Science.gov

Sample records for material properties experiments

  1. Simple Experiment for Studying the Properties of a Ferromagnetic Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sood, B. R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate physics experiment for studying Curie temperature and Curie constant of a ferromagnetic material. The exchange field (Weiss field) has been estimated by using these parameters. (HM)

  2. GIGABAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES EXPERIMENTS ON NIF AND OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D C; Hawreliak, J A; Braun, D; Kritcher, A; Glenzer, S; Collins, G W; Rothman, S D; Chapman, D; Rose, S

    2011-08-04

    The unprecedented laser capabilities of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) make it possible for the first time to countenance laboratory-scale experiments in which gigabar pressures can be applied to a reasonable volume of material, and sustained long enough for percent level equation of state measurements to be made. We describe the design for planned experiments at the NIF, using a hohlraum drive to induce a spherically-converging shock in samples of different materials. Convergence effects increase the shock pressure to several gigabars over a radius of over 100 microns. The shock speed and compression will be measured radiographically over a range of pressures using an x-ray streak camera. In some cases, we will use doped layers to allow a radiographic measurement of particle velocity.

  3. Review of world experience and properties of materials for encapsulation of terrestrial photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, D. C.; Gaines, G. B.; Sliemers, F. A.; Kistler, C. W.; Igou, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Published and unpublished information relating to encapsulation systems and materials properties was collected by searching the literature and appropriate data bases (over 1,300 documents were selected and reviewed) and by personal contacts including site and company visits. A data tabulation summarizing world experience with terrestrial photovoltaic arrays (50 installations) is presented in the report. Based on criteria of properties, processability, availability, and cost, candidate materials were identified which have potential for use in encapsulation systems for arrays with a lifetime of over 20 years high reliability, an efficiency greater than 10 percent, a total price less than $500/kW, and a production capacity of 500,000 kW/yr. The recommended materials (all commercially available) include, depending upon the device design, various borosilicate and soda-lime glasses and numerous polymerics suitable for specific encapsulation system functions.

  4. From the experience of development of composite materials with desired properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garkina, I. A.; Danilov, A. M.

    2017-04-01

    Using the experience in the development of composite materials with desired properties is given the algorithm of construction materials synthesis on the basis of their representation in the form of a complex system. The possibility of creation of a composite and implementation of the technical task originally are defined at a stage of cognitive modeling. On the basis of development of the cognitive map hierarchical structures of criteria of quality are defined; according to them for each allocated large-scale level the corresponding block diagrams of system are specified. On the basis of the solution of problems of one-criteria optimization with use of the found optimum values formalization of a multi-criteria task and its decision is carried out (the optimum organization and properties of system are defined). The emphasis is on methodological aspects of mathematical modeling (construction of a generalized and partial models to optimize the properties and structure of materials, including those based on the concept of systemic homeostasis).

  5. Fractal aggregates in reduced gravity experiments and numerical simulations to characterize cometary material properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Hadamcik, Edith; Botet, Robert; Renard, Jean-Baptiste

    In situ missions have shown that cometary dust particles have low densities and are easily fragmenting aggregates [1]. The linear polarization of the solar light scattered by cometary dust corresponds to bell-shaped (with a small negative branch and a maximum below 30%) phase curves with a quasi-linear increase with the wavelength between 30° and 50° phase angle [2]. Such physical properties of the cometary material are reconciled by a fractal model of cometary dust and comet nuclei as formed by aggregation in reduced gravity as studied by laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Reduced gravity light scattering experiments: The CODAG-LSU experiment (1999) gave the first indication of the light scattering properties transition between single particles and low dimensions fractal aggregates (D 1.3) [3, 4]. Such studies will be pursued on board the ISS with the ICAPS precursor experiment. The PROGRA2 experiment is designed to study the light scattering properties of particles levitated during dedicated microgravity flights or with ground-based configurations [5]. The material properties are chosen so as to be relevant in the context of cosmic dust from cometary and asteroidal origins. It is especially useful to disentangle the effects of varying albedos of constitutive materials [6], shape and size of constitutive grains [7]. Some of the results are interpreted in terms of fractal aggregates growth. Light scattering numerical simulations Based on numerical simulations and in coherence with the experimental results, a model of cometary coma by a mixture of fractal aggregates of up to 256 sub-micron sized spheroidal grains and compact spheroidal particles is shown to reproduce the polarimetric observations of comets such as 1P/Halley or C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp [8]. Physical parameters of the size distribution of particles (minimum and maximum size, shape of the size distribution and quantity and location of absorbing and non-absorbing particles) can be retrieved

  6. Laboratory experiments for defining scaling relations between rock material properties and rock resistance to erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklar, L. S.; Beyeler, J. D.; Collins, G. C.; Farrow, J. W.; Hsu, L.; Litwin, K. L.; Polito, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Rock resistance to erosion is a key variable that limits rates of morphologic change and mass flux in landscapes. However, we have limited knowledge of how measurable material properties influence rock resistance to specific erosion processes. Rock 'erodibility' is commonly a free parameter in surface process models, where users assign or solve for numerical values that lack meaning outside of the model. Moreover, erodibility parameters often lump material resistance to erosion together with aspects of the forces driving erosion that are not explicitly represented in the model. Laboratory experiments in which rock types are varied, while erosive forces are held constant, can be used to develop scaling relationships between rock properties and erosion resistance for individual detachment mechanisms. With knowledge of why erosion rates vary between rock types for constant erosive forces, laboratory and field experiments that vary erosive intensity can be used to quantify the absolute susceptibility to erosion in physically explicit terms. Here we synthesize data collected over the past decade from a suite of laboratory investigations of rock resistance to wear by sediment particle impacts, and wear of sediment particles themselves, in experiments replicating fluvial and granular flow conditions. Materials tested included: field-sampled bedrock and sediment covering the widest feasible range of apparent durability and lithologic type; synthetic sandstones made from mixtures of sand and Portland cement; and water ice, both pure and containing solid impurities, tested over a wide range of temperatures. Material properties measured included: dry-bulk and saturated density, porosity, tensile strength, fracture toughness, elastic moduli, mineralogy, cement type, and the grain size of mineral crystals and cemented clasts. Erosion rates were measured by mass or volume loss divided by run time, in bedrock abrasion mills, barrel tumblers, and a large rotating drum. We find

  7. Static and dynamic property experiments of giant magnetostrictive material-fiber Bragg grating magnetic field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guoping; Liu, Jiayi; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Biyun

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, there are many kinds of magnetic field sensors such as Hall sensor, Gauss meter and so on. But few of them can be used in the small air gaps which size is about millimeter. A thin-slice Giant Magnetostrictive Material-fiber Bragg grating (GMM-FBG) magnetic field sensor was proposed with the size of 14mm×7mm×1.5mm. The FBG was bonded along the GMM slice length orientation, perpendicular to the major magnetostriction orientation, to measure the GMM's strain caused by external magnetic field. Experiment systems were established to test the GMM-FBG sensor's static and dynamic properties. The results show that the sensor's static property is consistent with the theoretical prediction, and the dynamic response is feasible in low frequencies from 1Hz to 20Hz.

  8. Database for properties of materials studied in experiments using shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhernokletov, M. V.; Trunin, R. F.; Gudarenko, L. F.; Trushchin, V. D.; Gushchina, O. N.

    1997-07-01

    During nearly 50-year period of development of the dynamic methods for studying material properties Russia accumulated a large amount of experimental data for more than 200 individual materials, compounds, condensed media and gases. Practically all the information is obtained at RFNC-VNIIEF. For the accumulated experimental data systematization and visualization the database being presented was developed. At its development DBMS Paradox for Windows was used. The database is a set of interconnected tables storing: the data for shock compression of continuous materials; the data for shock compression of heated materials; the data for shock compression of porous materials; the data for shock compression of materials by the second shock wave; expansion adiabats of shock-compressed continuous materials; expansion adiabats of shock-compressed porous materials; the data for the rate of scattering of shock-compressed materials to air; the data for sound speed in shock-compressed materials. Currently the database stores the data for the following material types: metals; metal hydrides and nitrides; carbides and oxides; mixtures; solid organic materials; alkali metal halogenides; minerals and rocks; water and saturated water solutions of salts; organic liquids. As the data is (and will be) transferred to the Experimental data base from a great number of various sources (papers and reports), it also stores the complete list of these sources.

  9. Using Design of Experiments Methods for Assessing Peak Contact Pressure to Material Properties of Soft Tissue in Human Knee

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Ali; Arumugam, Manohar; Hassan, Mohd Roshdi

    2013-01-01

    Contact pressure in the knee joint is a key element in the mechanisms of knee pain and osteoarthritis. Assessing the contact pressure in tibiofemoral joint is a challenging mechanical problem due to uncertainty in material properties. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of tibiofemoral peak contact pressure to the material properties of the soft tissue was carried out through fractional factorial and Box-Behnken designs. The cartilage was modeled as linear elastic material, and in addition to its elastic modulus, interaction effects of soft tissue material properties were added compared to previous research. The results indicated that elastic modulus of the cartilage is the most effective factor. Interaction effects of axial/radial modulus with elastic modulus of cartilage, circumferential and axial/radial moduli of meniscus were other influential factors. Furthermore this study showed how design of experiment methods can help designers to reduce the number of finite element analyses and to better interpret the results. PMID:27006925

  10. Hybrid method for determining material properties from instrumented micro-indentation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-M.; Ruff, A. W.; Dally, J. W.

    1994-05-01

    The impact code EPIC was employed to study the relationship between the applied force and the penetration depth in a micrometer-scale indentation experiment with oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper. EPIC is an elastic-plastic finite element code that uses a Lagrangian formulation and triangular mesh, which can accommodate large deformation without the need to remesh during the computation process. By fitting the force-penetration curves for a triangular indenter with second degree polynomials, it was demonstrated that the fit changed with two material constants in the constitutive equation. A systematic procedure for determining the material constants is described that is based on matching either the slope or the curvature of the force penetration depth curves from numerical simulation and experiments. It is concluded that material constants can be determined from indentation data obtained using pyramidal or spherical indenters as well as a flat-ended indenter.

  11. Microwave frequency material properties of PBS 9501 and PBX 9501 and small scale heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, B. B.; Daily, M. E.; Son, S. F.; Groven, L. J.

    2014-05-01

    This work reports the microwave frequency dielectric properties of PBX 9501 and one of its representative mocks, PBS 9501, within 1-20 GHz. From these measurements it is shown that the binder system has a strong influence on microwave heating of such compositions resulting in significant temperature gradients within the individual HMX or sugar crystals at high microwave heating rates. Using the measured dielectric properties, COMSOL 4.3 Multiphysics was used to simulate and optimize a microwave applicator with a high electric field to input power ratio. The simulated applicator design indicated subsecond heating to decomposition for PBX 9501 and was validated with small scale experiments on both PBS 9501 and PBX 9501. At approximately 2.45 GHz and 100 W applied power, PBS 9501 decomposition was observed shortly (< 34 ms) after a measured surface temperature of 70 °C (binder system melts). Finally, rapid heating of PBX 9501 was also shown in the optimized cavity.

  12. Scaling of material properties for Yucca Mountain: literature review and numerical experiments on saturated hydraulic conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, S.A.; Rautman, C.A.

    1996-08-01

    A review of pertinent literature reveals techniques which may be practical for upscaling saturated hydraulic conductivity at Yucca Mountain: geometric mean, spatial averaging, inverse numerical modeling, renormalization, and a perturbation technique. Isotropic realizations of log hydraulic conductivity exhibiting various spatial correlation lengths are scaled from the point values to five discrete scales through these techniques. For the variances in log{sub 10} saturated hydraulic conductivity examined here, geometric mean, numerical inverse and renormalization adequately reproduce point scale fluxes across the modeled domains. Fastest particle velocities and dispersion measured on the point scale are not reproduced by the upscaled fields. Additional numerical experiments examine the utility of power law averaging on a geostatistical realization of a cross-section similar to the cross-sections that will be used in the 1995 groundwater travel time calculations. A literature review on scaling techniques for thermal and mechanical properties is included. 153 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Ultrasonic material property determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabian, S.

    1986-01-01

    The use and potential offered by ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to determine and/or monitor material properties is explored. The basis for such unique measurements along with examples of materials from a variety of industries are presented.

  14. Microstructure and Property Evolution in Advanced Cladding and Duct Materials Under Long-Term Irradiation at Elevated Temperature: Critical Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Was, Gary; Jiao, Zhijie; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2013-12-20

    The in-service degradation of reactor core materials is related to underlying changes in the irradiated microstructure. During reactor operation, structural components and cladding experience displacement of atoms by collisions with neutrons at temperatures at which the radiation-induced defects are mobile, leading to microstructure evolution under irradiation that can degrade material properties. At the doses and temperatures relevant to fast reactor operation, the microstructure evolves by microchemistry changes due to radiation-induced segregation, dislocation loop formation and growth, radiation induced precipitation, destabilization of the existing precipitate structure, as well as the possibility for void formation and growth. These processes do not occur independently; rather, their evolution is highly interlinked. Radiation-induced segregation of Cr and existing chromium carbide coverage in irradiated alloy T91 track each other closely. The radiation-induced precipitation of Ni-Si precipitates and RIS of Ni and Si in alloys T91 and HCM12A are likely related. Neither the evolution of these processes nor their coupling is understood under the conditions required for materials performance in fast reactors (temperature range 300-600°C and doses to 200 dpa and beyond). Further, predictive modeling is not yet possible, as models for microstructure evolution must be developed along with experiments to characterize these key processes and provide tools for extrapolation. To extend the range of operation of nuclear fuel cladding and structural materials in advanced nuclear energy and transmutation systems to that required for the fast reactor, the irradiation-induced evolution of the microstructure, microchemistry, and the associated mechanical properties at relevant temperatures and doses must be understood. This project builds upon joint work at the proposing institutions, under a NERI-C program that is scheduled to end in September, to understand the effects of

  15. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  16. On the Properties of Plastic Ablators in Laser-Driven Material Dynamics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D C; Kraus, R G

    2007-11-15

    Radiation hydrodynamics simulations were used to study the effect of plastic ablators in laser-driven shock experiments. The sensitivity to composition and equation of state was found to be 5-10% in ablation pressure. As was found for metals, a laser pulse of constant irradiance gave a pressure history which decreased by several percent per nanosecond. The pressure history could be made more constant by adjusting the irradiance history. The impedance mismatch with the sample gave an increase o(100%) in the pressure transmitted into the sample, for a reduction of several tens of percent in the duration of the peak load applied to the sample, and structured the release history by adding a release step to a pressure close to the ablation pressure. Algebraic relations were found between the laser pulse duration, the ablator thickness, and the duration of the peak pressure applied to the sample, involving quantities calculated from the equations of state of the ablator and sample using shock dynamics.

  17. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  18. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  19. Rhenium material properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaglow, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  20. Rhenium material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Biaglow, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  1. Dynamic properties of ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Wise, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Controlled impact methods have been employed to obtain dynamic response properties of armor materials. Experimental data have been obtained for high-strength ceramics. Continued analysis of time-resolved velocity interferometer measurements has produced systematic material-property data for Hugoniot and release response, initial and post-yield strength, pressure-induced phase transformation, and dynamic fracture strength. A new technique has been developed to measure hydrodynamic properties of ceramic through shock-wave experiments on metal-ceramic composites and data obtained for silicon carbide. Additional data on several titanium diboride ceramics and high-quality aluminum oxide ceramic have been acquired, and issues regarding the influence of microstructure on dynamic properties have emerged. Comparison of dynamic (Hugoniot elastic limit) strength and indentation hardness data has been performed and important correlations revealed. Innovative impact experiments on confined and unconfined alumina rods using axial and transverse VISAR diagnostics have been demonstrated which permit acquisition of multiaxial dynamic response data. Dynamic failure properties of a high-density aluminosilicate glass, similar in composition to the intergranular glassy phase of some aluminas, have been investigated with regard to yield, spall, and failure-wave propagation.

  2. Element material experiment by EFFU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshihiro; Ichikawa, Masaaki; Takei, Mitsuru; Torii, Yoshihiro; Ota, Kazuo

    1995-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of JAPAN (NASDA) is planning to perform Element Material Exposure Experiment using Exposed Facility Flyer Unit (EFFU). Several materials which will be used on JEM (Japanese Experiment Module for the space station) will be exposed. Space environment monitoring is also planned in this experiment. Several ground based tests are now being performed and getting useful data.

  3. Materials properties data base computerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baur, R. G.; Donthnier, M. L.; Moran, M. C.; Mortman, I.; Pinter, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Material property data plays a key role in the design of jet engine components. Consistency, accuracy and efficient use of material property data is of prime importance to the engineering community. The system conception, development, implementation, and future plans for computer software that captures the Material Properties Handbook into a scientific data base are described. The engineering community is given access to raw data and property curves, display of multiple curves for material evaluation and selection, direct access by design analysis computer programs, display of the material specification, and a historical repository for the material evolution. The impact of this activity includes significant productivity gains and cost reductions; all users have access to the same information nd provides consistent, rapid response to the needs of the engineering community. Future plans include incorporating the materials properties data base into a network environment to access information from other data bases and download information to engineering work stations.

  4. Preliminary experiments about the measure of the magnetic properties of a material by means of TDR probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, the possibility of measuring possible magnetic properties of materials by means of a TDR probe is studied. A transmission line model is adopted and data in time and frequency domain are exploited together. Simulation results are shown, at the moment based on a bifilar line model. Magnetic properties of materials can be of interest for several applications. In particular, the presence of magnetic features in the soil or in any substance, might be associated to some contaminant (presumably containing some metallic element as iron, nickel or chromium [1]). This kind of pollution might occur close to some farms, especially regarding the dying of dresses, the production of some medicines, the tanning of leather issues. Moreover, modern agriculture puts in the soil several fertilizing substances, and there is a debate about the quantity of heavy metals spread in the terrain by these activities [2]. Still, some depuration-mud can be affected by an excessive presence of metallic elements, because of the presence of batteries, skins, varnishes, cosmetics, and so on [2]. Moreover, it is thought that the soil on the planet Mars might show magnetic properties [3]. Finally, in GPR prospecting, possible magnetic characteristics of the soil or of the targets might be of interest too [4], but they cannot be retrieved by means of only GPR data [5]. In the present paper, the results of a preliminary study are exposed with regard to the possibility to measure the magnetic properties of a material by mean of a TDR probe [6-7]. In particular a TDR probe is essentially a transmission line (a bifilar model will be exploited in this work) open at the end, form which most of the impinging energy (ideally the whole of thi energy in a lossless medium) is back reflected. In particular, this allows a customary measure of the propagation velocity in the medium if an impulsive signal is generated. In fact, the return time along a path of known length is measured. The

  5. Packaging Materials Properties Data

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D.

    1991-10-30

    Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection . data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.

  6. Packaging materials properties data

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the US Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.

  7. Property changes induced by the space environment in composite materials on LDEF: Solar array materials passive LDEF experiment A0171 (SAMPLE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Surface modifications to composite materials induced by long term exposure in low earth orbit (LEO) were dominated by atomic oxygen erosion and micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. As expected, calculated erosion rates were peculiar to material type and within the predicted order of magnitude. Generally, about one ply of the carbon fiber composites was eroded during the 70 month LDEF experiment. Matrix erosion was greater than fiber erosion and was more evident for a polysulfone matrix than for epoxy matrices. Micrometeoroid and space debris impacts resulted in small (less than 1mm) craters and splattered contaminants on all samples. Surfaces became more diffuse and darker with small increases in emissivity and absorption. Tensile strength decreased roughly with thickness loss, and epoxy matrices apparently became slightly embrittled, probably as a result of continued curing under UV and/or electron bombardment. However, changes in the ultimate yield stress of the carbon reinforced epoxy composites correlate neither with weave direction nor fiber type. Unexpected developments were the discovery of new synergistic effects of the space environment in the interaction of atomic oxygen and copious amounts of contamination and in the induced luminescence of many materials.

  8. Property changes induced by the space environment in composite materials on LDEF: Solar array materials passive LDEF experiment A0171 (SAMPLE)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Surface modifications to composite materials induced by long term exposure in low earth orbit (LEO) were dominated by atomic oxygen erosion and micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. As expected, calculated erosion rates were peculiar to material type and within the predicted order of magnitude. Generally, about one ply of the carbon fiber composites was eroded during the 70 month LDEF experiment. Matrix erosion was greater than fiber erosion and was more evident for a polysulfone matrix than for epoxy matrices. Micrometeoroid and space debris impacts resulted in small (less than 1mm) craters and splattered contaminants on all samples. Surfaces became more diffuse and darker with small increases in emissivity and absorption. Tensile strength decreased roughly with thickness loss, and epoxy matrices apparently became slightly embrittled, probably as a result of continued curing under UV and/or electron bombardment. However, changes in the ultimate yield stress of the carbon reinforced epoxy composites correlate neither with weave direction nor fiber type. Unexpected developments were the discovery of new synergistic effects of the space environment in the interaction of atomic oxygen and copious amounts of contamination and in the induced luminescence of many materials.

  9. Mechanical Properties of MEMS Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    thermal strain for polysilicon (data points) compared with bulk silicon (Thermophysical Properties of Matter, Volume 13, Y. S. Touloukian , Editor...AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2004-76 Final Technical Report March 2004 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEMS MATERIALS Johns Hopkins University...TITLE AND SUBTITLE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEMS MATERIALS 6. AUTHOR(S) W. N. Sharpe, Jr., K. J. Hemker - Dept of Mechanical Engineering R. L

  10. Materials science experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelles, S. H.; Giessen, B. C.; Glicksman, M. E.; Margrave, J. L.; Markovitz, H.; Nowick, A. S.; Verhoeven, J. D.; Witt, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The criteria for the selection of the experimental areas and individual experiments were that the experiment or area must make a meaningful contribution to the field of material science and that the space environment was either an absolute requirement for the successful execution of the experiment or that the experiment can be more economically or more conveniently performed in space. A number of experimental areas and individual experiments were recommended for further consideration as space experiments. Areas not considered to be fruitful and others needing additional analysis in order to determine their suitability for conduct in space are also listed. Recommendations were made concerning the manner in which these materials science experiments are carried out and the related studies that should be pursued.

  11. Tactual perception of liquid material properties.

    PubMed

    Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, studies into the tactual perception of two liquid material properties, viscosity and wetness, are reviewed. These properties are very relevant in the context of interaction with liquids, both real, such as cosmetics or food products, and simulated, as in virtual reality or teleoperation. Both properties have been the subject of psychophysical characterisation in terms of magnitude estimation experiments and discrimination experiments, which are discussed. For viscosity, both oral and manual perception is discussed, as well as the perception of the viscosity of a mechanical system. For wetness, the relevant cues are identified and factors affecting perception are discussed. Finally, some conclusions are drawn pertaining to both properties.

  12. Dental materials with antibiofilm properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhejun; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Oral bacteria have evolved to form biofilms on hard tooth surfaces and dental materials. The antibiofilm effect of materials used for the restoration of oral function affects oral health. In this review we describe the features involved in the formation of oral biofilms on different surfaces in the oral cavity and the antibiofilm properties of dental materials. An electronic search of scientific papers from 1987 to 2013 was performed with PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google search engines using the following search terms: antibiofilm, dental material, dental hard tissue, endodontic material, implant material, oral biofilm, and restorative material. Selected inclusion criteria resulted in 179 citations from the scientific, peer-reviewed literature. Oral biofilms form not only on dental hard tissue, but also on a wide range of dental materials used in cariology, endodontics, restorative dentistry and periodontology, resulting in destruction of dental hard tissue and even infection. Therefore, there has been a continuous effort to develop the antibiofilm properties of dental materials used for different purposes. Specific antimicrobial design in the composition and application of new materials (e.g. bioceramic sealer, resin composite, implant coating) demonstrates an improvement of the antibiofilm properties of these materials compared to earlier generations. A significant number of dental materials have been shown to affect biofilm growth by inhibiting the adhesion of bacteria, limiting their growth or killing microbes in the biofilms formed in vitro. Incorporation of an appropriate amount of antibacterial agent could provide dental materials with antibiofilm activity without significantly influencing their mechanical properties. However, more randomized and double-blind clinical studies of sufficient length with these materials are needed to confirm long term success following their use in the dental clinic. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by

  13. Microgravity Materials and Biotechnology Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasse, Marcus

    1998-01-01

    Presentation will deal with an overview of the Materials Science and Biotechnology/Crystal Growth flight experiments and their requirements for a successful execution. It will also deal with the hardware necessary to perform these experiments as well as the hardware requirements. This information will serve as a basis for the Abstract: workshop participants to review the poss7ibilifies for a low cost unmanned carrier and the simple automation to carry-out experiments in a microgravity environment with little intervention from the ground. The discussion will include what we have now and what will be needed to automate totally the hardware and experiment protocol at relatively low cost.

  14. Microgravity Materials and Biotechnology Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasse, Marcus

    1998-01-01

    Presentation will deal with an overview of the Materials Science and Biotechnology/Crystal Growth flight experiments and their requirements for a successful execution. It will also deal with the hardware necessary to perform these experiments as well as the hardware requirements. This information will serve as a basis for the Abstract: workshop participants to review the poss7ibilifies for a low cost unmanned carrier and the simple automation to carry-out experiments in a microgravity environment with little intervention from the ground. The discussion will include what we have now and what will be needed to automate totally the hardware and experiment protocol at relatively low cost.

  15. Mechanical properties of nanophase materials

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W.; Fougere, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    It has become possible in recent years to synthesize new materials under controlled conditions with constituent structures on a nanometer size scale (below 100 nm). These novel nanophase materials have grain-size dependent mechanical properties significantly different than those of their coarser-grained counterparts. For example, nanophase metals are much stronger and apparently less ductile than conventional metals, while nanophase ceramics are more ductile and more easily formed than conventional ceramics. The observed mechanical property changes are related to grain size limitations and/or the large percentage of atoms in grain boundary environments; they can also be affected by such features as flaw populations, strains and impurity levels that can result from differing synthesis and processing methods. An overview of what is presently known about the mechanical properties of nanophase materials, including both metals and ceramics, is presented. Some possible atomic mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior in these materials are considered in light of their unique structures.

  16. Teenage experiments contaminate suburban property

    SciTech Connect

    Kassel, D.; Sass, W.; Lall, P.C.; Jensen, L.; Mitchell, J.

    1996-06-01

    In August 1994, 18-year-old Brian Cooper (not his real name) was detained by police in Clinton Township Michigan. When the police searched his car, they discovered a locked tool box and other containers that Brian said contained radioactive material resulting from experiments he had conducted with the radioactive material from, primarily, consumer products. From the ages 14 to 18, Brian spent his spare time at his Union Lake, Michigan, home attempting to concentrate, burn, chemically alter, and experiment with the thorium from hundreds of lantern mantles, radium from various luminescent sources and clock dials, smoke detector sources, and radioactive materials from natural ores. In the process, he had contaminated a wooden shed in his backyard and his bedroom, and injured and exposed himself. In 1995, EPA; their emergency response contractor, Ecology and Environment, Inc.; and the Michigan Department of Public Health performed an emergency assessment and removal at the property. The response and removal were conducted cost-effectively and generated approximately 10 cubic yards of radioactive waste.

  17. Experiments showing dynamics of materials interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1997-02-01

    The discipline of materials science and engineering often involves understanding and controlling properties of interfaces. The authors address the challenge of educating students about properties of interfaces, particularly dynamic properties and effects of unstable interfaces. A series of simple, inexpensive, hands-on activities about fluid interfaces provides students with a testbed to develop intuition about interface dynamics. The experiments highlight the essential role of initial interfacial perturbations in determining the dynamic response of the interface. The experiments produce dramatic, unexpected effects when initial perturbations are controlled and inhibited. These activities help students to develop insight about unstable interfaces that can be applied to analogous problems in materials science and engineering. The lessons examine ``Rayleigh-Taylor instability,`` an interfacial instability that occurs when a higher-density fluid is above a lower-density fluid.

  18. Telerobotic electronic materials processing experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, Stanford

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Commercial Programs (OCP), working in conjunction with NASA engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center, is supporting research efforts in robot technology and microelectronics materials processing that will provide many spinoffs for science and industry. The Telerobotic Materials Processing Experiment (TRMPX) is a Shuttle-launched materials processing test payload using a Get Away Special can. The objectives of the project are to define, develop, and demonstrate an automated materials processing capability under realistic flight conditions. TRMPX will provide the capability to test the production processes that are dependent on microgravity. The processes proposed for testing include the annealing of amorphous silicon to increase grain size for more efficient solar cells, thin film deposition to demonstrate the potential of fabricating solar cells in orbit, and the annealing of radiation damaged solar cells.

  19. Properties of aircraft tire materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Richard N.; Clark, Samuel K.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is presented of measured elastomeric composite response suitable for linear structural and thermoelastic analysis in aircraft tires. Both real and loss properties are presented for a variety of operating conditions including the effects of temperature and frequency. Suitable micro-mechanics models are used for predictions of these properties for other material combinations and the applicability of laminate theory is discussed relative to measured values.

  20. Material Science Experiments on Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity materials experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. There were six experiments, all of which investigated some aspect of diffusivity in liquid melts. The Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD) experiment investigated the diffusivity of molten Indium samples at 185 C using a radioactive tracer, In-114m. By monitoring two different gamma ray energies (190 keV and 24 keV) emitted by the samples it was possible to measure independently the diffusion rates in the bulk and at the surface of the samples. The Queens University Experiment in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD) was the furnace facility used to process 213 samples for the five other experiments. These experiments investigated the diffusion, ripening, crystal growth, and glass formation in metal, semiconductor, and glass samples. This facility had the capability to process samples in an isothermal or gradient configuration for varying periods of time at temperatures up to 900 C. Both the LMD and the QUELD furnaces were mounted on the Microgravity Isolation Mount (MIM) which provided isolation from g-jitter. All the microgravity experiments were supported by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS); a three head three axes acceleration monitoring system which measured and recorded the acceleration environment.

  1. Material Science Experiments on Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity materials experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. There were six experiments, all of which investigated some aspect of diffusivity in liquid melts. The Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD) experiment investigated the diffusivity of molten Indium samples at 185 C using a radioactive tracer, In-114m. By monitoring two different gamma ray energies (190 keV and 24 keV) emitted by the samples it was possible to measure independently the diffusion rates in the bulk and at the surface of the samples. The Queens University Experiment in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD) was the furnace facility used to process 213 samples for the five other experiments. These experiments investigated the diffusion, ripening, crystal growth, and glass formation in metal, semiconductor, and glass samples. This facility had the capability to process samples in an isothermal or gradient configuration for varying periods of time at temperatures up to 900 C. Both the LMD and the QUELD furnaces were mounted on the Microgravity Isolation Mount (MIM) which provided isolation from g-jitter. All the microgravity experiments were supported by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS); a three head three axes acceleration monitoring system which measured and recorded the acceleration environment.

  2. Ground based materials science experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  3. Ground based materials science experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  4. Mechanical properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, H. Richard; Cornwell, L. R.

    1993-01-01

    A composite material incorporates high strength, high modulus fibers in a matrix (polymer, metal, or ceramic). The fibers may be oriented in a manner to give varying in-plane properties (longitudinal, transverse-stress, strain, and modulus of elasticity). The lay-up of the composite laminates is such that a center line of symmetry and no bending moment exist through the thickness. The laminates are tabbed, with either aluminum or fiberglass, and are ready for tensile testing. The determination of the tensile properties of resin matrix composites, reinforced by continuous fibers, is outlined in ASTM standard D 3039, Tensile Properties of Oriented Fiber Composites. The tabbed flat tensile coupons are placed into the grips of a tensile machine and load-deformation curves plotted. The load-deformation data are translated into stress-strain curves for determination of mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity).

  5. Satellite material contaminant optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. E.; Bertrand, W. T.; Seiber, B. L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, P. M.; Holt, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. Presented here are infrared (4000 to 700 cm(-1)) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K geranium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contents determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing and properties for other materials will be available in the future.

  6. Space Weathering Experiments on Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhart, D. P.; Cooper, R.; Cowardin, H.; Maxwell, J.; Plis, E.; Ferguson, D.; Barton, D.; Schiefer, S.; Hoffmann, R.

    2017-01-01

    A project to investigate space environment effects on specific materials with interest to remote sensing was initiated in 2016. The goal of the project is to better characterize changes in the optical properties of polymers found in multi-layered spacecraft insulation (MLI) induced by electron bombardment. Previous analysis shows that chemical bonds break and potentially reform when exposed to high energy electrons like those seen in orbit. These chemical changes have been shown to alter a material's optical reflectance, among other material properties. This paper presents the initial experimental results of MLI materials exposed to various fluences of high energy electrons, designed to simulate a portion of the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) space environment. It is shown that the spectral reflectance of some of the tested materials changes as a function of electron dose. These results provide an experimental benchmark for analysis of aging effects on satellite systems which can be used to improve remote sensing and space situational awareness. They also provide preliminary analysis on those materials that are most likely to comprise the high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) population of space debris in the geosynchronous orbit environment. Finally, the results presented in this paper serve as a proof of concept for simulated environmental aging of spacecraft polymers that should lead to more experiments using a larger subset of spacecraft materials.

  7. [Mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Bai, Yu-xing; Zhang, Kun-ya

    2010-09-14

    To investigate the mechanical properties of various brands of thermoplastic materials under different test conditions so as to analyze their influencing factors so as to provide a reference for improving the effect of invisible orthodontics. Three brands of thermoplastic materials, DR, Biolon and Erkodent, were selected. They were tested by Instron testing machine to measure their maximal stress and modulus under different processing modes, including pre-thermoforming, post-thermoforming and dipped in artificial saliva for two weeks after thermoforming. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Analyzed the mechanical properties change-trend under each test condition. The modulus (MPa) and maximum stress (MPa) of control group were significantly higher than those of thermoforming group (DR: 9.63±0.68 vs 7.85±0.61, 267±8 vs 199±6; Erkodent: 8.28±0.28 vs 7.59±0.45, 226±6 vs 199±6; Biolon: 8.85±0.41 vs 7.07±0.22, 237±6 vs 169±7, all P<0.05). The modulus (MPa) and maximum stress (MPa) of thermoforming group were significantly lower than those of saliva immersion group (DR: 7.85±0.61 vs 9.14±0.41, 199±6 vs 243±7; Erkodent: 7.59 ± 0.45 vs 8.38±0.29, 199±6 vs 212±7; Biolon: 7.07±0.22 vs 7.90±0.31, 169±7 vs 197±5, all P<0.05). The different brands of thermoplastic materials have different mechanical properties. The different processing modes influence the mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials. The mechanical properties decrease after thermoforming and increase after saliva immersion.

  8. Space Weathering Experiments on Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, R.; Cowardin, H.; Engelhar, D.; Plis, Elena; Hoffman, R.

    2017-01-01

    A project to investigate space environment effects on specific materials with interest to remote sensing was initiated in 2016. The goal of the project is to better characterize changes in the optical properties of polymers and Mylar, specifically those found in multi-layered spacecraft insulation, due to electron bombardment. Previous analysis shows that chemical bonds break and potentially reform when exposed to high energy electrons. Among other properties these chemical changes altered the optical reflectance as documented in laboratory analysis. This paper presents results of the initial experiment results focused on the exposure of materials to various fluences of high energy electrons, used to simulate a portion of the geosynchronous space environment. The paper illustrates how the spectral reflectance changes as a function of time on orbit with respect to GEO environmental factors and investigates the survivability of the material after multiple electron doses. These results provide a baseline for analysis of aging effects on satellite systems used for remote sensing. They also provide preliminary analysis on what materials are most likely to encompass the high area-to-mass population of space debris in the geosynchronous environment. Lastly, the paper provides the results of the initial experimentation as a proof of concept for space aging on polymers and Mylar for conducting more experiments with a larger subset of spacecraft materials.

  9. Thermoacoustic properties of fibrous materials.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Carl; Raspet, Richard

    2010-06-01

    The thermoacoustic properties of fibrous materials are studied using a computational fluid simulation as a test of proposed analytical models for propagation in porous materials with an ambient temperature gradient. The acoustic properties of porous materials have been understood in terms of microstructural models that approximate the material as an array of pores with empirical shape factors used to fit the pore theory to the material. An extension of these theories of acoustics to the thermoacoustic case with an ambient temperature gradient has been proposed by Roh et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 1413-1422 (2007)] and a model based on Wilson's relaxation approximation for porous acoustics [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 1136-1145 (1993)] is proposed herein, but the predictions of these analytical models have not been tested successfully against measurements. Accurately characterizing the effects of the applied temperature gradient in a wide bandwidth laboratory setup have proven difficult; as a result, the authors conducted a numerical simulation of propagation within a fibrous geometry in order to test the predictions of the analytical models. The results for several fibrous samples show that the models yield a reliable prediction of thermoacoustic performance from the shape factors and relaxation times.

  10. Modeling Non-Linear Material Properties in Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-28

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-16013 MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS Michael F. Macri Andrew G...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS ...systems are increasingly incorporating composite materials into their design. Many of these systems subject the composites to environmental conditions

  11. Sensitivities of medial meniscal motion and deformation to material properties of articular cartilage, meniscus and meniscal attachments using design of experiments methods.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiang; Funkenbusch, Paul D; Snibbe, Jason; Maloney, Mike; Lerner, Amy L

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated the role of the material properties assumed for articular cartilage, meniscus and meniscal attachments on the fit of a finite element model (FEM) to experimental data for meniscal motion and deformation due to an anterior tibial loading of 45 N in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee. Taguchi style L18 orthogonal arrays were used to identify the most significant factors for further examination. A central composite design was then employed to develop a mathematical model for predicting the fit of the FEM to the experimental data as a function of the material properties and to identify the material property selections that optimize the fit. The cartilage was modeled as isotropic elastic material, the meniscus was modeled as transversely isotropic elastic material, and meniscal horn and the peripheral attachments were modeled as noncompressive and nonlinear in tension spring elements. The ability of the FEM to reproduce the experimentally measured meniscal motion and deformation was most strongly dependent on the initial strain of the meniscal horn attachments (epsilon(1H)), the linear modulus of the meniscal peripheral attachments (E(P)) and the ratio of meniscal moduli in the circumferential and transverse directions (E(theta)E(R)). Our study also successfully identified values for these critical material properties (epsilon(1H) = -5%, E(P) = 5.6 MPa, E(theta)E(R) = 20) to minimize the error in the FEM analysis of experimental results. This study illustrates the most important material properties for future experimental studies, and suggests that modeling work of meniscus, while retaining transverse isotropy, should also focus on the potential influence of nonlinear properties and inhomogeneity.

  12. On Structure and Properties of Amorphous Materials

    PubMed Central

    Stachurski, Zbigniew H.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical, optical, magnetic and electronic properties of amorphous materials hold great promise towards current and emergent technologies. We distinguish at least four categories of amorphous (glassy) materials: (i) metallic; (ii) thin films; (iii) organic and inorganic thermoplastics; and (iv) amorphous permanent networks. Some fundamental questions about the atomic arrangements remain unresolved. This paper focuses on the models of atomic arrangements in amorphous materials. The earliest ideas of Bernal on the structure of liquids were followed by experiments and computer models for the packing of spheres. Modern approach is to carry out computer simulations with prediction that can be tested by experiments. A geometrical concept of an ideal amorphous solid is presented as a novel contribution to the understanding of atomic arrangements in amorphous solids. PMID:28824158

  13. Thermoelectric properties of correlated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, Jan; Haule, Kristjan; Miyake, Takashi; Georges, Antoine; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The discovery of large Seebeck coefficients in transition metal compounds such as FeSi, FeSb2, or the iron pnictides, has stirred renewed interest in the potential merits of electronic correlation effects for thermoelectric properties. The notorious sensitivity in this class of materials to small changes in composition (doping, chemical pressure) and external stimuli (temperature, pressure), makes a reliable and, possibly, predictive description cumbersome, while at the same time providing an arena of possibilities in the search for high performance thermoelectrics. Based on state-of-the-art electronic structure methods (density functional theory with the dynamical mean field theory) we here compute the thermoelectric response for several of the above mentioned exemplary materials from first principles. With the ultimate goal to understand the origin of a large thermoelectricity in these systems, we discuss various many-body renormalizations, and identify correlation controlled ingredients that are pivotal for thermopower enhancements.

  14. NBS (National Bureau of Standards): Materials measurements. [space processing experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Work directed toward the measurement of materials properties important to the design and interpretation of space processing experiments and determinations of how the space environment may offer a unique opportunity for performing improved measurements and producing materials with improved properties is reported. Surface tensions and their variations with temperature and impurities; convection during undirectional solidification; and measurement of the high temperature thermophysical properties of tungsten group liquids and solids are discussed and results are summarized.

  15. Thermal Characterization of Functionally Graded Materials: Design of Optimum Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a study of optimal experiment design applied to the measure of thermal properties in functionally graded materials. As a first step, a material with linearly-varying thermal properties is analyzed, and several different tran- sient experimental designs are discussed. An optimality criterion, based on sen- sitivity coefficients, is used to identify the best experimental design. Simulated experimental results are analyzed to verify that the identified best experiment design has the smallest errors in the estimated parameters. This procedure is general and can be applied to design of experiments for a variety of materials.

  16. Experiments in materials science from household items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, F. Xavier

    1993-01-01

    Everyday household items are used to demonstrate some unique properties of materials. A coat hanger, rubber band, balloon, and corn starch have typical properties which we often take for granted but can be truly amazing.

  17. Experiments in materials science from household items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, F. Xavier

    1993-01-01

    Everyday household items are used to demonstrate some unique properties of materials. A coat hanger, rubber band, balloon, and corn starch have typical properties which we often take for granted but can be truly amazing.

  18. Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) materials analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Miller, Edgar R.; Zwiener, James M.; Mell, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Materials on the Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) underwent changes in their properties during the 5.8 years of exposure to the combined space environment. The analysis of these materials is continuing and current results are discussed. Some materials were significantly degraded such as silver Teflon, S13GLO, and Z302; while others such as Z93 and YB71 were stable. Time dependent flight data is provided, along with preflight and postflight measurements. Results are compared with other experiments, demonstrating the atomic oxygen (AO) ram effect. Atomic oxygen texturing of silver Teflon varies with incident angle. Even indirect exposure to atomic oxygen appears to be involved with surface texturing on the interior of the TCSE. Localized contamination occurred at discrete locations both inside and on exterior surfaces. Most of the visible deposits were the result of the classical photo-enhanced contamination deposition. The synergism of combined space environmental effects is demonstrated by the specific localization of contamination caused by photo-enhanced deposition versus AO removal. Optical degradation measurements of these contaminated areas, utilizing a new portable reflectometer, are presented.

  19. Experiences of Material Hardships among TANF Leavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Tamara; Santhiveeran, Janaki

    2005-01-01

    Experiences of food insufficiencies, inadequate access to health care, and housing-related hardships represent how financial strain negatively impacts the entire family. The purpose of this study was to examine experiences of material hardships by TANF leavers and to understand factors that are associated with experiences of material hardship.…

  20. Experiences of Material Hardships among TANF Leavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Tamara; Santhiveeran, Janaki

    2005-01-01

    Experiences of food insufficiencies, inadequate access to health care, and housing-related hardships represent how financial strain negatively impacts the entire family. The purpose of this study was to examine experiences of material hardships by TANF leavers and to understand factors that are associated with experiences of material hardship.…

  1. Material Properties Measurements for Selected Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S. J.; Isbell, W. M.; Jones, A. H.; Maiden, C. J.; Perkins, R. D.; Shipman, F. H.

    1968-01-01

    Hugoniot equation of state measurements were made on Coconino sandstone, Vacaville basalt, Kaibab limestone, Mono Crater, pumice and Zelux (a polycarbonate resin) for pressures to 2 Mb. A single data point was obtained for fused quartz at 1.6 Mb. In addition to the hugoniot studies, the uniaxial compressive stress behavior of Vacaville basalt and Zelux was investigated at strain rates from about 10(exp -5)/sec to 10(exp 3)/second. The data presented include the stress - strain relations as a function of strain rate for these two materials.

  2. MEASUREMENT OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF DAMAGED ENERGETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P C; Hust, G; Dehaven, M; Chidester, S; Glascoe, L; Hoffman, M; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-10

    We recently conducted damaged experiments on three explosives (mechanical damage on LX-04 and thermal experiments on HPP and PBXN-9) and characterized the effect of damage on some material properties. The MTS equipment was used to apply compressive cycling to LX-04 pressed parts and the results showed that older LX-04 parts became mechanically weaker than newer parts. After repeated compressive cycling for over 20,000 times, older LX-04 parts failed but newer LX-04 parts survived. Thermal insults were applied to PBXN-9 and HPP at 180 C and 200 C, respectively in unconfined conditions for several hours. The thermally-damaged HPP sample suffered 12.0% weight losses and a volume expansion of 20% was observed. Porosity of the damaged HPP increased to 25% after thermal exposure, which led to higher gas permeability. Burn rates of damaged PBXN-9 were 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of pristine samples but burn rates of damaged HPP were only slightly higher than those of pristine HPP. Small-scale safety tests (impact, friction, and spark) showed no significant sensitization when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature. Gas permeation measurements showed that gas permeability in damaged materials was several orders of magnitude higher than that in pristine materials. In-situ measurements of gas permeability at high temperatures were made on HPP samples and the results showed that the gas permeability increased by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude.

  3. Solar-array-materials passive LDEF experiment (A0171)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Smith, C. F., Jr.; Young, L. E.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Forestieri, A. F.; Gaddy, E. M.; Bass, J. A.; Stella, P. M.

    1984-02-01

    The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the synergistic effects of the space environment on various solar-array materials, including solar cells, cover slips with various antireflectance coatings, adhesive, encapsulants, reflector materials, substrate strength materials, mast and harness materials, structural composites, and thermal control treatments. The experiment is passive and consists of an arrangement of material specimens mounted in a 3-in.-deep peripheral tray. The effects of the space environment on the specimens will be determined by comparison of preflight and postflight measurements of mechanical, electrical, and optical properties.

  4. Pavement-marking materials: New York's experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryden, J. E.; Gurney, G. F.

    1984-04-01

    A wide range of stripping materials is available for pavement-marking programs. The four basic systems; traffic paint, thermoplastic, preformed tape, and field-reacted materials are described, as well as the various materials used in each system, including cost, durability, methods of installation and mantenance, visibility, and handling safety. New York State's pavement marking policies are described. Information on stripping costs, material usage, and results of durability studies is provided, based on New York's experience with most currently available marking materials.

  5. Measurement of material mechanical properties in microforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Wang; Xu, Zhenying; Hui, Huang; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2006-02-01

    As the rapid market need of micro-electro-mechanical systems engineering gives it the wide development and application ranging from mobile phones to medical apparatus, the need of metal micro-parts is increasing gradually. Microforming technology challenges the plastic processing technology. The findings have shown that if the grain size of the specimen remains constant, the flow stress changes with the increasing miniaturization, and also the necking elongation and the uniform elongation etc. It is impossible to get the specimen material properties in conventional tensile test machine, especially in the high precision demand. Therefore, one new measurement method for getting the specimen material-mechanical property with high precision is initiated. With this method, coupled with the high speed of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera and high precision of Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM), the elongation and tensile strain in the gauge length are obtained. The elongation, yield stress and other mechanical properties can be calculated from the relationship between the images and CCD camera movement. This measuring method can be extended into other experiments, such as the alignment of the tool and specimen, micro-drawing process.

  6. Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 150 NIST Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials (Web, free access)   Property Data Summaries are topical collections of property values derived from surveys of published data. Thermal, mechanical, structural, and chemical properties are included in the collections.

  7. MCNP simulations of material exposure experiments (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, Brian A

    2010-12-08

    Simulations of proposed material exposure experiments were performed using MCNP6. The experiments will expose ampules containing different materials of interest with radiation to observe the chemical breakdown of the materials. Simulations were performed to map out dose in materials as a function of distance from the source, dose variation between materials, dose variation due to ampule orientation, and dose variation due to different source energy. This write up is an overview of the simulations and will provide guidance on how to use the data in the spreadsheet.

  8. Materials thermal and thermoradiative properties/characterization technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, D. P.; Ho, C. Y.

    1989-01-01

    Reliable properties data on well characterized materials are necessary for design of experiments and interpretation of experimental results. The activities of CINDAS to provide data bases and predict properties are discussed. An understanding of emissivity behavior is important in order to select appropriate methods for non-contact temperature determination. Related technical issues are identified and recommendations are offered.

  9. Optical properties monitor: Experiment definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Bennett, Jean M.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Chipman, Russell A.; Hadaway, James B.; Pezzaniti, Larry

    1989-01-01

    The stability of materials used in the space environment will continue to be a limiting technology for space missions. The Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment provides a comprehensive space research program to study the effects of the space environment-both natural and induced-on optical, thermal and space power materials. The OPM Experiment was selected for definition under the NASA/OAST In-Space Technology Experiment Program. The results of the OPM Definition Phase are presented. The OPM Experiment will expose selected materials to the space environment and measure the effects with in-space optical measurements. In-space measurements include total hemispherical reflectance total integrated scatter and VUV reflectance/transmittance. The in-space measurements will be augmented with extensive pre- and post-flight sample measurements to determine other optical, mechanical, electrical, chemical or surface effects of space exposure. Environmental monitors will provide the amount and time history of the sample exposure to solar irradiation, atomic oxygen and molecular contamination.

  10. Optical properties monitor: Experiment definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Bennett, Jean M.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Chipman, Russell A.; Hadaway, James B.; Pezzaniti, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The stability of materials used in the space environment will continue to be a limiting technology for space missions. The Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment provides a comprehensive space research program to study the effects of the space environment (both natural and induced) on optical, thermal and space power materials. The OPM Experiment was selected for definition under the NASA/OAST In-Space Technology Experiment Program. The results of the OPM Definition Phase are presented. The OPM experiment will expose selected materials to the space environment and measure the effects with in-space optical measurements. In-space measurements include total hemispherical reflectance total integrated scatter and VUV reflectance/transmittance. The in-space measurements will be augmented with extensive pre- and post-flight sample measurements to determine other optical, mechanical, electrical, chemical or surface effects of space exposure. Environmental monitors will provide the amount and time history of the sample exposure to solar irradiation, atomic oxygen and molecular contamination.

  11. Materials Experience as a Foundation for Materials and Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedgley, Owain; Rognoli, Valentina; Karana, Elvin

    2016-01-01

    An important body of research has developed in recent years, explaining ways in which product materials influence user experiences. A priority now is to ensure that the research findings are adopted within an educational context to deliver contemporary curricula for students studying the subject of materials and design. This paper reports on an…

  12. Materials Experience as a Foundation for Materials and Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedgley, Owain; Rognoli, Valentina; Karana, Elvin

    2016-01-01

    An important body of research has developed in recent years, explaining ways in which product materials influence user experiences. A priority now is to ensure that the research findings are adopted within an educational context to deliver contemporary curricula for students studying the subject of materials and design. This paper reports on an…

  13. National Educators' Workshop. Update 92: Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, James E. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler); Craig, Douglas F. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the workshop. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  14. Dynamic Deformation Properties of Energetic Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    the dynamic mechanical properties and detonation of energetic materials. It also included some preliminary data on the effect of particle size on the...study of the dynamic mechanical properties and detonation of energetic materials. It also included some preliminary data on the effect of particle size...qualitative only. 33 5. DEFLAGRATION-TO- DETONATION (DDT) STUDIES As part of an on-going programme to investigate the properties of ultrafine energetic

  15. Size-Dependent Materials Properties Toward a Universal Equation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Due to the lack of experimental values concerning some material properties at the nanoscale, it is interesting to evaluate this theoretically. Through a “top–down” approach, a universal equation is developed here which is particularly helpful when experiments are difficult to lead on a specific material property. It only requires the knowledge of the surface area to volume ratio of the nanomaterial, its size as well as the statistic (Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein) followed by the particles involved in the considered material property. Comparison between different existing theoretical models and the proposed equation is done. PMID:20596422

  16. MISSE Thermal Control Materials with Comparison to Previous Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria; Pippin, H. Gary; Frey, George

    2008-01-01

    Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), including inorganic coatings, anodized aluminum, and multi-layer insulation materials. These and other material samples were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was limited for some samples. Materials flown on MISSE-1 and MISSE-2 were exposed to the space environment for nearly four years. Materials flown on MISSE-3, MISSE-4, and MISSE-5 were exposed to the space environment for one year. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. Effects of short duration versus long duration exposure on ISS are explored, as well as comparable data from previous flight experiments, such as the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA), Optical Properties Monitor (OPM), and Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF).

  17. Mechanical Properties of Cellular Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Solem, J.C.; Dienes, J.K.

    1999-07-09

    The authors calculated the stress-strain relation for elastomeric foam from an ab initio theory, which shows that the plateau and densification regions should be described by a hyperbola. The theory seems to agree reasonably well with experiment.

  18. Dynamic properties of ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    The present study offers new data and analysis on the transient shock strength and equation-of-state properties of ceramics. Various dynamic data on nine high strength ceramics are provided with wave profile measurements, through velocity interferometry techniques, the principal observable. Compressive failure in the shock wave front, with emphasis on brittle versus ductile mechanisms of deformation, is examined in some detail. Extensive spall strength data are provided and related to the theoretical spall strength, and to energy-based theories of the spall process. Failure waves, as a mechanism of deformation in the transient shock process, are examined. Strength and equation-of-state analysis of shock data on silicon carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, silicon dioxide and aluminum nitride is presented with particular emphasis on phase transition properties for the latter two. Wave profile measurements on selected ceramics are investigated for evidence of rate sensitive elastic precursor decay in the shock front failure process.

  19. Properties of doped semiconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemskov, V. S.

    The papers contained in this volume focus on the physicochemical principles of the doping of semiconductor materials. Topics discussed include impurity atoms and atomic levels, phase diagrams of the semiconductor-dopant system, distribution coefficients, dopant diffusion, and macro- and microsegregation of doping components. Attention is also given to the interaction between dopant atoms and lattice defects and the structure and decomposition of semiconductor-dopant solid solutions. Experimental data are presented for single crystals and epitaxial films of III-V, IV-VI, and II-VI semiconductors.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    to zero charcxal NaCI tetrylt NI i,(’IO, PETN* graphite lMlr picric acid N’N, RDX4 glass borax composition B llaNO, HMX0 CaCO, ltgI oxalic at-id...aromatic secondary explosives tetryl, picric acid (trinitrophenol) or TNT could be ignited between glass anvils. These materials showed comparatively little...tartaric acid Net orga,,,c solds sucrose bhlsting, gunpowder gelit in polystyrene These matf:rials igiot-d Ibt the instert of th- ,’,suro drop. t These

  1. Materials performance experience at spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, W.F.

    1995-10-01

    There is a growing, but not yet substantial, data base for materials performance at spallation neutron sources. Specially designed experiments using medium energy protons (650 MeV) have been conducted at the Proton Irradiation Experiment (PIREX) facility at the Swiss Nuclear Institute accelerator (SIN). Specially designed experiments using 760-800 MeV copper target have been completed at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) at Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). An extensive material testing program was initiated at LASREF in support of the German spallation neutron source (SNQ) project, before it terminated in 1985.

  2. Spacecraft Charging Sensitivity to Material Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating spacecraft charging behavior of a vehicle in the space environment requires knowledge of the material properties relevant to the charging process. Implementing surface and internal charging models requires a user to specify a number of material electrical properties including electrical resistivity parameters (dark and radiation induced), dielectric constant, secondary electron yields, photoemission yields, and breakdown strength in order to correctly evaluate the electric discharge threat posed by the increasing electric fields generated by the accumulating charge density. In addition, bulk material mass density and/or chemical composition must be known in order to analyze radiation shielding properties when evaluating internal charging. We will first describe the physics of spacecraft charging and show how uncertainties in material properties propagate through spacecraft charging algorithms to impact the results obtained from charging models. We then provide examples using spacecraft charging codes to demonstrate their sensitivity to material properties. The goal of this presentation is to emphasize the importance in having good information on relevant material properties in order to best characterize on orbit charging threats.

  3. Advanced processing and properties of superhard materials

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, J.

    1995-06-01

    The author reviews fundamental aspects of Superhard Materials with hardness close to that of diamond. These materials include cubic boron nitride (c-BN), carbon nitride ({beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and diamondlike carbon. Since these materials are metastable at normal temperatures and pressures, novel methods of synthesis and processing of these materials are required. This review focuses on synthesis and processing, detailed materials characterization and properties of c-BN and {beta}C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and diamondlike carbon films.

  4. Important physical properties of peat materials

    Treesearch

    D.H. Boelter

    1968-01-01

    Peat materials from 12 bogs in northern Minnesota, U.S.A., showed significant differences in physical properties. It is pointed out that 1) these properties can be related to the hydrology of organic soils only if the soils represent undisturbed field conditions, and 2) volumetric expressions of water content are necessary to correctly evaluate the amount of water in a...

  5. Dynamic strength properties of permeable fibrous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanchuk, A.A.; Karpinos, D.M.; Kondrat'ev, Yu.V.; Nezhentsev, Yu.I.; Rutkovskii, A.E.; Bikernieks, V.Ya.; Peterson, O.O.; Pekhovich, V.A.

    1986-11-01

    The authors assess the porosity and fracture properties of porous samples of molybdenum, tungsten, and steel-Kh18N9T through a variety of mechanical tests including impact, bend, and notch. They study the interplay and interdependence of these properties in view of looking for materials suited for processes of transpiration cooling and sound and vibration damping.

  6. Skylab materials processing facility experiment developer's report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The development of the Skylab M512 Materials Processing Facility is traced from the design of a portable, self-contained electron beam welding system for terrestrial applications to the highly complex experiment system ultimately developed for three Skylab missions. The M512 experiment facility was designed to support six in-space experiments intended to explore the advantages of manufacturing materials in the near-zero-gravity environment of Earth orbit. Detailed descriptions of the M512 facility and related experiment hardware are provided, with discussions of hardware verification and man-machine interfaces included. An analysis of the operation of the facility and experiments during the three Skylab missions is presented, including discussions of the hardware performance, anomalies, and data returned to earth.

  7. Nonlinear optical properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, Joseph W.; Inguva, Ramarao

    1991-01-01

    The optical properties of a new class of composite nonlinear materials composed of coated grains, such as cadmium sulfide with a silver coating, are examined. These materials exhibit intrinsic optical bistability and resonantly enhanced conjugate reflectivity. The threshold for intrinsic optical bistability is low enough for practical applications in optical communications and optical computing. Some problems associated with the fabrication of these materials are addressed. Based on preliminary results, switching times are expected to be in the subpicosecond range.

  8. Emergent properties of magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratcliff, William Davis, II

    In Tolstoy's War and Peace, history is presented as a tapestry spun from the daily interactions of large numbers of individuals. Even if one understands individuals, it is very difficult to predict history. Similarly, the interactions of large numbers of electrons give rise to properties that one would not initially guess from their microscopic interactions. During the course of my dissertation, I have explored emergent phenomena in a number of contexts. In ZnCr2O4, geometric frustration gives rise to a plethora of equivalent ground states. From these, a lower dimensional set of collinear spins on hexagons are selected to form the building blocks of the lattice. In MgTi2O4, quantum spins dimerize and form a unique chiral ordering pattern on the spinel lattice. Descending into two dimensions, differences in size and charge give rise to an ordering between triangular layers of magnetic and nonmagnetic ions. This triangular lattice allows for the possibility of observing the RVB spin liquid state, or perhaps a valence bond crystal and initial measurements are promising. Also, on the spinel lattice, ionic ordering gives rise to one dimensional chains with their own interesting physics. Finally, in the SrCoxTi1-x O3, system we find that upon reduction, tiny clusters of Co metal precipitate out and chemical inhomogeneity on the microscale may determine much of the physics. This has relevance to a number of recent claims of room temperature ferromagnism in dilute magnetic systems. In all of these systems, complex behavior emerges from well understood microscopic behavior. For me, this is the fascination of strongly correlated electronic systems.

  9. Overview of Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Siamidis, John

    2009-01-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B (MISSE 7B) is the most recent in a series of experiments flown on the exterior of International Space Station for the purpose of determining the durability of materials and components in the space environment. A collaborative effort among the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, industry, and academia, MISSE 7B will be flying a number of NASA experiments designed to gain knowledge in the area of space environmental effects to mitigate risk for exploration missions. Consisting of trays called Passive Experiment Containers, the suitcase sized payload opens on hinges and allows active and passive experiments contained within to be exposed to the ram and wake or zenith and nadir directions in low Earth orbit, in essence, providing a test bed for atomic oxygen exposure, ultraviolet radiation exposure, charged particle radiation exposure, and thermal cycling. New for MISSE 7B is the ability to monitor experiments actively, with data sent back to Earth via International Space Station communications. NASA?s active and passive experiments cover a range of interest for the Agency. Materials relevant to the Constellation Program include: solar array materials, seal materials, and thermal protection system materials. Materials relevant to the Exploration Technology Development Program include: fabrics for spacesuits, materials for lunar dust mitigation, and new thermal control coatings. Sensors and components on MISSE 7B include: atomic oxygen fluence monitors, ultraviolet radiation sensors, and electro-optical components. In addition, fundamental space environmental durability science experiments are being flown to gather atomic oxygen erosion data and thin film polymer mechanical and optical property data relevant to lunar lander insulation and the James Web Space Telescope. This paper will present an overview of the NASA experiments to be flown on MISSE 7B, along with a summary of the

  10. From Microstructures to Predict Properties of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke-Gang

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the precise and fundamental manner in which materials structures (nanostructures or microstructures) and their evolution influences properties and service lifetimes of advanced materials profoundly impacts material design and today materials design plays an increasingly important rôle in many engineering applications. Linking structures to properties and predicting properties of materials is fundamental step for materials design. First, a framework of applications of multiscale modeling to property prediction of advanced materials will be briefly presented. As an example, a methodology will be shown to link micro-scale to the continuum scale, integrating microstructure modeling with the large Thermo-Calc^ database. This paradigm was successfully applied to the case of Fe-12Ni-6Mn maraging steel. Next, methodology for integrating first-principle calculation into simulations of microstructure evolution will be reviewed. Our methods are sufficiently reliable to permit control and fabrication of quantum-dots structures, nanocrystals, and particle-reinforced nanocomposites, as well as assist in the predictive behavior of macro-scale colloids, aerosols, and other soft matter systems.

  11. Early space experiments in materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the flight experiments conducted in conjunction with the United States Materials Processing in Space Program is presented. Also included are a brief description of the conditions prevailing in an orbiting spacecraft and the research implications provided by this unique environment. What was done and what was learned are summarized in order to serve as a background for future experiments. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of the physical sciences but no background in spaceflight experimentation or in the materials science per se.

  12. Thermal protection materials: Thermophysical property data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. D.; Curry, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    This publication presents a thermophysical property survey on materials that could potentially be used for future spacecraft thermal protection systems (TPS). This includes data that was reported in the 1960's as well as more current information reported through the 1980's. An attempt was made to cite the manufacturers as well as the data source in the bibliography. This volume represents an attempt to provide in a single source a complete set of thermophysical data on a large variety of materials used in spacecraft TPS analysis. The property data is divided into two categories: ablative and reusable. The ablative materials have been compiled into twelve categories that are descriptive of the material composition. An attempt was made to define the Arrhenius equation for each material although this data may not be available for some materials. In a similar manner, char data may not be available for some of the ablative materials. The reusable materials have been divided into three basic categories: thermal protection materials (such as insulators), adhesives, and structural materials.

  13. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  14. Optimal Experiment Design for Thermal Characterization of Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to investigate methods to accurately verify that designed , materials meet thermal specifications. The project involved heat transfer calculations and optimization studies, and no laboratory experiments were performed. One part of the research involved study of materials in which conduction heat transfer predominates. Results include techniques to choose among several experimental designs, and protocols for determining the optimum experimental conditions for determination of thermal properties. Metal foam materials were also studied in which both conduction and radiation heat transfer are present. Results of this work include procedures to optimize the design of experiments to accurately measure both conductive and radiative thermal properties. Detailed results in the form of three journal papers have been appended to this report.

  15. Large scale Hugoniot material properties for Danby Marble

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, E.J.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents the results of simulation experiments of nuclear underground testing carried out using the HYDROPLUS methodology for yield verifications of non-standard tests. The objective of this test series was to demonstrate the accuracy of stress and velocity measurements in hard, low porosity rock, to obtain comparisons of large-scale material properties with those obtained from laboratory testing of the same material, and to address the problems posed by a material having a clear precursor wave preceding the main shock wave. The test series consisted of three individual experimental tests. The first established material properties of the Danby marble selected for use in the experiments. The second and third tests looked at stress and velocity gage errors obtained when gages were placed in boreholes and grouted into place.

  16. Improved expanding ring technique for determining dynamic material properties.

    PubMed

    Liang, M Z; Li, X Y; Qin, J G; Lu, F Y

    2013-06-01

    An improved expanding ring experimental technique has been described to determine dynamic material properties under conditions approximating uniform one-dimensional tensile loading. There are mainly explosive expanding ring technique and electromagnetic expanding ring technique currently, for which exist many limitations in practical applications. The work reported herein is an attempt to overcome this difficulty by lateral efficiency loading produced by projectile, made of low-density material, impacting the same material filling. The lateral efficiency loading is a convenient and effective method, which allows materials to be in uniform uniaxial stress conditions at a high stress rate. The procedure is illustrated by experiments performed on 1100-0 aluminum rings.

  17. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Goodman, R. E.; Hurlbut, F. C.; Houston, W. N.; Willis, D. R.; Witherspoon, P. A.; Hovland, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of lunar soils and on developing probes to determine the properties of lunar surface materials is summarized. The areas of investigation include the following: soil simulation, soil property determination using an impact penetrometer, soil stabilization using urethane foam or phenolic resin, effects of rolling boulders down lunar slopes, design of borehole jack and its use in determining failure mechanisms and properties of rocks, and development of a permeability probe for measuring fluid flow through porous lunar surface materials.

  18. Skylab Experiments, Volume 3, Materials Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Basic knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented in this book, one of a series, for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling the teachers to broaden their basis for material selection. This third volume is concerned with the effect of a weightless environment on melting and…

  19. Accelerating materials property predictions using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Wang, Chenchen; Jiang, Xun; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar; Ramprasad, Ramamurthy

    2013-09-30

    The materials discovery process can be significantly expedited and simplified if we can learn effectively from available knowledge and data. In the present contribution, we show that efficient and accurate prediction of a diverse set of properties of material systems is possible by employing machine (or statistical) learning methods trained on quantum mechanical computations in combination with the notions of chemical similarity. Using a family of one-dimensional chain systems, we present a general formalism that allows us to discover decision rules that establish a mapping between easily accessible attributes of a system and its properties. It is shown that fingerprints based on either chemo-structural (compositional and configurational information) or the electronic charge density distribution can be used to make ultra-fast, yet accurate, property predictions. Harnessing such learning paradigms extends recent efforts to systematically explore and mine vast chemical spaces, and can significantly accelerate the discovery of new application-specific materials.

  20. Visual and haptic representations of material properties.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Elisabeth; Wiebel, Christiane B; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2013-01-01

    Research on material perception has received an increasing amount of attention recently. Clearly, both the visual and the haptic sense play important roles in the perception of materials, yet it is still unclear how both senses compare in material perception tasks. Here, we set out to investigate the degree of correspondence between the visual and the haptic representations of different materials. We asked participants to both categorize and rate 84 different materials for several material properties. In the haptic case, participants were blindfolded and asked to assess the materials based on haptic exploration. In the visual condition, participants assessed the stimuli based on their visual impressions only. While categorization performance was less consistent in the haptic condition than in the visual one, ratings correlated highly between the visual and the haptic modality. PCA revealed that all material samples were similarly organized within the perceptual space in both modalities. Moreover, in both senses the first two principal components were dominated by hardness and roughness. These are two material features that are fundamental for the haptic sense. We conclude that although the haptic sense seems to be crucial for material perception, the information it can gather alone might not be quite fine-grained and rich enough for perfect material recognition.

  1. ESTEC wiring test programme materials related properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wires are considered as EEE parts and are covered within the ESA SCC specification series (ESA SCC 3901/XXX). This specification defines the principal properties of the wires including insulation/lay-up and electrical properties. Some additional space related materials requirements are also included, requirements such as outgassing and silver plating thickness. If a project has additional materials requirements over and above those covered by the relevant SCC specification, then additional testing is required. This is especially true for crewed spacecraft. The following topics are discussed in this context: additional requirements for manned spacecraft; flammability; arc tracking; thermal decomposition; microbial surface growth; and ageing.

  2. ESTEC wiring test programme materials related properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wires are considered as EEE parts and are covered within the ESA SCC specification series (ESA SCC 3901/XXX). This specification defines the principal properties of the wires including insulation/lay-up and electrical properties. Some additional space related materials requirements are also included, requirements such as outgassing and silver plating thickness. If a project has additional materials requirements over and above those covered by the relevant SCC specification, then additional testing is required. This is especially true for crewed spacecraft. The following topics are discussed in this context: additional requirements for manned spacecraft; flammability; arc tracking; thermal decomposition; microbial surface growth; and ageing.

  3. Upgrades to the TPSX Material Properties Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, T. H.; Milos, F. S.; Partridge, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The TPSX Material Properties Database is a web-based tool that serves as a database for properties of advanced thermal protection materials. TPSX provides an easy user interface for retrieving material property information in a variety of forms, both graphical and text. The primary purpose and advantage of TPSX is to maintain a high quality source of often used thermal protection material properties in a convenient, easily accessible form, for distribution to government and aerospace industry communities. Last year a major upgrade to the TPSX web site was completed. This year, through the efforts of researchers at several NASA centers, the Office of the Chief Engineer awarded funds to update and expand the databases in TPSX. The FY01 effort focuses on updating correcting the Ames and Johnson thermal protection materials databases. In this session we will summarize the improvements made to the web site last year, report on the status of the on-going database updates, describe the planned upgrades for FY02 and FY03, and provide a demonstration of TPSX.

  4. Upgrades to the TPSX Material Properties Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, T. H.; Milos, F. S.; Partridge, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The TPSX Material Properties Database is a web-based tool that serves as a database for properties of advanced thermal protection materials. TPSX provides an easy user interface for retrieving material property information in a variety of forms, both graphical and text. The primary purpose and advantage of TPSX is to maintain a high quality source of often used thermal protection material properties in a convenient, easily accessible form, for distribution to government and aerospace industry communities. Last year a major upgrade to the TPSX web site was completed. This year, through the efforts of researchers at several NASA centers, the Office of the Chief Engineer awarded funds to update and expand the databases in TPSX. The FY01 effort focuses on updating correcting the Ames and Johnson thermal protection materials databases. In this session we will summarize the improvements made to the web site last year, report on the status of the on-going database updates, describe the planned upgrades for FY02 and FY03, and provide a demonstration of TPSX.

  5. Mechanical properties of low dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Deepika

    properties directly on a single strand of fiber, the technique was automated to allow hysteresis, creep and fatigue studies. Zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconducting nanostructures are well known for their piezoelectric properties and are being integrated into several nanoelectro-mechanical (NEMS) devices. In spite of numerous studies on the mechanical response of ZnO nanostructures, there is not a consensus in its measured bending modulus (E). In this dissertation, by employing an all-electrical Harmonic Detection of Resonance (HDR) technique on ZnO nanowhisker (NW) resonators, the underlying origin for electrically-induced mechanical oscillations in a ZnO NW was elucidated. Based on visual detection and electrical measurement of mechanical resonances under a scanning electron microscope (SEM), it was shown that the use of an electron beam as a resonance detection tool alters the intrinsic electrical character of the ZnO NW, and makes it difficult to identify the source of the charge necessary for the electrostatic actuation. A systematic study of the amplitude of electrically actuated as-grown and gold-coated ZnO NWs in the presence (absence) of an electron beam using an SEM (dark-field optical microscope) suggests that the oscillations seen in our ZnO NWs are due to intrinsic static charges. In experiments involving mechanical resonances of micro and nanostructured resonators, HDR is a tool for detecting transverse resonances and E of the cantilever material. To add to this HDR capability, a novel method of measuring the G using HDR is presented. We used a helically coiled carbon nanowire (HCNW) in singly-clamped cantilever configuration, and analyzed the complex (transverse and longitudinal) resonance behavior of the nonlinear geometry. Accordingly, a synergistic protocol was developed which (i) integrated analytical, numerical (i.e., finite element using COMSOL RTM) and experimental (HDR) methods to obtain an empirically validated closed form expression for the G and resonance

  6. Cardiac Tissue Structure, Properties, and Performance: A Materials Science Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Golob, Mark; Moss, Richard L.; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2014-01-01

    From an engineering perspective, many forms of heart disease can be thought of as a reduction in biomaterial performance, in which the biomaterial is the tissue comprising the ventricular wall. In materials science, the structure and properties of a material are recognized to be interconnected with performance. In addition, for most measurements of structure, properties, and performance, some processing is required. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding cardiac tissue structure, properties, and performance as well as the processing steps taken to acquire those measurements. Understanding the impact of these factors and their interactions may enhance our understanding of heart function and heart failure. We also review design considerations for cardiac tissue property and performance measurements because, to date, most data on cardiac tissue has been obtained under non-physiological loading conditions. Novel measurement systems that account for these design considerations may improve future experiments and lead to greater insight into cardiac tissue structure, properties, and ultimately performance. PMID:25081385

  7. Calibrating Nonlinear Soil Material Properties for Seismic Analysis Using Soil Material Properties Intended for Linear Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, Robert Edward; Coleman, Justin Leigh

    2015-08-01

    Seismic analysis of nuclear structures is routinely performed using guidance provided in “Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures and Commentary (ASCE 4, 1998).” This document, which is currently under revision, provides detailed guidance on linear seismic soil-structure-interaction (SSI) analysis of nuclear structures. To accommodate the linear analysis, soil material properties are typically developed as shear modulus and damping ratio versus cyclic shear strain amplitude. A new Appendix in ASCE 4-2014 (draft) is being added to provide guidance for nonlinear time domain SSI analysis. To accommodate the nonlinear analysis, a more appropriate form of the soil material properties includes shear stress and energy absorbed per cycle versus shear strain. Ideally, nonlinear soil model material properties would be established with soil testing appropriate for the nonlinear constitutive model being used. However, much of the soil testing done for SSI analysis is performed for use with linear analysis techniques. Consequently, a method is described in this paper that uses soil test data intended for linear analysis to develop nonlinear soil material properties. To produce nonlinear material properties that are equivalent to the linear material properties, the linear and nonlinear model hysteresis loops are considered. For equivalent material properties, the shear stress at peak shear strain and energy absorbed per cycle should match when comparing the linear and nonlinear model hysteresis loops. Consequently, nonlinear material properties are selected based on these criteria.

  8. Stress transfer through fibrous materials in wicking experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Andrukh, Taras; Kornev, Konstantin

    2009-11-01

    Due to the recent progress in preparation of fibers and nanofibers with different properties, the idea of smart textiles attracts much attention. In many situations the probes and sensors are designed for bio fluid detection. The liquid penetration in fibrous materials causes their deformations including stretching, twisting, wrinkling, buckling etc. The most of researches on wicking properties of textiles are focused on determination of media permeability and ignore the specific features of fibrous materials. On the other hand the theoretical works on quantitative analysis of the deformation effects in porous materials filled with liquids are mostly focused on deformation of fully saturated samples. The fundamental understanding of the stress transfer through the fiber network is crucial for sensors development, but to the best of our knowledge, the stress analysis in the fibrous materials absorbing liquids has never been discussed in the literature. This paper sets a physical basis for analysis of absorption processes in nanotubular and nanofibrous materials. We study absorption of droplets by yarns and webs made of fibers, develop a theory which explains the stress distribution in fibrous materials and checked this theory on wicking experiments. The reported theory and experiments propose a new area of research on absorption-induced deformations of fibrous materials.

  9. Intellectual property analysis of holographic materials business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingand, Nadya; Hunt, David

    2006-02-01

    The paper presents an overview of intellectual property in the field of holographic photosensitive materials and highlights the possibilities offered by patent searching and analysis. Thousands of patent documents relevant to holographic materials have been uncovered by the study. The search was performed in the following databases: U.S. Patent Office, European Patent Office, and Japanese Patent Office for the time frame of 1971 through November 2005. The patent analysis has unveiled trends in patent temporal distribution, leading IP portfolios, companies competition within the holographic materials market and other interesting insights.

  10. Characterization of the physical properties for solid granular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Jonathan R.; Shadle, Lawrence J.; Guenther, Chris; Benyahia, Sofiane; Mei, Joseph S.; Banta, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the behavior of a system is strongly governed by the components within that system. For multiphase systems incorporating solid powder-like particles, there are many different physical properties which need to be known to some level of accuracy for proper design, modeling, or data analysis. In the past, the material properties were determined initially as a secondary part of the study or design. In an attempt to provide results with the least level of uncertainty, a procedure was developed and implemented to provide consistent analysis of several different types of materials. The properties that were characterized included particle sizing and size distributions, shape analysis, density (particle, skeletal and bulk), minimum fluidization velocities, void fractions, particle porosity, and assignment within the Geldart Classification. In the methods used for this experiment, a novel form of the Ergun equation was used to determine the bulk void fractions and particle density. Materials of known properties were initially characterized to validate the accuracy and methodology, prior to testing materials of unknown properties. The procedures used yielded valid and accurate results, with a high level of repeatability. A database of these materials has been developed to assist in model validation efforts and future designs. It is also anticipated that further development of these procedures wil be expanded increasing the properties included in the database.

  11. Systems and methods for predicting materials properties

    DOEpatents

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Fischer, Chris; Tibbetts, Kevin; Morgan, Dane; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2007-11-06

    Systems and methods for predicting features of materials of interest. Reference data are analyzed to deduce relationships between the input data sets and output data sets. Reference data includes measured values and/or computed values. The deduced relationships can be specified as equations, correspondences, and/or algorithmic processes that produce appropriate output data when suitable input data is used. In some instances, the output data set is a subset of the input data set, and computational results may be refined by optionally iterating the computational procedure. To deduce features of a new material of interest, a computed or measured input property of the material is provided to an equation, correspondence, or algorithmic procedure previously deduced, and an output is obtained. In some instances, the output is iteratively refined. In some instances, new features deduced for the material of interest are added to a database of input and output data for known materials.

  12. Influence of optical material properties on the perception of liquids.

    PubMed

    van Assen, Jan Jaap R; Fleming, Roland W

    2016-12-01

    In everyday life we encounter a wide range of liquids (e.g., water, custard, toothpaste) with distinctive optical appearances and viscosities. Optical properties (e.g., color, translucency) are physically independent of viscosity, but, based on experience with real liquids, we may associate specific appearances (e.g., water, caramel) with certain viscosities. Conversely, the visual system may discount optical properties, enabling "viscosity constancy" based primarily on the liquid's shape and motion. We investigated whether optical characteristics affect the perception of viscosity and other properties of liquids. We simulated pouring liquids with viscosities ranging from water to molten glass and rendered them with nine different optical characteristics. In Experiment 1, observers (a) adjusted a match stimulus until it had the same perceived viscosity as a test stimulus with different optical properties, and (b) rated six physical properties of the test stimuli (runniness, shininess, sliminess, stickiness, warmth, wetness). We tested moving and static stimuli. In Experiment 2, observers had to associate names with every liquid in the stimulus set. We find that observers' viscosity matches correlated strongly with the true viscosities and that optical properties had almost no effect. However, some ratings of liquid properties did show substantial interactions between viscosity and optical properties. Observers associate liquid names primarily with optical cues, although some materials are associated with a specific viscosity or combination of viscosity and optics. These results suggest viscosity is inferred primarily from shape and motion cues but that optical characteristics influence recognition of specific liquids and inference of other physical properties.

  13. Electromagnetic properties of material coated surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, L.; Berrie, J.; Burkholder, R.; Dominek, A.; Walton, E.; Wang, N.

    1989-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of material coated conducting surfaces were investigated. The coating geometries consist of uniform layers over a planar surface, irregularly shaped formations near edges and randomly positioned, electrically small, irregularly shaped formations over a surface. Techniques to measure the scattered field and constitutive parameters from these geometries were studied. The significance of the scattered field from these geometries warrants further study.

  14. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  15. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  16. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  17. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  18. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  19. Antibacterial properties of temporary filling materials.

    PubMed

    Slutzky, Hagay; Slutzky-Goldberg, I; Weiss, E I; Matalon, S

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of temporary fillings. The direct contact test (DCT) was used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of Revoltek LC, Tempit, Systemp inlay, and IRM. These were tested in contact with Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis. The materials were examined immediately after setting, 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after aging in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey multiple comparison. Systemp inlay, Tempit, and IRM exhibited antibacterial properties when in contact with S. mutans for at least 7 days, Tempit and IRM sustained this ability for at least 14 days. When in contact with E. faecalis Tempit and IRM were antibacterial immediately after setting, IRM sustained this ability for at least 1 day. Our study suggests that the difference in temporary filling materials may influence which microorganism will be able to invade the root canal system.

  20. Properties of five toughened matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Dow, Marvin B.

    1992-01-01

    The use of toughened matrix composite materials offers an attractive solution to the problem of poor damage tolerance associated with advanced composite materials. In this study, the unidirectional laminate strengths and moduli, notched (open-hole) and unnotched tension and compression properties of quasi-isotropic laminates, and compression-after-impact strengths of five carbon fiber/toughened matrix composites, IM7/E7T1-2, IM7/X1845, G40-800X/5255-3, IM7/5255-3, and IM7/5260 have been evaluated. The compression-after-impact (CAI) strengths were determined primarily by impacting quasi-isotropic laminates with the NASA Langley air gun. A few CAI tests were also made with a drop-weight impactor. For a given impact energy, compression after impact strengths were determined to be dependent on impactor velocity. Properties and strengths for the five materials tested are compared with NASA data on other toughened matrix materials (IM7/8551-7, IM6/1808I, IM7/F655, and T800/F3900). This investigation found that all five materials were stronger and more impact damage tolerant than more brittle carbon/epoxy composite materials currently used in aircraft structures.

  1. Entombment Using Cementitious Materials: Design Considerations and International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger Ray

    2002-08-01

    Cementitious materials have physical and chemical properties that are well suited for the requirements of radioactive waste management. Namely, the materials have low permeability and durability that is consistent with the time frame required for short-lived radionuclides to decay. Furthermore, cementitious materials can provide a long-term chemical environment that substantially reduces the mobility of some long-lived radionuclides of concern for decommissioning (e.g., C-14, Ni-63, Ni-59). Because of these properties, cementitious materials are common in low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities throughout the world and are an attractive option for entombment of nuclear facilities. This paper describes design considerations for cementitious barriers in the context of performance over time frames of a few hundreds of years (directed toward short-lived radionuclides) and time frames of thousands of years (directed towards longer-lived radionuclides). The emphasis is on providing an overview of concepts for entombment that take advantage of the properties of cementitious materials and experience from the design of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A few examples of the previous use of cementitious materials for entombment of decommissioned nuclear facilities and proposals for the use in future decommissioning of nuclear reactors in a few countries are also included to provide global perspective.

  2. Entombment Using Cementitious Materials: Design Considerations and International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.R.

    2002-05-15

    Cementitious materials have physical and chemical properties that are well suited for the requirements of radioactive waste management. Namely, the materials have low permeability and durability that is consistent with the time frame required for short-lived radionuclides to decay. Furthermore, cementitious materials can provide a long-term chemical environment that substantially reduces the mobility of some long-lived radionuclides of concern for decommissioning (e.g., C-14, Ni-63, Ni-59). Because of these properties, cementitious materials are common in low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities throughout the world and are an attractive option for entombment of nuclear facilities. This paper describes design considerations for cementitious barriers in the context of performance over time frames of a few hundreds of years (directed toward short-lived radionuclides) and time frames of thousands of years (directed towards longer-lived radionuclides). The emphasis is on providing a n overview of concepts for entombment that take advantage of the properties of cementitious materials and experience from the design of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A few examples of the previous use of cementitious materials for entombment of decommissioned nuclear facilities and proposals for the use in future decommissioning of nuclear reactors in a few countries are also included to provide global perspective.

  3. Investigation of Structure-Property Relationships in Systematic Series of Novel Polymers. [low frequency thermomechanical spectrometry of polymeric materials - computerized torsional braid experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillham, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The results are discussed of the on-line interface of the Torsional Braid Analysis experiment to an Hierarchical Computer System for data acquisition, data reduction and control of experimental variables. Some experimental results are demonstrated and the data reduction procedures are outlined. Several modes of presentation of the final computer-reduced data are discussed in an attempt to elucidate possible interrelations between the thermal variation of the rigidity and loss parameters.

  4. High-toughness graphite/epoxy composite material experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felbeck, David K.

    1993-01-01

    This experiment was designed to measure the effect of near-earth space exposure on three mechanical properties of specially toughened 5208/T300 graphite/epoxy composite materials. The properties measured are elastic modulus, strength, and fracture toughness. Six toughness specimens and nine tensile specimens were mounted on an external frame during the 5.8-year orbit of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Three identical sets of specimens were manufactured at the outset: the flight set, a zero-time non-flight set, and a total-time non-flight set.

  5. Measurement of textile materials thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, M.; Duvaut, T.; Chirtoc, M.; Bachmann, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The determination of thermal properties of textile materials is difficult and subject to errors. Here we used two experimental methods. A PhotoPyroElectric method (Front PPE configuration with a modulated heat flow imposed on the surface of the sensor) and a commercial device (Alambeta) based the hot plate method. Two theorical approaches for the latter device were used. We tested the two methods on different textile materials (cotton, modal, wool and spacer). We observe good agreement between thermal conductivities measured with the two methods.

  6. First principles simulation of materials properties

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, W.A.; Stocks, G.M.; Jordan, R.G.; Liu, Y.; Qui, L.; Johnson, D.D.; Pinski, F.J.; Staunton, J.B.; Ginatempo, B.

    1994-08-01

    We have developed a hybrid, parallel computer code for calculating the electronic structure of both ordered and substitutionally disordered materials. By using PVM3.3, we can integrate into our local computer environment multiple parallel and vector supercomputers as well as high performance workstations. Without this approach, calculations of materials properties of large systems would be otherwise untenable due to a lack of computer resources. For example, we have determined the short-range order intensity and its electronic origin for the Ag-Mg alloy system, including an estimate of the order-disorder (spinodal) temperature.

  7. Temperature dependent phonon properties of thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, Olle; Broido, David; Fultz, Brent

    2015-03-01

    We present recent developments using the temperature dependent effective potential technique (TDEP) to model thermoelectric materials. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to generate an effective Hamiltonian that reproduce neutron scattering spectra, thermal conductivity, phonon self energies, and heat capacities. Results are presented for (among others) SnSe, Bi2Te3, and Cu2Se proving the necessity of careful modelling of finite temperature properties for strongly anharmonic materials. Supported by the Swedish Research Council (VR) Project Number 637-2013-7296.

  8. Thermal expansion properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. R.; Kural, M. H.; Mackey, G. B.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal expansion data for several composite materials, including generic epoxy resins, various graphite, boron, and glass fibers, and unidirectional and woven fabric composites in an epoxy matrix, were compiled. A discussion of the design, material, environmental, and fabrication properties affecting thermal expansion behavior is presented. Test methods and their accuracy are discussed. Analytical approaches to predict laminate coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) based on lamination theory and micromechanics are also included. A discussion is included of methods of tuning a laminate to obtain a near-zero CTE for space applications.

  9. Melting curve of materials: theory versus experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfè, D.; Vocadlo, L.; Price, G. D.; Gillan, M. J.

    2004-04-01

    A number of melting curves of various materials have recently been measured experimentally and calculated theoretically, but the agreement between different groups is not always good. We discuss here some of the problems which may arise in both experiments and theory. We also report the melting curves of Fe and Al calculated recently using quantum mechanics techniques, based on density functional theory with generalized gradient approximations. For Al our results are in very good agreement with both low pressure diamond-anvil-cell experiments (Boehler and Ross 1997 Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 153 223, Hänström and Lazor 2000 J. Alloys Compounds 305 209) and high pressure shock wave experiments (Shaner et al 1984 High Pressure in Science and Technology ed Homan et al (Amsterdam: North-Holland) p 137). For Fe our results agree with the shock wave experiments of Brown and McQueen (1986 J. Geophys. Res. 91 7485) and Nguyen and Holmes (2000 AIP Shock Compression of Condensed Matter 505 81) and the recent diamond-anvil-cell experiments of Shen et al (1998 Geophys. Res. Lett. 25 373). Our results are at variance with the recent calculations of Laio et al (2000 Science 287 1027) and, to a lesser extent, with the calculations of Belonoshko et al (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3638). The reasons for these disagreements are discussed.

  10. Analysis of materials from MSFC LDEF experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1991-01-01

    In preparation for the arrival of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) samples, a material testing and handling approach was developed for the evaluation of the materials. A configured lab was made ready for the de-integration of the LDEF experiments. The lab was prepared to clean room specifications and arranged with the appropriate clean benches, tables, lab benches, clean room tools, particulate counter, and calibrated and characterized analytical instrumentation. Clean room procedures were followed. Clean room attire and shoe cleaning equipment were selected and installed for those entering. Upon arrival of the shipping crates they were taken to the lab, logged in, and opened for examination. The sample trays were then opened for inspection and test measurements. The control sample measurements were made prior to placement into handling and transport containers for the flight sample measurements and analysis. Both LDEF flight samples and LDEF type materials were analyzed and tested for future flight candidate material evaluation. Both existing and newly purchased equipment was used for the testing and evaluation. Existing Space Simulation Systems had to be upgraded to incorporate revised test objectives and approaches. Fixtures such as special configured sample holders, water, power and LN2 feed-throughs, temperature measurement and control, front surface mirrors for reflectance and deposition, and UV grade windows had to be designed, fabricated, and installed into systems to achieve the revised requirements. New equipment purchased for LDEF analysis was incorporated into and/or used with existing components and systems. A partial list of this equipment includes a portable monochromator, enhanced UV System, portable helium leak detector for porosity and leak measurements, new turbo pumping system, vacuum coaster assembly, cryopumps, and analytical and data acquisition equipment. A list of materials tested, equipment designed, fabricated and installed

  11. Optical properties of photochromic and thermochromic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yeon-Gon

    The optical properties of some thin film materials can be altered by an external stimulus. Photochromic and thermochromic materials, including inorganic and organic substances, have optical properties that can be changed in a reversible manner by irradiation and temperature respectively. These materials can be used in applications such as radiation or thermal sensors, information storage devices and smart window applications in buildings and cars. In this work, major effort was concentrated on passive thermal control coatings based on photochromic and thermochromic materials. The inorganic photochromic materials were based on tungsten and molybdenum oxide films and the organic photochromic materials included spiropyrans and spirooxazines. In addition, photochromic composite organic-inorganic films and thermochromic vanadium oxide films were prepared. The samples were synthesized using sputtering, sol-gel process, and thermal oxidation. The optical properties were investigated for the first time by ultraviolet/visible/infrared (UV/VIS/IR) spectroscopic ellipsometry, attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared ellipsometry, spectrophotometry, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For amorphous oxide films, the oxygen deficiency was important in determining the photochromic properties of the films. In the mid-infrared region, no photochromism was observed for the films. The optical properties of organic-inorganic composite films changed in the VIS/NIR wavelength region markedly in a reversible process, with UV irradiation. The composite films containing tungsten heteropolyoxometalate (HPOM) showed faster coloration and bleaching than pure tungsten oxide films. The composite films with molybdenum HPOM showed faster coloration and much slower bleaching than tungsten HPOM. The spiropyran and spirooxazine doped polymeric films were investigated for the first time using infrared and ATR ellipsometry. The infrared optical functions obtained by ATR measurements were a little smaller

  12. Mechanical Properties of Infrared Transmitting Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    William L. Gaiser, Eglin Air Force Base Dr. George Hayes, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake Dr. Dale Holter , U.S. Army Missile Command Prof. Ray...Laboratory; and numerical work has been performed at Systems, Science and Software ; California Research Technology; shock Hydrodynamics; General Atomic...Hageman, 6. A. Gurtman, and M. Baker, "Influence of ABM Material Properties on Erosion Resulting from Particle Impact," Systems, Science, and Software

  13. Element Material Exposure Experiment by EFFU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshihiro; Ito, Masaaki; Ishii, Masahiro

    1992-01-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is planning to perform an 'Element Material Exposure Experiment' using the Exposed Facility Flyer Unit (EFFU). This paper presents an initial design of experiments proposed for this project by our company. The EFFU is installed on the Space Flyer Unit (SFU) as a partial model of the Space Station JEM exposed facility. The SFU is scheduled to be launched by H-2 rocket in January or February of 1994, then various tests will be performed for three months, on orbit of 500 km altitude, and it will be retrieved by the U.S. Space Shuttle and returned to the ground. The mission sequence is shown.

  14. Magnetic properties of Martian surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargraves, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The hypothesis that the magnetic properties of the Martian surface material are due to the production of a magnetic phase in the clay mineral nontronite by transient shock heating is examined. In the course of the investigation a magnetic material is produced with rather unusual properties. Heating from 900 C to 1000 C, of natural samples of nontronite leads first to the production of what appears to be Si doped maghemite gamma (-Fe2O3). Although apparently metastable, the growth of gamma -Fe2O3 at these temprtures is unexpected, and its relative persistence of several hours at 1000 C is most surprising. Continued annealing of this material for longer periods promote the crystallization of alpha Fe2O3 and cristobalite (high temperature polymorph of SiO2). All available data correlate this new magnetic material with the cristobalite hence our naming it magnetic ferri cristobalite. Formation of this magnetic cristobalite, however, may require topotactic growth from a smectite precursor.

  15. Determining significant material properties: A discovery approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karplus, Alan K.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to further understanding of materials science. The experiment itself can be informative for persons of any age past elementary school, and even for some in elementary school. The preparation of the plastic samples is readily accomplished by persons with resonable dexterity in the cutting of paper designs. The completion of the statistical Design of Experiments, which uses Yates' Method, requires basic math (addition and subtraction). Interpretive work requires plotting of data and making observations. Knowledge of statistical methods would be helpful. The purpose of this experiment is to acquaint students with the seven classes of recyclable plastics, and provide hands-on learning about the response of these plastics to mechanical tensile loading.

  16. Acoustical properties of highly porous fibrous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Highly porous, fibrous bulk sound absorbing materials are studied with a view toward understanding their acoustical properties and performance in a wide variety of applications including liners of flow ducts. The basis and criteria for decoupling of acoustic waves in the pores of the frame and compressional waves in the frame structure are established. The equations of motion are recast in a form that elucidates the coupling mechanisms. The normal incidence surface impedance and absorption coefficient of two types of Kevlar 29 and an open celled foam material are studied. Experimental values and theoretical results are brought into agreement when the structure factor is selected to provide a fit to the experimental data. A parametric procedure for achieving that fit is established. Both a bulk material quality factor and a high frequency impedance level are required to characterize the real and imaginary part of the surface impedance and absorption coefficient. A derivation of the concepts of equivalent density and dynamic resistance is presented.

  17. Material modeling of biofilm mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Laspidou, C S; Spyrou, L A; Aravas, N; Rittmann, B E

    2014-05-01

    A biofilm material model and a procedure for numerical integration are developed in this article. They enable calculation of a composite Young's modulus that varies in the biofilm and evolves with deformation. The biofilm-material model makes it possible to introduce a modeling example, produced by the Unified Multi-Component Cellular Automaton model, into the general-purpose finite-element code ABAQUS. Compressive, tensile, and shear loads are imposed, and the way the biofilm mechanical properties evolve is assessed. Results show that the local values of Young's modulus increase under compressive loading, since compression results in the voids "closing," thus making the material stiffer. For the opposite reason, biofilm stiffness decreases when tensile loads are imposed. Furthermore, the biofilm is more compliant in shear than in compression or tension due to the how the elastic shear modulus relates to Young's modulus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Material properties study of the MJ-2 grout

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.B.

    1988-08-01

    Material properties experimental tests using the high pressure testing equipment at LLNL have been performed on the grout used in the Mini Jade-2 event (MJ-2) as part of a high pressure equation of state study sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency in support of the Misty Echo experiment at the Nevada Test Site. The material properties tests performed at LLNL and included in this report are (1) pressure-volume compression studies to 3.6 GPa, (2) pressure-volume compression and unloading studies to /approximately/1 GPa, and (3) material strength versus confining pressure to /approximately/1 GPa. These data are compared with dynamic results and with other static data using this grout. 4 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Optical techniques for determining dynamic material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.L.; Stahl, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Miniature plates are laser-launched with a 10-Joule Nd:YAG for one-dimensional (1-D) impacts on to target materials much like gas gun experiments and explosive plane wave plate launch. By making the experiments small, flyer plates (3 mm diameter x 50 micron thick) and targets (10 mm diameter x 200 micron thick), 1-D impact experiments can be performed in a standard laser-optical laboratory with minimum confinement and collateral damage. The laser-launched plates do not require the traditional sabot on gas guns nor the explosives needed for explosive planewave lenses, and as a result are much more amenable to a wide variety of materials and applications. Because of the small size very high pressure gradients can be generated with relative ease. The high pressure gradients result in very high strains and strain rates that are not easily generated by other experimental methods. The small size and short shock duration (1 - 20 ns) are ideal for dynamically measuring bond strengths of micron-thick coatings. Experimental techniques, equipment, and dynamic material results are reported.

  20. Stratospheric experiments on curing of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudinov, Viacheslav; Kondyurin, Alexey; Svistkov, Alexander L.; Efremov, Denis; Demin, Anton; Terpugov, Viktor; Rusakov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration requires a large light-weight structure for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories and other constructions. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the technology of polymerization of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment on Erath orbit. In orbit, the material is exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, plasma of free space due to cosmic rays, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The development of appropriate polymer matrix composites requires an understanding of the chemical processes of polymer matrix curing under the specific free space conditions to be encountered. The goal of the stratospheric flight experiment is an investigation of the effect of the stratospheric conditions on the uncured polymer matrix of the composite material. The unique combination of low residual pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short-wave UV component, cosmic rays and other aspects associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. We have done the stratospheric flight experiments with uncured composites (prepreg). A balloon with payload equipped with heater, temperature/pressure/irradiation sensors, microprocessor, carrying the samples of uncured prepreg has been launched to stratosphere of 25-30 km altitude. After the flight, the samples have been tested with FTIR, gel-fraction, tensile test and DMA. The effect of cosmic radiation has been observed. The composite was successfully cured during the stratospheric flight. The study was supported by RFBR grants 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011.

  1. Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

    2005-06-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

  2. Material Properties Analysis of Structural Members in Pumpkin Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    The efficient design, service-life qualification, and reliability predictions for lightweight aerospace structures require careful mechanical properties analysis of candidate structural materials. The demand for high-quality laboratory data is particularly acute when the candidate material or the structural design has little history. The pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloon presents both challenges. Its design utilizes load members (tendons) extending from apex to base around the gas envelope to achieve a lightweight structure. The candidate tendon material is highly weight-efficient braided HM cord. Previous mechanical properties studies of Zylon have focused on fiber and yarn, and industrial use of the material in tensile applications is limited. For high-performance polymers, a carefully plamed and executed properties analysis scheme is required to ensure the data are relevant to the desired application. Because no directly-applicable testing standard was available, a protocol was developed based on guidelines fiom professional and industry organizations. Due to the liquid-crystalline nature of the polymer, the cord is very stiff, creeps very little, and does not yield. Therefore, the key material property for this application is the breaking strength. The pretension load and gauge length were found to have negligible effect on the measured breaking strength over the ranges investigated. Strain rate was found to have no effect on breaking strength, within the range of rates suggested by the standards organizations. However, at the lower rate more similar to ULDB operations, the strength was reduced. The breaking strength increased when the experiment temperature was decreased from ambient to 183K which is the lowest temperature ULDB is expected to experience. The measured strength under all test conditions was well below that resulting from direct scale-up of fiber strength based on the manufacturers data. This expected result is due to the effects of the

  3. The role of material properties in adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    When two solid surfaces are brought into contact strong adhesive bond forces can develop between the materials. The magnitude of the forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between solids is addressed from a theoretical consideration of the electronic nature of the surfaces and experimentally relating bond forces to the nature of the interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties correlated with adhesion include, atomic or molecular orientation, reconstruction and segregation as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where dissimilar solids are in contact the contribution of each is considered as is the role of their interactive chemistry on bond strength. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structure, crystallographic orientation and state. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include metals, alloys, ceramics, polymers and diamond. They are reviewed both in single and polycrystalline form. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  4. Summaries of early materials processing in space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Mason, D.

    1979-01-01

    Objectives, methods, and results of low-gravity materials processing experiments are summarized, and a bibliography of published results for each experiment is provided. Included are drop tower experiments, the Apollo demonstration experiments, the skylab experiments and demonstration experiments, and the Apollo-Soyuz experiments and demonstrations. The findings of these experiments in the fields of crystal growth, metallurgy, and fluid behavior are summarized.

  5. Synthesis of new materials with properties ameliorated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baira, F.; Benfarhi, S.; Zidani, S.

    2012-09-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer in nature. It is used mainly for the production of paper bet also as a reinforcement in the polymer matrixes[1]. The modification of this polysaccharide presents a great interest, for it is the main constituent of agricultural wastes. It is well known that the microcrystalline cellulose gives, after chemical modification, new biodegradable materials[2], which may be used, for instance, for packaging. The esterification of cellulose necessitates an acid pretreatment which makes hydroxyl groups more accessible by breaking hydrogen bonds. X-rays diffraction analysis showed a feeble diminution of the treated samples cristallinity[3]. Cellulose, activated in this way, is esterified in a classic way in DMF, in the presence of triethylamine, LiCl and acid chloride at 60C° for 24 hours[4]. The obtained ester is precipitated in MeOH. The residue, dissolved in CHCl3, gives after evaporation in the open air, a plastic film surface. The water drop test has shown the hydrophobe properties of the plastic film surface. Our work is the study of the preparation of composite materials from the basis of their derivatives. Well as the study of the photopolymerisation kinetic, and the chemical degradation. The obtained films were analyzed by IR-TF, and the volumetrie[5,6]. As a conclusion, we have prepared composite materials with improved properties with reference to the matrix alone.

  6. Mechanical properties of nanostructure of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Baohua; Gao, Huajian

    2004-09-01

    Natural biological materials such as bone, teeth and nacre are nanocomposites of protein and mineral with superior strength. It is quite a marvel that nature produces hard and tough materials out of protein as soft as human skin and mineral as brittle as classroom chalk. What are the secrets of nature? Can we learn from this to produce bio-inspired materials in the laboratory? These questions have motivated us to investigate the mechanics of protein-mineral nanocomposite structure. Large aspect ratios and a staggered alignment of mineral platelets are found to be the key factors contributing to the large stiffness of biomaterials. A tension-shear chain (TSC) model of biological nanostructure reveals that the strength of biomaterials hinges upon optimizing the tensile strength of the mineral crystals. As the size of the mineral crystals is reduced to nanoscale, they become insensitive to flaws with strength approaching the theoretical strength of atomic bonds. The optimized tensile strength of mineral crystals thus allows a large amount of fracture energy to be dissipated in protein via shear deformation and consequently enhances the fracture toughness of biocomposites. We derive viscoelastic properties of the protein-mineral nanostructure and show that the toughness of biocomposite can be further enhanced by the viscoelastic properties of protein.

  7. Pressure-shear experiments on granular materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott

    2011-10-01

    Pressure-shear experiments were performed on granular tungsten carbide and sand using a newly-refurbished slotted barrel gun. The sample is a thin layer of the granular material sandwiched between driver and anvil plates that remain elastic. Because of the obliquity, impact generates both a longitudinal wave, which compresses the sample, and a shear wave that probes the strength of the sample. Laser velocity interferometry is employed to measure the velocity history of the free surface of the anvil. Since the driver and anvil remain elastic, analysis of the results is, in principal, straightforward. Experiments were performed at pressures up to nearly 2 GPa using titanium plates and at higher pressure using zirconium plates. Those done with the titanium plates produced values of shear stress of 0.1-0.2 GPa, with the value increasing with pressure. On the other hand, those experiments conducted with zirconia anvils display results that may be related to slipping at an interface and shear stresses mostly at 0.1 GPa or less. Recovered samples display much greater particle fracture than is observed in planar loading, suggesting that shearing is a very effective mechanism for comminution of the grains.

  8. Specimens Prepared for Materials International Space Station Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Snyder, Aaron; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2001-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is a materials flight experiment sponsored by the Materials and Manufacturing Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and the NASA Space Environmental Effects Program at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. MISSE is a cooperative effort among the Air Force, several NASA field centers, and industry. The experiment package will be placed on the exterior of the International Space Station in the summer of 2001. Approximately half of the specimens will be exposed to the space environment for 1 year, and the other half will be exposed for 3 years. The Electro-Physics Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center has prepared and delivered over 150 specimens to be included in MISSE. Specimens include: 1) Double-coated polyimide Kapton to compare mass loss from in-space atomic oxygen undercutting erosion to ground-laboratory atomic oxygen undercutting erosion for predicting in-space durability; 2) Silicones to study changes in surface hardness and optical properties after combined atomic oxygen--ultraviolet radiation exposure for predicting in-space durability; 3) Forty-one different polymers to accurately measure their atomic oxygen erosion yields; 4) Scattering chambers to study atomic oxygen scattering characteristics that are relevant to the degradation found in spacecraft with exterior openings; 5) Thin polymer film disks and tensile specimens to study the effects of radiation on their optical properties and mechanical properties; 6) Lightweight intercalated graphite epoxy composites to study electromagnetic interference shielding performance; and 7) Polymer-based materials utilizing new atomic oxygen protection concepts to study their durability.

  9. Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbein, Meyer

    1939-01-01

    A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

  10. Mechanical properties of dental investment materials.

    PubMed

    Low, D; Swain, M V

    2000-07-01

    Measurement of the elastic modulus (E) of investment materials has been difficult because of their low strength. However, these values are essential for engineering simulation and there are many methods available to assess the elasticity of materials. The present study compared two different methods with one of the methods being non-destructive in nature and can be used for specimens prepared for other tests. Two different types of investment materials were selected, gypsum-and phosphate-bonded. Method 1 is a traditional three-point bending test. Twelve rectangular bars with dimension of (70 x 9 x 3 mm) were prepared and placed on supports 56.8 mm apart. The test was conducted at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min by use of a universal testing machine. The load applied to the test specimen and the corresponding deflection were measured until the specimen fractured. The E value was calculated from a linear part of the stress-strain plot. Method 2 is an ultra micro-indentation system to determine near surface properties of materials with nanometer resolution. The measurement procedure was programmed such that the specimens were indented with an initial contact force of 5 mN then followed by a maximum force of 500 mN. Measurement consisted of 10 indentations conducted with a spherical stainless steel indenter (R = 250 microm) that were equally spaced (500 microm). The E value rose asymptotically with depth of penetration and would approach the three-point bending test value at approximately four time's maximum contact depth for both materials. Both methods are practical ways of measuring the E of investment materials.

  11. Material properties of the plantar aponeurosis.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, H B; Luo, Z P; Growney, E S; Berglund, L J; An, K N

    1994-10-01

    Material properties of the plantar aponeurosis were determined by a two-dimensional video tracking method to simultaneously measure the aponeurosis deformation. Failure loads averaged 1189 +/- 244 N and were higher in men. Average stiffness of the intact fascia was 203.7 +/- 50.5 N/mm at a loading rate of 11.12 N/sec and it did not vary significantly for the loading rates of 11.12 to 1112 N/sec. The high tensile loads required for failure were consistent with clinical and biomechanical studies and indicated the importance of the aponeurosis in foot function and arch stability.

  12. Physical Properties of Thin Film Semiconducting Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouras, N.; Djebbouri, M.; Outemzabet, R.; Sali, S.; Zerrouki, H.; Zouaoui, A.; Kesri, N.

    2005-10-01

    The physics and chemistry of semiconducting materials is a continuous question of debate. We can find a large stock of well-known properties but at the same time, many things are not understood. In recent years, porous silicon (PS-Si), diselenide of copper and indium (CuInSe2 or CIS) and metal oxide semiconductors like tin oxide (SnO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been subjected to extensive studies because of the rising interest their potential applications in fields such as electronic components, solar panels, catalysis, gas sensors, in biocompatible materials, in Li-based batteries, in new generation of MOSFETS. Bulk structure and surface and interface properties play important roles in all of these applications. A deeper understanding of these fundamental properties would impact largely on technological application performances. In our laboratory, thin films of undoped and antimony-doped films of tin oxide have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition. Spray pyrolysis was used for ZnO. CIS was prepared by flash evaporation or close-space vapor transport. Some of the deposition parameters have been varied, such as substrate temperature, time of deposition (or anodization), and molar concentration of bath preparation. For some samples, thermal annealing was carried out under oxygen (or air), under nitrogen gas and under vacuum. Deposition and post-deposition parameters are known to strongly influence film structure and electrical resistivity. We investigated the influence of film thickness and thermal annealing on structural optical and electrical properties of the films. Examination of SnO2 by x-ray diffraction showed that the main films are polycrystalline with rutile structure. The x-ray spectra of ZnO indicated a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Characterizations of CIS films with compositional analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning microscopy, spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence were carried out.

  13. Estimation of material properties of a nonlinearly elastic bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, B. E.; Childs, B.

    1974-01-01

    A method of determining certain characteristic flexural rigidities and elastic properties of nonlinearly elastic materials is presented. An estimation method utilizing perturbation methods and a least squares fitting technique is used to solve the nonlinear differential equation derived from the moment curvature relation, subject to boundary values representing deflections of the bar at discrete points. Deflection data from numerical simulations of a nonlinearly elastic, prismatic bar are used to demonstrate the estimation method. Numerical experiments relating the accuracy of the identification to the number and accuracy of the boundary values are presented. Conclusions based on the numerical experiments are included.

  14. Experiments investigating advanced materials under thermomechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    Many high temperature aircraft and rocket engine components experience large mechanical loads as well as severe thermal gradients and transients. These nonisothermal conditions are often large enough to cause inelastic deformations, which are the ultimate cause for failure in those parts. A way to alleviate this problem is through improved engine designs based on better predictions of thermomechanical material behavior. To address this concern, an experimental effort was recently initiated within the Hot Section Technology (HOST) program at Lewis. As part of this effort, two new test systems were added to the Fatigue and Structures Lab., which allowed thermomechanical tests to be conducted under closely controlled conditions. These systems are now being used for thermomechanical testing for the Space Station Receiver program, and will be used to support development of metal matrix composites.

  15. Characterization of the electromechanical properties of EAP materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrita, Stewart; Bhattachary, Kaushik; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2001-01-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) are an emerging class of actuation materials. Their large electrically induced strains (longitudinal or bending), low density, mechanical flexibility, and ease of processing offer advantages over traditional electroactive materials. However, before the capability of these materials can be exploited, their electrical and mechanical behavior must be properly quantified. Two general types of EAP can be identified. The first type is ionic EAP, which requires relatively low voltages (<10V) to achieve large bending deflections. This class usually needs to be hydrated and electrochemical reactions may occur. The second type is Electronic-EAP and it involves electrostrictive and/or Maxwell stresses. This type of materials requires large electric fields (>100MV/m) to achieve longitudinal deformations at the range from 4 - 360%. Some of the difficulties in characterizing EAP include: nonlinear properties, large compliance (large mismatch with metal electrodes), nonhomogeneity resulting from processing, etc. To support the need for reliable data, the authors are developing characterization techniques to quantify the electroactive responses and material properties of EAP materials. The emphasis of the current study is on addressing electromechanical issues related to the ion-exchange type EAP also known as IPMC. The analysis, experiments and test results are discussed in this paper.

  16. Interdisciplinary research on the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several investigations concerning the properties and processing of brittle ceramic materials as related to design considerations are briefly described. Surface characterization techniques, fractography, high purity materials, creep properties, impact and thermal shock resistance, and reaction bonding are discussed.

  17. National Educators' Workshop: Update 95. Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, James E. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A.; Karnitz, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 95. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  18. National Educators' Workshop: Update 1994. Standard experiments in engineering materials science and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, James E. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler); Fraker, Anna C. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 94. The experiments relate to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provide information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  19. National Educators' Workshop: Update 1993. Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, James E. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 93 held at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, on November 3-5, 1993. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  20. National Educators' Workshop: Update 1988. Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, James E. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 88, held May 10 to 12, 1988 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersberg, Maryland. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  1. National Educators' Workshop: Update 1997. Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials, Science, and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, James E. (Compiler); Freeman, Ginger L. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler); Miller, Alan G. (Compiler); Smith, Brian W. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 97, held at Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Washington, on November 2-5, 1997. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  2. National Educators' Workshop: Update 1991. Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, James E. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler); Stiegler, James O. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 91, held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on November 12-14, 1991. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  3. National Educators' Workshop: Update 1989 Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, James E. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 89, held October 17 to 19, 1989 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, Virginia. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  4. Relevant optical properties for direct restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Pecho, Oscar E; Ghinea, Razvan; do Amaral, Erika A Navarro; Cardona, Juan C; Della Bona, Alvaro; Pérez, María M

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate relevant optical properties of esthetic direct restorative materials focusing on whitened and translucent shades. Enamel (E), body (B), dentin (D), translucent (T) and whitened (Wh) shades for E (WhE) and B (WhB) from a restorative system (Filtek Supreme XTE, 3M ESPE) were evaluated. Samples (1 mm thick) were prepared. Spectral reflectance (R%) and color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, C* and h°) were measured against black and white backgrounds, using a spectroradiometer, in a viewing booth, with CIE D65 illuminant and d/0° geometry. Scattering (S) and absorption (K) coefficients and transmittance (T%) were calculated using Kubelka-Munk's equations. Translucency (TP) and opalescence (OP) parameters and whiteness index (W*) were obtained from differences of CIELAB color coordinates. R%, S, K and T% curves from all shades were compared using VAF (Variance Accounting For) coefficient with Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Color coordinates and optical parameters were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test with Bonferroni correction (α=0.0007). Spectral behavior of R% and S were different for T shades. In addition, T shades showed the lowest R%, S and K values, as well as the highest T%, TP an OP values. In most cases, WhB shades showed different color and optical properties (including TP and W*) than their corresponding B shades. WhE shades showed similar mean W* values and higher mean T% and TP values than E shades. When using whitened or translucent composites, the final color is influenced not only by the intraoral background but also by the color and optical properties of multilayers used in the esthetic restoration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Material Properties of the Posterior Human Sclera☆

    PubMed Central

    Grytz, Rafael; Fazio, Massimo A.; Girard, Michael J.A.; Libertiaux, Vincent; Bruno, Luigi; Gardiner, Stuart; Girkin, Christopher A.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the material properties of posterior and peripapillary sclera from human donors, and to investigate the macro- and micro-scale strains as potential control mechanisms governing mechanical homeostasis. Posterior scleral shells from 9 human donors aged 57–90 years were subjected to IOP elevations from 5 to 45 mmHg and the resulting full-field displacements were recorded using laser speckle interferometry. Eye-specific finite element models were generated based on experimentally measured scleral shell surface geometry and thickness. Inverse numerical analyses were performed to identify material parameters for each eye by matching experimental deformation measurements to model predictions using a microstructure-based constitutive formulation that incorporates the crimp response and anisotropic architecture of scleral collagen fibrils. The material property fitting produced models that fit both the overall and local deformation responses of posterior scleral shells very well. The nonlinear stiffening of the sclera with increasing IOP was well reproduced by the uncrimping of scleral collagen fibrils, and a circumferentially-aligned ring of collagen fibrils around the scleral canal was predicted in all eyes. Macroscopic in-plane strains were significantly higher in peripapillary region then in the mid-periphery. In contrast, the meso- and micro-scale strains at the collagen network and collagen fibril level were not significantly different between regions. The elastic response of the posterior human sclera can be characterized by the anisotropic architecture and crimp response of scleral collagen fibrils. The similar collagen fibril strains in the peripapillary and mid-peripheral regions support the notion that the scleral collagen architecture including the circumpapillary ring of collagen fibrils evolved to establish optimal load bearing conditions at the collagen fibril level. PMID:23684352

  6. Material properties of Caenorhabditis elegans swimming at low Reynolds number.

    PubMed

    Sznitman, J; Purohit, Prashant K; Krajacic, P; Lamitina, T; Arratia, P E

    2010-02-17

    Undulatory locomotion, as seen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, is a common swimming gait of organisms in the low Reynolds number regime, where viscous forces are dominant. Although the nematode's motility is expected to be a strong function of its material properties, measurements remain scarce. Here, the swimming behavior of C. elegans is investigated in experiments and in a simple model. Experiments reveal that nematodes swim in a periodic fashion and generate traveling waves that decay from head to tail. The model is able to capture the experiments' main features and is used to estimate the nematode's Young's modulus E and tissue viscosity eta. For wild-type C. elegans, we find E approximately 3.77 kPa and eta approximately -860 Pa.s; values of eta for live C. elegans are negative because the tissue is generating rather than dissipating energy. Results show that material properties are sensitive to changes in muscle functional properties, and are useful quantitative tools with which to more accurately describe new and existing muscle mutants. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Five experiments in materials science for less than $10.00

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, F. Xavier

    1992-01-01

    Diffusion, twinning, fatigue, acoustic emission, and aging can be studied using readily available materials and the household oven. Each experiment can be expanded to a more extensive investigation of the properties of the material investigated, as well as other materials, and offers an opportunity for the student to learn about the relationship between engineering, science, society, and politics.

  8. Test Methods for Measuring Material Properties of Composite Materials in all Three Material Axes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-24

    Elastic Properties Strength Properties ASTM Ref. In-Plane Tension Ex, Ey, νxy STx, STy D 3039 In-Plane Compression ECx, ECy, νCxy SCx, SCy D 6641 In...as required. The in-plane tension test was conducted using ASTM D 3039 /D 3039M “Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Composite...properties were determined for fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) with respect to all three material orientations using existing ASTM standards when

  9. Auditory perception of geometry-invariant material properties.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhimin; Yeh, Hengchin; Klatzky, Roberta; Lin, Ming C

    2013-04-01

    Accurately modeling the intrinsic material-dependent damping property for interactive sound rendering is a challenging problem. The Rayleigh damping model is commonly regarded as an adequate engineering model for interactive sound synthesis in virtual environment applications, but this assumption has never been rigorously analyzed. In this paper, we conduct a formal evaluation of this model. Our goal is to determine if auditory perception of material under Rayleigh damping assumption is 'geometry-invariant', i.e. if this approximation model is transferable across different shapes and sizes. First, audio recordings of same-material objects in various shapes and sizes are analyzed to determine if they can be approximated by the Rayleigh damping model with a single set of parameters. Next, we design and conduct a series of psychoacoustic experiments, in subjects evaluate if audio clips synthesized using the Rayleigh damping model are from the same material, when we alter the material, shape, and size parameters. Through both quantitative and qualitative evaluation, we show that the acoustic properties of the Rayleigh damping model for a single material is generally preserved across different geometries of objects consisting of homogeneous materials and is therefore a suitable, geometry-invariant sound model. Our study results also show that consistent with prior crossmodal expectations, visual perception of geometry can affect the auditory perception of materials. These findings facilitate the wide adoption of Rayleigh damping for interactive auditory systems and enable reuse of material parameters under this approximation model across different shapes and sizes, without laborious per-object parameter tuning.

  10. Pulsed power accelerator for material physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Stygar, W. A.; Austin, K. N.; Waisman, E. M.; Hickman, R. J.; Davis, J.-P.; Haill, T. A.; Knudson, M. D.; Seagle, C. T.; Brown, J. L.; Goerz, D. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Goldlust, J. A.; Cravey, W. R.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed the design of Thor: a pulsed power accelerator that delivers a precisely shaped current pulse with a peak value as high as 7 MA to a strip-line load. The peak magnetic pressure achieved within a 1-cm-wide load is as high as 100 GPa. Thor is powered by as many as 288 decoupled and transit-time isolated bricks. Each brick consists of a single switch and two capacitors connected electrically in series. The bricks can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of current pulse tailoring. Because the accelerator is impedance matched throughout, capacitor energy is delivered to the strip-line load with an efficiency as high as 50%. We used an iterative finite element method (FEM), circuit, and magnetohydrodynamic simulations to develop an optimized accelerator design. When powered by 96 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 4.1 MA to a load, and achieves peak magnetic pressures as high as 65 GPa. When powered by 288 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 6.9 MA to a load, and achieves magnetic pressures as high as 170 GPa. We have developed an algebraic calculational procedure that uses the single brick basis function to determine the brick-triggering sequence necessary to generate a highly tailored current pulse time history for shockless loading of samples. Thor will drive a wide variety of magnetically driven shockless ramp compression, shockless flyer plate, shock-ramp, equation of state, material strength, phase transition, and other advanced material physics experiments.

  11. Pulsed power accelerator for material physics experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Reisman, D.  B.; Stoltzfus, B.  S.; Stygar, W.  A.; ...

    2015-09-01

    We have developed the design of Thor: a pulsed power accelerator that delivers a precisely shaped current pulse with a peak value as high as 7 MA to a strip-line load. The peak magnetic pressure achieved within a 1-cm-wide load is as high as 100 GPa. Thor is powered by as many as 288 decoupled and transit-time isolated bricks. Each brick consists of a single switch and two capacitors connected electrically in series. The bricks can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of current pulse tailoring. Because the accelerator is impedance matched throughout, capacitor energy is delivered tomore » the strip-line load with an efficiency as high as 50%. We used an iterative finite element method (FEM), circuit, and magnetohydrodynamic simulations to develop an optimized accelerator design. When powered by 96 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 4.1 MA to a load, and achieves peak magnetic pressures as high as 65 GPa. When powered by 288 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 6.9 MA to a load, and achieves magnetic pressures as high as 170 GPa. We have developed an algebraic calculational procedure that uses the single brick basis function to determine the brick-triggering sequence necessary to generate a highly tailored current pulse time history for shockless loading of samples. Thor will drive a wide variety of magnetically driven shockless ramp compression, shockless flyer plate, shock-ramp, equation of state, material strength, phase transition, and other advanced material physics experiments.« less

  12. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C.; Adler, Philip D. F.; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B.; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A.; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J.

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure-property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on ‘dark’ reactions—failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses—collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully predicted

  13. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments.

    PubMed

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C; Adler, Philip D F; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J

    2016-05-05

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure-property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on 'dark' reactions--failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses--collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully predicted conditions

  14. Interdisciplinary research on the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The advancement of material performance and design methodology as related to brittle materials was investigated. The processing and properties of ceramic materials as related to design requirements was also studied.

  15. Thermophysical Properties of Selected Aerospace Materials. Part 2. Thermophysical Properties of Seven Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    Determining Thermal Conductivity of Solids from 20 to 600 K," Cryogenics, 5( 1), 17-20, 1965. 11. Garth, R.C. and Sailer , V.L., "Thermal Conductivity of...34Thermal Property Data Utilized for Asset Materials," McDonnell Aircraft Corp. Rept. A656, 45 pp., 1964. [AD 480 414] 23. Makarounls, O., " Solar

  16. Elastic-Plastic Properties: Simulation and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Thomas; Öchsner, Andreas

    This chapter addresses the elasto-plastic properties of novel metallic hollow sphere structures (MHSS). Numerical finite element analyses and experimental tests are conducted. The influence of the morphology, topology, joining technology and material composition on their mechanical properties is numerically investigated. Uni-axial compressive tests with adhesively bonded MHSS are performed in order to confirm the numerical findings. Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and the initial plastic yield stress are determined. Furthermore, the elastic anisotropy of simple cubic MHSS is investigated.

  17. Spacecraft dielectric material properties and spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Wall, J. A.; Cotts, D. B.; Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of spacecraft charging is reviewed, and criteria for selecting and testing semiinsulating polymers (SIPs) to avoid charging are discussed and illustrated. Chapters are devoted to the required properties of dielectric materials, the charging process, discharge-pulse phenomena, design for minimum pulse size, design to prevent pulses, conduction in polymers, evaluation of SIPs that might prevent spacecraft charging, and the general response of dielectrics to space radiation. SIPs characterized include polyimides, fluorocarbons, thermoplastic polyesters, poly(alkanes), vinyl polymers and acrylates, polymers containing phthalocyanine, polyacene quinones, coordination polymers containing metal ions, conjugated-backbone polymers, and 'metallic' conducting polymers. Tables summarizing the results of SIP radiation tests (such as those performed for the NASA Galileo Project) are included.

  18. Spacecraft dielectric material properties and spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Wall, J. A.; Cotts, D. B.; Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of spacecraft charging is reviewed, and criteria for selecting and testing semiinsulating polymers (SIPs) to avoid charging are discussed and illustrated. Chapters are devoted to the required properties of dielectric materials, the charging process, discharge-pulse phenomena, design for minimum pulse size, design to prevent pulses, conduction in polymers, evaluation of SIPs that might prevent spacecraft charging, and the general response of dielectrics to space radiation. SIPs characterized include polyimides, fluorocarbons, thermoplastic polyesters, poly(alkanes), vinyl polymers and acrylates, polymers containing phthalocyanine, polyacene quinones, coordination polymers containing metal ions, conjugated-backbone polymers, and 'metallic' conducting polymers. Tables summarizing the results of SIP radiation tests (such as those performed for the NASA Galileo Project) are included.

  19. Online directory of databases for material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hampel, V.E.; Bollinger, W.A.; Gaynor, C.A.; Oldani, J.J.

    1984-05-01

    We have created an online directory of databases of material properties on the Technology Information System at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL/TIS). This directory is intended to provide interactive access to scientific and technical databases available to the public that contain information pertaining to nuclear, atomic, molecular, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of substances. The directory is based on work done earlier by Joseph Hilsenrath of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS/OSRD) and Jack H. Westbrook of General Electric Corporation. In addition to the 101 data files previously reported, we have updated the information and identified more than 38 new numeric databases and predictive systems in these fields. We have included, where applicable, entries contained in the directories published by Cuadra Associates, CODATA, and UNESCO. In addition to describing the contents of the databases, we have provided updated information on the availability of the databases and their online access over public telephone and data networks. The online directory is prepared for use by scientists and engineers and should enhance the sharing of S and T resources over communication networks. This directory is expected to become particularly important to the national and international magnetic- and laser-energy fusion projects, nuclear criticality safety, and computer aided engineering programs. Some of the numeric databases are directly accessible by authorized users via the TIS Intelligent Gateway Processor at LLNL (TIS/IGP), with self-guiding procedures for the downloading, merging, post-processing, and graphical/statistical analysis of data.

  20. Fission-reactor experiments for fusion-materials research

    SciTech Connect

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Bloom, E.E.; Woods, J.W.; Vitek, J.M.; Thomas, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    The US Fusion Materials Program makes extensive use of fission reactors to study the effects of simulated fusion environments on materials and to develop improved alloys for fusion reactor service. The fast reactor, EBR-II, and the mixed spectrum reactors, HFIR and ORR, are all used in the fusion program. The HFIR and ORR produce helium from transmutations of nickel in a two-step thermal neutron absorption reaction beginning with /sup 58/Ni, and the fast neutrons in these reactors produce atomic displacements. The simultaneous effects of these phenomena produce damage similar to the very high energy neutrons of a fusion reactor. This paper describes irradiation capsules for mechanical property specimens used in the HFIR and the ORR. A neutron spectral tailoring experiment to achieve the fusion reactor He:dpa ratio will be discussed.

  1. Exposure of Polymer Film Thermal Control Materials on the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce; Miller, Sharon; Messer, Russell; Sechkar, Edward; Tollis, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Seventy-nine samples of polymer film thermal control (PFTC) materials have been provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) for exposure to the low Earth orbit environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). MISSE is a materials flight experiment sponsored by the Air Force Research Lab/Materials Lab and NASA. This paper will describe background, objectives, and configurations for the GRC PFTC samples for MISSE. These samples include polyimides, fluorinated polyimides, and Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) with and without second-surface metallizing layers and/or surface coatings. Also included are polyphenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO) and a polyarylene ether benzimidazole (TOR-LM). On August 16, 2001, astronauts installed passive experiment carriers (PECs) on the exterior of the ISS in which were located twenty-eight of the GRC PFTC samples for 1-year space exposure. MISSE PECs for 3-year exposure, which will contain fifty-one GRC PFTC samples, will be installed on the ISS at a later date. Once returned from the ISS, MISSE GRC PFTC samples will be examined for changes in optical and mechanical properties and atomic oxygen (AO) erosion. Additional sapphire witness samples located on the AO exposed trays will be examined for deposition of contaminants.

  2. Strain weakening and localisation: material properties or boundary effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Malte C.; Leever, Karen; Rosenau, Matthias; Oncken, Onno

    2015-04-01

    Strain weakening is commonly seen as one of the major causes of localisation of deformation into shear zones in brittle media. Several studies, both numerical and physical experiments, investigate its influence. Typically, these studies choose a certain model configuration and test various material properties and their influence on localisation in that particular configuration. This approach, however, does not take into account the fundamental importance of boundary conditions on the processes of localisation, weakening and overall shear zone evolution. To address this issue, we perform physical experiments in granular materials. We create shear fractures within a sample of granular material (sand) using different experimental apparatuses that apply different boundary conditions. Among them are standard machines such as a Ring-Shear Tester and the classical Riedel set up, as well as a newly designed set up. Boundary conditions can be varied from purely kinematic to more dynamically controlled and from laterally confined to unconfined. Nevertheless, the final result of deformation is an approximately straight strike-slip shear zone in all cases. We monitor boundary force (i. e. material strength) and, where experimentally accessible, strain, at high temporal resolution during deformation. With our different set ups we are able to produce very different patterns of deformation and weakening in the same material under the same constant rate of shearing and with the same final result. Observed patterns span from nearly instantaneous formation of one single through-going shear zone to slow, step-wise growth of a complex network of interacting cracks. Weakening in all cases matches well the structural evolution. Variations of weakening for a given material in different set ups are larger than for different materials in a given set up. Our results show that for a given material the style and rate of localisation can change drastically, depending on only slight changes of

  3. Materials Science Experiments on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    The Performance Goal for NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program reads "Use microgravity to establish and improve quantitative and predictive relationships between the structure, processing and properties of materials." The advent of the International Space Station will open up a new era in Materials Science Research including the ability to perform long term and frequent experiments in microgravity. As indicated the objective is to gain a greater understanding of issues of materials science in an environment in which the force of gravity can be effectively switched off. Thus gravity related issues of convection, buoyancy and hydrostatic forces can be reduced and the science behind the structure/processing/properties relationship can more easily be understood. The specific areas of research covered within the program are (1) the study of Nucleation and Metastable States, (2) Prediction and Control of Microstructure (including pattern formation and morphological stability), (3) Phase Separation and Interfacial Stability, (4) Transport Phenomena (including process modeling and thermophysical properties measurement), and (5) Crystal Growth, and Defect Generation and Control. All classes of materials, including metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, polymers, electronic materials (including organic and inorganic single crystals), aerogels and nanostructures, are included in these areas. The principal experimental equipment available to the materials scientist on the International Space Station (ISS) will be the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). Each of these systems will be accommodated in a single ISS rack, which can operate autonomously, will accommodate telescience operations, and will provide real time data to the ground. Eventual plans call for three MSRF racks, the first of which will be shared with the European Space Agency (ESA). Under international agreements, ESA and other partners will provide some of the equipment, while NASA covers launch

  4. Materials Science Experiments on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    The Performance Goal for NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program reads "Use microgravity to establish and improve quantitative and predictive relationships between the structure, processing and properties of materials." The advent of the International Space Station will open up a new era in Materials Science Research including the ability to perform long term and frequent experiments in microgravity. As indicated the objective is to gain a greater understanding of issues of materials science in an environment in which the force of gravity can be effectively switched off. Thus gravity related issues of convection, buoyancy and hydrostatic forces can be reduced and the science behind the structure/processing/properties relationship can more easily be understood. The specific areas of research covered within the program are (1) the study of Nucleation and Metastable States, (2) Prediction and Control of Microstructure (including pattern formation and morphological stability), (3) Phase Separation and Interfacial Stability, (4) Transport Phenomena (including process modeling and thermophysical properties measurement), and (5) Crystal Growth, and Defect Generation and Control. All classes of materials, including metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, polymers, electronic materials (including organic and inorganic single crystals), aerogels and nanostructures, are included in these areas. The principal experimental equipment available to the materials scientist on the International Space Station (ISS) will be the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). Each of these systems will be accommodated in a single ISS rack, which can operate autonomously, will accommodate telescience operations, and will provide real time data to the ground. Eventual plans call for three MSRF racks, the first of which will be shared with the European Space Agency (ESA). Under international agreements, ESA and other partners will provide some of the equipment, while NASA covers launch

  5. SATURATED - UNSATURATED HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF SUBBASE COURSE MATERIAL AND SUBGRADE SOIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Takao; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Nakashima, Shin-Ichiro; Moriishi, Kazushi; Ohnishi, Yuzo

    In order to evaluate the rainwate r storage and infiltration properties of the permeable pavement by unsaturated seepage analysis or gas-liquid two-phase flow analysis, it is important to know the unsaturated hydraulic properties of materials wh ich constitute the pavement. For this reason, we showed the unsaturated hydraulic properties of porous asphalt material s but we have not clarified the relation between the performance of the permeable pavement and the properties of all constituti on materials. In this paper, we try to determine the unsaturated hydraulic properties of subbase course and subgrade materials that greatly affect the rainwater storage and infiltration properties of the permeable pavement. We show from experiments that water retention characteristic and the un saturated hydraulic properties of subbase course and subgrade materials well match the van Genuchten model and the Irmay model.

  6. Science Data Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, D. R.; Zwiener, J. M.; Carruth, Ralph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This science data report describes the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment and the data gathered during its 9-mo exposure on the Mir space station. Three independent optical instruments made up OPM: an integrating sphere spectral reflectometer, vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, and a total integrated scatter instrument. Selected materials were exposed to the low-Earth orbit, and their performance monitored in situ by the OPM instruments. Coinvestigators from four NASA Centers, five International Space Station contractors, one university, two Department of Defense organizations, and the Russian space company, Energia, contributed samples to this experiment. These materials included a number of thermal control coatings, optical materials, polymeric films, nanocomposites, and other state-of-the-art materials. Degradation of some materials, including aluminum conversion coatings and Beta cloth, was greater than expected. The OPM experiment was launched aboard the Space Shuttle on mission STS-81 in January 1997 and transferred to the Mir space station. An extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed in April 1997 to attach the OPM experiment to the outside of the Mir/Shuttle Docking Module for space environment exposure. OPM was retrieved during an EVA in January 1998 and was returned to Earth on board the Space Shuttle on mission STS-89.

  7. Distributional properties of stochastic shortest paths for smuggled nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Cuellar, Leticia; Pan, Feng; Roach, Fred; Saeger, Kevin J

    2011-01-05

    The shortest path problem on a network with fixed weights is a well studied problem with applications to many diverse areas such as transportation and telecommunications. We are particularly interested in the scenario where a nuclear material smuggler tries to succesfully reach herlhis target by identifying the most likely path to the target. The identification of the path relies on reliabilities (weights) associated with each link and node in a multi-modal transportation network. In order to account for the adversary's uncertainty and to perform sensitivity analysis we introduce random reliabilities. We perform some controlled experiments on the grid and present the distributional properties of the resulting stochastic shortest paths.

  8. Material properties of novel polymeric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gene

    This dissertation will study the material properties of two types of novel polymer films (polyelectrolyte multilayer films and photolithographic polymer films). The formation of polylelectrolyte multilayer films onto functionalized aluminum oxide surfaces and functionalized poly(ethylene terephthaltate) (PET) were studied. Functionalization of the aluminum oxide surfaces was achieved via silane coupling. Functionalization of PET surfaces was achieved via hydrolysis and amidation. Surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to monitor the polyelectrolyte multilayer formation. Mechanical properties of the aluminum oxide supported polyelectrolyte multilayer films were tested using a simplified peel test. XPS was used to analyze the surfaces before and after peel. Single lap shear joint specimens were constructed to test the adhesive shear strength of the PET-supported polyelectrolyte multilayer film samples with the aid of a cyanoacrylate adhesive. The adhesive shear strength and its relation with the type of functionalization, number of polyelectrolyte layers, and the effect of polyelectrolyte conformation using added salt were explored. Also, characterization on the single lap joints after adhesive failure was carried out to determine the locus of failure within the multilayers by using XPS and SEM. Two types of photolithographic polymers were formulated and tested. These two polymers (photocrosslinkable polyacrylate (PUA), and a photocrosslinkable polyimide (HRP)) were used to investigate factors that would affect the structural integrity of these particular polymers under environmental variables such as processing (time, UV cure, pressure, and temperature) and ink exposure. Thermomechanical characterization was carried out to see the behavior of these two polymers under these environmental variables. Microscopic techniques were employed to study the morphological behavior of

  9. Materials processing in space: Early experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Herring, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of the space environment were reviewed. Potential applications of space processing are discussed and include metallurgical processing, and processing of semiconductor materials. The behavior of fluid in low gravity is described. The evolution of apparatus for materials processing in space was reviewed.

  10. Bone Material Properties in Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta entrains changes at every level in bone tissue, from the disorganization of the collagen molecules and mineral platelets within and between collagen fibrils to the macroarchitecture of the whole skeleton. Investigations using an array of sophisticated instruments at multiple scale levels have now determined many aspects of the effect of the disease on the material properties of bone tissue. The brittle nature of bone in osteogenesis imperfecta reflects both increased bone mineralization density-the quantity of mineral in relation to the quantity of matrix within a specific bone volume-and altered matrix-matrix and matrix mineral interactions. Contributions to fracture resistance at multiple scale lengths are discussed, comparing normal and brittle bone. Integrating the available information provides both a better understanding of the effect of current approaches to treatment-largely improved architecture and possibly some macroscale toughening-and indicates potential opportunities for alternative strategies that can influence fracture resistance at longer-length scales. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Science Data Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Zwiener, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Long term stability of spacecraft materials when exposed to the space environment continues to be a major area of investigation. The natural and induced environment surrounding a spacecraft can decrease material performance and limit useful lifetimes. The Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment provided the capability to perform the important flight testing of materials and was flown on the Russian Mir Station to study the long term effects of the natural and induced space environment on materials. The core of the OPM in-flight analysis was three independent optical instruments. These instruments included an integrating sphere spectral reflectometer, a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, and a Total Integrated Scatter instrument. The OPM also monitored selected components of the environment including molecular contamination. The OPM was exposed on the exterior of the Mir Docking Module for approximately 8-1/2 months. This report describes the OPM experiment, a brief background of its development, program organization, experiment description, mission overview including space environment definition, performance overview, materials data including flight and ground data, in-depth post flight analysis including ground analysis measurements and a summary discussion of the findings and results.

  12. Synthesis Properties and Electron Spin Resonance Properties of Titanic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jung Min; Lee, Jun; Kim, Tak Hee; Sun, Min Ho; Jang, Young Bae; Cho, Sung June

    2009-04-19

    Titanic materials were synthesized by hydrothermal method of TiO{sub 2} anatase in 10M LiOH, 10M NaOH, and 14M KOH at 130 deg. C for 30 hours. Alkaline media were removed from the synthesized products using 0.1N HCl aqueous solution. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm, and electron spin resonance. Different shapes of synthesized products were observed through the typical electron microscope and indicated that the formation of the different morphologies depends on the treatment conditions of highly alkaline media. Many micropores were observed in the cubic or octahedral type of TiO{sub 2} samples through the typical electron microscope and Langmuir adsorption-desorption isotherm of liquid nitrogen at 77 deg. K. Electron spin resonance studies have also been carried out to verify the existence of paramagnetic sites such as oxygen vacancies on the titania samples. The effect of alkali metal ions on the morphologies and physicochemical properties of nanoscale titania are discussed.

  13. Transport and magnetic properties in topological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tian

    The notion of topology has been the central topic of the condensed matter physics in recent years, ranging from 2D quantum hall (QH) and quantum spin hall (QSH) states, 3D topological insulators (TIs), topological crystalline insulators (TCIs), 3D Dirac/Weyl semimetals, and topological superconductors (TSCs) etc. The key notion of the topological materials is the bulk edge correspondence, i.e., in order to preserve the symmetry of the whole system (bulk+edge), edge states must exist to counter-compensate the broken symmetry of the bulk. Combined with the fact that the bulk is topologically protected, the edge states are robust due to the bulk edge correspondence. This leads to interesting phenomena of chiral edge states in 2D QH, helical edge states in 2D QSH, "parity anomaly'' (time reversal anomaly) in 3D TI, helical edge states in the mirror plane of TCI, chiral anomaly in Dirac/Weyl semimetals, Majorana fermions in the TSCs. Transport and magnetic properties of topological materials are investigated to yield intriguing phenomena. For 3D TI Bi1.1Sb0.9Te 2S, anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is observed, and for TCI Pb1-x SnxSe, Seebeck/Nernst measurements reveal the anomalous sign change of Nernst signals as well as the massive Dirac fermions. Ferroelectricity and pressure measurements show that TCI Pb1-xSnxTe undergoes quantum phase transition (QPT) from trivial insulator through Weyl semimetal to anomalous insulator. Dirac semimetals Cd3As2, Na 3Bi show interesting results such as the ultrahigh mobility 10 7cm2V-1s-1 protected from backscattering at zero magnetic field, as well as anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) for Cd3As2, and the negative longitudinal magnetoresistance (MR) due to chiral anomaly for Na3Bi. In-plane and out-of-plane AHE are observed for semimetal ZrTe5 by in-situ double-axes rotation measurements. For interacting system Eu2Ir2O7, full angle torque magnetometry measurements reveal the existence of orthogonal magnetization breaking the symmetry of

  14. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  15. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  16. Determination of Thermal Properties of Composting Bulking Materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric hea...

  17. Material properties of bovine intervertebral discs across strain rates.

    PubMed

    Newell, Nicolas; Grigoriadis, Grigorios; Christou, Alexandros; Carpanen, Diagarajen; Masouros, Spyros D

    2017-01-01

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is a complex structure responsible for distributing compressive loading to adjacent vertebrae and allowing the vertebral column to bend and twist. To study the mechanical behaviour of individual components of the IVD, it is common for specimens to be dissected away from their surrounding tissues for mechanical testing. However, disrupting the continuity of the IVD to obtain material properties of each component separately may result in erroneous values. In this study, an inverse finite element (FE) modelling optimisation algorithm has been used to obtain material properties of the IVD across strain rates, therefore bypassing the need to harvest individual samples of each component. Uniaxial compression was applied to ten fresh-frozen bovine intervertebral discs at strain rates of 10(-3)-1/s. The experimental data were fed into the inverse FE optimisation algorithm and each experiment was simulated using the subject specific FE model of the respective specimen. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the IVD's response was most dependent upon the Young's modulus (YM) of the fibre bundles and therefore this was chosen to be the parameter to optimise. Based on the obtained YM values for each test corresponding to a different strain rate (ε̇), the following relationship was derived:YM=35.5lnε̇+527.5. These properties can be used in finite element models of the IVD that aim to simulate spinal biomechanics across loading rates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonlinear Dynamic Properties of Layered Composite Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, Igor V.; Topol, Heiko; Weichert, Dieter; Danishevs'kyy, Vladyslav V.

    2010-09-30

    We present an application of the asymptotic homogenization method to study wave propagation in a one-dimensional composite material consisting of a matrix material and coated inclusions. Physical nonlinearity is taken into account by considering the composite's components as a Murnaghan material, structural nonlinearity is caused by the bonding condition between the components.

  19. 46 CFR 164.013-3 - Material properties and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... polyethylene foam shall be all new material complying with the requirements outlined in this specification... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Material properties and workmanship. 164.013-3 Section..., AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab...

  20. Preliminary Material Properties Handbook. Volume 1: English Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    good polishing characteristics. It is more isotropic than other grades of beryllium with 45,000 psi typical yield strength and 4,000 psi typical micro...Materials program provides the aerospace industry with typical properties of emerging materials and other materials of interest that have not met all the...described by industry, government, or company specifications. 15. SUBJECT TERMS emerging materials; typical properties; international metals 16

  1. Temporal properties of material categorization and material rating: visual vs non-visual material features.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takehiro; Matsushima, Toshiki; Koida, Kowa; Tani, Yusuke; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    Humans can visually recognize material categories of objects, such as glass, stone, and plastic, easily. However, little is known about the kinds of surface quality features that contribute to such material class recognition. In this paper, we examine the relationship between perceptual surface features and material category discrimination performance for pictures of materials, focusing on temporal aspects, including reaction time and effects of stimulus duration. The stimuli were pictures of objects with an identical shape but made of different materials that could be categorized into seven classes (glass, plastic, metal, stone, wood, leather, and fabric). In a pre-experiment, observers rated the pictures on nine surface features, including visual (e.g., glossiness and transparency) and non-visual features (e.g., heaviness and warmness), on a 7-point scale. In the main experiments, observers judged whether two simultaneously presented pictures were classified as the same or different material category. Reaction times and effects of stimulus duration were measured. The results showed that visual feature ratings were correlated with material discrimination performance for short reaction times or short stimulus durations, while non-visual feature ratings were correlated only with performance for long reaction times or long stimulus durations. These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying visual and non-visual feature processing may differ in terms of processing time, although the cause is unclear. Visual surface features may mainly contribute to material recognition in daily life, while non-visual features may contribute only weakly, if at all. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Viking magnetic properties experiment - Extended mission results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargraves, R. B.; Collinson, D. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Cates, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    The backhoe magnets on Viking Lander (VL) 2 were successfully cleaned, followed by a test involving successive insertions of the cleaned backhoe into the surface. Rapid saturation of the magnets confirmed evidence from primary mission results that the magnetic mineral in the Martian surface is widely distributed, most probably in the form of composite particles of magnetic and nonmagnetic minerals. An image of the VL 2 backhoe taken via the X4 magnifying mirror demonstrates the fine-grained nature of the attracted magnetic material. The presence of maghemite and its occurrence as a pigment in, or a thin coating on, all mineral particles or as discrete, finely divided and widely distributed crystallites, are consistent with data from the inorganic analysis experiments and with laboratory simulations of results of the biology experiments on Mars.

  3. Material Damping Experiments at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Marie; White, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    A unique experimental facility has been designed to measure damping of materials at cryogenic temperatures. The test facility pays special attention to removing other sources of damping in the measurement by avoiding frictional interfaces, decoupling the test specimen from the support system, and by using a non-contacting measurement device; Damping data is obtained for materials (AI, GrEp, Be, Fused Quartz), strain amplitudes (less than 10-6 ppm), frequencies (20Hz-330Hz) and temperatures (20K-293K) relevant to future precision optical space missions. The test data shows a significant decrease in viscous damping at cryogenic temperatures and can be as low as 10-4%, but the amount of the damping decrease is a function of frequency and material. Contrary to the other materials whose damping monotonically decreased with temperature, damping of Fused Quartz increased substantially at cryo, after reaching a minimum at around l50 K. The damping is also shown to be insensitive to strain for low strain levels. At room temperatures, the test data correlates well to the analytical predictions of the Zener damping model. Discrepancies at cryogenic temperatures between the model predictions and the test data are observed.

  4. Fabrication of nanoscale to macroscale nickel-multiwall carbon nanotube hybrid materials with tunable material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Ahmed M.; Majdi, Tahereh; Ghosh, Suvojit; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2016-12-01

    To utilize their superior properties, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) must be manipulated and aligned end-to-end. We describe a nondestructive method to magnetize MWNTs and provide a means to remotely manipulate them through the electroless deposition of magnetic nickel nanoparticles on their surfaces. The noncovalent bonds between Ni nanoparticles and MWNTs produce a Ni-MWNT hybrid material (NiCH) that is electrically conductive and has an enhanced magnetic susceptibility and elastic modulus. Our experiments show that MWNTs can be plated with Ni for Ni:MWNT weight ratios of γ = 1, 7, 14 and 30, to control the material properties. The phase, atom-level, and morphological information from x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dark field STEM, and atomic force microscopy clarify the plating process and reveal the mechanical properties of the synthesized material. Ni metalizes at the surface of the Pd catalyst, forming a continuous wavy layer that encapsulates the MWNT surfaces. Subsequently, Ni acts as an autocatalyst, allowing the plating to continue even after the original Pd catalyst has been completely covered. Raising γ increases the coating layer thickness from 10 to 150 nm, which influences the NiCH magnetic properties and tunes its elastic modulus from 12.5 to 58.7 GPa. The NiCH was used to fabricate Ni-MWNT macrostructures and tune their morphologies by changing the direction of an applied magnetic field. Leveraging the hydrophilic Ni-MWNT outer surface, a water-based conductive ink was created and used to print a conductive path that had an electrical resistivity of 5.9 Ω m, illustrating the potential of this material for printing electronic circuits.

  5. Cytocompatibility and Antibacterial Properties of Capping Materials

    PubMed Central

    Arciola, Carla Renata; Monaco, Annachiara; Lombardini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), and Biodentine (Septodont). To evaluate antimicrobial activity, materials were challenged in vitro with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis in the agar disc diffusion test. Cytocompatibility of the assayed materials towards rat MDPC-23 cells was evaluated at different times by both MTT and apoptosis assays. Results significantly differed among the different materials tested. Both bacterial growth inhibition halos and cytocompatibility performances were significantly different among materials with different composition. MTA-based products showed lower cytotoxicity and valuable antibacterial activity, different from calcium hydroxide-based materials, which exhibited not only higher antibacterial activity but also higher cytotoxicity. PMID:24959601

  6. Cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of capping materials.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Claudio; Arciola, Carla Renata; Beltrami, Riccardo; Monaco, Annachiara; Dagna, Alberto; Lombardini, Marco; Visai, Livia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), and Biodentine (Septodont). To evaluate antimicrobial activity, materials were challenged in vitro with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis in the agar disc diffusion test. Cytocompatibility of the assayed materials towards rat MDPC-23 cells was evaluated at different times by both MTT and apoptosis assays. Results significantly differed among the different materials tested. Both bacterial growth inhibition halos and cytocompatibility performances were significantly different among materials with different composition. MTA-based products showed lower cytotoxicity and valuable antibacterial activity, different from calcium hydroxide-based materials, which exhibited not only higher antibacterial activity but also higher cytotoxicity.

  7. Magnetic properties of frictional volcanic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan; Biggin, Andrew; Ferk, Annika; Leonhardt, Roman

    2015-04-01

    During dome-building volcanic eruptions, highly viscous magma extends through the upper conduit in a solid-like state. The outer margins of the magma column accommodate the majority of the strain, while the bulk of the magma is able to extrude, largely undeformed, to produce magma spines. Spine extrusion is often characterised by the emission of repetitive seismicity, produced in the upper <1 km by magma failure and slip at the conduit margins. The rheology of the magma controls the depth at which fracture can occur, while the frictional properties of the magma are important in controlling subsequent marginal slip processes. Upon extrusion, spines are coated by a carapace of volcanic fault rocks which provide insights into the deeper conduit processes. Frictional samples from magma spines at Mount St. Helens (USA), Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) and Mount Unzen (Japan) have been examined using structural, thermal and magnetic analyses to reveal a history of comminution, frictional heating, melting and cooling to form volcanic pseudotachylyte. Pseudotachylyte has rarely been noted in volcanic materials, and the recent observation of its syn-eruptive formation in dome-building volcanoes was unprecedented. The uniquely high thermal conditions of volcanic environments means that frictional melt remains at elevated temperatures for longer than usual, causing slow crystallisation, preventing the development of some signature "quench" characteristics. As such, rock-magnetic tests have proven to be some of the most useful tools in distinguishing pseudotachylytes from their andesite/ dacite hosts. In volcanic pseudotachylyte the mass normalised natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) when further normalised with the concentration dependent saturation remanence (Mrs) was found to be higher than the host rock. Remanence carriers are defined as low coercive materials across all samples, and while the remanence of the host rock displays similarities to an anhysteretic remanent

  8. Metallurgy and properties of plasma spray formed materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Liaw, Y. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Poorman, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental metallurgy of vacuum plasma spray formed materials is the key to enhancing and developing full material properties. Investigations have shown that the microstructure of plasma sprayed materials must evolve from a powder splat morphology to a recrystallized grain structure to assure high strength and ductility. A fully, or near fully, dense material that exhibits a powder splat morphology will perform as a brittle material compared to a recrystallized grain structure for the same amount of porosity. Metallurgy and material properties of nickel, iron, and copper base alloys will be presented and correlated to microstructure.

  9. Absorption properties of waste matrix materials

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, J.B.

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for studies of the limiting critical concentration of radioactive waste matrix materials. Calculated limiting critical concentration values for some common waste materials are listed. However, for systems containing large quantities of waste materials, differences up to 10% in calculated k{sub eff} values are obtained by changing cross section data sets. Therefore, experimental results are needed to compare with calculation results for resolving these differences and establishing realistic biases.

  10. Material damping experiments at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Marie B.; White, Christopher

    2003-12-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be operating at temperatures below 40K to image in the infrared. The 7-m class telescope will require nanometric jitter stability of the optical elements such as the primary and secondary mirrors. Of particular concern is the vibration response of these cryogenic systems when subjected to on-board disturbance sources such as the reaction wheels, the amplitude of which is governed by damping. Unfortunately there is relatively little data available for flight grade materials at these temperatures and within the frequency bands of interest. The paper will describe the experimental setup designed to measure viscous damping to values as low 10^-4%. The tests measure damping from room temperature all the way down to 20K in a controlled thermal and disturbance free environment. Data is obtained for strain levels of about 0.1 micro-strain down to nano-strains to verify vibration level effects on material damping. Damping is also measured for several frequencies in the range of 20Hz to 300Hz to assess the trend of damping as a function of vibrational frequency. Data for several materials, such as Aluminum, Beryllium, Quartz, and various composites are presented. The data is compared to analytical predictions using the Zener damping theory and is shown to match well at room temperature but to disagree at colder temperatures.

  11. Studies of molecular properties of polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Long, Edward R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace environment effects (high energy electrons, thermal cycling, atomic oxygen, and aircraft fluids) on polymeric and composite materials considered for structural use in spacecraft and advanced aircraft are examined. These materials include Mylar, Ultem, and Kapton. In addition to providing information on the behavior of the materials, attempts are made to relate the measurements to the molecular processes occurring in the material. A summary and overview of the technical aspects are given along with a list of the papers that resulted from the studies. The actual papers are included in the appendices and a glossary of technical terms and definitions is included in the front matter.

  12. Filter properties of seam material from paved urban soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehls, T.; Jozefaciuk, G.; Sokolowska, Z.; Hajnos, M.; Wessolek, G.

    2008-04-01

    Depositions of all kinds of urban dirt and dust including anthropogenic organic substances like soot change the filter properties of the seam filling material of pervious pavements and lead to the formation of a new soil substrate called seam material. In this study, the impact of the particular urban form of organic matter (OM) on the seam materials CECpot, the specific surface area (As), the surface charge density (SCD), the adsorption energies (Ea) and the adsorption of Cd and Pb were assessed. The Cd and Pb displacement through the pavement system has been simulated in order to assess the risk of soil and groundwater contamination from infiltration of rainwater in paved urban soils. As, Ea and SCD derived from water vapor adsorption isotherms, CECpot, Pb and Cd adsorption isotherms where analyzed from adsorption experiments. The seam material is characterized by a darker munsell-color and a higher Corg (12 to 48g kg-1) compared to the original seam filling. Although, the increased Corg leads to higher As (16m2g-1) and higher CECpot (0.7 to 4.8cmolckg-1), with 78cmolckg-1C its specific CECpot is low compared to OM of non-urban soils. This can be explained by a low SCD of 1.2×10-6molc m-2 and a low fraction of high adsorption energy sites which is likely caused by the non-polar character of the accumulated urban OM in the seam material. The seam material shows stronger sorption of Pb and Cd compared to the original construction sand. The retardation capacity of seam material for Pb is similar, for Cd it is much smaller compared to natural sandy soils with similar Corg concentrations. The simulated long term displacement scenarios for a street in Berlin do not indicate an acute contamination risk for Pb . For Cd the infiltration from puddles can lead to a breakthrough of Cd through the pavement system during only one decade. Although they contain contaminations itself, the accumulated forms of urban OM lead to improved filter properties of the seam material and

  13. Process modelling for materials preparation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    1992-01-01

    The development is examined of mathematical tools and measurement of transport properties necessary for high fidelity modeling of crystal growth from the melt and solution, in particular for the Bridgman-Stockbarger growth of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) and the solution growth of triglycine sulphate (TGS). The tasks include development of a spectral code for moving boundary problems, kinematic viscosity measurements on liquid MCT at temperatures close to the melting point, and diffusivity measurements on concentrated and supersaturated TGS solutions. A detailed description is given of the work performed for these tasks, together with a summary of the resulting publications and presentations.

  14. Process modelling for materials preparation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    1993-01-01

    The main goals of the research consist of the development of mathematical tools and measurement of transport properties necessary for high fidelity modeling of crystal growth from the melt and solution, in particular for the Bridgman-Stockbarger growth of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) and the solution growth of triglycine sulphate (TGS). Of the tasks described in detail in the original proposal, two remain to be worked on: development of a spectral code for moving boundary problems, and diffusivity measurements on concentrated and supersaturated TGS solutions. During this eighth half-year period, good progress was made on these tasks.

  15. Process modelling for materials preparation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    1993-01-01

    The main goals of the research under this grant consist of the development of mathematical tools and measurement of transport properties necessary for high fidelity modeling of crystal growth from the melt and solution, in particular, for the Bridgman-Stockbarger growth of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) and the solution growth of triglycine sulphate (TGS). Of the tasks described in detail in the original proposal, two remain to be worked on: (1) development of a spectral code for moving boundary problems; and (2) diffusivity measurements on concentrated and supersaturated TGS solutions. Progress made during this seventh half-year period is reported.

  16. Thermoelectric Properties of Solution Synthesized Nanostructured Materials.

    PubMed

    Finefrock, Scott W; Yang, Haoran; Fang, Haiyu; Wu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric nanocomposites made by solution synthesis and compression of nanostructured chalcogenides could potentially be low-cost, scalable alternatives to traditional solid-state synthesized materials. We review the progress in this field by comparing the power factor and/or the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, of four classes of materials: (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3, PbTe, ternary and quaternary copper chalcogenides, and silver chalcogenides. We also discuss the thermal conductivity reduction associated with multiphased nanocomposites. The ZT of the best solution synthesized materials are, in several cases, shown to be equal to or greater than the corresponding bulk materials despite the generally reduced mobility associated with solution synthesized nanocomposites. For the solution synthesized materials with the highest performance, the synthesis and processing conditions are summarized to provide guidance for future work.

  17. NDE Elastic Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites are increasingly replacing metallic alloys as structural materials for primary components of fracture-critical structures. This trend is a result of the growing understanding of material behavior and recognition of the desirable properties of composites. A research program was conducted on NDE methods for determining the elastic properties of composites.

  18. Dielectric properties of agricultural materials and their application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book is prepared as a comprehensive source of information on dielectric properties of agricultural materials for scientific researchers and engineers involved in practical application of radio-frequency and microwave energy for potential problem solutions. Dielectric properties of materials det...

  19. "TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

  20. "TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

  1. Elastic properties of superconductors and materials with weakly correlated spins.

    PubMed

    Binek, Christian

    2017-07-07

    It is shown that in the ergodic regime, the temperature dependence of Young's modulus is solely determined by the magnetic properties of a material. For the large class of materials with paramagnetic or diamagnetic response, simple functional forms of the temperature derivative of Young's modulus are derived and compared with experimental data and empirical results. Superconducting materials in the Meissner phase are ideal diamagnets. As such, they display remarkable elastic properties. Constant diamagnetic susceptibility gives rise to a temperature independent elastic modulus for ceramic and single crystalline superconductors alike. The thermodynamic approach established in this report, paves the way to tailor elastic material parameters through the design of magnetic properties.

  2. Visual Vibrometry: Estimating Material Properties from Small Motions in Video.

    PubMed

    Davis, Abe; Bouman, Katherine L; Chen, Justin G; Rubinstein, Michael; Buyukozturk, Oral; Durand, Fredo; Freeman, William T

    2016-11-01

    The estimation of material properties is important for scene understanding, with many applications in vision, robotics, and structural engineering. This paper connects fundamentals of vibration mechanics with computer vision techniques in order to infer material properties from small, often imperceptible motion in video. Objects tend to vibrate in a set of preferred modes. The frequencies of these modes depend on the structure and material properties of an object. We show that by extracting these frequencies from video of a vibrating object, we can often make inferences about that object's material properties. We demonstrate our approach by estimating material properties for a variety of objects by observing their motion in high-speed and regular frame rate video.

  3. Magnetic porous composite material: Synthesis and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretyat'ko, P. I.; Kulikov, L. A.; Melikhov, I. V.; Perfil'ev, Yu. D.; Pal', A. F.; Timofeev, M. A.; Gudoshnikov, S. A.; Usov, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    A new method of obtaining magnetic porous composite materials is described, which is based on the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) in the form of solid-phase combustion. The SHS process involves transformation of the nonmagnetic α-Fe2O3 particles (contained in the initial mixture) into magnetic Fe3O4 particles. The synthesized material comprises a porous carbonaceous matrix with immobilized Fe3O4 particles. The obtained composite has been characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. The sorption capacity of the porous material has been studied.

  4. Interfacial properties and design of functional energy materials.

    PubMed

    Sumpter, Bobby G; Liang, Liangbo; Nicolaï, Adrien; Meunier, Vincent

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: The vital importance of energy to society continues to demand a relentless pursuit of energy responsive materials that can bridge fundamental chemical structures at the molecular level and achieve improved functionality and performance. This demand can potentially be realized by harnessing the power of self-assembly, a spontaneous process where molecules or much larger entities form ordered aggregates as a consequence of predominately noncovalent (weak) interactions. Self-assembly is the key to bottom-up design of molecular devices, because the nearly atomic-level control is very difficult to realize in a top-down, for example, lithographic, approach. However, while function in simple systems such as single crystals can often be evaluated a priori, predicting the function of the great variety of self-assembled molecular architectures is complicated by the lack of understanding and control over nanoscale interactions, mesoscale architectures, and macroscale order. To establish a foundation toward delivering practical solutions, it is critical to develop an understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms responsible for the self-assembly of molecular and hybrid materials on various support substrates. Typical molecular self-assembly involves noncovalent intermolecular and substrate-molecule interactions. These interactions remain poorly understood, due to the combination of many-body interactions compounded by local or collective influences from the substrate atomic lattice and electronic structure. Progress toward unraveling the underlying physicochemical processes that control the structure and macroscopic physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical, and transport properties of materials increasingly requires tight integration of theory, modeling, and simulation with precision synthesis, advanced experimental characterization, and device measurements. Theory, modeling, and simulation can accelerate the process of materials understanding and design

  5. Experiments in ICF, materials science, and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, Bruce A.

    2016-10-01

    We have been developing RED experiments on high power TCF lasers over the past two decades that span (1) the radiative hydrodynamics of TCF capsule physics; (2) the high pressure, high strain rate, solid-state dynamics relevant to novel concepts for ICF and hypervelocity impacts in space and on Earth; and (3) the shock driven turbulence of exploding stars (supernovae). These different regimes are separated by many orders of magnitude in length, time, and temperature, yet there are common threads that run through all of these phenomena, such as the occurrence of hydrodynamic instabilities. Examples from each of these three seemingly very disparate regimes are given, and the common theme of hydrodynamic instability evolution is explored.

  6. Asteroid Regolith Mechanical Properties: Laboratory Experiments With Cohesive Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Scheeres, D. J.; Roark, S. E.; Dissly, R.; Sanchez, P.

    2012-10-01

    Despite clear evidence that small asteroids undergo drastic physical evolution, the geophysics and mechanics of many of the processes governing that evolution remain a mystery due to a lack of scientific data, both on the sub-surface and global geophysics of these small bodies and on the mechanical properties of regoliths in the unique micro-gravity regime they inhabit. We are beginning a three-year effort to study regolith properties and processes on low-gravity, small asteroids by conducting analog experiments with cohesive powders in a 1-g laboratory environment. Based on a rigorous comparison of forces it can be shown that van der Waals cohesive forces between millimeter to centimeter-sized grains on asteroids ranging in size from Eros to Itokawa, respectively, may exceed their ambient weight several-fold. This observation implies that regoliths composed of impact debris of those sizes should behave on the microgravity surfaces of small asteroids like flour or other cohesive powders do in the 1-g environment here on Earth. Our goal is to develop an improved understanding of the role of cohesion in affecting regolith processes and surface morphology of small Solar System bodies, some the targets of ongoing and proposed NASA New Frontiers and Discovery missions, and to quantify the range of expected mechanical properties of such regoliths. Our experiments will be conducted in ambient and vacuum conditions within an environmental test chamber at Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation (BATC) in Boulder, CO. To aid in validating our experiment chamber and support equipment performance, and before proceeding with experiments on geologic regolith simulant materials, we will perform a series of comparative, ‘calibration’ experiments with micro glass spheres; all primary experiments will be performed with at least one non-idealized regolith simulant, like JSC-1, that more realistically simulates the angular particle shapes expected in actual geologic fragments

  7. Shocked materials at the intersection of experiment and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kadau, Kai

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic lattice response of solids under the extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and strain rate is a scientific quest that spans nearly a century. Critical to developing this understanding is the ability to probe and model the spatial and temporal evolution of the material microstructure and properties at the scale of the relevant physical phenomena -- nanometers to micrometers and picoseconds to nanoseconds. While experimental investigations over this range of spatial and temporal scales were unimaginable just a decade ago, new technologies and facilities currently under development and on the horizon have brought these goals within reach for the first time. The equivalent advancements in simulation capabilities now mean that we can conduct simulations and experiments at overlapping temporal and spatial scales. In this article, we describe some of our studies which exploit existing and new generation ultrabright, ultrafast x-ray sources and large scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the real-time physical phenomena that control the dynamic response of shocked materials.

  8. Shocked materials at the intersection of experiment and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzana, H. E.; Belak, J. F.; Bradley, K. S.; Bringa, E. M.; Budil, K. S.; Cazamias, J. U.; El-Dasher, B.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Hessler, J.; Kadau, K.; Kalantar, D. H.; McNaney, J. M.; Milathianaki, D.; Rosolankova, K.; Swift, D. C.; Taravillo, M.; Van Buuren, T. W.; Wark, J. S.; de la Rubia, T. Diaz

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the dynamic lattice response of solids under the extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and strain rate is a scientific quest that spans nearly a century. Critical to developing this understanding is the ability to probe and model the spatial and temporal evolution of the material microstructure and properties at the scale of the relevant physical phenomena-nanometers to micrometers and picoseconds to nanoseconds. While experimental investigations over this range of spatial and temporal scales were unimaginable just a decade ago, new technologies and facilities currently under development and on the horizon have brought these goals within reach for the first time. The equivalent advancements in simulation capabilities now mean that we can conduct simulations and experiments at overlapping temporal and spatial scales. In this article, we describe some of our studies which exploit existing and new generation ultrabright, ultrafast x-ray sources and large scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the real-time physical phenomena that control the dynamic response of shocked materials.

  9. Process modelling for materials preparation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    1994-01-01

    The main goals of the research under this grant consist of the development of mathematical tools and measurement techniques for transport properties necessary for high fidelity modelling of crystal growth from the melt and solution. Of the tasks described in detail in the original proposal, two remain to be worked on: development of a spectral code for moving boundary problems, and development of an expedient diffusivity measurement technique for concentrated and supersaturated solutions. We have focused on developing a code to solve for interface shape, heat and species transport during directional solidification. The work involved the computation of heat, mass and momentum transfer during Bridgman-Stockbarger solidification of compound semiconductors. Domain decomposition techniques and preconditioning methods were used in conjunction with Chebyshev spectral methods to accelerate convergence while retaining the high-order spectral accuracy. During the report period we have further improved our experimental setup. These improvements include: temperature control of the measurement cell to 0.1 C between 10 and 60 C; enclosure of the optical measurement path outside the ZYGO interferometer in a metal housing that is temperature controlled to the same temperature setting as the measurement cell; simultaneous dispensing and partial removal of the lower concentration (lighter) solution above the higher concentration (heavier) solution through independently motor-driven syringes; three-fold increase in data resolution by orientation of the interferometer with respect to diffusion direction; and increase of the optical path length in the solution cell to 12 mm.

  10. Millimeter Wave Dielectric Properties of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Kenneth J.; Afsar, M. N.

    1983-10-01

    Highly accurate continuous spectra of the absorption coefficient and refractive index of some potentially useful materials have been made over the 60-420 GHz range. Measurements have been made on some common ceramic, semiconductor, crystalline and glass materials. The absorption coefficient of low loss materials increases with frequency which implies that microwave data cannot be used for the design of millimeter wave dielectric waveguides, devices, windows and quasi-optical elements. The data in this paper show the millimeter wave frequency dependence of tan δ, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity and the optical constants, namely, the refractive index and absorption coefficient. The measurements have been made in a plane-wave Michelson interferometer operating as a polarizing, dispersive Fourier transform spectrometer. The accuracy and reproducability of the refractive index is six significant figures.

  11. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Son, Sehwan; Lin, Hong-Cheu

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidene) phenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl) 4'-[(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it.

  12. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, S.I.; Son, S.; Lin, H.C.

    1995-05-02

    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidenephenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl)-4{prime}-[(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it. 4 figs.

  13. Dynamic Deformation Properties of Energetic Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    references are provided for further reading. Materials The materials that have been used are ultrafine PETN and RDX prepared by a proprietary method by ICI...density of the loose powder on delivery is ~15 % of the theoretical maximum density (TMD). The ultrafine HNS that was used was HNS IV as supplied by...ultrafine PETN . A - Point at which initiation takes place; B - Detonation wave travelling at 5.6 ± 0.3 mm ms-1. 37 Figure 1.31. Negative streak

  14. Materials Adherence Experiment on Mars Pathfinder: Early results

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, G.A.; Jenkins, P.P.; Hunter, G.

    1997-12-31

    The Materials Adherence Experiment (MAE) on the Pathfinder Sojourner rover will measure the dust deposition rate. By August, the Sojourner Rover on Mars Pathfinder will have completed its primary mission, and the experiment will have data on dust deposition during the first three weeks of operation on Mars. This paper will present the initial data from the experiment. This will be the first presentation of the results from the Pathfinder MAE experiment.

  15. Tuning Surface Properties of Low Dimensional Materials via Strain Engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengchun; Liu, Fuzhu; Wu, Chao; Yang, Sen

    2016-08-01

    The promising and versatile applications of low dimensional materials are largely due to their surface properties, which along with their underlying electronic structures have been well studied. However, these materials may not be directly useful for applications requiring properties other than their natal ones. In recent years, strain has been shown to be an additionally useful handle to tune the physical and chemical properties of materials by changing their geometric and electronic structures. The strategies for producing strain are summarized. Then, the electronic structure of quasi-two dimensional layered non-metallic materials (e.g., graphene, MX2, BP, Ge nanosheets) under strain are discussed. Later, the strain effects on catalytic properties of metal-catalyst loaded with strain are focused on. Both experimental and computational perspectives for dealing with strained systems are covered. Finally, an outlook on engineering surface properties utilizing strain is provided. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Handbook of the Properties of Optical Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    EFFECTIVE MASS - - MOBILITY - - A-2 ARSEWIC SELENIOE (As2 Se3 ) OPTICAL PROPERTIES TRANSMISSION RANGE: 9 - 11n Optical Absorption Coefficient = 0.079...of 55 KRS-5 as a function of wavelength. A-2120 ZINC SELENIOE ZnSe 0 STRUCTURE CRYSTALLINE SYMMETRY = Cubic, 43m LATTICE CONSTANTS (A) = a = 5.667

  17. Fish gelatin: Material properties and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The main difference between fish gelatin and mammalian gelatin is fish gelatin’s lower gelation temperature. This property limits the use of fish gelatin in applications that currently utilize mammalian gelatin. However, fish gelatin remains an attractive alterative to mammalian gelatin due to relig...

  18. Effects of tritium on material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The effecs of tritium on deformation and fracture of metals are reviewed with emphasis on similarities and differences between tritium and the other hydrogen isotopes. Helium generated by radioactive decay of tritium introduces time dependent property changes not observed with protium or deuterium. On-going studies and topics for further investigations are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Analysis of Photothermal Characterization of Layered Materials: Design of Optimal Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper numerical calculations are presented for the steady-periodic temperature in layered materials and functionally-graded materials to simulate photothermal methods for the measurement of thermal properties. No laboratory experiments were performed. The temperature is found from a new Green s function formulation which is particularly well-suited to machine calculation. The simulation method is verified by comparison with literature data for a layered material. The method is applied to a class of two-component functionally-graded materials and results for temperature and sensitivity coefficients are presented. An optimality criterion, based on the sensitivity coefficients, is used for choosing what experimental conditions will be needed for photothermal measurements to determine the spatial distribution of thermal properties. This method for optimal experiment design is completely general and may be applied to any photothermal technique and to any functionally-graded material.

  20. The compressive material properties of the plantar soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, William R; Blevins, Joanna J

    2007-01-01

    The plantar soft tissue is the primary means of physical interaction between a person and the ground during locomotion. Dynamic loads greater than body weight are borne across the entire plantar surface during each step. However, most testing of these tissues has concentrated on the structural properties of the heel pad. The purpose of this study was to determine the material properties of the plantar soft tissue from six locations beneath: the great toe (subhallucal), the 1st, 3rd and 5th metatarsal heads (submetatarsal), the lateral midfoot (lateral submidfoot) and the heel (subcalcaneal). We obtained specimens from these locations from 11 young, non-diabetic donors; the tissue was cut into 2 cm x 2 cm blocks and the skin was removed. Stress relaxation experiments were conducted and the data were fit using the quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory. To determine tissue modulus, energy loss and the effect of test frequency, we also conducted displacement controlled triangle waves at five frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 10 Hz. The subcalcaneal tissue was found to have an increased relaxation time compared to the other areas. The subcalcaneal tissue was also found to have an increased modulus and decreased energy loss compared to the other areas. Across all areas, the modulus and energy loss increased for the 1 and 10 Hz tests compared to the other testing frequencies. This study is the first to generate material properties for all areas of the plantar soft tissue, demonstrating that the subcalcaneal tissue is different than the other plantar soft tissue areas. These data will have implications for foot computational modeling efforts and potentially for orthotic pressure reduction devices.

  1. Processing and Properties of Airframe Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    All other test conditions conformed to ASTM E 647 using a compact type (CT) specimen with B = 12.7 mm and W = 50 nm. Tests were conducted in lab ...International Scince Center SC5358. 2AR 3c64-24U 40ism. Fig. 14 Grain structures of the constituent fine grain (a), coarse grain (b) materials, and the

  2. Mechanical properties of high-temperature brazed titanium materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lugscheider, E.; Broich, U.; Koetzing, B.

    1994-12-31

    Titanium and its alloys are of main interest for several fields of application. Because of rising demands on permanent structural parts and increasing complexity of components, it is important to obtain an adequate joining technique, which on the one hand does not restrict the mechanical properties of the parent metal too much and on the other hand is inexpensive and flexible. These requirements can be fulfilled best by application of high-temperature brazing technology, employing titanium base filler metals. Among existing joining techniques, the vacuum brazing process conducted in a vacuum furnace and the induction brazing process are of practical relevance. The mechanical properties of high-temperature brazed titanium materials are strongly dependent on process parameters, such as brazing time and brazing temperature and even more crucially on brazing gap size. Under optimized brazing conditions, the tensile strength of high-temperature brazed TiAl6V4-joints, for example, reach about 950 MPa, where the Pd-containing alloy is slightly superior to TiCu20Ni20 filler metal. Most of the tensile specimens break in the base metal at some distance to the brazing zone, indicating that the tensile strength of the joint is comparable to that of the bulk material. The thermal stability of the brazed titanium joints has been investigated by doing tensile tests at elevated temperatures. These experiments have shown that the tensile strength of TiAl6VA- joints for example are going to be reduced by 30% when exposing the brazed samples to 300{degrees}C. However, the tensile specimen broke in the bulk material, indicating that the tensile strength of bulk TiAl6V4 is also reduced at elevated temperatures.

  3. Shaped Charge Liner Materials: Resources, Processes, Properties, Costs, and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Shaped Charge Liner Materials: Resources, Processes, Properties, Costs, and Applications 2 6. AUTHOC Steven M. Buc 7...summaries of the mineral availability, Cq prmarymetal refinement processeb, material costs in raw form and as finished shaped charge liners , relevant... liner materials. 94-11479 gI 14, SUBJECT TERMS iSt NUMBER OF PAGIS 13chrg wrhad :xplosively formed penetrators material R. PRCE COEV" processing

  4. Mars Exploration Rover Science Operations and Physical Properties Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Athena Science Team

    2004-05-01

    The two Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, landed in January 2004 and have been operating on the surface on the floor of Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum, respectively. In addition to acquiring multi-spectral imaging, emission spectra, elemental abundance, and iron mineralogy data from the Athena Payload, the rover engineering telemetry and camera data have been used to reconstruct topography and soil properties along rover traverses, and soil mechanical properties from wheel-trenching operations. During traverses two types of science sequences have been developed, one focused on detailed soil and rock characterization, and one focused on a reconnaissance measurements of surface materials and a campaign of atmospheric observations, including optical depth, sky brightness, sky temperature profiles, and thermal sky ``stares." Results from the traverse and trenching experiments will be discussed in detail, along with approaches for conducting remote science operations with planetary rovers.

  5. Data base for crack growth properties of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, Royce G.; Lawrence, Victor B.; Nguy, Henry L.

    1988-01-01

    A computerized data base of crack growth properties of materials was developed for use in fracture control analysis of rocket engine components and other NASA space hardware. The software system has files of basic crack growth rate data, other fracture mechanics material properties such as fracture toughness and environmental crack growth threshold values, and plotting and fitting routines for deriving material properties for use in fracture control analysis. An extensive amount of data was collected and entered, and work is continuing on compiling additional data. The data base and software codes are useful both for fracture control analysis and for evaluation or development of improved crack growth theories.

  6. Optimal experimental designs for the estimation of thermal properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.; Moncman, Deborah A.

    1994-01-01

    Reliable estimation of thermal properties is extremely important in the utilization of new advanced materials, such as composite materials. The accuracy of these estimates can be increased if the experiments are designed carefully. The objectives of this study are to design optimal experiments to be used in the prediction of these thermal properties and to then utilize these designs in the development of an estimation procedure to determine the effective thermal properties (thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity). The experiments were optimized by choosing experimental parameters that maximize the temperature derivatives with respect to all of the unknown thermal properties. This procedure has the effect of minimizing the confidence intervals of the resulting thermal property estimates. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional experimental designs were optimized. A heat flux boundary condition is required in both analyses for the simultaneous estimation of the thermal properties. For the one-dimensional experiment, the parameters optimized were the heating time of the applied heat flux, the temperature sensor location, and the experimental time. In addition to these parameters, the optimal location of the heat flux was also determined for the two-dimensional experiments. Utilizing the optimal one-dimensional experiment, the effective thermal conductivity perpendicular to the fibers and the effective volumetric heat capacity were then estimated for an IM7-Bismaleimide composite material. The estimation procedure used is based on the minimization of a least squares function which incorporates both calculated and measured temperatures and allows for the parameters to be estimated simultaneously.

  7. [Characteristics of collagen's material bifidogenic properties].

    PubMed

    Sheveleva, S A; Batishcheva, S Iu

    2012-01-01

    It is still essential to search for new, available food ingredients with bifidogenic effect, to study their safety, efficacy and production effectiveness upon the creation of functional foods. The review considers protein products such as collagens and their hydrolyzates, which are used in culture mediums as growth factor. They are treated, besides carbohydrate prebiotics, as potential bifidogenic nutrients. Collagen hydralyzates contain all amino acids, required for bifidobacteria growth. That is why it is considered essential to provide control over its biosafety. However, recyclable materials of animal origin are included into a list of Specific Risk Materials of prion disease agents transmitting. Collagen hydralyzates are preserved up to distal intestine parts. This fact approximates their qualities to oligosaccharids' type of prebiotic food fibers, related to the lack of absorption and hydrolytic stability. The additional study of mechanisms of bifidobacteria's forcing is required. It can be made at the expense of the modification of the albuminous cell metabolism during the collagen hydralyzats' unilization.

  8. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkind, A. J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W. A.

    1984-04-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve type silver zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO2 and several nickel electrodes for nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities. After the first discharge AgNiO2 can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)2 largely eliminate this.

  9. Structure and Properties of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-02

    into 5 distinct classes - i) normal , N; ii) mixed, M; iii) hetero, H; iv) azido complexe., C: and v) metal organo complexes, 0. These abbreviations are...Energetic materials represent a multibillion dollar industry for both commercial and military uses. These are among the earliest of man-made classes of...new class of high-nitrogen molecules that may prove to be high performance explosives. INTRODUCTION The goal of the high explosives synthesis effort

  10. Optical properties of nanostructured materials: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flory, François; Escoubas, Ludovic; Berginc, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Depending on the size of the smallest feature, the interaction of light with structured materials can be very different. This fundamental problem is treated by different theories. If first order theories are sufficient to describe the scattering from low roughness surfaces, second order or even higher order theories must be used for high roughness surfaces. Random surface structures can then be designed to distribute the light in different propagation directions. For complex structures such as black silicon, which reflects very little light, the theory needs further development. When the material is periodically structured, we speak about photonic crystals or metamaterials. Different theoretical approaches have been developed and experimental techniques are rapidly progressing. However, some work still remains to understand the full potential of this field. When the material is structured in dimension much smaller than the wavelength, the notion of complex refractive index must be revisited. Plasmon resonance can be excited by a progressing wave on metallic nanoparticles inducing a shaping of the absorption band and of the dispersion of the extinction coefficient. This addresses the problem of the permittivity of such metallic nanoparticles. The coupling between several metallic nanoparticles induces a field enhancement in the surrounding media, which can increase phenomena like scattering, absorption, luminescence, or Raman scattering. For semiconductor nanoparticles, electron confinement also induces a modulated absorption spectra. The refractive index is then modified. The bandgap of the material is changed because of the discretization of the electron energy, which can be controlled by the nanometers size particles. Such quantum dots behave like atoms and become luminescent. The lifetime of the electron in the excited states are much larger than in continuous energy bands. Electrons in coupled quantum dots behave as they do in molecules. Many applications

  11. Molecularly imprinted materials: synthesis, properties, applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisichkin, Georgii V.; Krutyakov, Yu A.

    2006-10-01

    This review is devoted to the method of molecular imprinting. The physicochemical fundamentals and mechanisms of covalent and non-covalent molecular imprinting aimed at the development of organic polymeric sorbents capable of molecular recognition are considered. Attention is focused on the preparation of molecular imprints on mineral supports. The mechanisms of molecular recognition in adsorption are discussed. Application fields of materials with molecular imprints are briefly surveyed.

  12. Materials properties: heterogeneity and appropriate sampling modes.

    PubMed

    Esbensen, Kim H

    2015-01-01

    The target audience for this Special Section comprises parties related to the food and feed sectors, e.g., field samplers, academic and industrial scientists, laboratory personnel, companies, organizations, regulatory bodies, and agencies who are responsible for sampling, as well as project leaders, project managers, quality managers, supervisors, and directors. All these entities face heterogeneous materials, and the characteristics of heterogeneous materials needs to be competently understood by all of them. Before delivering analytical results for decision-making, one form or other of primary sampling is always necessary, which must counteract the effects of the sampling target heterogeneity. Up to five types of sampling error may arise as a specific sampling process interacts with a heterogeneous material; two sampling errors arise because of the heterogeneity of the sampling target, and three additional sampling errors are produced by the sampling process itself-if not properly understood, reduced, and/or eliminated, which is the role of Theory of Sampling. This paper discusses the phenomenon and concepts involved in understanding, describing, and managing the adverse effects of heterogeneity in sampling.

  13. Temperature dependent terahertz properties of energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Abul K.; Whitley, Von H.; Brown, Kathryn E.; Ahmed, Towfiq; Sorensen, Christian J.; Moore, David S.

    2016-04-01

    Reliable detection of energetic materials is still a formidable challenge which requires further investigation. The remote standoff detection of explosives using molecular fingerprints in the terahertz spectral range has been an evolving research area for the past two decades. Despite many efforts, identification of a particular explosive remains difficult as the spectral fingerprints often shift due to the working conditions of the sample such as temperature, crystal orientation, presence of binders, etc. In this work, we investigate the vibrational spectrum of energetic materials including RDX, PETN, AN, and 1,3-DNB diluted in a low loss PTFE host medium using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) at cryogenic temperatures. The measured absorptions of these materials show spectral shifts of their characteristic peaks while changing their operating temperature from 300 to 7.5 K. We have developed a theoretical model based on first principles methods, which is able to predict most of the measured modes in 1, 3-DNB between 0.3 to 2.50 THz. These findings may further improve the security screening of explosives.

  14. An Experiment to Tame the Plasma Material Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R J; Menard, J E; Allain, J P; Brooks, J N; Canik, J M; Doerner, R; Fu, G; Gates, D A; Gentile, C A; Harris, J H; Hassanein, A; Gorelenkov, N N; Kaita, R; Kaye, S M; Kotschenreuther, M; Kramer, G J; Kugel, H W; Maingi, R; Mahajan, S M; Majeski, R; Neumeyer, C L; Nygren, R E; Ono, M; Owen, L W; Ramakrishnan, S; Rognlien, T D; Ruzic, D N; Ryutov, D D; Sabbagh, S A; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V A; Stevenson, T N; Ulrickson, M A; Valanju, P M; Woolley, R D

    2009-01-08

    The plasma material interface in Demo will be more challenging than that in ITER, due to requirements for approximately four times higher heat flux from the plasma and approximately five times higher average duty factor. The scientific and technological solutions employed in ITER may not extrapolate to Demo. The key questions to be resolved for Demo and the resulting key requirements for an experiment to 'tame the plasma material interface' are analyzed. A possible design point for such an experiment is outlined.

  15. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix E: Experiment M512 Materials processing facility (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, O. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses for Experiment M512, Materials Processing Facility (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditions are presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  16. Deformation and Thermal Properties of Energetic Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    decomposition of PETN/polymer samples 5 (b) Thermal decomposition of PETN/ Benzoyl peroxide samples ......... 6 (c) Effect of ultra-violet light on... Benzoyl peroxide samples The results of the preceeding section show that the additives tested have very little effect on the thermal decomposition of PETN...nitrate. In order to test this hypothesis, mixtures of benzoyl peroxide and PETN were used in a series of TG experiments. Benzoyl peroxide is an

  17. Mechanical properties of a porous mullite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viens, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Modulus of rupture specimens were used to determine crack growth parameters of a porous mullite material. Strength testing was performed in ambient and moist environments. The power law crack growth rate parameters n and 1n B in 50 percent relative humidity were found to be 44.98 and 0.94, respectively. The inert strength, fracture toughness, and elastic modulus were also determined and found to be 19 MPa, 055 MPa(m) exp 1/2, and 11.6 GPa, respectively.

  18. Processing and Properties of Airframe Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    heat treaments No. 1, 2, 3. Load increment data only, R = 0.1 ........................... 35 3.3-30 Ratio of crack branching to main crack vs AK for...12 3.3-2 Light micrograph of Ti-6Al-4V forged material, as forged ................ 12 3.3-3 SEM of Ti-6A1-4V plate given heat treatment...No. 1. Beta phase is white ........................................................ 15 3.3-4 SEM of Ti-6A1-4V, plate, given heat treatment No. 2. Beta

  19. Interdisciplinary research concerning the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The nature and properties of ceramic materials as they relate to solid state physics and metallurgy are studied. Special attention was given to the applications of ceramics to NASA programs and national needs.

  20. Thermal and Thermoelectric Properties of Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hao-Hsiang

    Many modern technologies are enabled by the use of thin films and/or nanostructured composite materials. For example, many thermoelectric devices, solar cells, power electronics, thermal barrier coatings, and hard disk drives contain nanostructured materials where the thermal conductivity of the material is a critical parameter for the device performance. At the nanoscale, the mean free path and wavelength of heat carriers may become comparable to or smaller than the size of a nanostructured material and/or device. For nanostructured materials made from semiconductors and insulators, the additional phonon scattering mechanisms associated with the high density of interfaces and boundaries introduces additional resistances that can significantly change the thermal conductivity of the material as compared to a macroscale counterpart. Thus, better understanding and control of nanoscale heat conduction in solids is important scientifically and for the engineering applications mentioned above. In this dissertation, I discuss my work in two areas dealing with nanoscale thermal transport: (1) I describe my development and advancement of important thermal characterization tools for measurements of thermal and thermoelectric properties of a variety of materials from thin films to nanostructured bulk systems, and (2) I discuss my measurements on several materials systems done with these characterization tools. First, I describe the development, assembly, and modification of a time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) system that we use to measure the thermal conductivity and the interface thermal conductance of a variety of samples including nanocrystalline alloys of Ni-Fe and Co-P, bulk metallic glasses, and other thin films. Next, a unique thermoelectric measurement system was designed and assembled for measurements of electrical resistivity and thermopower of thermoelectric materials in the temperature range of 20 to 350 °C. Finally, a commercial Anter Flashline 3000 thermal

  1. Outgassing Properties of Chemically Polished Titanium Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurisu, Hiroki; Kimoto, Gou; Fujii, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Setsuo; Matsuura, Mitsuru; Ishizawa, Katsunobu; Nomura, Takeru; Murashige, Nobuyuki

    We developed a chemical polishing (CP) for titanium materials applicable to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) and extremely high vacuum (XHV) systems. The surface roughness, Ra, of the chemically polished titanium is obtained to be 25 nm by the atomic force microscopy measurement. This value is smaller than those of the base metal (BM) and the buff-polished (BP) samples. The thickness of the surface oxide layer of CP sample is estimated to be 7 nm by the cross section of transmission electron micrograph. Amount of desorption gas of CP sample obtained by the thermal desorption measurement is smaller than those of BM and BP sample, and is the same as that of the mechanochemically polished (MCP) sample. The outgassing rate of CP sample after baking at 150°C×20 h is obtained to be 7×10-13 Pa•m•s-1. This value is lower than that of standard vacuum materials by two orders of magnitude after the ordinary baking.

  2. MIDAS (Material Implementation, Database, and Analysis Source): A comprehensive resource of material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Norquist, P; Barton, N; Durrenberger, K; Florando, J; Attia, A

    2010-12-13

    MIDAS is aimed to be an easy-to-use and comprehensive common source for material properties including both experimental data and models and their parameters. At LLNL, we will develop MIDAS to be the central repository for material strength related data and models with the long-term goal to encompass other material properties. MIDAS will allow the users to upload experimental data and updated models, to view and read materials data and references, to manipulate models and their parameters, and to serve as the central location for the application codes to access the continuously growing model source codes. MIDAS contains a suite of interoperable tools and utilizes components already existing at LLNL: MSD (material strength database), MatProp (database of materials properties files), and MSlib (library of material model source codes). MIDAS requires significant development of the computer science framework for the interfaces between different components. We present the current status of MIDAS and its future development in this paper.

  3. Distributed databases for materials study of thermo-kinetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toher, Cormac

    2015-03-01

    High-throughput computational materials science provides researchers with the opportunity to rapidly generate large databases of materials properties. To rapidly add thermal properties to the AFLOWLIB consortium and Materials Project repositories, we have implemented an automated quasi-harmonic Debye model, the Automatic GIBBS Library (AGL). This enables us to screen thousands of materials for thermal conductivity, bulk modulus, thermal expansion and related properties. The search and sort functions of the online database can then be used to identify suitable materials for more in-depth study using more precise computational or experimental techniques. AFLOW-AGL source code is public domain and will soon be released within the GNU-GPL license.

  4. Thermal Properties of Structural Materials Used in LWR Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Daw; J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson

    2011-01-01

    High temperature material property data for structural materials used in existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs) are limited. Often, extrapolated values recommended in the literature differ significantly. To reduce uncertainties in predictions relying upon extrapolated data for LWR vessel and penetration materials, high temperature tests were completed on SA533 Grade B, Class 1 (SA533B1) low alloy steel, Stainless Steel 304 (SS304), and Inconel 600 using material property measurement systems available in the High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Properties measured include thermal expansion, specific heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity for temperatures up to 1200 °C. From these results, thermal conductivity and density were calculated. Results show that, in some cases, previously recommended values for these materials differ significantly from measured values at high temperatures.

  5. Electrical properties of commercial sheet insulation materials for cryogenic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Pace, Marshall O

    2008-01-01

    Dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low-temperature power applications. Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. In this work we report the dielectric properties of some commercially available materials in sheet form. The selected materials are polypropylene laminated paper from Sumitomo Electric U.S.A., Inc., porous polyethylene (Tyvek\\texttrademark) from Dupont, and polyamide paper (Nomex\\texttrademark) from Dupont. The dielectric properties are characterized with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 50 to 300 K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the materials are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure.

  6. Film Implementation of a Neutron Detector (FIND): Critical Materials Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    absorption factor much less than one. Other- wise, the measured count rate will be the product of the neutron absorption factor, neutron flux, and detector...TECHNICAL REPORT 1957 September 2007 Film Implementation of a Neutron Detector (FIND): Critical Materials Properties W. C. McGinnis SSC San...TECHNICAL REPORT 1957 September 2007 Film Implementation of a Neutron Detector (FIND): Critical Materials Properties W. C. McGinnis SSC San Diego

  7. A Reference Guide for Cryogenic Properties of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weisend, John G

    2003-09-16

    A thorough knowledge of the behavior of materials at cryogenic temperatures is critical for the design of successful cryogenic systems. Over the past 50 years, a tremendous amount of material properties at cryogenic temperatures have been measured and published. This guide lists resources for finding these properties. It covers online databases, computer codes, conference proceedings, journals, handbooks, overviews and monographs. It includes references for finding reports issued by government laboratories and agencies. Most common solids and fluids used in cryogenics are covered.

  8. Modeling of and experiments on electromagnetic levitation for materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyers, Robert W.

    Electromagnetic levitation (EML) is an important experimental technique for research in materials processing. It has been applied for many years to a wide variety of research areas, including studies of nucleation and growth, phase selection, reaction kinetics, and thermophysical property measurements. The work presented here contributes to a more fundamental understanding of three aspects of levitation systems: modeling of electromagnetic effects, modeling of fluid flow characteristics, and experiments to measure surface tension and viscosity in microgravity. In this work, the interaction between the electromagnetic field and the sample were modeled, and experiments to measure the surface tension and viscosity of liquid metal droplets were performed. The models use a 2-D axisymmetric formulation, and use the method of mutual inductances to calculate the currents induced in the sample. The magnetic flux density was calculated from the Biot-Savart law, and the force distribution obtained. Parametric studies of the total force and induced heating on the sample were carried out, as well as a study of the influence of different parameters on the internal flows in a liquid droplet. The oscillating current frequency has an important effect on the feasible operating range of an EML system. Optimization of both heating and positioning are discussed, and the use of frequencies far from those in current use for levitation of small droplets provides improved results. The dependences of the force and induced power on current, frequency, sample conductivity, and sample size are given. A model coupling the magnetic force calculations to a commercial finite-element fluid dynamics program is used to characterize the flows in a liquid sample, including transitions in the flow pattern. The dependence of fluid flow velocity on positioning force, sample viscosity, and oscillating current frequency is presented. These models were applied to the design of thermophysical property

  9. Analysis of nonlinear optical properties in donor–acceptor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Paul N.; Pachter, Ruth; Nguyen, Kiet A.

    2014-05-14

    Time-dependent density functional theory has been used to calculate nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, including the first and second hyperpolarizabilities as well as the two-photon absorption cross-section, for the donor-acceptor molecules p-nitroaniline and dimethylamino nitrostilbene, and for respective materials attached to a gold dimer. The CAMB3LYP, B3LYP, PBE0, and PBE exchange-correlation functionals all had fair but variable performance when compared to higher-level theory and to experiment. The CAMB3LYP functional had the best performance on these compounds of the functionals tested. However, our comprehensive analysis has shown that quantitative prediction of hyperpolarizabilities is still a challenge, hampered by inadequate functionals, basis sets, and solvation models, requiring further experimental characterization. Attachment of the Au{sub 2}S group to molecules already known for their relatively large NLO properties was found to further enhance the response. While our calculations show a modest enhancement for the first hyperpolarizability, the enhancement of the second hyperpolarizability is predicted to be more than an order of magnitude.

  10. Novel thermal properties of nanostructured materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, J. A.

    1999-01-13

    A new class of heat transfer fluids, termed nanofluids, has been developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids. Due to the orders-of-magnitude larger thermal conductivities of solids compared to those of liquids such as water, significantly enhanced thermal properties are obtained with nanofluids. For example, an approximately 20% improvement in effective thermal conductivity is observed when 5 vol.% CuO nanoparticles are added to water. Even more importantly, the heat transfer coefficient of water under dynamic flow conditions is increased more than 15% with the addition of less than 1 vol.% CuO particles. The use of nanofluids could impact many industrial sectors, including transportation, energy supply and production, electronics, textiles, and paper production by, for example, decreasing pumping power needs or reducing heat exchanger sizes. In contrast to the enhancement in effective thermal transport rates that is obtained when nanoparticles are suspended in fluids, nanocrystalline coatings are expected to exhibit reduced thermal conductivities compared to coarse-grained coatings. Reduced thermal conductivities are predicted to arise because of a reduction in the mean free path of phonons due to presence of grain boundaries. This behavior, combined with improved mechanical properties, makes nanostructured zirconia coatings excellent candidates for future applications as thermal barriers. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films are being produced by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques. Preliminary results have indicated that the thermal conductivity is reduced by approximately a factor-of-two at room temperature in 10 nm grain-sized YSZ compared to coarse-grained or single crystal YSZ.

  11. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 °C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kgsystem), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/Lsystem). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material properties-and most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  12. Analytic Thermoelectric Couple Modeling: Variable Material Properties and Transient Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jonathan A.; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2015-01-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of the operation of a thermoelectric couple a set of analytic solutions have been derived for a variable material property couple and a transient couple. Using an analytic approach, as opposed to commonly used numerical techniques, results in a set of useful design guidelines. These guidelines can serve as useful starting conditions for further numerical studies, or can serve as design rules for lab built couples. The analytic modeling considers two cases and accounts for 1) material properties which vary with temperature and 2) transient operation of a couple. The variable material property case was handled by means of an asymptotic expansion, which allows for insight into the influence of temperature dependence on different material properties. The variable property work demonstrated the important fact that materials with identical average Figure of Merits can lead to different conversion efficiencies due to temperature dependence of the properties. The transient couple was investigated through a Greens function approach; several transient boundary conditions were investigated. The transient work introduces several new design considerations which are not captured by the classic steady state analysis. The work helps to assist in designing couples for optimal performance, and also helps assist in material selection.

  13. BMDO materials testing in the EOIM-3 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Shirley Y.; Brinza, David E.; Minton, Timothy K.; Liang, Ranty H.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials-3 (EOIM-3) experiment served as a testbed for a variety of materials that are candidates for Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) space assets. The materials evaluated on this flight experiment were provided by BMDO contractors and technology laboratories. A parallel ground-based exposure evaluation was conducted using the Fast Atom Sample Tester (FAST) atomic-oxygen simulation facility at Physical Sciences, Inc. The EOIM-3 flight materials were exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of approximately 2.3 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. The ground-based exposure fluence of 2.0 - 2.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm permits direct comparison with that of the flight-exposed specimens. The results from the flight test conducted aboard STS-46 and the correlative ground-based exposure are summarized here. A more detailed correlation study is presented in the JPL Publication 93-31 entitled 'Flight-and Ground-Test Correlation Study of BMDO SDS Materials: Phase 1 Report'. In general, the majority of the materials survived the AO environment with their performance tolerances maintained for the duration of the exposure. Optical materials, baffles, and coatings performed extremely well as did most of the thermal coatings and tribological materials. A few of the candidate radiator, threat shielding, and structural materials showed significant degradation. Many of the coatings designed to protect against AO erosion of sensitive materials performed this function well.

  14. Accelerated search for materials with targeted properties by adaptive design

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Dezhen; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Hogden, John; Theiler, James; Xue, Deqing; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    Finding new materials with targeted properties has traditionally been guided by intuition, and trial and error. With increasing chemical complexity, the combinatorial possibilities are too large for an Edisonian approach to be practical. Here we show how an adaptive design strategy, tightly coupled with experiments, can accelerate the discovery process by sequentially identifying the next experiments or calculations, to effectively navigate the complex search space. Our strategy uses inference and global optimization to balance the trade-off between exploitation and exploration of the search space. We demonstrate this by finding very low thermal hysteresis (ΔT) NiTi-based shape memory alloys, with Ti50.0Ni46.7Cu0.8Fe2.3Pd0.2 possessing the smallest ΔT (1.84 K). We synthesize and characterize 36 predicted compositions (9 feedback loops) from a potential space of ∼800,000 compositions. Of these, 14 had smaller ΔT than any of the 22 in the original data set. PMID:27079901

  15. Perspective: Interactive material property databases through aggregation of literature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Ram; Sparks, Taylor D.

    2016-05-01

    Searchable, interactive, databases of material properties, particularly those relating to functional materials (magnetics, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, etc.) are curiously missing from discussions of machine-learning and other data-driven methods for advancing new materials discovery. Here we discuss the manual aggregation of experimental data from the published literature for the creation of interactive databases that allow the original experimental data as well additional metadata to be visualized in an interactive manner. The databases described involve materials for thermoelectric energy conversion, and for the electrodes of Li-ion batteries. The data can be subject to machine-learning, accelerating the discovery of new materials.

  16. Use of material dielectric properties for agricultural applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of dielectric properties of materials for applications in agriculture are reviewed, and research findings on use of dielectric heating of materials and on sensing of product moisture content and other quality factors are discussed. Dielectric heating applications, include treatment of seed...

  17. Use of material dielectric properties in agricultural applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of dielectric properties of materials for applications in agriculture are reviewed, and research findings on use of dielectric heating of materials and on sensing of product moisture content and other quality factors are discussed. Dielectric heating applications, include treatment of seed...

  18. Heat Transmission Properties of Insulating and Building Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 81 NIST Heat Transmission Properties of Insulating and Building Materials (Web, free access)   NIST has accumulated a valuable and comprehensive collection of thermal conductivity data. Version 1.0 of the database includes data for over 2000 measurements, covering several categories of materials including concrete, fiberboard, plastics, thermal insulation, and rubber.

  19. Material Properties for Fiber-Reinforced Silica Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Rouanet, Stephane; Moses, John; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Ceramic fiber-reinforced silica aerogels are novel materials for high performance insulation, including thermal protection materials. Experimental data are presented for the thermal and mechanical properties, showing the trends exhibited over a range of fiber loadings and silica aerogel densities. Test results are compared to that of unreinforced bulk aerogels.

  20. Composite Material Property Nondestructive Characterization Using Obliquely Insonified Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Mal, A. K.; Lih, S.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of reflected ultrasonic waves induced by oblique insonification of composite materials is a powerful tool for providing informations about defects and material properties. A device was developed to manipulate a pair of transmitting and receiving transducers at vrious angles of wave incidence and propagation with the fiber orientation.

  1. Opalescence and fluorescence properties of indirect and direct resin materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Hoon; Yu, Bin; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2008-08-01

    To measure the opalescence and fluorescence properties of indirect and direct resin materials before and after polymerization, and to determine the influence of the material and shade group combination on these properties. BelleGlass NG (BG, indirect resin) and Estelite Sigma (ES, direct resin), each composed in 3 shade groups (EN, OD and TL for BG; BS, AS and OP for ES) out of a total of 16 shades were investigated. Resin material was packed into a mold (the BEC condition) and polymerized with a light-polymerization unit (CWL). Secondary polymerization (CIC) was performed for BG. Color was measured in the BEC, CWL, and CIC conditions, and the opalescence parameter (OP) and fluorescence parameter (FL) were calculated. For the OP, the mean for BG material was 24.3 before polymerization, which changed to 19.9 after polymerization (CIC). In the case of ES, the mean OP before polymerization was 25.6, which changed to 12.4 after polymerization (CWL). For the FL, the mean FL for BG was 2.5 before polymerization, which changed to 0.7 after polymerization. In the case of ES, the mean FL before polymerization was 1.2, which did not change after polymerization. Material and shade group combination influenced the OP and FL values (p<0.05). The opalescence and fluorescence properties of resin materials varied depending on the material, shade group, and polymerization. Clinically, these properties should be considered when neighboring teeth are restored with different types of material.

  2. Tribological properties of aluminium-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias Victoria, Patricia

    In order to improve the tribological performance of the aluminium-steel contact, two research lines have been followed: (1) Use of the ordered fluids liquid crystals and ionic liquids as lubricant additives. (2) Tribological behaviour of new powder metallurgy aluminium materials processed by mechanical milling. A parafinic-naftenic base oil modified by a 1wt% of four additives has been used: Three liquid crystals with increasing polarity: 4,4' -dibutylazobenzene (LC1) < colesteryl linoleate (LC2) < n-dodecyl ammonium chloride (LC3), and the ionic liquid 1-ethyl, 3-methyl-imidazolonium tetrafluoroborate. This is the first time that a ionic liquid is studied as lubricant additive. Viscosity measurements at 25 and 100°C, maximum number of molecules by unit aluminium surface and comparative costs of the additives showed the advantage of the ionic additives over the neutral ones. Pin-on-disk tests were performed according to ASTM G99. Influence of load, speed and temperature on friction and wear was studied for each additive. While the ionic liquid gives low friction (<0.1) and wear (≤10-5 mm3m-1), the performance of the liquid crystalline additives depends on the conditions. LC3 shows a higher lubricating ability than the neutral LC1 and LC2 under high load, speed or temperature. Only the ionic liquid shows tribochemical interaction (by SEM and EDS) with the steel and aluminium surfaces, with an increment in the fluorine content inside the wear track. The second line was to study the influence of the process conditions on the dry and lubricated wear of new powder-metallurgy aluminium materials. MA Al-NH3 milled under NH3 atmosphere was compared with (MA Al-Air) processed in air and with Al-1 which has not been mechanically alloyed. Conditions for mild to severe wear transition have been established. Al-1 is always under a severe wear regime. MA Al-NH3 shows transition to severe wear at 150°C, showing a 60% reduction in wear rate with respect to MA Al-Air and a two

  3. Online directory of databases for material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hampel, V.E.; Bollinger, W.A.; Gaynor, C.A.; Oldani, J.J.

    1984-05-01

    This directory is intended to provide interactive access to scientific and technical databases available to the public that contain information pertaining to nuclear, atomic, molecular, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of substances. In addition to the 101 data files previously reported, we have updated the information and identified more than 38 new numeric databases and predictive systems in these fields. We have included, where applicable, entries contained in the directories published by Cuadra Associates, CODATA, and UNESCO. In addition to describing the contents of the databases, we have provided updated information on the availability of the databases and their online access over public telephone and data networks. This directory is expected to become particularly important to the national and international magnetic- and laser-energy fusion projects, nuclear criticality safety, and computer aided engineering programs. Some of the numeric databases are directly accessible by authorized users via the TIS Intelligent Gateway Processor at LLNL (TIS/IGP), with self-guiding procedures for the downloading, merging, post-processing, and graphical/statistical analysis of data.

  4. Thermophysical Properties of Polymer Materials with High Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, S. M.; Gefle, O. S.; Dneprovskii, S. N.; Amitov, E. T.

    2015-06-01

    Results of studies on the main thermophysical properties of new thermally conductive polymer materials are presented. It is shown that modification of polymer dielectrics by micron-sized fillers allows thermally conductive materials with thermal conductivity not less than 2 W/(m K) to be produced, which makes it possible to use such materials as cooling elements of various electrical engineering and semiconductor equipment and devices.

  5. The effect of space environment exposure on the properties of polymer matrix composite materials (A0180)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Hansen, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of various lengths of exposure to a space environment on the mechanical properties of selected commercial polymer matrix composite materials. Fiber materials will include graphite, boron, S-glass, and PRD-49. The mechanical properties to be investigated are orthotropic elastic constants, strength parameters (satisfying the tensor polynomial relation), coefficients of thermal expansion, impact resistance, crack propagation, and fracture toughness. In addition, the effect of laminate thickness on property changes will also be investigated.

  6. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Semelsberger, Troy; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kg system), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/L system). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material propertiesdand most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  7. Challenges and Opportunities in Interdisciplinary Materials Research Experiences for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vohra, Yogesh; Nordlund, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) offer a broad range of interdisciplinary materials research experiences to undergraduate students with diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, applied mathematics, and engineering. The research projects offered cover a broad range of topics including high pressure physics, microelectronic materials, nano-materials, laser materials, bioceramics and biopolymers, cell-biomaterials interactions, planetary materials, and computer simulation of materials. The students welcome the opportunity to work with an interdisciplinary team of basic science, engineering, and biomedical faculty but the challenge is in learning the key vocabulary for interdisciplinary collaborations, experimental tools, and working in an independent capacity. The career development workshops dealing with the graduate school application process and the entrepreneurial business activities were found to be most effective. The interdisciplinary university wide poster session helped student broaden their horizons in research careers. The synergy of the REU program with other concurrently running high school summer programs on UAB campus will also be discussed.

  8. A summary of the fatigue properties of wind turbine materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.

    2000-01-01

    Modern wind turbines are fatigue-critical machines that are typically used to produce electrical power from the wind. The materials used to construct these machines are subjected to a unique loading spectrum that contains several orders of magnitude more cycles than other fatigue-critical structures, e.g. an aeroplane. To facilitate fatigue designs, a large database of material properties has been generated over the past several years that is specialized to materials typically used in wind turbines. This article reviews the fatigue data that have been developed especially for wind turbines. Major sections are devoted to the properties developed for metals (primarily aluminium), wood and fibreglass. Special emphasis is placed on the fibreglass discussion because this material is currently the material of choice for wind turbine blades. The article focuses on the data developed in the US, but cites European references that provide important insights. Published in 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A Summary of the Fatigue Properties of Wind Turbine Materials

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND, HERBERT J.

    1999-10-07

    Modern wind turbines are fatigue critical machines that are typically used to produce electrical power from the wind. The materials used to construct these machines are subjected to a unique loading spectrum that contains several orders of magnitude more cycles than other fatigue critical structures, e.g., an airplane. To facilitate fatigue designs, a large database of material properties has been generated over the past several years that is specialized to materials typically used in wind turbines. In this paper, I review these fatigue data. Major sections are devoted to the properties developed for wood, metals (primarily aluminum) and fiberglass. Special emphasis is placed on the fiberglass discussion because this material is current the material of choice for wind turbine blades. The paper focuses on the data developed in the U.S., but cites European references that provide important insights.

  10. Investigation of thermal properties of raw materials of asphalt mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.

    2017-02-01

    Asphalt mixtures are composite materials, which are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and bitumen. During the mixing process mineral materials were blended with bitumen at relatively high temperature (∼200 °C). As the binding process come off in these higher temperature range, thermal properties of asphaltic materials are important. The aim of this project is to reveal the thermal properties of raw materials. During our research two types of mineral aggregates were tested (limestone and dolomite) by different methods. Differential thermal analysis, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were investigated at technologically important temperatures. The results showed that the structure of mineral materials did not change at elevated temperatures, expansion of samples was neglible, while thermal conductivity changed by temperature.

  11. Properties of Extruded PS-212 Type Self-Lubricating Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, W. J.; Sliney, H. E.; Soltis, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    Research has been underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center since the 1960's to develop high temperature, self-lubricating materials. The bulk of the research has been done in-house by a team of researchers from the Materials Division. A series of self-lubricating solid material systems has been developed over the years. One of the most promising is the composite material system referred to as PS-212 or PM-212. This material is a powder metallurgy product composed of metal bonded chromium carbide and two solid lubricating materials known to be self-lubricating over a wide temperature range. NASA feels this material has a wide potential in industrial applications. Simplified processing of this material would enhance its commercial potential. Processing changes have the potential to reduce processing costs, but tribological and physical properties must not be adversely affected. Extrusion processing has been employed in this investigation as a consolidation process for PM-212/PS-212. It has been successful in that high density bars of EX-212 (extruded PM-212) can readily be fabricated. Friction and strength data indicate these properties have been maintained or improved over the P.M. version. A range of extrusion temperatures have been investigated and tensile, friction, wear, and microstructural data have been obtained. Results indicate extrusion temperatures are not critical from a densification standpoint, but other properties are temperature dependent.

  12. Perceived object stability depends on shape and material properties.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Julian; Barnett-Cowan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Humans can detect whether an unstable object will fall or right itself, suggesting that the visual system can extract an object's center of mass (COM) and relate this to its base of support. While the COM can be approximated by its shape, this assumes uniform density. We created images of computer-generated goblets made of different materials to assess whether the visual system estimates an object's COM from both shape and material properties. The images were either uniformly dense (e.g., glass, gold, etc.) or made of composite materials (e.g., glass and gold) and positioned upright or upside-down near a table ledge. We compared each goblet's critical angle (CA), the angle at which each goblet is equally likely to fall or right itself, to the perceived CA in a two-alternative-forced-choice paradigm. Participants also rank-ordered 20 materials by density on a questionnaire. The results show that observers accurately estimate the CA for all goblets and are sensitive to subtle changes of an object's COM with change in shape and composite material properties. Importantly, rated density - as measured from the questionnaire - and true material density were positively correlated, suggesting that humans might maintain a representation of relative material density with which to assess object stability. We conclude that the brain is able to assess an object's behavior in a gravitational environment by forming a reliable assessment of an object's COM from both its geometric shape and material properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Strength properties of fly ash based controlled low strength materials.

    PubMed

    Türkel, S

    2007-08-25

    Controlled low strength material (CLSM) is a flowable mixture that can be used as a backfill material in place of compacted soils. Flowable fill requires no tamping or compaction to achieve its strength and typically has a load carrying capacity much higher than compacted soils, but it can still be excavated easily. The selection of CLSM type should be based on technical and economical considerations for specific applications. In this study, a mixture of high volume fly ash (FA), crushed limestone powder (filler) and a low percentage of pozzolana cement have been tried in different compositions. The amount of pozzolana cement was kept constant for all mixes as, 5% of fly ash weight. The amount of mixing water was chosen in order to provide optimum pumpability by determining the spreading ratio of CLSM mixtures using flow table method. The shear strength of the material is a measure of the materials ability to support imposed stresses on the material. The shear strength properties of CLSM mixtures have been investigated by a series of laboratory tests. The direct shear test procedure was applied for determining the strength parameters Phi (angle of shearing resistance) and C(h) (cohesion intercept) of the material. The test results indicated that CLSM mixtures have superior shear strength properties compared to compacted soils. Shear strength, cohesion intercept and angle of shearing resistance values of CLSM mixtures exceeded conventional soil materials' similar properties at 7 days. These parameters proved that CLSM mixtures are suitable materials for backfill applications.

  14. MISSE 6, 7 and 8 Materials Sample Experiments from the International Space Station Materials and Processes Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravchenko, Michael; ORourke, Mary Jane; Golden, Johnny; Finckenor, Miria; Leatherwood, Michael; Alred, John

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station Materials and Processes (ISS M&P) team has multiple material samples on MISSE 6, 7 and 8 to observe Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environmental effects on Space Station materials. Optical properties, thickness/mass loss, surface elemental analysis, visual and microscopic analysis for surface change are some of the techniques employed in this investigation. The ISS M&P team has participated in previous MISSE activities in order to better characterize the LEO effects on Space Station materials. This investigation will further this effort. Results for the following MISSE 6 samples materials will be presented: a comparison of anodize and chemical conversion coatings on various aluminum alloys, electroless nickel; AZ93 white ceramic thermal control coating with and without Teflon; Hyzod(TM) polycarbonate used to temporarily protect ISS windows; Russian quartz window material; reformulated Teflon (TM) coated Beta Cloth (Teflon TM without perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)) and a Dutch version of beta cloth. Discussion for current and future MISSE materials experiments will be presented. MISSE 7 samples are: deionized water sealed anodized aluminum Photofoil(TM); indium tin oxide (ITO)- coated Kapton(TM) used as thermo-optical surfaces; mechanically scribed tin-plated beryllium-copper samples for "tin pest" growth ( alpha/Beta transformation); Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) parachute soft goods. MISSE 8 sample: exposed "scrim cloth" (fiberglass weave) from the ISS solar array wing material, Davlyn fiberglass sleeve material, Permacel and Intertape protective tapes, and ITO-coated Kapton.

  15. MISSE 6, 7 and 8 Materials Sample Experiments from the International Space Station Materials and Processes Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravchenko, Michael; ORourke, Mary Jane; Golden, Johnny; Finckenor, Miria; Leatherwood, Michael; Alred, John

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station Materials and Processes (ISS M&P) team has multiple material samples on MISSE 6, 7 and 8 to observe Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environmental effects on Space Station materials. Optical properties, thickness/mass loss, surface elemental analysis, visual and microscopic analysis for surface change are some of the techniques employed in this investigation. The ISS M&P team has participated in previous MISSE activities in order to better characterize the LEO effects on Space Station materials. This investigation will further this effort. Results for the following MISSE 6 samples materials will be presented: a comparison of anodize and chemical conversion coatings on various aluminum alloys, electroless nickel; AZ93 white ceramic thermal control coating with and without Teflon; Hyzod(TM) polycarbonate used to temporarily protect ISS windows; Russian quartz window material; reformulated Teflon (TM) coated Beta Cloth (Teflon TM without perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)) and a Dutch version of beta cloth. Discussion for current and future MISSE materials experiments will be presented. MISSE 7 samples are: deionized water sealed anodized aluminum Photofoil(TM); indium tin oxide (ITO)- coated Kapton(TM) used as thermo-optical surfaces; mechanically scribed tin-plated beryllium-copper samples for "tin pest" growth ( alpha/Beta transformation); Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) parachute soft goods. MISSE 8 sample: exposed "scrim cloth" (fiberglass weave) from the ISS solar array wing material, Davlyn fiberglass sleeve material, Permacel and Intertape protective tapes, and ITO-coated Kapton.

  16. Corrosion properties of second-generation conductive materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groshart, E.

    1984-01-01

    Since the introduction of silver-filled epoxy adhesives and silver-filled nitrocellulose lacquer as RFI control materials, a number of new materials have been introduced. The resin carriers have been changed in an effort to make the materials more usable or more EPA acceptable and the fillers have been varied in an effort to make the materials less costly. The corrosion-related properties of second-generation materials were assessed, including adhesives, caulks, and greases. Aluminum 2024 was used as the only substrate material. Ten days of salt fog was used as the corrosive environment. If a noble material such as silver, nickel, or carbon is sandwiched with aluminum an increase in dc resistance results given enough time. If this is unsatisfactory electrically it should either not be used or have all corrosive environments excluded.

  17. Changes in the Optical Properties of Materials Are Observed After 18 Months in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    1999-01-01

    Materials located on the exterior of spacecraft in low Earth orbit are subjected to a number of environmental threats, including atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeroid and debris impact. Atomic oxygen attacks materials vulnerable to oxidation. Ultraviolet radiation can break chemical bonds and cause undesirable changes in optical properties. Thermal cycling can cause cracking, and micrometeroid and debris impacts can damage protective coatings. Another threat is contamination. The outgassing of volatile chemicals can contaminate nearby surfaces, changing their thermal control properties. Contaminated surfaces may undergo further change as a result of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation exposure. The Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) experiment was designed as a risk mitigation experiment for the International Space Station. Samples were characterized before launch, exposed for 18 months on the exterior of Mir, and characterized upon their return. Lessons learned from POSA about the durability of material properties can be applied to the space station and other long-duration missions.

  18. MPOD: A Material Property Open Database linked to structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepponi, Giancarlo; Gražulis, Saulius; Chateigner, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Inspired by the Crystallography Open Database (COD), the Material Properties Open Database (MPOD) was given birth. MPOD aims at collecting and making publicly available at no charge tensorial properties (including scalar properties) of phases and linking such properties to structural information of the COD when available. MPOD files are written with the STAR file syntax, used and developed for the Crystallographic Information Files. A dictionary containing new definitions has been written according to the Dictionary Definition Language 1, although some tricks were adopted to allow for multiple entries still avoiding ambiguousness. The initial set includes mechanical properties, elastic stiffness and compliance, internal friction; electrical properties, resistivity, dielectric permittivity and stiffness, thermodynamic properties, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, diffusivity and expansion; electromechanical properties, piezoelectricity, electrostriction, electromechanical coupling; optical properties; piezooptic and photoelastic properties; superconducting properties, critical fields, penetration and coherence lengths. Properties are reported in MPOD files where the original published paper containing the data is cited and structural and experimental information is also given. One MPOD file contains information relative to only one publication and one phase. The files and the information contained therein can also be consulted on-line at http://www.materialproperties.org.

  19. A teleoperated robotic manipulator system for materials processing experiment servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchting, Steven; Purves, R. Byron; Grover, Jeffrey L.; Scruggs, Roy

    1988-01-01

    In 1984 Congress authorized NASA to begin the Space Station Program, and requested that 10 percent of program funds be spent in implementing automation and robotics (A and R) on the Space Station. In response to that request, Boeing established several Independent Research and Development (IR and D) projects to explore possible uses for A and R on the Space Station. One of those projects, and automated materials processing experiment, is discussed. The project uses a teleoperated robot to demonstrate telescience applied to a Chemical Vapor Transport materials processing experiment.

  20. Optical method for determining the mechanical properties of a material

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.; Stoner, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample, comprising the steps of: (a) acquiring data from the sample using at least one probe beam wavelength to measure, for times less than a few nanoseconds, a change in the reflectivity of the sample induced by a pump beam; (b) analyzing the data to determine at least one material property by comparing a background signal component of the data with data obtained for a similar delay time range from one or more samples prepared under conditions known to give rise to certain physical and chemical material properties; and (c) analyzing a component of the measured time dependent reflectivity caused by ultrasonic waves generated by the pump beam using the at least one determined material property. The first step of analyzing may include a step of interpolating between reference samples to obtain an intermediate set of material properties. The material properties may include sound velocity, density, and optical constants. In one embodiment, only a correlation is made with the background signal, and at least one of the structural phase, grain orientation, and stoichiometry is determined.

  1. Optical method for determining the mechanical properties of a material

    DOEpatents

    Maris, H.J.; Stoner, R.J.

    1998-12-01

    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample, comprising the steps of: (a) acquiring data from the sample using at least one probe beam wavelength to measure, for times less than a few nanoseconds, a change in the reflectivity of the sample induced by a pump beam; (b) analyzing the data to determine at least one material property by comparing a background signal component of the data with data obtained for a similar delay time range from one or more samples prepared under conditions known to give rise to certain physical and chemical material properties; and (c) analyzing a component of the measured time dependent reflectivity caused by ultrasonic waves generated by the pump beam using the at least one determined material property. The first step of analyzing may include a step of interpolating between reference samples to obtain an intermediate set of material properties. The material properties may include sound velocity, density, and optical constants. In one embodiment, only a correlation is made with the background signal, and at least one of the structural phase, grain orientation, and stoichiometry is determined. 14 figs.

  2. Acoustical properties of selected tissue phantom materials for ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Zell, K; Sperl, J I; Vogel, M W; Niessner, R; Haisch, C

    2007-10-21

    This note summarizes the characterization of the acoustic properties of four materials intended for the development of tissue, and especially breast tissue, phantoms for the use in photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. The materials are agar, silicone, polyvinyl alcohol gel (PVA) and polyacrylamide gel (PAA). The acoustical properties, i.e., the speed of sound, impedance and acoustic attenuation, are determined by transmission measurements of sound waves at room temperature under controlled conditions. Although the materials are tested for application such as photoacoustic phantoms, we focus here on the acoustic properties, while the optical properties will be discussed elsewhere. To obtain the acoustic attenuation in a frequency range from 4 MHz to 14 MHz, two ultrasound sources of 5 MHz and 10 MHz core frequencies are used. For preparation, each sample is cast into blocks of three different thicknesses. Agar, PVA and PAA show similar acoustic properties as water. Within silicone polymer, a significantly lower speed of sound and higher acoustical attenuation than in water and human tissue were found. All materials can be cast into arbitrary shapes and are suitable for tissue-mimicking phantoms. Due to its lower speed of sound, silicone is generally less suitable than the other presented materials.

  3. Neural networks as tools for predicting materials properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, B.G.; Noid, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    Materials science is of fundamental significance to science and technology because our industrial base and society depend upon our ability to develop advanced materials. Materials and materials processing cuts across almost every sector of industry. The key in all of these areas is the ability to rapidly screen possible designs which will have significant impact. However up to now materials design and processing have been to a large extent empirical sciences. In addition we are still unable to design new alloys and polymers to meet application specific requirements. Being able to do so quickly and at minimum cost would provide an incredible advantage. Obviously, the ability to predict physical, chemical, or mechanical properties of compounds prior to their synthesis is of great technological value in optimizing their design, processing, or recycling. In addition, in order to realize the ultimate goal of materials by computational design, the reverse problem, prediction of chemical structure based on desired properties, has to be resolved. Research at ORNL has lead to the development of a novel computational paradigm (coupling computational neural networks with graph theory, genetic algorithms, wavelet theory, fuzzy logic, molecular dynamics, and quantum chemistry) capable of performing accurate computational synthesis (both predictions of properties or the design of compounds that have specified performance criteria). The computational paradigm represents a hybrid of a number of emerging technologies and has proven to work very well for test compounds ranging from small organic molecules to polymeric materials. Fundamental to the method is the neural network-based formulation of the correlations between structure and properties. The advantages of this method is in its ease of use, speed, accuracy, and that it can be used to predict both properties from structure, and also structure from properties.

  4. Cyclic cryopreservation affects the nanoscale material properties of trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Landauer, Alexander K; Mondal, Sumona; Yuya, Philip A; Kuxhaus, Laurel

    2014-11-07

    Tissues such as bone are often stored via freezing, or cryopreservation. During an experimental protocol, bone may be frozen and thawed a number of times. For whole bone, the mechanical properties (strength and modulus) do not significantly change throughout five freeze-thaw cycles. Material properties at the trabecular and lamellar scales are distinct from whole bone properties, thus the impact of freeze-thaw cycling at this scale is unknown. To address this, the effect of repeated freezing on viscoelastic material properties of trabecular bone was quantified via dynamic nanoindentation. Vertebrae from five cervine spines (1.5-year-old, male) were semi-randomly assigned, three-to-a-cycle, to 0-10 freeze-thaw cycles. After freeze-thaw cycling, the vertebrae were dissected, prepared and tested. ANOVA (factors cycle, frequency, and donor) on storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangent, were conducted. Results revealed significant changes between cycles for all material properties for most cycles, no significant difference across most of the dynamic range, and significant differences between some donors. Regression analysis showed a moderate positive correlation between cycles and material property for loss modulus and loss tangent, and weak negative correlation for storage modulus, all correlations were significant. These results indicate that not only is elasticity unpredictably altered, but also that damping and viscoelasticity tend to increase with additional freeze-thaw cycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Material properties derived from three-dimensional shape representations.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Phillip J; Anderson, Barton L

    2015-10-01

    Retinal image structure is due to a complex mixture of physical sources that includes the surface's 3D shape, light-reflectance and transmittance properties, and the light field. The visual system can somehow discriminate between these different sources of image structure and recover information about the objects and surfaces in the scene. There has been significant debate about the nature of the representations that are used to derive surface reflectance properties such as specularity (gloss). Specularity could be derived either directly from 2D image properties or by exploiting information that can only be derived from representations in which 3D shape has been made explicit. We recently provided evidence that 3D shape information can play a critical role in the perception of material specularity, but the shape manipulation in our prior study also significantly changed 2D image properties (Marlow, Todorović, & Anderson, 2015). Here, we held fixed all monocularly visible 2D image properties and manipulated 3D shape stereoscopically. When binocularly fused, the depicted 3D shapes induced striking transformations in the surfaces' apparent material properties, which vary from matte to 'metallic'. Our psychophysical measurements of perceived specularity reveal that 3D shape information can play a critical role in material perception for both singly-curved surfaces and more complex geometries that curve in two directions. These results provide strong evidence that the perception of material specularity can depend on physical constraints derived from representations in which three-dimensional shape has been made explicit.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Determined Through Molecular Modeling Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    The potential for gains in material properties over conventional materials has motivated an effort to develop novel nanostructured materials for aerospace applications. These novel materials typically consist of a polymer matrix reinforced with particles on the nanometer length scale. In this study, molecular modeling is used to construct fully atomistic models of a carbon nanotube embedded in an epoxy polymer matrix. Functionalization of the nanotube which consists of the introduction of direct chemical bonding between the polymer matrix and the nanotube, hence providing a load transfer mechanism, is systematically varied. The relative effectiveness of functionalization in a nanostructured material may depend on a variety of factors related to the details of the chemical bonding and the polymer structure at the nanotube-polymer interface. The objective of this modeling is to determine what influence the details of functionalization of the carbon nanotube with the polymer matrix has on the resulting mechanical properties. By considering a range of degree of functionalization, the structure-property relationships of these materials is examined and mechanical properties of these models are calculated using standard techniques.

  7. Development and Demonstration of Material Properties Database and Software for the Simulation of Flow Properties in Cementitious Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Flach, G.

    2015-03-30

    This report describes work performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in fiscal year 2014 to develop a new Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) software module designated as FLOExcel. FLOExcel incorporates a uniform database to capture material characterization data and a GoldSim model to define flow properties for both intact and fractured cementitious materials and estimate Darcy velocity based on specified hydraulic head gradient and matric tension. The software module includes hydraulic parameters for intact cementitious and granular materials in the database and a standalone GoldSim framework to manipulate the data. The database will be updated with new data as it comes available. The software module will later be integrated into the next release of the CBP Toolbox, Version 3.0. This report documents the development efforts for this software module. The FY14 activities described in this report focused on the following two items that form the FLOExcel package; 1) Development of a uniform database to capture CBP data for cementitious materials. In particular, the inclusion and use of hydraulic properties of the materials are emphasized; and 2) Development of algorithms and a GoldSim User Interface to calculate hydraulic flow properties of degraded and fractured cementitious materials. Hydraulic properties are required in a simulation of flow through cementitious materials such as Saltstone, waste tank fill grout, and concrete barriers. At SRNL these simulations have been performed using the PORFLOW code as part of Performance Assessments for salt waste disposal and waste tank closure.

  8. Investigating the thermophysical properties of indurated materials on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Nathaniel William

    Indurated materials have been observed on the surface of Mars at every landing site and inferred from orbital remote-sensing data by the Viking, Mars Global Surveyor, and Mars Odyssey spacecraft. However, indurated materials on Mars are poorly understood because there is no ground truth for the indurated surfaces inferred from thermal remote-sensing data. I adopted two approaches to investigate indurated materials on Mars: (1) remote-sensing analysis of the Isidis basin, which shows some of the highest thermal inertia values derived from TES 1 observations, and (2) laboratory analyses of terrestrial indurated materials. To characterize the surface of the Isidis basin, I combined a variety of remote-sensing datasets, including thermal inertia data derived from TES and MO-THEMIS, TES albedo, THEMIS thermal and visible imaging, and Earth-based radar observations. From these observations I concluded that the thermal inertia values in the Isidis basin are likely the result of variations in the degree of cementation of indurated materials. To examine the thermophysical properties of indurated materials I collected four examples of terrestrial indurated materials. These included two types of gypcrete collected from a gypcrete deposit near Upham Hills, NM, clay-materials from Lunar Lake Playa, NV, and a pyroclastic material from the Bandelier Tuff near Los Alamos, NM. Despite significant differences in their physical properties and origins, all of these materials have thermal inertia values consistent with inferred indurated surfaces on Mars. There are no strong correlations between the thermal and physical properties of the collected samples due to thermal effects of the fabrics of the indurated materials. 1 Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. 2 Thermal Emission Imaging System onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft

  9. Design of meta-materials with novel thermoelastic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Seth

    The development of new techniques in micro-manufacturing in recent years has enabled the fabrication of material microstructures with essentially arbitrary designs, including those with multiple constituent materials and void space in nearly any geometry. With an essentially open design space, the onus is now on the engineer to design composite materials which are optimal for their purpose. These new materials, called meta-materials or materials with architected microstructures, offer the potential to mix and match properties in a way that exceeds that of traditional composites. We concentrate on the thermal and elastic properties of isotropic meta-materials, and design microstructures with combinations of Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, and mass density which are not found among naturally-occurring or traditional composite materials. We also produce designs with thermal expansion far below other materials. We use homogenization theory to predict the material properties of a bulk meta-material comprised of a periodic lattice of unit cells, then use topology optimization to rearrange two constituent materials and void space within the unit cell in order to extremize an objective function which yields the combinations of properties we seek. This method is quite general and can be extended to consider additional properties of interest. We constrain the design space to satisfy material isotropy directly (2D), or to satisfy cubic symmetry (3D), from which point an isotropy constraint function is easily applied. We develop and use filtering, nonlinear interpolation, and thresholding methods to render the design problem well-posed, and as a result ensure our designs are manufacturable. We have written two computer implementations of this design methodology. The first is for creating two-dimensional designs, which can run on a serial computer in approximately half an hour. The second is a parallel implementation to allow

  10. Molecule-based electrorheological material with luminescence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Xing; Liao, Fu-Hui; Shang, Yan-Li; Jia, Yun-Ling; Li, Jun-Ran

    2013-02-01

    Molecule-based electrorheological (ER) materials with luminescence property, based on β-cyclodextrin [(C6O5H10)7, β-CD] inclusion compounds between β-CD (host) and the rare earth (RE) (RE=Tb, Eu) complex (guest), have been synthesized as a novel type of ER materials using β-CD, Tb(NO3)3, Eu(NO3)3, sulphosalicylic acid (C7H6O6S·2H2O, SSA) and m-phthalic acid (C8H6O4, MPA) as original materials. The composition, ER performance, luminescence property and dielectric property of the materials have been studied. The results show that the rare earth complex in the cavity of β-CD may enhance the ER performance of β-CD, and the complex (Tb-SSA) of Tb3+ can improve more effectively the ER activity of β-CD than that (Eu-MPA) of Eu3+ among both of the complexes. The composition and structure are the dominant factors in improving the ER effect. The fluorescence intensity, fluorescence lifetime and emission quantum yield of the particle materials and their suspensions in silicone oil have been tested, and fine luminescence performance has been detected. The material with ER activity and luminescence performance is a novel multifunctional material which would have wide application prospect.

  11. Characterization of mouthguard materials: thermal properties of commercialized products.

    PubMed

    Gould, Trenton E; Piland, Scott G; Shin, Junghwan; McNair, Olivia; Hoyle, Charles E; Nazarenko, Sergei

    2009-12-01

    Several mechanisms have been purported to describe how mouthguards protect the orofacial complex against injury. As the properties needed for these mechanisms to be effective are temperature and frequency dependent, the specific aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive thermal characterization of commercial mouthguard materials. Five commercially representative thermoplastic mouthguard materials (Essix Resin, Erkoflex, Proform-regular, Proform-laminate, and Polyshok) were tested. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) techniques were implemented to measure thermal transitions and mechanical properties. Measurements were conducted three times per sample. One-way ANOVA and one-sample t-tests were used to test for differences between commercial products on selected mean thermal property values. The DSC measurements indicated no differences between commercial materials for mean glass transition (p=0.053), onset melt (p=0.973), or peak melt (p=0.436) temperatures. Likewise, DMA measurements revealed no differences between commercial materials for the mean glass transition (p=0.093), storage modulus (p=0.257), or loss modulus (p=0.172) properties, respectively. The one-sample t-tests revealed that glass transition temperatures were different from intra-oral temperature (p<0.005) for all materials. Commercialized mouthguard materials are sensitive to repetitive heating and cooling cycles, prolonged thermal treatment, and have glass transitions well below their end-use intra-oral temperature. As such, these materials are functioning as elastomers and not optimal mechanical damping materials. Dental clinicians, healthcare practitioners, or end-users should be aware that these materials are at best problematic with respect to this protective mechanism.

  12. Atomistic methodologies for material properties of 2D materials at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen

    Research on two dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and MoS2, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology. Due to the extraordinary properties of 2D materials, research extends from fundamental science to novel applications of 2D materials. From an engineering point of view, understanding the material properties of 2D materials under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of 2D-material-based devices at the nanoscale. Even at the nanoscale, molecular systems typically consist of a vast number of atoms. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations enable us to understand the properties of assemblies of molecules in terms of their structure and the microscopic interactions between them. From a continuum approach, mechanical properties and thermal properties, such as strain, stress, and heat capacity, are well defined and experimentally measurable. In MD simulations, material systems are considered to be discrete, and only interatomic potential, interatomic forces, and atom positions are directly obtainable. Besides, most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable since there is no singularity in MD simulations. However, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at the nanoscale. Therefore, equivalent definition of a physical quantity both in atomic scale and macroscopic scale is necessary in order to understand molecular and continuum scale phenomena concurrently. This work introduces atomistic simulation methodologies, based on interatomic potential and interatomic forces, as a tool to unveil the mechanical properties, thermal properties and fracture mechanical properties of 2D materials at the nanoscale. Among many 2D materials, graphene and MoS2 have attracted intense interest. Therefore, we applied our

  13. Interfacial and transport properties of nanoconstrained inorganic and organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocherlakota, Lakshmi Suhasini

    Nanoscale constraints impact the material properties of both organic and inorganic systems. The systems specifically studied here are (i) nanoconstrained polymeric systems, poly(l-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) relevant to gas separation membranes (ii) Zwitterionic polymers poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate)(pSBMA), poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide) (pCBAA), and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl methacrylate) (PEGMA) brushes critical for reducing bio-fouling (iii) Surface properties of N-layer graphene sheets. Interfacial constraints in ultrathin poly(l-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) membranes yielded gas permeabilities and CO2/helium selectivities that exceed bulk PTMSP membrane transport properties by up to three-fold for membranes of submicrometer thickness. Indicative of a free volume increase, a molecular energetic mobility analysis (involving intrinsic friction analysis) revealed enhanced methyl side group mobilities in thin PTMSP membranes with maximum permeation, compared to bulk films. Aging studies conducted over the timescales relevant to the conducted experiments signify that the free volume states in the thin film membranes are highly unstable in the presence of sorbing gases such as CO2. To maintain this high free volume configuration of polymer while improving the temporal stability an "inverse" architecture to conventional polymer nanocomposites was investigated, in which the polymer phase of PTMSP and PEO were interfacially and dimensionally constrained in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. While with this architecture the benefits of nanocomposite and ultrathin film membranes of PTMSP could be reproduced and improved upon, also the temporal stability could be enhanced substantially. The PEO-AAO nanocomposite membranes also revealed improved gas selectivity properties of CO2 over helium. In the thermal transition studies of zwitterionic pSBMA brushes a reversible critical transition temperature of 60

  14. Chemistry and properties of blends of acetylene terminated materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a NASA program to develop new high temperature/high performance structural materials, the chemistry and properties of acetylene-containing materials and their cured resins are under investigation. The objective of this work is to develop materials that are readily processable (i.e., 200-300 C and about 1.4 MPa or less) and possess usable mechanical properties at temperatures as high as 177 C. An acetylene-terminated aspartimide (ATA) was blended with an equal weight of an acetylene-terminated arylene ether (ATAE) oligomer. The blend was subsequently thermally cured to yield a resin which was evaluated in the form of neat resin moldings, adhesive specimens, and laminates. Adhesive specimens and laminates gave good mechanical properties to temperatures as high as 177 C. In addition, preliminary laminate work is presented on the resin from a blend of a new N-methyl substituted ATA and an ATAE.

  15. Heteroatom-doped graphene materials: syntheses, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuewan; Sun, Gengzhi; Routh, Parimal; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Huang, Wei; Chen, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Heteroatom doping can endow graphene with various new or improved electromagnetic, physicochemical, optical, and structural properties. This greatly extends the arsenal of graphene materials and their potential for a spectrum of applications. Considering the latest developments, we comprehensively and critically discuss the syntheses, properties and emerging applications of the growing family of heteroatom-doped graphene materials. The advantages, disadvantages, and preferential doping features of current synthesis approaches are compared, aiming to provide clues for developing new and controllable synthetic routes. We emphasize the distinct properties resulting from various dopants, different doping levels and configurations, and synergistic effects from co-dopants, hoping to assist a better understanding of doped graphene materials. The mechanisms underlying their advantageous uses for energy storage, energy conversion, sensing, and gas storage are highlighted, aiming to stimulate more competent applications.

  16. System Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, L.

    2001-01-01

    This systems report describes how the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment was developed. Pertinent design parameters are discussed, along with mission information and system requirements to successfully complete the mission. Environmental testing was performed on the OPM to certify it for spaceflight. This testing included vibration, thermal vacuum, electromagnetic interference and conductance, and toxicity tests. Instrument and monitor subsystem performances, including the reflectometer, vacuum ultraviolet, total integrated scatter, atomic oxygen monitor, irradiance monitor, and molecular contamination monitor during the mission are discussed. The OPM experiment was launched aboard the Space Shuttle on mission STS-81 in January 1997 and transferred to the Mir space station. An extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed in April 1997 to attach the OPM experiment to the outside of the Mir/Shuttle Docking Module for space environment exposure. The OPM conducted in situ measurements of a number of material samples. These data may be found in the OPM Science Report. OPM was retrieved during an EVA in January 1998 and was returned to Earth on board the Space Shuttle on mission STS-89.

  17. Micro-mechanical properties of bio-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakiev, V.; Markovsky, A.; Aznakayev, E.; Zakiev, I.; Gursky, E.

    2005-09-01

    Investigation of physical-mechanical characteristics of stomatologic materials (ceramics for crowns, silver amalgam, cements and materials on a polymeric basis) properties by the modern methods and correspondence their physical-mechanical properties to the physical-mechanical properties of native teeth is represented. The universal device "Micron-Gamma" is built for this purpose. This device allows investigate the physical-mechanical characteristics of stomatologic materials (an elastic modulus, micro-hardness, destruction energy, resistance to scratching) by the methods of continuous indentation, scanning and pricking. A new effective method as well as its device application for the investigation of surface layers of materials and their physical-mechanical properties by means of the constant indenting of an indenter is realized. This method is based on the automatic registration of loading (P) on the indenter with the simultaneous measurement of its indentation depth (h). The results of investigations are presented on a loading diagram P=f(h) and as a digital imaging on the PC. This diagram allows get not only more diverse characteristics in the real time regime but also gives new information about the stomatologic material properties. Therefore, we can to investigate the wide range of the physical-mechanical properties of stomatologic materials. "Micron-alpha" is digital detection device for light imaging applications. It enables to detect the very low material surface relief heights and restoration of surface micro topography by a sequence data processing of interferential data of partially coherent light also. "Micron-alpha" allows: to build 2D and 3D imaging of a material surface; to estimate the quantitatively characteristics of a material surface; to observe the imaging interferential pictures both in the white and in the monochromatic light; to carry out the investigation of blood cells, microbes and biological macromolecules profiles. The method allows

  18. Cellulose materials modified by antiseptics and their antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, N E; Panarin, E F; Zaikina, N A; Kudina, N P; Yongfa, H; Su, L S; Bobasheva, A S; Lavrentiev, V V

    1998-01-01

    Adsorption properties of dressing cellulose materials with respect to surfactant antiseptics were studied. These antiseptics are a complex of the copolymer of N-vinylpyrrolidone and crotonic acid with dimethylbenzylalkylammonium chloride (a synthetic polymer with a wide spectrum of antimicrobial effect) and its low molecular weight analogue (dimethylbenzylalkylammonium chloride). It was established that cellulose materials reversibly adsorb mentioned surfactant antiseptics depending on their concentration in the initial solutions. Maximum release of surfactant antiseptics is achieved at solutions at pH = 7.0. Microbiological tests of cellulose materials modified by antiseptics have shown that they exhibit antimicrobial activity. These results can be used in medical practice in clinics for imparting antimicrobial properties to dressing materials.

  19. Spectral reflectance properties of carbon-bearing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Gaffey, Michael J.; Moslow, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    The 0.3-2.6 micrometers spectral reflectance properties of carbon polymorphs (graphite, carbon black, diamond), carbides (silicon carbide, cementite), and macromolecular organic-bearing materials (coal, coal tar extract, oil sand, oil shale) are found to vary from sample to sample and among groups. The carbon polymorphs are readily distinguishable on the basis of their visible-near infrared spectral slopes and shapes. The spectra of macromolecular organic-bearing materials show increases in reflectance toward longer wavelengths, exceeding the reflectance rise of more carbon-rich materials. Reflectance spectra of carbonaceous materials are affected by the crystal structure, composition, and degree of order/disorder of the samples. The characteristic spectral properties can potentially be exploited to identify individual carbonaceous grains in meteorites (as separates or in situ) or to conduct remote sensing geothermometry and identification of carbonaceous phases on asteroids.

  20. Fabrication, properties, and tritium recovery from solid breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E. ); Kondo, T. ); Roux, N. ); Tanaka, S. ); Vollath, D. )

    1991-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 133 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Predicting and Designing Optical Properties of Inorganic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondinelli, James M.; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    2015-07-01

    Modern first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and related techniques enable the predictive modeling of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of materials without adjustable or empirical parameters. Today, atomistic calculations are an indispensable tool by which to understand the interrelationship between the underlying structure and the measured optical properties and are particularly suited for the design of new materials with desirable optical responses and performance. In this article, we discuss the first-principles design methodology, and we review recent results from the literature that exemplify the predictive power of the method for numerous inorganic materials and nanostructures. We also discuss topics of active research and future opportunities that will enable the wider adoption of atomistic simulation techniques for predictive materials design.

  2. Preservice Teachers' Experiences on Accessing Course Materials Using Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Zafer; Unal, Aslihan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates and reports the first time experiences of mobile device users accessing the course materials on both the web and mobile version of course management system (Web Moodle & Mobile Moodle) during an online course offered at the University of South Florida, St. Petersburg College of Education.

  3. Preservice Teachers' Experiences on Accessing Course Materials Using Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Zafer; Unal, Aslihan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates and reports the first time experiences of mobile device users accessing the course materials on both the web and mobile version of course management system (Web Moodle & Mobile Moodle) during an online course offered at the University of South Florida, St. Petersburg College of Education.

  4. Material Property Characterization of AS4/VRM-34 Textile Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenoble, Ray W.; Johnston, William M

    2013-01-01

    Several material properties (modulus, strengths, and fracture toughness) of a textile composite have been evaluated to provide input data to analytical models of Pultruded Rod Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS). The material system is based on warp-knitted preforms of AS4 carbon fibers and VRM-34 epoxy resin, which have been processed via resin infusion and oven curing. Tensile, compressive, shear, and fracture toughness properties have been measured at ambient and elevated temperatures. All specimens were tested in as-fabricated (dry) condition. Specimens were tested with and without through-thickness stitching.

  5. Characterization of Viscoelastic Properties of Polymeric Materials Through Nanoindentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Bandorawalla, T.; Herring, H. M.; Gates, T. S.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoindentation is used to determine the dynamic viscoelastic properties of six polymer materials. It is shown that varying the harmonic frequency of the nanoindentation does not have any significant effect on the measured storage and loss moduli of the polymers. Agreement is found between these results and data from DMA testing of the same materials. Varying the harmonic amplitude of the nanoindentation does not have a significant effect on the measured properties of the high performance resins, however, the storage modulus of the polyethylene decreases as the harmonic amplitude increases. Measured storage and loss moduli are also shown to depend on the density of the polyethylene.

  6. Reflector and Shield Material Properties for Project Prometheus

    SciTech Connect

    J. Nash

    2005-11-02

    This letter provides updated reflector and shield preliminary material property information to support reactor design efforts. The information provided herein supersedes the applicable portions of Revision 1 to the Space Power Program Preliminary Reactor Design Basis (Reference (a)). This letter partially answers the request in Reference (b) to provide unirradiated and irradiated material properties for beryllium, beryllium oxide, isotopically enriched boron carbide ({sup 11}B{sub 4}C) and lithium hydride. With the exception of {sup 11}B{sub 4}C, the information is provided in Attachments 1 and 2. At the time of issuance of this document, {sup 11}B{sub 4}C had not been studied.

  7. Guidelines for identification of concrete in a materials property database

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, C.B.; Frohnsdorff, G.

    1995-12-31

    Guidelines for the identification of concrete in a materials property database are presented to address the complex problem of distinguishing one concrete from another. These guidelines are based on a logical scheme for systematically organizing and subdividing data and information about concrete and its constituents; they reflect consensus recommendations for a multilevel material description and designation system. Aspects of the guidelines include a classification system used to establish a series of primary identifiers, methods for reporting constituent information and mixture proportions, fields describing the source of the concrete and its processing history, and recommendations for reporting baseline or reference properties.

  8. Cyclic material properties tests supporting elastic-plastic analysis development

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.C.; Minicucci, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    Correlation studies have shown that hardening models currently available in the ABAQUS finite element code (isotropic, kinematic) do not accurately capture the inelastic strain reversals that occur due to structural rebounding from a rapidly applied transient dynamic load. The purpose of the Cyclic Material properties Test program was to obtain response data for the first several cycles of inelastic strain reversal from a cyclic properties test. This data is needed to develop elastic-plastic analysis methods that can accurately predict strains and permanent sets in structures due to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. Test specimens were cycled at inelastic strain levels typical of rapidly applied transient dynamic analyses (0.5% to 4.0%). In addition to the inelastic response data, cyclic material properties for high yield strength (80 ksi) steel were determined including a cyclic stress-strain curve for a stabilized specimen. Two test methods, the Incremental Step method and the Companion specimen Method, were sued to determine cyclic properties. The incrementally decreasing strain amplitudes in the first loading block of the Incremental Step method test is representative of the response of structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loads. The inelastic strain history data generated by this test program will be used to support development of a material model that can accurately predict inelastic material behavior including inelastic strain reversals. Additionally, this data can be used to verify material model enhancements to elastic-plastic finite element analysis codes.

  9. Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, A K; Rotaru, G-M; Derler, S; Spano, F; Camenzind, M; Annaheim, S; Stämpfli, R; Schmid, M; Rossi, R M

    2016-02-01

    For many applications in research, material development and testing, physical skin models are preferable to the use of human skin, because more reliable and reproducible results can be obtained. This article gives an overview of materials applied to model physical properties of human skin to encourage multidisciplinary approaches for more realistic testing and improved understanding of skin-material interactions. The literature databases Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms 'skin model', 'skin phantom', 'skin equivalent', 'synthetic skin', 'skin substitute', 'artificial skin', 'skin replica', and 'skin model substrate.' Articles addressing material developments or measurements that include the replication of skin properties or behaviour were analysed. It was found that the most common materials used to simulate skin are liquid suspensions, gelatinous substances, elastomers, epoxy resins, metals and textiles. Nano- and micro-fillers can be incorporated in the skin models to tune their physical properties. While numerous physical skin models have been reported, most developments are research field-specific and based on trial-and-error methods. As the complexity of advanced measurement techniques increases, new interdisciplinary approaches are needed in future to achieve refined models which realistically simulate multiple properties of human skin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Materials Processing Facility and Multipurpose Furnace System - Skylab Experiments M512 and M518

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This photograph shows the Skylab Materials Processing Facility (M512) and the Multipurpose Furnace System (M518). This facility, located in the Multiple Docking Adapter, was developed for Skylab,and accommodated 14 different experiments that were carried out during the three marned missions. The abilities to melt and mix without the contaminating effects of containers, to suppress thermal convection and buoyancy in fluids, and to take advantage of electrostatic and magnetic forces and otherwise masked by gravitation opened the way to new knowledge of material properties and processes. This beginning would ultimately lead to the production of valuable new materials for use on Earth.

  11. Materials Processing Facility and Multipurpose Furnace System - Skylab Experiments M512 and M518

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This photograph shows the Skylab Materials Processing Facility (M512) and the Multipurpose Furnace System (M518). This facility, located in the Multiple Docking Adapter, was developed for Skylab and accommodated 14 different experiments that were carried out during the three marned missions. The abilities to melt and mix without the contaminating effects of containers, to suppress thermal convection and buoyancy in fluids, and to take advantage of electrostatic and magnetic forces and otherwise masked by gravitation opened the way to new knowledge of material properties and processes. This beginning would ultimately lead to the production of valuable new materials for use on Earth.

  12. Characterization of mechanical properties of materials using ultrasound broadband spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Megha; Prasad, Abhinav; Bellare, Jayesh R; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the characterization of homogenous materials (metals, alloys, glass and polymers) by a simple broadband ultrasonic interrogation method. The novelty lies in the use of ultrasound in a continuous way with very low input power (0 dBm or less) and analysis of the transmitted acoustic wave spectrum for material property characterization like speed of sound, density and dimensions of a material. Measurements were conducted on various thicknesses of samples immersed in liquid where continuous-wave, frequency swept ultrasonic energy was incident normal to the sample surface. The electro-acoustic transmission response is analyzed in the frequency domain with respect to a specifically constructed multi-layered analytical model. From the acoustic signature of the sample materials, material properties such as speed of sound and acoustic impedance can be calculated with experimentally derived values found to be in general agreement with the literature and with pulse-echo technique establishing the basis for a non-contact and non-destructive technique for material characterization. Further, by looking at the frequency spacing of the peaks of water when the sample is immersed, the thickness of the sample can be calculated independently from the acoustic response. This technique can prove to be an effective non-contact, non-destructive and fast material characterization technique for a wide variety of materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical properties of some polymer materials used for tooth positioners.

    PubMed

    Collett, A R; Cook, W D; West, V C

    1994-10-01

    The chemical composition, thermal behaviour and mechanical properties of three tooth positioner materials, Urethane P1 (P1), White Rubber (WR) and Elastocryl (EL) were investigated. Infra-red spectrophotometry indicated the P1 polyurethane material to be of the polyether type, and EL to be a blend of poly(ethyl methacrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate) while WR appeared to be filled cis-poly (isoprene) (natural rubber). The glass transition temperature (Tg) for EL was determined as approximately 10 degrees C, and for both P1 and WR the Tg was less than -50 degrees C. The stress relaxation behaviour was assessed in compression by measuring the stress variation with time. The results for all three materials conformed to the superelastic theory of rubber elasticity. EL exhibited both a more rapid rate and higher degree of stress relaxation than did P1 and WR. Recovery from deformation was assessed by compressing cylinders for given periods of time and then measuring the level of reduced residual strain of the material with time. All three materials exhibited significant residual strain (epsilon(t)) over 'clinically relevant' time periods, and the reduced residual strain (epsilon(t)/epsilon(O)) following deformation was greater for EL than P1 or WR. There was some indication that the three materials have some permanent set following deformation. It was concluded that, in considering desirable mechanical properties of tooth positioner materials, EL is the least suitable of the three examined, with none of the materials being ideal.

  14. Material properties and fracture mechanics in relation to ceramic machining

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, L.V.

    1993-12-02

    Material removal rate, surface finish, and subsurface damage are largely governed by fracture mechanics and plastic deformation, when ceramics are machined using abrasive methods. A great deal of work was published on the fracture mechanics of ceramics in the late 1970s and early 1980s, although this work has never resulted in a comprehensive model of the fixed abrasive grinding process. However, a recently published model describes many of the most important features of the loose abrasive machining process, for example depth of damage, surface roughness, and material removal rate. Many of the relations in the loose abrasive machining model can be readily discerned from fracture mechanics models, in terms of material properties. By understanding the mechanisms of material removal, from a material properties perspective, we can better estimate how one material will machine in relation to another. Although the fracture mechanics models may have been developed for loose abrasive machining, the principles of crack initiation and propagation are equally valuable for fixed abrasive machining. This report provides a brief review of fracture in brittle materials, the stress distribution induced by abrasives, critical indenter loads, the extension of cracks, and the relation of the fracture process to material removal.

  15. Optimization of low gravity materials processing experiments using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Choudry, Amar

    1988-01-01

    The use of an expert system for the control of materials processing experiments in a facility such as the Space Station provides a number of attractive features for insuring that certain critical process parameters can be used to optimize the productivity of the materials processing experiments. The proposed approach to implementation of an expert system utilizes a knowledge base of desired process characteristics which will provide the desired results. The knowledge base for each experiment will be created in conjunction with the scientific investigator in charge of the experiment. Improvements to the knowledge base will be expanded to include self learning sessions in ground based experiments in order to teach the expert system how to respond to perturbations in the process and update the knowledge base on what process change should be implemented in order to reach the desired end product. Design considerations using an on-line real time expert system such as PICON is studied. The types of experiments evaluated include several types of solidification experiments which will be performed on the Space Station.

  16. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  17. Database for the Tribological Properties of Self-Lubricating Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, T. R.; Thom, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    A test program to determine the tribological properties of several self-lubricating composites was performed. Testing was done using an LFW-1 Friction and Wear machine. Each material was tested at four load levels (66 N, 133 N, 266 N, and 400 N) under ambient conditions. The coefficient of friction and wear rate was determined for each material, and a relative ranking of the composites was made.

  18. Realization of New and Enhanced Materials Properties Through Nanostructural Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-11

    methods have been used to guide the design of novel new organic electroactive materials (e.g., electro - optic binary chromophore organic glasses...These new materials have yielded electro - optic coefficients as high as 450 pm/V (15 times lithium niobate) with auxiliary properties of modest optical... electro - optic activity has been achieved for the first time and theoretical conclusions have been verified by a number of new measurement techniques

  19. Characterization of Elastic Properties of Interfaces in Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    29.50 ± 3.5*. Although this variance is too large to be explained by the shift in energy flow (analogous to the Goos - Hanchen shift in optics), its...JHU-CNDE-IW.7 AD-A228 119 Characterization of Elastic Properties of Interfaces in Composite Materials T.M. Hsieh, K.A. Hirshman, EA. Lindgren, M...Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has placed a great deal of emphasis on the development of new composite materials, specifically metal and

  20. Means for ultrasonic testing when material properties vary

    DOEpatents

    Beller, Laurence S.

    1979-01-01

    A device is provided for maintaining constant sensitivity in an ultrasonic testing device, despite varying attenuation due to the properties of the material being tested. The device includes a sensor transducer for transmitting and receiving a test signal and a monitor transducer positioned so as to receive ultrasonic energy transmitted through the material to be tested. The received signal of the monitor transducer is utilized in analyzing data obtained from the sensor transducer.

  1. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  2. Material properties of mouse cervical tissue in normal gestation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kyoko; Mahendroo, Mala; Vink, Joy; Wapner, Ronald; Myers, Kristin

    2016-05-01

    An appropriately timed cervical remodeling process is critical for a healthy delivery, yet little is known about the material property changes of the cervix in pregnancy because obtaining human tissue samples is difficult. Rodent models offer advantages including accurately timed pregnant tissues and genetically altered models. Determining the material properties of the mouse cervix, however, is challenging because of its small size and complex geometry. The aim of this study is to quantify cervical material property changes in a normal mouse pregnancy using a microstructurally-inspired porous fiber composite model. We mechanically test intact, whole, gestation-timed mouse cervix by pulling apart tensioned sutures through its inner canal. To interpret our mechanical testing results, we conduct an inverse finite element analysis, taking into account the combined loading state of the thick-walled cylindrical tissue. We fit the material model to previous osmotic swelling data and load-deformation data from this study using a nonlinear optimization scheme, and validate the model by predicting a separate set of deformation data. Overall, the proposed porous fiber composite model captures the mechanical behavior of the mouse cervix in large deformation. The evolution of cervical material parameters indicates that in a normal mouse pregnancy, the cervix begins to soften between day 6 and day 12 of a 19-day gestation period. The material parameter associated with the collagen fiber stiffness decreases from 3.4MPa at gestation day 6 to 9.7e-4MPa at gestation day 18, while the ground substance stiffness decreases from 2.6e-1MPa to 7.0e-4MPa. Accelerated cervical remodeling can lead to extremely premature births. Little is known, however, about the material property changes of the cervix in pregnancy because pregnant human tissue samples are limited. Rodent models overcome this limitation and provide access to gestation-timed samples. Measuring the material property changes

  3. Mechanical and superconducting properties of materials from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, David Joel

    This thesis explores the mechanical and superconducting properties of materials using ab initio calculations. First, calculations of the ideal strength are presented, beginning with calculations of the ideal shear strength of aluminum and copper, which are both ductile fcc metals. The ideal shear strength of tungsten is then investigated. Tungsten has the interesting property that dislocations are active on several slip systems. A study of the ideal shear and tensile strength of molybdenum and niobium is then presented, which provides an interesting comparison in that the shear strength of niobium is suprisingly low, which leads to a different failure mode in the two systems. Calculations of the ideal shear and tensile strength of diamond, silicon and germanium are then presented. These are very different materials from those listed above since they are covalently bonded insulators and semiconductors. A study of BC2N is then presented, which is a recently synthesized and very hard material which has a structure similar to that of diamond. The next study reported concerns polonium, which is unusual in that it is the only element that takes the simple cubic structure. The properties of the recently discovered superconductor MgB2 are then studied theoretically. First, a summary of its electronic structure and phonon properties is presented, followed by a description of the results of an anisotropic Eliashberg calculation of its superconducting properties. Finally, calculations of the electronic properties and ideal strength of MoSe nanowires are presented.

  4. Effective Mechanical Properties of Lattice Material Fabricated by Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-kyum; Rosen, David W; Duty, Chad E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a two-step homogenization method is proposed and implemented for evaluating effective mechanical properties of lattice structured material fabricated by the material extrusion additive manufacturing process. In order to consider the characteristics of the additive manufacturing process in estimation procedures, the levels of scale for homogenization are divided into three stages the levels of layer deposition, structural element, and lattice structure. The method consists of two transformations among stages. In the first step, the transformation between layer deposition and structural element levels is proposed to find the geometrical and material effective properties of structural elements in the lattice structure. In the second step, the method to estimate effective mechanical properties of lattice material is presented, which uses a unit cell and is based on the discretized homogenization method for periodic structure. The method is implemented for cubic lattice structure and compared to experimental results for validation purposes.

  5. Assesment of hydraulics properties of technosoil constructed with waste material using Beerkan infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Deniz; Peyneau, Pierre-Emmanuel; Beaudet, Laure; Cannavo, Patrice; Sere, Geoffroy

    2017-04-01

    For the characterization of hydraulics soils functions, in situ infiltration experiments are commonly used. The BEST method based on the infiltration through a single ring is well suited for soils containing coarse material. Technosols built from Civil engineering waste material such as brick waste, concrete waste, track ballast and demolition rubble wastes contain large part of coarse material. In this work, different materials made of civil engineering wastes mixed with organic wastes are tested for greening applications in an urban environment using in situ lysimeters. Beerkan infiltrations experiments were performed on these technosols. Experimental data are used to estimate hydraulics properties through the BEST method. The results shows from a hydraulic point of view that studied technosols can achieve the role of urban soil for greening application. Five combinations of artefacts were tested either as "growing material" (one combination) or "structural material" (4 combinations) - as support for traffic. Structural materials consisted in 27 wt.% earth material, 60 wt.% mineral coarse material and 3 wt.% organic material. These constructed technosols were studied in situ using lysimeters under two contrasted climatic conditions in two sites in France (Angers, in northwestern France and Homécourt, in northeastern France). Constructed technosols exhibited high porosities (31-48 vol% for structural materials, 70 vol% for the growing material). The dry bulk density of the growing material is estimated to 0.66 kg/m3 and 1.59 kg/m3 for structural material. The particle size distribution analysis, involving manual sieving (> 2 mm) and complemented by a grain size analysis (< 2 mm) were used as described in the BEST method (2006) for the estimation of the shape parameter n of hydraulics functions (Van-Genuchten -Mualem, 1980). This n parameter was estimated to 2.23 for growing materials and 2.29 for structural materials. Beerkan infiltrations experiments data were

  6. Molecular properties of polymeric materials for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, Wynford L.; Kern, Kristen T.; Stancil, Phillip C.

    1992-01-01

    This cooperative agreement was intended to investigate the effects of a space environment on the properties of polymeric materials. In addition, efforts have been made to understand and investigate environment simulation techniques and test methodology. The results identified the changes in the properties of six aerospace structural adhesives, three neat high polymers, and two fiber-reinforced polymers, as caused by exposure to four simulated space environmental conditions. Significant property changes occurred for several of the systems as a result of one or more of the exposures. A summary of the research follows a list of related publications and presentations.

  7. Stretchable polyurethane sponge reinforced magnetorheological material with enhanced mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Lin; Xuan, Shouhu; Liao, Guojiang; Yin, Tiantian; Gong, Xinglong

    2015-03-01

    A stretchable magnetorheological material (SMRM) consisting of micro-meter carbonyl iron (CI) particles, low cross-linking polyurethane (PU) polymer and porous PU sponge has been developed. Due to the presence of the PU sponge, the high-performance MR material can be reversibly stretched or bent, just as MR elastomers. When the CI content increases to 80 wt%, the magnetic induced modulus of the MR material can reach as high as 7.34 MPa and the corresponding relative MR effect increases to 820%. A possible strengthening mechanism of the SMRM was proposed. The attractive mechanical properties make the SMRM a promising candidate for future high-performance devices.

  8. Properties and performance of materials in the coal gasification environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, V.L.; Black, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings cosponsored by the Gas Research Institute, Metal Properties Council, Inc., American Society for Metals, and US Department of Energy. A large part of the conference covered materials testing conducted in simulated and actual coal-gasification conditions under the auspices of Subcommittee 9 of the MPC. Many of the investigators who have been active in evaluating materials for coal-conversion service during the past few years also contributed to the proceedings. Accordingly, this book is a valuable reference work on materials behavior in the chemically aggressive, high-temperature, high-pressure environments of coal-gasification plants.

  9. Determination of replicate composite bone material properties using modal analysis.

    PubMed

    Leuridan, Steven; Goossens, Quentin; Pastrav, Leonard; Roosen, Jorg; Mulier, Michiel; Denis, Kathleen; Desmet, Wim; Sloten, Jos Vander

    2017-02-01

    Replicate composite bones are used extensively for in vitro testing of new orthopedic devices. Contrary to tests with cadaveric bone material, which inherently exhibits large variability, they offer a standardized alternative with limited variability. Accurate knowledge of the composite's material properties is important when interpreting in vitro test results and when using them in FE models of biomechanical constructs. The cortical bone analogue material properties of three different fourth-generation composite bone models were determined by updating FE bone models using experimental and numerical modal analyses results. The influence of the cortical bone analogue material model (isotropic or transversely isotropic) and the inter- and intra-specimen variability were assessed. Isotropic cortical bone analogue material models failed to represent the experimental behavior in a satisfactory way even after updating the elastic material constants. When transversely isotropic material models were used, the updating procedure resulted in a reduction of the longitudinal Young's modulus from 16.00GPa before updating to an average of 13.96 GPa after updating. The shear modulus was increased from 3.30GPa to an average value of 3.92GPa. The transverse Young's modulus was lowered from an initial value of 10.00GPa to 9.89GPa. Low inter- and intra-specimen variability was found.

  10. Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Xia, Re; Li, Xide; Qin, Qinghua; Liu, Jianlin; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2011-07-01

    Using the theory of surface elasticity, we investigate the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials. The classical theory of porous materials is modified to account for surface effects, which become increasingly important as the characteristic sizes of microstructures shrink to nanometers. First, a refined Timoshenko beam model is presented to predict the effective elastic modulus of nanoporous materials. Then the surface effects on the elastic microstructural buckling behavior of nanoporous materials are examined. In particular, nanoporous gold is taken as an example to illustrate the application of the proposed model. The results reveal that both the elastic modulus and the critical buckling behavior of nanoporous materials exhibit a distinct dependence on the characteristic sizes of microstructures, e.g. the average ligament width.

  11. Comparison of shrinkage related properties of various patch repair materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Fitrianto, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    A patch repair material has been developed in the form of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)-mortar. The performance and durability of this material are governed by its compatibility with the concrete being repaired. One of the compatibility issue that should be tackled is the dimensional compatibility as a result of differential shrinkage between the repair material and the concrete substrate. This research aims to evaluate such shrinkage related properties of UPR-mortar and to compare with those of other patch repair materials. The investigation includes the following aspects: free shrinkage, resistance to delamination and cracking. The results indicate that UPR-mortar poses a lower free shrinkage, lower risk of both delamination and cracking tendency in comparison to other repair materials.

  12. Experiences managing radioactive material at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's largest and most energetic laser system for inertial confinement fusion and experiments studying high energy density science. Many experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility involve radioactive materials; these may take the form of tritium and small quantities of depleted uranium used in targets, activation products created by neutron-producing fusion experiments, and fission products produced by the fast fissioning of the depleted uranium. While planning for the introduction of radioactive material, it was recognized that some of the standard institutional processes would need to be customized to accommodate aspects of NIF operations, such as surface contamination limits, radiological postings, airborne tritium monitoring protocols, and personnel protective equipment. These customizations were overlaid onto existing work practices to accommodate the new hazard of radioactive materials. This paper will discuss preparations that were made prior to the introduction of radioactive material, the types of radiological work activities performed, and the hazards and controls encountered. Updates to processes based on actual monitoring results are also discussed.

  13. Tailoring material properties of a nanofibrous extracellular matrix derived hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Todd D.; Lin, Stephen Y.; Christman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    In the native tissue, the interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, mechanical stability, and signaling. It has been shown that decellularized ECMs can be processed into injectable formulations, thereby allowing for minimally invasive delivery. Upon injection and increase in temperature, these materials self-assemble into porous gels forming a complex network of fibers with nano-scale structure. In this study we aimed to examine and tailor the material properties of a self-assembling ECM hydrogel derived from porcine myocardial tissue, which was developed as a tissue specific injectable scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering. The impact of gelation parameters on ECM hydrogels has not previously been explored. We examined how modulating pH, temperature, ionic strength, and concentration affected the nanoscale architecture, mechanical properties, and gelation kinetics. These material characteristics were assessed using scanning electron microscopy, rheometry, and spectrophotometry, respectively. Since the main component of the myocardial matrix is collagen, many similarities between the ECM hydrogel and collagen gels were observed in terms of the nanofibrous structure and modulation of properties by altering ionic strength. However, variation from collagen gels was noted for the gelation temperature along with varied times and rates of gelation. These discrepancies when compared to collagen are likely due to the presence of other ECM components in the decellularized ECM based hydrogel. These results demonstrate how the material properties of ECM hydrogels could be tailored for future in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:22101810

  14. Infrared Material Property Measurements with Polarimetry and Spectropolarimetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    June 1990 Interim Infrared Material Property Measurements with Polarimetry PE: O and Spectropolarimetry (Paper) PR: 2305 TA: E2 WU: 06 Dennis H...distribution is unlimited. - Polarimetry and spectropolarimetry are optical measurement techniques which use pol- arized light to obtain...measurements are made at one infrared wavelength at a time using laser sources. Spectropolarimetry measurements are made over an entire infrared

  15. Investigation of Effective Material Properties of Stony Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Carlozzi, Alex; Bryson, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    To assess the threat posed by an asteroid entering Earth's atmosphere, one must predict if, when, and how it fragments during entry. A comprehensive understanding of the Asteroid material properties is needed to achieve this objective. At present, the meteorite material found on Earth are the only objects from an entering asteroid that can be used as representative material and be tested inside a laboratory setting. Therefore, unit cell models are developed to determine the effective material properties of stony meteorites and in turn deduce the properties of asteroids. The unit cell is representative volume that accounts for diverse minerals, porosity, and matrix composition inside a meteorite. The various classes under investigation includes H-class, L-class, and LL-class chondrites. The effective mechanical properties such as Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio of the unit cell are calculated by performing several hundreds of Monte-Carlo simulations. Terrestrial analogs such as Basalt and Gabbro are being used to validate the unit cell methodology.

  16. Fundamentals of ultrasonic NDE for microstructure/material property interrelations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1982-01-01

    Some fundamental aspects of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation for material properties and microstructure assessment are given. Ultrasonic wave interaction concepts, some recent findings, and practical ramifications are illustrated. The concepts are discussed in nonmathematical, narrative form. Additional information can be found in the references cited herein.

  17. Learning to Apply Models of Materials While Explaining Their Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpin, Tiia; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Applying structural models is important to chemistry education at the upper secondary level, but it is considered one of the most difficult topics to learn. Purpose: This study analyses to what extent in designed lessons students learned to apply structural models in explaining the properties and behaviours of various materials.…

  18. Food material properties and early hominin processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Zink, Katherine D; Lieberman, Daniel E; Lucas, Peter W

    2014-12-01

    Although early Homo is hypothesized to have used tools more than australopiths to process foods prior to consumption, it is unknown how much the food processing techniques they used altered the material properties of foods, and therefore the masticatory forces they generated, and how well they were able to comminute foods. This study presents experimental data on changes to food material properties caused by mechanical tenderization (pounding with a stone tool) and cooking (dry roasting) of two foods likely to have been important components of the hominin diet: meat and tubers. Mechanical tenderization significantly decreased tuber toughness by 42%, but had no effect on meat toughness. Roasting significantly decreased several material properties of tubers correlated with masticatory effort including toughness (49%), fracture stress (28%) and elastic modulus (45%), but increased the toughness (77%), fracture stress (50%-222%), and elastic modulus of muscle fibers in meat (308%). Despite increasing many material properties of meat associated with higher masticatory forces, roasting also decreased measured energy loss by 28%, which likely makes it easier to chew. These results suggest that the use of food processing techniques by early Homo probably differed for meat and tubers, but together would have reduced masticatory effort, helping to relax selection to maintain large, robust faces and large, thickly enameled teeth.

  19. Studies of acoustical properties of bulk porous flexible materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic prediction and measurement of bulk porous materials with flexible frames is investigated. The acoustic properties of Kevlar 29 are examined. Various acoustic tests are employed to determine impedance, sound wave propagation, and wave pressure equations for the highly porous fiber composites. The derivation of design equations and future research goals are included.

  20. Measuring acoustic properties of materials and jet nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, P. D.; Plumblee, H. E.; Salikuddin, M.

    1980-01-01

    Method measures acoustic properties of sound-absorbent materials and jet-nozzle system. Advantages of impulse method over other methods are that test time and complication are reduced. Results obtained from impulse method have been compared with those from existing methods, both experimental and theoretical, and show excellent agreement.

  1. Tailoring material properties of a nanofibrous extracellular matrix derived hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Todd D.; Lin, Stephen Y.; Christman, Karen L.

    2011-12-01

    In the native tissue, the interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, mechanical stability, and signaling. It has been shown that decellularized ECMs can be processed into injectable formulations, thereby allowing for minimally invasive delivery. Upon injection and increase in temperature, these materials self-assemble into porous gels forming a complex network of fibers with nanoscale structure. In this study we aimed to examine and tailor the material properties of a self-assembling ECM hydrogel derived from porcine myocardial tissue, which was developed as a tissue specific injectable scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering. The impact of gelation parameters on ECM hydrogels has not previously been explored. We examined how modulating pH, temperature, ionic strength, and concentration affected the nanoscale architecture, mechanical properties, and gelation kinetics. These material characteristics were assessed using scanning electron microscopy, rheometry, and spectrophotometry, respectively. Since the main component of the myocardial matrix is collagen, many similarities between the ECM hydrogel and collagen gels were observed in terms of the nanofibrous structure and modulation of properties by altering ionic strength. However, variation from collagen gels was noted for the gelation temperature along with varied times and rates of gelation. These discrepancies when compared to collagen are likely due to the presence of other ECM components in the decellularized ECM based hydrogel. These results demonstrate how the material properties of ECM hydrogels could be tailored for future in vitro and in vivo applications.

  2. Thermal properties of hemp fibre non-woven materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freivalde, Liga; Kukle, Silvija; Russell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    This review considers the thermal properties analysis of hemp fiber non-woven materials made by three different manufacturing technologies - thermal bonding, needle-punching and hydro-entanglement. For non-wovens development two hemp fibers cultivars grown in Latvia were used - Purini and Bialobrzeskie. Thermal resistance, conductivity and the effects of several parameters on thermal performance are revised.

  3. Material and Flexural Properties of Fiber-reinforced Rubber Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helminger, Nicholas P.

    The purpose of this research is to determine the material properties of rubber concrete with the addition of fibers, and to determine optimal mixture dosages of rubber and fiber in concrete for structural applications. Fiber-reinforced concrete and rubberized concrete have been researched separately extensively, but this research intends to combine both rubber and fiber in a concrete matrix in order to create a composite material, fiber-reinforced rubber concrete (FRRC). Sustainability has long been important in engineering design, but much of the previous research performed on sustainable concrete does not result in a material that can be used for practical purposes. While still achieving a material that can be used for structural applications, economical considerations were given when choosing the proportions and types of constituents in the concrete mix. Concrete mixtures were designed, placed, and tested in accordance with common procedures and standards, with an emphasis on practicality. Properties that were investigated include compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility. The basis for determining the optimal concrete mixture is one that is economical, practical, and exhibits ductile properties with a significant strength. Results show that increasing percentages of rubber tend to decrease workability, unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity while the toughness is increased. The addition of steel needle fibers to rubber concrete increases unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility of the composite material.

  4. Experimental analysis of electrical properties of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiala, L.; Rovnaník, P.; Černý, R.

    2017-02-01

    Dry cement-based composites are electrically non-conductive materials that behave in electric field like dielectrics. However, a relatively low amount of electrically conductive admixture significantly increases the electrical conductivity which extends applicability of such materials in practice. Therefore, they can be used as self-monitoring sensors controlling development of cracks; as sensors monitoring moisture content or when treated by an external electrical voltage as heat sources used for deicing of material's surface layer. Alkali-activated aluminosilicates (AAA), as competing materials to cement-based materials, are intensively investigated in the present due to their superior durability and environmental impact. Whereas the electrical properties of AAA are similar to those cement-based, they can be enhanced in the same way. In both cases, it is crucial to find a reasonable amount of electrically conductive phase to design composites with a sufficient electrical conductivity at an affordable price. In this paper, electrical properties of composites based on AAA binder and electrically conductive admixture represented by carbon nanotubes (CNT) are investigated. Measurements of electrical properties are carried out by means of 2-probes DC technique on nine types of samples; reference sample without the conductive phase and samples with CNT admixture in amount of 0.1 % - 2.5 % by vol. A significant increase of the electrical conductivity starts from the amount of 0.5 % CNT admixture and in case of 2.5 % CNT is about three orders of magnitude higher compared to the reference sample.

  5. Estimation of Rubber Material Property by Successive Zooming Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young-Doo; Kwon, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Wha-Jung; Yeo, Sim-Dong

    The industrial use of various kinds of rubber-like (hyper-elastic) material is rapidly increasing and growing in importance, especially in automobiles, trains, and machinery(1). In the past, rubber engineers and designers have predicted the behavior of rubber-like materials using analytic methods for limited problems or approximate methods for general problems. Yet, with the progress of digital computers, finite element methods(2), represented by the Mooney-Rivlin model, are now widely used to analyze hyper-elastic as well as isotropic materials. The conventional method used to evaluate the properties of rubber-like materials is the least square method (LSM), however, this method has a low precision and involves a tedious pre-solving process. Accordingly, this study proposes a simple yet powerful method for estimating the properties of rubber-like materials using a successive zooming genetic algorithm (SZGA). The proposed method results in dependable and precise rubber-like properties for various Mooney-Rivlin models based on simply changing the objective function. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, it is compared with Haines & Wilson's method (LSM) and other commercial packages.

  6. Development and Analysis of Synthetic Composite Materials Emulating Patient AAA Wall Material Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margossian, Christa M.

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) rupture accounts for 14,000 deaths a year in the United States. Since the number of ruptures has not decreased significantly in recent years despite improvements in imaging and surgical procedures, there is a need for an accurate, noninvasive technique capable of establishing rupture risk for specific patients and discriminating lesions at high risk. In this project, synthetic composite materials replicating patient-specific wall stiffness and strength were developed and their material properties evaluated. Composites utilizing various fibers were developed to give a range of stiffness from 1825.75 kPa up through 8187.64 kPa with one base material, Sylgard 170. A range of strength from 631.12 kPa to 1083 kPa with the same base material was also found. By evaluating various base materials and various reinforcing fibers, a catalogue of stiffnesses and strengths was started to allow for adaptation to specific patient properties. Three specific patient properties were well-matched with two composites fabricated: silk thread-reinforced Sylgard 170 and silk thread-reinforced Dragon Skin 20. The composites showed similar stiffnesses to the specific patients while reaching target stresses at particular strains. Not all patients were matched with composites as of yet, but recommendations for future matches are able to be determined. These composites will allow for the future evaluation of flow-induced wall stresses in models replicating patient material properties and geometries.

  7. Calendering and Rolling of Viscoplastic Materials: Theory and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsoulis, E.; Sofou, S.; Muliawan, E. B.; Hatzikiriakos, S. G.

    2007-04-01

    The calendering and rolling processes are used in a wide variety of industries for the production of rolled sheets or films of specific thickness and final appearance. The acquired final sheet thickness depends mainly on the rheological properties of the material. Materials which have been used in the present study are foodstuff (such as mozzarella cheese and flour-water dough) used in food processing. These materials are rheologically viscoplastic, obeying the Herschel-Bulkley model. The results give the final sheet thickness and the torque as a function of the roll speed. Theoretical analysis based on the Lubrication Approximation Theory (LAT) shows that LAT is a good predictive tool for calendering, where the sheet thickness is very small compared with the roll size. However, in rolling where this is not true, LAT does not hold, and a 2-D analysis is necessary.

  8. Moisture effect on mechanical properties of polymeric composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airale, A. G.; Carello, M.; Ferraris, A.; Sisca, L.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of moisture on the mechanical properties of fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs) was investigated. Four materials had been take into account considering: both 2×2-Twill woven carbon fibre or glass fibre, thermosetting matrix (Epoxy Resin) or thermoplastic matrix (Polyphenylene Sulfide). The specimens were submitted for 1800 hours to a hygrothermic test to evaluate moisture absorption on the basis of the Fick's law and finally tested to verify the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength). The results showed that the absorbed moisture decreases those properties of composites which were dominated by the matrix or the interface, while was not detectable the influence of water on the considered fibre. An important result is that the diffusion coefficient is highest for glass/PPS and lowest for carbon/epoxy composite material. The results give useful suggestions for the design of vehicle components that are exposed to environmental conditions (rain, snow and humidity).

  9. Thermal Property Measurements of Critical Materials for SPICA Payload Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, Keisuke; Mizutani, Tadahito; Fujii, Takenori; Onaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Takao; Sugita, Hiroyuki

    The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is a pre-project of JAXA in collaboration with ESA to be launched around 2025. The 3m-class infrared telescope must be below 6K, based on scientific requirements, and features effective radiant cooling into deep space at L2 point combined with a mechanical cooler system in order to cool scientific instruments as well as the telescope. The thermal design of the SPICA payload module must involve researching and measuring the thermophysical properties of materials in order to achieve a highly reliable cooling chain. Accordingly, all critical materials, particularly FRPs were determined and their thermal properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, and thermal expansion) measured. Subsequently, the measured values were compared with those in literature and included in a thermal model analysis. This paper introduces details of these thermal properties measurements, comparisons with values in literature, and a thermal model analysis of the SPICA payload module.

  10. Characterizing the temperature dependence of electronic packaging-material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chia-Yu; Ume, Charles

    1995-06-01

    A computer-controlled, temperature-dependent material characterization system has been developed for thermal deformation analysis in electronic packaging applications, especially for printed wiring assembly warpage study. For fiberglass-reinforced epoxy (FR-4 type) material, the Young's moduli decrease to as low as 20-30% of the room-temperature values, while the shear moduli decrease to as low as 60-70% of the room-temperature values. The electrical resistance strain gage technique was used in this research. The test results produced overestimated values in property measurements, and this was shown in a case study. A noncontact strau]n measurement technique (laser extensometer) is now being used to measure these properties. Discrepancies of finite-element warpage predictions using different property values increase as the temperature increases from the stress-free temperature.

  11. Effects of Material Properties on Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Song, F; Koo, H; Ren, D

    2015-08-01

    Adhesion of microbes, such as bacteria and fungi, to surfaces and the subsequent formation of biofilms cause multidrug-tolerant infections in humans and fouling of medical devices. To address these challenges, it is important to understand how material properties affect microbe-surface interactions and engineer better nonfouling materials. Here we review the recent progresses in this field and discuss the main challenges and opportunities. In particular, we focus on bacterial biofilms and review the effects of surface energy, charge, topography, and stiffness of substratum material on bacterial adhesion. We summarize how these surface properties influence oral biofilm formation, and we discuss the important findings from nondental systems that have potential applications in dental medicine. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  12. Structure-property relationships in silica-siloxane nanocomposite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, T.A.; Derzon, D.K.; Wang, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    The simultaneous formation of a filler phase and a polymer matrix via in situ sol-gel techniques provides silica-siloxane nanocomposite materials of high strength. This study concentrates on the effects of temperature and relative humidity on a trimodal polymer system in an attempt to accelerate the reaction as well as evaluate subtle process- structure-property relations. It was found that successful process acceleration is only viable for high humidity systems when using the tin(IV) catalyst dibutyltin dilaurate. Processes involving low humidity were found to be very temperature and time dependent. Bimodal systems were investigated and demonstrated that the presence of a short-chain component led to enhanced material strength. This part of the study also revealed a link between the particle size and population density and the optimization of material properties.

  13. The properties of metal-reinforced glass ionomer materials.

    PubMed

    Chung, K H

    1993-01-01

    The physical properties and bond strengths of two glass ionomer materials reinforced with silver and amalgam alloy powders were compared with those of a conventional material from the same manufacture as well as two commercially available products. The diametral tensile strength, hardness and bonding strength are improved with the addition of either commercial available silver particles or fabricated high-copper amalgam alloy powders to the glass. Simple mixture of the metal or alloy powders with the glass ionomer cement seems to be feasible to improve the properties of the regular cement. However, further studies in formulating an optimal composition of metal or alloy, setting characteristics and long-term clinical evaluation are necessary before proposing uses for this new material.

  14. DNA-linked nanoparticle materials: optical, electrical, and structural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarides, A.; Park, S.-J.; Mirkin, C.; Storhoff, J.; Schatz, G.; Brazis, P.; Kannewurf, C.

    2001-03-01

    Novel bioinorganic materials composed of Au nanoparticles linked with DNA have been developed as colorimetric DNA sensors. In the presence of complimentary DNA, particles dressed with one of two oligonucleotide sequences are linked to form binary nanoparticle aggregates. Assemblies linked at 298K have plasmon frequency shifts that decrease with increasing linker length; annealing, however, eliminates the length dependence of the shift. Neither sedimentation rate measurements nor theoretical studies of the optical properties provide unambiguous explanation. However, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements indicate that separations between nanoparticles with or without annealing are proportional to the number of base pairs in the oligonucleotide linkers. DNA is thus shown to offer a means for tuning separations in nanoparticle materials. We have also investigated the electrical and structural properties of dry Au nanoparticle films linked by DNA. The assemblies are semiconducting, which suggests that DNA can be used as a chemically specific scaffolding material for assembly of conductive structures.

  15. Thermoelastic analysis of solar cell arrays and their material properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, M. A.; Rowe, W. M.; Yasui, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    A thermoelastic stress analysis procedure is reported for predicting the thermally induced stresses and failures in silicon solar cell arrays. A prerequisite for the analysis is the characterization of the temperature-dependent thermal and mechanical properties of the solar cell materials. Extensive material property testing was carried out in the temperature range -200 to +200 C for the filter glass, P- and N-type silicon, interconnector metals, solder, and several candidate silicone rubber adhesives. The analysis procedure is applied to several solar cell array design configurations. Results of the analysis indicate the optimum design configuration, with respect to compatible materials, effect of the solder coating, and effect of the interconnector geometry. Good agreement was found between results of the analysis and the test program.

  16. A study of mesoscale simulations for planar shock experiments on heterogeneous granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumaker, Merit G.

    There is an interest in producing accurate and reliable computer simulations to predict the dynamic behavior of heterogeneous materials and to use these simulations to gain further insight into experimental results. In so doing, a more complete understanding of the multiple-length scales involved in heterogeneous material compaction can be obtained. Mesoscale computer simulations of dynamically shocked materials have proven to be a beneficial resource in unraveling data not observed in planar shock impact experiments, such as stress and temperature interactions between grains. The modeled mono-dispersed geometry of particles, the densities of each material, equations of state, material properties and many other factors affect the simulated outcomes. By studying and analyzing these variables, many of which highlight the difference between experimental and simulated results, there manifests additional insight into the shock dynamics of the different heterogeneous granular materials. The heterogeneous materials in this study were created both by a "shake and pack" method, where individual grains were randomly seeded into the computational domain and grown until the grains matched the experimental volume fraction and average diameter. Three planar shock experiments were utilized to validate simulation models and parameters: 1. Brake pad powder compaction at Marquette University, 2. Dry sand experiments at Georgia Tech, and 3. Release of dry sand at Cambridge University. Planar shock impact experiments were simulated using two different hydrocode packages: CTH and iSALE. Validated models are then used to setup future dry, water, and possible ice saturated sand release experiments. Particle velocity and stress traces obtained from the computer simulations were compared to VISAR, PDV, and Manganin gage measurements obtained from experiments. The results from simulations are compared to experiments and discussed in this document.

  17. Experiments on Structural Properties of Yukawa balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, Oliver; Block, Dietmar; Piel, Alexander; Melzer, Andre

    2006-10-01

    Recently, it was shown that it is possible to confine spherical dust clouds in a plasma [1,2]. It was found that these dust clouds have a crystalline structure which differs noteably from the well known fcc, bcc and hcp order in extended crystalline systems. These objects are called 'Yukawa Balls' because of the screened Coulomb interaction between the particles. The experiments show that the particles arrange in nested shells with hcp order on individual shells. This seems to be a unique feature of few-particle systems with strong coupling as it is also reported for trapped laser-cooled ions [3]. Interestingly, the structure in the center of ions clouds changes to bulk order as the ion number and hence the cloud size grows. Here, we present results from experiments on small and large Yukawa balls to discuss whether this can be observed for Yukawa balls as well. Additionally, first experiments are reported which investigate structural changes due to a elliptical deformation of the dust cloud. [1] O. Arp et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 165004 (2004). [2] O. Arp et al., Phys. of Plasmas 12, 122102 (2005). [3] D.H.E. Dubin and T.M. O'Neill, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 87 (1999).

  18. Structural, magnetic, and transport properties of Permalloy for spintronic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nahrwold, Gesche; Scholtyssek, Jan M.; Motl-Ziegler, Sandra; Albrecht, Ole; Merkt, Ulrich; Meier, Guido

    2010-07-15

    Permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) is broadly used to prepare magnetic nanostructures for high-frequency experiments where the magnetization is either excited by electrical currents or magnetic fields. Detailed knowledge of the material properties is mandatory for thorough understanding its magnetization dynamics. In this work, thin Permalloy films are grown by dc-magnetron sputtering on heated substrates and by thermal evaporation with subsequent annealing. The specific resistance is determined by van der Pauw methods. Point-contact Andreev reflection is employed to determine the spin polarization of the films. The topography is imaged by atomic-force microscopy, and the magnetic microstructure by magnetic-force microscopy. Transmission-electron microscopy and transmission-electron diffraction are performed to determine atomic composition, crystal structure, and morphology. From ferromagnetic resonance absorption spectra the saturation magnetization, the anisotropy, and the Gilbert damping parameter are determined. Coercive fields and anisotropy are measured by magneto-optical Kerr magnetometry. The sum of the findings enables optimization of Permalloy for spintronic experiments.

  19. On the hitchhiker Robot Operated Materials Processing System: Experiment data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Jenstrom, Del

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery STS-64 mission carried the first American autonomous robot into space, the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS). On this mission ROMPS was the only Hitchhiker experiment and had a unique opportunity to utilize all Hitchhiker space carrier capabilities. ROMPS conducted rapid thermal processing of the one hundred semiconductor material samples to study how micro gravity affects the resulting material properties. The experiment was designed, built and operated by a small GSFC team in cooperation with industry and university based principal investigators who provided the material samples and data interpretation. ROMPS' success presents some valuable lessons in such cooperation, as well as in the utilization of the Hitchhiker carrier for complex applications. The motivation of this paper is to share these lessons with the scientific community interested in attached payload experiments. ROMPS has a versatile and intelligent material processing control data system. This paper uses the ROMPS data system as the guiding thread to present the ROMPS mission experience. It presents an overview of the ROMPS experiment followed by considerations of the flight and ground data subsystems and their architecture, data products generation during mission operations, and post mission data utilization. It then presents the lessons learned from the development and operation of the ROMPS data system as well as those learned during post-flight data processing.

  20. Millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric properties of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Usman Ansar

    Broadband dielectric properties of materials can be employed to identify, detect, and characterize materials through their unique spectral signatures. In this study, millimeter wave, submillimeter wave, and terahertz dielectric properties of biological substances inclusive of liquids, solids, and powders were obtained using Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DFTS). Two broadband polarizing interferometers were constructed to test materials from 60 GHz to 1.2 THz. This is an extremely difficult portion of the frequency spectrum to obtain a material's dielectric properties since neither optical nor microwave-based techniques provide accurate data. The dielectric characteristics of liquids such as cyclohexane, chlorobenzene, benzene, ethanol, methanol, 1,4 dioxane, and 10% formalin were obtained using the liquid interferometer. Subsequently the solid interferometer was utilized to determine the dielectric properties of human breast tissues, which are fixed and preserved in 10% formalin. This joint collaboration with the Tufts New England Medical Center demonstrated a significant difference between the dielectric response of tumorous and non-tumorous breast tissues across the spectrum. Powders such as anthrax, flour, talc, corn starch, dry milk, and baking soda have been involved in a number of security threats and false alarms around the globe in the last decade. To be able to differentiate hoax attacks and serious security threats, the dielectric properties of common household powders were also examined using the solid interferometer to identify the powders' unique resonance peaks. A new sample preparation kit was designed to test the powder specimens. It was anticipated that millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric characterization will enable one to clearly distinguish one powder from the other; however most of the powders had relatively close dielectric responses and only Talc had a resonance signature recorded at 1.135 THz. Furthermore, due to

  1. Implementation Plan: Jasper Management Prestart Review (Surrogate Material Experiments)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.E.

    2000-09-29

    Able Site is located 24 km northwest of Mercury on the Nevada Test Site. The Nevada Test Site is approximately 105 km northwest of Las Vegas, NV. Major facilities at Able Site include Buildings 5100,5180, and 5191. Significant external interfaces for the JASPER site include the electrical system, wastewater system, communications systems, and water supply system, which provides both potable and fire-protection water. Support services, which are provided on the Nevada Test Site, include medical, emergency response (NTS Fire Department), radiation protection, industrial hygiene, and waste management. Although JASPER will ultimately be used for actinide research, the start-up process requires system demonstration using surrogates in place of the actinide targets. LLNL Nevada Experiments and Operations (N) Program has established a Management Prestart Review (MPR) team to determine the readiness of the JASPER personnel and facilities to initiate surrogate-material experiments. A second MPR will be conducted before actinide experiments are executed. This document addresses implementation requirements for only the first MPR. This first review coincides with the completion of authorization-basis documents and physical subsystems, which have undergone appropriate formal engineering design reviews. This MPR will affirm the quality of those reviews, their findings/resolutions, and will look most closely at systems integration requirements and demonstrations that will have undergone technical acceptance reviews before this formal MPR action. Closure of MPR findings will finalize requirements for a DOE/NV Real Estate/Operations Permit (REOP) for surrogate-material experiments. Upon completion of that experiment series and the establishment of capabilities for incorporating special nuclear material (SNM) into future experiments, the team will convene again as part of the process of authorizing those activities. A summary of the review schedule is provided.

  2. Material Property Measurement in Hostile Environments using Laser Acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Ken L. Telschow

    2004-08-01

    Acoustic methods are well known and have been used to measure various intrinsic material properties, such as, elastic coefficients, density, crystal axis orientation, microstructural texture, and residual stress. Extrinsic properties, such as, dimensions, motion variables or temperature are also readily determined from acoustic methods. Laser acoustics, employing optical generation and detection of elastic waves, has a unique advantage over other acoustic methods—it is noncontacting, uses the sample surface itself for transduction, requires no couplant or invasive sample surface preparation and can be utilized in any hostile environment allowing optical access to the sample surface. In addition, optical generation and detection probe beams can be focused to the micron scale and/or shaped to alter the transduction process with a degree of control not possible using contact transduction methods. Laser methods are amenable to both continuous wave and pulse-echo measurements and have been used from Hz to 100’s of GHz (time scales from sec to psec) and with amplitudes sufficient to fracture materials. This paper shall review recent applications of laser acoustic methods to determining material properties in hostile environments that preclude the use of contacting transduction techniques. Example environments include high temperature (>1000C) sintering and molten metal processing, thin film deposition by plasma techniques, materials moving at high velocity during the fabrication process and nuclear high radiation regions. Recent technological advances in solid-state lasers and telecommunications have greatly aided the development and implementation of laser acoustic methods, particularly at ultra high frequencies. Consequently, laser acoustic material property measurements exhibit high precision and reproducibility today. In addition, optical techniques provide methods of imaging acoustic motion that is both quantitative and rapid. Possible future directions for

  3. Materials properties data management: Approaches to a critical national need

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The US has taken a leading role in the application of modern computer technology to design and manufacturing processes through the development of computerized design and manufacturing systems (CAD/CAM systems), which are now in place in some of our large industries. However, a corresponding use of computer technology in the storage, dissemination, and analysis of materials properties data vital to the design process has been only weakly developed. It is obvious that the CAD/CAM system could be improved by rapid access to appropriate computerized data bases containing properly evaluated materials properties data. Of equal importance is the provision of such information to our many relatively small industries, which may not have a staff of materials specialists and, therefore, find themselves in an unfavorable position with respect to foreign competitors in those countries where technology receives strong federal support. In the absence of a rational materials data management policy, the US is allowing the hemorrhaging of a vital national resource. The consequences of this neglect are serious and are listed. This report outlines some of the problems associated with the development of materials properties data bases and describes the essential features and advantages of a National Computerized Materials Properties Data Bank Network cooperatively established by our federal government and the private sector. Such a system would be a positive factor in increasing product reliability and improving the competitive position of the US in a world market environment where maximum use of advanced technology is decisive for success. Two sections of the report have been entered individually.

  4. Properties of granular analogue model materials: A community wide survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkmüller, M.; Schreurs, G.; Rosenau, M.; Kemnitz, H.

    2016-08-01

    We report the material properties of 26 granular analogue materials used in 14 analogue modelling laboratories. We determined physical characteristics such as bulk density, grain size distribution, and grain shape, and performed ring shear tests to determine friction angles and cohesion, and uniaxial compression tests to evaluate the compaction behaviour. Mean grain size of the materials varied between c. 100 and 400 μm. Analysis of grain shape factors shows that the four different classes of granular materials (14 quartz sands, 5 dyed quartz sands, 4 heavy mineral sands and 3 size fractions of glass beads) can be broadly divided into two groups consisting of 12 angular and 14 rounded materials. Grain shape has an influence on friction angles, with most angular materials having higher internal friction angles (between c. 35° and 40°) than rounded materials, whereas well-rounded glass beads have the lowest internal friction angles (between c. 25° and 30°). We interpret this as an effect of intergranular sliding versus rolling. Most angular materials have also higher basal friction angles (tested for a specific foil) than more rounded materials, suggesting that angular grains scratch and wear the foil. Most materials have an internal cohesion in the order of 20-100 Pa except for well-rounded glass beads, which show a trend towards a quasi-cohesionless (C < 20 Pa) Coulomb-type material. The uniaxial confined compression tests reveal that rounded grains generally show less compaction than angular grains. We interpret this to be related to the initial packing density after sifting, which is higher for rounded grains than for angular grains. Ring-shear test data show that angular grains undergo a longer strain-hardening phase than more rounded materials. This might explain why analogue models consisting of angular grains accommodate deformation in a more distributed manner prior to strain localisation than models consisting of rounded grains.

  5. Plasma-materials interactions during rf experiments in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.A.; Bernabei, S.; Budny, R.; Chu, T.K.; Colestock, P.; Hinnov, E.; Hooke, W.; Hosea, J.; Hwang, D.; Jobes, F.

    1984-09-01

    Plasma-materials interactions studied in recent ICRF heating and lower hybrid current drive experiments are reviewed. The microscopic processes responsible for impurity generation are discussed. In ICRF experiments, improvements in machine operation and in antenna and feedthrough design have allowed efficient plasma heating at RF powers up to 3 MW. No significant loss of energy from the plasma core due to impurity radiation occurs. Lower hybrid current drive results in the generation and maintenance of hundreds of kiloamperes of plasma current carried by suprathermal electrons. The loss of these electrons and their role in impurity generation are assessed. Methods to avoid this problem are evaluated.

  6. New multifunction materials with both electrorheological performance and luminescence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Xing; Shang, Yan-Li; Jia, Yun-Ling; Dong, Xiang-Yu; Ren, Jing; Li, Jun-Ran

    2017-02-01

    Novel multifunctional materials, the composites AlOOH-NaYFTb5 and AlOOH-NaYFTb10, containing AlO(OH) and β-NaYF4:5%Tb3+, have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route and a simple grinding method. The boehmite [AlO(OH)], yttrium nitrate [Y(NO3)3·6H2O], terbium nitrate, [Tb(NO3)3·6H2O], sodium citrate (Na3C6H5O7·2H2O) and sodium fluoride (NaF) were used as starting materials. The composition, electrorheological (ER) performance, and luminescence property of the functional materials were studied. Our results show that the composites not only have good electrorheological (ER) performance, but also have good optics property. The relative shear stress τ r ( τ r = τ E/ τ 0, τ E and τ 0 are the shear stresses at the electric field strength E = 4 and 0 kV/mm, respectively) values of the suspension (25 wt.%) of AlOOHNaYFTb5 material in silicone oil are all larger than 50 in a shear rate ranging from 0.06 to 26 s-1, the τr value reaches 1333 at a shear rate of 0.06 s-1. The material with such high ER activity and favorable luminescence performance is advantageous in its application as a multifunctional material.

  7. Nanoindentation derived stress-strain properties of dental materials.

    PubMed

    He, Li H; Swain, Michael V

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the stress-strain response of different dental materials, especially dental brittle materials, and compare them with enamel. A nano-based indentation system (Ultra Micro-Indentation System, UMIS-2000, CSIRO, Australia) was used to determine the indentation stress-strain response of two kinds of dental ceramics (Cerec 2 Mark II and Vita VM9), one kind of dental alloy (Wiron 99) and healthy enamel. A spherical indenter was used to test the materials with nanometer and micro-Newton displacement and force resolution. Assuming the elastic modulus remained constant, a plot of contact pressure versus contact strain, H-a/R, of each material was obtained. By comparing the H-a/R curve of the different materials with enamel, it can be concluded that only the metallic alloy, has similar stress-strain response as enamel. Dental ceramics showed much higher yield stress response than enamel. VM9, a porcelain veneer component of crown/bridge structure, is slightly softer than its core, Mark II. The yield point for Mark II and VM9 are nearly 10 and 7GPa, respectively, and approximately 2GPa for Wiron alloy and enamel. H-a/R curves provide a new method to compare the mechanical properties of different dental materials. From the standpoint of structural reliability, strong and tough materials with primarily elastic response, such as toughened ceramics are required to enable dental crown/bridges to have long term reliability. On the other hand, materials with too high hardness or yield response may damage opposing teeth during occlusal contact. Future studies may establish a relationship between stress and strain property and abrasive wear of dental material.

  8. Structural and material properties of human foot tendons.

    PubMed

    Morales-Orcajo, Enrique; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Losa Iglesias, Marta; Bayod, Javier

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of the main balance tendons of the human foot in vitro reporting mechanical structural properties and mechanical material properties separately. Tendon structural properties are relevant for clinical applications, for example in orthopedic surgery to elect suitable replacements. Tendon material properties are important for engineering applications such as the development of refined constitutive models for computational simulation or in the design of synthetic materials. One hundred uniaxial tensile tests were performed to obtain the mechanical response of the main intrinsic and extrinsic human foot tendons. The specimens were harvested from five frozen cadaver feet including: Extensor and Flexor tendons of all toes, Tibialis Anterior and Posterior tendons and Peroneus Brevis and Longus tendons. Cross-sectional area, load and strain failure, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile stress are reported as a reference of foot tendon mechanical properties. Two different behaviors could be differentiated. Tibialis and Peroneus tendons exhibited higher values of strain failure compared to Flexor and Extensor tendons which had higher Young's modulus and ultimate tensile stress. Stress-strain tendon curves exhibited proportionality between regions. The initial strain, the toe region and the yield point corresponded to the 15, 30 and 70% of the strain failure respectively. Mechanical properties of the lesser-studied human foot tendons are presented under the same test protocol for different engineering and clinical applications. The tendons that work at the inversion/eversion plane are more deformable at the same stress and strain rate than those that work at the flexion/extension plane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biologic properties of surgical scaffold materials derived from dermal ECM.

    PubMed

    Kulig, Katherine M; Luo, Xiao; Finkelstein, Eric B; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Goldman, Scott M; Sundback, Cathryn A; Vacanti, Joseph P; Neville, Craig M

    2013-07-01

    Surgical scaffold materials manufactured from donor human or animal tissue are increasingly being used to promote soft tissue repair and regeneration. The clinical product consists of the residual extracellular matrix remaining after a rigorous decellularization process. Optimally, the material provides both structural support during the repair period and cell guidance cues for effective incorporation into the regenerating tissue. Surgical scaffold materials are available from several companies and are unique products manufactured by proprietary methodology. A significant need exists for a more thorough understanding of scaffold properties that impact the early steps of host cell recruitment and infiltration. In this study, a panel of in vitro assays was used to make direct comparisons of several similar, commercially-available materials: Alloderm, Medeor Matrix, Permacol, and Strattice. Differences in the materials were detected for both cell signaling and scaffold architecture-dependent cell invasion. Material-conditioned media studies found Medeor Matrix to have the greatest positive effect upon cell proliferation and induction of migration. Strattice provided the greatest chemotaxis signaling and best suppressed apoptotic induction. Among assays measuring structure-dependent properties, Medeor Matrix was superior for cell attachment, followed by Permacol. Only Alloderm and Medeor Matrix supported chemotaxis-driven cell invasion beyond the most superficial zone. Medeor Matrix was the only material in the chorioallantoic membrane assay to support substantial cell invasion. These results indicate that both biologic and structural properties need to be carefully assessed in the considerable ongoing efforts to develop new uses and products in this important class of biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Damping Experiment of Spinning Composite Plates with Embedded Viscoelastic Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehmed, Oral; Kosmatka, John B.

    1997-01-01

    One way to increase gas turbine engine blade reliability and durability is to reduce blade vibration. It is well known that vibration reduction can be achieved by adding damping to metal and composite blade-disk systems. This experiment was done to investigate the use of integral viscoelastic damping treatments to reduce vibration of rotating composite fan blades. It is part of a joint research effort with NASA LeRC and the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Previous vibration bench test results obtained at UCSD show that plates with embedded viscoelastic material had over ten times greater damping than similar untreated plates; and this was without a noticeable change in blade stiffness. The objectives of this experiment, were to verify the structural integrity of composite plates with viscoelastic material embedded between composite layers while under large steady forces from spinning, and to measure the damping and natural frequency variation with rotational speed.

  11. Experiences with high temperature materials for small thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, R. S.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes recent experiences with a high temperature material used for the combustion chamber of a small bipropellant thruster using MON/MMH or MON/Hydrazine. The paper briefly describes the manufacture of chambers made from CVD Rhenium/Iridium and their incorporation into a flight weight 22N thrust ACS thruster. The test experience is related and a comprehensive description of the post test condition is given. The attempt to use Rhenium/Iridium has resulted in rapid failure of the chamber due to reaction of the Iridium with the products of combustion. The failure and its investigation is described. Other tests with a different form of Iridium has resulted in similar failure. The use of Iridium as a chamber material does not appear to be viable based on the findings of this work.

  12. RIM as the data base management system for a material properties data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, P. H.; Wilson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Relational Information Management (RIM) was selected as the data base management system for a prototype engineering materials data base. The data base provides a central repository for engineering material properties data, which facilitates their control. Numerous RIM capabilities are exploited to satisfy prototype data base requirements. Numerical, text, tabular, and graphical data and references are being stored for five material types. Data retrieval will be accomplished both interactively and through a FORTRAN interface. The experience gained in creating and exercising the prototype will be used in specifying requirements for a production system.

  13. RIM as the data base management system for a material properties data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, P. H.; Wilson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Relational Information Management (RIM) was selected as the data base management system for a prototype engineering materials data base. The data base provides a central repository for engineering material properties data, which facilitates their control. Numerous RIM capabilities are exploited to satisfy prototype data base requirements. Numerical, text, tabular, and graphical data and references are being stored for five material types. Data retrieval will be accomplished both interactively and through a FORTRAN interface. The experience gained in creating and exercising the prototype will be used in specifying requirements for a production system.

  14. Plan of Action: JASPER Management Prestart Review (Surrogate Material Experiments)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.E.

    2000-09-29

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility is being developed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to conduct shock physics experiments on special nuclear material and other actinide materials. JASPER will use a two-stage, light-gas gun to shoot projectiles at actinide targets. Projectile velocities will range from 1 to 8 km/s, inducing pressures in the target material up to 6 Mbar. The JASPER gas gun has been designed to match the critical dimensions of the two-stage, light-gas gun in Building 341 of LLNL. The goal in copying the LLNL gun design is to take advantage of the extensive ballistics database that exists and to minimize the effort spent on gun characterization in the initial facility start-up. A siting study conducted by an inter-Laboratory team identified Able Site in Area 27 of the NTS as the best location for the JASPER gas gun. Able Site consists of three major buildings that had previously been used to support the nuclear test program. In April 1999, Able Site was decommissioned as a Nuclear Explosive Assembly Facility and turned back to the DOE for other uses. Construction and facility modifications at Able Site to support the JASPER project started in April 1999 and were completed in September 1999. The gas gun and the secondary confinement chamber (SCC) were installed in early 2000. During the year, all facility and operational systems were brought on line. Initial system integration demonstrations were completed in September 2000. The facility is anticipated to be operational by August 2001, and the expected life cycle for the facility is 10 years. LLNL Nevada Experiments and Operations (N) Program has established a Management Prestart Review (MPR) team to determine the readiness of the JASPER personnel and facilities to initiate surrogate-material experiments. The review coincides with the completion of authorization-basis documents and physical subsystems, which have

  15. Plan of Action: JASPER Management Prestart Review (Surrogate Material Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W E

    2000-12-05

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility is being developed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to conduct shock physics experiments on special nuclear material and other actinide materials. JASPER will use a two-stage, light-gas gun to shoot projectiles at actinide targets. Projectile velocities will range from 1 to 8 km/s, inducing pressures in the target material up to 6 Mbar. The JASPER gas gun has been designed to match the critical dimensions of the two-stage, light-gas gun in Building 341 of LLNL. The goal in copying the LLNL gun design is to take advantage of the extensive ballistics database that exists and to minimize the effort spent on gun characterization in the initial facility start-up. A siting study conducted by an inter-Laboratory team identified Able Site in Area 27 of the NTS as the best location for the JASPER gas gun. Able Site consists of three major buildings that had previously been used to support the nuclear test program. In April 1999, Able Site was decommissioned as a Nuclear Explosive Assembly Facility and turned back to the DOE for other uses. Construction and facility modifications at Able Site to support the JASPER project started in April 1999 and were completed in September 1999. The gas gun and the secondary confinement chamber (SCC) were installed in early 2000. During the year, all facility and operational systems were brought on line. Initial system integration demonstrations were completed in September 2000. The facility is anticipated to be operational by August 2001, and the expected life cycle for the facility is 10 years. LLNL Nevada Experiments and Operations (N) Program has established a Management Prestart Review (MPR) team to determine the readiness of the JASPER personnel and facilities to initiate surrogate-material experiments. The review coincides with the completion of authorization-basis documents and physical subsystems, which have

  16. Single And Multiple Jet Penetration Experiments Into Geologic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kuklo, R; Murphy, M J; Rambur, T A; Switzer, L L; Summers, M A

    2003-12-19

    This paper presents the results of experiments that investigate the effect of single and multiple jet penetration into geologic materials. In previous studies of jet penetration into concrete targets, we demonstrated that an enhanced surface crater could be created by the simultaneous penetration of multiple shaped charge jets and that an enhanced target borehole could be created by the subsequent delayed penetration of a single shaped charge jet. This paper describes an extension of the multiple jet penetration research to limestone and granite.

  17. Representation of the material properties of objects in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Goda, Naokazu; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Okazawa, Gouki; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2014-02-12

    Information about the material from which objects are made provide rich and useful clues that enable us to categorize and identify those objects, know their state (e.g., ripeness of fruits), and properly act on them. However, despite its importance, little is known about the neural processes that underlie material perception in nonhuman primates. Here we conducted an fMRI experiment in awake macaque monkeys to explore how information about various real-world materials is represented in the visual areas of monkeys, how these neural representations correlate with perceptual material properties, and how they correspond to those in human visual areas that have been studied previously. Using a machine-learning technique, the representation in each visual area was read out from multivoxel patterns of regional activity elicited in response to images of nine real-world material categories (metal, wood, fur, etc.). The congruence of the neural representations with either a measure of low-level image properties, such as spatial frequency content, or with the visuotactile properties of materials, such as roughness, hardness, and warmness, were tested. We show that monkey V1 shares a common representation with human early visual areas reflecting low-level image properties. By contrast, monkey V4 and the posterior inferior temporal cortex represent the visuotactile properties of material, as in human ventral higher visual areas, although there were some interspecies differences in the representational structures. We suggest that, in monkeys, V4 and the posterior inferior temporal cortex are important stages for constructing information about the material properties of objects from their low-level image features.

  18. [Multivariate analysis of relationships between material properties and hygroscopicity of Chinese medicine raw materials].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Jie; Feng, Yi; Xu, De-Sheng; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Hong, Yan-Long; Fu, Xiao-Ju

    2012-04-01

    Material properties and hygroscopicity were determined. Principal component analysis and partial least squares regression were applied to evaluate relationships between material properties and hygroscopicity of Chinese medicine raw materials. The results showed that hygroscopicity was correlated with water content, particle size distribution, water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Balanced moisture content was positively correlated with water content, particle size distribution, water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Moisture absorption velocity was negatively correlated with particle size distribution, protruding degree and positively correlated with water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Moisture absorption acceleration was positively correlated with water content, particle size distribution and negatively correlated with water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Hygroscopicity of Chinese medicine raw materials is interpreted in terms of physics.

  19. Bridging a High School Science Fair Experience with First Year Undergraduate Research: Using the E-SPART Analyzer to Determine Electrostatic Charge Properties of Compositionally Varied Rock Dust Particles as Terrestrial Analogues to Mars Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. G.; Williams, W. J. W.; Mazumder, M. K.; Biris, A.; Srirama, P. K.

    2005-03-01

    More is known about Mars from data collected in 2004. We present particle size and electrostatic data for particles derived from various terrestrial materials to provide analogue studies for what also appears to be present: sedimentary compositions.

  20. Surface electrical properties experiment, part 1. [flown on Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangway, D. W.; Annan, A. P.; Redman, J. D.; Rossiter, J. R.; Rylaarsdam, J. A.; Watts, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The work is reported which was performed on the Surface Electrical Properties Experiment Data Acquisition System. Areas discussed include: data handling and processing, installation and external signal application, operation of the equipment, and digital output. Detailed circuit descriptions are included.

  1. Method for the unique identification of hyperelastic material properties using full-field measures. Application to the passive myocardium material response.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Luigi E; Ponnaluri, Aditya V S; Krishnamoorthi, Shankarjee; Balzani, Daniel; Ennis, Daniel B; Klug, William S

    2017-01-18

    Quantitative measurement of the material properties (eg, stiffness) of biological tissues is poised to become a powerful diagnostic tool. There are currently several methods in the literature to estimating material stiffness, and we extend this work by formulating a framework that leads to uniquely identified material properties. We design an approach to work with full-field displacement data-ie, we assume the displacement field due to the applied forces is known both on the boundaries and also within the interior of the body of interest-and seek stiffness parameters that lead to balanced internal and external forces in a model. For in vivo applications, the displacement data can be acquired clinically using magnetic resonance imaging while the forces may be computed from pressure measurements, eg, through catheterization. We outline a set of conditions under which the least-square force error objective function is convex, yielding uniquely identified material properties. An important component of our framework is a new numerical strategy to formulate polyconvex material energy laws that are linear in the material properties and provide one optimal description of the available experimental data. An outcome of our approach is the analysis of the reliability of the identified material properties, even for material laws that do not admit unique property identification. Lastly, we evaluate our approach using passive myocardium experimental data at the material point and show its application to identifying myocardial stiffness with an in silico experiment modeling the passive filling of the left ventricle. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Laboratory experiment of seismic cycles using compliant viscoelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, T.

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that surface asperities at fault interfaces play an essential role in stick-slip friction. There have been many laboratory experiments conducted using rocks and some analogue materials to understand the effects of asperities and the underlying mechanisms. Among such materials, soft polymer gels have great advantages of slowing down propagating rupture front speed as well as shear wave speed: it facilitates observation of the dynamic rupture behavior. However, most experiments were done with bimaterial interfaces (combination of soft and hard materials) and there are few experiments with an identical (gel on gel) setup. Furthermore, there have been also few studies mentioning the link between local asperity contact and macroscopic dynamic rupture behavior. In this talk, we report our experimental studies on stick-slip friction between gels having controlled artificial asperities. We show that, depending on number density and configuration randomness of the asperities, the rupture behavior greatly changes: when the asperities are located periodically with optimum number densities, fast rupture propagation occurs, while slow and heterogeneous slip behavior is observed for samples having randomly located asperities. We discuss the importance of low frequency (large wavelength) excitation of the normal displacement contributing to weakening the fault interface. We also discuss the observed regular to slow slip transition with a simple model.

  3. Material property data and their use in design and analysis for an elevated temperature solar code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, I.

    1981-11-01

    Specific properties of the materials, temperatures, and operating parameters for elevated temperature solar thermal power plants are considered as a basis for developing standards of implementation. Physical and mechanical properties such as thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, expansion, strength, and creep are discussed and recommendations for ASME Code I and III materials are cited where feasible. Inelastic behavior tests involving beam bending, pipe ratcheting, torsion-torsion tests, and axial cyclic tests of various stainless steel specimens and Incoloy 800 material are reported. Peculiarities of problems for solar applications are noted to be a lack of information of basic material behavior due to the low amount of actual operational experience, a large number of transient temperature cycles, and primary creep.

  4. Thermal property of insulation material for HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yeon Suk; Kim, D. L.; Shin, D. W.; Hwang, S. D.

    2012-06-01

    The thermal property of insulation material is essential in developing a high temperature superconductor (HTS) power cable operating at around liquid nitrogen temperature. The accurate estimate of the heat flux is difficult in the nonmetallic materials because nonmetallic materials have a high thermal resistance and low temperature gradient along the specimen. The objective of the present work is to develop a precise instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of insulating materials over a temperature range of 30 K to approximately the room temperature by using a cryocooler. The thermal conductivity of Teflon is measured and the accuracy confirmation is carried out by comparing published data. In addition, the experimental results of apparent thermal conductivity of polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) are presented and the temperature dependency is also discussed

  5. Rectangular waveguide material characterization: anisotropic property extraction and measurement validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowgey, Benjamin Reid

    for characterization of a sample filling the cross-section of a waveguide. Due to the rectangular nature of the waveguide, typically three different samples are manufactured from the same material in order to characterize the six complex material parameters. The second technique for measuring the electromagnetic properties of a biaxially anisotropic material sample uses a reduced-aperture waveguide sample holder designed to accommodate a cubical sample. All the tensor material parameters can then be determined by measuring the reflection and transmission coefficients of a single sample placed into several orientations. The parameters are obtained using a root-searching algorithm by comparing theoretically computed and measured reflection and transmission coefficients. The theoretical coefficients are determined using a mode matching technique. The first technique for characterizing the electromagnetic properties of gyromagnetic materials considers requires filling the cross-section of a waveguide. The material parameters are extracted from the measured reflection and transmission coefficients. Since the cross-sectional dimensions of waveguides become prohibitively large at low frequencies, and it is at these frequencies that the gyromagnetic properties are most pronounced, sufficiently large samples may not be available. Therefore, the second technique uses a reduced-aperture sample holder that does not require the sample to fill the entire cross section of the guide. The theoretical reflection and transmission coefficients for both methods are determined using a mode matching technique. A nonlinear least squares method is employed to extract the gyromagnetic material parameters. Finally, this dissertation introduces a waveguide standard that acts as a surrogate material with both electric and magnetic properties and is useful for verifying systems designed to characterize engineered materials using the NRW technique. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the all

  6. AB INITIO SIMULATIONS FOR MATERIAL PROPERTIES ALONG THE JUPITER ADIABAT

    SciTech Connect

    French, Martin; Becker, Andreas; Lorenzen, Winfried; Nettelmann, Nadine; Bethkenhagen, Mandy; Redmer, Ronald; Wicht, Johannes

    2012-09-15

    We determine basic thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen-helium-water mixtures for the extreme conditions along Jupiter's adiabat via ab initio simulations, which are compiled in an accurate and consistent data set. In particular, we calculate the electrical and thermal conductivity, the shear and longitudinal viscosity, and diffusion coefficients of the nuclei. We present results for associated quantities like the magnetic and thermal diffusivity and the kinematic shear viscosity along an adiabat that is taken from a state-of-the-art interior structure model. Furthermore, the heat capacities, the thermal expansion coefficient, the isothermal compressibility, the Grueneisen parameter, and the speed of sound are calculated. We find that the onset of dissociation and ionization of hydrogen at about 0.9 Jupiter radii marks a region where the material properties change drastically. In the deep interior, where the electrons are degenerate, many of the material properties remain relatively constant. Our ab initio data will serve as a robust foundation for applications that require accurate knowledge of the material properties in Jupiter's interior, e.g., models for the dynamo generation.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Kleczewska, Joanna; Pryliński, Mariusz; Podlewska, Magdalena; Sokołowski, Jerzy; Łapińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate mechanical properties of light-curing composite materials modified with the addition of calcium fluoride. The study used one experimental light-curing composite material (ECM) and one commercially available flowable light-curing composite material (FA) that were modified with 0.5–5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride. Morphology of the samples and uniformity of CaF2 distribution were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Mechanical properties were tested after 24-hour storage of specimens in dry or wet conditions. Stored dry ECM enriched with 0.5–1.0 wt% CaF2 showed higher tensile strength values, while water storage of all modified ECM specimens decreased their tensile strength. The highest Vickers hardness tested after dry storage was observed for 2.5 wt% CaF2 content in ECM. The addition of 2.0–5.0 wt% CaF2 to FA caused significant decrease in tensile strength after dry storage and overall tensile strength decrease of modified FA specimens after water storage. The content of 2.0 wt% CaF2 in FA resulted in the highest Vickers hardness tested after wet storage. Commercially available composite material (FA), unmodified with fluoride addition, demonstrated overall significantly higher mechanical properties. PMID:28004001

  8. A material selection method based on material properties and operating parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W.; Davidson, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The influence of strength, fracture toughness, and crack growth resistance on the design stress level has been determined from a mathematical model of crack growth and failure. The results show that to select materials properly, the operating parameters of desired life and initial flaw size must be considered simultaneously with the material properties. To do this, a method for constructing an operating surface is derived, discussed, and illustrated.

  9. Surface electrical properties experiment study phase, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The choice of an antenna for a subsurface radio sounding experiment is discussed. The radiation properties of the antennas as placed on the surface of the medium is examined. The objective of the lunar surface electrical properties experiment is described. A numerical analysis of the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of a subsurface domain is developed. The application of electromagnetic field measurements between one or more transmitting antennas and a roving receiving station is explained.

  10. An overview of laminate materials with enhanced dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumby, Stephen J.

    1989-03-01

    This report focuses on laminate materials (resins and reinforcements) having potential applications in the manufacture of multi-layer printed wiring boards (PWBs) that are required to efficiently transmit high-speed digital pulses. It is intended to be a primer and a reference for selection of candidate materials for such high-performance PWBs. Included are dielectric and physical properties, and where available chemical composition and/or structure, commercial availability, compatibility with typical PWB processing schemes and approximate relative cost. Recommendations are made as to the most viable candidate materials for this type of PWB application, based on a comparison of electrical and physical properties together with processing and cost considerations. The cyanate ester resin system appears promising. Such a resin may be reinforced with regular E-glass, or the more newly available S-glass, to produce a laminate useful for intermediate performance applications. For more demanding applications the E-glass will have to be replaced by a material of much lower relative permittivity. The expanded-PTFE reinforced laminates from W. L. Gore appear to be a good choice for these applications. The processing of the Gore materials can be expected to deviate from that used with FR-4 type materials, but is likely to be less problematic than laminates comprised of a fluorinated resin. Processing is a key obstacle to the implementation of any of the new materials herein. If implementation is to be successful, programs must be established to develop and optimize processing procedures. Cost will remain an important issue. However, the higher cost of the new materials may be justified in high-end products by the performance they deliver.

  11. Analysis of Fluorinated Polyimides Flown on the Materials International Space Station Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Rodman, L.; Farmer, B.

    2015-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum documents the results from the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) series involving fluorinated polyimide films analyzed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. These films may be used in thermal control, sunshield, solar sail, solar concentrator, and other lightweight polymer film applications. Results include postflight structural integrity, visual observations, determination of atomic oxygen erosion yield, and optical property changes as compared to preflight values.

  12. Making Mudstones: insights into material behavior through resedimentation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemings, P. B.; Reece, J.; Adams, A. L.; Germaine, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    We explore how composition controls permeability, stiffness, and fabric in 'resedimented' mudstones. We mix slurries of natural mudstone (e.g. Boston Blue Clay and Gulf of Mexico Mudstone) with other components (e.g. silt) and we subject them to uniaxial compression to effective stresses up to 40 MPa. We show that increasing the silt fraction in mudstones results in a transition from a single porosity to a dual porosity structure. This dual porosity structure results from the development of large pore throat pathways associated with silt-to-silt contacts in the mixture. We describe how fabric evolves with increased effective stress due to increasing alignment of platy materials that rotate during uniaxial compression. We illustrate how pore throats evolve from approximately circular to elongate and how this results in the development of permeability anisotropy from isotropic at low effective stresses to anisotropic (Kh/Kv >2) at 40 MPa. Finally, we show how stiffness increases during compression. As compression proceeds, increasing grain-to-grain contact increases the stiffness. With the resedimentation approach, the effects of sample variability and sample disturbance are removed and the fundamental material behavior of mudstones is illuminated. The results can be used to simulate the evolution of mudstone properties during burial and the associated flow that must occur. More broadly, the results provide insight into the material properties of mudstones given particular burial histories that allow us to predict their flow behavior, and their sealing capacity.

  13. Estimating Energy Conversion Efficiency of Thermoelectric Materials: Constant Property Versus Average Property Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Hannah; Boese, Matthew; Carmichael, Cody; Dimich, Hannah; Seay, Dylan; Sheppard, Nathan; Beekman, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Maximum thermoelectric energy conversion efficiencies are calculated using the conventional "constant property" model and the recently proposed "cumulative/average property" model (Kim et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:8205, 2015) for 18 high-performance thermoelectric materials. We find that the constant property model generally predicts higher energy conversion efficiency for nearly all materials and temperature differences studied. Although significant deviations are observed in some cases, on average the constant property model predicts an efficiency that is a factor of 1.16 larger than that predicted by the average property model, with even lower deviations for temperature differences typical of energy harvesting applications. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the conventional dimensionless figure of merit ZT obtained from the constant property model, while not applicable for some materials with strongly temperature-dependent thermoelectric properties, remains a simple yet useful metric for initial evaluation and/or comparison of thermoelectric materials, provided the ZT at the average temperature of projected operation, not the peak ZT, is used.

  14. Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?

    PubMed

    Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex(®), ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight(®) 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young's modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young's modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape.

  15. Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?

    PubMed Central

    Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex®, ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight® 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young’s modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young’s modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape. PMID:27190472

  16. Surface magnetometer experiments: Internal lunar properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are respectively 38 gammas, 103 gammas (maximum), 3 gammas, and 327 gammas. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the remanent fields at the Apollo 12 and 16 sites are compressed and that the scale size of the Apollo 16 remanent field is 5 or = L 100 km. The global eddy current fields, induced by magnetic step transients in the solar wind, were analyzed to calculate an electrical conductivity profile. From nightside data it was found that deeper than 170 km into the moon, the conductivity rises from 0.0003 mhos/m to 0.01 mhos/m at 1000 km depth. Analysis of dayside transient data using a spherically symmetric two-layer model yields a homogeneous conducting core of radios 0.9 R and conductivity sigma = 0.001 mhos/m, surrounded by a nonconducting shell of thickness 0.1 R. This result is in agreement with a nonconducting profile determined from nightside data. The conductivity profile is used to calculate the temperature for an assumed lunar material of peridotite. In an outer layer the temperature rises to 850 to 1050 K, after which it gradually increases to 1200 to 1500 K at a depth of approximately 1000 km.

  17. Millimeter-wave dielectric properties of infrared window materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, W. W.

    1987-01-01

    The millimeter-wave dielectric properties of a series of IR window materials were determined over the temperature range 23-1000 C. Materials studied included Al2O3, ZnS, ZnSe, aluminum oxynitride (ALON), and magnesium-spinel (MgAl2O4). These materials all exhibited fairly high millimeter-wave dielectric constants, but with essentially negligible room-temperature losses for most applications. However, both the dielectric constant and loss tangent increase significantly with increasing temperatures. The increases in dielectric constant with temperature can be analyzed in terms of a macroscopic dielectric virial expansion model, and are primarily due to the effective increase in volume for each polarizable unit of the material. Consequently, a strategy to overcome this degradation would be to search for new materials or composite structures with low thermal expansion coefficients. The observed millimeter-wave loss properties are characteristic of contributions from intergranular impurities and show an onset of increased absorption at about 500. However, even at 1000 C, typical loss tangents are still below 0.05, and should be acceptable in most millimeter-wave window applications for reasonable thicknesses.

  18. Phase equilibria and physical properties of core materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seagle, Christopher T.

    The physical properties and phase equilibria of materials suspected to be important for Earth's core have been investigated at high pressures using the diamond anvil cell. The optical properties of iron have been derived from reflectance measurements at room temperature up to 50 GPa. There are strong changes in the optical properties associated with the bcc to hcp phase transition in iron at ˜13 GPa. The spectral emissivity of iron is a particularly important property because it appears in the equations used to measure temperature in the laser heated diamond anvil cell, and shock wave experiments. The emissivity of iron in the near infrared is a strong function of wavelength below the bcc to hcp phase transition. Above this phase transition, the infrared emissivity of iron does not have wavelength dependence, it behaves as a greybody. Temperature measurements utilizing spectroradiometry on iron samples below ˜13 GPa need to take into account the wavelength dependent emissivity of iron, or accept errors on the measured temperature as large at ˜25% or more. Investigations into the high pressure binary Fe-FeO and Fe-Fe3S phase diagrams using the laser heated diamond anvil cell in conjunction with synchrotron x-ray diffraction have been used to place constraints on the temperature and composition of Earth's core. The data suggests that oxygen is likely to preferentially partition into the liquid at the inner core boundary, while sulfur does not have a strong preference for the liquid or solid. This is an important result because it suggests that oxygen may be required in the core in order to explain the different abundances of light elements in the inner and outer cores. The melting temperatures in these systems were also measured up to ˜100 GPa for the Fe-FeO system and up to ˜150 GPa for the Fe-Fe3S system. The melting point depression with respect to pure iron is negligible in the case of adding oxygen, but a depression of 100-800 K was observed for the sulfur

  19. The derivation of material properties from measurements of radiation induced stress-time histories

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, F.W.; Reeder, D.L.; Johnson, D.E.; Lee, L.M.

    1995-08-01

    Material response experiments using the SATURN soft x-ray source in conjunction with hydrocode modelling have been used to determine equation-of-state parameters for aluminum. In these experiments, stresswaves in irradiated targets have been measured using both quartz and PVDF piezoelectric stress gauges for a wide range of incident fluences. The induced stress profiles are sensitive functions of. (1) the deposition profiles in the target material, (2) the temporal history of the radiation source, and (3) the target material-properties. Analysis of the experimental data has shown that observed changes in the shape of the induced stresswave as fluence is varied can be directly correlated to phase transitions. The unique combination of x-ray energy and irradiation time allow phenomena important for determining equation-of-state parameters to be studied separately. By temporally separating the development of thermomechanically induced stress from stress induced by material vaporization a very sensitive measurement of vaporization energy is possible.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Comparison

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Francesco; Caputi, Sergio; D'Amario, Maurizio; D'Arcangelo, Camillo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Although new elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features. The tensile properties of 17 hydrophilic impression materials with different consistencies were compared. Materials and Methods. 12 vinylpolysiloxane, 2 polyether, and 3 hybrid vinylpolyether silicone-based impression materials were tested. For each material, 10 dumbbell-shaped specimens were fabricated (n = 10), according to the ISO 37:2005 specifications, and loaded in tension until failure. Mean values for tensile strength, yield strength, strain at break, and strain at yield point were calculated. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). Results. Vinylpolysiloxanes consistently showed higher tensile strength values than polyethers. Heavy-body materials showed higher tensile strength than the light bodies from the same manufacturer. Among the light bodies, the highest yield strength was achieved by the hybrid vinylpolyether silicone (2.70 MPa). Polyethers showed the lowest tensile (1.44 MPa) and yield (0.94 MPa) strengths, regardless of the viscosity. Conclusion. The choice of an impression material should be based on the specific physical behavior of the elastomer. The light-body vinylpolyether silicone showed high tensile strength, yield strength, and adequate strain at yield/brake; those features might help to reduce tearing phenomena in the thin interproximal and crevicular areas. PMID:26693227

  1. Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Comparison.

    PubMed

    Re, Dino; De Angelis, Francesco; Augusti, Gabriele; Augusti, Davide; Caputi, Sergio; D'Amario, Maurizio; D'Arcangelo, Camillo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Although new elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features. The tensile properties of 17 hydrophilic impression materials with different consistencies were compared. Materials and Methods. 12 vinylpolysiloxane, 2 polyether, and 3 hybrid vinylpolyether silicone-based impression materials were tested. For each material, 10 dumbbell-shaped specimens were fabricated (n = 10), according to the ISO 37:2005 specifications, and loaded in tension until failure. Mean values for tensile strength, yield strength, strain at break, and strain at yield point were calculated. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). Results. Vinylpolysiloxanes consistently showed higher tensile strength values than polyethers. Heavy-body materials showed higher tensile strength than the light bodies from the same manufacturer. Among the light bodies, the highest yield strength was achieved by the hybrid vinylpolyether silicone (2.70 MPa). Polyethers showed the lowest tensile (1.44 MPa) and yield (0.94 MPa) strengths, regardless of the viscosity. Conclusion. The choice of an impression material should be based on the specific physical behavior of the elastomer. The light-body vinylpolyether silicone showed high tensile strength, yield strength, and adequate strain at yield/brake; those features might help to reduce tearing phenomena in the thin interproximal and crevicular areas.

  2. A System-Level Approach to Thermoelectric Material Property Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, D. T.; Lorimer, A.; Hannemann, C.; Reifenberg, J.; Miller, L.; Scullin, M.

    2015-06-01

    The opportunities for creating the most effective thermoelectric (TE) material can be maximized by considering the full system for a given application when developing the material. If conversion efficiency is the only consideration in the design of a TE material, then maximizing average ZT over the largest temperature range may be the best choice. If the system or end application is unknown or not well defined, this design path may also be the best choice. However, there are more factors that should affect TE material design choice than just maximizing average ZT when considering the system-level attributes of an application. The following paper demonstrates how other aspects of the design affect how TE material properties (Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity) can be tuned to get maximum performance for a given application. These other aspects include device and system level parasitic losses, constraints, and design objectives. Simulation results are provided that demonstrate how a TE material with a lower average ZT can be more effective depending on the design objective than a TE material with a higher average ZT.

  3. Synthesis & Properties of Nano-Composite Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritt, Terry

    2007-03-01

    PbTe nanocrystals have been grown in our labs by chemical vapor deposition. These materials grow in size selective regions exhibiting very high yield and have size distributions of around 100 nm to 1000 nm. These nano-materials are incorporated into a bulk matrix, making a composite material in hopes of achieving a higher thermoelectric performance due to the increased phonon scattering that the nano-materials are expected to exhibit, as well as potential for enhancement of their Seebeck coefficient. Some of the advantages as well as the challenges will be discussed. These nanocomposites give a new level of potential control as a tuning parameter with which to vary the materials' thermoelectric properties. In addition, Bi2Te3, another state of the art thermoelectric material and skutterudites (CoSb3) have been synthesized as nanomaterials using hydrothermal techniques. A brief discussion of the synthesis techniques, the characterization techniques and highlights of several systems of materials will be presented. In collaboration with Xiaohua Ji, Jian He, Bo Zhang, Nick Gothard, and Paola Alboni, Dept. of Physics, Clemson University.

  4. Electrostatic levitation technology for thermophysical properties of molten materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties of undercooled liquids often require some kind of levitator which isolates samples from container walls. We introduce in this presentation a high temperature/high vacuum electrostatic levitator (HTHVESL) which promises some unique capabilities for the studies of thermophysical properties of molten materials. Although substantial progress has been made in the past several months, this technology is still in the development stage, therefore, in this presentation we only focus on the present state of the HTHVESL(1) and point out other capabilities which might be realized in the near future.

  5. Use of thermal-inertia properties for material identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schieldge, J. P.; Kahle, A. B.; Alley, R. E.; Gillespie, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that a knowledge of the thermal inertia of the earth's surface can be used in geologic mapping as a complement to surface reflectance data as provided by Landsat. Thermal inertia, which is a body property, cannot be determined directly but can be inferred from radiation temperature measurements made at various times in the diurnal heating cycle, combined with a model of the surface heating processes. A model of this type is developed and applied along with temperature measurements made in the field and by satellite to determine thermal properties of surface materials. An example from a test site in western Nevada is used to demonstrate the utility of this technique.

  6. Statistically based material properties: A military handbook-17 perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Donald M.; Vangel, Mark G.

    1990-01-01

    The statistical procedures and their importance in obtaining composite material property values in designing structures for aircraft and military combat systems are described. The property value is such that the strength exceeds this value with a prescribed probability with 95 percent confidence in the assertion. The survival probabilities are the 99th percentile and 90th percentile for the A and B basis values respectively. The basis values for strain to failure measurements are defined in a similar manner. The B value is the primary concern.

  7. Electronic Properties of Low-Dimensional Materials Under Periodic Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamei, Mehdi

    In the quest for the further miniaturization of electronic devices, numerous fabrication techniques have been developed. The semiconductor industry has been able to manifest miniaturization in highly complex and ultra low-power integrated circuits and devices, transforming almost every aspect of our lives. However, we may have come very close to the end of this trend. While advanced machines and techniques may be able to overcome technological barriers, theoretical and fundamental barriers are inherent to the top-down miniaturization approach and cannot be circumvented. As a result, the need for novel and natural alternatives to replace old materials is valued now more than ever. Fortunately, there exists a large group of materials that essentially has low-dimensional (quasi-one- or quasi-two-dimensional) structures. Graphene, a two-dimensional form of carbon, which has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, is a perfect example of a prime material from this group. Niobium tri-selenide (NbSe3), from a family of trichalcogenides, has a highly anisotropic structure and electrical conductivity. At sufficiently low temperatures, NbSe3 also exhibits two independent "sliding charge density waves"-- an exciting phenomenon, which could be altered by changing the overall size of the material. In NbSe3 (and Blue Bronze K0.3MoO3 which has a similar structure and electrical behavior), the effect of a periodic potential could be seen in creating a charge density wave (CDW) that is incommensurate to the underlying lattice. The required periodic potential is provided by the crystal ions when ordered in a particular way. The consequence is a peculiar non-linear conductivity behavior, as well as a unique narrow-band noise spectrum. Theoretical and experimental studies have concluded that the dynamic properties of resulting CDW are directly related to the crystal impurity density, and other pinning potentials. Therefore, reducing the overall size of the crystal could

  8. Advanced Materials Research Status and Requirements. Volume 2. Appendix: Material Properties Data Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    APPENDIX: MATERIAL PROPERTIES DATA REVIEW FINAL REPORT CONTRACT DASG60-85-C-0087 SPONSORED BY: U.S. ARMY STRATEGIC DEFENSE COMMAND DTIC c. ELECTE... properties of general interest advanced metal matrix and polymer matrix systems. qa .1 ./’r ;) 20. ;is,-icI.rON/AIAiLAS16iT’fr. ASSTRACT 1.AaSTRAZT "C...thermal, and physical properties of general interest advanced metal matrix and polymer matrix composites. 4. .Accession For r., ~~NTIS ... I By-4

  9. Compatibility experiments of facilities, materials, and propellants for electrothermal thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, M. V.; Grisnik, S. P.; Sovey, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the compatibility of materials and propellants for electro-thermal thrusters. Candidate propellants for resistojet propulsion include carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, ammonia, and hydrazine. The materials being examined are grain stabilized platinum for resistojets for space station and rhenium for high performance resistojets for satellites. Heater mass loss and deterioration of materials were evaluated. A coiled tube of platinum, with yttria dispersed throughout the base material to inhibit grain growth, was tested in carbon dioxide at 1300 C for 2000 hr. Post-test examination indicated the platinum-yttria heater would last over 100,000 hr with less than 10 percent mass loss. Short-term compatibility tests were conducted to test the integrity of the platinum-yttria in hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide/methane mixtures and ammonia environments. In each of these 100 hr tests, the platinum-yttria mass change indicated a minimum coil life of 100,000 hr. Facility related effects were investigated in materials tests using rhenium heated to high temperatures. Vacuum facility water reduction was monitored using a mass spectrometer. In vacuum environments obtained using only diffusion pumping and those obtained with the assistance of cryogenic equipment there were mass gains in the rhenium heaters. These mass gains were the result of the high amount of oxygen and water contained in the gas. Propellant purity and preferred test facility environments are discussed.

  10. Compatibility experiments of facilities, materials, and propellants for electrothermal thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, M. V.; Grisnik, S. P.; Sovey, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the compatibility of materials and propellants for electro-thermal thrusters. Candidate propellants for resistojet propulsion include carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, ammonia, and hydrazine. The materials being examined are grain stabilized platinum for resistojets for Space station and rhenium for high performance resistojets for satellites. Heater mass loss and deterioration of materials were evaluated. A coiled tube of platinum, with yttria dispersed throughout the base material to inhibit grain growth, was tested in carbon dioxide at 1300 C for 2000 hr. Post-test examination indicated the platinum-yttria heater would last over 100 000 hr with less than 10 percent mass loss. Short-term compatibility tests were conducted to test the integrity of the platinum-yttria in hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide/methane mixtures and ammonia environments. In each of these 100 hr tests, the platinum-yttria mass change indicated a minimum coil life of 100 000 hr. Facility related effects were investigated in materials tests using rhenium heated to high tempertures. Vacuum facility water reduction was monitored using a mass spectrometer. In vacuum environments obtained using only diffusion pumping and those obtained with the assistance of cryogenic equipment there were mass gains in the rhenium heaters. These mass gains were the result of the high amount of oxygen and water contained in the gas. Propellant purity and preferred test facility environments are discussed.

  11. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (L1) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager' and the L1 Diamond '. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Fliglit Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail3-'. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar TM, Teonexm, and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  12. Advances in optical property measurements of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    1997-01-01

    Some of the instruments and experimental approaches, used for measuring the optical properties of thermal control systems, are presented. The instruments' use in studies concerning the effects of combined contaminants and space environment on these materials, and in the qualification of hardware for spacecraft, are described. Instruments for measuring the solar absorptance and infrared emittance offer improved speed, accuracy and data handling. A transient method for directly measuring material infrared emittance is described. It is shown that oxygen exposure before measuring the solar absorptance should be avoided.

  13. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (L1) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager' and the L1 Diamond '. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Fliglit Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail3-'. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar TM, Teonexm, and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  14. Surface electrical properties experiment study phase, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The reliability and quality assurance system and procedures used in developing test equipment for the Lunar Experiment projects are described. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) documentation control, (2) design review, (3) parts and materials selection, (4) material procurement, (5) inspection procedures, (6) qualification and special testing, and failure modes and effects analysis.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Violent Experiences Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    King, Alan R; Russell, Tiffany D

    2017-02-24

    The Violent Experiences Questionnaire-Revised (VEQ-R) is a brief retrospective self-report inventory which provides estimates of annual frequencies of childhood physical abuse, sibling physical abuse, exposure to parental violence, peer bullying, and corporal punishment as they were experienced from ages 5 to 16. The VEQ-R indices rely on a frequency metric that estimates the number of days on average per year a specified class of behavior occurred over a 12year retrospective period. All scores range from a frequency of 0 to a high of 104. Scale normative data was generated from both a college (N=1266) and national (N=1290) sample to expand the research applicability of this relatively new inventory. Subscales were added to estimate the frequency of victimization during childhood, the pre-teen years, and adolescence. Four "hostility" component indices were derived from perpetrator source (parent, sibling, peer, or domestic). Thresholds were established to for High, Moderate, Low, and No Risk classifications. Subscales dimensions were found to have both adequate internal and temporal consistency. Evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity was generated using the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale-Short-Form(©), LONGSCAN Physical Abuse Self-Report scale, and Physical Punishment scale of the Assessing Environments III inventory.

  16. Materials design using correlated oxides: Optical properties of vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, J. M.; Biermann, S.

    2009-05-01

    Materials with strong electronic Coulomb interactions play an increasing role in modern materials applications. "Thermochromic" systems, that exhibit thermally induced changes in their optical response, provide a particularly interesting case. The optical switching associated with the metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2), for example, has been proposed for use in "intelligent" windows that selectively filter radiative heat in hot weather conditions. In this work, we develop the theoretical tools for describing such a behaviour. Using a novel scheme for the calculation of the optical conductivity of correlated materials, we obtain quantitative agreement with experiments for both phases of VO2. On the example of an optimized energy-saving window setup, we further demonstrate that theoretical materials design has now come into reach, even for the particularly challenging class of correlated electron systems.

  17. Radiation-induced electrical degradation experiments in the Japan materials testing reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Farnum, E.; Scharborough, K.; Shikama, Tatsuo

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this experiment is to determine the extent of degradation during neutron irradiation of electrical and optical properties of candidate dielectric materials. The goals are to identify promising dielectrics for ITER and other fusion machines for diagnostic applications and establish the basis for optimization of candidate materials. An experiment to measure radiation-induced electrical degradation (REID) in sapphire and MgO-insulated cables was conducted at the JMTR light water reactor. The materials were irradiated at about 260 {degree}C to a fluence of 3{times}10{sup 24} n/m{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) with an applied DC electric field between 100 kV/m and 500 kV/m.

  18. Effect of the space environment on materials flown on the EURECA/TICCE-HVI experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, Carl R.; Stevenson, Tim J.; Tanner, William G.; Borg, Janet

    1995-01-01

    The primary benefit of accurately quantifying and characterizing the space environmental effects on materials is longer instrument and spacecraft life. Knowledge of the limits of materials allows the designer to optimize the spacecraft design so that the required life is achieved. Materials such as radiator coatings that have excellent durability result in the design of smaller radiators than a radiator coated with a lower durability coating. This may reduce the weight of the spacecraft due to a more optimum design. Another benefit of characterizing materials is the quantification of outgassing properties. Spacecraft which have ultraviolet or visible sensor payloads are susceptible to contamination by outgassed volatile materials. Materials with known outgassing characteristics can be restricted in these spacecraft. Finally, good data on material characteristics improves the ability of analytical models to predict material performance. A flight experiment was conducted on the European Space Agency's European Retrievable Carrier (EuReCa) as part of the Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE). Our main objective was to gather additional data on the dust and debris environments, with the focus on understanding growth as a function of size (mass) for hypervelocity particles 1E-06 cm and larger. In addition to enumerating particle impacts, hypervelocity particles were to be captured and returned intact. Measurements were performed post-flight to determine the flux density, diameters, and subsequent effects on various optical, thermal control and structural materials. In addition to these principal measurements, the experiment also provided a structure and sample holders for the exposure of passive material samples to the space environment, e.g., the effects of thermal cycling, atomic oxygen, etc. Preliminary results are presented, including the techniques used for intact capture of particles.

  19. Effective Materials Property Information Management for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Weiju; Cebon, David; Arnold, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses key principles for the development of materials property information management software systems. There are growing needs for automated materials information management in various organizations. In part these are fueled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing, product design and engineering analysis. But equally important, organizations are being driven by the need for consistency, quality and traceability of data, as well as control of access to sensitive information such as proprietary data. Further, the use of increasingly sophisticated nonlinear, anisotropic and multi-scale engineering analyses requires both processing of large volumes of test data for development of constitutive models and complex materials data input for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) software. And finally, the globalization of economy often generates great needs for sharing a single "gold source" of materials information between members of global engineering teams in extended supply chains. Fortunately, material property management systems have kept pace with the growing user demands and evolved to versatile data management systems that can be customized to specific user needs. The more sophisticated of these provide facilities for: (i) data management functions such as access, version, and quality controls; (ii) a wide range of data import, export and analysis capabilities; (iii) data "pedigree" traceability mechanisms; (iv) data searching, reporting and viewing tools; and (v) access to the information via a wide range of interfaces. In this paper the important requirements for advanced material data management systems, future challenges and opportunities such as automated error checking, data quality characterization, identification of gaps in datasets, as well as functionalities and business models to fuel database growth and maintenance are discussed.

  20. Effective Materials Property Information Management for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Cebon, David; Barabash, Oleg M

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses key principles for the development of materials property information management software systems. There are growing needs for automated materials information management in various organizations. In part these are fuelled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing, product design and engineering analysis. But equally important, organizations are being driven by the needs for consistency, quality and traceability of data, as well as control of access to proprietary or sensitive information. Further, the use of increasingly sophisticated nonlinear, anisotropic and multi-scale engineering analyses requires both processing of large volumes of test data for development of constitutive models and complex materials data input for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) software. And finally, the globalization of economy often generates great needs for sharing a single gold source of materials information between members of global engineering teams in extended supply-chains. Fortunately material property management systems have kept pace with the growing user demands and evolved to versatile data management systems that can be customized to specific user needs. The more sophisticated of these provide facilities for: (i) data management functions such as access, version, and quality controls; (ii) a wide range of data import, export and analysis capabilities; (iii) data pedigree traceability mechanisms; (iv) data searching, reporting and viewing tools; and (v) access to the information via a wide range of interfaces. In this paper the important requirements for advanced material data management systems, future challenges and opportunities such as automated error checking, data quality characterization, identification of gaps in datasets, as well as functionalities and business models to fuel database growth and maintenance are discussed.

  1. Effective Materials Property Information Management for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Weiju; Cebon, David; Arnold, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses key principles for the development of materials property information management software systems. There are growing needs for automated materials information management in various organizations. In part these are fueled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing, product design and engineering analysis. But equally important, organizations are being driven by the need for consistency, quality and traceability of data, as well as control of access to sensitive information such as proprietary data. Further, the use of increasingly sophisticated nonlinear, anisotropic and multi-scale engineering analyses requires both processing of large volumes of test data for development of constitutive models and complex materials data input for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) software. And finally, the globalization of economy often generates great needs for sharing a single "gold source" of materials information between members of global engineering teams in extended supply chains. Fortunately, material property management systems have kept pace with the growing user demands and evolved to versatile data management systems that can be customized to specific user needs. The more sophisticated of these provide facilities for: (i) data management functions such as access, version, and quality controls; (ii) a wide range of data import, export and analysis capabilities; (iii) data "pedigree" traceability mechanisms; (iv) data searching, reporting and viewing tools; and (v) access to the information via a wide range of interfaces. In this paper the important requirements for advanced material data management systems, future challenges and opportunities such as automated error checking, data quality characterization, identification of gaps in datasets, as well as functionalities and business models to fuel database growth and maintenance are discussed.

  2. Materials property definition and generation for carbon-carbon and carbon phenolic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, A. R.; Mathis, J. R.; Starrett, H. S.; Koenig, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A data base program to generate statistically significant material-property data for carbon-carbon and carbon phenolic materials to be used in designs of Space Shuttle is described. The program, which will provide data necessary for thermal and stress modeling of Shuttle nozzle and exit cone structures, includes evaluation of tension, compression, shear strength, shear modulus, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, permeability, and emittance for both materials; the testing of carbon phenolic materials also includes CTE, off-gassing, pyrolysis, and RTG. Materials to be tested will be excised from Space Shuttle inlet, throat, and exit cone billets and modified involute carbon-carbon exit cones; coprocessed blocks, panels, and cylinders will also be tested.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Materials with Nanometer Scale Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    William D. Nix

    2004-10-31

    We have been engaged in research on the mechanical properties of materials with nanometer-scale microstructural dimensions. Our attention has been focused on studying the mechanical properties of thin films and interfaces and very small volumes of material. Because the dimensions of thin film samples are small (typically 1 mm in thickness, or less), specialized mechanical testing techniques based on nanoindentation, microbeam bending and dynamic vibration of micromachined structures have been developed and used. Here we report briefly on some of the results we have obtained over the past three years. We also give a summary of all of the dissertations, talks and publications completed on this grant during the past 15 years.

  4. Quantitative ultrasonic evaluation of mechanical properties of engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    Current progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength properties of engineering materials is reviewed. Even where conventional NDE techniques have shown that a part is free of overt defects, advanced NDE techniques should be available to confirm the material properties assumed in the part's design. There are many instances where metallic, composite, or ceramic parts may be free of critical defects while still being susceptible to failure under design loads due to inadequate or degraded mechanical strength. This must be considered in any failure prevention scheme that relies on fracture analysis. This review will discuss the availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions.

  5. Finite amplitude effects on drop levitation for material properties measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari Hosseinzadeh, Vahideh; Holt, R. Glynn

    2017-05-01

    The method of exciting shape oscillation of drops to extract material properties has a long history, which is most often coupled with the technique of acoustic levitation to achieve non-contact manipulation of the drop sample. We revisit this method with application to the inference of bulk shear viscosity and surface tension. The literature is replete with references to a "10% oscillation amplitude" as a sufficient condition for the application of Lamb's analytical expressions for the shape oscillations of viscous liquids. Our results show that even a 10% oscillation amplitude leads to dynamic effects which render Lamb's results inapplicable. By comparison with samples of known viscosity and surface tension, we illustrate the complicating finite-amplitude effects (mode-splitting and excess dissipation associated with vorticity) that can occur and then show that sufficiently small oscillations allow us to recover the correct material properties using Lamb's formula.

  6. Q4 Titanium 6-4 Material Properties Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Kenneth; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    This task involves development and characterization of selective laser melting (SLM) parameters for additive manufacturing of titanium-6%aluminum-4%vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V or Ti64). SLM is a relatively new manufacturing technology that fabricates complex metal components by fusing thin layers of powder with a high-powered laser beam, utilizing a 3D computer design to direct the energy and form the shape without traditional tools, dies, or molds. There are several metal SLM technologies and materials on the market today, and various efforts to quantify the mechanical properties, however, nothing consolidated or formal to date. Meanwhile, SLM material fatigue properties of Ti64 are currently highly sought after by NASA propulsion designers for rotating turbomachinery components.

  7. Quantitative ultrasonic evaluation of mechanical properties of engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    Current progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength properties of engineering materials is reviewed. Even where conventional NDE techniques have shown that a part is free of overt defects, advanced NDE techniques should be available to confirm the material properties assumed in the part's design. There are many instances where metallic, composite, or ceramic parts may be free of critical defects while still being susceptible to failure under design loads due to inadequate or degraded mechanical strength. This must be considered in any failure prevention scheme that relies on fracture analysis. This review will discuss the availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions.

  8. Determination of thermal properties of composting bulking materials.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H K; Sauer, T J; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2009-09-01

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 12 compost bulking materials were determined in this study. Thermal properties were determined at varying bulk densities (1, 1.3, 1.7, 2.5, and 5 times uncompacted bulk density), particle sizes (ground and bulk), and water contents (0, 20, 50, 80% of water holding capacity and saturated condition). For the water content at 80% of water holding capacity, saw dust, soil compost blend, beef manure, and turkey litter showed the highest thermal conductivity (K) and volumetric heat capacity (C) (K: 0.12-0.81 W/m degrees C and C: 1.36-4.08 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Silage showed medium values at the same water content (K: 0.09-0.47 W/m degrees C and C: 0.93-3.09 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Wheat straw, oat straw, soybean straw, cornstalks, alfalfa hay, and wood shavings produced the lowest K and C values (K: 0.03-0.30 W/m degrees C and C: 0.26-3.45 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity showed a linear relationship with moisture content and bulk density, while thermal diffusivity showed a nonlinear relationship. Since the water, air, and solid materials have their own specific thermal property values, thermal properties of compost bulking materials vary with the rate of those three components by changing water content, bulk density, and particle size. The degree of saturation was used to represent the interaction between volumes of water, air, and solids under the various combinations of moisture content, bulk density, and particle size. The first order regression models developed in this paper represent the relationship between degree of saturation and volumetric heat capacity (r=0.95-0.99) and thermal conductivity (r=0.84-0.99) well. Improved

  9. Thermomechanical properties of polymeric materials and related stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sheng Yen

    1990-01-01

    The thermomechanical properties of a number of widely used polymeric materials were determined by thermomechanical analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis. A combined profile of the coefficient of thermal expansion and the modulus change over a wide temperature range obtained by the analyses shows clearly the drastic effect of the glass transition on both the CTE and the modulus of a polymer, and the damaging potential due to such effect.

  10. Mechanical properties of some materials used in airplane construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E B; Van Ewijk, L J G

    1928-01-01

    Since lightness is desirable in airplane construction, greater stresses must be tolerated than in other kinds of construction. It is therefore necessary to have a more accurate knowledge of the greatest stresses that may occur and of the actual properties of the materials used. The Aeronautic Research Laboratories took the limit of elasticity as the basis of the strength calculations. Many tests were made of different steels, woods, aluminum alloys, and fabrics.

  11. Modeling of Impact Properties of Auxetic Materials Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Modeling of Impact Properties of Auxetic Materials – Phase 2 Lei Jiang, Dustin Pearson, Tim Dunbar Martec Limited Prepared By: Martec Limited 400...Manager: Lei Jiang, 902-425-5101 PWGSC Contract Number: W7707-135609/001/HAL CSA: Dr. Jeff Szabo, Defence Scientist, 902-427-3427 The scientific or...specifies the in-plane integration rule for 4-node shell elements. With IRQUAD = 2, “2×2 Gauss quadrature integration is employed”. The

  12. Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Cantilever Shaped Materials

    PubMed Central

    Finot, Eric; Passian, Ali; Thundat, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Microcantilevers were first introduced as imaging probes in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) due to their extremely high sensitivity in measuring surface forces. The versatility of these probes, however, allows the sensing and measurement of a host of mechanical properties of various materials. Sensor parameters such as resonance frequency, quality factor, amplitude of vibration and bending due to a differential stress can all be simultaneously determined for a cantilever. When measuring the mechanical properties of materials, identifying and discerning the most influential parameters responsible for the observed changes in the cantilever response are important. We will, therefore, discuss the effects of various force fields such as those induced by mass loading, residual stress, internal friction of the material, and other changes in the mechanical properties of the microcantilevers. Methods to measure variations in temperature, pressure, or molecular adsorption of water molecules are also discussed. Often these effects occur simultaneously, increasing the number of parameters that need to be concurrently measured to ensure the reliability of the sensors. We therefore systematically investigate the geometric and environmental effects on cantilever measurements including the chemical nature of the underlying interactions. To address the geometric effects we have considered cantilevers with a rectangular or circular cross section. The chemical nature is addressed by using cantilevers fabricated with metals and/or dielectrics. Selective chemical etching, swelling or changes in Young's modulus of the surface were investigated by means of polymeric and inorganic coatings. Finally to address the effect of the environment in which the cantilever operates, the Knudsen number was determined to characterize the molecule-cantilever collisions. Also bimaterial cantilevers with high thermal sensitivity were used to discern the effect of temperature variations. When appropriate

  13. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells.

    PubMed

    Fitzer, Susan C; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-02-06

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature.

  14. Thermophysical Properties of Automotive Metallic Brake Disk Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. W.; Park, K.; Lee, S. H.; Kang, K. H.; Lim, K. T.

    2008-12-01

    The temperature distribution, the thermal deformation, and the thermal stress of automotive brake disks have quite close relations with car safety; therefore, much research in this field has been performed. However, successful and satisfactory results have not been obtained because the temperature-dependent thermophysical properties of brake disk materials are not sufficiently known. In this study, the thermophysical properties (thermal diffusivity, the specific heat, and the coefficient of thermal expansion) of three kinds of iron alloy series brake disk materials, FC250, FC170, and FCD50, and two kinds of aluminum alloy series brake disk materials, Al MMC and A356, were measured in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C, and the thermal conductivity was calculated using the measured thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and density. As expected, the results show that the two series have significant differences in respect of the thermophysical properties, and to reduce the thermal deformation of the brake disk, the aluminum alloys with a high thermal conductivity and the iron alloys with low thermal expansion are recommended.

  15. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells

    PubMed Central

    Fitzer, Susan C.; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K. Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Kamenos, Nicholas A.; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature. PMID:25540244

  16. Flexural Behavior of HPFRCC Members with Inhomogeneous Material Properties.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Joon; Jang, Kyu-Hyeon; Choi, Young-Cheol; Lee, Seong-Cheol

    2015-04-21

    In this paper, the flexural behavior of High-performance Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composite (HPFRCC) has been investigated, especially focusing on the localization of cracks, which significantly governs the flexural behavior of HPFRCC members. From four points bending tests with HPFRCC members, it was observed that almost evenly distributed cracks formed gradually, followed by a localized crack that determined the failure of the members. In order to investigate the effect of a localized crack on the flexural behavior of HPFRCC members, an analytical procedure has been developed with the consideration of intrinsic inhomogeneous material properties of HPFRCC such as cracking and ultimate tensile strengths. From the comparison, while the predictions with homogeneous material properties overestimated flexural strength and ductility of HPFRCC members, it was found that the analysis results considering localization effect with inhomogeneous material properties showed good agreement with the test results, not only the flexural strength and ductility but also the crack widths. The test results and the developed analysis procedure presented in this paper can be usefully applied for the prediction of flexural behaviors of HPFRCC members by considering the effect of localized cracking behavior.

  17. Intrinsic mechanical properties and strengthening methods in inorganic crystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecking, H.; Hartig, Ch.; Seeger, J.

    1991-06-01

    The paper deals with strength and fracture in metals, ceramics and intermetallic compounds. The emphasis is on the interrelation between microstructure and macroscopic behavior and how the concepts for alloy design are mirroring this interrelationship. The three materials classes are distinguished by the physical nature of the atomic bonding forces. In metals metallic bonding predominates which causes high ductility but poor strength. Accordingly material development concentrates on production of microstructures which optimize the yield strength without unacceptable loss in ductility. In ceramics covalent bonding prevails which results in high hardness and high elastic stiffness but at the same time extreme brittleness. Contrary to the metal-ease material development aims at a kind of pseudo ductility in order to rise the fracture toughness to sufficiently high levels. In intermetallic phases the atomic bonds are a mixture of metallic and covalent bonding where depending on the alloying system the balance between the two contributions may be quite different. Accordingly the properties of intermetallics are in the range between metals and ceramics. By a variety of microstructural measures their properties can be changed in direction. either towards metallic or ceramic behavior. General rules for alloy design are not available, rather every system demands very specific experience since properties depend to a considerable part on intrinsic properties of lattice defects such as dislocations, antiphase boundaries, stacking faults and grain boundaries. Cet article traite de la résistance et de la fracture des métaux, des céramiques et des composés intermétalliques. L'accent est mis sur les correspondances entre la microstructure et le comportement macroscopique ainsi que sur la façon dont de tels concepts se reflètent dans la création de nouveaux alliages. C'est la nature des forces de liaisons qui distingue chaque type de matériaux. Dans les métaux, les

  18. Correlation between cavitation erosion resistance and cyclic mechanical properties of different metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufhold, Corinna; Pöhl, Fabian; Theisen, Werner

    2017-05-01

    Machine components in contact with flowing fluids are especially prone to cavitation erosion, where plastic deformation and material loss occur due to the repeated implosion of cavitation bubbles in the vicinity of a solid surface. Identifying a correlation between experimentally derivable material properties and resistance against cavitation erosion could help improve the lifetime of cavitation-affected components. Cavitation erosion is a predominantly fatigue-driven phenomenon. In this investigation, we conducted nanoindentation experiments to examine cyclic micromechanical material properties in response to an increasing number of cycles. The experiments were performed on pure iron and different steel grades, i.e., austenitic stainless CrMnCN steels, interstitially alloyed with carbon and nitrogen. We confirmed the view, also proposed in literature, that indentation hardness is inappropriate for ordering the investigated materials by incubation period or maximum erosion rate. We found that the percentage increase of nanoindentation contact stiffness, after an increasing number of cycles, is a promising indicator in terms of the overall ranking of cavitation erosion resistance among the considered materials. Although a single cavitation impact is associated with a significantly higher strain rate than nanoindentation experiments, it is shown that the plastically deformed area around each indent exhibits indications of deformation, such as the formation of slip lines that are also observable after cavitation-induced impacts.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Composite Material Using Coal Ash and Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Isao; Kanda, Yasuyuki

    Coal ash is industry waste exhausted lots of amount by electric power plant. The particle sizes of coal ash, especially coal fly ash are very fine, and the chemical component are extremely resemble with Okinawa-Kucha clay. From the point of view that clay is composed of particles of micro meter size in diameter, we should try the application for fabrication of composite material using coal fly ash and clay. The comparison of the mechanical properties of composite material using coal fly ash and clay were performed during electric furnace burning and spark plasma sintering. As a result, the bending strength of composite material containing the coal ash 10% and fired at 1423K using the electric furnace after press forming at 30 MPa showed the highest value of 47 MPa. This phenomenon suggests a reinforcement role of coal ash particles to clay base material. In spark plasma sintering process, the bending strength of the composite material containing the clay 5-10% to fly ash base material fired at 1473K and pressured at 20 MPa showed the highest value of 88 MPa. This result indicates a binder effect of clay according to the liquid phase sintering of melted clay surrounding around coal fly ash particles surface.

  20. A comparative evaluation of mechanical properties of nanofibrous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubun, German P.; Bessudnova, Nadezda O.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration or replacement of lost or damaged hard tooth tissues remain a reconstructive clinical dentistry challenge. One of the most promising solutions to this problem is the development of novel concepts and methodologies of tissue engineering for the synthesis of three-dimensional graft constructs that are equivalent to original organs and tissues. This structural and functional compatibility can be reached by producing ultra-thin polymer filament scaffolds. This research aims through a series of studies to examine different methods of polymer filament material special preparation and test mechanical properties of the produced materials subjected to a tensile strain. Nanofibrous material preparation using chemically pure acetone and mixtures of ethanol/water has shown no significant changes in sample surface morphology. The high temperature impact on material morphology has resulted in the modification of fiber structure. In the course of mechanical tests it has been revealed the dependence of the material strength on the spinning solution compositions. The results achieved point to the possibility to develop nanofibrous materials with required parameters changing the methodology of spinning solution production.

  1. Filter properties of seam material from paved urban soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehls, T.; Jozefaciuk, G.; Sokolowska, Z.; Hajnos, M.; Wessolek, G.

    2007-08-01

    We studied pavement seam material. This is the soil substrate in joints of pervious pavements in urban areas. It is mostly 1 cm thick and develops from the original seam filling by depositions of all kinds of urban residues, including anthropogenic organic substances. It was investigated, how this unique form of organic matter influences the filter properties of seam material and how the seam material influences heavy metal transport through the pavement. The seam material is characterised by a darker munsell colour, higher organic carbon content, higher surface areas, higher cation exchange capacities, but a lower fraction of high adsorption energy sites compared to the original seam filling. The deposited anthropogenic organic matter itself could be characterised as particulate and non-polar. Compared to natural soils, it has a small surface area and a low surface charge density resulting in a small cation exchange capacity of only 75 cmol(+) kg-1C. The seam material shows stronger sorption of Pb and Cd compared to the original construction sand. The retardation capacity of seam material towards Pb is similar, towards Cd it is much smaller compared to natural soils. The simulated long term displacement scenarios for a street in Berlin do not indicate an acute contamination risk for Pb. For Cd the infiltration from ponds can lead to a displacement of Cd during only one decade.

  2. Aging and the Haptic Perception of Material Properties.

    PubMed

    Norman, J Farley; Adkins, Olivia C; Hoyng, Stevie C; Dowell, Catherine J; Pedersen, Lauren E; Gilliam, Ashley N

    2016-08-09

    The ability of 26 younger (mean age was 22.5 years) and older adults (mean age was 72.6 years) to haptically perceive material properties was evaluated. The participants manually explored (for 5 seconds) 42 surfaces twice and placed each of these 84 experimental stimuli into one of seven categories: paper, plastic, metal, wood, stone, fabric, and fur/leather. In general, the participants were best able to identify fur/leather and wood materials; in contrast, recognition performance was worst for stone and paper. Despite similar overall patterns of performance for younger and older participants, the younger adults' recognition accuracies were 26.5% higher. The participants' tactile acuities (assessed by tactile grating orientation discrimination) affected their ability to identify surface material. In particular, the Pearson r correlation coefficient relating the participants' grating orientation thresholds and their material identification performance was -0.8: The higher the participants' thresholds, the lower the material recognition ability. While older adults are able to effectively perceive the solid shape of environmental objects using the sense of touch, their ability to perceive surface materials is significantly compromised.

  3. The Casimir force between real materials: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mohideen, U.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2009-10-15

    The physical origin of the Casimir force is connected with the existence of zero-point and thermal fluctuations. The Casimir effect is very general and finds applications in various fields of physics. This review is limited to the rapid progress at the intersection of experiment and theory that has been achieved in the last few years. It includes a critical assessment of the proposed approaches to the resolution of the puzzles arising in the applications of the Lifshitz theory of the van der Waals and Casimir forces to real materials. All the primary experiments on the measurement of the Casimir force between macroscopic bodies and the Casimir-Polder force between an atom and a wall that have been performed in the last decade are reviewed, including the theory needed for their interpretation. The methodology for the comparison between experiment and theory in the force-distance measurements is presented. The experimental and theoretical results described here provide a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of dispersion forces in real materials and offer guidance for the application of the Lifshitz theory to the interpretation of the measurement results.

  4. Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Hebig, Klaus H; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott J

    2014-03-01

    Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Therefore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed©, silicone, NBR70, Tygon©, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and observed mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebig, Klaus; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-04-01

    Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. There-fore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed©, silicone, NBR70, Tygon©, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and ob-served mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies.

  6. Studies of material properties under irradiation at BNL Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Kirk, H.; Ludewig, H.; Mokhov, N.; Hurh, P.; Misek, J.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    Effects of proton beams irradiating materials considered for targets in high-power accelerator experiments have been under study using the Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) 200 MeV Linac. The primary objectives of the study that includes a wide array of materials and alloys ranging between low and high-Z are to (a) observe changes in physio-mechanical properties which are important in maintaining high-power target functionality, (b) identify possible limits of proton flux or fluence above which certain material seize to maintain integrity, (c) study the role of material operating temperature in inducing or maintaining radiation damage reversal, and (d) correlate radiation damage effects of different species such as energetic protons and neutrons on materials by utilizing reactor and particle accelerator experience data. These objectives are specifically being addressed in the latest material irradiation study linked to the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). Observations on irradiation effects on materials considered for high-power targets and other beam intercepting elements, such as collimators, from past studies and preliminary observations of the ongoing LBNE study are presented in this paper.

  7. Dynamical properties measurements for asteroid, comet and meteorite material applicable to impact modeling and mitigation calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, M.D.; Boslough, M.B.; Gray, G.T. III; Remo, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    We describe methods for measuring dynamical properties for two material categories of interest in understanding large-scale extraterrestrial impacts: iron-nickel and underdense materials (e.g. snow). Particular material properties measured by the present methods include Hugoniot release paths and constitutive properties (stress vs. strain). The iron-nickel materials lend themselves well to conventional shock and quasi-static experiments. As examples, a suite of experiments is described including six impact tests (wave profile compression/release) over the stress range 2--20 GPa, metallography, quasi-static and split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) mechanical testing, and ultrasonic mapping and sound velocity measurements. Temperature sensitivity of the dynamic behavior was measured at high and low strain rates. Among the iron-nickel materials tested, an octahedrite was found to have behavior close to that of Armco iron under shock and quasi-static conditions, while an ataxite exhibited a significantly larger quasi-static yield strength than did the octahedrite or a hexahedrite. The underdense materials pose three primary experimental difficulties. First, the samples are friable; they can melt or sublimate during storage, preparation and testing. Second, they are brittle and crushable; they cannot withstand such treatment as traditional machining or launch in a gun system. Third, with increasing porosity the calculated Hugoniot density becomes rapidly more sensitive to errors in wave time-of-arrival measurements. Carefully chosen simulants eliminate preservation (friability) difficulties, but the other difficulties remain. A family of 36 impact tests was conducted on snow and snow simulants at Sandia, yielding reliable Hugoniot and reshock states, but limited release property information. Other methods for characterizing these materials are discussed.

  8. Correlation of materials properties with the atomic density concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that the number of atoms per unit volume, accurately calculable for any substance of known real density and chemical composition, various characterizing parameters (energy levels of electrons interacting among atoms of the same or different kinds, atomic mass, bond intensity) were chosen for study. A multiple exponential equation was derived to express the relationship. Various properties were examined, and correlated with the various parameters. Some of the properties considered were: (1) heat of atomization, (2) boiling point, (3) melting point, (4) shear elastic modulus of cubic crystals, (5) thermal conductivity, and (6) refractive index for transparent substances. The solid elements and alkali halides were the materials studied. It is concluded that the number of different properties can quantitively be described by a common group of parameters for the solid elements, and a wide variety of compounds.

  9. Transition metal chalcogenides: ultrathin inorganic materials with tunable electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Heine, Thomas

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: After the discovery of graphene and the development of powerful exfoliation techniques, experimental preparation of two-dimensional (2D) crystals can be expected for any layered material that is known to chemistry. Besides graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), transition metal chalcogenides (TMC) are among the most studied ultrathin materials. In particular, single-layer MoS2, a direct band gap semiconductor with ∼1.9 eV energy gap, is popular in physics and nanoelectronics, because it nicely complements semimetallic graphene and insulating h-BN monolayer as a construction component for flexible 2D electronics and because it was already successfully applied in the laboratory as basis material for transistors and other electronic and optoelectronic devices. Two-dimensional crystals are subject to significant quantum confinement: compared with their parent layered 3D material, they show different structural, electronic, and optical properties, such as spontaneous rippling as free-standing monolayer, significant changes of the electronic band structure, giant spin-orbit splitting, and enhanced photoluminescence. Most of those properties are intrinsic for the monolayer and already absent for two-layer stacks of the same 2D crystal. For example, single-layer MoS2 is a direct band gap semiconductor with spin-orbit splitting of 150 meV in the valence band, while the bilayer of the same material is an indirect band gap semiconductor without observable spin-orbit splitting. All these properties have been observed experimentally and are in excellent agreement with calculations based on density-functional theory. This Account reports theoretical studies of a subgroup of transition metal dichalcogenides with the composition MX2, with M = Mo, or W and X = Se or S, also referred to as "MoWSeS materials". Results on the electronic structure, quantum confinement, spin-orbit coupling, spontaneous monolayer rippling, and change of electronic properties in the

  10. Material properties of the human posterior knee capsule.

    PubMed

    Rachmat, H H; Janssen, D; Verkerke, G J; Diercks, R L; Verdonschot, N

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest to develop accurate subject-specific biomechanical models of the knee. Most of the existing models currently do not include a representation of the posterior knee capsule. In order to incorporate the posterior capsule in knee models, data is needed on its mechanical properties. To quantify the mechanical properties of the human posterior knee capsule through semi-static tensile tests. Fifteen posterior knee capsule specimens (5 knees, 3 male, 2 female; age 79.2±7.9 years) were used to perform tensile tests. A medial, central and lateral specimen was taken from each knee. The cross-sectional area was measured, after which semi-static tensile tests were performed to quantify the material properties. The stiffness of the capsule was randomly distributed over the regions. The global Young's modulus and yield strength was 8.58±10.77 MPa and 1.75±1.89 MPa, respectively. A strong correlation (ρ=0.900) was found between Young's modulus and yield strength. The location of failure was not associated with smallest cross-sectional area or highest strain. The results suggest that the posterior knee capsule does not have a systematic (medial-central-lateral) distribution of material properties. The posterior capsule may play an important role in knee joint mechanics, particularly when in hyper extension.

  11. Space-Time Transfinite Interpolation of Volumetric Material Properties.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Mathieu; Fryazinov, Oleg; Adzhiev, Valery; Comninos, Peter; Pasko, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents a novel technique based on extension of a general mathematical method of transfinite interpolation to solve an actual problem in the context of a heterogeneous volume modelling area. It deals with time-dependent changes to the volumetric material properties (material density, colour, and others) as a transformation of the volumetric material distributions in space-time accompanying geometric shape transformations such as metamorphosis. The main idea is to represent the geometry of both objects by scalar fields with distance properties, to establish in a higher-dimensional space a time gap during which the geometric transformation takes place, and to use these scalar fields to apply the new space-time transfinite interpolation to volumetric material attributes within this time gap. The proposed solution is analytical in its nature, does not require heavy numerical computations and can be used in real-time applications. Applications of this technique also include texturing and displacement mapping of time-variant surfaces, and parametric design of volumetric microstructures.

  12. Material properties from contours: New insights on object perception.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Baingio; Deiana, Katia

    2015-10-01

    In this work we explored phenomenologically the visual complexity of the material attributes on the basis of the contours that define the boundaries of a visual object. The starting point is the rich and pioneering work done by Gestalt psychologists and, more in detail, by Rubin, who first demonstrated that contours contain most of the information related to object perception, like the shape, the color and the depth. In fact, by investigating simple conditions like those used by Gestalt psychologists, mostly consisting of contours only, we demonstrated that the phenomenal complexity of the material attributes emerges through appropriate manipulation of the contours. A phenomenological approach, analogous to the one used by Gestalt psychologists, was used to answer the following questions. What are contours? Which attributes can be phenomenally defined by contours? Are material properties determined only by contours? What is the visual syntactic organization of object attributes? The results of this work support the idea of a visual syntactic organization as a new kind of object formation process useful to understand the language of vision that creates well-formed attribute organizations. The syntax of visual attributes can be considered as a new way to investigate the modular coding and, more generally, the binding among attributes, i.e., the issue of how the brain represents the pairing of shape and material properties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Silk/nano-material hybrid: properties and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, Eden; Lebedev, Victor; Laukhina, Elena; Laukhin, Vladimir; Alamo, Rufina G.; Rovira, Concepcio; Veciana, Jaume; Brooks, James S.

    2014-03-01

    Silk continues to emerge as a material of interest in electronics. In this work, the interaction between silk and conducting nano-materials are investigated. Simple fabrication methods, physical, electronic, thermal, and actuation properties are reported for spider silk / carbon nanotube (CNT-SS) and Bombyx mori / (BEDT-TTF)-based organic molecular conductor hybrids (ET-S). The CNT-SS fibers are produced via water and shear assisted method, resulting in fibers that are tough, custom-shapeable, flexible, and electrically conducting. For ET-S bilayer films, a layer transfer technique is developed to deposit linked crystallites of (BEDT-TTF)2I3 molecular conductor onto silk films, generating highly piezoresistive semi-transparent films. In both cases, the hybridization allows us to gain additional functions by harnessing the water-dependent properties of silk materials, for example, as humidity sensor and electrical current- or water-driven actuators. SEM, TEM, FT-IR, and resistance measurements under varying temperature, strain, and relative humidity reveal the synergistic interactions between the bio- and nano-materials. E.S. is supported by NSF-DMR 1005293.

  14. PREFACE: Workshop on Oxide Materials 2014: Novel Multifunctional Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, M. E.; Lopera, W.

    2015-07-01

    The 2014 Workshop on Oxide Materials: Novel Multifunctional Properties was held in Cali, Colombia, from September 15 to September 19 on the campus of Universidad del Valle. It was a great privilege to have had this workshop in Cali after the first workshop on oxide materials commemorating the first centennial of the discovery of the superconductivity in 2011. The meeting gathered an audience of 80 participants, 10 invited speakers with two or three plenary talks each, 20 short oral contributions, two poster sessions with 20 presentations each. This proceedings volume contains papers reported at the conference. The Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Oxide Materials: Novel Multifunctional Properties were edited by Maria Elena Gomez and Wilson Lopera with the assistance of Carlos William Sanchez and Albert Ortiz as copy editor. We are grateful for the financial support from COLCIENCIAS through research project COLCIENCIAS-UNIVALLE contract 002/2013; Universidad de Valle through Professor Ivan Ramos, Rector; the Faculty of Science with Professor Jaime Cantera, Dean; the Center of Excellence on Novel Materials with Professor Pedro Prieto, Director; ICETEX, and INTECO Ltda. Further details about the conference, including details of the invited speakers and plenary sessions are available in the PDF. Maria Elena Gómez, Editor Wilson Lopera, Editor

  15. Characterization of Secondary Electron Emission Properties of Plasma Facing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patino, Marlene I.; Capece, Angela M.; Raitses, Yevgeny; Koel, Bruce E.

    2015-11-01

    The behavior of wall-bounded plasmas is significantly affected by the plasma-wall interactions, including the emission of secondary electrons (SEE) from the wall materials due to bombardment by primary electrons. The importance of SEE has prompted previous investigations of SEE properties of materials especially with applications to magnetic fusion, plasma thrusters, and high power microwave devices. In this work, we present results of measurements of SEE properties of graphite and lithium materials relevant for the divertor region of magnetic fusion devices. Measurements of total SEE yield (defined as the number of emitted secondary electrons per incident primary electron) for lithium are extended up to 5 keV primary electron energy, and the energy distributions of secondary electrons are provided for graphite and lithium. Additionally, the effect of contamination on the total SEE yield of lithium was explored by exposing the material to water vapor. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to determine surface composition and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) was used to determine lithium film thickness. Results show an order of magnitude increase in total SEE yield for lithium exposed to water vapor. This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466; AFOSR grants FA9550-14-1-0053, FA9550-11-1-0282, and AF9550-09-1-0695; and DOE Office of Science Graduate Student Research Program.

  16. Hygrothermal Simulations of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. The computational approach for heat transfer via the ground is well defined (EN-ISO-13370:, 2007) together with simplified methods (Staszczuk, Radon, & Holm). Though the soil moisture transfer is generally ignored, it is proven not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, & Hens, 2004). Even though reliable material properties of soils are required to perform realistic hygrothermal calculations of soils coupled to buildings, such material properties have not been well defined in hygrothermal calculations tools. Typical building constructions which are greatly influenced by soils are basements, crawl spaces and slab on grade and reliable hygrothermal performance of such construction are highly requested; as it is ranked within the top 10 Building America Enclosure Research Ideas according to Enclosures STC - Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting, February 29, 2012 Austin, TX. There exists an extensive amount of measurements on soil properties in Soil Science though this information must be gathered as well as adapted to be applicable in Building Science and for hygrothermal simulation purposes. Soil properties are important when analyzing and designing both new building constructions and retrofitting measures, where the outer boundary of the buildings enclosure consists of soil materials. Concerning basement energy retrofits, interior solutions of improving the energy demand has to cooperate with the existing soil properties and must therefore be designed thereafter. In concerns of exterior retrofits, the soil material can be replaced, if needed, with a more suitable filling material, though this approach applies only for basement walls. The soil material beneath the basement floor can naturally not be replaced hence the soil properties of this part of the buildings enclosure still must be taken into consideration. This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first

  17. New Correlations Between Monotonic and Cyclic Properties of Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonfrillo, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the cyclic properties of metallic materials is often critical to correctly design structural components. However, cyclic data are not easily available in the literature, while tensile test data are easier to find in specialized sites or vendor catalogs. In this study, the cyclic strength coefficient and the cyclic strain hardening exponent of the Ramberg-Osgood law were evaluated using exclusively data obtained through monotonic tensile tests. The analyses were carried out on a large set of materials. The database used is composed of 338 alloys, mainly iron alloys, but also titanium and aluminum alloys. New subdivisions of the materials were introduced. Several original relations were suggested to correlate static and cyclic strength parameters. The evaluated values of both cyclic strength coefficient and cyclic strain hardening exponent were compared with experimental values coming from cyclic test, obtaining a satisfactory agreement and a higher accuracy if compared with similar relations found in the literature.

  18. Selected mechanical properties of fluoride-releasing restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Iazzetti, G; Burgess, J O; Gardiner, D

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical properties, diametral tensile strength (DTS) and flexural strength (FS) of six fluoride releasing materials were measured and compared. The samples were prepared and tested according to ISO specifications. The materials included a glass ionomer (Fuji IX), a resin-modified glass ionomer (Photac-Fil), two compomers (F 2000; Dyract AP) and two composites (Solitaire; Tetric Ceram). The tests were performed after the materials were stored in distilled water (DTS) and phosphate buffered saline solution (FS) at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and one week. Fluoride-releasing composite resin had the highest flexural and diametral tensile strengths and were statistically stronger than compomers, followed by resin-modified glass ionomer and conventional glass ionomer. However, a notable exception to this general trend was Solitaire, a fluoride-releasing composite resin.

  19. Nanoscale defect architectures and their influence on material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Branton

    2006-10-01

    Diffraction studies of long-range order often permit one to unambiguously determine the atomic structure of a crystalline material. Many interesting material properties, however, are dominated by nanoscale crystal defects that can't be characterized in this way. Fortunately, advances in x-ray detector technology, synchrotron x-ray source brightness, and computational power make it possible to apply new methods to old problems. Our research group uses multi-megapixel x-ray cameras to map out large contiguous volumes of reciprocal space, which can then be visually explored using graphics engines originally developed by the video-game industry. Here, I will highlight a few recent examples that include high-temperature superconductors, colossal magnetoresistors and piezoelectric materials.

  20. Gradient-modulus materials: Preparation, physical properties and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askadskii, Andrey; Goleneva, Lidiya; Afanas'ev, Egor; Petunova, Margarita; Serenko, Ol'ga; Jiang, Shengling

    2017-05-01

    The theoretical analysis of relationship of the chemical structure for polymeric networks on the modulus of elasticity fitting within the broad range from 3 to 2000 MPa has been produced. These networks contain bulky cross-linked points, connected by short flexible chains of controlled length. In this paper we prepared the networks derived from polyurethane-iso-cyan urates as well as a combination of polyurethane-iso-cyan urate and polyurethane. The materials possess elastic properties and high wear resistance due to polyurethane component. The polyurethane-iso-cyan urates and polyurethanes of various chemical structures were used for preparation of gradient-modulus materials with the elasticity modulus controlled in the broad range within the same sample or material. The gradient identified as a change in the concentration of monomers per unit distance in a specified direction. This involves creation of molecular gradient regarding the chemical structure of the sample.

  1. An apparatus for measuring the rheological properties of dental materials.

    PubMed

    Combe, E C; Moser, J B

    1976-01-01

    An indirect extrusion capillary viscometer has been developed. This has been tested for nonsetting Newtonian fluids and was found to give results close to, but slightly lower than the actual viscosity. The same apparatus has been successfully applied to a non-Newtonian fluid to determine the dependence of viscosity on shear rate. The technique described should meet the requirements for assessing the rheological characteristics important in the mixing and setting of dental materials. The developed viscometer must be coupled with a sensitive mechanical testing machine capable of an adequate range of crosshead speeds that can be changed rapidly. By obtaining force vs time curves at different shear rates for setting materials, viscosity can be calculated as a function of time. Also, the viscosity at any given time during the setting process can be calculated as a function of shear rate. This chould be of aid in the interpretation of changes in rheological properties during setting of dental materials.

  2. Pipette aspiration of hyperelastic compliant materials: Theoretical analysis, simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man-Gong; Cao, Yan-Ping; Li, Guo-Yang; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores the pipette aspiration test of hyperelastic compliant materials. Explicit expressions of the relationship between the imposed pressure and the aspiration length are developed, which serve as fundamental relations to deduce the material parameters from experimental responses. Four commonly used hyperelastic constitutive models, e.g. neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin, Fung, and Arruda-Boyce models, are investigated. Through dimensional analysis and nonlinear finite element simulations, we establish the relations between the experimental responses and the constitutive parameters of hyperelastic materials in explicit form, upon which inverse approaches for determining the hyperelastic properties of materials are developed. The reliability of the results given by the proposed methods has been verified both theoretically and numerically. Experiments have been carried out on an elastomer (polydimethylsiloxane, 1:50) and porcine liver to validate the applicability of the inverse approaches in practical measurements.

  3. Foam materials for cryogenic targets of fast ignition realization experiment (FIREX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Keiji; Azechi, H.; Ito, F.; Iwamoto, A.; Izawa, Y.; Johzaki, T.; Kodama, R.; Mima, K.; Mito, T.; Nakai, M.; Nemoto, N.; Norimatsu, T.; Ono, Y.; Shigemori, K.; Shiraga, H.; Tanaka, K. A.

    2005-11-01

    Development of foam materials for cryogenically cooled fuel targets is described in this paper. The fabrication development was initiated as a part of the fast ignition realization experiment (FIREX) project at the ILE, Osaka University under a bilateral collaboration between Osaka University and National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). For the first stage of FIREX (FIREX-I), a foam cryogenic target was designed in which low-density foam shells with a conical light guide will be fuelled through a narrow pipe and will be cooled down to the cryogenic temperature. Acrylic polymer, resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin, poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP), and polystyrene-based crosslinking polymer have been investigated as supporting materials for cryogenic fuel. The properties of the material and the present status of the material development are summarized.

  4. Perception of the material properties of wood based on vision, audition, and touch.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Waka; Tokita, Midori; Kariya, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    Most research on the multimodal perception of material properties has investigated the perception of material properties of two modalities such as vision-touch, vision-audition, audition-touch, and vision-action. Here, we investigated whether the same affective classifications of materials can be found in three different modalities of vision, audition, and touch, using wood as the target object. Fifty participants took part in an experiment involving the three modalities of vision, audition, and touch, in isolation. Twenty-two different wood types including genuine, processed, and fake were perceptually evaluated using a questionnaire consisting of twenty-three items (12 perceptual and 11 affective). The results demonstrated that evaluations of the affective properties of wood were similar in all three modalities. The elements of "expensiveness, sturdiness, rareness, interestingness, and sophisticatedness" and "pleasantness, relaxed feelings, and liked-disliked" were separately grouped for all three senses. Our results suggest that the affective material properties of wood are at least partly represented in a supramodal fashion. Our results also suggest an association between perceptual and affective properties, which will be a useful tool not only in science, but also in applied fields. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of damping properties of nonlinear viscoelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeriwala, Surendra N.

    1995-05-01

    The dynamic behavior of most polymeric materials become non-linear at a moderately large strain amplitude excitation. In order to optimize their uses for noise and vibration attenuation, it is necessary to characterize their damping properties as a function of strain amplitude. This work reports the strain amplitude dependent non-linear dynamic behavior of two elastomer compounds, NBR and Neoprene, studied at various frequencies and strain amplitudes using the Fourier transform mechanical analysis (FTMA) technique, developed by us. The basic theory and experimental results are presented for a one-dimensional isothermal simple shear deformation. The Green-Rivlin constitutive equation was used to model the observed behavior. The results indicate that a complete characterization of non-linear dynamic properties is rather complex. The energy dissipation is governed, however, by a simple mechanism. It is shown that the energy dissipation is governed only by the first harmonic loss modulus term of the Green-Rivlin representation, but the energy storage is related to many material functions. An expression for the energy dissipation of a non-linear viscoelastic material is derived. It is also shown that irrespective of the material constitutive law the energy dissipation can occur only at the frequency of excitation but it can be stored in a complex manner. The results are rather generalized to show that the amplitude dependence can be modeled by a power law function. It is also shown that an examination of the stress Fourier spectra can give a quantitative indication of material non-linearity and suggest a direction for developing an adequate model of these complex materials.

  6. Rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials before and during setting.

    PubMed

    McCabe, J F; Arikawa, H

    1998-11-01

    In this study, we examined the rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials, both before and during setting, to assess the clinical significance of certain key characteristics such as viscosity, pseudoplasticity, and the rate of development of elasticity. The hypothesis to be tested was that monitoring the change in tan delta is the most appropriate means of monitoring the setting characteristics of elastomers. The loss tangent (tan delta) and the dynamic viscosity (eta') for five impression materials (both unmixed pastes and mixed/setting materials) were measured by means of a controlled-stress rheometer in a cone/plate configuration. For unmixed pastes, tests were performed at various frequencies (0.1 to 10 Hz) and torques (from 1 to 50 x 10(-4) Nm), while testing on setting materials was performed at constant frequency (1 Hz) and torque (3 x 10(-3) Nm). Most base and catalyst pastes were pseudoplastic before being mixed. Immediately after being mixed, the polyether (tan delta = 9.85) and polysulfide (tan delta = 9.54) elastomers showed tan delta markedly higher than those of other mixed materials (tan delta = 4.96 to 3.01). The polyvinylsiloxane elastomers showed lower initial tan delta, which rapidly reduced even further with time. This suggests that these materials should be used as soon as possible after being mixed. The polyether elastomer had a comparatively long induction period during which the tan delta remained at a high value. These characteristics are thought to be key factors in controlling clinical efficacy and therefore support the hypothesis that monitoring tan delta is an appropriate method for evaluating the setting characteristics of elastomers. One limitation was that the controlled-stress rheometer was unable to monitor rheological properties through to completion of setting.

  7. Deformation Monitoring of Materials Under Stress in Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarlatos, D.; Yiatros, S.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetry is a valid alternative solution to linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) measurements in structural testing in laboratory conditions. Although the use of LVDTs boasts a high degree of accuracy, on the other hand it is limiting as it offers measurements between two points and it thus might be unable to capture localized deformations and strains over a bigger area of a structural specimen. In this aspect photogrammetry seems to offer certain advantages. Commercial solutions provide limited testing envelopes, while on the other hand, the wide range on new materials need more versatile techniques. Based on the need to develop an in-house photogrammetric toolbox to support several structural and material experiments in the department Advanced Pore Morphology (APM) aluminium foam specimens developed at Fraunhofer IFAM in Germany and cured at CUT, were tested under monotonic compressive load. Data acquisition, analysis and results, along with lessons learnt from the process are presented in this work.

  8. Progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory with lunar material brought back to Earth by the crew of the Apollo 11 mission. Aseptic cultures of liverwort (marchantia polymorpha) - a species of plant commonly found growing on rocks or in wooded areas - are shown in two rows of sample containers. Seven weeks or some 50 days prior to this photograph 0.22 grams of finely ground lunar material was added to each of the upper samples of cultures. The lower cultures were untreated, and a noted difference can be seen in the upper row and the lower one, both in color and size of the culture.

  9. Progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory with lunar material brought back to Earth by the crew of the Apollo 11 mission. Aseptic cultures of liverwort (marchantia polymorpha) - a species of plant commonly found growing on rocks or in wooded areas - are shown in two rows of sample containers. Seven weeks or some 50 days prior to this photograph 0.22 grams of finely ground lunar material was added to each of the upper samples of cultures. The lower cultures were untreated, and a noted difference can be seen in the upper row and the lower one, both in color and size of the culture.

  10. Preparation and properties on hollow nano-structured smoke material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang-cui; Dai, Meng-yan; Fang, Guo-feng; Shi, Wei-dong; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Hai-feng; Zhang, Tong

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the weapon systems of laser guidance and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. Notwithstanding, military smoke, as a rapid and effective passive jamming means, can effectively counteract the attack of enemy precision-guided weapons by scattering and absorbability. Conventional smoke has good attenuation capability only to visible light (0.4-0.76 μm), but hardly any effect to other electromagnetic wave band. The weapon systems of laser guidance and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including near IR (1-3 μm), middle IR (3-5 μm), far IR (8-14 μm), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting and using new efficient obscurant materials, which is one of the important factors that develop smoke technology, have become a focus and attracted more interests around the world. Then nano-structured materials that are developing very quickly have turned into our new choice. Hollow nano-structured materials (HNSM) have many special properties because of their nano-size wall-thickness and sub-micron grain-size. After a lot of HNSM were synthesized in this paper, their physical and chemical properties, including grain size, phase composition, microstructure, optical properties and resistivity were tested and analysed. Then the experimental results of the optical properties showed that HNSM exhibit excellent wave-absorbing ability in ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions. On the basis of the physicochemmical properties, HNSM are firstly applied in smoke technology field. And the obscuration performance of HNSM smoke was tested in smoke chamber. The testing waveband included 1.06μm and 10.6μm laser, 3-5μm and 8-14μm IR radiation. Then the main parameters were obtained, including the attenuation rate, the transmission rate, the mass extinction coefficient, the efficiency obscuring time, and the sedimentation rate, etc. The main parameters of HNSM smoke were

  11. Use of simulated experiments for material characterization of brittle materials subjected to high strain rate dynamic tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukić, Bratislav; Saletti, Dominique; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Rapid progress in ultra-high-speed imaging has allowed material properties to be studied at high strain rates by applying full-field measurements and inverse identification methods. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of these techniques still requires a better understanding, since various extrinsic factors present during an actual experiment make it difficult to separate different sources of errors that can significantly affect the quality of the identified results. This study presents a methodology using simulated experiments to investigate the accuracy of the so-called spalling technique (used to study tensile properties of concrete subjected to high strain rates) by numerically simulating the entire identification process. The experimental technique uses the virtual fields method and the grid method. The methodology consists of reproducing the recording process of an ultra-high-speed camera by generating sequences of synthetically deformed images of a sample surface, which are then analysed using the standard tools. The investigation of the uncertainty of the identified parameters, such as Young's modulus along with the stress-strain constitutive response, is addressed by introducing the most significant user-dependent parameters (i.e. acquisition speed, camera dynamic range, grid sampling, blurring), proving that the used technique can be an effective tool for error investigation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  12. Crossmodal Association of Visual and Haptic Material Properties of Objects in the Monkey Ventral Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Goda, Naokazu; Yokoi, Isao; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Minamimoto, Takafumi; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2016-04-04

    Just by looking at an object, we can recognize its non-visual properties, such as hardness. The visual recognition of non-visual object properties is generally accurate [1], and influences actions toward the object [2]. Recent studies suggest that, in the primate brain, this may involve the ventral visual cortex, which represents objects in a way that reflects not only visual but also non-visual object properties, such as haptic roughness, hardness, and weight [3-7]. This new insight raises a fundamental question: how does the visual cortex come to represent non-visual properties--knowledge that cannot be acquired directly through vision? Here we addressed this unresolved question using fMRI in macaque monkeys. Specifically, we explored whether and how simple visuo-haptic experience--just seeing and touching objects made of various materials--can shape representational content in the visual cortex. We measured brain activity evoked by viewing images of objects before and after the monkeys acquired the visuo-haptic experience and decoded the representational space from the activity patterns [8]. We show that simple long-term visuo-haptic experience greatly impacts representation in the posterior inferior temporal cortex, the higher ventral visual cortex. After the experience, but not before, the activity pattern in this region well reflected the haptic material properties of the experienced objects. Our results suggest that neural representation of non-visual object properties in the visual cortex emerges through long-term crossmodal exposure to objects. This highlights the importance of unsupervised learning of crossmodal associations through everyday experience [9-12] for shaping representation in the visual cortex.

  13. Properties of granular analogue model materials: A community wide survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkmüller, Matthias; Schreurs, Guido; Rosenau, Matthias; Kemnitz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    We report the material properties of 26 granular analogue materials used in 14 analogue modelling laboratories. We determined physical characteristics such as bulk density, grain size distribution, and grain shape, and performed ring shear tests to determine friction angles and cohesion, and uniaxial compression tests to evaluate the compaction behaviour. Mean grain size of the materials varied between (c. 100 and 400 micrometer). Analysis of grain shape factors show that the four different classes of granular materials (14 quartz sands, 5 dyed quartz sands, 4 heavy mineral sands and 3 size fractions of glass beads) can be broadly divided into two groups consisting of 12 angular and 14 rounded materials. Grain shape has an influence on friction angles, with most angular materials having higher internal friction angles (between c. 35° and 40°) than rounded materials, whereas well-rounded glass beads have the lowest internal friction angles (between c. 25° and 30°). We interpret this as an effect of intergranular sliding versus rolling . Most angular materials have also higher basal friction angles (tested for a specific foil) than more rounded materials, suggesting that angular grains scratch and wear the foil., Most materials have a cohesion in the order of 10-100 Pa except for well-rounded glass beads, which show a trend towards a quasi-cohesionless (C <10 Pa) Coulomb-type material. The uniaxial confined compression tests reveal that rounded grains generally show less compaction than angular grains. We interpret this to be related to the initial packing density reached during sieving which is higher for rounded grains than for angular grains. Ring-shear test data show that angular grains undergo a longer strain-hardening phase than more rounded materials. This might explain why analogue models consisting of angular grains accommodate deformation in a more distributed manner prior to strain localisation than models consisting of rounded grains. Also, models

  14. Method and apparatus for assessing material properties of sheet-like materials

    DOEpatents

    Telschow, Kenneth L.; Deason, Vance A.

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus for producing an indication of a material property of a sheet-like material according to the present invention may comprise an excitation source for vibrating the sheet-like material to produce at least one traveling wave therein. A light source configured to produce an object wavefront and a reference wavefront directs the object wavefront toward the sheet-like material to produce a modulated object wavefront. A modulator operatively associated with the reference wavefront modulates the reference wavefront in synchronization with the traveling wave on the sheet-like material to produce a modulated reference wavefront. A sensing medium positioned to receive the modulated object wavefront and the modulated reference wavefront produces an image of the traveling wave in the sheet-like material, the image of the anti-symmetric traveling wave being related to a displacement amplitude of the anti-symmetric traveling wave over a two-dimensional area of the vibrating sheet-like material. A detector detects the image of the traveling wave in the sheet-like material.

  15. Research experience for undergraduates in robotics and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yih, T. C.; Tansel, I. N.; Wu, K. H.

    1993-03-01

    Florida International University successfully completed the proposed project entitled, 'Research Experience for Undergraduates in Robotics and Materials.' Nineteen students designed and manufactured a 'user-friendly' industrial robot with three functional axes and an IBM-PC-based C-based controller. The accuracy of the robot is 0.0005 inch when two axes are used. An operator can control the motions of the robot with a few hours of training by using the PC-based controller mouse. The controller also provides graphical simulation of the robot motions.

  16. Effective Materials Property Information Management for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Cebon, David; Arnold, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses key principles for the development of materials property information management software systems. There are growing needs for automated materials information management in industry, research organizations and government agencies. In part these are fuelled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing, product design and development and engineering analysis. But equally important, organizations are being driven to employ sophisticated methods and software tools for managing their mission-critical materials information by the needs for consistency, quality and traceability of data, as well as control of access to proprietary or sensitive information. Furthermore the use of increasingly sophisticated nonlinear, anisotropic and multi-scale engineering analysis approaches, particularly for composite materials, requires both processing of much larger volumes of test data for development of constitutive models and much more complex materials data input requirements for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) software. And finally, the globalization of engineering processes and outsourcing of design and development activities generates much greater needs for sharing a single gold source of materials information between members of global engineering teams in extended supply-chains. Fortunately material property management systems have kept pace with the growing user demands. They have evolved from hard copy archives, through simple electronic databases, to versatile data management systems that can be customized to specific user needs. The more sophisticated of these provide facilities for: (i) data management functions such as access control, version control, and quality control; (ii) a wide range of data import, export and analysis capabilities; (iii) mechanisms for ensuring that all data is traceable to its pedigree sources: details of testing programs, published sources, etc; (iv) tools for searching, reporting and viewing the data; and (v

  17. Computational materials science aided design of glass ceramics and crystal properties (abstract only).

    PubMed

    Mannstadt, Wolfgang

    2008-02-13

    . In this presentation results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of various crystal structures, mainly oxides, are discussed. The focus is on the thermomechanical and optical properties. We present elastic properties and the anisotropic Young's modulus for spinel structures, pyrosilicates and further oxides like rutile. Their influence on the stiffness of a resulting glass ceramic is discussed. The thermal expansion of glass ceramics is an important feature and is strongly dependent on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the crystalline phases. For selective oxides the calculation of the CTE in the harmonic approximation is presented and a comparison with experiments is given. Optical devices for microlithography use CaF(2) crystal as a lens material. The optical properties and the influence of certain impurities in CaF(2) are crucial for the performance of such devices. 'Ab initio' simulation helps us here to estimate the formation of defects and color centers. Local density approximation screened exchange calculations for the optical properties of CaF(2) are presented as well as DFT simulation results for impurities and defects.

  18. Bridging a High School Science Fair Experience with First Year Undergraduate Research: Using the E-SPART Analyzer to Determine Electrostatic Charge Properties of Compositionally Varied Rock Dust Particles as Terrestrial Analogues to Mars Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, A. G.; Williams, W. J. W.; Mazumder, M. K.; Biris, A.; Srirama, P. K.

    2005-01-01

    NASA missions to Mars confirm presence of surficial particles, as well as dramatic periods of aeolian reworking. Dust deposition on, or infiltration into, exploration equipment such as spacecraft, robotic explorers, solar panel power supplies, and even spacesuits, can pose significant problems such as diminished power collection, short circuits / discharges, and added weight. We report results conducted initially as a science fair project and a study now part of a first year University undergraduate research experience.

  19. Scanning Probe Evaluation of Electronic, Mechanical and Structural Material Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virwani, Kumar

    2011-03-01

    We present atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of a range of properties from three different classes of materials: mixed ionic electronic conductors, low-k dielectrics, and polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles. (1) Mixed ionic electronic conductors are being investigated as novel diodes to drive phase-change memory elements. Their current-voltage characteristics are measured with direct-current and pulsed-mode conductive AFM (C-AFM). The challenges to reliability of the C-AFM method include the electrical integrity of the probe, the sample and the contacts, and the minimization of path capacitance. The role of C-AFM in the optimization of these electro-active materials will be presented. (2) Low dielectric constant (low-k) materials are used in microprocessors as interlayer insulators, a role directly affected by their mechanical performance. The mechanical properties of nanoporous silicate low-k thin films are investigated in a comparative study of nanomechanics measured by AFM and by traditional nanoindentation. Both methods are still undergoing refinement as reliable analytical tools for determining nanomechanical properties. We will focus on AFM, the faster of the two methods, and its developmental challenges of probe shape, cantilever force constant, machine compliance and calibration standards. (3) Magnetic nanoparticles are being explored for their use in patterned media for magnetic storage. Current methods for visualizing the core-shell structure of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles include dye-staining the polymer shell to provide contrast in transmission electron microscopy. AFM-based fast force-volume measurements provide direct visualization of the hard metal oxide core within the soft polymer shell based on structural property differences. In particular, the monitoring of adhesion and deformation between the AFM tip and the nanoparticle, particle-by-particle, provides a reliable qualitative tool to visualize core-shell contrast without the use

  20. Material properties of the skin of the Kenyan sand boa Gongylophis colubrinus (Squamata, Boidae).

    PubMed

    Klein, Marie-Christin G; Deuschle, Julia K; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2010-09-01

    On the basis of structural data, it has been previously assumed that the integument of snakes consists of a hard, robust, inflexible outer surface (Oberhäutchen and beta-layer) and soft, flexible inner layers (alpha-layers). The aim of this study was to compare material properties of the outer and inner scale layers of the exuvium of Gongylophis colubrinus, to relate the structure of the snake integument to its mechanical properties. The nanoindentation experiments have demonstrated that the outer scale layers are harder, and have a higher effective elastic modulus than the inner scale layers. The results obtained provide strong evidence about the presence of a gradient in the material properties of the snake integument. The possible functional significance of this gradient is discussed here as a feature minimizing damage to the integument during sliding locomotion on an abrasive surface, such as sand.