Development Laboratories at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The Engineering Research and Development studies were performed at the Synthetic Fuels Engineering and Exxon Engineering Technology Departments of ER and E at Florham Park, New Jersey. The information dealing with the Management, Detailed Engineering, and Procurement activities related to revamp of the FLEXICOKING Prototype Unit was generated at Exxon Company, USA, Houston, Texas, and Exxon Engineering - Project Management Department of ER and E, Florham Park, New Jersey. The information dealing with operation of the 250 T/D Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant (ECLP) was generated at Exxon Company, USA, Houston, Texas.

  16. The development of an integrated multistage fluid bed retorting process. Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.; Stehn, J.; Vego, A.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT 11) during the period of January 1, 1993 through March 31, 1993 under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC27286 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The major activity for this quarter was to install various components of the process and provide utility support including air, water, electrical power, and computerized instrumentation. Following the completion of construction activities which is scheduled for next quarter, cold-flow testing and heat-up procedures will be performed.

  17. Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit. Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, M. H.

    1981-01-20

    This represents the second quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of the PDU. On June 25, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. During this report period, Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program was completed. The gasification system was operated for a total of 95 h at pressures up to 10 atm. Average product gas HHV values of 100 Btu/scf were recorded during 10-atm operation, while gasifying coal at a rate of 1100 lb/h. The run was terminated when the melt overflow system plugged after 60 continuous hours of overflow. Following this run, melt withdrawal system revisions were made, basically by changing the orifice materials from Monofrax to an 80 Cobalt-20 Chromium alloy. By the end of the report period, the PDU was being prepared for Run 7.

  18. Materials and processes control for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and processes control relative to space applications is discussed. The components of a total material and process control system are identified, contamination control issues are listed, and recommendations are made.

  19. Tags and seals for controling nuclear materials, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Talaber, C; Stull, S; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies summarizes demonstrations and addresses related topics. The first article, ``Basic Nuclear Material Control and Accountability Concepts as Might be Applied to the Uranium from the US-Russian HEU Purchase,`` describes safeguards sybsystems necessary for effective nuclear material safeguards. It also presents a general discussion on HEU-to-low-enrichment uranium (LEU) commingling processes and suggests applicable key measurement points. The second article, ``A Framework for Evaluating Tamper-Indicating-Device Technologies (TIDs),`` describes their uses, proper selection, and evaluation. The final three articles discuss the tags and seals applications and general characteristics of several nuclear material containers: the Type 30B uranium hexafluoride container, the AT-400R container, and the DOT Specification 6M container for SNM. Finally, the Appendix displays short descriptions and illustrations of seven tags and seals, including: the E-cup and wire seal, the python seal, the secure loop inspectable tag/seal (SLITS), bolt-and-loop type electronic identification devices, and the shrink-wrap seal.

  20. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, March 1995--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, this process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) along with some unconverted carbon, which is disposed of as solid waste. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag could be made into a lightweight material by controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700{degrees}F. These results indicated the potential for using such materials as substitutes for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project, funded by DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications.

  1. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, June 1--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ``as-generated`` slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ``as-generated`` slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 17000F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot-scale, and Phase 2, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. Accomplishments are described.

  2. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, June--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700{degrees}F. These results indicated the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications.

  3. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  4. Materials processing in space: Early experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Herring, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of the space environment were reviewed. Potential applications of space processing are discussed and include metallurgical processing, and processing of semiconductor materials. The behavior of fluid in low gravity is described. The evolution of apparatus for materials processing in space was reviewed.

  5. A calcium oxide sorbent process for bulk separation of carbon dioxide. Quarterly progress report 19, January--March, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.

    1994-04-01

    This research project is investigating the technical feasibility of a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) process for the bulk separation of CO{sub 2} from coal-derived gas. Indirect evidence which suggested that the water-gas shift reaction occurred simultaneously with CO{sub 2} removal was found. Occurrence of the simultaneous reactions created the possibility of a direct one-step process for the manufacture of hydrogen from coal-gas while at the same time separating a concentrated stream of CO{sub 2}. Previous quarterly reports have described the design, construction, and commissioning of the fixed-bed reactor, development of analytical procedures, and results of a number of tests using dolomite sorbent precursor. During the current quarter, additional tests were carried out to study the effects of calcination gas composition, temperature, and space velocity using the standard dolomite sorbents. Alternate sorbents were tested to provide direct comparison of dolomite and limestone performance. Tests were performed using an empty reactor and reactor packed with commercial shift catalyst to learn more of the characteristics of the shift reaction in the absence of carbonation. Toward the end of the quarter, emphasis changed to sorbent durability and a number of multicycle tests were completed.

  6. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Second quarterly technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-19

    This document contains the Quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Micronized Magnetite Testing Project being performed at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). This second quarterly report covers the period from October, 1994 through December, 1994. The main accomplishments of Custom Coals and the project subcontractors, during this period, included: (1) Submitted all overdue project documents and kept up with routine reporting requirements; (2) Worked with CLI Corporation, the design subcontractor, and completed the circuit design and finalized all design drawings; (3) Specified and procured all of the process equipment for the circuit, as well as a number of ancillary equipment, instruments, and supplies; (4) Assisted Vangura Iron Inc. in detailing and constructing the structural and platework steel; (5) Subcontracted Rizzo & Sons to perform the circuit mechanical and electrical installation, and prepared for January 23rd installation start date; (6) Organized and prepared for coal and magnetite procurement; (7) Specified and organized an operating personnel plan for the commissioning and testing tasks in the project; (8) Assessed analytical challenges for project, and began to research problem areas. This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the abovementioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  7. Process Diagnostics: Materials, Combustion Fusion. Volume 117. Materials Research Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    reference volume for professionals working in the area of materials process control as well as a graduate level textbook for a course in applied ... spectroscopy or process engineering that might be given as part of a chemistry, physics, chemical or materials engineering curriculum.

  8. 77 FR 46986 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Availability of Draft XML Schema

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is making available on its Web site ( http://www.ferc.gov ) a draft of the XML schema that is being developed for use in filing Electric Quarterly... Commission is making available on its Web site ( http://www.ferc.gov ) a draft of the XML schema that...

  9. Lightweight combustion residues-based structural materials for use in mines. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Yoginder P.; Zhang, Yuzhuo; Ghosh, A.K.; Palmer, S.R; Peng, Suping, Xiao, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The overall goal of this project is to develop, design and test artificial supports (post and crib members) for use in mines manufactured from coal combustion by-product (CCB) based lightweight structural materials. The lightweight cement-fly ash grout with density ranging from 70 to 110 pcf has been developed incorporating very high volume (50--60 % of whole solid materials) fly ash. Characterization of individual component materials for the CCB-based structural materials has been performed for Class F fly ash, ASTM Type I cement, lime, silica fume, polypropylene fibers, protein-based foam, water-reducing agents, and calcium chloride. During the past quarter, we emphasized on screening mix designs and establishing mixing and curing procedures. We have demonstrated for the first time that cellular cement-fly ash grout can be developed with very low water: cement ratio (0.32--0.45). After forming, all the samples in the molds were moist cured in a chamber for 24-hours, at 90% relatively humidity (RH) and at 72{degrees}F. They were then demolded and transferred to a low pressure steam chamber (150{degrees}F and 100% RH). After steaming for 24 hours the samples were removed to a moist cure chamber prior to testing.

  10. Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. During the first quarter of the project, the thrust of the work was directed towards setting up the experimental facilities and undertaking preliminary tests to gauge the ability of coal tar derived binder in fabricating the brake skeletons. In addition systematic scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), fly ash (ADM), FBC fly ash, FBC spent bed bottom ash, bottom ash (ADM), and scrubber sludge residues to characterize their geometrical shape and thermal stability. The PCC fly ash particles being highly spherical in shape and thermally inert up to 1100{degrees}C will make an excellent raw material for our composites. This is born out by fabricating brake skeletons from PCC fly ash colloids. Unlike the PCC fly ash and FBC fly ash, the scrubber sludge particles are not suitable hosts for our brake lining materials because of a whisker-like particle structure. Six different compositions of various combustion residues were tested in the fabrication of brake skeletons, and our tar derived binder shows great promise in the fabrication of composite materials.

  11. Ultrastructure Processing of Advanced Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    As a continuation of our efforts to improve the molecular level understanding of the sol-gel process , we have recently carried out several studies...using various experimental techniques are necessary to improve our molecular-level understanding of the gelation process . 22 UNDERSTANDING OF THE SOL...present in the solution. They are sometimes added in order to improve the process such as catalysts [4], stabilizing additives [5], or drying control

  12. Aqueous Processing Material Accountability Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean

    2007-09-01

    Increased use of nuclear power will require new facilities. The U.S. has not built a new spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility for decades. Reprocessing facilities must maintain accountability of their nuclear fuel. This survey report on the techniques used in current aqueous reprocessing facilities, and provides references to source materials to assist facility design efforts.

  13. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September--November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. Slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln. The potential exists for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed. The project scope consists of collecting a 20-ton sample of slag (primary slag), processing it for char removal, and subjecting it to pyroprocessing to produce expanded slag aggregates of various size gradations and unit weights, ranging from 12 to 50 lb/ft{sup 3}. A second smaller slag sample will be used for confirmatory testing. The expanded slag aggregates will then be tested for their suitability in manufacturing precast concrete products (e.g., masonry blocks and roof tiles) and insulating concrete, first at the laboratory scale and subsequently in commercial manufacturing plants. These products will be evaluated using ASTM and industry test methods. Technical data generated during production and testing of the products will be used to assess the overall technical viability of expanded slag production. In addition, a market assessment will be made based on an evaluation of both the expanded slag aggregates and the final products, and market prices for these products will be established in order to assess the economic viability of these utilization technologies.

  14. Stable carbon isotope analysis of coprocessing materials: Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Lancet, M.S.

    1989-03-01

    Consol R and D will develop and demonstrate stable carbon isotope analysis as a method to quantitatively distinguish coal-derived and petroleum-derived carbon in products from coal/petroleum coprocessing. The approach taken will be to develop the method, then demonstrate its application on authentic continuous-unit products. The significance of selective isotopic fractionation will be determined and, if necessary, corrections will be applied to account for it. Precision, accuracy and range of applicability will be defined. The value of accessory analytical techniques will also be assessed. Results achieved this quarter include: feed and product fractions from hydroprocessing bench unit runs at the Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) were received, and samples from a Kentucky tar sand bitumen-only run were analyzed for carbon isotope ratios. Repeat carbon isotope analyses of seven samples from HRI Coprocessing Run 227-53 resulted in improved carbon balances for one run period. Athabasca ASB, Cold Lake ASB and Maya ASB were fractionated by distillation and solubility fractionation to determine the homogeneity of each petroleum with respect to carbon isotope ratios. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, May--August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

    1994-03-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300 F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter, the authors completed preparation of the draft of the permitting documentation that will be required by the Illinois EPA for the permit to construct the PDU and it is planned to submit it to the State of Illinois early in the next quarter. Also this quarter, a presentation of the project aims and status were presented during a site visit on August 11, 1993 by DOE personnel and Robert Kripowicz, the Staff Assistant, Subcommittee on the Interior, of the US House Committee on Appropriations.

  16. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  17. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirinsky, Driek, Ed.; Strickland, James, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1988. Articles in number 1 include: "Relearning Leadership" (Tom Jones); "The English Coalition Conference" (Robert Denham); "The Reluctant Writer and Word Processing" (James…

  18. Materials Processing Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    of microstructural evolution, (5) development of Gamma and Beta-Gamma titanium alloys towards rolled sheets for thermal protection applications, ( 6 ...the hydrostatic stress. This work was published in Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A by Nicolaou, Miller, and Semiatin [ 6 ]. 4 2.2.2 The...observed values for the Titanium 6242s measured by Porter and John, as well as Ti6- 4 alloy reported on by Chan in Mater. Trans, 2008. In addition

  19. Hybrid Laser Processing of Transparent Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niino, Hiroyuki

    The following chapter is an overview of processing fused silica and other transparent materials by pulsed-laser irradiation: (1) Direct excitation of materials with multi-wavelength excitation processes, and (2) Media-assisted process with a conventional pulsed laser. A method to etch transparent materials by using laserinduced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA), or laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE), has been described in detail.

  20. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Hirth, John P.

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  1. Investigation of Materials Processing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    macrosegregation. Interdendritic fluid flow occurs as a result of solidification shrinkage and the force of gravity acting on a liquid of variable density ...MATERIAL ARMYUP @ 0.$000 0$9.3•W R E 1.51 S S 6.96 -1.00 ) TEý E 4% • •e TE RATLII• -3- ’LG $T (C) Figure 22: Plot of flow stress 42 43 LOG STRAIN RATE ...plots ..................... 32 Figure 21: Plot of copper content vs distance from chill plate ................. 33 Figure 22: Plot of flow stress

  2. Materials processing in space bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Literature dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes or with ground based activities that provide supporting research is listed. Included are Government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles. Subdivisions of the bibliography include the five categories: crystal growth; metals, alloys, and composites, fluids and transport; glasses and ceramics; and Ultrahigh Vacuum and Containerless Processing Technologies, in addition to a list of patents and a compilation of anonymously authored collections and reports and a cross reference index.

  3. Possibilities of Laser Processing of Paper Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Saukkonen, Esa; Piili, Heidi

    Nowadays, lasers are applied in many industrial processes: the most developed technologies include such processes as laser welding, hybrid welding, laser cutting of steel, etc. In addition to laser processing of metallic materials, there are also many industrial applications of laser processing of non-metallic materials, like laser welding of polymers, laser marking of glass and laser cutting of wood-based materials. It is commonly known that laser beam is suitable for cutting of paper materials as well as all natural wood-fiber based materials. This study reveals the potential and gives overview of laser application in processing of paper materials. In 1990's laser technology increased its volume in papermaking industry; lasers at paper industry gained acceptance for different perforating and scoring applications. Nowadays, with reduction in the cost of equipment and development of laser technology (especially development of CO2 technology), laser processing of paper material has started to become more widely used and more efficient. However, there exists quite little published research results and reviews about laser processing of paper materials. In addition, forest industry products with pulp and paper products in particular are among major contributors for the Finnish economy with 20% share of total exports in the year 2013. This has been the standpoint of view and motivation for writing this literature review article: when there exists more published research work, knowledge of laser technology can be increased to apply it for processing of paper materials.

  4. The application of MATLAB-based analytic hierarchy process in Hainan residential quarter function factor evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Dongdong; Liu, Peiqi

    2017-04-01

    Since being designated as an international tourist island, Hainan has become an overwhelmingly favored choice of real estate investment. This paper first constructed Hainan residential quarter function factor index system, then evaluated relevant factors, and finally solved the problem of factor importance ranking. In this specific case, the software MATLAB was used to facilitate AHP calculation. The evaluation results have guiding and referential value to both real estate developers and residential consumers.

  5. Commercialization of materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoller, L. K.

    1979-01-01

    The primary motivation of the Materials Processing in Space program is the scientific and commercial utilization of the effects of the unique environments of space on material processes. The reduction or elimination of the pervasive influences of gravity on Earth-based process mechanisms affords opportunities for understanding and improving ground-based processing or producing select materials in space which, typically, would be of low volume, high value commercial interest. Additionally, the unlimited, if not 'hard' vacuum of space affords equally interesting influences on material processes. To evolve the commercialization of Materials Processing in Space, the program seeks to establish and demonstrate the scientific/technological precepts for analyzing and using the space environment and, in parallel, to establish the legal and management mechanisms to implement commercial ventures.

  6. Space processing of electronic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    The bulk growth of solid solution alloys of mercury telluride and cadmium telluride is discussed. These alloys are usually described by the formula Hg1-xCdxTe, and are useful for the construction of infrared detectors. The electronic energy band gap can be controlled between zero and 1.6 electron volts by adjusting the composition x. The most useful materials are at x approximately 20%, suitable for detection wavelengths of about 10 micrometers. The problems of growing large crystals are rooted in the wide phase diagram of the HgTe-CdTe pseudobinary system which leads to exaggerate segregation in freezing, constitutional supercooling, and other difficulties, and in the high vapor pressure of mercury at the growth temperatures, which leads to loss of stoichiometry and to the necessity of working in strong, pressure resistant sealed containers.

  7. Laser Material Processing for Microengineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helvajian, H.

    1995-01-01

    The processing of materials via laser irradiation is presented in a brief survey. Various techniques currently used in laser processing are outlined and the significance to the development of space qualified microinstrumentation are identified. In general the laser processing technique permits the transferring of patterns (i.e. lithography), machining (i.e. with nanometer precision), material deposition (e.g., metals, dielectrics), the removal of contaminants/debris/passivation layers and the ability to provide process control through spectroscopy.

  8. Infrared Database for Process Support Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, K. E.; Boothe, R. E.; Burns, H. D.

    2003-01-01

    Process support materials' compatibility with cleaning processes is critical to ensure final hardware cleanliness and that performance requirements are met. Previous discovery of potential contaminants in process materials shows the need for incoming materials testing and establishment of a process materials database. The Contamination Control Team of the Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing (MP&M) Department at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has initiated the development of such an infrared (IR) database, called the MSFC Process Materials IR database, of the common process support materials used at MSFC. These process support materials include solvents, wiper cloths, gloves, bagging materials, etc. Testing includes evaluation of the potential of gloves, wiper cloths, and other items to transfer contamination to handled articles in the absence of solvent exposure, and the potential for solvent exposure to induce material degradation. This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the initial testing completed through December 2002. It is anticipated that additional testing will be conducted with updates provided in future TMs.Materials were analyzed using two different IR techniques: (1) Dry transference and (2) liquid extraction testing. The first of these techniques utilized the Nicolet Magna 750 IR spectrometer outfitted with a horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR) crystal accessory. The region from 650 to 4,000 wave numbers was analyzed, and 50 scans were performed per IR spectrum. A dry transference test was conducted by applying each sample with hand pressure to the HATR crystal to first obtain a spectrum of the parent material. The material was then removed from the HATR crystal and analyzed to determine the presence of any residues. If volatile, liquid samples were examined both prior to and following evaporation.The second technique was to perform an extraction test with each sample in five different solvents.Once the scans were complete for

  9. Roadmap for Process Equipment Materials Technology

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-10-01

    This Technology Roadmap addresses the ever-changing material needs of the chemical and allied process industries, and the energy, economic and environmental burdens associated with corrosion and other materials performance and lifetime issues. This Technology Roadmap outlines the most critical of these R&D needs, and how they can impact the challenges facing today’s materials of construction.

  10. Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to the Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN), which was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory of NASA-Marshall. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. The data base is NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET) to be hazardous to the environment. The data base also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these materials.

  11. Advanced processing and properties of superhard materials

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, J.

    1995-06-01

    The author reviews fundamental aspects of Superhard Materials with hardness close to that of diamond. These materials include cubic boron nitride (c-BN), carbon nitride ({beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and diamondlike carbon. Since these materials are metastable at normal temperatures and pressures, novel methods of synthesis and processing of these materials are required. This review focuses on synthesis and processing, detailed materials characterization and properties of c-BN and {beta}C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and diamondlike carbon films.

  12. Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to the Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN), which was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory of NASA-Marshall. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. The data base is NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET) to be hazardous to the environment. The data base also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these materials.

  13. Precision grinding process development for brittle materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L; Davis, P J; Piscotty, M A

    1999-04-01

    High performance, brittle materials are the materials of choice for many of today's engineering applications. This paper describes three separate precision grinding processes developed at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory to machine precision ceramic components. Included in the discussion of the precision processes is a variety of grinding wheel dressing, truing and profiling techniques.

  14. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-03-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited on August 11, 1983 and by December 31 had completed 139 days of operation and produced 11,420 barrels of oil. Retort No. 28 was ignited on October 18, 1983 and on December 31 had completed 74 days of operation and produced 5,285 barrels of oil. The off-gas processing plants for the two retorts was completed and put through a shakedown run. Concentration levels of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ in the retort off gas did not warrant plant operation in the fourth quarter. Environmental studies are reported.

  15. Production of elemental sulfur and methane from H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} derived from a coal desulfurization process. First quarterly report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Sung-Yong; Jiang, Xueyu; Khang, Soon-Jai; Keener, T.C.

    1997-09-01

    During the tenth quarter of the project, bench scale experiments were performed to investigate the adsorption ability of different kinds of materials within sulfur vapor environment. Four kinds of adsorbents have been tested. The experimental results indicated that activated carbon was the beet of four adsorbents tested. In addition to the baseline tests, several designs of activated carbon feed system have been tested. Under an inert environment, bench scale experiments were performed to investigate the characteristics and efficiency of activated carbon passing through the Co-Mo-Alumina catalyst bed. The results showed that activated carbon powder could easily be transported through the catalytic bed. The adsorption process may be applicable to promote conversion of H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} rea system.

  16. Thermal plasma processing of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pfender, E.; Heberlein, J.

    1992-02-01

    Emphasis has been on plasma synthesis of fine powders, plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), on related diagnostics, and on modeling work. Since plasma synthesis as well as plasma CVD make frequent use of plasma jets, the beginning has been devoted of plasma jets and behavior of particulates injected into such plasma jets. Although most of the construction of the Triple-Torch Plasma Reactor (TTPR) has already been done, modifications have been made in particular modifications required for plasma CVD of diamond. A new reactor designed for Counter-Flow Liquid Injection Plasma Synthesis (CFLIPS) proved to be an excellent tool for synthesis of fine powders as well as for plasma CVD. An attempt was made to model flow and temperature fields in this reactor. Substantial efforts were made to single out those parameters which govern particle size, size distribution, and powder quality in our plasma synthesis experiments. This knowledge is crucial for controlling the process and for meaningful diagnostics and modeling work. Plasma CVD of diamond films using both reactors has been very successful and we have been approached by a number of companies interested in using this technology for coating of tools.

  17. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Quarterly MCLR Program technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Szymurski, S.R.; Hourahan, G.C.; Godwin, D.S.; Amrane, K.

    1995-10-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. This report summarizes the research conducted during the third quarter of calendar year 1995 on the following projects: Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives; Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with HFC refrigerants and ester lubricants; Compatibility of motor materials used in air-conditioning for retrofits with alternative refrigerants and lubricants; Compatibility of lubricant additives with HFC refrigerants and synthetic lubricants; Products of motor burnouts; Accelerated test methods for predicting the life of motor materials exposed to refrigerant-lubricant mixtures; Investigation of flushing and clean-out methods; Investigation into the fractionation of refrigerant blends; Lean flammability limits as a fundamental refrigerant property; Effect of selected contaminants in AC and R equipment; Study of foaming characteristics; Study of lubricant circulation in systems; Evaluation of HFC-245ca for commercial use in low pressure chillers; Infrared analysis of refrigerant mixtures; Refrigerant database; Refrigerant toxicity survey; Thermophysical properties of HFC-32, HFC-123, HCFC-124 and HFC-125; Thermophysical properties of HFC-143a and HFC-152a; Theoretical evaluations of R-22 alternative fluids; Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals; Miscibility of lubricants with refrigerants; Viscosity, solubility and density measurements of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures; Electrohydrodynamic enhancement of pool and in-tube boiling of alternative refrigerants; Accelerated screening methods; and more.

  18. Indian Educational Material; Annotated Quarterly Bibliography, Vol 2 No 1: September 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das Gupta, A.K., Ed.

    Descriptions of special programs and research efforts in the schools of India during the period July-September, 1967 are presented in this bibliography of over 200 items with abstracts. Materials cover different levels of education: adult, basic, higher, general, elementary, secondary, part-time, rural, and special education. Also treated are…

  19. Interactive chemistry of coal-petroleum processing: Quarterly report, December 15, 1988--March 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the indigenous residuum metals on the interactive chemistry of coal-residuum coprocessing has been examined to some extent in this report. The two primary metals present in residuum are Ni and V. This quarterly report focuses upon the reactions occurring in the presence of Ni. The catalytic activity of Ni has been evaluated in the presence of individual and combined reaction systems. The catalytic hydrogenation of indan, indene, o-cresol, benzofuran, indole, quinoline and naphthalene in a mixture is described. 13 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs. (CBS)

  20. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process. Quarterly report, April, May, June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.

    1982-10-01

    The Retort No. 25 burn was terminated on June 15, 1982. Total oil production for the second quarter was 6506 barrels during a 76 day production period. Final oil production for Retort No. 25 was 20,956 barrels. Final oil recovery was calculated to be 59% of the total in-place oil. Fugitive emissions, stack and process gas data indicated that all Retort No. 25 pollutants, except NO/sub x/, were below the allowable PSD limits. The Retort No. 25 process water characterization study was completed in April to determine the changes in retort produced water as the retort burn progressed. Results of the study are pending the completion of laboratory analysis. Retort No. 26 was prepared for ignition during the second quarter. Process manifolding and instrumentation were being completed so that ignition might occur shortly after the termination of the Retort No. 25 burn. Post blast core drilling and analysis was completed on Retort No. 27 during early April. The core samples indicated improved fracturing over previous retorts, especially near the bottom. Increasing the size of Retort No. 27 from one acre to two acres showed an increase in blast efficiency based on the criteria of fragmentation, quantity of explosives used per volume of void induced and percent void when compared with Retort No. 24. In June initial site preparation began on Retort No. 28 for blast hole drilling which will start in July. 17 figures, 16 tables.

  1. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  2. Planning for Materials Processing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A systems design study to describe the conceptual evolution, the institutional interrelationshiphs, and the basic physical requirements to implement materials processing in space was conducted. Planning for a processing era, rather than hardware design, was emphasized. Product development in space was examined in terms of fluid phenomena, phase separation, and heat and mass transfer. The effect of materials processing on the environment was studied. A concept for modular, unmanned orbiting facilities using the modified external tank of the space shuttle is presented. Organizational and finding structures which would provide for the efficient movement of materials from user to space are discussed.

  3. Materials, processes, and environmental engineering network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    The Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN) was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. Environmental replacement materials information is a newly developed focus of MPEEN. This database is the NASA Environmental Information System, NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team, NOET, to be hazardous to the environment. An environmental replacement technology database is contained within NEIS. Environmental concerns about materials are identified by NOET, and control or replacement strategies are formed. This database also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these hazardous materials. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, MPEEN contains one of the largest materials databases in the world. Over 600 users access this network on a daily basis. There is information available on failure analysis, metals and nonmetals testing, materials properties, standard and commercial parts, foreign alloy cross-reference, Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) data, and Materials and Processes Selection List data.

  4. Materials, processes, and environmental engineering network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    The Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN) was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. Environmental replacement materials information is a newly developed focus of MPEEN. This database is the NASA Environmental Information System, NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team, NOET, to be hazardous to the environment. An environmental replacement technology database is contained within NEIS. Environmental concerns about materials are identified by NOET, and control or replacement strategies are formed. This database also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these hazardous materials. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, MPEEN contains one of the largest materials databases in the world. Over 600 users access this network on a daily basis. There is information available on failure analysis, metals and nonmetals testing, materials properties, standard and commercial parts, foreign alloy cross-reference, Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) data, and Materials and Processes Selection List data.

  5. Fluid bed technology in materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, C.K.; Sathiyamoorthy, D.

    1999-01-01

    The author explores the various aspects of fluidization engineering and examines its applications in a multitude of materials processing techniques. Topics include process metallurgy, fluidization in nuclear engineering, and the pros and cons of various fluidization equipment. Gupta emphasizes fluidization engineering in high temperature processing, and high temperature fluidized bed furnaces.

  6. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September 1--November 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of as-generated slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, the authors found that it would be extremely difficult for as-generated slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1,400 and 1,700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase 2, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. This document summarizes the Phase 2 accomplishments to date along with the major accomplishments from Phase 1.

  7. Development of materials for open-cycle MHD. Quarterly report for the period ending March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, D.D.; Bates, J.L.

    1983-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting an ongoing study of channel components for open-cycle, coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators. Specifically, electrodes and insulators are being developed. The electrical conductivity has been measured on several compositions based on hafnium oxide, rare earth oxides, and indium oxide. Indium oxide at present appears to be the main constituent required for high conductivity. As part of the development, materials are being corrosion tested in both Montana Rosebud coal slag and potassium sulfate (K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The results from three coal slag tests and one K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ test are discussed in this document.

  8. Radiation effects on separations materials and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.

    1991-12-31

    This paper briefly summarizes published information on the effects of ionizing radiation on separation processes and materials. Special emphasis is given those processes, solvent extraction, ion exchange, and precipitation, that may have application in removing radioactivity from nuclear waste solutions. The separation and eventual isolation of any radionuclide requires a knowledge of the effect of radiation on the separations process itself and on the materials used in the process. The higher the radiation dose rate, i.e. the more concentrated the radionuclides being processed, the more important is this knowledge. In some cases, such as the separation of intense alpha emitters or the treatment of concentrated solutions of fission products, consideration of the effects of the radiation is a critical factor in the design of the separations materials and in the implementation of the process.

  9. Radiation effects on separations materials and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes published information on the effects of ionizing radiation on separation processes and materials. Special emphasis is given those processes, solvent extraction, ion exchange, and precipitation, that may have application in removing radioactivity from nuclear waste solutions. The separation and eventual isolation of any radionuclide requires a knowledge of the effect of radiation on the separations process itself and on the materials used in the process. The higher the radiation dose rate, i.e. the more concentrated the radionuclides being processed, the more important is this knowledge. In some cases, such as the separation of intense alpha emitters or the treatment of concentrated solutions of fission products, consideration of the effects of the radiation is a critical factor in the design of the separations materials and in the implementation of the process.

  10. Laser Materials Processing for NASA's Aerospace Structural Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagarathnam, Karthik; Hunyady, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Lasers are useful for performing operations such as joining, machining, built-up freeform fabrication, and surface treatment. Due to the multifunctional nature of a single tool and the variety of materials that can be processed, these attributes are attractive in order to support long-term missions in space. However, current laser technology also has drawbacks for space-based applications. Specifically, size, power efficiency, lack of robustness, and problems processing highly reflective materials are all concerns. With the advent of recent breakthroughs in solidstate laser (e.g., diode-pumped lasers) and fiber optic technologies, the potential to perform multiple processing techniques in space has increased significantly. A review of the historical development of lasers from their infancy to the present will be used to show how these issues may be addressed. The review will also indicate where further development is necessary to realize a laser-based materials processing capability in space. The broad utility of laser beams in synthesizing various classes of engineering materials will be illustrated using state-of-the art processing maps for select lightweight alloys typically found on spacecraft. Both short- and long-term space missions will benefit from the development of a universal laser-based tool with low power consumption, improved process flexibility, compactness (e.g., miniaturization), robustness, and automation for maximum utility with a minimum of human interaction. The potential advantages of using lasers with suitable wavelength and beam properties for future space missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will be discussed. The laser processing experiments in the present report were performed using a diode pumped, pulsed/continuous wave Nd:YAG laser (50 W max average laser power), with a 1064 nm wavelength. The processed materials included Ti-6AI-4V, Al-2219 and Al-2090. For Phase I of this project, the laser process conditions were varied and optimized

  11. Long term materials test program. Quarterly report, October-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The long-term exposure of gas turbine vane and blade base alloys and a variety of protective coating systems to the effluent from a pressurized fluidized bed coal combustor has reached 4398 hours. After 4053 hours, FeCrAlY overlay coatings and platinum/rhodium-aluminide pack diffusion coatings show excellent resistance to corrosion attack at 1500/sup 0/F. Cobalt-base coatings are somewhat more susceptible to hot corrosion, and the unprotected nickel and cobalt-base alloys are most susceptible to corrosion, although corrosion rates have decreased to less than 1 mil/1000 hours for all materials at 1500/sup 0/F; i.e., corrosion penetration data is evolving parabolically. The three-stage cyclone cleanup system became severely distorted after approximately 5600 hours total service life. Distortion of the cyclones contributed to an increased dust loading to the material test sections, 110 to 250 ppM versus normal loadings of 30 to 90 ppM, for a period of about 75 hours. This increase in dust loading caused severe erosion of the airfoils in the high-velocity test section. Metal recession ranged 4 to 18 mils of leading edge loss on the impulse airfoils, and 11 to 27 mils of leading edge loss on the reaction airfoils. A new three-stage cyclone system was installed and dust loadings now range from 15 to 45 ppM.

  12. Process for gasification of carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect

    Lancet, M.S.; Gorin, E.

    1984-04-03

    A process of tar destruction in gasification of carbonaceous material comprises providing a mixture of finely divided calcium compound of a particle size smaller than 65 mesh and finely divided carbonaceous material of a particle size smaller than 65 mesh, the calcium compound to carbonaceous material ratio being from about 0.5 to 1.0 and contacting the mixture with CO/sub 2/ and tar exothermally whereby the tar is destroyed.

  13. Silicon materials task of the low cost solar array project (Phase III). Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Phase III summary and seventeenth quarterly report, Volume 1: characterization methods for impurities in silicon and impurity effects data base

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R.B.; Blais, P.D.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Stapleton, R.E.; Mollenkopf, H.C.; McCormick, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The object of Phase III of the program has been to investigate the effects of various processes, metal contaminants and contaminant-process interactions on the performance of terrestrial silicon solar cells. The study encompassed a variety of tasks including: (1) a detailed examination of thermal processing effects, such as HCl and POCl/sub 3/ gettering on impurity behavior, (2) completion of the data base and modeling for impurities in n-base silicon, (3) extension of the data base on p-type material to include elements likely to be introduced during the production, refining, or crystal growth of silicon, (4) effects on cell performance on anisotropic impurity distributions in large CZ crystals and silicon webs, and (5) a preliminary assessment of the permanence of the impurity effects. Two major topics are treated: methods to measure and evaluate impurity effects in silicon and comprehensive tabulations of data derived during the study. For example, discussions of deep level spectroscopy, detailed dark I-V measurements, recombination lifetime determination, scanned laser photo-response, and conventional solar cell I-V techniques, as well as descriptions of silicon chemical analysis are included. Considerable data are tabulated on the composition, electrical, and solar cell characteristics of impurity-doped silicon.

  14. Material removal processes: Engineering mechanics consideration

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the material removal process called machining, a layer of material of constant thickness is removed from the workpiece by a wedge-shaped tool that travels parallel to the workpiece at a preselected depth. Even though the speed of relative movement between workpiece and tool is low (typical 1--10 M/S), the strain-rates in the workpiece near the tool can be high, on the order of 10[sup 4]-10[sup 5] s[sup [minus]1]. When machining brittle materials or unlubricated ductile materials at low speed, the removed metal (or chip) will be discontinuous and made up of small fractured segments. On the other hand, when machining ductile material under lubricated conditions, the removed material forms a continuous coil. In this case, we can represent the material removal process as a steady-state process. In this presentation, we will restrict ourselves to orthogonal machining where the cutting edge is perpendicular to the relative motion-a situation also approximated by other material removal processes such as planing and broaching, and turning on a lathe.

  15. Material removal processes: Engineering mechanics consideration

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.A.

    1993-04-01

    In the material removal process called machining, a layer of material of constant thickness is removed from the workpiece by a wedge-shaped tool that travels parallel to the workpiece at a preselected depth. Even though the speed of relative movement between workpiece and tool is low (typical 1--10 M/S), the strain-rates in the workpiece near the tool can be high, on the order of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} s{sup {minus}1}. When machining brittle materials or unlubricated ductile materials at low speed, the removed metal (or chip) will be discontinuous and made up of small fractured segments. On the other hand, when machining ductile material under lubricated conditions, the removed material forms a continuous coil. In this case, we can represent the material removal process as a steady-state process. In this presentation, we will restrict ourselves to orthogonal machining where the cutting edge is perpendicular to the relative motion-a situation also approximated by other material removal processes such as planing and broaching, and turning on a lathe.

  16. Integrated processing of anthracite into sorption materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sych, N.V.; Kartel, N.T.; Nikolaichuk, A.D.; Strelko, V.V.; Tsyba, N.N.; Denisovich, V.A.

    2006-05-15

    The possibility of using anthracite to produce activated carbon in the form of microporous and mesoporous anthracite, a cation exchanger, and composite sorption materials was analyzed and the porometric properties of a variety of sorption materials based on anthracite from the Donets coal basin were studied. A flowsheet for integrated processing of anthracite to give a set of four products was composed.

  17. Plasma-assisted microwave processing of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin (Inventor); Ylin, Tzu-yuan (Inventor); Jackson, Henry (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave plasma assisted method and system for heating and joining materials. The invention uses a microwave induced plasma to controllably preheat workpiece materials that are poorly microwave absorbing. The plasma preheats the workpiece to a temperature that improves the materials' ability to absorb microwave energy. The plasma is extinguished and microwave energy is able to volumetrically heat the workpiece. Localized heating of good microwave absorbing materials is done by shielding certain parts of the workpiece and igniting the plasma in the areas not shielded. Microwave induced plasma is also used to induce self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) process for the joining of materials. Preferably, a microwave induced plasma preheats the material and then microwave energy ignites the center of the material, thereby causing a high temperature spherical wave front from the center outward.

  18. Electronic materials processing and the microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, A. F.

    1988-01-01

    The nature and origin of deficiencies in bulk electronic materials for device fabrication are analyzed. It is found that gravity generated perturbations during their formation account largely for the introduction of critical chemical and crystalline defects and, moreover, are responsible for the still existing gap between theory and experiment and thus for excessive reliance on proprietary empiricism in processing technology. Exploration of the potential of reduced gravity environment for electronic materials processing is found to be not only desirable but mandatory.

  19. Aqueous processing in materials science and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooiman, Michael B.; Sole, Kathryn C.

    1994-06-01

    Reviews of aqueous processing in JOM have traditionally focused on hydrometallurgical process routes. This article, however, addresses the application of aqueous processing in materials engineering and presents some promising developments that employ aqueous-based routes for the manufacture of high-tech components and specialty products. Such applications include producing metallic and ceramic powders; etching; surface modification by electroplating and electroless plating; manufacturing jewelry and intricate components by electroforming; and producing advanced ceramics, composites, and nanophase materials by sol-gel and biomimetic processing.

  20. Development of materials for open cycle MHD. Quarterly report for the period ending March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The work centers around the development and fabrication of the HfO/sub 2/-RE/sub x/O/sub y/ electrodes and HfO/sub 2/-RE/sub x/O/sub y/-In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ current leadouts for testing in MHD facilities. The electrical conductivity of some potential HfO/sub 2/-RE/sub x/O/sub y/ refractory electrodes has been measured and preliminary results analyzed in relationship to structure and composition. Six potential air preheater materials, tested in the Montana State University heat exchanger, were characterized and evaluated. The potential mechanisms for corrosion/erosion are discussed. Electrochemical corrosion of platinum in molten coal slag was also measured. Possible corrosion mechanisms are discussed.

  1. Extraterrestrial materials processing and construction. [space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.; Mckenzie, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Three different chemical processing schemes were identified for separating lunar soils into the major oxides and elements. Feedstock production for space industry; an HF acid leach process; electrorefining processes for lunar free metal and metal derived from chemical processing of lunar soils; production and use of silanes and spectrally selective materials; glass, ceramics, and electrochemistry workshops; and an econometric model of bootstrapping space industry are discussed.

  2. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September 15--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Coal gasification technologies are finding increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feedstocks. The integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power. However, the gasification process produces relatively large quantities of a solid waste termed slag. Regulatory trends with respect to solid waste disposal, landfill development costs, and public concern make utilization of slag a high-priority issue. Therefore, it is imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested, and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. This project aims to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the slag utilization technologies developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag in a large-scale pilot operation, followed by total utilization of these aggregates in a number of applications.

  3. Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. During the first two quarters of the project, the thrust of the work directed towards characterizing the various coal combustion residues and FGD residue, i.e., scrubber sludge. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADK unit l-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM, unit l-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}.0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disk,- from coal combustion residues. This has been achieved. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites. Also, these results along with mechanical behavior of the fabricated disks lead us to believe that the combination of surface altered PCC fly ash and scrubber sludge particles, together ed ash particles are ideal for our composite materials.

  4. Materials Processing in Space (MPS) program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Insight is provided into the scientific rotationale for materials processing in space (MPS), and a comprehensive and cohesive approach for implementation and integration of the many, diverse aspects of MPS is described. The programmatic and management functions apply to all projects and activities implemented under MPS. It is intended that specific project plans, providing project unique details, will be appended to this document for endeavors such as the Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) Project, the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA) Project, the MPS/Spacelab (MPS/SL) Project, and the Materials Experiment Carrier (MEC) Payloads.

  5. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    PubMed

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware.

  6. Anaerobic processing of low-rank coals. Quarterly progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1992-12-31

    The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals and to assess the properties of the modified coal towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were: (i) continuation of microbial consortia maintenance and completion of coal decarboxylation using batch reactor system, (ii) decarboxylation of model polymer, (iii) characterization of biotreated coals, and (iv) microautoclave liquefaction of the botreated coal. Progress is reported on the thermogravimetric analysis of coal biotreated in the absence of methanogens and under 5% hydrogen gas exhibits increased volatile carbon to fixed carbon ratio; that the microbial consortia developed on coal are being adapted to two different model polymers containing free carboxylic groups to examine decarboxylation ability of consortium; completion of experiments to decarboxylate two model polymers, polyacrylic acid and polymethyl methacrylate, have been completed; that the biotreated coal showed increase in THF-solubles.

  7. Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly report number 11, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, P.T.

    1993-12-31

    The goals of this project are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol. The research will identify and optimize key catalyst and process characteristics. In addition, the commercial potential of the new process will be evaluated by an economic analysis. This report covers three phases of catalyst screening to identify a new catalyst for the production of isoalcohols from syngas or syngas-derived feeds. These phases involve a shift in the project strategy from the direct conversion of CO/H{sub 2} to isoalcohols to a focus on catalysts for the conversion of methanol and, eventually, methanol/ethanol mixtures to higher branched alcohols. The testing of methanol synthesis based catalysts for the conversion of syngas to higher alcohols has been completed this quarter. The three additional catalysts that have been tested (cs modified Cu/Zn/Al oxide, Zn/Cr oxide and Pd/K on Zr/Zn/Mn oxide) have not afforded better selectivity or productivity to isoalcohols than previously tested materials. Considering the low activity that is generally observed for higher alcohols synthesis from syngas suggests that a two stage process combining conventional methanol synthesis with a new process to convert methanol to higher alcohols may be a superior approach to direct synthesis. Therefore, the focus of the research effort at UOP has shifted to the identification of catalysts for the conversion of methanol to higher branched alcohols, particularly isobutanol. A series of mixed metal oxide catalysts based on either conventional methanol synthesis catalysts, the Zr/Zn/Mn oxide catalysts or Mg/Al metal oxide solid solutions (MOSSs) have been evaluated for the conversion of methanol to higher alcohols.

  8. Long Term Materials Test Program. Quarterly report, July-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    Corrosion and erosion/corrosion testing of gas turbine vane and blade base alloys and a variety of protective coating systems under the Long Term Materials Test program has surpassed 3400 hours. The PFBC facility at Malta, New York continues to show an exceptionally high degree of reliability and consistency in performance. Operating conditions include a 1650/sup 0/F bed temperature at 10 atmospheres pressures utilizing Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and a low alkali dolomite sulfur sorbent. After 2687 hours, unprotected nickel and cobalt base vane and blade alloys generally experienced corrosion rates of 1 to 2 mils/1000 hours at metal temperatures of 1100, 1300, and 1500/sup 0/F. Precious metal aluminide and MCrAlY coatings continue to show excellent corrosion resistance (<0.5 mils/1000 hrs) at 1500/sup 0/F, but are susceptible to varying degrees of pitting attack at 1100/sup 0/ and 1300/sup 0/F. Erosion/corrosion degradation rates at 800 to 900 fps., 1350/sup 0/F and less than 100 ppM dust loading ranged from 1 to 4 mils/1000 hours with corrosion predominately concentrated in areas of particle impaction indicating an erosion/corrosion synergism.

  9. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Silveston, P.L.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of activated carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. In the previous three quarters, a detailed project management plan was prepared describing the experimental setup, work plan, and test plan. The experimental system was completed for SO{sub 2} conversion at Waterloo and for NO{sub x} conversion at RTI. Shakedown experiments were completed. In the present quarter, the NO{sub x} removal performance of two additional modified carbon catalysts (MCCII and MCCIII) was studied. MCCII showed NO{sub x} removal efficiency which was similar to that observed for MCCI. However, MCCI was considerably less active for NO{sub x} removal. SO{sub 2} removal experiments with NO present in the feed gas were performed with MCCI. SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was consistently about 98% over each of 10 cycles and was very similar to that observed earlier with no NO present in the feed. Finally, a preliminary economic evaluation of the process was performed and a project review meeting was held. The economic evaluation showed that the Rn-Waterloo process was competitive with SCR/IFGD and other combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, removal processes.

  10. Mimicry of natural material designs and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, G. M.; Richman, R. H.; McNaughton, W. P.

    1995-06-01

    Biological structural materials, although composed of unremarkable substances synthesized at low temperatures, often exhibit superior mechanical properties. In particular, the quality in which nearly all biologically derived materials excel is toughness. The advantageous mechanical properties are attributable to the hierarchical, composite, structural arrangements common to biological systems. Materials scientists and engineers have increasingly recognized that biological designs or processing approaches applied to man-made materials (biomimesis) may offer improvements in performance over conventional designs and fabrication methods. In this survey, the structures and processing routes of marine shells, avian eggshells, wood, bone, and insect cuticle are briefly reviewed, and biomimesis research inspired by these materials is discussed. In addition, this paper describes and summarizes the applications of biomineralization, self-assembly, and templating with proteins to the fabrication of thin ceramic films and nanostructure devices.

  11. Mimicry of natural material designs and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, G.M.; Richman, R.H.; McNaughton, W.P.

    1995-06-01

    Biological structural materials, although composed of unremarkable substances synthesized at low temperatures, often exhibit superior mechanical properties. In particular, the quality in which nearly all biologically derived materials excel is toughness. The advantageous mechanical properties are attributable to the hierarchical, composite, structural arrangements common to biological systems. Materials scientists and engineers have increasingly recognized that biological designs or processing approaches applied to man-made materials (biomimesis) may offer improvements in performance over conventional designs and fabrication methods. In this survey, the structures and processing routes of marine shells, avian eggshells, wood, bone, and insect cuticle are briefly reviewed, and biomimesis research inspired by these materials is discussed. In addition, this paper describes and summarizes the applications of biomineralization, self-assembly, and templating with proteins to the fabrication of thin ceramic films and nanostructure devices.

  12. Commercial use of materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoller, L. K.; Brown, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the scientific and commercial aspects of Materials Processing in the Space program. The elimination of gravity driven convection in molten materials can preclude undesirable stirring and mixing during crystal growth, and improve the casting of alloys and composites, chemical reactions, and the separation of biological materials. The elimination of hydrostatic pressure will allow alloy heat-treatment without distortion and growth of heavy crystals, such as thorium oxide, and containerless processing of liquids and molten materials. On the other hand, more sophisticated process control and diagnostic methods in sample preparation and temperature control must be developed, concluding that space made products of commercial interest are likely to be low volume, high value items.

  13. High power DUV lasers for material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimura, Toshio; Kakizaki, Kouji; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Fujimoto, Junichi; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2016-11-01

    A frontier in laser machining has been required by material processing in DUV region because it is hard to get high power solid-state lasers in this spectral region. DUV excimer lasers are the only solution, and now the time has come to examine the new applications of material processing with DUV excimer lasers. The excimer lasers at 193nm and 248nm have been used in the semiconductor manufacturing for long years, and have field-proven stability and reliability. The high photon energy of 6.4 eV at 193nm is expected to interact directly with the chemical bond of hard-machining materials, such as CFRP, diamond and tempered glasses. We report the latest results of material processing by 193nm high power DUV laser.

  14. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.

    1982-08-01

    The ignition of Retort No. 25 took place on October 15, 1981. The operation was a success and the fire front remained uniform throughout the quarter. Production of crude shale oil from Retort No. 25 was 7153 barrels during the quarter. Stack gas analysis began on Retort No. 25 as part of normal air quality studies. The re-entry drilling program began on Retort No. 26 and all process wells were completed in December. Blasthole drilling began on the Retort No. 27 site in November. By the end of December, 16,416 feet had been drilled and an early February shot date is scheduled. Retort No. 27 will be twice the size of Retort No. 26. Lab personnel were involved in the testing of retort water for scrubbing purposes and the removal of H/sub 2/S gas. The new Kamp Kerogen water well was completed and put into service. Three mobile homes were relocated on the new mobile home park. Hook-ups were made and services provided.

  15. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, March 1--May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight (ULWA) from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot-scale, and Phase 2, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. The following significant events occurred during this reporting period: testing of slag-based lightweight aggregates for roof tile and concrete applications.

  16. Artificial intelligence in the materials processing laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Materials science and engineering provides a vast arena for applications of artificial intelligence. Advanced materials research is an area in which challenging requirements confront the researcher, from the drawing board through production and into service. Advanced techniques results in the development of new materials for specialized applications. Hand-in-hand with these new materials are also requirements for state-of-the-art inspection methods to determine the integrity or fitness for service of structures fabricated from these materials. Two problems of current interest to the Materials Processing Laboratory at UAH are an expert system to assist in eddy current inspection of graphite epoxy components for aerospace and an expert system to assist in the design of superalloys for high temperature applications. Each project requires a different approach to reach the defined goals. Results to date are described for the eddy current analysis, but only the original concepts and approaches considered are given for the expert system to design superalloys.

  17. Synthesis and processing of nanostructured materials

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    Significant and growing interest is being exhibited in the novel and enhanced properties of nanostructured materials. These materials, with their constituent phase or grain structures modulated on a length scale less than 100 nm, are artificially synthesized by a wide variety of physical, chemical, and mechanical methods. In this NATO Advanced Study Institute, where mechanical behavior is emphasized, nanostructured materials with modulation dimensionalities from one (multilayers) to three (nanophase materials) are mainly considered. No attempt is made in this review to cover in detail all of the diverse methods available for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. Rather, the basic principles involved in their synthesis are discussed in terms of the special properties sought using examples of particular synthesis and processing methodologies. Some examples of the property changes that can result from one of these methods, cluster assembly of nanophase materials, are presented.

  18. Space Environmental Effects on Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabbann, Leslie M.

    2009-01-01

    The Materials and Processes (M&P) Branch of the Structural Engineering Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) seeks to uphold the production of dependable space hardware through materials research, which fits into NASA's purpose of advancing human exploration, use, and development of space. The Space Environmental Effects projects fully support these Agency goals. Two tasks were assigned to support M&P. Both assignments were to further the research of material behavior outside of Earth's atmosphere in order to determine which materials are most durable and safe to use in space for mitigating risks. One project, the Materials on International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) task, was to compile data from International Space Station (ISS) experiments to pinpoint beneficial space hardware. The other project was researching the effects on composite materials of exposure to high doses of radiation for a Lunar habitat project.

  19. Materials And Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) LDEF materials database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John M.; Strickland, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) is a collection of materials data which was computerized and is available to engineers in the aerospace community involved in the design and development of spacecraft and related hardware. Consisting of various database segments, MAPTIS provides the user with information such as material properties, test data derived from tests specifically conducted for qualification of materials for use in space, verification and control, project management, material information, and various administrative requirements. A recent addition to the project management segment consists of materials data derived from the LDEF flight. This tremendous quantity of data consists of both pre-flight and post-flight data in such diverse areas as optical/thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, atomic concentration surface analysis data, as well as general data such as sample placement on the satellite, A-O flux, equivalent sun hours, etc. Each data point is referenced to the primary investigator(s) and the published paper from which the data was taken. The MAPTIS system is envisioned to become the central location for all LDEF materials data. This paper consists of multiple parts, comprising a general overview of the MAPTIS System and the types of data contained within, and the specific LDEF data element and the data contained in that segment.

  20. Alternative starting materials for industrial processes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J W

    1992-02-01

    In the manufacture of chemical feedstocks and subsequent processing into derivatives and materials, the U.S. chemical industry sets the current standard of excellence for technological competitiveness. This world-class leadership is attributed to the innovation and advancement of chemical engineering process technology. Whether this status is sustained over the next decade depends strongly on meeting increasingly demanding challenges stimulated by growing concerns about the safe production and use of chemicals without harmful impacts on the environment. To comply with stringent environmental regulations while remaining economically competitive, industry must exploit alternative benign starting materials and develop environmentally neutral industrial processes. Opportunities are described for development of environmentally compatible alternatives and substitutes for some of the most abundantly produced, potentially hazardous industrial chemicals now labeled as "high-priority toxic chemicals." For several other uniquely important commodity chemicals where no economically competitive, environmentally satisfactory, nontoxic alternative starting material exists, we advocate the development of new dynamic processes for the on-demand generation of toxic chemicals. In this general concept, which obviates mass storage and transportation of chemicals, toxic raw materials are produced in real time, where possible, from less-hazardous starting materials and then chemically transformed immediately into the final product. As a selected example for semiconductor technology, recent progress is reviewed for the on-demand production of arsine in turnkey electrochemical generators. Innovation of on-demand chemical generators and alternative processes provide rich areas for environmentally responsive chemical engineering processing research and development for next-generation technology.

  1. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process. Quarterly report, January, February, March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.

    1982-08-01

    At the end of March 1982, Retort No. 25 was in its 167th day of burning with a total oil production of 16,599 barrels, an average of 99 barrels per day for this five month burn period. Total oil production for the first quarter was 9187 barrels, an average of 3062 barrels per month or 102 barrels per day. Various environmental studies were carried out on Retort No. 25 during this burn period, as defined in the Environment Research Plan. Stack gas analyses show that the retort operated within the PSD established emission levels. Lab and field experiments continued on a wet scrubber to remove H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ from the process gas. Process and instrumentation wells were drilled on Retort No. 26. All process holes were completed in February and all instrumentation holes were finished in March. Installment of process manifolding, surface piping and thermocouples is continuing. The Retort No. 27 site was prepared for blasting during January and February with detonation of the retort accomplished on February 25. Retort No. 27, the first 2 acre retort, used 283,000 pounds of Ireco explosive loaded into 354 blast holes. Important data concerning the effect of retort size increase, early overburden motion and the effects of blast design modifications upon shale fracturing characteristics were obtained from this blast. Preliminary indications show that the blast was a success and post blast analysis is presently in progress to evaluate the characteristics of the blast. During the quarter, the second and third suite of samples for the Retort No. 25 fugitive emissions study were gathered. From this study, it was concluded that more sampling will be required before fugitive emission rates can be properly characterized.

  2. Some thermomechanical instabilites in materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.

    1995-12-31

    Instabilities in the form of buckling or periodic defects can be induced by thermal effects during material processing. Correcting distorted products requires additional processing steps, and controlling product uniformity places additional constraints on the processes. A complete quantitative understanding of the phenomena is required to optimize the processes for specific alloys and to increase productivity. Examples of two types of thermally related instabilities are presented. The first is plastic buckling of a sheet or plate induced by rapid quenching following solution heat treatment. The second example, of hot tearing during extrusion, is thought to result from deformation induced temperature increases near the die surface coupled to friction and the thermal softening and strain rate sensitivity of the material. These processes are understood qualitatively, but quantitative predictive capabilities are necessary for process optimization.

  3. An improved approach for process monitoring in laser material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Hans-Georg; Pütsch, Oliver; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Loosen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Process monitoring is used in many different laser material processes due to the demand for reliable and stable processes. Among different methods, on-axis process monitoring offers multiple advantages. To observe a laser material process it is unavoidable to choose a wavelength for observation that is different to the one used for material processing, otherwise the light of the processing laser would outshine the picture of the process. By choosing a different wavelength, lateral chromatic aberration occurs in not chromatically corrected optical systems with optical scanning units and f-Theta lenses. These aberrations lead to a truncated image of the process on the camera or the pyrometer, respectively. This is the reason for adulterated measurements and non-satisfying images of the process. A new approach for solving the problem of field dependent lateral chromatic aberration in process monitoring is presented. Therefore, the scanner-based optical system is reproduced in a simulation environment, to predict the occurring lateral chromatic aberrations. In addition, a second deflecting system is integrated into the system. By using simulation, a predictive control is designed that uses the additional deflecting system to introduce reverse lateral deviations in order to compensate the lateral effect of chromatic aberration. This paper illustrates the concept and the implementation of the predictive control, which is used to eliminate lateral chromatic aberrations in process monitoring, the simulation on which the system is based the optical system as well as the control concept.

  4. Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADM unit1-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM unit1-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. In the second and third quarters the focus of research has been on developing protocols for the formation of advanced brake composites and structural composites. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disks from coal combustion residues. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites.

  5. Sol-gel processing of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.H.; Fox, G.L.; Simpson, R.L.; Lee, R.W.; Swansiger, R.W.; Simpson, L.R.

    1997-08-18

    As part of a new materials effort, we are exploring the use of sol- gel chemistry to manufacture energetic materials. Traditional manufacturing of energetic materials involves processing of granular solids. One application is the production of detonators where powders of energetic material and a binder are typically mixed and compacted at high pressure to make pellets. Performance properties are strongly dependent on particle size distribution, surface area of its constituents, homogeneity of the mix, and void volume. The goal is to produce detonators with fast energy release rate the are insensitive to unintended initiation. In this paper, we report results of our early work in this field of research, including the preparation of detonators from xerogel molding powders and aerogels, comparing the material properties with present state-of-the-art technology.

  6. Innovative materials processing strategies: A biomimetic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Heuer, A.H.; Blackwell, J.; Caplan, A.I. ); Fink, D.J. ); Laraia, V.J. ); Arias, J.L. ); Calvert, P.D. ); Kendall, K. ); Messing, G.L. ); Rieke, P.C. ); Thompson, D.H. ); Wheeler, A.P. ); Veis, A. )

    1992-02-28

    Many organisms construct structural ceramic (biomineral) composites from seemingly mundane materials; cell-mediated processes control both the nucleation and growth of mineral and the development of composite microarchitecture. Living systems fabricate biocomposites by: confining biomineralization within specific subunit compartments; producing a specific mineral with defined crystal size and orientation; and packaging many incremental units together in a moving front process to form fully densified, macroscopic structures. By adapting biological principles, materials scientists are attempting to produce novel materials. To date, neither the elegance of the biomineral assembly mechanisms nor the intricate composite microarchitectures have been duplicated by nonbiological processing. However, substantial progress has been made in the understanding of how biomineralization occurs, and the first steps are now being taken to exploit the basic principles involved.

  7. Advances in Processing of Bulk Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, Carmen

    The development of ferroelectric bulk materials is still under extensive investigation, as new and challenging issues are growing in relation to their widespread applications. Progress in understanding the fundamental aspects requires adequate technological tools. This would enable controlling and tuning the material properties as well as fully exploiting them into the scale production. Apart from the growing number of new compositions, interest in the first ferroelectrics like BaTiO3 or PZT materials is far from dropping. The need to find new lead-free materials, with as high performance as PZT ceramics, is pushing towards a full exploitation of bariumbased compositions. However, lead-based materials remain the best performing at reasonably low production costs. Therefore, the main trends are towards nano-size effects and miniaturisation, multifunctional materials, integration, and enhancement of the processing ability in powder synthesis. Also, in control of dispersion and packing, to let densification occur in milder conditions. In this chapter, after a general review of the composition and main properties of the principal ferroelectric materials, methods of synthesis are analysed with emphasis on recent results from chemical routes and cold consolidation methods based on the colloidal processing.

  8. Supercritical fluid reactions for coal processing. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this work is to design benign solvent/cosolvent systems for reactions which will achieve optimum desulfurization and/or denitrogenation in the pre-treatment of coal or coal liquids. Supercritical fluids present excellent opportunities for the pre- treatment of coal, hence we shall utilize supercritical fluids (SCF) as a reaction medium. The specific objectives of this work are three fold. The first objective is the quantification of the intermolecular interactions affecting reaction transition states in SCF`s via kinetic measurements using well characterized Diels-Alder reactions. The second objective is the characterization of the thermodynamics of the reacting systems. From the thermodynamics of the reacting species detailed information about the transition state may be determined. The third objective is the development of molecular level mathematical models using the results from the first two objectives. The models shall be developed using both an equation of state approach and linear solvation energy relationships with solvatochromic parameters. During this quarter, the solubility of the nitrogen bearing dienophile 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) has been measured as a function of pressure at 40 C, with the exception of points at 2500 psig and 3000 psig. When collection of these last points has been accomplished, the collection of all preliminary data needed to begin kinetic studies of the Diels-Alder reaction between PTAD and anthracene at 40 C in supercritical CO{sub 2} will be complete.

  9. Supercritical fluid reactions for coal processing. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which resemble the organic nitrogen containing components of coal, we propose to develop a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal denitrogenation. The Diels - Alder reaction of anthracene and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) was chosen as the model system and was investigated in supercritical carbon dioxide. During this quarter, measurement of the density dependence of the kinetic rate constant for PTAD and anthracene in supercritical solvents was continued. Having completed studies of rates versus density in pure CO{sub 2} at 40C, attention was focused on CO{sub 2}/Cosolvent mixtures. Experiments were performed using binary mixtures of CO{sub 2} and either chloroform or acetone as cosolvent. Cosolvent concentrations were varied between 0.00826 mol/L and 0.0826 mol/L. The cosolvents produced no significant change in the rate constant over that of pure CO{sub 2} at these concentrations.

  10. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  11. The role of the resid solvent in co-processing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.

    1992-12-31

    Goal this quarter was to evaluate the reactivity of an anthracene (H-deficient aromatic) and perhydropyrene (H-rich cycloalkane) system to determine if this system is the one desired for the parametric evaluation. Idea was to determine if hydrogen could be transferred from cycloalkane to aromatic in a hydrogen atmosphere, which is always present in coprocessing. This quarter`s work established procedures for performing thermal and catalytic reactions without a solvent, and for analysis of reaction products. Individual thermal and catalytic reactions using anthracene and perhydropyrene were the primary reactions performed this quarter.

  12. Needs for Process Control in Advanced Processing of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabian, Robert; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1985-02-01

    Recent advances in the synthesis of new materials with complex microstructures, coupled with an improved understanding of process/microtructure/property relationships, has created a new challenge for NDE—the redirection of a technology originally conceived for flaw detection/characterization to the nondestructive measurement of process and microstructure variables during materials processing. This review shows how NDE techniques could play the sensor role in automated process control. The techniques, originally developed for detecting cracks, show merit in monitoring solidification. Other ultrasonic techniques show promise in characterizing temperature distributions and porosity. Problems include: the need for inverse modeling/calibration/high speed data acquisition and reconstruction; and display and hardware able to survive the harsh processing environment. Feedback systems based on artificial intelligence combine heuristic and mathematical predictions with developing sensor technologies to drive process development.

  13. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-11-01

    Progress is reported by Geokinetics on the successful blasting of Retort No. 25. Preparations are described for the ignition of Retort No. 24 nearing completion. This will be the largest retort processing facility utilized to date. Meteorological data of the area was obtained for permit applications from the Utah Air Conservation Committee and the US EPA. These must be obtained before ignition of retort No. 24. Drilling for the post-burn core sampling program (Retorts No. 16 and No. 17) was completed during the quarter. Approval to inject effluent water into the Mesa Verde Formation through a deep well was obtained. Construction of a new 1 1/2 acre evaporating pond has begun. The DOE Oil Shale Task Force will aid in the environmental research program; its role is described. A new vibro-rotary hammer was tested. Drilling penetration rates increased by 35%. A patent on horizontal fracturing methods was obtained. (DMC)

  14. Coal combustion: Effect of process conditions on char reactivity. Ninth quarterly technical report, September 1, 1992--December 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zygourakis, K.

    1993-12-31

    Our efforts during the past quarter focused on the development of an image processing technique for characterizing the macropore structure of chars produced from Illinois No. 6 coal. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a microscope-stage reactor in inert and reacting atmospheres and at various pyrolysis heating rates. Particles from several pyrolysis runs were embedded in an epoxy resin block and polished sections . were prepared. Digital images of char particle cross-sections were acquired and analyzed to measure the structural properties of the chars. The macropore analysis procedure is presented here in detail. Future reports will present the data showing the effects of pyrolysis conditions on the macropore structure of Illinois No. 6 chars.

  15. High performance computing for materials process modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.; Bjerke, M.A.; Simunovic, S.

    1993-12-31

    Advanced mathematical techniques and computer simulation play a major role in providing enhanced understanding of conventional materials processing operations such as welding and joining. Many of these numerical models are highly compute-intensive. It is not unusual for an analysis to require several hours of computational time on current supercomputers despite the simplicity of the models being studied. As computer simulations and materials databases grow in complexity, massively parallel computers have become important tools. This paper briefly describes massively parallel computational research at the ORNL with the objective of providing fundamental insight into the welding process.

  16. Coprecal: materials accounting in the modified process

    SciTech Connect

    Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Shipley, J.P.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an advanced materials accounting system for a uranium-plutonium nitrate-to-oxide coconversion facility based on the General Electric Coprecal process as modified by Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and DuPont Engineering. The modifications include adding small aliquot tanks to feed the process and reconfiguring the calciner filter systems. Diversion detection sensitivities for the modified Coprecal process are somewhat better than the original Coprecal design, but they are still significantly worse than a same-sized conversion facility based on the oxalate (III) precipitation process.

  17. Simulation of materials processing: Fantasy or reality?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Thomas J.; Bright, Victor M.

    1994-01-01

    This experiment introduces students to the application of computer-aided design (CAD) and analysis of materials processing in the context of integrated circuit (IC) fabrication. The fabrication of modern IC's is a complex process which consists of several sequential steps. These steps involve the precise control of processing variables such as temperature, humidity, and ambient gas composition. In essence, the particular process employed during the fabrication becomes a 'recipe'. Due to economic and other considerations, CAD is becoming an indispensable part of the development of new recipes for IC fabrication. In particular, this experiment permits the students to explore the CAD of the thermal oxidation of silicon.

  18. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  19. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Silveston, P.L.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% S0{sub 2} and at least 75 % NO{sub x}, from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of activated carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The S0{sub 2} is oxidized to S0{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The S0{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. In the previous four quarters, a detailed project management plan was prepared describing the experimental setup, work plan, and test plan. The experimental system was completed for SO{sub 2} conversion at Waterloo and for NO{sub x} conversion at Research Triangle Institute. Shakedown experiments were completed. The NO{sub x} removal performance of two additional modified carbon catalysts (MCCII and MCCIII) was studied. MCCII showed NO{sub 2} removal efficiency which was similar to that observed for MCCI. However, MCCIII was considerably less active for NO{sub x} removal. In the present quarter, further tests of MCCI were performed for SO{sub 2} removal with NO in the feed gas, except the reactor was operated at 130{degrees}C (instead of 80{degrees}C during previous tests). Tests were also performed with MCCII for NO removal with nominally 100 ppm SO{sub 2} in the feed gas.

  20. Deprivation, context, and processing of textual materials.

    PubMed

    Singh, T; Dwivedi, C B

    1993-03-01

    Levy's (1983) familiarization and proofreading paradigm was used to examine the context-processing relationship during reading of Hindi textual materials. Sixty high- and 60 low-deprived male students in Classes 11 and 12 were asked to proofread error-filled passages of easy and difficult text. Familiarity was manipulated by presenting error-free versions of the passages to some subjects but not to others for a single reading before their actual proofreading. Familiar passages were processed faster than unfamiliar passages irrespective of students' deprivation and passage difficulty. Slow processing was recorded for highly deprived subjects and for easy passages. Faster processing was associated with higher error detection and higher short-term retention scores, whereas the opposite was true for slower processing. Familiarity enhanced short-term retention, suggesting some involvement of conceptually driven process even after familiarization. Findings are discussed in light of interactive processing models of reading.

  1. Laser materials processing at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, J.L.; Cieslak, M.J.

    1994-11-01

    The interest in laser processing has been driven by Sandia`s responsibility to design, prototype, manufacture, and steward high reliability defense hardware for the Department of Energy. The system requirements for the hardware generally necessitate hermetic sealing for ensured long life operation. With the advent of miniaturized electronic devices, traditional welding processes were no longer practical choices because of their limited ability to make very small weld closures without heat damage to the hardware. Gas and solid state lasers offered the opportunity to make hermetic closure welds in small, heat sensitive hardware. In order to consistently produce quality product, the Sandia laser materials processing team performed research aimed at identifying those critical parameters which controlled the laser welding process. This has been directed towards both the development of quantitative engineering data needed in product design and process control, and research to achieve fundamental process understanding. In addition, they have developed novel diagnostic systems to measure these important parameters, pioneered the use of calorimetric techniques to measure energy transfer efficiencies, and correlated the occurrence of welding defects with alloy compositions and type of laser welding process. Today, Sandia`s laser materials processing team continues to advance the state of laser processing technology in many areas, including aluminum laser welding, the design of novel optics for specific laser processing needs, laser micromachining of silicon and diamond for microelectronics applications, and fluxless laser soldering. This paper will serve to highlight some examples of where Sandia has made contributions to the field of laser materials processing and will indicate the directions where they expect to focus their future efforts.

  2. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-05

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived.

  3. Materials evaluation for a transuranic processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, S.A., Schwenk, E.B. ); Divine, J.R. )

    1990-11-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company, with the assistance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is developing a transuranium extraction process for preheating double-shell tank wastes at the Hanford Site to reduce the volume of transuranic waste being sent to a repository. The bench- scale transuranium extraction process development is reaching a stage where a pilot plant design has begun for the construction of a facility in the existing B Plant. Because of the potential corrosivity of neutralized cladding removal waste process streams, existing embedded piping alloys in B Plant are being evaluated and new'' alloys are being selected for the full-scale plant screening corrosion tests. Once the waste is acidified with HNO{sub 3}, some of the process streams that are high in F{sup {minus}} and low in Al and zr can produce corrosion rates exceeding 30,000 mil/yr in austenitic alloys. Initial results results are reported concerning the applicability of existing plant materials to withstand expected process solutions and conditions to help determine the feasibility of locating the plant at the selected facility. In addition, process changes are presented that should make the process solutions less corrosive to the existing materials. Experimental work confirms that Hastelloy B is unsatisfactory for the expected process solutions; type 304L, 347 and 309S stainless steels are satisfactory for service at room temperature and 60{degrees}C, if process stream complexing is performed. Inconel 625 was satisfactory for all solutions. 17 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Microwave processing of lunar materials: potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, T.T.; Cocks, F.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Wright, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The microwave processing of lunar materials holds promise for the production of either water, oxygen, primary metals, or ceramic materials. Extra high frequency microwave (EHF) at between 100 and 500 gigahertz have the potential for selective coupling to specific atomic species and a concomitant low energy requirement for the extraction of specific materials, such as oxygen, from lunar ores. The coupling of ultra high frequency (UHF) (e.g., 2.45 gigahertz) microwave frequencies to hydrogen-oxygen bonds might enable the preferential and low energy cost removal (as H/sub 2/O) of implanted protons from the sun or of adosrbed water which might be found in lunar dust in permanently shadowed polar areas. Microwave melting and selective phase melting of lunar materials could also be used either in the preparation of simplified ceramic geometries (e.g., bricks) with custom-tailored microstructures, or for the direct preparation of hermetic walls in underground structures. Speculatively, the preparation of photovoltaic devices based on lunar materials, especially ilmenite, may be a potential use of microwave processing on the moon. Preliminary experiments on UHF melting of terrestrial basalt, basalt/ilmenite and mixtures show that microwave processing is feasible.

  5. Alternative starting materials for industrial processes.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J W

    1992-01-01

    In the manufacture of chemical feedstocks and subsequent processing into derivatives and materials, the U.S. chemical industry sets the current standard of excellence for technological competitiveness. This world-class leadership is attributed to the innovation and advancement of chemical engineering process technology. Whether this status is sustained over the next decade depends strongly on meeting increasingly demanding challenges stimulated by growing concerns about the safe production and use of chemicals without harmful impacts on the environment. To comply with stringent environmental regulations while remaining economically competitive, industry must exploit alternative benign starting materials and develop environmentally neutral industrial processes. Opportunities are described for development of environmentally compatible alternatives and substitutes for some of the most abundantly produced, potentially hazardous industrial chemicals now labeled as "high-priority toxic chemicals." For several other uniquely important commodity chemicals where no economically competitive, environmentally satisfactory, nontoxic alternative starting material exists, we advocate the development of new dynamic processes for the on-demand generation of toxic chemicals. In this general concept, which obviates mass storage and transportation of chemicals, toxic raw materials are produced in real time, where possible, from less-hazardous starting materials and then chemically transformed immediately into the final product. As a selected example for semiconductor technology, recent progress is reviewed for the on-demand production of arsine in turnkey electrochemical generators. Innovation of on-demand chemical generators and alternative processes provide rich areas for environmentally responsive chemical engineering processing research and development for next-generation technology. Images PMID:11607260

  6. Salmonella prevalence and characterization in a free-range pig processing plant: tracking in trucks, lairage, slaughter line and quartering.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Manuela; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Luque, Inmaculada; Herrera-León, Silvia; Maldonado, Alfonso; Reguillo, Lucía; Astorga, Rafael J

    2013-03-01

    New consumer tendencies are focused on products derived from systems which allow both a high animal welfare condition and a high food safety level. However, sometimes animal welfare regulations make the adoption of adequate bio-security measures difficult, representing a barrier for animal health and food safety. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella at different points of the pig slaughtering process (Trucks, Lairage, Slaughter line and Quartering, TLSQ) from pigs reared in free-range systems. From eight samplings a total of 126 Salmonella isolates out of 1160 different samples were recovered (10.86%). The highest percentage of isolates was detected at the points of pre-scalding (29/80, 36.25%), trucks (13/56, 23.21%), cecal contents (17/80, 21.25%), tonsils (14/80, 17.50%), ileocecal lymph nodes (13/80, 16.25%) and lairage (9/64, 14.06%). Furthermore, eighteen isolates were obtained from different environmental samples from slaughter line and quartering plant (knives and surface of tables) (5.63%) and three isolates at the quartering plant samples (ham, shoulder and loin) (3.75%). Fourteen different serotypes were isolated: Bredeney, Rissen, Derby, Typhimurium, Montevideo, Israel, Anatum, Emek, Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mST), Choleraesuis, Durban, Kentucky, London and Sandiego. S. Typhimurium phage types U311, 193, 104b and UT were identified. Moreover, mST strain was phage typed as U311. From TLSQ1, TLSQ2 and TLSQ4, different strains of S. Derby, S. Rissen and S. Bredeney serotypes were isolated from pig and environmental samples, pointing to a potential cross contamination. Molecular typing (Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, PFGE) of these strains confirmed the cross contamination. In the remaining samplings, different serotypes were obtained in each sampled point of the chain, assuming that the isolated serotypes belonged to different epidemiological origins. Our results show the isolation of different serotypes of

  7. Plasma characterization studies for materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pfender, E.; Heberlein, J.

    1995-12-31

    New applications for plasma processing of materials require a more detailed understanding of the fundamental processes occurring in the processing reactors. We have developed reactors offering specific advantages for materials processing, and we are using modeling and diagnostic techniques for the characterization of these reactors. The emphasis is in part set by the interest shown by industry pursuing specific plasma processing applications. In this paper we report on the modeling of radio frequency plasma reactors for use in materials synthesis, and on the characterization of the high rate diamond deposition process using liquid precursors. In the radio frequency plasma torch model, the influence of specific design changes such as the location of the excitation coil on the enthalpy flow distribution is investigated for oxygen and air as plasma gases. The diamond deposition with liquid precursors has identified the efficient mass transport in form of liquid droplets into the boundary layer as responsible for high growth, and the chemical properties of the liquid for the film morphology.

  8. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-30

    Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the designs of the remaining major components of the integrated system were completed and the equipment was ordered. DOE has elected to modify the scope of the existing R&D program being conducted under this contract to include testing of a simulated TSCA incinerator ash. The modification will be in the form of an additional Task (Task 8 -- TSCA Ash Testing) to the original Statement of Work.

  9. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. The paper describes activities carried out this quarter. 11 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. PREFACE: Processing, Microstructure and Performance of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Yu Lung; Chen, John J. J.; Hodgson, Michael A.; Thambyah, Ashvin

    2009-07-01

    A workshop on Processing, Microstructure and Performance of Materials was held at the University of Auckland, School of Engineering, on 8-9 April 2009. Organised by the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Auckland, this meeting consisted of international participants and aimed at addressing the state-of-the-art research activities in processing, microstructure characterization and performance integrity investigation of materials. This two-day conference brought together scientists and engineers from New Zealand, Australia, Hong Kong, France, and the United Kingdom. Undoubtedly, this diverse group of participants brought a very international flair to the proceedings which also featured original research papers on areas such as Materials processing; Microstructure characterisation and microanalysis; Mechanical response at different length scales, Biomaterials and Material Structural integrity. There were a total of 10 invited speakers, 16 paper presentations, and 14 poster presentations. Consequently, the presentations were carefully considered by the scientific committee and participants were invited to submit full papers for this volume. All the invited paper submissions for this volume have been peer reviewed by experts in the various fields represented in this conference, this in accordance to the expected standards of the journal's Peer review policy for IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. The works in this publication consists of new and original research as well as several expert reviews of current state-of-the art technologies and scientific developments. Knowing some of the real constraints on hard-copy publishing of high quality, high resolution images, the editors are grateful to IOP Publishing for this opportunity to have the papers from this conference published on the online open-access platform. Listed in this volume are papers on a range of topics on materials research, including Ferguson's high strain

  11. Fragmentation processes in two-phase materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, H. A.; Guimarães, A. V.; Andrade, J. S.; Nikolakopoulos, I.; Wittel, F. K.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the fragmentation process of solid materials with crystalline and amorphous phases using the the discrete element method. Damage initiates inside spherical samples above the contact zone in a region where the circumferential stress field is tensile. Cracks initiated in this region grow to form meridional planes. If the collision energy exceeds a critical value which depends on the material's internal structure, cracks reach the sample surface resulting in fragmentation. We show that this primary fragmentation mechanism is very robust with respect to the internal structure of the material. For all configurations, a sharp transition from the damage to the fragmentation regime is observed, with smaller critical collision energies for crystalline samples. The mass distribution of the fragments follows a power law for small fragments with an exponent that is characteristic for the branching merging process of unstable cracks. Moreover this exponent depends only on the dimensionally of the system and not on the microstructure.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TOOLS FOR MATERIAL AND PROCESS SELECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of tools are being used within the Sustainable Technology Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide decision-makers with information on environmentally favorable materials and processes. These tools include LCA (Life Cycle Assessment), GREENSCOPE (...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TOOLS FOR MATERIAL AND PROCESS SELECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of tools are being used within the Sustainable Technology Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide decision-makers with information on environmentally favorable materials and processes. These tools include LCA (Life Cycle Assessment), GREENSCOPE (...

  14. Materials processing in space: Future technology trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barter, N. J.

    1980-01-01

    NASA's materials processing in space- (MPS) program involves both ground and space-based research and looks to frequent and cost effective access to the space environment for necessary progress. The first generation payloads for research are under active design and development. They will be hosted by the Space Shuttle/Spacelab on Earth orbital flights in the early 1980's. hese missions will focus on the acquisition of materials behavior research data, the potential enhancement of Earth based technology, and the implementation of space based processing for specialized, high value materials. Some materials to be studied in these payloads may provide future breakthroughs for stronger alloys, ultrapure glasses, superior electronic components, and new or better chemicals. An operational 25 kW power system is expected to be operational to support sustained, systematic space processing activity beyond shuttle capability for second generation payload systems for SPACELAB and free flyer missions to study solidification and crystal growth and to process metal/alloys, glasses/ceramics, and chemicals and biologicals.

  15. Materials processing in space program support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, Martin; Vanalstine, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Activities in support of NASA's Materials Processing in Space (MPS) program are reported. The overall task of the MPS project support contract was to provide the organization and administration of colloquiums, science reviews, workshops, technical meetings, bibliographic services, and visiting scientist programs. The research objectives and accomplishments of the University Space Research Association visiting scientist team are also summarized.

  16. Food Processing Curriculum Material and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…

  17. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The history, strategy, and overall goal of NASA's Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications program for materials processing in space are described as well as the organizational structures and personnel involved. An overview of each research task is presented and recent publications are listed.

  18. 27 CFR 18.51 - Processing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing material. 18.51 Section 18.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.51...

  19. Processing and Characterization of Lightweight Syntactic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    into lightweight (aluminum, magnesium) metal matrices via various metal processing methods. The performance of the resulting foam materials under quasi...selected based on compatibility with their intended matrices . Furthermore, although this report primarily focuses on ceramic-based spheres discussed, it

  20. Processing of materials for uniform field emission

    DOEpatents

    Pam, Lawrence S.; Felter, Thomas E.; Talin, Alec; Ohlberg, Douglas; Fox, Ciaran; Han, Sung

    1999-01-01

    This method produces a field emitter material having a uniform electron emitting surface and a low turn-on voltage. Field emitter materials having uniform electron emitting surfaces as large as 1 square meter and turn-on voltages as low as 16V/.mu.m can be produced from films of electron emitting materials such as polycrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon, graphite and amorphous carbon by the method of the present invention. The process involves conditioning the surface of a field emitter material by applying an electric field to the surface, preferably by scanning the surface of the field emitter material with an electrode maintained at a fixed distance of at least 3 .mu.m above the surface of the field emitter material and at a voltage of at least 500V. In order to enhance the uniformity of electron emission the step of conditioning can be preceeded by ion implanting carbon, nitrogen, argon, oxygen or hydrogen into the surface layers of the field emitter material.

  1. Processing of materials for uniform field emission

    DOEpatents

    Pam, L.S.; Felter, T.E.; Talin, A.; Ohlberg, D.; Fox, C.; Han, S.

    1999-01-12

    This method produces a field emitter material having a uniform electron emitting surface and a low turn-on voltage. Field emitter materials having uniform electron emitting surfaces as large as 1 square meter and turn-on voltages as low as 16V/{micro}m can be produced from films of electron emitting materials such as polycrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon, graphite and amorphous carbon by the method of the present invention. The process involves conditioning the surface of a field emitter material by applying an electric field to the surface, preferably by scanning the surface of the field emitter material with an electrode maintained at a fixed distance of at least 3 {micro}m above the surface of the field emitter material and at a voltage of at least 500V. In order to enhance the uniformity of electron emission the step of conditioning can be preceded by ion implanting carbon, nitrogen, argon, oxygen or hydrogen into the surface layers of the field emitter material. 2 figs.

  2. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is the quarterly progress report for July through September 1995 for work done by Tulane and Xavier Universities under DOE contract number DE-FG01-93-EW53023. Accomplishments for various tasks including administrative activities, collaborative cluster projects, education projects, initiation projects, coordinated instrumentation facility, and an investigators` retreat are detailed in the report.

  3. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    Oil production from Retort No. 23 began on April 6, 1981. The retort burn front remained uniform with good vertical distribution as it advanced through the retort. During the burn various amounts of recycled off gas were introduced into the inlet injection stream. This was done to observe the effect on the retort burn. Preliminary indications are that the gas recycling had no obvious effect on the burn. Further evaluation from Sandia National Laboratories will be forthcoming. After burning 106 days, Retort No. 23 shut in at 9:30 A.M. on June 30, 1981. Total production for the life of Retort No. 23 was 991 barrels of shale oil. Total shale oil production from Retort No. 24 to date is 11,233 barrels. Retort No. 24 produced a total of 4701 barrels during the second quarter, an average of 52 barrels per day. Retort No. 24 has now burned for 211 days. On June 26, a new production well was drilled on Retort No. 24. This well was drilled slightly outside the retort boundary on the off gas end. The purpose of this action was to increase production life of the retort. During June the fire front advanced to the far off gas wells. Shale oil production totaled 5523 barrels during the second quarter. Blasthole drilling began on Retort No. 26. By the end of June 202 blastholes had been drilled. Four additional instrumentation wells were drilled on Retort No. 25. These wells will be used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory personnel during electromagnetic testing which will assist in monitoring the burn front. Fabrication of the Retort No. 25 process equipment proceeded. Design of the Retort No. 25 instrumentation system was finalized and physical work began.

  4. Development of the Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation process. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1992--December 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-12-31

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (Contracts AC22-86PC91221 and AC22-90PC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (2) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. During the quarter, the Anutech Mark IV surface force apparatus was used to generate surface force-distance data for the mica/dodecylamine hydrochloride system (Task 2.1.1). Work to characterize the hydrophobicity of this system and the mica/DDOA{sup {minus}} system was also initiated (Task 2.1.2). In Task 3, the mixing/coagulation characteristics of a small Kenics static mixer/agitation system have been investigated (Task 3.2.1), a lamella thickener for the recovery of coagula has been built (Task 3.3.1), and the test program for the recovery of coagula by column flotation has been initiated (Task 3.3.4).

  5. Development of the selective hydrophobic coagulation process. Tenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1994-08-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, known as Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986. The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear flocculation, polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. Often, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induced the coagulation of coal particles, and (2) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. When the coal is superficially oxidized, a small dosage of reagents may be used to promote coagulation. During the past quarter, calculations were carried out under Subtask 2.3 (Predicting Optimum Conditions Using the Extended DLVO Equation) to explain the selectivity window that occurs between pH 7--9 in the SHC process. These calculations suggest that particle interactions involving the edge surfaces of clay are the most important, while interactions involving silica and face surfaces of clay are not as important. Experiments were also continued under Subtask 3.3 (Advanced Separation Methods) to investigate the performance of a centrifuge for separating hydrophobic coagula from dispersed mineral matter. These tests show that coagula recovery increases with centrifugal field strength and decreases with solids content and feed flow rate. Work is now in progress to evaluate the performance of a vacuum filter for coagula recovery.

  6. Development of the selective hydrophobic coagulation process. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-12-31

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (i) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (ii) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. The technical work program was initiated on July 1, 1992. Force-distance curves were generated for DDOA Br-coated mica surfaces in water and used to calculate hydrophobicity constants and decay lengths for this system; and a new device for the measurement of water contact angles, similar to the Wilhelmy plate balance, has been built 225 kg samples of Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhom No. 3 seam coals were obtained; a static mixer test facility for the study of coagula growth was set up and was undergoing shakedown tests at the end of the quarter; a bench-scale lamella thickener was being constructed; and preliminary coagula/ mineral separation tests were being conducted in a bench-scale continuous drum filter.

  7. Development of the Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation process. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1993-11-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, known as Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy since 1986 (Contracts DE-AC22-86PC91221 and DE-AC22-90PC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear flocculation, polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. Often, simple pH control is all that is required to (i) induce the coagulation of coal particles, and (ii) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. When the coal is superficially oxidized, a small dosage of reagents may be used to promote coagulation. During the quarter, work was completed on the development of the hydrophobic interaction energy function (Subtask 2.1) and the extended DLVO equation (Subtask 2.2.). Work to predict optimum operating conditions using the extended DLVO equation (Subtask 2.3) is underway. In Task 3 -- Process Development, work was completed on the study to determine the effect of mixing on coagula growth (Subtask 3.2) and on the use of column flotation for the recovery of coal coagula (subtask 3.3.4). Work is underway on the use of the lamella thickener and filter for the recovery of coagula (Subtasks 3.3.1 and 3.3.2).

  8. Advances in excimer laser processing of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M.; Hirvonen, J.-P.

    1996-08-01

    The use of pulsed excimer lasers to surface processing of materials hinges on an understanding of the nature of the interaction between the laser energy and the material. The application of this understanding of the laser materials interaction to surface modification must also recognize the existence of thermodynamic driving forces and kinetic limitations in light of the short duration of a single pulse event. For species that have higher solubility in the liquid than in the solid phase, segregation by ``zone refinement`` from multiple passes by a solidification front to the surface results in surface enrichment of those species. The most obvious applications for surface processing occur where the bulk properties of a component are not commensurate with the needed surface properties. Improvements in surface mechanical properties have been observed in a number of metal and ceramic alloys. In the microelectronics industry, apart from micromachining or material removal applications, for which excimers are indeed well suited, the same features of the laser-materials interaction that are used to modify the mechanical or electrochemical properties of a surface can be used to advantage. Further advances, such as those demonstrated in microelectronics, await application-specific developments. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Chemically amplified photoresist: Materials and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawloski, Adam Richard

    2002-01-01

    Advances in microfabrication technology to construct smaller and faster integrated circuits depend on improving resolution capabilities of patterning thin films of photoresist materials by photolithographic imaging. Positive-tone, chemically amplified photoresists represent one of the most important classes of photoresist materials. These materials function by the generation of a photoacid catalyst from the decomposition of a photoacid generator with exposure that catalyzes chemical reactions that alter the development rate of the exposed resist. Chemical amplification is derived from the fact that a single molecule of photogenerated catalyst may participate in numerous reactions. Photoacid catalyzes the cleavage of acid-labile protecting groups from the backbone of the resin polymer, increasing the dissolution rate of the resist in aqueous base. A pattern is formed in the photoresist film from the difference between dissolution rates of the exposed and unexposed material. The continual improvement of the resolution of chemically amplified resists depends on understanding, controlling, and optimizing the chemical processes that govern pattern formation, namely photoacid generation, resin deprotection, and resist dissolution. To elucidate how the formulation of the resist affects these processes, a systematic methodology was designed, validated and implemented to analyze the materials and processing of chemically amplified photoresist systems. The efficiency of photoacid generation and the concentration of photoacid produced upon exposure were determined for a wide range of resist formulations, processing conditions, and exposure technologies. The chemical structure of photoacid generators and base quenchers were found to affect the processes of acid-base neutralization, resin deprotection, and resist development. The reaction-diffusion process of photoacid to deprotect the resin was identified to depend on the concentration of the photoacid generator. A much

  10. Catalysts and process developments for two-stage liquefaction, Report No. 24. Quarterly technical progress report - Second quarter FY 1990, January 1, 1990--March 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cronauer, D.C.; Swanson, A.J.; Sajkowski, D.J.

    1994-11-01

    Research underway in this project centers upon developing and evaluating catalysts and process improvements for coal liquefaction in the two-stage close-coupled catalytic process. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. The preparation of samples of beneficiated Martin Lake lignite and Burning Star mine Illinois No. 6 coal and the liquefaction of these samples in the AU-51 flow unit is complete. Size separation in combination with gravity beneficiation was effective in beneficiating Illinois No. 6 coal, and size separation in combination with aqueous sulfur dioxide treatment followed by density separation was also productive for Martin Lake lignite. The liquefaction of these Illinois No. 6 samples resulted in significant differences in the yields of distillable product. The low density, float fraction was the preferred liquefaction feedstock due to its low ash content (6.5%) and high distillate yield. The high density, sink fraction should be rejected due to its high ash content (18.3%), even though this material functioned as a weak catalyst and produced light product. Sulfurous acid treatment and sink/float beneficiation of Martin Lake lignite was clearly beneficial. Ash levels in the lignite were reduced, conversion was slightly increased, and an all-distillate product was generated.

  11. Catalysts and process developments for two-stage liquefaction. Report No. 20, quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1989--December 31, 1989, first quarter FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cronauer, D.C.; Swanson, A.J.; Sajkowski, D.J.

    1994-11-01

    Research underway in this project centers upon developing and evaluating catalysts and process improvements for coal liquefaction in the two-stage close-coupled catalytic process. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. Bench-scale beneficiation of Martin Lake lignite and Illinois No. 6 coal was used to prepare low-ash coal samples for subsequent liquefaction in the AU-51 flow unit. Size separation in combination with gravity beneficiation was effective in beneficiating Illinois No. 6 coal, and size separation in combination with aqueous sulfur dioxide treatment followed by density separation was also productive for Martin Lake lignite. The liquefaction of these Illinois No. 6 samples resulted in significant differences in the yields of distillable product. The low density, float fraction was the preferred liquefaction feedstock due to its low ash content (6.5%) and high distillate yield. The high density, sink fraction should be rejected due to its high ash content (18.3%), even though this material functioned as a weak catalyst and produced light product.

  12. Dielectric barrier discharge processing of aerospace materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. J.; Figgures, C. C.; Dixon, D. G.

    2004-08-01

    We report the use of atmospheric pressure, air based, dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) to treat materials commonly used in the aerospace industries. The material samples were processed using a test-bed of a conventional DBD configuration in which the sample formed one of the electrodes and was placed in close proximity to a ceramic electrode. The discharges generated a powerful, cold oxidizing environment which was able to remove organic contaminants, etch primer and paint layers, oxidize aluminium and roughen carbon fibre composites by the selective removal of resin.

  13. Early space experiments in materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the flight experiments conducted in conjunction with the United States Materials Processing in Space Program is presented. Also included are a brief description of the conditions prevailing in an orbiting spacecraft and the research implications provided by this unique environment. What was done and what was learned are summarized in order to serve as a background for future experiments. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of the physical sciences but no background in spaceflight experimentation or in the materials science per se.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-11-01

    Consol R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  15. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progresss report, January 1--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.; Robbins, G.A.

    1991-09-01

    Consol R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  16. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  17. Materials and processing science: Limits for microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, R.

    1988-09-01

    The theme of this talk will be to illustrate examples of technologies that will drive materials and processing sciences to the limit and to describe some of the research being pursued to understand materials interactions which are pervasive to projected structure fabrication. It is to be expected that the future will see a progression to nanostructures where scaling laws will be tested and quantum transport will become more in evidence, to low temperature operation for tighter control and improved performance, to complex vertical profiles where 3D stacking and superlattices will produce denser packing and device flexibility, to faster communication links with optoelectronics, and to compatible packaging technologies. New low temperature processing techniques, such as epitaxy of silicon, PECVD of dielectrics, low temperature high pressure oxidation, silicon-germanium heterostructures, etc., must be combined with shallow metallurgies, new lithographic technologies, maskless patterning, rapid thermal processing (RTP) to produce needed profile control, reduce process incompatibilities and develop new device geometries. Materials interactions are of special consequence for chip substrates and illustrations of work in metal-ceramic and metal-polymer adhesion will be offered.

  18. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, April--June, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-13

    The major focus of the project is to install and test a 500 lbs./hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The circuit consists of three subcircuits: Classification Circuit; Dense-Medium Cycloning Circuit; and Magnetite Recovery Circuit. The testing scope involves initial closed-loop testing of each subcircuit to optimize the performance of the equipment in each subcircuit (i.e., Component Testing), followed by open-circuit testing of the entire integrated circuit to optimize the process and quantify the process efficiency (i.e., Integrated Testing). This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  19. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, January--March, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-13

    The major focus of the project is to install and test a 500 lbs./hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The circuit consists of three subcircuits: Classification Circuit; Dense-Medium Cycloning Circuit; and Magnetite Recovery Circuit. The testing scope involves initial closed-loop testing of each subcircuit to optimize the performance of the equipment in each subcircuit (i.e., Component Testing), followed by open-circuit testing of the entire integrated circuit to optimize the process and quantify the process efficiency (i.e., Integrated Testing). This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  20. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-13

    The major focus of the project is to install and test a 500 lbs./hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The circuit consists of three subcircuits: Classification Circuit; Dense-Medium Cycloning Circuit; and Magnetite Recovery Circuit. The testing scope involves initial closed-loop testing of each subcircuit to optimize the performance of the equipment in each subcircuit (i.e., Component Testing), followed by open-circuit testing of the entire integrated circuit to optimize the process and quantify the process efficiency (i.e., Integrated Testing). This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  1. 76 FR 72902 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee (MPETAC) will meet... controls applicable to materials processing equipment and related technology. Agenda Open Session...

  2. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. During this quarter, analyses were completed on 65 process samples from representative periods of HRI Run POC-2 in which coal, coal/plastics, and coal/rubber were the feedstocks. A sample of the oil phase of the oil/water separator from HRI Run POC-1 was analyzed to determine the types and concentrations of phenolic compounds. Chemical analyses and microautoclave tests were performed to monitor the oxidation and measure the reactivity of the standard coal (Old Ben Mine No. 1) which has been used for the last six years to determine solvent quality of process oils analyzed in this and previous DOE contracts.

  3. Tubular filamentation for laser material processing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chen; Jukna, Vytautas; Milián, Carles; Giust, Remo; Ouadghiri-Idrissi, Ismail; Itina, Tatiana; Dudley, John M.; Couairon, Arnaud; Courvoisier, Francois

    2015-01-01

    An open challenge in the important field of femtosecond laser material processing is the controlled internal structuring of dielectric materials. Although the availability of high energy high repetition rate femtosecond lasers has led to many advances in this field, writing structures within transparent dielectrics at intensities exceeding 1013 W/cm2 has remained difficult as it is associated with significant nonlinear spatial distortion. This letter reports the existence of a new propagation regime for femtosecond pulses at high power that overcomes this challenge, associated with the generation of a hollow uniform and intense light tube that remains propagation invariant even at intensities associated with dense plasma formation. This regime is seeded from higher order nondiffracting Bessel beams, which carry an optical vortex charge. Numerical simulations are quantitatively confirmed by experiments where a novel experimental approach allows direct imaging of the 3D fluence distribution within transparent solids. We also analyze the transitions to other propagation regimes in near and far fields. We demonstrate how the generation of plasma in this tubular geometry can lead to applications in ultrafast laser material processing in terms of single shot index writing, and discuss how it opens important perspectives for material compression and filamentation guiding in atmosphere. PMID:25753215

  4. Numerical Testbed for Laser Materials Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-24

    parametesis s cut edge S\\ \\ Bottom edge Adherent dross of sheet Figure 5. A schematic of the cut zone. The high surface tension of the melt and its...adhesion to the workpiece results in dross adhering to the lower edge of the cut.is A similar scatter of theories and the limited predictive capabilities...of current simulations prevails in context with other features in laser materials processing such as humping, rippling and dross formation. The

  5. Commercialization of materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, Charles F.

    1986-01-01

    NASA research to date on materials processing in space (MPS) has revealed that microgravity conditions to a large degree eliminate normal convection, sedimentation, buoyancy, and deformations due to gravity, and permit the exploration of containerless processing. The goals of current NASA MPS work is to augment the fundamental database on MPS and to foster commercial participation in MPS. Techniques being applied by NASA to fulfill the latter goal are described, including technical exchange, industrial guest investigator and joint endeavor agreements, and tangible market incentives. Guidelines for each type of agreement are summarized.

  6. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckannan, E. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A list of active research tasks as of the end of 1978 of the Materials Processing in Space Program of the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, involving several NASA Centers and other organizations is reported. An overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university and government communities is provided. The program, its history, strategy and overall goal; the organizational structures and people involved; and each research task are described. Tasks are categorized by ground based research according to four process areas. Cross references to the performing organizations and principal investigators are provided.

  7. Commercialization of materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, Charles F.

    1986-01-01

    NASA research to date on materials processing in space (MPS) has revealed that microgravity conditions to a large degree eliminate normal convection, sedimentation, buoyancy, and deformations due to gravity, and permit the exploration of containerless processing. The goals of current NASA MPS work is to augment the fundamental database on MPS and to foster commercial participation in MPS. Techniques being applied by NASA to fulfill the latter goal are described, including technical exchange, industrial guest investigator and joint endeavor agreements, and tangible market incentives. Guidelines for each type of agreement are summarized.

  8. Computational Modeling in Structural Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    High temperature materials such as silicon carbide, a variety of nitrides, and ceramic matrix composites find use in aerospace, automotive, machine tool industries and in high speed civil transport applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used in processing such structural materials. Variations of CVD include deposition on substrates, coating of fibers, inside cavities and on complex objects, and infiltration within preforms called chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Our current knowledge of the process mechanisms, ability to optimize processes, and scale-up for large scale manufacturing is limited. In this regard, computational modeling of the processes is valuable since a validated model can be used as a design tool. The effort is similar to traditional chemically reacting flow modeling with emphasis on multicomponent diffusion, thermal diffusion, large sets of homogeneous reactions, and surface chemistry. In the case of CVI, models for pore infiltration are needed. In the present talk, examples of SiC nitride, and Boron deposition from the author's past work will be used to illustrate the utility of computational process modeling.

  9. Computational Modeling in Structural Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    High temperature materials such as silicon carbide, a variety of nitrides, and ceramic matrix composites find use in aerospace, automotive, machine tool industries and in high speed civil transport applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used in processing such structural materials. Variations of CVD include deposition on substrates, coating of fibers, inside cavities and on complex objects, and infiltration within preforms called chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Our current knowledge of the process mechanisms, ability to optimize processes, and scale-up for large scale manufacturing is limited. In this regard, computational modeling of the processes is valuable since a validated model can be used as a design tool. The effort is similar to traditional chemically reacting flow modeling with emphasis on multicomponent diffusion, thermal diffusion, large sets of homogeneous reactions, and surface chemistry. In the case of CVI, models for pore infiltration are needed. In the present talk, examples of SiC nitride, and Boron deposition from the author's past work will be used to illustrate the utility of computational process modeling.

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Volume 14, No. 1, Part 3, Quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Material Licensees (non-Medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  11. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-second quarterly report, January 2, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO{sub x}-NO{sub x} submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  12. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Third quarterly technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-29

    The major focus of the project, which is scheduled to occur through December 1995, will be to install and test a 500{number_sign}/hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The overall objectives of the project are to: Determine the effects of operating time on the characteristics of the recirculating medium in a continuous integrated processing circuit, and subsequently, the sensitivity of cyclone separation performance to the quality of the recirculating medium; and determine the technical and economic feasibility of various unit operations and systems in optimizing the separation and recovery of the micronized magnetite from the coal products. This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  13. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit, Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, July-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, M.H.

    1980-10-01

    This represents the first quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of a PDU to test the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process. On July 24, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. The primary activities during the period covered by this report related to preparations for PDU Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program. These activities included restaffing the PDU operations group, reactivation of the facility, and effecting plant modifications and improvements based on an evaluation of previous operation experience. The Melt Withdrawal System which had proven unreliable during the previous runs, was completely redesigned; thermal and flow analyses were performed; new components procured; and assembly initiated. Run 6 which is scheduled for the next report period, is aimed primarily at verifying the adequacy of the redesigned Melt Withdrawal System.

  14. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 1994. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  15. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  16. Femtosecond laser processing of fuel injectors - a materials processing evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B C; Wynne, A

    2000-12-16

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a new laser-based machining technology that utilizes ultrashort-pulse (0.1-1.0 picosecond) lasers to cut materials with negligible generation of heat or shock. The ultrashort pulse laser, developed for the Department of Energy (Defense Programs) has numerous applications in operations requiring high precision machining. Due to the extremely short duration of the laser pulse, material removal occurs by a different physical mechanism than in conventional machining. As a result, any material (e.g., hardened steel, ceramics, diamond, silicon, etc.) can be machined with minimal heat-affected zone or damage to the remaining material. As a result of the threshold nature of the process, shaped holes, cuts, and textures can be achieved with simple beam shaping. Conventional laser tools used for cutting or high-precision machining (e.g., sculpting, drilling) use long laser pulses (10{sup -8} to over 1 sec) to remove material by heating it to the melting or boiling point (Figure 1.1a). This often results in significant damage to the remaining material and produces considerable slag (Figure 1.2a). With ultrashort laser pulses, material is removed by ionizing the material (Figure 1.1b). The ionized plasma expands away from the surface too quickly for significant energy transfer to the remaining material. This distinct mechanism produces extremely precise and clean-edged holes without melting or degrading the remaining material (Figures 1.2 and 1.3). Since only a very small amount of material ({approx} <0.5 microns) is removed per laser pulse, extremely precise machining can be achieved. High machining speed is achieved by operating the lasers at repetition rates up to 10,000 pulses per second. As a diagnostic, the character of the short-pulse laser produced plasma enables determination of the material being machined between pulses. This feature allows the machining of multilayer materials, metal on metal or metal on

  17. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Active research areas as of the end of the fiscal year 1982 of the Materials Processing in Space Program, NASA-Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, involving several NASA centers and other organizations are highlighted to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program is described as well as its history, strategy and overall goal; the organizational structures and people involved are identified and each research task is described together with a list of recent publications. The tasks are grouped into four categories: crystal growth; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, transports, and chemical processes; and ultrahigh vacuum and containerless processing technologies.

  18. Process Research of Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    A passivation process (hydrogenation) that will improve the power generation of solar cells fabricated from presently produced, large grain, cast polycrystalline silicon (Semix), a potentially low cost material are developed. The first objective is to verify the operation of a DC plasma hydrogenation system and to investigate the effect of hydrogen on the electrical performance of a variety of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. The second objective is to parameterize and optimize a hydrogenation process for cast polycrystalline silicon, and will include a process sensitivity analysis. The sample preparation for the first phase is outlined. The hydrogenation system is described, and some early results that were obtained using the hydrogenation system without a plasma are summarized. Light beam induced current (LBIC) measurements of minicell samples, and their correlation to dark current voltage characteristics, are discussed.

  19. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1993-12-01

    Process oil samples from HRI Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Bench Unit Run CC-16 (227-76) were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run CC-16 was operated in December 1992 with Burning Star 2 Mine (Illinois 6 seam) coal to test and validate Akzo EXP-AO-60 Ni/Mo catalyst (1/16 in. extrudate). Results were compared with those of four previous HRI CTSL bench unit runs made with Ni/Mo catalysts. Major conclusions from this work are summarized. (1) Akzo EXP-AO-60 gave process oil characteristics in Run CC-16 similar to those of other Ni/Mo catalysts tested in Runs I-13, I-16, I-17, and I-18 (by our analytical and empirical test methods). No distinct performance advantage for any of the catalysts emerges from the process oil characteristics and plant performance. Thus, for commercial coal liquefaction, a number of equivalent catalysts are available from competitive commercial sources. The similarity of run performance and process oil characteristics indicates consistent performance of HRI`s bench unit operations over a period of several years; (2) Dominant effects on process oil properties in Run CC-16 were catalyst age and higher temperature operation in Periods 10--13 (Condition 2). Properties affected were the aromaticities and phenolic -OH concentrations of most streams and the asphaltene and preasphaltene concentrations of the pressure-filter liquid (PFL) 850{degrees}F{sup +} resid. The trends reflect decreasing hydrogenation and defunctionalization of the process streams with increasing catalyst age. Operation at higher temperature conditions seems to have partially offset the effects of catalyst age.

  20. Short-pulse laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Myers, B.R.; Banks, P.S.; Honea, E.C.

    1997-06-18

    While there is much that we have learned about materials processing in the ultrashort-pulse regime, there is an enormous amount that we don`t know. How short does the pulse have to be to achieve a particular cut (depth, material, quality)? How deep can you cut? What is the surface roughness? These questions are clearly dependent upon the properties of the material of interest along with the short-pulse interaction physics. From a technology standpoint, we are asked: Can you build a 100 W average power system ? A 1000 W average power system? This proposal seeks to address these questions with a combined experimental and theoretical program of study. Specifically, To develop an empirical database for both metals and dielectrics which can be used to determine the pulse duration and wavelength necessary to achieve a specific machining requirement. To investigate Yb:YAG as a potential laser material for high average power short-pulse systems both directly and in combination with titanium doped sapphire. To develop a conceptual design for a lOOW and eventually 5OOW average power short-pulse system.

  1. Manned Spacecraft Requirements for Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Timothy P.

    2006-01-01

    A major cause of project failure can be attributed to an emphasized focus on end products and inadequate attention to resolving development risks during the initial phases of a project. The initial phases of a project, which we will call the "study period", are critical to determining project scope and costs, and can make or break most projects. If the requirements are not defined adequately, how can the scope be adequately determined, also how can the costs of the entire project be effectively estimated, and how can the risk of project success be accurately assessed? Using the proper material specifications and standards and incorporating these specifications and standards in the design process should be considered inherently crucial to the technical success of a project as just as importantly, crucial to the cost and schedule success. This paper will intertwine several important aspects or considerations for project success: 1) Characteristics of a "Good Material Requirement"; 2) Linking material requirements to the implementation of "Design for Manufacturing"; techniques and 3) The importance of decomposing materials requirements during the study phase/development phase to mitigate project risk for the maturation of technologies before the building of hardware.

  2. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. 2nd quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.V.; Willens, C.A.; Walter, K.M.; Carrico, R.L.; Lowe, G.D.; Lacy, S.B.

    1980-06-01

    The completed geochemical analysis of groundwater in the Pine Creek area for evaluation of the geothermal potential of this location is presented. Also included is an environmental constraints analysis of Pine Creek noting any potential environmental problems if a geothermal system was developed onsite. Design of a geothermal system is discussed for site-specific applications and is discussed in detail with equipment recommendations and material specifications. A preliminary financial, economic, and institutional assessment of geothermal system located totally on Union Carbide property at Pine Creek is included. (MHR)

  3. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

  4. Evaluation of nonaqueous processes for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, B.C.; Grens, J.Z.; Knighton, J.B.; Coops, M.S.

    1983-12-01

    A working group was assigned the task of evaluating the status of nonaqueous processes for nuclear materials and the prospects for successful deployment of these technologies in the future. In the initial evaluation, the study was narrowed to the pyrochemical/pyrometallurgical processes closely related to the processes used for purification of plutonium and its conversion to metal. The status of the chemistry and process hardware were reviewed and the development needs in both chemistry and process equipment technology were evaluated. Finally, the requirements were established for successful deployment of this technology. The status of the technology was evaluated along three lines: (1) first the current applications were examined for completeness, (2) an attempt was made to construct closed-cycle flow sheets for several proposed applications, (3) and finally the status of technical development and future development needs for general applications were reviewed. By using these three evaluations, three different perspectives were constructed that together present a clear picture of how complete the technical development of these processes are.

  5. Development of the selective hydrophobic coagulation process. Technical progress report for the ninth quarter, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1994-07-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, known as Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy since 1986 (Contracts DE-AC22-86PC91221 & DE-AC22- 9OPC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear flocculation, polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. Often, simple pH control is all that is required to (i) induce the coagulation of coal particles, and (ii) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. When the coal is superficially oxidized, a small dosage of reagents may be used to promote coagulation. During the past quarter, stability calculations were carried out to develop a better understanding of the selective coagulation of fine coal and associated mineral matter. The calculations were performed for interactions involving coal, silica and clay particles. The analyses suggest that the heterocoagulation of the edges of clay particles with coal particles controls the overall selectivity of the SHC process. In Subtask 3.3, froth flotation was explored as a possible technique for recovering hydrophobic coagula. Experimental test data obtained using this technique were analyzed using a statistical regression program. The analyses indicate that froth flotation can be used to successfully recover hydrophobic coagula provided that adequate precautions are taken to minimize coagula breakage due to turbulence. Recommendations include the use of low aeration rates and little or no additions of wash water.

  6. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase 3 research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was completing some of the system modification installation designs, completing industry funded testing, developing a surrogate TSCA ash composition, and completing the TSCA ash Test Plan. The installation designs will be used for the equipment modifications planned for the end of CY 93. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe, recyclable glass product. Some results from this testing are provided in Section 2.2.1. The surrogate TSCA ash composition was developed with input from various DOE laboratories and subcontractors. The surrogate ash consists of a mixture of MSW fly ash and bottom ash spiked with heavy metal contaminants. The levels of metal additives are sufficient to ascertain the partitioning of the contaminants between the glass and effluent flow streams. Details of the surrogate composition and the planned testing is provided in Section 4.2.2.

  7. Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Quarterly report, December 1979-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E.

    1980-06-01

    The analysis of data for the Hanna IV and Hoe Creek in situ coal gasification tests raised questions concerning the fundamental controlling mechanisms of the process. The two main areas of concern are: (1) the air flow patterns; and (2) the initial cavity growth. Sandia National Laboratories is addressing these concerns by developing models of these processes. Results to date are in qualitative agreement with known phenomena. There have also been developments in data handling capability. These include improved data presentation ability and development of routine storage, access and back up methods.

  8. New microorganisms and processes for MEOR. Quarterly report ending September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, G.T.; Sperl, P.L.

    1992-12-31

    Oil reservoirs naturally contain inorganic and organic materials which can be exploited through simple supplementation to support the growth of microorganisms which aid in the release of oil from the rock matrix. Other compounds which may serve as nutritional sources for microorganisms are added to reservoirs during production and operation of oil fields. These materials include sulfate, nitrate, carbonate, volatile fatty acids, nitrogen-containing corrosion inhibitors, phosphorous-containing scale inhibitors and trace elements. Our experiments show that, with minimal supplementation, growth of naturally-occurring microorganisms can be used to produce viscosifying agents to aid oil recovery. This natural microflora is also capable of removing sulfide from oil reservoirs and preventing the formation of new sulfide leading to both more oil recovery and increased value of the produced oil. The metabolic products of these microorganisms are Co{sub 2}, water, N{sub 2} and oxidized forms of sulfur, all of which are environmentally innocuous. Laboratory experiments with both defined mixtures of microorganisms as well as mixed populations both release more oil from sand pack columns.

  9. iMAST Quarterly, 2007 Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    pitting surface damage due to corrosion and fatigue. Removal of the surface damage on these gears, however, using the ISF process, has shown that the...the flight control bridge where both corrosion and Figure . Micrograph of Copper powder deposited on Al- 6061 . The mixing of the materials at...the interface is clearly visible.[7] Figure 3. SH-60 Helicopter Transmission Gearbox Figure 4. Corrosion on Gearbox Al- 6061 Cu iMAST Quarterly 007 No

  10. Skylab materials processing facility experiment developer's report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The development of the Skylab M512 Materials Processing Facility is traced from the design of a portable, self-contained electron beam welding system for terrestrial applications to the highly complex experiment system ultimately developed for three Skylab missions. The M512 experiment facility was designed to support six in-space experiments intended to explore the advantages of manufacturing materials in the near-zero-gravity environment of Earth orbit. Detailed descriptions of the M512 facility and related experiment hardware are provided, with discussions of hardware verification and man-machine interfaces included. An analysis of the operation of the facility and experiments during the three Skylab missions is presented, including discussions of the hardware performance, anomalies, and data returned to earth.

  11. Pulsed Laser Processing of Paper Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechtel, Florian; Reg, Yvonne; Zimmermann, Maik; Stocker, Thomas; Knorr, Fabian; Mann, Vincent; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    At present the trends in paper and packaging industries are the personalization of products and the use of novel high-tech materials. Laser processes as non-contact and flexible techniques seem to be the obvious choice to address those developments. In this paper we present a basic understanding of the occurring mechanisms of laser based engraving of different paper and paperboard materials, using a picosecond laser source at 1064 nm. The influences on the beam-paper-interaction of grammage, the composition of the paper matrix, as well as the paper inherent cellulose fibers were investigated. Here the ablation threshold of commercially available paper was determined and a matrix ablation effect under the 1064 nm radiation observed. These results were characterized and qualified mainly by means of laser scanning microscope (LSM) micrographs in combination with color-space analytics.

  12. Advancements in MEMS materials and processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas, John D.; Bolin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    From achievements in display imaging to air bag deployment, microelectromechanical systems are becoming more commonplace in everyday life. With an abundance of opportunities for innovative R&D in the field, the research trends are not only directed toward novel sensor and actuator development, but also toward further miniaturization, specifically achieving micro- and nanoscaled integrated systems. R&D efforts in space, military, and commercial applications are directing specific research programs focused on the area of materials science as an enabling technology to be exploited by researchers and to further push the envelope of micrometerscaled device technology. These endeavors are making significant progress in bringing this aspect of the microelectro-mechanical field to maturation through advances in materials and processing technologies.

  13. Cibachrome testing. [photographic processing and printing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The use of Cibachrome products as a solution to problems encountered when contact printing Kodak film type SO-397 onto Kodak Ektrachrome color reversal paper type 1993 is investigated. A roll of aerial imagery consisting of Kodak film types SO-397 and 2443 was contact printed onto Cibachrome and Kodak materials and compared in terms of color quality, resolution, cost, and compatibility with existing equipment and techniques. Objective measurements are given in terms of resolution and sensitometric response. Comparison prints and transparencies were viewed and ranked according to overall quality and aesthetic appeal. It is recommended that Cibachrome Print material be used in place of Kodak Ektachrome paper because it is more easily processed, the cost is equivalent, and it provides improved resolution, color quality, and image fade resistance.

  14. Saving Material with Systematic Process Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerausch, M.

    2011-08-01

    Global competition is forcing the stamping industry to further increase quality, to shorten time-to-market and to reduce total cost. Continuous balancing between these classical time-cost-quality targets throughout the product development cycle is required to ensure future economical success. In today's industrial practice, die layout standards are typically assumed to implicitly ensure the balancing of company specific time-cost-quality targets. Although die layout standards are a very successful approach, there are two methodical disadvantages. First, the capabilities for tool design have to be continuously adapted to technological innovations; e.g. to take advantage of the full forming capability of new materials. Secondly, the great variety of die design aspects have to be reduced to a generic rule or guideline; e.g. binder shape, draw-in conditions or the use of drawbeads. Therefore, it is important to not overlook cost or quality opportunities when applying die design standards. This paper describes a systematic workflow with focus on minimizing material consumption. The starting point of the investigation is a full process plan for a typical structural part. All requirements are definedaccording to a predefined set of die design standards with industrial relevance are fulfilled. In a first step binder and addendum geometry is systematically checked for material saving potentials. In a second step, blank shape and draw-in are adjusted to meet thinning, wrinkling and springback targets for a minimum blank solution. Finally the identified die layout is validated with respect to production robustness versus splits, wrinkles and springback. For all three steps the applied methodology is based on finite element simulation combined with a stochastical variation of input variables. With the proposed workflow a well-balanced (time-cost-quality) production process assuring minimal material consumption can be achieved.

  15. A Quarter Century of "Advanced Data Processing in the University Library."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segesta, Jim; Hersberger, Rod

    1987-01-01

    Provides a retrospective review of a book published in 1962, "Advanced Data Processing in Libraries," by Schultheiss, Culbertson, and Heiliger, which was one of the first books to present a systematic view of library computerization. This review attempts to consider how accurate that view was. (Author/CLB)

  16. 2010 Membranes: Materials & Processes Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Lin

    2010-07-30

    The GRC series on Membranes: Materials and Processes have gained significant international recognition, attracting leading experts on membranes and other related areas from around the world. It is now known for being an interdisciplinary and synergistic meeting. The next summer's edition will keep with the past tradition and include new, exciting aspects of material science, chemistry, chemical engineering, computer simulation with participants from academia, industry and national laboratories. This edition will focus on cutting edge topics of membranes for addressing several grand challenges facing our society, in particular, energy, water, health and more generally sustainability. During the technical program, we want to discuss new membrane structure and characterization techniques, the role of advanced membranes and membrane-based processes in sustainability/environment (including carbon dioxide capture), membranes in water processes, and membranes for biological and life support applications. As usual, the informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the oral presentations and posters, and ample opportunity to meet many outstanding colleagues make this an excellent conference for established scientists as well as for students. A Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on the weekend prior to the GRC meeting will provide young researchers an opportunity to present their work and network with outstanding experts. It will also be a right warm-up for the conference participants to join and enjoy the main conference.

  17. Microwave processing of materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Garard, R.S.

    1997-11-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and Lambda Technologies, Inc. (Lambda) of Raleigh, N.C., was initiated in May 1995. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research, Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion data for the Agreement was December 31, 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF); and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The VFMF, whose initial conception and design was funded by the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  18. Investigation of the Geokinetics Horizontal In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J.R.

    1981-11-01

    Progress is reported on developing an in-situ process for recovering shale oil. On July 23, Retort No. 24 was shut-in. Production for the life of Retort No. 24 totaled 12,741 barrels of crude shale oil. A contract was made with the United States Defense Fuel Supply Center to furnish them with 5000 barrels of crude shale oil. Shipments were made by tanker trucks to the Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility near Rifle, Colorado to fulfill this contractual agreement. A shipment of 120 barrels of crude shale oil was made to Mobil Research Company. Retort No. 26 was loaded with explosives on August 5 and 6. This operation was carried out totally by Geokinetics' personnel. On August 7, Retort No. 26 was detonated. Again all blasting operations were carried out by Geokinetics personnel. According to initial indications the Retort No. 26 blast was highly successful. Following the blast of Retort No. 26 all efforts were turned to the ignition of Retort No. 25. Equipment and piping were set in place and the instrumentation systems were wired in. Ignition for Retort No. 25 is scheduled for mid to late October. The Retort No. 26 Post-blast Coring Program continued through the end of this quarter. With the ignition of Retort No. 25 the analytical lab began constant monitoring of the retort burn.

  19. Coal combustion: Effect of process conditions on char reactivity. Sixth quarterly technical report, December 1, 1992--March 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zygourakis, K.

    1993-05-01

    During the past quarter, we developed the image analysis procedure for obtaining the transient swelling patterns of pyrolyzing coal particles. Pyrolysis experiments were videotaped and a sequence of digital images was acquired from each experiment tape at rates of 1.5 to 6 images per second. These digital images were then processed to measure the size and shape of pyrolyzing particles as a function of pyrolysis temperature. A systematic analysis of the transient swelling patterns showed significant differences among runs carried out at different heating rates. At low heating rates (1{degree}C/s), the particles swelled rapidly to their maximum size. This initial swelling was followed by a ``bubbling`` phase during which the particles underwent a rapid sequence of expansions and contractions as bubbles of volatiles grew in the particle interior and broke through their surface. The particle size then decreased to show a small final swelling. At higher heating rates, the particle size decreased significantly during the ``bubbling`` phase and the final swelling was higher. A systematic comparison of particle swelling and devolatilization rates is also presented.

  20. Opportunities for commercial materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, James A.

    1985-01-01

    The availability status (as of November 1985) of NASA space and ground facilities for commercial materials-processing activities is surveyed. The organizational structure of the agencies managing these activities is outlined; ongoing joint-endeavor agreements are listed and described; the legal procedures involved are considered; the capabilities and limitations of the Shuttle middeck and cargo bay and the Hitchhiker module are characterized; experiments using the Drop Tower are examined; and the Industrial Guest Investigator program is reviewed. Extensive drawings, diagrams, and tables are provided.

  1. Development of mild gasification process. Quarterly report, October--December, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1988-02-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  2. Development of mild gasification process. Quarterly report, October--December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  3. Development of mild gasification process. Quarterly report, April--June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

    1988-07-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  4. Development of mild gasification process. Quarterly report, July--September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1987-11-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  5. Solar Energy: Materials, Materials Handling, and Fabrication Processes: Student Material. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, William Everet; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "Materials, Materials Handling, and Fabrication Processes," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, exercises, worksheets, bibliographies, and illustrations for 13 course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the…

  6. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Kevin C.; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Christopher, Aardahl L.

    2008-05-12

    Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence FY2008 Second Quarter Milestone Report: Technical report describing assessment of hydrogen storage materials and progress towards meeting DOE’s hydrogen storage targets.

  7. Fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Podolski, W.F.; Swift, W.M.; Henry, R.F.; Hanway, J.E.; Griggs, K.E.; Herzenberg, C.; Helt, J.E.; Carls, E.L.

    1980-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is undertaking several tasks primarily in support of the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion project management team at Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Work is under way to provide fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support to METC, determination of the state of the art of instrumentation for FBC applications, evaluation of the performance capability of cyclones for hot-gas cleaning in PFBC systems, and an initial assessment of methods for the measurement of sodium sulfate dew point.

  8. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The project goal is to develop an advanced coal beneficiation technology that can achieve high recovery of the parent coal`s calorific value, while maximizing pyritic sulfur removal. Coal cleaning is to be accomplished by physical means incorporating an advanced form of cycloning or gravimetric process. Evaluation of different media types and their attendant systems for recovery, concentration, and regeneration is to be completed. Phase I, media evaluation, now completed involved a paper study and a number of laboratory tests to eliminate all but the best media options. Phase II, media testing, involved detailed testing of the more promising media and separators in a closed-loop pilot facility circuit. In the final phase, Phase III, it is proposed to test individual components of the process using the optimum medium, separator, and medium recovery systems(s) selected in prior phases. Some of the highlights for this reporting period are: (1) Outomec conducted a second set of hot water wash experiments. These hot water experiments, using prefiltered medium, yielded a significant improvement in calcium nitrate recovery, and showed a consistent decrease in residuum calcium nitrate with increasing wash rate. (2) Several alternatives were investigated for potential reduction in thermal regeneration process costs. Culligan, Spin Tek, and Rochem, manufacturers of reverse osmosis or ultra filtration systems were contacted. Rochem ultimately performed laboratory experiments. Starting with a dilute medium density of 1.07, the Rochem laboratory system achieved a density of 1.11. A density of 1.22 sg would be commercially attainable. This is less than the target medium density of 1.35, meaning that if their system were utilized, some thermal means would still be required to regenerate medium to operating density. (3) Management and Technical Systems initiated work on a preliminary economic study and will submit a report during the next quarterly reporting period.

  9. Process for Coating Substrates with Catalytic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klelin, Ric J. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A process for forming catalysts by coating substrates with two or more catalytic components, which comprises the following sequence of steps. First, the substrate is infused with an adequate amount of solution having a starting material comprising a catalytic component precursor, wherein the thermal decomposition product of the catalytic component precursor is a catalytic component. Second, the excess of the solution is removed from the substrate. thereby leaving a coating of the catalytic component precursor on the surface of the substrate. Third, the coating of the catalytic component precursor is converted to the catalytic component by thermal decomposition. Finally, the coated substance is etched to increase the surface area. The list three steps are then repeated for at least a second catalytic component. This process is ideally suited for application in producing efficient low temperature oxidation catalysts.

  10. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, C.K.; Erickson, M.V.; Lowe, G.D.

    1980-02-01

    The status of the engineering and economic feasibility study of utilizing geothermal energy for the mining and processing of tungsten ore at the Union Carbide-Metals Division Pine Creek tungsten complex near Bishop, Calfironia is reviewed. Results of geophysical data analysis including determination of assumed resource parameters are presented. The energy utilization evaluation identifies potential locations for substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuel energy using current technology. Preliminary analyses for local environmental and institutional barriers to development of a geothermal system are also provided.

  11. Supercritical fluid reactions for coal processing. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.A.

    1995-10-01

    Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which closely resemble the organic sulfur and nitrogen containing components of coal, we propose to develop a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal desulfurization and denitrogenation. Diels-Alder reactions involving such compounds have been extensively studied and characterized in liquids. However, there is very little understanding of such reactions in SCF`s. We are developing an approach which will allow optimum design of coal desulfurization and denitrogenation processes.

  12. Supercritical fluid reactions for coal processing. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.A.

    1995-08-01

    Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which closely resemble the organic sulfur and nitrogen containing components of coal, we propose to develop a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal desulfurization and denitrogenation. Diels-Alder reactions involving such compounds have been extensively studied and characterized in liquids. However, there is very little understanding of such reactions in SCF`S. We are developing an approach which will allow optimum design of coal desulfurization and denitrogenation processes.

  13. Development and fabrication of a solar cell junction processing system. Quarterly report No. 2, July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Siesling, R.

    1980-07-01

    The basic objectives of the program are the following: (1) to design, develop, construct and deliver a junction processing system which will be capable of producing solar cell junctions by means of ion implantation followed by pulsed electron beam annealing; (2) to include in the system a wafer transport mechanism capable of transferring 4-inch-diameter wafers into and out of the vacuum chamber where the ion implantation and pulsed electron beam annealing processes take place; (3) to integrate, test and demonstrate the system prior to its delivery to JPL along with detailed operating and maintenance manuals; and (4) to estimate component lifetimes and costs, as necessary for the contract, for the performance of comprehensive analyses in accordance with the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS). Under this contract the automated junction formation equipment to be developed involves a new system design incorporating a modified, government-owned, JPL-controlled ion implanter into a Spire-developed pulsed electron beam annealer and wafer transport system. When modified, the ion implanter will deliver a 16 mA beam of /sup 31/P/sup +/ ions with a fluence of 2.5 x 10/sup 15/ ions per square centimeter at an energy of 10 keV. The throughput design goal rate for the junction processor is 10/sup 7/ four-inch-diameter wafers per year.

  14. Scale-up of miscible flood processes. [Quarterly report], January 1--April 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1992-08-01

    Efficient application of miscible floods to heterogeneous reservoirs requires the designer to take advantage of more than one of the physical mechanisms that act and interact to determine displacement performance. In this report, the investigators summarize the interactions of phase behavior, nonuniform flow, and crossflow and based on novel results obtained during the course of their experimental efforts. They suggest design opportunities for application of gas injection to near-miscible recovery processes, to enhanced gravity drainage, and even to fractured reservoirs. To design such processes intelligently, the quantitative scaling of the interplay of phase equilibria, reservoir heterogeneity, viscous fingering and particularly crossflow must be understood. In essence, they propose to make use of crossflow, i.e. transport in the direction transverse to the basic flow direction, to sweep portions of reservoirs that can be reached only very slowly by direct displacement. In this report, the core displacement and flow visualization experiments described suggest that the effects of low interfacial tensions (IFT`s) and gravity can be used to advantage in the design of multicontact miscible displacements for heterogeneous reservoirs, including fractured reservoirs.

  15. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was concentrated on conducting the 100 hour demonstration test. The test was successfully conducted from September 12th through the 16th. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler flyash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler flyash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NO{sub x} burners on the PENELEC boilers.

  16. Trustee Quarterly, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" contained in this document focus on topics of current concern to community college trustees. The winter 1992 issue offers articles on the trustee's role in politics, community colleges as community catalysts, Lewis and Clark Community College's (Illinois) strategic planning process, staff development…

  17. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Heunisch, G.W.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    Described in this report are the following activities: CONSOL characterized process stream samples from HTI Run ALC-2, in which Black Thunder Mine coal was liquefied using four combinations of dispersed catalyst precursors. Oil assays were completed on the HTI Run PB-05 product blend. Fractional distillation of the net product oil of HTI Run POC-1 was completed. CONSOL completed an evaluation of the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers from coal liquefaction phenols. At the request of DOE, various coal liquid samples and relevant characterization data were supplied to the University of West Virginia and the Federal Energy Technology Center. The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is completing the resid reaction computer model. The University of Delaware was instructed on the form in which the computer model is to be delivered to CONSOL.

  18. Field mappers for laser material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Paul; Currie, Matthew; Trela, Natalia; Baker, Howard J.; Murphy, Eoin; Walker, Duncan; McBride, Roy

    2016-03-01

    The native shape of the single-mode laser beam used for high power material processing applications is circular with a Gaussian intensity profile. Manufacturers are now demanding the ability to transform the intensity profile and shape to be compatible with a new generation of advanced processing applications that require much higher precision and control. We describe the design, fabrication and application of a dual-optic, beam-shaping system for single-mode laser sources, that transforms a Gaussian laser beam by remapping - hence field mapping - the intensity profile to create a wide variety of spot shapes including discs, donuts, XY separable and rotationally symmetric. The pair of optics transform the intensity distribution and subsequently flatten the phase of the beam, with spot sizes and depth of focus close to that of a diffraction limited beam. The field mapping approach to beam-shaping is a refractive solution that does not add speckle to the beam, making it ideal for use with single mode laser sources, moving beyond the limits of conventional field mapping in terms of spot size and achievable shapes. We describe a manufacturing process for refractive optics in fused silica that uses a freeform direct-write process that is especially suited for the fabrication of this type of freeform optic. The beam-shaper described above was manufactured in conventional UV-fused silica using this process. The fabrication process generates a smooth surface (<1nm RMS), leading to laser damage thresholds of greater than 100J/cm2, which is well matched to high power laser sources. Experimental verification of the dual-optic filed mapper is presented.

  19. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, M.R.; Minahan, D.M.; Nagaki, D.A.

    1993-12-01

    As stated last quarter, we discovered potassium as an impurity in the mixed metal oxides. The potassium was probably incorporated into the solid during the coprecipitation using K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Currently NH{sub 4}OH is being used as the precipitating base. We have discovered that the precipitation agent influences the surface composition of the mixed-metal oxides. Chemical analysis of the surface and bulk compositions showed significant differences in surface compositions of the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}OH precipitated catalysts. In TPR experiments we have discovered that the precipitating pH markedly affects the reducibility of the ZnMnCr oxides. This shows that the choice of base as well as the pH strongly affects the surface composition of the mixed metal catalysts. Additional studies are in progress in which we are studying how the precipitating agents affect the surface composition of the mixed metal oxide catalysts and how the different surface compositions affect their chemical properties and their interactions with the supported metal particles. Catalysts from our last design show a total selectivity to alcohols of 86%, a 3:1 ratio of methanol to isobutanol and an isobutanol productivity of 30--38 g/kg-hr. Process conversion is estimated to be 7--8%. These are encouraging results, and it is hoped that manipulation of process variables such as temperature, pressure, syngas ratio and space velocity will lead to further improved performance.

  20. Bench-scale co-processing: Quarterly report No. 2, July 1, 1988--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-15

    A major objective of this new contract is to look at alternative catalyst systems of coprocessing which might have lower overall costs. Two prospective new catalyst systems have been evaluated. The first was a molybdenum-based catalyst, designated ''K6.2,'' which was selected from several proprietary Mo candidate systems screened previously. Mo is a more active metal than V and has the potential for achieving equivalent conversions and yields to the V, but at lower concentration levels. The overall economics of this system will depend on whether the Mo is active enough to be used at concentrations so low that it can be used as a disposable catalyst, or whether at equivalent high concentrations to the vanadium, the improvement in product yield and quality is great enough to justify the additional catalyst cost. The second catalyst system evaluated is a modified vanadium slurry catalyst designated ''K2.0.'' The objective of this catalyst formulation was to reduce recovery costs relative to our standard reference vanadium catalyst (K1) by eliminating certain steps in the recovery process. All of the catalysts tested were screened in our standard autoclave test. 7 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Supercritical fluid reactions for coal processing. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.A

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this work is to design benign solvent/cosolvent systems for reactions which will achieve optimum desulfurization and/or denitrogenation in the pre-treatment of coal or coal liquids. Supercritical fluids present excellent opportunities for the pretreatment of coal, hence we shall utilize supercritical fluids as a reaction medium. A number of possible Diels-Alder reactive systems involving anthracene (diene) in supercritical solvent were proposed at the outset of research. Scouting experiments designed to select out the optimum reactive system from among the candidate dienophiles and solvents have been completed. The nitrogen bearing compound 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) has demonstrated superior reactivity and sensitivity to cosolvent additions and has been selected as dienophile. A convenient half-life of reaction between PTAD and anthracene is obtained at temperatures in the neighborhood of 50{degree}C. Carbon dioxide has been selected as the solvent because of its convenient critical properties, and also to optimize the safety of the experiments. In the process of completing these scouting experiments, the experimental apparatus that will be used to obtain kinetic data for calculation of partial molar volumes of the reaction transition state has also been optimized.

  2. Scale-up of miscible flood processes. Quarterly report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Progress is reported for a comprehensive investigation of the scaling behavior of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs. The interplay of phase behavior, viscous fingering, gravity segregation, capillary imbibition and drainage, and reservoir heterogeneity is examined in a series of simulations and experiments. Compositional and first-contact miscible simulations of viscous fingering and gravity segregation are compared to show that the two techniques can give very different results. Also, analyzed are two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows in which gravity segregation and viscous fingering interact. The simulations show that 2D and 3D flows can differ significantly. A comparison of analytical solutions for three-component two-phase flow with experimental results for oil/water/alcohol systems is reported. While the experiments and theory show reasonable agreement, some differences remain to be explained. The scaling behavior of the interaction of gravity segregation and capillary forces is investigated through simulations and through scaling arguments based on analysis of the differential equations. The simulations show that standard approaches do not agree well with results of low IFT displacements. The scaling analyses, however, reveal flow regimes where capillary, gravity, or viscous forces dominate the flow.

  3. New microorganisms and processes for MEOR. Quarterly report ending, December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1992-12-31

    We have been successful in isolating and characterizing sulfate reducing bacteria and denitrifying Thiobacillus sp. from oil field waters which can use volatile fatty acids and dissolve carbonates found in these waters and formations. We have shown that these cultures can feed each other in sequential cultures and survive in mixed culture as long as sterile conditions are maintained. When nonsterile conditions are present both organism types are only successful to a limited degree, and, instead, an additional microflora develop belonging to the heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria. These microorganisms appear to be potentially useful in new MEOR processes through the production of pressure forming gases, viscosifying agents and the removal and prevention of de novo synthesis of hydrogen sulfide and are currently being pursued. They are capable of producing large amounts of gas, predominantly nitrogen and carbon dioxide and also form viscosifying agents under conditions which we believe we can easily maintain in an oil reservoir. In this report we show that they are also potent agents for the control of SRB growth, development and production of sulfide.

  4. Coal conversion processes. Quarterly report, December 13, 1983-March 12, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Biloen, P.; Holder, G.D.; Klinzing, G.E.; Tierney, J.W.

    1984-05-01

    Experimental work is continuing on four separate projects related to coal conversion processes. The direct digital control of exothermic multiphase reactions is being studied in an experimental adiabatic flow reactor. The existence of two stable steady states for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction network at the same temperature and feed condition has been verified and quantified. Various absorbents for SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub X/ are being studied. The absorption of NO/sub 2/ by methanol and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone has been extensively examined. Preliminary data have been obtained with triethylene-tetraamine. Hindered amines will be studied next. Procedures for the preparation of liquid membranes have been tested and the incorporation of hindered amines in them will now be examined. Isotopic switching is being used to study the way in which promoters affect supported metal catalysts. With improved resolution from the mass spectrometer, early quantitative results give indications of three different surface species and of non-statistical ingrowth of /sup 13/C into the product molecules. A program for the study of the extraction of coal and oil shale using supercritical fluids is being carried out. The effect of the presence of piperidine on the amount of toluene solubles produced by supercritical extraction of coal with toluene/piperidine mixture has been determined. A new kinetic model for the extraction/liquefaction of coal by supercritical toluene and THF has been developed and proven satisfactory. Bruceton coal and Hi Na lignite have been extracted with supercritical water. 3 references, 7 figures, 6 tables.

  5. /sup 238/Pu fuel form processes. Quarterly report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    j

    1982-11-01

    Progress in studies of /sup 238/Pu fuel form processes is reported. Analytical studies of weld-quench cracking in DOP-26 iridium alloy-clad vent sets in General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) showed that weld-quench cracking is much more severe in MER alloy than in LR and NR alloys. Spark source mass spectrometry indicated that areas in DOP-26 alloy with severe weld-quench cracking have high thorium inhomogeneity. Secondary ion mass spectrometry revealed differences in LR and MR alloys that may be related to their dissimilar susceptibilities for weld-quench cracking. Impact ductility tests showed that welds in DOP-26 alloy clad vent sets made using parameters similar to PuFF production welding had high elongations. Decontamination of encapsulated GPHS pellets in PuFF was demonstrated using a solution of 3.5 M HNO/sub 3/ + 6.4 M HF which is capable of reducing transferable contamination below the specified 10/sup 3/ dpm upper limit in <30 minutes at a bath temperature of 80/sup 0/C using ultrasonic cleaning. Decontamination vessels were constructed to trap and condense acid vapors during decontamination. Impact and metallographic data showed that although the micro and macrostructures between LANL and SRL pellets have large differences, the difference in impact response between these two types of pellets is not correspondingly large. Both types of pellets have impacted successfully. The micro and macrostructures of SRP pellets made with either low fired shards sintered in Ar/5%O/sub 2/ or Ar are intermediate between those of the LANL and SRL pellets. Therefore, either type of SRP pellet should impact successfully.

  6. Empty Quarter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Empty Quarter - February 1st, 20003 Description: White pinpricks of cloud cast ebony shadows on the Rub' al Khali, or Empty Quarter, near the border between Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The lines of wind-sculpted sand are characteristic of immense sand deserts, or sand seas, and the Rub' al Khali is the largest desert of this type in the world. A highland ridge is just high enough to disturb the flow of the lines. In the center of that interruption lies the Saudi Arabian town of Sharurah. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  7. 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Editor); Stanley, D. Cross (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Records are presented from the 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology. Topics included pollution prevention, inspection methods, advanced materials, aerospace materials and technical standards,materials testing and evaluation, advanced manufacturing,development in metallic processes, synthesis of nanomaterials, composite cryotank processing, environmentally friendly cleaning, and poster sessions.

  8. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 56, 1st Quarter, January 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    between single - and double-loop learning.17 The contrast pertains to knowledge about improving what one is already doing based on a given set of...how they should be developed, and why many recent attempts at theories are really shallow approaches based on a single governing idea, ignor...Quarterly should be acknowledged whenever material is quoted from or based on its content. COMMUNICATIONS Please visit NDU Press and Joint Force Quarterly

  9. Wick materials by sol-gel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Nazeri, Azar; Kim, Jeong

    1997-01-10

    In capillary pumped loops (CPL) devices, the fine porous wick, located in the evaporator, provides the means for passively pumping the fluid through the system, using surface tension forces exerted onto a liquid in a small diameter pore at the liquid/vapor interface. The Naval Research Laboratory's Materials Science and technology Division and Naval Center for Space Technology have been investigating the use of sol-gel processing for development of organically modified ceramic wicks with micron or submicron pores, high porosity, low thermal conductivity and structural flexibility. Gels with average pore sizes as small as 0.5 {mu}m, 30-80% continuous porosity, some flexibility and thermal stability to at least 473K were successfully prepared. Microstructures of these hybrids were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and some conventional wick property testing were performed.

  10. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup. Third quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Silveston, P.L.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of achieved carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. The experimental work is divided between Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the University of Waterloo (Waterloo). RTI will conduct the NO{sub x} removal studies, whereas Waterloo will conduct the SO{sub 2} removal studies. The ultimate goal of the project is to demonstrate that the process can be reduce the cost of electricity by 20% over conventional SCR/flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. In the present quarter, the continuous SO{sub 2} analyzer system at Waterloo was completed. The SO{sub 2} removal factorial experiments were begun Waterloo with the BPL carbon at 21{degrees}C. Also, SO{sub 2} removal was tested on two catalyst at RTI at 80{degrees}C. NO{sub x} conversion was tested on a variety of catalysts at RTI. It was shown that the BPL carbon could remove over 95% SO{sub 2} at 21{degrees}C but would required several beds at space velocity in each bed of abut 1,500 scc/(cc{center_dot}h) to reduce SO{sub 2} from 2,500 ppm to 100 ppm. A modified carbon catalyst tested at RTI showed 99% SO{sub 2} removal at 80{degrees}C at 1,400 scc/(cc{center_dot}h). Also, it was possible to produce nearly 9 normal H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by periodic flushing of this catalyst. The modified carbon catalyst also demonstrated removal of more than 80% NO{sub x}. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-02-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  12. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  13. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River basin. Quarterly project status report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    During this quarter, the Review Panel made its final recommendations regarding which of the proposals should be funded. Included in this report is a brief status report of each of the research and education projects that are currently funded in this project. The Coordinated Instrumentation Facility (CIF) sponsored 3 seminars on Environmental Sample Preparation Techniques. These seminars were designed to educate the investigators on the use of microwave digestion systems for sample preparation and the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma and Atomic Absorption Specrtroscopy for analyses. During this period, Tulane and Xavier Universities have worked closely with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) to develop a long term relationship that will encourage interaction and collaborations among the investigators at all of the institutions.

  14. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September 1, 1996--November 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for {open_quotes}as-generated{close_quotes} slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700{degrees}F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications.

  15. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The burn of Retort 17 was terminated December 10. Retort 18 was ignited November 12. Retort 17 produced 510 bbl during the quarter for the total of 3,775 bbl, while Retort 18 produced 1,187 bbl. The shale oil was analyzed. Environmental studies were done.

  16. Remote plasma processing of thin film materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastenmeier, Bernd E. E.

    1999-09-01

    In this thesis, phenomena and mechanisms of remote plasma processes are investigated. The plasmas are spatially separated from the sample surface. Chemically reactive species are produced in the discharge region from rather inert feed gases. They exit the discharge region and travel in the afterglow towards the reaction chamber, where primarily neutral species arrive. The interaction with the sample surface is purely chemical. The absence of direct plasma surface interactions distinguishes remote plasma Chemical Dry Etching (CDE) from other etch processes like Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) or Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etching. The etch reactions in CDE are isotropic, potentially offer great etch rate ratios and minimize substrate damage due to the absence of direct plasma-surface interactions. However, some materials like silicon dioxide (SiO2) or fluorocarbon deposits are difficult to remove because of the lack of activation energy otherwise provided by ion bombardment. In CDE, rates can be enhanced by the introduction of a new reaction pathway. Remote plasma CDE of silicon nitride (Si3N4) is an example for increasing the overall reaction rate by introducing a new reaction channel. Typically, the Si3N4 surface is exposed to the fluorine rich afterglow of a fluorocarbon, nitrogen trifluoride (NF 3) or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) based discharge. We find that the Si3N4 etch rate is dramatically enhanced when Nitric Oxide (NO) is present in the afterglow as compared to the case in which only fluorine is present. Presented here are detailed analyses of the etching of Si3N 4 and SiO2 in different chemistries. Several experimental techniques are employed to investigate the composition of the plasma and the afterglow, the surface modifications and the etch rates for tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and NF3 based processes. These measurements establish the effect of NO on the Si3N4 etch rate. The dominant mechanism for the etch rate enhancement is shown by mass spectrometry

  17. Development of a solid absorption process for removal of sulfur from fuel gas. First quarterly technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, G.E.; Olson, K.M.

    1980-05-01

    Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories has begun to develop a project for removing sulfur compounds from fuel gases at elevated temperature (> 700/sup 0/C) based on the use of molten mixtures of alkali metal carbonates and calcium carbonate as the active reactants. The sulfur removal capacity of the molten salt mixture may be regenerated by stripping with CO/sub 2/ and steam, usually at a reduced temperature. In this process, the molten salt mixture is contained within the pores of a porous ceramic substrate material which may be used in a packed bed, moving bed, or fluidized bed absorber. The process would be used most advantageously in applications where it is desirable to reduce or eliminate any cooling of the fuel gas between the gasifier outlet and the gas user. Examples of such applications include gas turbines, high temperature fuel cells, boilers, and furnaces which operate in relatively close proximity to a coal gasifier. In these applications, reduction or elimination of the gas cooling requirements will generally improve thermal efficiency by retaining the sensible heat in the gas and may result in simplification of the process by elimination of gas cooling (and in some cases reheating) equipment and by elimination of process condensates and the equipment required for their handling and treatment. The objectives of the program are to obtain process and materials data sufficient to demonstrate feasibility of the process at bench scale and to allow preliminary economic analysis. Process data to be obtained include sorbent sulfur capacity, reaction kinetics, and other operating characteristics. Various candidate materials will be purchased or fabricated and tested for suitability as porous ceramic substrate materials.

  18. CO{sub 2} Hugg-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly technical progress report, 2nd quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-25

    The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Tasks associated with this objective are carried out in what is considered a timely effort for near-term goals.

  19. Processes for fabricating composite reinforced material

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2015-11-24

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  20. RESEARCH ON RELAXATION PROCESSES IN MAGNETIC MATERIALS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES, FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS, FERRITES , EUROPIUM COMPOUNDS, GALLIUM COMPOUNDS, OXIDES, DYSPROSIUM, HOLMIUM...GARNET), (* MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, YTTRIUM, CRYSTALS, IRON COMPOUNDS, POROSITY, THEORY, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, SINGLE CRYSTALS, MAGNETIC MATERIALS

  1. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin Project management. Technical quarterly progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, J.; Ide, C.F.; O`Connor, S.

    1996-08-01

    This quarterly report summarizes accomplishments for the Project examining hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Among the many research areas summarized are the following: assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in aquatic species as a biomarker of exposure; hazardous wastes in aquatic environment;ecological sentinels of aquatic contamination in the lower Mississippi River System; remediation of selected contaminants; rapid on-site immunassay for heavy metal contamination; molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicity induced by retinoids and retinoid-like molecules; resuseable synthetic membranes for the removal of aromatic and halogenated organic pollutants from waste water; Effects of steroid receptor activation in neurendocrine cell of the mammalian hypothalamus; modeling and assessment of environmental quality of louisiana bayous and swamps; enhancement of environmental education. The report also contains a summary of publications resulting from this project and an appendix with analytical core protocals and target compounds and metals.

  2. The space technology demand on materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauphin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Space technology requires a rational and accurate policy of materials and processes selection. This paper examines some areas of space technology where materials and process problems have occurred in the past and how they can be solved in the future.

  3. Quantifying the Material Processing Conditions for an Optimized FSW Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edgs of the seam together. This environmentally friendly, solid-state technique has been successfully used in the joining of materials that are difficult to fusion weld. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path and velocity is required. In this study the metal flow fields are marked by the use of thin (0.001 in. tungsten) wires embedded in the weld seam at various locations. X-ray radiographs record the position and segmentation of the wire and are used to elucidate the flow field. Microstructures observed in a FSW cross-section in an aluminum alloy are related to their respective strain-strain rate-temperature histones along their respective flow trajectories. Two kinds of trajectories, each subjecting the weld metal to a distinct thermomechanical process and imparting a distinct microstructure, can be differentiated within the weld structure.

  4. Unraveling the Material Processing Conditions for Optimizing FSW Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edges of the seam together. This environmentally friendly, solid-state technique has been successfully used in the joining of materials that are difficult to fusion weld. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path and velocity is required. In this study the metal flow fields are marked by the use of thin (0.001? tungsten) wires embedded in the weld seam at various locations. X-ray radiographs record the position and segmentation of the wire and are used to elucidate the flow field. Microstructures observed in a FSW cross-section in an aluminum alloy are related to their respective strain-strain rate-temperature histories along their respective flow trajectories. Two kinds of trajectories, each subjecting the weld metal to a distinct thermomechanical process and imparting a distinct microstructure, can be differentiated within the weld structure.

  5. Supercritical fluid processing: opportunities for new resist materials and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher-Wetmore, Paula M.; Ober, Christopher K.; Gabor, Allen H.; Allen, Robert D.

    1996-05-01

    Over the past two decades supercritical fluids have been utilized as solvents for carrying out separations of materials as diverse as foods, polymers, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, natural products, and explosives. More recently they have been used for non-extractive applications such as recrystallization, deposition, impregnation, surface modification, and as a solvent alternative for precision parts cleaning. Today, supercritical fluid extraction is being practiced in the foods and beverage industries; there are commercial plants for decaffeinating coffee and tea, extracting beer flavoring agents from hops, and separating oils and oleoresins from spices. Interest in supercritical fluid processing of polymers has grown over the last ten years, and many new purification, fractionation, and even polymerization techniques have emerged. One of the most significant motivations for applying this technology to polymers has been increased performance demands. More recently, with increasing scrutiny of traditional solvents, supercritical fluids, and in particular carbon dioxide, are receiving widespread attention as 'environmentally conscious' solvents. This paper describes several examples of polymers applications, including a few involving photoresists, which demonstrate that as next- generation advanced polymer systems emerge, supercritical fluids are certain to offer advantages as cutting edge processing tools.

  6. Quantifying the Material Processing Conditions for an Optimized FSW Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edgs of the seam together. This environmentally friendly, solid-state technique has been successfully used in the joining of materials that are difficult to fusion weld. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path and velocity is required. In this study the metal flow fields are marked by the use of thin (0.001 in. tungsten) wires embedded in the weld seam at various locations. X-ray radiographs record the position and segmentation of the wire and are used to elucidate the flow field. Microstructures observed in a FSW cross-section in an aluminum alloy are related to their respective strain-strain rate-temperature histones along their respective flow trajectories. Two kinds of trajectories, each subjecting the weld metal to a distinct thermomechanical process and imparting a distinct microstructure, can be differentiated within the weld structure.

  7. Unraveling the Material Processing Conditions for Optimizing FSW Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edges of the seam together. This environmentally friendly, solid-state technique has been successfully used in the joining of materials that are difficult to fusion weld. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path and velocity is required. In this study the metal flow fields are marked by the use of thin (0.001? tungsten) wires embedded in the weld seam at various locations. X-ray radiographs record the position and segmentation of the wire and are used to elucidate the flow field. Microstructures observed in a FSW cross-section in an aluminum alloy are related to their respective strain-strain rate-temperature histories along their respective flow trajectories. Two kinds of trajectories, each subjecting the weld metal to a distinct thermomechanical process and imparting a distinct microstructure, can be differentiated within the weld structure.

  8. Open architecture control for laser materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmann, Juergen; Kahmen, A.; Kaierle, Stefan; Kreutz, Ernst-Wolfgang; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2001-12-01

    In laser materials processing, usually CNC controls come into operation that are fitted to conventional applications of machining, like milling. Because of the flexibility required and the large variety of applications in laser technology the use of an open architecture control is necessary. Open controls based on the OSACA (Open System Architecture for Controls within Automation systems) specification gain an increasing importance when innovative technology is integrated into controls. OSACA defines a uniform system platform that provides services for communication and configuration. The OSACA platform has been developed as a modular system for different operating systems with or without real-time capability and different hardware platforms. The functionality of the control is subdivided into single functional units, which communicate provided by the OSACA platform. Every unit can access the internal control data in a standardized way. The contribution reports about the implementation of an OSACA based control into a laser manufacturing plant. The problems and components concerning a linkage to the laser control and the implementation of some laser specific control units are discussed.

  9. Recognition memory: material, processes, and substrates.

    PubMed

    Brown, Malcolm W; Warburton, E Clea; Aggleton, John P

    2010-11-01

    The proposal that a system centering on the perirhinal cortex is responsible for familiarity discrimination, particularly for single items, whereas a system centering on the hippocampus is responsible for recollective and more complex associational aspects of recognition memory is reviewed in the light of recent findings. In particular, the proposal is reviewed in relation to recent animal work with rats and results from human clinical studies. Notably, progress has been made in determining potential neural memory substrate mechanisms within the perirhinal cortex in rats. Recent findings have emphasized the importance of specifying the type of material, the type of test, and the strategy used by subjects to solve recognition memory tests if substrates are to be accurately inferred. It is to be expected that the default condition is that both the hippocampal and perirhinal systems will contribute to recognition memory performance. Indeed, rat lesion experiments provide examples of where cooperation between both systems is essential. Nevertheless, there remain examples of the independent operation of the hippocampal and perirhinal systems. Overall, it is concluded that most, though not all, of the recent findings are in support of the proposal. However, there is also evidence that the systems involved in recognition memory need to include structures outside the medial temporal lobe: there are significant but as yet only partially defined roles for the prefrontal cortex and sensory association cortices in recognition memory processes. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wrigley, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Results of hydrogen-passivated polycrystalline silicon solar cells are summarized. Very small grain or short minority-carrier diffusion length silicon was used. Hydrogenated solar cells fabricated from this material appear to have effective minority-carrier diffusion lengths that are still not very long, as shown by the open-circuit voltages of passivated cells that are still significantly less than those of single-crystal solar cells. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. However, the open-circuit voltage, which is sensitive to grain boundary recombination, is sometimes 20 to 40 mV less. The goal was to minimize variations in open-circuit voltage and fill-factor caused by defects by passivating these defects using a hydrogenation process. Treatments with molecular hydrogen showed no effect on large-grain cast polycrystaline silicon solar cells.

  11. Materials processing with intense pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    We review research investigating the application of intense pulsed ion beams (IPIBs) for the surface treatment and coating of materials. The short range (0.1-10 {mu}m) and high-energy density (1-50 J/cm{sup 2}) of these short-pulsed ({le} 1 {mu}s) beams (with ion currents I = 5 - 50 kA, and energies E = 100 - 1000 keV) make them ideal to flash-heat a target surface, similar to the more familiar pulsed laser processes. IPIB surface treatment induces rapid melt and solidification at up to 10{sup 10} K/s to cause amorphous layer formation and the production of non-equilibrium microstructures. At higher energy density the target surface is vaporized, and the ablated vapor is condensed as coatings onto adjacent substrates or as nanophase powders. Progress towards the development of robust, high-repetition rate IPIB accelerators is presented along with economic estimates for the cost of ownership of this technology.

  12. Vision Based Instrumentation For Microelectronic Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Donald W.

    1990-02-01

    Proper instrumentation, documentation, and analysis are crucial to the continued advance of micro-electronic materials science. Many important phenomenon are visible. Many of those are progressive events that need observation throughout their transitory period. Microelectronics scientists and engineers have long required optical systems tools which properly handle visible phenomena. An optical based system, called a high-resolution Still/Video system, to fulfill crucial microelec-tronic needs is available. Microelectronic dimensions require the highest possible resolution to resolve the small details. The system provides 1134 by 486 pixel video frames. The transient nature of many events requires video and the associated capability of video recording. The system stores over 14,000 high-resolution video frames on a single standard commercial VHS tape. The widespread use of microscopy requires the ability to operate with a variety of optical microscopes. The system is directly compatible with most microscopes. In addition, analysis requires the ability to produce film and computer processed results of all crucial images. The system has both a companion film printer and a direct computer interface.

  13. A rheometer for measuring the material moduli for granular solids. Quarterly progress report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopal, K.R.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the design of an orthogonal rheometer for the measuring of properties of granular materials such as coal. A section is presented on constitutive modeling of granular materials based on continuum theory.

  14. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly technical progress report, 3rd quarter, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, S.; Smith, V.; Cole, R.; Brugman, B.; Vogt, J.

    1994-10-18

    The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc`s. (TEPI) long-term plans are to implement a full-scale miscible CO{sub 2} project in the CVU. However, the current market precludes acceleration of such a capital intensive project. The DOE partnership provides some relief to the associated R and D risks, allowing TEPI to evaluate a proven Gulf-coast sandstone technology in a waterflooded carbonate environment. Technical progress is described on the following studies: Porosity and permeability relationships; Initial water saturation and oil-water contact; Geostatistical realization; and Parametric simulation.

  15. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly technical progress report, Fourth quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, S.; Prieditis, J.

    1996-02-05

    The principle objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc`s. (TEPI) mid-term plans are to implement a full-scale miscible CO{sub 2} project in the CVU. TEPI has concluded all of the Tasks associated with the First Budget Period. The DOE approved the TEPI continuation application. Budget Period No. 2 is now in progress. Initial injection of CO{sub 2} began in November, and after a short shut-in period for the soak, the well was returned to production in late December, 1995.

  16. Mechanical Adaptivity as a Process: Implications to New Materials and Material System Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Work Output (force or displacement) State 1 State 2 Conversion Store Release Mechanical Design: Material : Simple Machines Springs Inflation...Mechanical Adaptivity as a Process: Implications to New Materials and Material System Design Functional Materials Division Materials and...Lee, Timothy J. White, David Wang, Loon-Seng Tan Richard A. Vaia Funding: Air Force Office of Scientific Research AFRL Materials & Manufacturing

  17. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, third quarter 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Zagorski, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    At the beginning of the third quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station was operating with the 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D reactor coolant loops and the 1AC and 1BD purification loops in service. During the quarter, the Station was operated for Duquesne Light Company System grid including base load and swing load operation. Twelve (12) planned swing load operations were performed on the LWBR Core this quarter to complete the LWBR operating plan of fifty (50) during this operating phase. The Station was shutdown on September 12 for the Fall 1980 Shutdown and remained in this mode through the end of the quarter. The LWBR Core has generated 18,297.98 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. There were no radioactive liquid discharges from the Radioactive Waste Processing System to the river this quarter. The radioactive liquid waste effluent line to the river remained blanked off to prevent inadvertent radioactive liquid waste discharges. During the quarter, approximately 0.001 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. The radioactivity released from Shippingport Station is far too small to have any measurable effect on the general background environmental radioactivity outside the plant.

  18. Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, S.D.

    1998-07-01

    The sequential manner in which materials and processes for a manufactured product are selected is inherently less than optimal. Designers` tendency to choose processes and materials with which they are familiar exacerbate this problem. A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach is presented.

  19. Double Diffusive Convection in Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandra, Narayanan; Leslie, Fred W.

    1999-01-01

    A great number of crystals grown in space are plagued by convective motions which contribute to structural flaws. The character of these instabilities is not well understood but is associated with density variations in the presence of residual gravity (g-jitter). As a specific example, past HgCdTe crystal growth space experiments by Lehoczky and co-workers indicate radial compositional asymmetry in the grown crystals. In the case of HgCdTe the rejected component into the melt upon solidification is HgTe which is denser than the melt. The space grown crystals indicate the presence of three dimensional flow with the heavier HgTe-rich material clearly aligned with the residual gravity (0.55-1.55 micro g) vector. This flow stems from double-diffusive convection, namely, thermal and solutal buoyancy driven flow in the melt. The study of double-diffusive convection is multi-faceted and rather vast. In our investigation, we seek to focus on one specific aspect of this discipline that is of direct relevance to materials processing especially crystal growth, namely, the side ways heating regime. This problem has been widely studied, both experimentally and numerically, in the context of solar ponds wherein the system is characterized by a linear salt (solutal) gradient with an imposed lateral temperature gradient. The induced flow instabilities arise from the wide disparity between the fluid thermal diffusivity and the solute diffusivity. The extension of the analysis to practical crystal growth applications has however not been rigorously made and understood. One subtle but important difference in crystal growth systems is the fact that die system solute gradient is non-linear (typically exponential). Besides, the crystal growth problem has the added complexities of solidification, both lateral and longitudinal thermal gradients and segregation phenomena in systems where binary and ternary compounds are being grown. This paper treats the side ways heating problem alone in

  20. Double Diffusive Convection in Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandra, Narayanan; Leslie, Fred W.

    1999-01-01

    A great number of crystals grown in space are plagued by convective motions which contribute to structural flaws. The character of these instabilities is not well understood but is associated with density variations in the presence of residual gravity (g-jitter). As a specific example, past HgCdTe crystal growth space experiments by Lehoczky and co-workers indicate radial compositional asymmetry in the grown crystals. In the case of HgCdTe the rejected component into the melt upon solidification is HgTe which is denser than the melt. The space grown crystals indicate the presence of three dimensional flow with the heavier HgTe-rich material clearly aligned with the residual gravity (0.55-1.55 micro g) vector. This flow stems from double-diffusive convection, namely, thermal and solutal buoyancy driven flow in the melt. The study of double-diffusive convection is multi-faceted and rather vast. In our investigation, we seek to focus on one specific aspect of this discipline that is of direct relevance to materials processing especially crystal growth, namely, the side ways heating regime. This problem has been widely studied, both experimentally and numerically, in the context of solar ponds wherein the system is characterized by a linear salt (solutal) gradient with an imposed lateral temperature gradient. The induced flow instabilities arise from the wide disparity between the fluid thermal diffusivity and the solute diffusivity. The extension of the analysis to practical crystal growth applications has however not been rigorously made and understood. One subtle but important difference in crystal growth systems is the fact that die system solute gradient is non-linear (typically exponential). Besides, the crystal growth problem has the added complexities of solidification, both lateral and longitudinal thermal gradients and segregation phenomena in systems where binary and ternary compounds are being grown. This paper treats the side ways heating problem alone in

  1. Advanced materials for geothermal energy processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1985-08-01

    The primary goal of the geothermal materials program is to ensure that the private sector development of geothermal energy resources is not constrained by the availability of technologically and economically viable materials of construction. This requires the performance of long-term high risk GHTD-sponsored materials R and D. Ongoing programs described include high temperature elastomers for dynamic sealing applications, advanced materials for lost circulation control, waste utilization and disposal, corrosion resistant elastomeric liners for well casing, and non-metallic heat exchangers. 9 refs.

  2. Nonterrestrial material processing and manufacturing of large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G.

    1979-01-01

    Nonterrestrial processing of materials and manufacturing of large space system components from preprocessed lunar materials at a manufacturing site in space is described. Lunar materials mined and preprocessed at the lunar resource complex will be flown to the space manufacturing facility (SMF), where together with supplementary terrestrial materials, they will be final processed and fabricated into space communication systems, solar cell blankets, radio frequency generators, and electrical equipment. Satellite Power System (SPS) material requirements and lunar material availability and utilization are detailed, and the SMF processing, refining, fabricating facilities, material flow and manpower requirements are described.

  3. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Retort No. 18 produced 3479 barrels of oil during the quarter for a total of 4528 barrels to date. Chromatographic analyses of Retort No. 18 shale oil by the GKI analytical laboratory indicated variation in the oil from the wells near the air-in end and from the air-out end of the retort. Shale oil has been blended with Altamont crude (the Roosevelt refinery's normal feedstock); the distillation, API gravity, pour point, flash point, Naptha and Cat Gas were not affected by the shale oil. The diesel off the crude unit changed from water white to yellow, however, and a fine grayish-brown precipitate formed. Re-entry drilling was performed on Retorts No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23 during the quarter; tracer tests were run by Sandia Laboratories on Retorts No. 19, No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23. Blasthole drilling began on Retort No. 25.

  4. Materials Processing Technology Initiatives. Delivery Order 0019-08: Material Behavior Modeling for Optimization of Thermomechanical Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TM-2008-4056 MATERIALS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVES Delivery Order 0019-08: Material Behavior Modeling for Optimization of...5835-0019 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MATERIALS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVES Delivery Order 0019-08: Material Behavior Modeling

  5. Hydrogenation process for solid carbonaceous materials

    DOEpatents

    Cox, John L.; Wilcox, Wayne A.

    1979-01-01

    Coal or other solid carbonaceous material is contacted with an organic solvent containing both hydrogen and a transition metal catalyst in solution to hydrogenate unsaturated bonds within the carbonaceous material. This benefaction step permits subsequent pyrolysis or hydrogenolysis of the carbonaceous fuel to form gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon products of increased yield and quality.

  6. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly project status report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a brief progress report from each of the research and education projects that are currently funded through the ERWM contract. During third quarter 1993, approval was given by DOE for purchase of equipment. Equipment purchases were initiated and much of the equipment has been received and installed. The committees in charge of coordination of sampling and analyses associated with the collaborative research groups continued to meet and address these issues. Sampling has been done in the lower part of Devil`s Swamp and in the Devil`s Swamp Lake area. In addition, extensive sampling has been done in Bayou Trepagnier and in Bayou St. John. During this period, Tulane and Xavier Universities continued working closely with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL). The ORNL 1993 summer student internship program was completed. Plans were made for expanding the program to support 8 students next summer. Leonard Price, a Xavier University Chemistry professor and John Walz, a Tulane University Engineering professor each spent 5 weeks at ORNL. During this time these faculty worked with ORNL researchers exploring mutual interests and discussing possible future collaborations. In September, Drs. Carl Gehrs, Lee Shugart and Marshall Adams of ORNL, visited the Tulane and Xavier campuses. They presented two seminars and met with several of the investigators being supported by the ERWM contract. Tulane/Xavier project administrators participated in the Office of Technology Development`s ``New Technologies and Program Exhibition`` in the Rayburn House Office Building on September 23 and in the Hart Senate Office Building on September 27.

  7. Study of materials for space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Materials were selected for device applications and their commercial use. Experimental arrangements were also made for electrical characterization of single crystals using electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurements. The experimental set-up was tested with some standard samples.

  8. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 July 1992--30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.; Kujak, S.

    1992-10-01

    During the compatibility study of 10 pure refrigerants with 24 motor materials, it was observed that the greatest damage to the insulation system was caused by absorption of refrigerant followed by rapid desorption. The observed effects were blisters, cracking, internal bubbles and delamination. Measured results includes decreased bond strength, dielectric strength and overall integrity of the material. Refrigerants HCFC-22, HFC-32, HFC-134 and HFC-152a exhibited this phenomena. The effect of HCFC-22 was most severe of the tested refrigerants. Since HCFC-22 has an excellent reliability history with many of the materials tested, compatibility with the new refrigerants is expected.

  9. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center. Report for FY 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    The work described, while involving research in the broad field of materials processing, has two common features: the problems are closed related to space precessing of materials and have both practical and fundamental significance. An interesting and important feature of many of the projects is that the interdisciplinary nature of the problem mandates complementary analytical modeling/experimental approaches. An other important aspect of many of the projects is the increasing use of mathematical modeling techniques as one of the research tools. The predictive capability of these models, when tested against measurements, plays a very important role in both the planning of experimental programs and in the rational interpretation of the results. Many of the projects described have a space experiment as their ultimate objective. Mathematical models are proving to be extremely valuable in projecting the findings of ground - based experiments to microgravity conditions.

  10. Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V.

    2009-03-10

    Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

  11. Production of elemental sulfur and methane from H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} derived from a coal desulfurization process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, S.Y.; Jiang, X.; Khang, S.J.; Keener, T.C.

    1996-12-31

    During the tenth quarter of the project, bench scale experiments were performed to investigate the adsorption ability of different kinds of materials within sulfur vapor environment. Four kinds of adsorbents have been tested. The experimental results indicated that activated carbon was the best of four adsorbents tested. In addition to the baseline tests, several designs of activated carbon feed system have been tested. Under an inert environment, bench scale experiments were performed to investigate the characteristics and efficiency of activated carbon passing through the Co-Mo-Alumina catalyst bed. The results showed that activated carbon powder could easily be transported through the catalytic bed. The adsorption process may be applicable to promote conversion of H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} reaction system.

  12. A rheometer for measuring the material moduli for granular solids. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rajajopal, K.R.

    1996-02-01

    The design of an orthogonal rheometer for measuring the properties of granular solids is described. A section is presented on the constitutive modeling of granular materials based on continuum theory.

  13. Pulse thermal processing of functional materials using directed plasma arc

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Ronald D.; Blue, Craig A.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Harper, David C.

    2007-05-22

    A method of thermally processing a material includes exposing the material to at least one pulse of infrared light emitted from a directed plasma arc to thermally process the material, the pulse having a duration of no more than 10 s.

  14. Materials and Processes for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Paul W.; Richardson, Rod W.

    2004-01-01

    The single greatest threat to material availability over the last decade has been Compliance to New Environmental Regulations. Federal Regulations: a) Clean Air Acts Amendments - 1990 - Titles I, III and VI; b) NASA Interim Policy- 1995 end date; c) Montreal Protocol - 2000 and 2005 end dates; d) Industrial Toxics Project - HAP emissions by 1995; e) Florida DER - VOC limits by 1995 (CA); f) OSHA Health Related Regulations 1) Carcinogens 2) Mutagens 3). Material availability is complicated by local and state regulations and their own compliance schedules.

  15. The role of the resid solvent in co-processing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.

    1993-11-01

    The primary purpose of the work performed this quarter was to establish under thermal and catalytic reaction conditions whether hydrogen transfer occurred between cycloalkane type structures that are present in resids and heteroatomic species that are present in coal and liquefied coal. The research this quarter focused upon evaluating benzophenone (BENZ) as a model acceptor for hydrogen that might be transferred from a cycloalkane, perhydropyrene (PHP), under coprocessing conditions. Hence, a number of reactions was performed in which BENZ was reacted alone in hydrogen and nitrogen atmospheres in the presence and absence of a catalytic agent, molybdenum naphthenate. Reactions were also performed using a combination of PHP and BENZ at a 1 to 1 weight ratio. Also performing this quarter were initial separations with petroleum resids. Two different resids were used, Maya and LHC-362. The literature was also surveyed to determine important characteristics that should be evaluated for selecting resids. The resids that are desired for this project are resids with high-, medium-, and low-naphthenic content. Different levels of asphaltenes are also desirable. Resids with these characteristics are currently being sought. The model compound PHP that had been commercially available as naphthene representative of resids is now no longer available. Hence, several scoping experiments were performed in order to determine conditions for synthesizing PHP. The synthesis procedure reported in US Patent 3,303,227 was used as a basis for this work. Although more than 85% PHP was synthesized, partially hydrogenated pyrenes were also produced which will require separation in order to obtain pure PHP.

  16. The role of the resid solvent in co-processing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.

    1993-08-01

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate the role of the resid in coprocessing. The primary purpose of this initial work was to establish under thermal and catalytic reaction conditions whether hydrogen transfer occurred between cycloalkane type structures that are present in resids and aromatics that are present in coal and liquefied coal. The research this quarter focused upon evaluating different reaction systems for performing model donor and model acceptor studies. The first system that was evaluated involved anthracene (ANT) as the model acceptor. Previous results had shown that ANT did not convert substantially in a thermal reaction at 380{degrees}C (Wang 1992); however, more was converted (about 50%) at 440{degrees}C. The results from the reactions performed last quarter indicated that substantial hydrogenation of ANT occurred thermally at 440{degrees}C; more than had been observed previously. The reactors that were used, though, had contained substantial amounts of catalysts prior to the performance of the thermal reactions. Hence, the passivity of the reactors was questioned and new reactors were fabricated. Some of the reactions using ANT were performed again and are reported herein. The second part of the work performed this quarter was to evaluate hydrogen transfer from the cycloalkane, perhydropyrene (PHP), to the aromatic phenanthrene (PHEN). Reactions were performed at a 1:1 PHP to PHEN weight ratio and with a 5:1 PHP to PHEN ratio. The reactions were performed thermally and catalytically at 400 and 425{degrees}C using molybdenum naphthenate and nickel octoate as catalysts. Reactions were also performed with added sulfur either as elemental sulfur or benzothiophene.

  17. Tulane/Xavier Universities hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    To provide the necessary administrative support to assure that the scientific and educational goals of the project are obtained and to assure that all Department of Energy reporting requirements and requests are fulfilled.The grant reporting is divided into three aspects: Collaborative Cluster projects, Initiation projects and Education projects. A cluster project is one or more closely related collaborative, multidisciplinary research projects in which a group of investigators employs a synergistic approach to the solution of problems in the same general area of research. An initiation project typically involves a single investigator. The purpose of the project is to undertaken pilot work, lasting no more than one year, which will lead to the successful submission of an externally-funded proposal or the development of a collaborative cluster project. The education projects are designed to develop courses with emphasis on environmental studies and/or to train students in areas of environmental research. Accomplishments this quarter are: (1) Issued a request for proposals (RFP) to complete work during the next year of the project. Forty-two proposals were received in response to the RFP. (2) Selected and convened a panel of experts to review the proposals and make funding recommendations. (3) Assigned each proposal to two or more reviewers and sent copies of all proposals to each review panelist. (4) Interfaced with Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding QA/QC issues related to sampling and analysis for the project. (5) Held numerous phone conversations with DOE representatives regarding funding allocations procedure changes as a result of the delays in the Federal budget and appropriations process this year. This quarterly report briefly describes research projects ongoing in this program.

  18. Materials processing in space bibliography, 1983, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Flight experiments utilizing a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes, or ground based activities that provide supporting research are compiled. Six major categories: crystal growth; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, transports, and chemical processes; glasses and ceramics; ultrahigh vacuum and containerless processing technologies; and combustion are included. A list of patents and appendices providing a compilation of anonymously authored collections and reports and a cross reference index are included.

  19. Containerless materials processing in the laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, L. L.; Nisen, D. B.; Rathz, T. J.; Robinson, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Drop tube makes possible preparation of exotic materials. The 100 foot tube is oriented precisely vertical to prevent free-falling drop from hitting tube walls. Inert-gas supply, evacuation pumps, viewing ports, and flexibility in choice of melt technique allow precise control and monitoring of solidification.

  20. Processing and Properties of Airframe Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    All other test conditions conformed to ASTM E 647 using a compact type (CT) specimen with B = 12.7 mm and W = 50 nm. Tests were conducted in lab ...International Scince Center SC5358. 2AR 3c64-24U 40ism. Fig. 14 Grain structures of the constituent fine grain (a), coarse grain (b) materials, and the

  1. Electrochromic materials, devices and process of making

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2003-11-11

    Thin films of transition metal compositions formed with magnesium that are metals, alloys, hydrides or mixtures of alloys, metals and/or hydrides exhibit reversible color changes on application of electric current or hydrogen. Thin films of these materials are suitable for optical switching elements, thin film displays, sun roofs, rear-view mirrors and architectural glass.

  2. High temperature electrochemical separation of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Winnick, J.

    1992-10-01

    An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed using the funds from this grant. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the syn-gas, and sulfur, which can be condensed from an inert gas sweep stream. The process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. The process is economically attractive by the lack of adsorbents and the lack of a Claus process for sulfur recovery. Research conducted during the present quarter is here highlighted, with an emphasis on progress towards the goal of an economically viable H{sub 2}S removal technology for use in coal gasification facilities providing polished fuel for co-generation coal fired electrical power facilities and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell electrical power facilities.

  3. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Quarterly progress report, 1 July 1992--30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.

    1992-10-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR pregrain the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing several research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Preliminary results is from these projects are reported in technical progress reports prepared by each researcher.

  4. Metal containing material processing on coater/developer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Shinichiro; Mizunoura, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Koichi; Hontake, Koichi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shimura, Satoru; Enomoto, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    Challenges of processing metal containing materials need to be addressed in order apply this technology to Behavior of metal containing materials on coater/developer processing including coating process, developer process and tool metal contamination is studied using CLEAN TRACKTM LITHIUS ProTM Z (Tokyo Electron Limited). Through this work, coating uniformity and coating film defectivity were studied. Metal containing material performance was comparable to conventional materials. Especially, new dispense system (NDS) demonstrated up to 80% reduction in coating defect for metal containing materials. As for processed wafer metal contamination, coated wafer metal contamination achieved less than 1.0E10 atoms/cm2 with 3 materials. After develop metal contamination also achieved less than 1.0E10 atoms/cm2 with 2 materials. Furthermore, through the metal defect study, metal residues and metal contamination were reduced by developer rinse optimization.

  5. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1992--31 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.; Kujak, S.; Waite, T.

    1993-01-01

    Equipment manufacturers are challenged to replace CFC-based refrigerants and their lubricants with environmentally acceptable alternatives. Information on the compatibility of motor materials with these alternative refrigerants and lubricants is a basic requirement for reliable performance. This report presents compatibility data for 24 commercially used motor materials exposed to 17 refrigerant/lubricant combinations. This compatibility data will enable the phase out of CFC`s to continue at its current fast pace and insure the continued reliable performance of refrigerant-based equipment.

  6. Shaped Charge Liner Materials: Resources, Processes, Properties, Costs, and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Shaped Charge Liner Materials: Resources, Processes, Properties, Costs, and Applications 2 6. AUTHOC Steven M. Buc 7...summaries of the mineral availability, Cq prmarymetal refinement processeb, material costs in raw form and as finished shaped charge liners , relevant... liner materials. 94-11479 gI 14, SUBJECT TERMS iSt NUMBER OF PAGIS 13chrg wrhad :xplosively formed penetrators material R. PRCE COEV" processing

  7. Process modeling for carbon-phenolic nozzle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letson, Mischell A.; Bunker, Robert C.; Remus, Walter M., III; Clinton, R. G.

    1989-01-01

    A thermochemical model based on the SINDA heat transfer program is developed for carbon-phenolic nozzle material processes. The model can be used to optimize cure cycles and to predict material properties based on the types of materials and the process by which these materials are used to make nozzle components. Chemical kinetic constants for Fiberite MX4926 were determined so that optimization of cure cycles for the current Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor nozzle rings can be determined.

  8. Extraterrestrial materials processing and related transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K. N. R.; Sridhar, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    Several concepts for significant cost reductions in extraterrestrial resource utilization are described. After an introduction of the desirability of in situ resource utilization, several candidate chemical processes are mentioned. It is brought out that many of the key processes require fluid dynamics and heat transfer processes under reduced- and microgravity. These aspects are discussed within the broad framework of a two-phase thermal control systems. Another important aspect of space processing is that reliability and self-repairability are mandatory; automation aspects are discussed. In addition to these general considerations, the paper includes several specific processes that vary from solid electrolytic production of oxygen from carbon dioxide, to plasma-augmented reactions for reducing ilmenite on the moon.

  9. Extraterrestrial materials processing and related transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K. N. R.; Sridhar, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    Several concepts for significant cost reductions in extraterrestrial resource utilization are described. After an introduction of the desirability of in situ resource utilization, several candidate chemical processes are mentioned. It is brought out that many of the key processes require fluid dynamics and heat transfer processes under reduced- and microgravity. These aspects are discussed within the broad framework of a two-phase thermal control systems. Another important aspect of space processing is that reliability and self-repairability are mandatory; automation aspects are discussed. In addition to these general considerations, the paper includes several specific processes that vary from solid electrolytic production of oxygen from carbon dioxide, to plasma-augmented reactions for reducing ilmenite on the moon.

  10. United States housing, second quarter 2013

    Treesearch

    Delton Alderman

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. housing market’s quarter two results were disap¬pointing compared with the first quarter. Although overall expected gains did not materialize, certain sectors improved slightly. Housing under construction, completions, and new and existing home sales exhibited slight increases. Overall permit data declined, and the decrease in starts was due primarily to a...

  11. Effects of minerals on coal-beneficiation processes. Quarterly report No. 10, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, B. G.; Muter, R. B.; Buttermore, W. H.; Grady, W. C.; Alderman, J. K.; Durham, D. L.

    1980-10-15

    All basic data acquisition relevant to characterization of the contract samples physically and chemically has been completed. Assessment of this data and inter-relationships with mineralogical characterization data is concurrently on-going, with final petrographic data acquisition for the contract to be affected during the next quarter. This remaining analytical work is the detailed maceral analysis of the Illinois No. 6 samples. Work during this quarter focused on coarse and fine coal heavy-media pilot-scale cleaning operations using a heavy-media drum separation and a heavy-media cyclone. Chemical and mineralogical effects produced by these tests are reported herein, completing Task 4 testing of the effects of laboratory pilot cleaning on mineral composition and distribution. Results for froth flotation, size by gravity, jigging, and tabling for this task have been previously reported. Also completed during the work period was the chemical characterization of the Illinois No. 6 slurry-fines sample. Mineralogical data for this sample were reported in Progress Report Number 9.

  12. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The ignition of Geokinetics first full-sized prototype retort (Retort 24) was completed on December 1, 1980. Recovery of oil from Retort No. 24 began about midway through December, and 531 barrels of oil had been recovered by the end of the quarter. A cold oil effect resulted in the accumulation of oil within the retort. Five thousand one ninety one barrels of oil were shipped to WESRECO, Salt Lake City, Utah during the quarter, and the shale oil was blended into No. 5 fuel oil, which was sold to industrial users. The Retort No. 25 post-blast core drilling program was completed in October. A total of seven core holes were drilled. Evaluation of the core samples was underway. Preliminary analysis indicated good breakage in the lower portion of Retort No. 25. A new technique for sealing retort surface fractures was designed and implemented on Retort No. 25. A layer of bentonite with gas and steam retention properties was applied to the retort surface and covered with a layer of topsoil.

  13. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Li, K. Y.; Hopper, J. R.; Fang, C. S.; Hansen, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    Results for process system properties, chemical engineering and economic analyses of the new technologies and processes being developed for the production of lower cost silicon for solar cells are presented. Analyses of process system properties are important for chemical materials involved in the several processes under consideration for semiconductor and solar cell grade silicon production. Major physical, thermodynamic and transport property data are reported for silicon source and processing chemical materials.

  14. Materials Processes (MP) Engineering Internship Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This poster illustrates my major and minor projects worked on during my entire time interning at KSC in the Materials Science Branch. My major projects consist of three Failure Analyses, a research project on Magnesium Alloys, and the manufacturing and mechanical testing of the Advanced Plant Habitat. My three Failure Analyses are Umbilical Testing Ground Plates, Lithium Ion Battery Locking Spring Blade, and a Liquid Oxygen Poppet.

  15. Process for self-repair of insulation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A self-healing system for an insulation material initiates a self-repair process by rupturing a plurality of microcapsules disposed on the insulation material. When the plurality of microcapsules are ruptured reactants within the plurality of microcapsules react to form a replacement polymer in a break of the insulation material. This self-healing system has the ability to repair multiple breaks in a length of insulation material without exhausting the repair properties of the material.

  16. Process for Self-Repair of Insulation Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A self-healing system for an insulation material initiates a self-repair process by rupturing a plurality of microcapsules disposed on the insulation material. When the plurality of microcapsules are ruptured reactants witlun the plurality of microcapsules react to form a replacement polymer in a break of the insulation material. This self-healing system has the ability to repair multiple breaks in a length of insulation material without exhausting the repair properties of the material.

  17. Organic materials for ceramic molding processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, K.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramic molding processes are examined. Binders, wetting agents, lubricants, plasticizers, surface active agents, dispersants, etc., for pressing, rubber pressing, sip casting, injection casting, taping, extrusion, etc., are described, together with forming machines.

  18. Theoretical study of fabrication of line-and-space patterns with 7 nm quarter-pitch using electron beam lithography with chemically amplified resist processes: II. Stochastic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    Electron beam (EB) lithography is a core technology for nanofabrication. Owing to the increasing demand for high-resolution semiconductor lithography, the requirements for the resist processes of EB lithography for the photomasks used in ArF immersion and extreme ultraviolet lithographies and the mold fabrication of nanoimprints have also become stricter. In this study, the feasibility of single nano patterning by EB lithography with a chemically amplified resist process was investigated from the viewpoint of stochastic effects. The latent images of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch (7 nm space width and 21 nm line width) were calculated using a Monte Carlo method on the basis of the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified EB resists. Compared with the line-and-space pattern with a 7 nm half-pitch, line edge roughness (LER) and the stochastic pinching generation are considered to be significantly improved by increasing the pitch. It was found that the suppression of the stochastic generation of bridges is the critical issue in 7 nm quarter-pitch fabrication.

  19. Synthetic fuels from US oil shales: a technical and economic verification of the HYTORT Process. Project 61040 quarterly report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    Progress is reported on the HYTORT Process development work conducted from April 1 through June 30, 1980. Thermobalance tests have been conducted on samples of shale from each large multiton sample prior to large-scale tests and these test results have been fit with specific kinetic expressions. Approximately 80% of the instrumentation for the laboratory-scale reactor has been received. Fabrication of the reactor, feed hopper, and residue receiver is about 95% complete. Two successful moving-bed tests were conducted in the bench-scale reactor during this quarter. A large, 50-ton sample of the Lower Huron member of the Ohio Shale was mined and readied for shipment to IGT. Modification of the bench-scale steam-oxygen unit was completed. Spent shale from PDU tests was prepared for use in these tests. A set of five screening runs on New Albany shale oil and a set of four screening runs on Sunbury shale oil were conducted during this quarter. The nitrogen content of these oils was reduced to the 0.16 to 0.30 weight percent range in the bench-scale hydrotreating unit. Design of the laboratory test system for mist-size control studies was completed. Methods are being studied for measuring mist particle size. Shakedown and initial testing of the liquid-sealed lockhopper were performed during this quarter. Two runs were made in the PDU with Kentucky shales using a sample of the Cleveland member of the Ohio shale and a sample of New Albany shale. Samples for environmental analysis were taken during the PDU runs discussed above. On-line sampling equipment was installed prior to the PDU run with New Albany shale and samples were taken of the Stage 2 raw product gases.

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaodi Huang; Richard Gertsch

    2002-08-27

    The project has seen quite a bit of activity in this quarter, highlighted by the fabrication of a bit insert for field testing. In addition: (1) Several alternative process techniques were attempted to prevent bloating, cracking and delamination of FM material that occurs during binder burnout. The approaches included fabrication of FM material by three pass extrusion and warm isostatic pressing of green material, slow and confined burnouts as well as, burnout of thin plate instead of rod stock. Happily, a confined burnout followed by HIPing, produced FM button inserts without bloating or delamination. (2) Four rock bit inserts were produced from FM material and are ready for use on blast hole bits in the field. (3) Six of the project participants from Michigan Technological University, Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing, and The Robbins Group visited the Superior Rock Bit Company in Minnesota and planned the field test of FM inserts.

  1. Evaluation and utilization of Illinois FBC residues for construction materials. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafoori, N.; Sami, S.

    1992-08-01

    The overall objective of this program is to investigate the extent to which fluidized bed combustion (FBC) by-products can be properly utilized as the viable construction materials. This investigation focuses primarily on the properties of residues derived from fluidized combustion burning of Illinois high-sulfur coal. The research plan calls for evaluation of physico-chemical and engineering characteristics of the FBC-based cement and non-cement mixes. The results of this study will be used to compare the physical mechanical properties of the FBC-based mixtures with those of conventional mixes. The suitabililty of using FBC residues as a filler or binder aggregate for construction applications such as structural concrete members, precast building products, and as based or surface course for gravity dams and pavements in the form of conventional and roller compacted materials will then be evaluated.

  2. Alternative Processing of High Temperature Hafnium and Zirconium Based Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew; Gusman, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Irby, Edward; Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of refractory hafnium and zirconium based materials are being investigated at NASA Ames as part of ongoing research aimed at developing superior heat resistant materials for aerospace applications. Hafnium and zirconium diboride based materials have shown high temperature capabilities in simulated reentry environments indicating that these materials may successfully operate as reusable oxidation resistant components for leading edge applications. Due to the refractory nature of these materials, processing of fine-grained uniform microstructures poses a number of challenges. To better understand the process-property-microstructure relationship, processing of these materials has been carried out with conventional hot pressing in addition to the novel approach of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The two processing methods are compared and contrasted in an evaluation of the sintering behavior of high temperature diboride based materials and preliminary physical and mechanical properties are presented.

  3. Alternative Processing of High Temperature Hafnium and Zirconium Based Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew; Gusman, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Irby, Edward; Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of refractory hafnium and zirconium based materials are being investigated at NASA Ames as part of ongoing research aimed at developing superior heat resistant materials for aerospace applications. Hafnium and zirconium diboride based materials have shown high temperature capabilities in simulated reentry environments indicating that these materials may successfully operate as reusable oxidation resistant components for leading edge applications. Due to the refractory nature of these materials, processing of fine-grained uniform microstructures poses a number of challenges. To better understand the process-property-microstructure relationship, processing of these materials has been carried out with conventional hot pressing in addition to the novel approach of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The two processing methods are compared and contrasted in an evaluation of the sintering behavior of high temperature diboride based materials and preliminary physical and mechanical properties are presented.

  4. Laser processing for manufacturing nanocarbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van, Hai Hoang

    CNTs have been considered as the excellent candidate to revolutionize a broad range of applications. There have been many method developed to manipulate the chemistry and the structure of CNTs. Laser with non-contact treatment capability exhibits many processing advantages, including solid-state treatment, extremely fast processing rate, and high processing resolution. In addition, the outstanding monochromatic, coherent, and directional beam generates the powerful energy absorption and the resultant extreme processing conditions. In my research, a unique laser scanning method was developed to process CNTs, controlling the oxidation and the graphitization. The achieved controllability of this method was applied to address the important issues of the current CNT processing methods for three applications. The controllable oxidation of CNTs by laser scanning method was applied to cut CNT films to produce high-performance cathodes for FE devices. The production method includes two important self-developed techniques to produce the cold cathodes: the production of highly oriented and uniformly distributed CNT sheets and the precise laser trimming process. Laser cutting is the unique method to produce the cathodes with remarkable features, including ultrathin freestanding structure (~200 nm), greatly high aspect ratio, hybrid CNT-GNR emitter arrays, even emitter separation, and directional emitter alignment. This unique cathode structure was unachievable by other methods. The developed FE devices successfully solved the screening effect issue encounter by current FE devices. The laser-control oxidation method was further developed to sequentially remove graphitic walls of CNTs. The laser oxidation process was directed to occur along the CNT axes by the laser scanning direction. Additionally, the oxidation was further assisted by the curvature stress and the thermal expansion of the graphitic nanotubes, ultimately opening (namely unzipping) the tubular structure to

  5. Processing and Properties of Airframe Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    heat treaments No. 1, 2, 3. Load increment data only, R = 0.1 ........................... 35 3.3-30 Ratio of crack branching to main crack vs AK for...12 3.3-2 Light micrograph of Ti-6Al-4V forged material, as forged ................ 12 3.3-3 SEM of Ti-6A1-4V plate given heat treatment...No. 1. Beta phase is white ........................................................ 15 3.3-4 SEM of Ti-6A1-4V, plate, given heat treatment No. 2. Beta

  6. 2003 research briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems and Materials Modeling and Computational Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  7. 2005 Research Briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  8. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  9. Overview of methods for extraterrestrial materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.; Erstfeld, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A brief survey of processing systems suitable for conversion of lunar soil fractions to refined industrial feedstocks are given. Description of a 'baseline' process using hydrochemical or metallurgical separation of compounds of major and minor elements using HF acid leaching as the initial step is presented. Rough engineering parameters including power and heat rejection requirements, potential loss of earth supplied reagents during recycling, and mass: output ratios of equipment, reagent inventory, and associated power and radiator facilities are described. Minimal practical scales for such systems and manpower requirements are discussed.

  10. Process Research ON Semix Silicon Materials (PROSSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Warfield, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    A cost effective process sequence was identified, equipment was designed to implement a 6.6 MW per year automated production line, and a cost analysis projected a $0.56 per watt cell add-on cost for this line. Four process steps were developed for this program: glass beads back clean-up, hot spray antireflective coating, wave soldering of fronts, and ion milling for edging. While spray dopants were advertised as an off the shelf developed product, they were unreliable with shorter than advertised shelf life.

  11. Processing of monolayer materials via interfacial reactions

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Peter Werner; Sutter, Eli Anguelova

    2014-05-20

    A method of forming and processing of graphene is disclosed based on exposure and selective intercalation of the partially graphene-covered metal substrate with atomic or molecular intercalation species such as oxygen (O.sub.2) and nitrogen oxide (NO.sub.2). The process of intercalation lifts the strong metal-carbon coupling and restores the characteristic Dirac behavior of isolated monolayer graphene. The interface of graphene with metals or metal-decorated substrates also provides for controlled chemical reactions based on novel functionality of the confined space between a metal surface and a graphene sheet.

  12. Process Research ON Semix Silicon Materials (PROSSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Warfield, D. B.

    1982-02-01

    A cost effective process sequence was identified, equipment was designed to implement a 6.6 MW per year automated production line, and a cost analysis projected a $0.56 per watt cell add-on cost for this line. Four process steps were developed for this program: glass beads back clean-up, hot spray antireflective coating, wave soldering of fronts, and ion milling for edging. While spray dopants were advertised as an off the shelf developed product, they were unreliable with shorter than advertised shelf life.

  13. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes. Final technical progress report, fifth quarter, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.; Adel, G.; Richardson, P.E.

    1994-10-01

    Two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern US coals are the Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR). The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings (composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions) into hydrophilic particles. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. During the current reporting period, work was conducted in the following areas: studies of the liberation characteristics of various pyrite samples, identification of oxidation products on pyrite using XPS technique, studies of reagent adsorption on pyrite using FTIR and contact angles, identification of the most effective sacrificial anode material for depressing pyrite, and identification of the most effective polymer for depressing pyrite. Some of the more significant findings made during the current reporting periods are as follows: (1) liberation characteristics of Illinois No. 6 coal have been determined, (2) effects of pH and electrochemical potentials on the flotation of coal and mineral pyrite have been established, (3) an effective method of keeping coal pyrite under reducing conditions and, hence, preventing self-induced flotation has been developed, and (4) an effective polymeric pyrite depressant has been identified.

  14. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, December 1, 1997--February 28, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of as-generated slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, the authors found that it would be extremely difficult for as-generated slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1,400 and 1,700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase 2, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. This document summarizes the Phase 2 accomplishments to date along with the major accomplishments from Phase 1.

  15. Microgravity Effects on Materials Processing: A Review. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.

    2003-01-01

    Materials processing in space has been studied both theoretically and experimentally for over 1/4 of a century. In the beginning, we naively spoke of zero gravity, elimination of convection, growth of perfect crystals, and eventual manufacturing in space. All of these appear to have fallen by the wayside. On the other hand, we have learned an unprecedented amount about the influences of gravity on materials processing. We have had many surprises, and not all experimental results have yet been satisfactorily explained. Gravity was found to influence processes that were thought to be gravity-independent. One consequence is that materials processing on earth has often been improved. And it is difficult to imagine how the materials-processing industries could have flourished without the engineers and scientists who received their training by working on microgravity materials processing.

  16. Meniscus effect in microgravity materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    While the microgravity environment of orbit eliminates a number of effects that impede the formation of materials on Earth, the change can also cause new, unwanted effects. A mysterious phenomenon, known as detached solidification, apparently stems from a small hydrostatic force that turns out to be pervasive. The contact of the solid with the ampoule transfers stress to the growing crystal and causing unwanted dislocations and twins. William Wilcox and Liya Regel of Clarkson University theorize that the melt is in contact with the ampoule wall, while the solid is not, and the melt and solid are cornected by a meniscus. Their work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Researcxh, and builds on earlier work by Dr. David Larson of the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

  17. Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

    1993-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst, the kinetics for this catalyst, reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed reactors, and simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. The goals for the quarter include: (1) Conduct experiments using a trickle bed reactor to determine the effect of reactor type on the product distribution. (2) Use spherical pellets of silica as a support for zirconia for the purpose of increasing surface, area and performance of the catalysts. (3) Conduct exploratory experiments to determine the effect of super critical drying of the catalyst on the catalyst surface area and performance. (4) Prepare a ceria/zirconia catalyst by the precipitation method.

  18. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The specific objectives for the reporting period of October, 1992 to December, 1992 were as follows: (1) Finish analyzing leachates from the third annual core samples from the Ohio site, collected in August 1992; (2) Collect and analyze the sixth quarterly water samples from the first Illinois test case in August, 1992. Make field measurements and collect data from the data logger; (3) Begin construction of the second Illinois test case; (4) Continue production of a video presentation on the project; (5) Load all remaining EERC data on the Colorado and Ohio sites into the project database; (6) Finalize plans with METC for continued monitoring at the Colorado and Ohio sites beyond the initial three year period, and (7) Submit and the Final Case Report on the Colorado site to the DOE and EPRI.

  19. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  20. Valves - current operating experience of slurry valves (block and letdown) in coal liquefaction processes. Third quarter report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This paper summarizes the recent letdown and block valve experience in the liquefaction pilot plants. Also included is a brief description of the research and development activities on valves which are conducted in supporting laboratories. The purpose of the summary is to concentrate on critical component problems common to all liquefaction plants, to avoid duplication of efforts, and to help provide timely solutions to the valve problems. The main source of information used in this paper is the Minutes of the Critical Component and Materials Meeting which is sponsored by the Office of Coal Processing, Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. Other sources of information such as the technical progress reports are also included based on availability and relevance to topics covered in this paper. It is intended that this report will be followed by updates as pertinent information concerning valves becomes available. In the subsequent sections of this paper a brief outline of past valve studies is given as background material followed by a summary of the most recent valve operating experience at the liquefaction plants.

  1. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  2. FLUORINE PROCESS FOR SEPARATION OF MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Brown, H.S.

    1958-05-01

    A process is described for separating plutoniunn from neutron-irradiated uranium, which consists of reacting the irradiated uranium mass with HF to form the tetrafluorides of U, Pu, and Np, and then reacting this mixture of tetrafluorides with fiuorine at temperature between 140 and 315 d C. This causes volatile hexafluorides of U and Np to form while at the temperature employed the Pu tetrafluoride is unaffected and remains as a residue.

  3. Process Feasibility Study in Support of Silicon Material, Task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Hansen, K. C.; Yaws, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    During this reporting period, major activies were devoted to process system properties, chemical engineering and economic analyses. Analyses of process system properties was continued for materials involved in the alternate processes under consideration for solar cell grade silicon. The following property data are reported for silicon tetrafluoride: critical constants, vapor pressure, heat of varporization, heat capacity, density, surface tension, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat of formation and Gibb's free energy of formation. Chemical engineering analysis of the BCL process was continued with primary efforts being devoted to the preliminary process design. Status and progress are reported for base case conditions; process flow diagram; reaction chemistry; material and energy balances; and major process equipment design.

  4. Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Davidson, Howard L.; Kerns, John A.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  5. Processing materials in space - The history and the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, Roger; Carswell, Bill

    1987-01-01

    The development of materials processing in space, and some of the Soyuz, Apollo, Skylab, and Shuttle orbital materials experiments are reviewed. Consideration is given to protein crystal growth, electrophoresis, low-gravity isoelectric focusing, phase partitioning, a monodisperse latex reactor, semiconductor crystal growth, solution crystal growth, the triglycine sulfate experiment, vapor crystal growth experiments, the mercuric iodide experiment, electronic and electrooptical materials, organic thin films and crystalline solids, deep undercooling of metals and alloys, magnetic materials, immiscible materials, metal solidification research, reluctant glass-forming materials, and containerless glass formation. The space processing apparatuses and ground facilities, for materials processing are described. Future facilities for commercial research, development, and manufacturing in space are proposed.

  6. Processing materials in space - The history and the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, Roger; Carswell, Bill

    1987-01-01

    The development of materials processing in space, and some of the Soyuz, Apollo, Skylab, and Shuttle orbital materials experiments are reviewed. Consideration is given to protein crystal growth, electrophoresis, low-gravity isoelectric focusing, phase partitioning, a monodisperse latex reactor, semiconductor crystal growth, solution crystal growth, the triglycine sulfate experiment, vapor crystal growth experiments, the mercuric iodide experiment, electronic and electrooptical materials, organic thin films and crystalline solids, deep undercooling of metals and alloys, magnetic materials, immiscible materials, metal solidification research, reluctant glass-forming materials, and containerless glass formation. The space processing apparatuses and ground facilities, for materials processing are described. Future facilities for commercial research, development, and manufacturing in space are proposed.

  7. Directed Vapor Deposition: Low Vacuum Materials Processing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Directed Vapor Deposition: Low Vacuum Materials Processing Technology J.F. Groves*, G. Mattausch**, H. Morgner**, D.D. Hass*, H.N.G. Wadley...2000 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Directed Vapor Deposition: Low Vacuum Materials Processing Technology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  8. Nonterrestrial material processing and manufacturing of large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. F.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide pertinent and readily usable information on the extraterrestrial processing of materials and manufacturing of components and elements of these planned large space systems from preprocessed lunar materials which are made available at a processing and manufacturing site in space. Required facilities, equipment, machinery, energy and manpower are defined.

  9. High temperature electrochemical separation of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Winnick, J.

    1994-07-01

    An electrochemical membrane separation system for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gasification product steams is the subject of this investigation. The high operating temperature, flow-through design, and capability of selective H{sub 2}S removal and direct production of elemental sulfur offered by this process provide several advantages over existing and developmental H{sub 2}S removal technologies. Two experiments (Run {number_sign}17 & {number_sign}18) examining the removal capability of the EMS with cobalt cathode were performed this quarter. The focus dealt with H{sub 2}S removal as well as impeding hydrogen cross-over from the process gas side (cathode) of the membrane to the sweep gas side (anode).

  10. Process Research On Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Performance limiting mechanisms in polycrystalline silicon are investigated by fabricating a matrix of solar cells of various thicknesses from polycrystalline silicon wafers of several bulk resistivities. The analysis of the results for the entire matrix indicates that bulk recombination is the dominant factor limiting the short circuit current in large grain (greater than 1 to 2 mm diameter) polycrystalline silicon, the same mechanism that limits the short circuit current in single crystal silicon. An experiment to investigate the limiting mechanisms of open circuit voltage and fill factor for large grain polycrystalline silicon is designed. Two process sequences to fabricate small cells are investigated.

  11. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  12. Computer-Aided Process Model For Carbon/Phenolic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letson, Mischell A.; Bunker, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    Computer program implements thermochemical model of processing of carbon-fiber/phenolic-matrix composite materials into molded parts of various sizes and shapes. Directed toward improving fabrication of rocket-engine-nozzle parts, also used to optimize fabrication of other structural components, and material-property parameters changed to apply to other materials. Reduces costs by reducing amount of laboratory trial and error needed to optimize curing processes and to predict properties of cured parts.

  13. Computer-Aided Process Model For Carbon/Phenolic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letson, Mischell A.; Bunker, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    Computer program implements thermochemical model of processing of carbon-fiber/phenolic-matrix composite materials into molded parts of various sizes and shapes. Directed toward improving fabrication of rocket-engine-nozzle parts, also used to optimize fabrication of other structural components, and material-property parameters changed to apply to other materials. Reduces costs by reducing amount of laboratory trial and error needed to optimize curing processes and to predict properties of cured parts.

  14. Deployable Crew Quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    The deployable crew quarters (DCQ) have been designed for the International Space Station (ISS). Each DCQ would be a relatively inexpensive, deployable boxlike structure that is designed to fit in a rack bay. It is to be occupied by one crewmember to provide privacy and sleeping functions for the crew. A DCQ comprises mostly hard panels, made of a lightweight honeycomb or matrix/fiber material, attached to each other by cloth hinges. Both faces of each panel are covered with a layer of Nomex cloth and noise-suppression material to provide noise isolation from ISS. On Earth, the unit is folded flat and attached to a rigid pallet for transport to the ISS. On the ISS, crewmembers unfold the unit and install it in place, attaching it to ISS structural members by use of soft cords (which also help to isolate noise and vibration). A few hard pieces of equipment (principally, a ventilator and a smoke detector) are shipped separately and installed in the DCQ unit by use of a system of holes, slots, and quarter-turn fasteners. Full-scale tests showed that the time required to install a DCQ unit amounts to tens of minutes. The basic DCQ design could be adapted to terrestrial applications to satisfy requirements for rapid deployable emergency shelters that would be lightweight, portable, and quickly erected. The Temporary Early Sleep Station (TeSS) currently on-orbit is a spin-off of the DCQ.

  15. Investigation of electromagnetic effects in materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Sorin Gabriel

    A new contactless inductive technique has been developed to evaluate both thermophysical and rheological properties of metals in solid and molten states. This is based on the theory that when a conductor moves in a magnetic field, circulating eddy currents are induced and the opposing mechanical torque created is directly proportional to the electrical conductivity and size of the sample. It was determined that the damping torque T, produced by rotating a sample in a magnetic field, is T=23swLR4 B2 , where s is the electrical conductivity of the sample, w is the angular velocity of the crucible, L and R are the length and radius of the sample, respectively, and B represents the strength of the magnetic induction. The technique was applied to a series of materials, including both pure metals and alloys. The results are in excellent agreement with existing data, and new data for several alloys are presented. The technique can also be used in characterization of microstructural condition for various metals, depending on specific applications. The continuous monitoring of electrical resistivity during heat treatment is sensitive to slight modifications in the metal's microscopic structure like solute content, precipitation hardening, and increasing dislocation densities. Isothermal transformation C-curves for 3024 aluminum-copper alloy were determined based on the electrical resistivity measurements. The C-curves were supplemented with hardness and x-ray diffraction measurements. The results obtained in this investigation were in very good agreement with published literature data. In addition, an electromagnetic-based permanent-magnet probe was designed and tested for monitoring velocity (as well as the temperature) in molten metals. It is shown that, when rotating a molten metal in a DC magnetic field, the azimuthal velocity in the vicinity of the crucible is significantly different from the one in the center, which is evidence of secondary flow induced by the DC

  16. Portable nuclear material detector and process

    DOEpatents

    Hofstetter, Kenneth J; Fulghum, Charles K; Harpring, Lawrence J; Huffman, Russell K; Varble, Donald L

    2008-04-01

    A portable, hand held, multi-sensor radiation detector is disclosed. The detection apparatus has a plurality of spaced sensor locations which are contained within a flexible housing. The detection apparatus, when suspended from an elevation, will readily assume a substantially straight, vertical orientation and may be used to monitor radiation levels from shipping containers. The flexible detection array can also assume a variety of other orientations to facilitate any unique container shapes or to conform to various physical requirements with respect to deployment of the detection array. The output of each sensor within the array is processed by at least one CPU which provides information in a usable form to a user interface. The user interface is used to provide the power requirements and operating instructions to the operational components within the detection array.

  17. Process for producing clad superconductive materials

    DOEpatents

    Cass, Richard B.; Ott, Kevin C.; Peterson, Dean E.

    1992-01-01

    A process for fabricating superconducting composite wire by the steps of placing a superconductive precursor admixture capable of undergoing a self propagating combustion in stoichiometric amounts sufficient to form a superconductive product within a metal tube, sealing one end of said tube, igniting said superconductive precursor admixture whereby said superconductive precursor admixture endburns along the length of the admixture, and cross-section reducing said tube at a rate substantially equal to the rate of burning of said superconductive precursor admixture and at a point substantially planar with the burnfront of the superconductive precursor mixture, whereby a clad superconductive product is formed in situ, the product characterized as superconductive without a subsequent sintering stage, is disclosed.

  18. Portable nuclear material detector and process

    DOEpatents

    Hofstetter, Kenneth J [Aiken, SC; Fulghum, Charles K [Aiken, SC; Harpring, Lawrence J [North Augusta, SC; Huffman, Russell K [Augusta, GA; Varble, Donald L [Evans, GA

    2008-04-01

    A portable, hand held, multi-sensor radiation detector is disclosed. The detection apparatus has a plurality of spaced sensor locations which are contained within a flexible housing. The detection apparatus, when suspended from an elevation, will readily assume a substantially straight, vertical orientation and may be used to monitor radiation levels from shipping containers. The flexible detection array can also assume a variety of other orientations to facilitate any unique container shapes or to conform to various physical requirements with respect to deployment of the detection array. The output of each sensor within the array is processed by at least one CPU which provides information in a usable form to a user interface. The user interface is used to provide the power requirements and operating instructions to the operational components within the detection array.

  19. A survey of the economics of materials processing in space. [accenting biomedical materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. P.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the economics of space materials processing has been performed with the objectives of identifying those areas of space materials processing that give preliminary indication of significant economic potential, and to identify possible approaches to quantify the economic potential. It is concluded that limited economic studies have been performed to date, primarily in the area of the processing of inorganic materials, but that the economics of space processing of biological material has not received adequate attention. Specific studies are recommended to evaluate the economic impact of human lymphocyte subgroup separation on organ transplantation, and on the separation and concentration of urokinase producing cells.

  20. A survey of the economics of materials processing in space. [accenting biomedical materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. P.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the economics of space materials processing has been performed with the objectives of identifying those areas of space materials processing that give preliminary indication of significant economic potential, and to identify possible approaches to quantify the economic potential. It is concluded that limited economic studies have been performed to date, primarily in the area of the processing of inorganic materials, but that the economics of space processing of biological material has not received adequate attention. Specific studies are recommended to evaluate the economic impact of human lymphocyte subgroup separation on organ transplantation, and on the separation and concentration of urokinase producing cells.

  1. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly project status report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report briefly summerizes the following projects on hazardous materials in the aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin: Biotic and abiotic studies on the biological fate, transport and ecotoxicity of toxic and Hazardous waste in the Mississippi River Basin; The effect of depositional environment on the fate and transport of contaminants in aquatic environments;Assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in aquatic species as biomarkers of exposure; Hazardous wastes in aquantic environments: biological uptake and metabolism studies; bioremediation of selected contaminants in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin; Development of Novel dechlorination catalysts; pore-level flow, transport, agglomeration and reaction kinetics of microorganisms; novel polymer-semiconductor composits for photocatalytic destruction of organic contaminants in aqueous environments; biomarkers of exposure and ecotoxicity in the Mississippi River Basin; Natural and Active Chemical remediation cluster; collaborative research with the Institute of Radiological Problems (IREP) - fate and transport of radionuclides following the Chernobyl Accident; Exper geographical information systems for assessing hazardous wastes in aquatic environments; computation of Taylor Dispersion coefficient.

  2. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Twelfth quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The authors have prepared an improved version of 10-DAN-54, a Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide promoted with Pd and K. This material (16-DMM-68) has acceptable elemental analysis for the expected composition and possesses the desired high surface area of >80 m{sup 2}/g. The catalyst has extra added potassium vs. the standard catalyst, 10-DAN-54, as previous work had indicated that more potassium is required for optimal performance. In tests under standard conditions (400 C, 1,000 psi, GHSV = 12,000, syngas ratio = 1), this catalyst shows a selectivity to total alcohols of 84% and produces > 100 g/kg/hr of isobutanol with a MeOH/i-BuOH mole ratio = 4.7. The authors have tested 16-DMM-68 at temperatures above 400 C and pressures up to 1,500 psi (GHSV = 12,000, syngas ratio = 1). At 440 C and 1500 psi, this catalyst shows a selectivity to total alcohols of 64% and produces 179 g/kg/hr of isobutanol with a MeOH/i-BuOH mole ratio = 2.2. This is their best overall performance to data. The catalyst operates at syngas conversions up to 28% with good selectivity to total alcohols due to the extra added alkali. This performance can be compared with 10-DAN-54, which could only operate up to 20% conversion before hydrocarbon formation became a serious inefficiency.

  3. Novel particulate production processes to create unique security materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampden-Smith, Mark; Kodas, Toivo; Haubrich, Scott; Oljaca, Miki; Einhorn, Rich; Williams, Darryl

    2006-02-01

    Particles are frequently used to impart security features to high value items. These particles are typically produced by traditional methods, and therefore the security must be derived from the chemical composition of the particles rather than the particle production process. Here, we present new and difficult-to-reproduce particle production processes based on spray pyrolysis that can produce unique particles and features that are dependent on the use of these new-to-the-world processes and process trade secrets. Specifically two examples of functional materials are described, luminescent materials and electrocatalytic materials.

  4. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Encapsulation task of the low-cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During this quarter, flat-plate solar collector systems were considered and six basic construction elements were identified: outer coatings, superstrates, pottants, substrates, undercoats, and adhesives. Materials surveys were then initiated to discover either generic classes or/and specific products to function as each construction element. Cost data included in the surveys permit ready evaluation of each material. Silicones, fluorocarbons, glass, and acrylic polymers have the highest inherent weatherability of materials studied to date. Only acrylics, however, combine low costs, environmental resistance, and potential processability. This class will receive particular emphasis.

  5. Ground based research in microgravity materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Tom

    1994-01-01

    The core activities performed during this time period have been concerned with tracking the TEMPEST experiments on the shuttle with drops of Zr, Ni, and Nb alloys. In particular a lot of Zr drops are being made to better define the recalescence characteristics of that system so that accurate comparisons of the drop tube results with Tempest can be made. A new liner, with minimal reflectivity characteristics, has been inserted into the drop tube in order to improve the recalescence measurements of the falling drops. The first installation to make the geometric measurements to ensure a proper fit has been made. The stovepipe sections are currently in the shop at MSFC being painted with low reflectivity black paint. Work has also continued on setting up the MEL apparatus obtained from Oak Ridge in the down stairs laboratory at the Drop Tube Facilities. Some ground-based experiments on the same metals as are being processed on TEMPEST are planned for the MEL. The flight schedules for the KC-135 experiments are still to be determined in the near future.

  6. Materials-based process tolerances for neutron generator encapsulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Ryan S.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Stavig, Mark Edwin

    2007-10-01

    Variations in the neutron generator encapsulation process can affect functionality. However, instead of following the historical path in which the effects of process variations are assessed directly through functional tests, this study examines how material properties key to generator functionality correlate with process variations. The results of this type of investigation will be applicable to all generators and can provide insight on the most profitable paths to process and material improvements. Surprisingly, the results at this point imply that the process is quite robust, and many of the current process tolerances are perhaps overly restrictive. The good news lies in the fact that our current process ensures reproducible material properties. The bad new lies in the fact that it would be difficult to solve functional problems by changes in the process.

  7. Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Monteiro, Othon R.

    2003-04-10

    A variety of coatings is commercially produced on a very large scale, including transparent conducting oxides and multi-layer silver-based low-emissivity and solar control coatings. A very brief review of materials and manufacturing process is presented and illustrated by ultrathin silver films and chevron copper films. Understanding the close relation between manufacturing processes and bulk and surface properties of materials is crucial for film growth and self-assembly processes.

  8. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  9. Ultrafast laser processing of glass-phase materials: mathematical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Tatiana N.; Surmenko, Elena L.; Chebotarevsky, Yury V.; Konyushin, Alexander V.; Popov, Ivan A.; Bessonov, Dmitry A.

    2013-11-01

    Glass-phase materials, such as glass-carbon, ceramics etc., are a wide class of substances applied in electronic industry. These materials often need special technologies for their processing. Unlike traditional methods of micromachining, focused ultrashort laser pulses of sufficiently high fluence makes it possible not only to avoid the majority of side effects, including temperature, but also to create a qualitatively new laser technology for "hard materials". When using ultrafast lasers in micromachining processes it is necessary to account the possible negative effects that occur in the processing of brittle materials. Removing material from the surface in cold ablation process caused by laser light, in such a short period of time with such a high rate, creates the area of high pressure in the interaction zone that could cause a microdamage of brittle materials. To study the stress-strain state arising in brittle materials under the influence of ultrafast lasers, the special physicalmathematical model of the process was formulated. As a measure of the mechanical action of laser radiation on the processed material in cold ablation the reactive force was taken. As a mechanical reaction of the treated glass-carbon substrate a back pressure generated by the reactive force was considered. Brittle materials suffer plastic deformation, as a rule, only in the areas of high-temperature heating. Hence, in case of picosecond treatment in cold ablation process the material, from a mechanical point of view, was seen as a perfectly elastic up to its destruction. From a geometrical point of view, the processed object was presented in the form of a thin rectangular plate, loosely founded on the elastic base.

  10. Segregation and redistribution of end-of-process energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, R.A.; Cummins, B.; Gonzalez, M.A.

    1993-03-01

    A system recovering then recycling or reusing end-of-process energetic materials has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The system promotes separating energetic materials with high potential for reuse or recycling from those that have no further value. A feature of the system is a computerized electronic bulletin board for advertising the availability of surplus and recovered energetic materials and process chemicals to LLNL researchers, and for posting energetic materials, ``want ads.`` The system was developed and implemented to promote waste minimization and pollution prevention at LLNL.

  11. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2011-01-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  12. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2012-09-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  13. Inline quality prognosis of material condition induced process variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzler, Felix A.; Wortberg, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The main variation in a good quality production are induced by material condition. Processing technical polymers like PA, ABS or PBT possible influences are residual moisture conditions of the material or minor variations of raw material charges. Small changes in the material properties are difficult to detect at first quality controls and can be within the property tolerances. But even these small differences cause defects. The effects range from viscosity variations to varied crystalline properties. The influence of material properties on the processing have to be detected inline and combined with material analysis to a quality prognosis. The equipped sensors at injection molding machines enable an adequate process performance. The recently available solutions for power consumption monitoring enhance the available process control opportunities. Because of the high process speed of injection molding machines, the required sampling rate has to be minimal 500 Hz. A setup of high bandwidth data processing linked to the machine control enables precise characterization of the production. Identified index numbers, energetic data and characteristic development of measured process figures enable a high resolution detection of material induced variations. This prognosis enables inline classification of the produced parts and a compensation by correlating quality requirements with adjusted filling and packing parameters.

  14. Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, P.T.

    1993-11-29

    Goal is to develop a catalyst and process for converting of syngas to isobutanol and to evaluate the commercial potential of the new process. This report covers preliminary testing of methanol synthesis catalysts alone and in combination with basic metal oxides. Materials tested included Cu/Zn/Al, Zn/Cr oxides, and K/Zr/Zn/Mn oxides.

  15. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-10

    The main accomplishments of Custom Coals and the project subcontractors, during this period, included: continued purchase of small equipment and supplies for the circuit; completed the circuit commissioning task; procured one lot of PennMag Grade-K and one lot Grade-L magnetite; completed work on analytical investigations; completed Classifying Circuit Component Testing on Pittsburgh No. 8 coal; completed the final Heavy-Media cyclone component testing on the Pittsburgh No. 8 seam using Grade-K and Grade-L magnetites; continued QA/QC tests on wet screening, wet splitting, Marcy Balance, and reproducibility checks on component tests and component test samples; and completed the magnetite recovery circuit component testing with and without screens using the Grade-K magnetite and the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal seam. This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  16. Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

    1993-04-17

    The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst, the kinetics for this catalyst, reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed reactors, and simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. The six main accomplishments for the quarter are the following: (1) activity testing with the 7% (wt) Ce-ZrO{sub 2}, (2) activity testing the same catalyst with CO from an aluminum cylinder, (3) preparation of ZrO{sub 2} by heating zirconyl nitrate, (4) preparation of an active zirconia prepared by a modified sol gel procedure and evaluation of the catalytic activity of a commercial zirconia and the catalysts prepared by the sol gel procedure, (5) determining the effect of separator temperatures and oil flow rate on the performance of a trickle bed reactor, and (6) calculation of the equilibrium composition of the C{sub 2} to C{sub 5} olefins, and initiation of the development of a macrokinetic model. The details of each of these accomplishments are discussed.

  17. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1993-09-01

    Under the current grant (No. DE-FG22-90PC90309), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will perform the bench scale evaluation and further development of the anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. The developmental program proposed under this DOE grant includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins` performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. During this reporting period, April 1, 1993 to June 30, 1993, the procedure to evaluate the cycle efficiency of candidate resins in the fixed-bed mode was slightly modified to ensure complete regeneration of the exhausted resin. Using this revised procedure, ten consecutive cycles for all the three resins have been completed and the results are being analyzed.

  18. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  19. Development of a Rolling Process Design Tool for Use in Improving Hot Roll Slab Recovery Quarterly Report: Q1 FY03

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Wang, P

    2003-02-03

    In this quarter, further analysis was done to investigate the difficulty in predicting fracture at the slab ends. The stress concentration created by the notch geometry at the slab ends can accelerate damage and promote fracture at the relatively low strain rates that exist when the notch region is not directly in the roll bite. However, the phenomenological fracture model provided by Alcoa Technical Center (ATC) was calibrated for strain rates characteristic of the rolling process zone and hydrostatic stress states less severe than the leading edge notch. Additional experiments are being performed at ATC to extend the model's range to include the low strain rate, high triaxiality condition. A bug in the parallel code that caused an inconsistent temperature distribution at the slab surface has been identified and Corrected. Currently, more simulations are being performed to validate the model.

  20. Process development for economical processing of various vanadium bearing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retelsdorf, H. J.; Rothmann, H.; Fichte, R.

    1982-06-01

    Three different vanadium bearing products were tested. It was proven feasible to recover a ferroalloy containing 73.5% of the vanadium contained in the leaching residues from blast furnace slags by reduction in an electric arc furnace. The composition of the obtained ferroalloy was 67% Fe, 2% V, 7% Cr, and 5.5% C. The vanadium recovery contained 0.5 to 6% in the fly ash, resulting from the combustion of fuel. Different fly ashes were tested by oxidation through roasting and subsequent basic leaching, or by reduction roasting with subsequent acid leaching, or bysoda roasting and leaching. The third source of vanadium tested was the waste salt, originating in alumina production, and containing about 4% V, 5% P, and 0.5% As. It was possible to produce a ferroalloy containing V2O5 and a secondary sodium phosphate, which could be applied in the phosphate processing industry.

  1. High-energy ion processing of materials for improved hardcoatings

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Rhoades, R.L.; Oliver, W.C.; Riester, L.; Tsui, T.Y.

    1994-02-01

    Research has been directed toward use of economically viable ion processing strategies for production and improvement of hardcoatings. Processing techniques were high-energy ion implantation and electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma processing. Subject materials were boron suboxides, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, CoCrMo alloy (a Stellite{trademark}), and electroplated Cr. These materials may be regarded either as coatings themselves (which might be deposited by thermal spraying, plasma processing, etc.) or in some cases, as substrates whose surfaces can be improved. hardness and other properties in relation to process variables are reported.

  2. Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1995-12-31

    Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. Results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Postconsolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

  3. Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1996-06-01

    Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot isostatic pressing (HEPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. The results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Post consolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

  4. Challenge to advanced materials processing with lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Isamu

    2003-02-01

    Japan is one of the most advanced countries in manufacturing technology, and lasers have been playing an important role for advancement of manufacturing technology in a variety of industrial fields. Contribution of laser materials processing to Japanese industry is significant for both macroprocessing and microprocessing. The present paper describes recent trend and topics of industrial applications in terms of the hardware and the software to show how Japanese industry challenges to advanced materials processing using lasers, and national products related to laser materials processing are also briefly introduced.

  5. High Vacuum Creep Facility in the Materials Processing Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-01-21

    Technicians at work in the Materials Processing Laboratory’s Creep Facility at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. The technicians supported the engineers’ studies of refractory materials, metals, and advanced superalloys. The Materials Processing Laboratory contained laboratories and test areas equipped to prepare and develop these metals and materials. The ultra-high vacuum lab, seen in this photograph, contained creep and tensile test equipment. Creep testing is used to study a material’s ability to withstand long durations under constant pressure and temperatures. The equipment measured the strain over a long period of time. Tensile test equipment subjects the test material to strain until the material fails. The two tests were used to determine the strength and durability of different materials. The Materials Processing Laboratory also housed arc and electron beam melting furnaces, a hydraulic vertical extrusion press, compaction and forging equipment, and rolling mills and swagers. There were cryogenic and gas storage facilities and mechanical and oil diffusion vacuum pumps. The facility contained both instrumental and analytical chemistry laboratories for work on radioactive or toxic materials and the only shop to machine toxic materials in the Midwest.

  6. Processing and Disposition of Special Actinide Target Materials - 13138

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sharon M.; Patton, Brad D.; Allender, Jeffrey S.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages an inventory of materials that contains a range of long-lived radioactive isotopes that were produced from the 1960's through the 1980's by irradiating targets in high-flux reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to produce special heavy isotopes for DOE programmatic use, scientific research, and industrial and medical applications. Among the products were californium-252, heavy curium (including Cm-246 through Cm-248), and plutonium-242 and -244. Many of the isotopes are still in demand today, and they can be recovered from the remaining targets previously irradiated at SRS or produced from the recovered isotopes. Should the existing target materials be discarded, the plutonium (Pu) and curium (Cm) isotopes cannot be replaced readily with existing production sources. Some of these targets are stored at SRS, while other target material is stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at several stages of processing. The materials cannot be stored in their present form indefinitely. Their long-term management involves processing items for beneficial use and/or for disposition, using storage and process facilities at SRS and ORNL. Evaluations are under way for disposition options for these materials, and demonstrations of improved flow sheets to process the materials are being conducted at ORNL and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The disposition options and a management evaluation process have been developed. Processing demonstrations and evaluations for these unique materials are under way. (authors)

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis 4th Quarter FY 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann

    2016-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System, as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 84 reportable events (29 from the 4th quarter fiscal year 2016 and 55 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 39 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (two from this quarter and 37 from the prior three quarters).

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis for the 1st Quarter FY2017

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann

    2017-01-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 82 reportable events (13 from the 1st quarter (Qtr) of fiscal year (FY) 2017 and 68 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 31 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (seven from this quarter and 24 from the prior three quarters).

  9. Oxidation processes in magneto-optic and related materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul A.; Armstrong, Neal R.; Danzinger, James L.; England, Craig D.

    1992-01-01

    The surface oxidation processes of thin films of magneto-optic materials, such as the rare-earth transition metal alloys have been studied, starting in ultrahigh vacuum environments, using surface analysis techniques, as a way of modeling the oxidation processes which occur at the base of a defect in an overcoated material, at the instant of exposure to ambient environments. Materials examined have included FeTbCo alloys, as well as those same materials with low percentages of added elements, such a Ta, and their reactivities to both O2 and H2O compared with materials such as thin Fe films coated with ultrathin adlayers of Ti. The surface oxidation pathways for these materials is reviewed, and XPS data presented which indicates the type of oxides formed, and a critical region of Ta concentration which provides optimum protection.

  10. Friction Stir Processing of Particle Reinforced Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Yong X.; Solomon, Daniel; Reinbolt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a review of friction stir processing (FSP) technology and its application for microstructure modification of particle reinforced composite materials. The main focus of FSP was on aluminum based alloys and composites. Recently, many researchers have investigated this technology for treating other alloys and materials including stainless steels, magnesium, titanium, and copper. It is shown that FSP technology is very effective in microstructure modification of reinforced metal matrix composite materials. FSP has also been used in the processing and structure modification of polymeric composite materials. Compared with other manufacturing processes, friction stir processing has the advantage of reducing distortion and defects in materials. The layout of this paper is as follows. The friction stir processing technology will be presented first. Then, the application of this technology in manufacturing and structure modification of particle reinforced composite materials will be introduced. Future application of friction stir processing in energy field, for example, for vanadium alloy and composites will be discussed. Finally, the challenges for improving friction stir processing technology will be mentioned.

  11. Process optimization for developer soluble immersion topcoat material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroki; Goto, Kentarou; Shima, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Junichi; Shimokawa, Tsutomu; Ichino, Katsunori; Nagatani, Naohiko; Kyoda, Hideharu; Yoshihara, Kosuke

    2007-03-01

    The 193 nm immersion lithography has been increasingly applied to the semiconductor device mass production. Topcoat material would be used in many such cases. Topcoat film can maximize the scan speed during immersion exposure step and also prevent small molecules from leaching out of resist film. However, the use of the topcoat material in the mass production affects productivity including throughput and chemical cost. To manage this problem, we attempted to improve topcoat coating process to reduce the topcoat material consumption. Using JSR NFC TCX041, the developersoluble type topcoat material, as a model material, we examined a new coating process which introduces a pre-wet treatment using a solvent which was chosen to be appropriate for this purpose. With this new coating process, we achieved 65 percent (or more) reduction of the topcoat material consumption compared with the current standard coating process (dynamic coating). From the result of film surface observations and leaching tests, it was learned that the topcoat film properties by the new coating process are equivalent to those by the standard coating process. The process performance after development also indicated good results.

  12. Chalcogenide material strengthening through the lens molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J.; Scordato, M.; Lucas, Pierre; Coleman, Garrett J.

    2016-05-01

    The demand for infrared transmitting materials has grown steadily for several decades as markets realize new applications for longer wavelength sensing and imaging. With this growth has come the demand for new and challenging material requirements that cannot be satisfied with crystalline products alone. Chalcogenide materials, with their unique physical, thermal, and optical properties, have found acceptance by designers and fabricators to meet these demands. No material is perfect in every regard, and chalcogenides are no exception. A cause for concern has been the relatively low fracture toughness and the propensity of the bulk material to fracture. This condition is amplified when traditional subtractive manufacturing processes are employed. This form of processing leaves behind micro fractures and sub surface damage, which act as propagation points for both local and catastrophic failure of the material. Precision lens molding is not a subtractive process, and as a result, micro fractures and sub surface damage are not created. This results in a stronger component than one produced by traditional methods. New processing methods have also been identified that result in an even stronger surface that is more resistant to breakage, without the need for post processing techniques that may compromise surface integrity. This paper will discuss results achieved in the process of lens molding development at Edmund Optics that result in measurably stronger chalcogenide components. Various metrics will be examined and data will be presented that quantifies component strength for different manufacturing processes.

  13. Ultrasonic processing of hard materials for conformal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; Bechtold, Rob; Bechtold, Mike; Wolfs, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Hard ceramic optical materials such as sapphire, ALON, Spinel, or PCA can present a significant challenge in manufacturing precision optical components due to their tough mechanical properties. These are also the same mechanical properties that make them desirable materials when used in harsh environments. Tool wear and tool loading conditions during the grinding process for these materials can be especially problematic. Because of this, frequent dressing and reshaping of grinding wheels is often required. OptiPro systems is developing an ultrasonic grinding process called OptiSonic to minimize the forces during grinding and make the grinding process more efficient. The ultrasonic vibration of the grinding wheel allows for a grinding process that has the capacity for longer tool life and reduced tool wear for a more deterministic process. This presentation will discuss the OptiSonic process and present current results.

  14. Study of Photochromic Materials for Use in Optical Signal Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    LDFP 07 C6 11. TITLE (kIclude Security Classification) STUDY OF PHOTOCHROMIC MATERIALS FOR USE IN OPZfCAL SIGNAL PROCESSING 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dr...the feasibility of using photochromic materials for programmable spatial filters and optical data storage/ applications. Write and erase times...Mercuay Dithizonate 35 V. General Experimental Behavior of Photochromic Materials 39 VI. Kinetics of the Relaxation Reaction 44 VII. Dependence of the

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  16. Intermediate-level computer-vision-processing algorithm development for the content-addressable-array parallel processor. Quarterly status report No. 3 for period ending 29 November 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-15

    During this quarter a set of seven benchmark problems were developed and analyzed for the IUA. These included Hough Transform, Convex Hull, Voronoi Diagram, Minimal Spanning Tree, Visibility of Vertices in a projected 3-dimensional model, subgraph isomorphism, and the minimum-cost path between points in a weighted graph. These problems are commonly considered intermediate-level processing in many visions research groups parallel implementations of UMass intermediate level processing algorithms, such as Boldt's line merging and Anandan's motion analysis continued to develop. A commercial processor, the TMS320C25, was chosen as the Intermediate Communications and Associative Processor (ICAP) processing element. The TMS320C25 has the advantages that it is a five-million instruction per second signal-processing unit with a fast multiplier and software support for fast floating-point operations. It also has a built in 5 Mb/S serial port that will interface well with the intermediate-level communications network. Also being explored is a set of group-theoretic network topologies with respect to the communication needs of intermediate-level processing. This has required the analysis of the classes of communication needed in each of the algorithms implemented.

  17. Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

  18. Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

  19. Use of energetic ion beams in materials synthesis and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Appleton, B R

    1991-01-01

    A brief review of the use energetic ion beams and related techniques for the synthesis, processing, and characterization of materials is presented. Selected opportunity areas are emphasized with examples, and references are provided for more extensive coverage.

  20. Missouri Introduction to Materials and Processing Technology. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to support a high school specialization course in materials and processing technology. The document contains three sections: (1) information on using the material; (2) a set of instructor guides for eight instructional units; (3) 15 technological activity modules and teacher and student instructions for their use; and (4)…