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Sample records for materials detection research

  1. Materials research

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This presentation on materials will concentrate on dielectric and electrical insulation materials and the directions and needs for research and development. Some examples will also be given on amorphous metals and metal oxide varistor developments which can have significant impact on future equipment designs. Under the existing situation of the limited load growth projections in the utility industry, no single manufacturer of power equipment can justify a broad-based, fundamental and coordinated research program to develop electrical insulation systems to meet the long term needs. The trend is, therefore, towards a weakening of the US competitive position and the potential for a lack of availability of key products from domestic sources needed by the utility industry.

  2. Materials Science for Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, Anthony J.

    2008-03-01

    In response to the elevated importance of nuclear detection technology, a variety of research efforts have sought to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials These efforts have goals such as improving our understanding of how these materials perform, supporting the development of formalized discovery tools, or enabling rapid and effective performance characterization. This article provides an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of these materials.

  3. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-09-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide.

  4. Early detection of materials degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  5. Materials research at CMAM

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro

    2013-07-18

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming.

  6. Materials research at CMAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro

    2013-07-01

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming.

  7. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  8. Materials Research Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stofan, Andrew J.

    1986-01-01

    Lewis Research Center, in partnership with U.S. industry and academia, has long been a major force in developing advanced aerospace propulsion and power systems. One key aspect that made many of these systems possible has been the availability of high-performance, reliable, and long-life materials. To assure a continuing flow of new materials and processing concepts, basic understanding to guide such innovation, and technological support for development of major NASA systems, Lewis has supported a strong in-house materials research activity. Our researchers have discovered new alloys, polymers, metallic composites, ceramics, coatings, processing techniques, etc., which are now also in use by U.S. industry. This brochure highlights selected past accomplishments of our materials research and technology staff. It also provides many examples of the facilities available with which we can conduct materials research. The nation is now beginning to consider integrating technology for high-performance supersonic/hypersonic aircraft, nuclear space power systems, a space station, and new research areas such as materials processing in space. As we proceed, I am confident that our materials research staff will continue to provide important contributions which will help our nation maintain a strong technology position in these areas of growing world competition. Lewis Research Center, in partnership with U.S. industry and academia, has long been a major force in developing advanced aerospace propulsion and power systems. One key aspect that made many of these systems possible has been the availability of high-performance, reliable, and long-life materials. To assure a continuing flow of new materials and processing concepts, basic understanding to guide such innovation, and technological support for development of major NASA systems, Lewis has supported a strong in-house materials research activity. Our researchers have discovered new alloys, polymers, metallic composites

  9. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Ramsey, David R.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Macdonald, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  10. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

    1998-03-31

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

  11. Optical materials research.

    PubMed

    Parsons, W F

    1972-01-01

    There are eras in research when days are filled with excitement because unique materials are being produced and researchers "think what nobody else has thought" (Albert von Szent Gyorgyi). Such were the periods when many new optical glasses emerged from the laboratories of the Eastman Kodak Company and when the hot pressing technology was applied to produce new polycrystalline materials. This paper discusses the people and accomplishments of those periods.

  12. Materials research. [research concerning materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported concerned with materials for aerospace applications. Areas reported include: electrical properties of glasses, oxides and metals; structural and high temperature properties of crystalline and amorphous materials; and physical properties, and microstructure of materials.

  13. Materials Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Microgravity materials processing experiments provide an opportunity to perform scientific research in an environment which allows one to observe various phenomena without the masking effects of gravity-driven convective flows, buoyancy, or contaminating influences of walled containers. Even for the most experienced scientists, it is still difficult to predict beforehand, whether or not microgravity experimentation can be successfully performed in space and achieve solutions to problems which are not attainable in 1 g. Consequently, experimentation in ground based facilities which are capable of simulating, in somewhat lesser time frames and to a lesser degree of microgravity, provides a unique low-cost approach to determine the feasibility of continuing research in a particular experiment. The utilization of these facilities in developing the full requirements for a space experiment does present a very cost-effective approach to microgravity experimentation. The Drop Tube Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides an excellent test bed for containerless processing experiments such as described here. These facilities have demonstrated for a number of years the capability to develop insight into space experiments involving containerless processing, rapid solidification, and wetting phenomena through the use of lower-cost ground facilities. Once sufficient data has been obtained, then a space-based experiment can be better defined.

  14. Electronics materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  15. Electronics materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  16. Nanocomposite materials for radiation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahi, Sunil

    2013-03-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CdTe, CdSe, and ZnO) have attracted tremendous interest in wide range of application from biological imaging, biosensing, solar cells to optoelectronic devices. However very few published reports on the radiation detection based on colloidal quantum dots. Quantum dots based nanocomposite materials could be a promising material for radiation detection because of their short luminescence life time and high quantum efficiencies as a consequence of quantum size confinement. However stopping power of most quantum dots is low and their scintillation luminescence is very weak. The combination of high stopping power of inorganic scintillator (CeF3LaF3: Ce, YAG:Ce) and high efficiency of quantum dot could potentially lead to a new class of scintillator. We have studied the nanocomposite of inorganic scintillator and quantum dot based on energy transfer principle and investigate the scintillation properties of nanocomposite scintillator.

  17. Carbon Materials Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-14

    behavior, interfacial energies, and surface molecular orientation (surface anchoring states) for mesophase pitch on carbon fibers and other...Mochida (2) extended it to the production of mesophase pitch by dramatically raising Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution...involved i.e. it is a very insoluble material. Mochida, however, recognized that this material was liquid-crystalline mesophase pitch , which was

  18. Encapsulation materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    Encapsulation materials for solar cells were investigated. The different phases consisted of: (1) identification and development of low cost module encapsulation materials; (2) materials reliability examination; and (3) process sensitivity and process development. It is found that outdoor photothermal aging devices (OPT) are the best accelerated aging methods, simulate worst case field conditions, evaluate formulation and module performance and have a possibility for life assessment. Outdoor metallic copper exposure should be avoided, self priming formulations have good storage stability, stabilizers enhance performance, and soil resistance treatment is still effective.

  19. Materials research at Stanford University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information briefly describing the total research activity related to the science of materials is reported. Emphasis is placed on physical and mechanical properties of composite materials, energy transportation, superconductors, microwave electronics, and solid state electrochemistry.

  20. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  1. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  2. Computational Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.

    1998-01-01

    High temperature thermoplastic polyimide polymers are incorporated in engineering structures in the form of matrix materials in advanced fiber composites and adhesives in bonded joints. Developing analytical tools to predict long term performance and screen for final materials selection for polymers is the impetus for intensive studies at NASA and major industry based airframe developers. These fiber-reinforced polymeric composites (FRPCs) combine high strength with lightweight. In addition, they offer corrosion and fatigue resistance, a reduction in parts count, and new possibilities for control through aeroelastic tailoring and "smart" structures containing fully-integrated sensors and actuators. However, large-scale acceptance and use of polymer composites has historically been extremely slow. Reasons for this include a lack of familiarity of designers with the materials; the need for new tooling and new inspection and repair infrastructures; and high raw materials and fabrication costs.

  3. Smart Materials Research at NRL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matic, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This presentation covers the use of smart materials in Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) research for sensors, actuators, and modeling and control. Emphasis is on optical fiber Bragg gratings, piezoelectric actuators, shape memory alloy actuators, and polymer matrix and interfaces.

  4. Encapsulation materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P.

    1985-01-01

    The successful use of outdoor mounting racks as an accelerated aging technique (these devices are called optal reactors); a beginning list of candidate pottant materials for thin-film encapsulation, which process at temperatures well below 100 C; and description of a preliminary flame retardant formulation for ethylene vinyl acetate which could function to increase module flammability ratings are presented.

  5. Research in Materials Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-31

    236. (1966) 836. 11. Noah Hendelsohn, S.B. Thesis, MIT (Physics, 1974) unpublished; Myron Hale Frommer , Ph.D. Thesis, MIT (Metallurgy and Materials...iiiK±\\fju\\mki^m\\IUW<MfW.imK-VlWW I 1 ■77- 12. J. Bostock, Kofi Agyeman, M.ll. Frommer , and M.L.A. MacVicar, J. Appl. Phys. 44 (1973) 5567. 13. W. N

  6. Computational Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Gates, Thomas S. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Computational Materials aims to model and predict thermodynamic, mechanical, and transport properties of polymer matrix composites. This workshop, the second coordinated by NASA Langley, reports progress in measurements and modeling at a number of length scales: atomic, molecular, nano, and continuum. Assembled here are presentations on quantum calculations for force field development, molecular mechanics of interfaces, molecular weight effects on mechanical properties, molecular dynamics applied to poling of polymers for electrets, Monte Carlo simulation of aromatic thermoplastics, thermal pressure coefficients of liquids, ultrasonic elastic constants, group additivity predictions, bulk constitutive models, and viscoplasticity characterization.

  7. Long Range Materials Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-31

    steels. P. Anasov, a major-general in the Russian Army and super i nt endeiit ol the Zlatoust Steel Works in the Ural mountains, devoted his whole life...34- *."n.jmmam*^*mM*mm».i ^mmmm^m^^’^^vmi^’mm^ \\iuim’!*^m*mzjmm^^mww..m m\\yf^äiimmmmvv^mm»9 !■ superplascic(9󈧎). We define a material as super ,, last...that the tendency for superplastlc Mow diminishes with an increase in grain size. Thus grain growth Inhibits super - Plasti. ity. A eutectoid

  8. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    James V. Taranik

    2007-12-31

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth’s surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system’s data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this

  9. Programs in Materials Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    Hannah H. GrayII Provost. Gerhard Casper Vice President for Research, Walter E. Massey Dean of Division of the Physical Sciences, Stuart A. RiceUr...88, 7893 (1988). 36. K.D. Gibson, C. Cerjan, J.C. Light, and S.J. Sibener, J. Chem Phys. 88, 7911 (1988). 37. K.D. Gibson, B.M. Hall, D.L. Mills , J.E...Physical Society (1989). I I 51 I 48. C.11. Li, S.Y. Tong and D.L. Mills , Phys. Rev. B 21, 3057 (1980). 49. V. Bortolani, A. Franchini, F. Nizzoli, and

  10. Laser detection of material thickness

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.

    2002-01-01

    There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of the thickness of the material to the measured time intervals between deflections of the contacted surface.

  11. Materials Research in Microgravity 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, R. (Editor); Bojarevis, V. (Editor); Downey, J.; Henein, H. (Editor); Matson, D.; Seidel, A. (Editor); Voss, D. (Editor); SanSoucie, M. (Compiler)

    2012-01-01

    Reducing gravitational effects such as thermal and solutal buoyancy enables investigation of a large range of different phenomena in materials science. The Symposium on Materials Research in Microgravity involved 6 sessions composed of 39 presentations and 14 posters with contributions from more than 14 countries. The sessions concentrated on four different categories of topics related to ongoing reduced-gravity research. Highlights from this symposium will be featured in the September 2012 issue of JOM. The TMS Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division, Process Technology and Modeling Committee and Solidification Committee sponsored the symposium.

  12. Research on Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Methods for Materials, Process and Structures. Delivery Order 006: Computed Radiography Crack Detection Validation Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    detection capability, as well as to develop the guidelines, procedures, training materials, validation testing, and probability of detection ( POD ...to design and conduct a POD study that would provide a quantitative assessment of the crack detection capability of representative Air Force...A summary of the laboratory data and analysis results is also provided. The complete procedures, guidelines, and POD analysis report can be found in

  13. Strain-Detecting Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Terryl A. (Inventor); Smith, Stephen W. (Inventor); Piascik, Robert S. (Inventor); Horne, Michael R. (Inventor); Messick, Peter L. (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor); Glaessgen, Edward H. (Inventor); Hailer, Benjamin T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A composite material includes a structural material and a shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite in response to a predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. In a second embodiment, the composite material includes a plurality of particles of a ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite and changes magnetic phase in response to the predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. A method of forming a composite material for sensing the predefined critical macroscopic average strain includes providing the shape-memory alloy having an austenite crystallographic phase, changing a size and shape of the shape-memory alloy to thereby form a plurality of particles, and combining the structural material and the particles at a temperature of from about 100-700.degree. C. to form the composite material.

  14. Probe for contamination detection in recyclable materials

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi

    2003-08-05

    A neutron detection system for detection of contaminants contained within a bulk material during recycling includes at least one neutron generator for neutron bombardment of the bulk material, and at least one gamma ray detector for detection of gamma rays emitted by contaminants within the bulk material. A structure for analyzing gamma ray data is communicably connected to the gamma ray detector, the structure for analyzing gamma ray data adapted. The identity and concentration of contaminants in a bulk material can also be determined. By scanning the neutron beam, discrete locations within the bulk material having contaminants can be identified. A method for recycling bulk material having unknown levels of contaminants includes the steps of providing at least one neutron generator, at least one gamma ray detector, and structure for analyzing gamma ray data, irradiating the bulk material with neutrons, and then determining the presence of at least one contaminant in the bulk material from gamma rays emitted from the bulk material.

  15. Research Ethics. Cases and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penslar, Robin Levin, Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive resource of illustrative cases for classroom discussion of research ethics in the natural sciences, the behavioral sciences, and the humanities. The materials selected for inclusion are intended to speak to people in all disciplines, though the cases are drawn from biology, psychology, and history. They cover such…

  16. Detection device for hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Partin, Judy K.; Grey, Alan E.

    1994-01-01

    A detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chcal with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

  17. Detection device for hazardous material

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, J.K.; Grey, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chemical with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

  18. Detection device for hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Partin, Judy K.; Grey, Alan E.

    1994-04-05

    A detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chcal with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

  19. Radiation Detection Material Discovery Initiative at PNNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milbrath, Brian

    2006-05-01

    Today's security threats are being met with 30-year old radiation technology. Discovery of new radiation detection materials is currently a slow and Edisonian process. With heightened concerns over nuclear proliferation, terrorism and unconventional warfare, an alternative strategy for identification and development of potential radiation detection materials must be adopted. Through the Radiation Detection Materials Discovery Initiative, PNNL focuses on the science-based discovery of next generation materials for radiation detection by addressing three ``grand challenges'': fundamental understanding of radiation detection, identification of new materials, and accelerating the discovery process. The new initiative has eight projects addressing these challenges, which will be described, including early work, paths forward and the opportunities for collaboration.

  20. Automatic on-line detection system design research on internal defects of metal materials based on optical fiber F-P sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Liu; Shan, Ning; Chao, Ban; Caoshan, Wang

    2016-10-01

    Metal materials have been used in aerospace and other industrial fields widely because of its excellent characteristics, so its internal defects detection is very important. Ultrasound technology is used widely in the fields of nondestructive detection because of its excellent characteristic. But the conventional detection instrument for ultrasound, which has shortcomings such as low intelligent level and long development cycles, limits its development. In this paper, the theory of ultrasound detection is analyzed. A computational method of the defects distributional position is given. The non-contact type optical fiber F-P interference cavity structure is designed and the length of origin cavity is given. The real-time on-line ultrasound detecting experiment devices for internal defects of metal materials is established based on the optical fiber F-P sensing system. The virtual instrument of automation ultrasound detection internal defects is developed based on LabVIEW software and the experimental study is carried out. The results show that this system can be used in internal defect real-time on-line locating of engineering structures effectively. This system has higher measurement precision. Relative error is 6.7%. It can be met the requirement of engineering practice. The system is characterized by simple operation, easy realization. The software has a friendly interface, good expansibility, and high intelligent level.

  1. Materials sciences research. [research facilities, research projects, and technical reports of materials tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Research projects involving materials research conducted by various international test facilities are reported. Much of the materials research is classified in the following areas: (1) acousto-optic, acousto-electric, and ultrasonic research, (2) research for elucidating transport phenomena in well characterized oxides, (3) research in semiconductor materials and semiconductor devices, (4) the study of interfaces and interfacial phenomena, and (5) materials research relevant to natural resources. Descriptions of the individual research programs are listed alphabetically by the name of the author and show all personnel involved, resulting publications, and associated meeting speeches.

  2. Polarization imaging detection technology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Mo-gen; Wang, Feng; Xu, Guo-ming; Yuan, Hong-wu

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we analyse the polarization imaging theory and the commonly process of the polarization imaging detection. Based on this, we summarize our many years' research work especially in the mechanism, technology and system of the polarization imaging detection technology. Combined with the up-to-date development at home and abroad, this paper discusses many theory and technological problems of polarization imaging detection in detail from the view of the object polarization characteristics, key problem and key technology of polarization imaging detection, polarization imaging detection system and application, etc. The theory and technological problems include object all direction polarization characteristic retrieving, the optical electronic machinery integration designing of the polarization imaging detection system, the high precision polarization information analysis and the polarization image fast processing. Moreover, we point out the possible application direction of the polarization imaging detection technology both in martial and civilian fields. We also summarize the possible future development trend of the polarization imaging detection technology in the field of high spectrum polarization imaging. This paper can provide evident reference and guidance to promote the research and development of the polarization imaging detection technology.

  3. Canadian landmine detection research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Das, Yogadhish; Faust, Anthony A.

    2003-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada (DRDC), an agency within the Department of National Defence, has been conducting research and development (R&D) on the detection of landmines for countermine operations and of unexploded ordnance (UXO) for range clearance since 1975. The Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT), located at DRDC Suffield, was formed in 1998 to carry out R&D related to humanitarian demining. The lead group responsible for formulating and executing both countermine and humanitarian R&D programs in detection is the Threat Detection Group at DRDC Suffield. This paper describes R&D for both programs under the major headings of remote minefield detection, close-in scanning detection, confirmation detection and teleoperated systems. Among DRDC's achievements in landmine and UXO detection R&D are pioneering work in electromagnetic and magnetic identification and classification; the first military-fielded multisensor, teleoperated vehicle-mounted landmine detection system; pioneering use of confirmation detectors for multisensor landmine detection systems; the first fielded thermal neutron activation landmine confirmation sensor; the first detection of landmines using a real-time hyperspectral imager; electrical impedance imaging detection of landmines and UXO and a unique neutron backscatter landmine imager.

  4. Materials science research in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H.

    1992-01-01

    There are several important attributes of an extended duration microgravity environment that offer a new dimension in the control of the microstructure, processing, and properties of materials. First, when gravitational effects are minimized, buoyancy driven convection flows are also minimized. The flows due to density differences, brought about either by composition or temperature gradients will then be reduced or eliminated to permit a more precise control of the temperature and the composition of a melt which is critical in achieving high quality crystal growth of electronic materials or alloy structures. Secondly, body force effects such as sedimentation, hydrostatic pressure, and deformation are similarly reduced. These effects may interfere with attempts to produce uniformly dispersed or aligned second phases during melt solidification. Thirdly, operating in a microgravity environment will facilitate the containerless processing of melts to eliminate the limitations of containment for reactive melts. The noncontacting forces such as those developed from electromagnet, electrostatic, or acoustic fields can be used to position samples. With this mode of operation, contamination can be minimized to enable the study of reactive melts and to eliminate extraneous crystal nucleation so that novel crystalline structures and new glass compositions may be produced. In order to take advantage of the microgravity environment for materials research, it has become clear that reliable processing models based on a sound ground based experimental experience and an established thermophysical property data base are essential.

  5. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-03-30

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling.

  6. System for detecting special nuclear materials

    DOEpatents

    Jandel, Marian; Rusev, Gencho Yordanov; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas

    2015-07-14

    The present disclosure includes a radiological material detector having a convertor material that emits one or more photons in response to a capture of a neutron emitted by a radiological material; a photon detector arranged around the convertor material and that produces an electrical signal in response to a receipt of a photon; and a processor connected to the photon detector, the processor configured to determine the presence of a radiological material in response to a predetermined signature of the electrical signal produced at the photon detector. One or more detectors described herein can be integrated into a detection system that is suited for use in port monitoring, treaty compliance, and radiological material management activities.

  7. Lewis Researcher in the Materials and Stresses Building

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1952-12-21

    A materials researcher at the NACA’s Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory examines a surface crack detection apparatus in the Materials and Stresses Building during December 1952. Materials research was an important aspect of propulsion technology. Advanced engine systems relied upon alloys, and later composites, that were strong, lightweight, and impervious to high temperatures. Jet engines which became increasingly popular in the late 1940s, produced much higher temperatures than piston engines. These higher temperatures stressed engine components, particularly turbines. Although Lewis materials research began during World War II, the Materials and Thermodynamics Division was not created until 1949. Its primary laboratories were located in the Materials and Stresses Building. The group sought to create new, improved materials and to improve engine design through increased understanding of materials. The Lewis materials researchers of the 1950s made contributions to nickel-aluminum alloys, cermet blades, metal matrix composites, oxide dispersion strengthened superalloys, and universal slopes.

  8. Wireless sensor for detecting explosive material

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberti, Vincent E; Howell, Jr., Layton N; Mee, David K; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting explosive devices. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon absorption of vapor from an explosive material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The explosive device is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  9. Detection and drug delivery from superhydrophobic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falde, Eric John

    The wetting of a rough material is controlled by surface chemistry and morphology, the liquid phase, solutes, and surfactants that affect the surface tension with the gas phase, and environmental conditions such as temperature and pressure. Materials with high (>150°) apparent contact angles are known as superhydrophobic and are very resistant to wetting. However, in complex biological mixtures eventually protein adsorbs, fouling the surface and facilitating wetting on time scales from seconds to months. The work here uses the partially-wetted (Cassie-Baxter) to fully-wetted (Wenzel) state transition to control drug delivery and to perform surfactant detection via surface tension using hydrophobic and superhydrophobic materials. First there is an overview of the physics of the non-wetting state and the transition to wetting. Then there is a review of how wetting can be controlled by outside stimuli and applications of these materials. Next there is work presented on controlling drug release using superhydrophobic materials with controlled wetting rates, with both in vitro and in vivo results. Then there is work on developing a sensor based on this wetting state transition and its applications toward detecting solute levels in biological fluids for point-of-care diagnosis. Finally, there is work presented on using these sensors for detecting the alcohol content in wine and spirits.

  10. Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V.

    2009-03-10

    Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

  11. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  12. Strategic Research Directions In Microgravity Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.; Wargo, Michael J.; Marzwell, Neville L.; Sanders, Gerald; Schlagheck, Ron; Semmes, Ed; Bassler, Julie; Cook, Beth

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) is moving aggressively to align programs, projects, and products with the vision for space exploration. Research in advanced materials is a critical element in meeting exploration goals. Research in low gravity materials science in OBPR is being focused on top priority needs in support of exploration: 1) Space Radiation Shielding; 2) In Situ Resource Utilization; 3) In Situ Fabrication and Repair; 4) Materials Science for Spacecraft and Propulsion Systems; 5) Materials Science for Advanced Life Support Systems. Roles and responsibilities in low gravity materials research for exploration between OBPR and the Office of Exploration Systems are evolving.

  13. Materials research at Stanford University. [composite materials, crystal structure, acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Research activity related to the science of materials is described. The following areas are included: elastic and thermal properties of composite materials, acoustic waves and devices, amorphous materials, crystal structure, synthesis of metal-metal bonds, interactions of solids with solutions, electrochemistry, fatigue damage, superconductivity and molecular physics and phase transition kinetics.

  14. Detection Of Special Nuclear Materials Tagged Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Deyglun, Clement; Perot, Bertrand; Carasco, Cedric; Sannie, Guillaume; Gameiro, Jordan; Corre, Gwenole; Boudergui, Karim; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Normand, Stephane; Cusset, Eric

    2015-07-01

    In order to detect Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in unattended luggage or cargo containers in the field of homeland security, fissions are induced by 14 MeV neutrons produced by an associated particle DT neutron generator, and prompt fission particles correlated with tagged neutron are detected by plastic scintillators. SMN produce high multiplicity events due to induced fissions, whereas nonnuclear materials produce low multiplicity events due to cross-talk, (n,2n) or (n,n'γ) reactions. The data acquisition electronics is made of compact FPGA boards. The coincidence window is triggered by the alpha particle detection, allowing to tag the emission date and direction of the 14 MeV interrogating neutron. The first part of the paper presents experiment vs. calculation comparisons to validate MCNP-PoliMi simulations and the post-processing tools developed with the data analysis framework ROOT. Measurements have been performed using different targets (iron, lead, graphite), first with small plastic scintillators (10 x 10 x 10 cm{sup 3}) and then with large detectors (10 x 10 x 100 cm{sup 3}) to demonstrate that nuclear materials can be differentiated from nonnuclear dense materials (iron, lead) in iron and wood matrixes. A special attention is paid on SNM detection in abandoned luggage. In the second part of the paper, the performances of a cargo container inspection system are studied by numerical simulation, following previous work reported in. Detectors dimensions and shielding against the neutron generator background are optimized for container inspection. Events not correlated to an alpha particle (uncorrelated background), counting statistics, time and energy resolutions of the data acquisition system are all taken into account in a realistic numerical model. The impact of the container matrix (iron, ceramic, wood) has been investigated by studying the system capability to detect a few kilograms of SNM in different positions in the cargo container, within 10

  15. [Detection of intraorbital foreign material using MDCT].

    PubMed

    Hoffstetter, P; Friedrich, C; Framme, C; Hoffstetter, M; Zorger, N; Stierstorfer, K; Ross, C; Uller, W; Müller-Wille, R; Rennert, J; Jung, E M; Schreyer, A G

    2011-06-01

    To judge the possibilities of detection of orbital foreign bodies in multidetector CT (MDCT) with a focus on glass slivers. Experimental systematic measuring of Hounsfield Units (HU) of 20 different materials, containing 16 different types of glass with 4 different types of ophthalmic lenses among them. The measurements were performed using a standardized protocol with an orbita phantom being scanned with 16-slice MDCT. Using the resulting density values, the smallest detectable volume was calculated. Using this data we produced slivers of 5 different glass types in the sub-millimeter range and calculated their volume. Those micro-slivers underwent another CT scan using the same protocol as mentioned above to experimentally discern and confirm the detection limit for micro-slivers made of different materials. Glass has comparatively high density values of at least 2000 HU. The density of glasses with strong refraction is significantly higher and reaches up to 12 400 HU. We calculated a minimum detectable volume of 0.07 mm (3) for glass with a density of 2000 HU. Only glass slivers with a density higher than 8300 HU were experimentally detectable in the sub-millimeter range up to a volume as small as 0.01 mm (3). Less dense glass slivers could not be seen, even though their volume was above the theoretically calculated threshold for detection. Due to its high density of at least 2000 HU, glass is usually easily recognizable as an orbital foreign body. The detection threshold depends on the object's density and size and can be as low as 0.01 mm (3) in the case of glass with strong refraction and thus high density. The detection of glass as an orbital foreign body seems to be secure for slivers with a volume of at least 0.2 mm (3) for all types of glass. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Ernutet Crater and Organic Material Detections

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-16

    This enhanced color composite image from Dawn's visible and infrared mapping spectrometer shows the area around Ernutet Crater on Ceres. The instrument detected the evidence of organic materials in this area, as reported in a 2017 study in the journal Science. In this view, areas that appear pink with respect to the background appear to be rich in organics, and green areas are where organic material appears to be less abundant. Light with a wavelength of 2000 nanometers is shown in blue, 3400 nanometers is shown in green and 1700 nanometers is shown in red. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21420

  17. Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, J. A.; Tibbitts, A.; Schotik, G.; Borozdin, K.; Bacon, J.; Midera, H.; Milner, C.; Morris, C.; Perry, J.; Barrett, S.; Perry, K.; Scott, A.; Wright, C.; Aberle, D.

    2013-03-18

    Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

  18. Materials and Waste Management Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is developing data and tools to reduce waste, manage risks, reuse and conserve natural materials, and optimize energy recovery. Collaboration with states facilitates assessment and utilization of technologies developed by the private sector.

  19. Sensor Materials - Detecting Molecules, Mixtures and Microorganisms -

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-05

    1090 Vienna, Austria ABSTRACT Sensor materials based on molecularly imprinted organic and inorganic polymers were designed and characterized according...both organic and inorganic polymers , able to selectively re-include the template species. Imprinting was performed both on the molecular and the...for the specific detection of small organic molecules, major improvements in sensor layer design can be achieved by molecular imprinting methods [3,4

  20. Detecting fission from special nuclear material sources

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA

    2012-06-05

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source. The system includes a graphing component that displays the plot of the neutron distribution from the unknown source over a Poisson distribution and a plot of neutrons due to background or environmental sources. The system further includes a known neutron source placed in proximity to the unknown source to actively interrogate the unknown source in order to accentuate differences in neutron emission from the unknown source from Poisson distributions and/or environmental sources.

  1. Photo-fission Methods to detect Fissile Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Micah S.; Glenn, A.; Hartouni, E. P.; Sheets, S. A.; Soltz, R. A.; Danagoulian, A.; Korbly, S. E.; Ledoux, R. J.

    2014-09-01

    A mission objective of various national security agencies is to develop systems that can detect fissile material. There are a myriad of researchers at national laboratories, academic institutions, and industry who are investigating various methods to detect fissile materials. These methods are broken down into active or passive detection systems. Examples of active systems include neutron or photon sources to stimulate and/or scatter from materials. Our focus has been to use photons near the fission barrier of various actinides to excite fission modes and measure the correlated and uncorrelated neutrons. We will present and discuss results from recent measurements. We will present the overall results of our effort and discuss some of the open questions. A mission objective of various national security agencies is to develop systems that can detect fissile material. There are a myriad of researchers at national laboratories, academic institutions, and industry who are investigating various methods to detect fissile materials. These methods are broken down into active or passive detection systems. Examples of active systems include neutron or photon sources to stimulate and/or scatter from materials. Our focus has been to use photons near the fission barrier of various actinides to excite fission modes and measure the correlated and uncorrelated neutrons. We will present and discuss results from recent measurements. We will present the overall results of our effort and discuss some of the open questions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  3. Detection of radioactive materials at Astrakhan

    SciTech Connect

    Cantut, L; Dougan, A; Hemberger, P; Kravenchenko, Gromov, A; Martin, D; Pohl, B; Richardson, J H; Williams, H; York, R; Zaitsev, E

    1999-07-01

    Astrakhan is the major Russian port on the Caspian Sea. Consequently, it is the node for significant river traffic up the Volga, as well as shipments to and from other seaports on the Caspian Sea. The majority of this latter trade across the Caspian Sea is with Iran. The Second Line of Defense and RF SCC identified Astrakhan as one of the top priorities for upgrading with modern radiation detection equipment. The purpose of the cooperative effort between RF SCC and DOE at Astrakhan is to provide the capability through equipment and training to monitor and detect illegal shipments of nuclear materials through Astrakhan. The first facility was equipped with vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. The second facility was equipped with pedestrian, vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. A second phase of this project will complete the equipping of Astrakhan by providing additional rail and handheld systems, along with completion of video systems. Associated with both phases is the necessary equipment and procedural training to ensure successful operation of the equipment in order to detect and deter illegal trafficking in nuclear materials. The presentation will described this project and its overall relationship to the Second Line of Defense Program.

  4. Materials Processing Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    of microstructural evolution, (5) development of Gamma and Beta-Gamma titanium alloys towards rolled sheets for thermal protection applications, ( 6 ...the hydrostatic stress. This work was published in Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A by Nicolaou, Miller, and Semiatin [ 6 ]. 4 2.2.2 The...observed values for the Titanium 6242s measured by Porter and John, as well as Ti6- 4 alloy reported on by Chan in Mater. Trans, 2008. In addition

  5. Basic and Applied Research in Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-30

    This report describes the research carried out in two major areas: 1) Materials for Energy Storage and 2) Heterogeneous Catalysis . Materials for...constructed from inexpensive, readily obtainable materials. Heterogeneous Catalysis : a number of the most important heterogeneous catalysts consist of

  6. Analytical Ultrasonics in Materials Research and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1986-01-01

    Research results in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing structural materials from metals and ceramics to composites are presented. General topics covered by the conference included: status and advances in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing material microstructures and mechanical properties; status and prospects for ultrasonic measurements of microdamage, degradation, and underlying morphological factors; status and problems in precision measurements of frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation for materials analysis; procedures and requirements for automated, digital signal acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation; incentives for analytical ultrasonics in materials research and materials processing, testing, and inspection; and examples of progress in ultrasonics for interrelating microstructure, mechanical properites, and dynamic response.

  7. Nonlinear ultrasonic scanning to detect material defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method and system are provided to detect defects in a material. Waves of known frequency(ies) are mixed at an interaction zone in the material. As a result, at least one of a difference wave and a sum wave are generated in the interaction zone. The difference wave occurs at a difference frequency and the sum wave occurs at a sum frequency. The amplitude of at least one nonlinear signal based on the sum and/or difference waves is then measured. The nonlinear signal is defined as the amplitude of one of the difference wave and sum wave relative to the product of the amplitude of the surface waves. The amplitude of the nonlinear signal is an indication of defects (e.g., dislocation dipole density) in the interaction zone.

  8. 2015 Materials Research Society Spring Meeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-12

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The 2015 Materials Research Society Spring Meeting was held April 6-10 in San Francisco, CA. The scientific sessions...included many emergent areas of materials research as well as some well-established ones. The frequent occurring overlap of topics among the various...clusters is a manifestation of the inter- and cross-disciplinary of contemporary materials science and engineering. Symposium FF brought together

  9. Meta-material for nuclear particle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, V.; Salvato, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Cirillo, M.; Scherillo, A.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Vannozzi, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting strips coated with boron were engineered with a view to subnuclear particle detection. Combining the characteristics of boron as a generator of α-particles (as a consequence of neutron absorption) and the ability of superconducting strips to act as resistive switches, it is shown that fabricated Nb-boron and NbN-boron strips represent a promising basis for implementing neutron detection devices. In particular, the superconducting transition of boron-coated NbN strips generates voltage outputs of the order of a few volts thanks to the relatively higher normal state resitivity of NbN with respect to Nb. This result, combined with the relatively high transition temperature of NbN (of the order of 16 K for the bulk material), is an appealing prospect for future developments. The coated strips are meta-devices since their constituting material does not exist in nature and it is engineered to accomplish a specific task, i.e. generate an output voltage signal upon α-particle irradiation.

  10. Concept of and the recent research on intelligent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Toshinori

    1996-04-01

    Intelligent materials are the materials possessing the following function in themselves such as the sensing function which detect the environmental change or their inner anomaly, the processor function which can judge the situation to lead the conclusion, and actuating function that the materials themselves can take action or give instruction. The structural and functional materials simply utilize the native properties and functions of their own. On the other hand, the intelligent materials are based on a new concept where the information science will be united with their own properties and functions. The intelligent materials can be very important and useful in many fields and their interdisciplinary fields such as the medicine, pharmacy, bioengineering, polymer, metalugy, semiconductor, ceramics, electronics, machinery. It is also extremely important in the human engineering, safety engineering, environmental study and study on the resources. In this report, the category of the intelligent material and the recent activities of researches on the intelligent materials are discussed.

  11. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    DOEpatents

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  12. Reusable surface insulation materials research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.; Buckley, J. D.; King, H. M.; Probst, H. B.; Spiker, I. K.

    1972-01-01

    Reusable surface insulation is considered a prime candidate for heat shielding large areas of the space shuttle vehicle. The composition and fabrication of RSI materials are discussed, followed by evolution of RSI and current problems, physical and thermal properties, arc plasma test data and results, and material improvement research. Finally, a summary of RSI technology status is presented.

  13. Intense Photoneutron Sources For Nuclear Material Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Intense neutron sources are essential for cargo inspection for a broad range of threats from explosives, to contraband, to nuclear materials and especially SNM (Special Nuclear Materials). To be effective over a wide range of cargo materials, in particular for hydrogenous cargo such as food, and to offer practical inspection times, the neutron source must be very strong, typically >10{sup 10} neutrons per second. Unfortunately there are currently no reasonably compact and economical neutron generators with the required intensities. The insufficiency and inadequacy of intense neutron sources are especially conspicuous in the {<=}2.5 MeV range (low voltage (d,D) generator). This energy range is needed if the strong signature of prompt fission neutrons ({approx_equal}3 per fission) is to be detected and discerned from the numerous source neutrons. The photonuclear reactions of x-rays from commercial linacs in appropriate converters can provide ample intensities of neutrons. These converters have a very low ({gamma},n) energy threshold: 1.67 MeV for beryllium and 2.23 MeV for deuterium. The intense x-ray beams provided by commercial x-ray systems, more than compensate for the relatively low ({gamma},n) cross-sections which are in the milli-barn range. The choice of converter material, the geometrical shape, dimensions and location relative to the x-ray source, determine the efficiency of the neutron conversion. For electron accelerators with less than 10 MeV, the preferred converters, Be and D{sub 2}O, are also very good neutron moderators. Thus, while increasing the converters' thickness leads to an increase in the overall neutron yield, this causes the softening of the neutron spectrum, which reduces the neutron penetration especially in hydrogenous cargos. Photoneutron sources can be optimized to meet specific needs such as maximum fission signals in various cargo materials of interest. Efficient photoneutron sources with different energy spectra were investigated

  14. Intense Photoneutron Sources For Nuclear Material Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Intense neutron sources are essential for cargo inspection for a broad range of threats from explosives, to contraband, to nuclear materials and especially SNM (Special Nuclear Materials). To be effective over a wide range of cargo materials, in particular for hydrogenous cargo such as food, and to offer practical inspection times, the neutron source must be very strong, typically >1010 neutrons per second. Unfortunately there are currently no reasonably compact and economical neutron generators with the required intensities. The insufficiency and inadequacy of intense neutron sources are especially conspicuous in the ≤2.5 MeV range (low voltage (d,D) generator). This energy range is needed if the strong signature of prompt fission neutrons (≈3 per fission) is to be detected and discerned from the numerous source neutrons. The photonuclear reactions of x-rays from commercial linacs in appropriate converters can provide ample intensities of neutrons. These converters have a very low (γ,n) energy threshold: 1.67 MeV for beryllium and 2.23 MeV for deuterium. The intense x-ray beams provided by commercial x-ray systems, more than compensate for the relatively low (γ,n) cross-sections which are in the milli-barn range. The choice of converter material, the geometrical shape, dimensions and location relative to the x-ray source, determine the efficiency of the neutron conversion. For electron accelerators with less than 10 MeV, the preferred converters, Be and D2O, are also very good neutron moderators. Thus, while increasing the converters' thickness leads to an increase in the overall neutron yield, this causes the softening of the neutron spectrum, which reduces the neutron penetration especially in hydrogenous cargos. Photoneutron sources can be optimized to meet specific needs such as maximum fission signals in various cargo materials of interest. Efficient photoneutron sources with different energy spectra were investigated. Conversion efficiency of more than

  15. Spacecraft materials research: A NASA perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenny, D. R.

    1983-05-01

    This paper reviews NASA's spacecraft materials research program. This is a multicenter program and includes research in the following areas: space environmental effects on materials, low expansion composites, fatigue and fracture of composites, thermal control coatings, and contamination. Research to date has concentrated on current graphite-reinforced composites and polymer systems, and developing analytical models to explain observed changes in mechanical, physical, and optical properties. As a result of these research efforts, new experimental facilities have been developed to simulate the space environment and measure the observed property changes. Chemical and microstructural analyses have also been performed to establish damage mechanisms and the limits for accelerated testing. The implications of these results on material selection and system performance are discussed, and additional research needs and opportunities in the area of tougher resin/matrix and metal/matrix composites are identified.

  16. Spacecraft materials research: A NASA perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenny, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews NASA's spacecraft materials research program. This is a multicenter program and includes research in the following areas: space environmental effects on materials, low expansion composites, fatigue and fracture of composites, thermal control coatings, and contamination. Research to date has concentrated on current graphite-reinforced composites and polymer systems, and developing analytical models to explain observed changes in mechanical, physical, and optical properties. As a result of these research efforts, new experimental facilities have been developed to simulate the space environment and measure the observed property changes. Chemical and microstructural analyses have also been performed to establish damage mechanisms and the limits for accelerated testing. The implications of these results on material selection and system performance are discussed, and additional research needs and opportunities in the area of tougher resin/matrix and metal/matrix composites are identified.

  17. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latanision, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    An annual report of the research activities of the Materials Processing Center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is given. Research on dielectrophoresis in the microgravity environment, phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids, transport properties of droplet clusters in gravity-free fields, probes and monitors for the study of solidification of molten semiconductors, fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth, and heat flow control and segregation in directional solidification are discussed.

  18. Materials Research With Neutrons at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, R. L.; Glinka, C. J.; Krueger, S.; Lindstrom, R. A.; Lynn, J. W.; Prask, H. J.; Prince, E.; Rush, J. J.; Rowe, J. M.; Satija, S. K.; Toby, B. H.; Tsai, A.; Udovic, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    The NIST Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory works with industry, standards bodies, universities, and other government laboratories to improve the nation’s measurements and standards infrastructure for materials. An increasingly important component of this effort is carried out at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR), at present the most productive center of its kind in the United States. This article gives a brief historical account of the growth and activities of the Center with examples of its work in major materials research areas and describes the key role the Center can expect to play in future developments. PMID:27500021

  19. Active Neutron Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2009-05-01

    Portable electronic neutron generators (ENGs) may be used to interrogate suspicious items to detect, characterize, and quantify the presence fissionable material based upon the measurement of prompt and/or delayed emissions of neutrons and/or photons resulting from fission. The small size (<0.2 m3), light weight (<12 kg), and low power consumption (<50 W) of modern ENGs makes them ideally suited for use in field situations, incorporated into systems carried by 2-3 individuals under rugged conditions. At Idaho National Laboratory we are investigating techniques and portable equipment for performing active neutron interrogation of moderate sized objects less than ~2-4 m3 to detect shielded fissionable material. Our research in this area relies upon the use of pulsed deuterium-tritium ENGs and the measurement of die-away prompt fission neutrons and other neutron signatures in-between neutron pulses from the ENG and after the ENG is turned off.

  20. Materials research institute annual report FY98

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H

    1999-11-02

    The Materials Research Institute (MRI) is the newest of the University/LLNL Institutes and began operating in March 1997. The MRI is one of five Institutes reporting to the LLNL University Relations Program (URP), all of which have as their primary goal to facilitate university interactions at LLNL. This report covers the period from the opening of the MRI through the end of FY98 (September 30, 1998). The purpose of this report is to emphasize both the science that has been accomplished, as well as the LLNL and university people who were involved. The MRI is concentrating on projects, which highlight and utilize the Laboratory's unique facilities and expertise. Our goal is to enable the best university research to enhance Laboratory programs in the area of cutting-edge materials science. The MRI is focusing on three primary areas of materials research: Biomaterials (organic/inorganic interfaces, biomemetic processes, materials with improved biological response, DNA materials science); Electro/Optical Materials (laser materials and nonlinear optical materials, semiconductor devices, nanostructured materials); and Metals/Organics (equation of state of metals, synthesis of unique materials, high explosives/polymers). In particular we are supporting projects that will enable the MRI to begin to make a distinctive name for itself within the scientific community and will develop techniques applicable to LLNL's core mission. This report is organized along the lines of these three topic areas. A fundamental goal of the MRI is to nucleate discussion and interaction between Lab and university researchers, and among Lab researchers from different LLNL Directorates. This is accomplished through our weekly seminar series, special seminar series such as Biomaterials and Applications of High Pressure Science, conferences and workshops, our extensive visitors program and MRI lunches. We are especially pleased to have housed five graduate students who are performing their thesis

  1. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, Roberto J.

    2001-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI) Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  2. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, roberto J.

    2003-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI), Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  3. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, roberto J.

    2003-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI), Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  4. Recent global trends in structural materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hideyuki; Ohmura, Takahito; Nishimura, Toshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    Structural materials support the basis of global society, such as infrastructure and transportation facilities, and are therefore essential for everyday life. The optimization of such materials allows people to overcome environmental, energy and resource depletion issues on a global scale. The creation and manufacture of structural materials make a large contribution to economies around the world every year. The use of strong, resistant materials can also have profound social effects, providing a better quality of life at both local and national levels. The Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011 caused significant structural damage in the Tohoku and Kanto regions of Japan. On a global scale, accidents caused by the ageing and failure of structural materials occur on a daily basis. Therefore, the provision and inspection of structural reliability, safety of nuclear power facilities and construction of a secure and safe society hold primary importance for researchers and engineers across the world. Clearly, structural materials need to evolve further to address both existing problems and prepare for new challenges that may be faced in the future. With this in mind, the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) organized the 'NIMS Conference 2012' to host an extensive discussion on a variety of global issues related to the future development of structural materials. Ranging from reconstruction following natural disasters, verification of structural reliability, energy-saving materials to fundamental problems accompanying the development of materials for high safety standards, the conference covered many key issues in the materials industry today. All the above topics are reflected in this focus issue of STAM, which introduces recent global trends in structural materials research with contributions from world-leading researchers in this field. This issue covers the development of novel alloys, current methodologies in the characterization of structural

  5. Chemistry and materials science research report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-31

    The research reported here in summary form was conducted under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (WSR) and Institutional Research and Development (IR D). The period covered is the first half of FY90. The results reported here are for work in progress; thus, they may be preliminary, fragmentary, or incomplete. Research in the following areas are briefly described: energetic materials, tritium, high-Tc superconductors, interfaces, adhesion, bonding, fundamental aspects of metal processing, plutonium, synchrotron-radiation-based materials science, photocatalysis on doped aerogels, laser-induced chemistry, laser-produced molecular plasmas, chemistry of defects, dta equipment development, electronic structure study of the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Al-Li Alloys, and the structure-property link in sub-nanometer materials.

  6. Novel Materials and Devices for Solid-State Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Pfeifer, Kent B.

    2015-11-01

    There is a need in many fields, such as nuclear medicine, non-proliferation, energy exploration, national security, homeland security, nuclear energy, etc, for miniature, thermal neutron detectors. Until recently, thermal neutron detection has required physically large devices to provide sufficient neutron interaction and transduction signal. Miniaturization would allow broader use in the fields just mentioned and open up other applications potentially. Recent research shows promise in creating smaller neutron detectors through the combination of high-neutron-cross-section converter materials and solid-state devices. Yet, till recently it is difficult to measure low neutron fluxes by solidstate means given the need for optimized converter materials (purity, chemical composition and thickness) and a lack of designs capable of efficient transduction of the neutron conversion products (x-rays, electrons, gamma rays). Gadolinium-based semiconductor heterojunctions have detected electrons produced by Gd-neutron reactions but only at high neutron fluxes. One of the main limitations to this type of approach is the use of thin converter layers and the inability to utilize all the conversion products. In this LDRD we have optimized the converter material thickness and chemical composition to improve capture of conversion electrons and have detected thermal neutrons with high fidelity at low flux. We are also examining different semiconductor materials and converter materials to attempt to capture a greater percentage of the conversion electrons, both low and higher energy varieties. We have studied detector size and bias scaling, and cross-sensitivity to xrays and shown that we can detect low fluxes of thermal neutrons in less than 30 minutes with high selectivity by our approach. We are currently studying improvements in performance with direct placement of the Gd converter on the detector. The advancement of sensitive, miniature neutron detectors will have benefits in

  7. Method for detecting radiation dose utilizing thermoluminescent material

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Eichner, Fred N.; Durham, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The amount of ionizing radiation to which a thermoluminescent material has been exposed is determined by first cooling the thermoluminescent material and then optically stimulating the thermoluminescent material by exposure to light. Visible light emitted by the thermoluminescent material as it is allowed to warm up to room temperature is detected and counted. The thermoluminescent material may be annealed by exposure to ultraviolet light.

  8. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  9. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. A larger image is available without labels (No. 0101755).

  10. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  11. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830).

  12. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  13. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  14. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Here the transparent furnace is extracted for servicing. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  15. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101830, and TBD).

  16. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, and TBD). This composite is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  17. Material and Virtual Workspaces in Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickman, Chad; Haas, Christina; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2009-03-01

    A growing body of research has examined the potential for computer-based tools to improve the quality and scope of physics education. Yet, few studies have investigated how experienced scientists deploy those tools in the conduct and communication of their work. Based on a study of text production in liquid crystal physics, I will discuss how specific applications, like LabVIEW, mediate the practice of experimental research. Findings suggest that experimentation involves a complex negotiation of material and virtual constraints and that, as a result, a concept of scientific literacy must account for the processes through which scientists visualize, display, and characterize their objects of study symbolically and textually. This approach, in examining the relationship between the material and virtual in a modern scientific workplace, ultimately offers insight into education that prepares students to undertake and communicate research in dynamic, multimedia laboratory environments.

  18. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton; Grugel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The NASA microgravity materials program is dedicated to conducting microgravity experiments and related modeling efforts that will help us understand the processes associated with the formation of materials. This knowledge will help improve ground based industrial production of such materials. The currently funded investigations include research on the distribution of dopants and formation of defects in semiconductors, transitions between columnar and dendritic grain morphology, coarsening of phase boundaries, competition between thermally and kinetically favored phases, and the formation of glassy vs. crystalline material. NASA microgravity materials science investigators are selected for funding either through a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement or by participation in a team proposing to a foreign agency research announcement. In the latter case, a US investigator participating in a successful proposal to a foreign agency can then apply to NASA for funding of an unsolicited proposal. The program relies on cooperation with other aerospace partners from around the world. The ISS facilities used for these investigations are provided primarily by partnering with foreign agencies and in most cases the US investigators are working as a part of a larger team studying a specific area of materials science. The following facilities are to be utilized for the initial investigations. The ESA provided Low Gradient Facility and the Solidification and Quench Inserts to the Materials Research Rack/Materials Science Laboratory are to be used primarily for creating bulk samples that are directionally solidified or quenched from a high temperature melt. The CNES provided DECLIC facility is used to observe morphological development in transparent materials. The ESA provided Electro-Magnetic Levitator (EML) is designed to levitate, melt and then cool samples in order to study nucleation behavior. The facility provides conditions in which nucleation of the solid is

  19. Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification

    SciTech Connect

    John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

    2012-11-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

  20. Neutron scattering for materials science. Materials Research Society proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.M. ); Moss, S.C. ); Jorgensen, J.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Neutron Scattering is by now a well-established technique which has been used by condensed matter scientists to probe both the structure and the dynamical interactions in solids and liquids. The use of neutron scattering methods in materials science research has in turn increased dramatically in recent years. The symposium presented in this book was assembled to bring together scientists with a wide range of interest, including high-T{sub c} superconducting materials, phase transformations, neutron depth profiling, structure and dynamics of glasses and liquids, surfaces and interfaces, porous media, intercalation compounds and lower dimensional systems, structure and dynamics of polymers, residual stress analysis, ordering and phase separation in alloys, and magnetism in alloys and multilayers. The symposium included talks covering the latest advances in broad areas of interest such as Rietveld structure refinement, triple axis spectrometry, quasi elastic scattering and diffusion, small angle scattering and surface scattering.

  1. Space Research Results Purify Semiconductor Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    While President Obama's news that NASA would encourage private companies to develop vehicles to take NASA into space may have come as a surprise to some, NASA has always encouraged private companies to invest in space. More than two decades ago, NASA established Commercial Space Centers across the United States to encourage industry to use space as a place to conduct research and to apply NASA technology to Earth applications. Although the centers are no longer funded by NASA, the advances enabled by that previous funding are still impacting us all today. For example, the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center (SVEC) at the University of Houston, one of the 17 Commercial Space Centers, had a mission to create advanced thin film semiconductor materials and devices through the use of vacuum growth technologies both on Earth and in space. Making thin film materials in a vacuum (low-pressure environment) is advantageous over making them in normal atmospheric pressures, because contamination floating in the air is lessened in a vacuum. To grow semiconductor crystals, researchers at SVEC utilized epitaxy the process of depositing a thin layer of material on top of another thin layer of material. On Earth, this process took place in a vacuum chamber in a clean room lab. For space, the researchers developed something called the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), a 12-foot-diameter disk-shaped platform designed to grow thin film materials using the low-pressure environment in the wake of the space shuttle. Behind an orbiting space shuttle, the vacuum levels are thousands of times better than in the best vacuum chambers on Earth. Throughout the 1990s, the WSF flew on three space shuttle missions as a series of proof-of-concept missions. These experiments are a lasting testament to the success of the shuttle program and resulted in the development of the first thin film materials made in the vacuum of space, helping to pave the way for better thin film development on Earth.

  2. Microgravity Materials Research and Code U ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Sibille, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    The NASA microgravity research program, simply put, has the goal of doing science (which is essentially finding out something previously unknown about nature) utilizing the unique long-term microgravity environment in Earth orbit. Since 1997 Code U has in addition funded scientific basic research that enables safe and economical capabilities to enable humans to live, work and do science beyond Earth orbit. This research has been integrated with the larger NASA missions (Code M and S). These new exploration research focus areas include Radiation Shielding Materials, Macromolecular Research on Bone and Muscle Loss, In Space Fabrication and Repair, and Low Gravity ISRU. The latter two focus on enabling materials processing in space for use in space. The goal of this program is to provide scientific and technical research resulting in proof-of-concept experiments feeding into the larger NASA program to provide humans in space with an energy rich, resource rich, self sustaining infrastructure at the earliest possible time and with minimum risk, launch mass and program cost. President Bush's Exploration Vision (1/14/04) gives a new urgency for the development of ISRU concepts into the exploration architecture. This will require an accelerated One NASA approach utilizing NASA's partners in academia, and industry.

  3. NASA Materials Research for Extreme Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, R. J.; Wright, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum briefly covers various innovations in materials science and development throughout the course of the American Space program. It details each innovation s discovery and development, explains its significance, and describes the applications of this material either in the time period discovered or today. Topics of research include silazane polymers, solvent-resistant elastomeric polymers (polyurethanes and polyisocyanurates), siloxanes, the Space Shuttle thermal protection system, phenolic-impregnated carbon ablator, and carbon nanotubes. Significance of these developments includes the Space Shuttle, Apollo programs, and the Constellation program.

  4. Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

  5. Method for detecting radiation dose utilizing thermoluminescent material

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.D.; McDonald, J.C.; Eichner, F.N.; Durham, J.S.

    1992-08-04

    The amount of ionizing radiation to which a thermoluminescent material has been exposed is determined by first cooling the thermoluminescent material and then optically stimulating the thermoluminescent material by exposure to light. Visible light emitted by the thermoluminescent material as it is allowed to warm up to room temperature is detected and counted. The thermoluminescent material may be annealed by exposure to ultraviolet light. 5 figs.

  6. Method for detecting radiation dose utilizing thermoluminescent material

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Eichner, Fred N.; Tomeraasen, Paul L.

    1991-01-01

    The amount of ionizing radiation to which a thermoluminescent material has been exposed is determined by first cooling the thermoluminescent material to a cryogenic temperature. The thermoluminescent material is then optically stimulated by exposure to ultraviolet light. Visible light emitted by the thermoluminescent material as it is allowed to warm up to room temperature is detected and counted. The thermoluminescent material may be annealed by exposure to ultraviolet light.

  7. Materials Research Center, University of Pittsburgh

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-29

    Material Research and Design of 160 SUltra-Stable Frequency Ught Emitters IVB.4 Quantum Well Structures for Integrated 168 Optoelectronics IVB.5 Highly...Erbium ions. The nature of this Auger process is presently unknown. I1 I" II 167 I IV.B.4 Quantum Well Structures For Integrated Optoelectronics...development involve GaAs-based hetero- and quantum well structures. Recently, Langer and Chmielowski patented the idea of a novel waveguide coupler

  8. Report of the Materials Research Council (1974)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    M. K. Hubbert, U. S. Geological Survey G. W. Leonard, Naval Weapons Center C. F. Markarian , Naval Weapons Center H. G. Nelson, Ames Research Center...California 94025 C. F. Markarian Naval Weapons Center Rm. 2057, Michelson Lab. China Lake, California 93553 A. B. Meinel Optical...longer wave lengths (3-5 microns) than those now available, should be pursued in a development effort on carbon- deuterium polymers. These materials

  9. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  10. Homodyne Detection Using Photorefractive Materials as Beam Splitters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutsikaris, Leonidas

    longer vary exponentially with distance through the material. Furthermore, it is found that the relative size (Gaussian beam waists) of the two beams incident on the photorefractive crystal may affect the shape of the output beams, depending on the amount of energy coupling. The main implication of this research is the possible use of two wave mixing in photorefractive materials for homodyne detection of amplitude or phase modulated optical signals.

  11. Subthreshold neutron interrogator for detection of radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Michael L.; Menlove, Howard O.; Baker, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    A device for detecting fissionable material such as uranium in low concentrations by interrogating with photoneutrons at energy levels below 500 keV, and typically about 26 keV. Induced fast neutrons having energies above 500 keV by the interrogated fissionable material are detected by a liquid scintillator or recoil proportional counter which is sensitive to the induced fast neutrons. Since the induced fast neutrons are proportional to the concentration of fissionable material, detection of induced fast neutrons indicate concentration of the fissionable material.

  12. Optical detection of cracks in translucent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, E.J.; Meeks, R.F.

    1982-03-30

    The qualitative determination of macroscopic and microscopic cracking in ferroelectric ceramics and other translucent materials is achieved by observing the attenuation of light across internal fracture planes within the material. The study was performed on ferroelectric and ceramic disks up to 0.5 in. thick. The microscopic equipment used was an Olympus Vanox Microscope fitted with a vertical brightfield illuminator, polarizer, rotatable analyzer and a quartz-halogen light source. Macroscopic inspection was made with a typical laboratory quartz-halogen illuminator equipped with a fiber-optic light guide. It is shown that inspection by internal lighting using polarized light is a highly effective means for the nondestructive determination of microscopic and macroscopic cracking in translucent materials.

  13. Nuclear material detection apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, James L.; Hoggan, Jerry M.; Harker, Yale D.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Johnson, Larry O.

    2006-11-28

    A device for detecting photonuclear-induced neutrons is described herein. One embodiment of the device may comprise a neutron detector and a detection circuit. The neutron detector may comprise a detector output. The detection circuit may be operatively connected to the detector output and may comprise an amplifier, a low-pass filter, and a high pass filter. The amplifier may comprise an amplifier input and an amplifier output. The amplifier input may be being operatively connected to the detector output. The low-pass filter may comprise a low-pass filter input and a low-pass filter output. The low-pass filter input may be operatively connected to the amplifier output. The high-pass filter may comprise a high-pass filter input and a high-pass filter output. The high-pass filter input may be operatively connected to the amplifier output.

  14. Weapons and Materials Research Directorate (WMRD) Laboratory Demonstration Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Weapons and Materials Research Directorate (WMRD) Laboratory Demonstration Study by Nora M Eldredge ARL-SR-0311 February 2015...Weapons and Materials Research Directorate (WMRD) Laboratory Demonstration Study Nora M Eldredge Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Weapons and Materials Research Directorate (WMRD) Laboratory Demonstration Study 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  15. Research Concerning Detection of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Maxwell; Cunningham, John; Kuhlmann, Steve; Spinka, Hal; Underwood, Dave; Hammergren, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Throughout my academic career at Loyola I have carried out research with the Loyola University Cosmic Event Detection System concerning the possibility of detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) based on radio meteor scattering methods. This research was furthered through summer internships and research fellowships at Adler Planetarium Chicago and Stony Brook University in New York. At Adler Planetarium we used a helium balloon carrying a Geiger counter and other equipment to record the cosmic ray flux at various points in the atmosphere. The results clearly show the flux depends on the atmospheric density. At Stony Brook University I studied their advanced system for detecting cosmic rays in similar manner to radio meteor scattering principles. Research there focused on detection algorithms and also on the possibility of utilizing Digital Tv (DTv) signals for further research. Through the research a solid understanding of cosmic rays was formed including topics such as origins and energy scales of cosmic rays, both of which pose unanswered questions. )

  16. Sensor Detects Overheating Of Perishable Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dordick, Jonathan S.; Klibanov, Alexander

    1990-01-01

    Experimental temperature sensor changes color rapidly and irreversibly when temperature rises above pre-determined level. Based on reactions of enzymes in paraffins, blended so mixture melts at temperature considered maximum safe value. Similar devices used to detect temperature abuse, whether foods or medicines refrigerated exposed to excessive temperatures during shipment and storage. By viewing sensor, receiving clerk tells immediately whether product maintained at safe temperatures and acceptable.

  17. Sensor Detects Overheating Of Perishable Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dordick, Jonathan S.; Klibanov, Alexander

    1990-01-01

    Experimental temperature sensor changes color rapidly and irreversibly when temperature rises above pre-determined level. Based on reactions of enzymes in paraffins, blended so mixture melts at temperature considered maximum safe value. Similar devices used to detect temperature abuse, whether foods or medicines refrigerated exposed to excessive temperatures during shipment and storage. By viewing sensor, receiving clerk tells immediately whether product maintained at safe temperatures and acceptable.

  18. Research on high energy density capacitor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma thruster is the simplest of all electric propulsion devices. It is a pulsed device which stores energy in capacitors for each pulse. The lifetimes and energy densities of these capacitors are critical parameters to the continued use of these thrusters. This report presents the result of a research effort conducted by JPL into the materials used in capacitors and the modes of failure. The dominant failure mechanism was determined to be material breakdown precipitated by heat build-up within the capacitors. The presence of unwanted gas was identified as the source of the heat. An aging phenomena was discovered in polycarbonate based capacitors. CO build-up was noted to increase with the number of times the capacitor had been discharged. Improved quality control was cited as being essential for the improvement of capacitor lifetimes.

  19. Research on high energy density capacitor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma thruster is the simplest of all electric propulsion devices. It is a pulsed device which stores energy in capacitors for each pulse. The lifetimes and energy densities of these capacitors are critical parameters to the continued use of these thrusters. This report presents the result of a research effort conducted by JPL into the materials used in capacitors and the modes of failure. The dominant failure mechanism was determined to be material breakdown precipitated by heat build-up within the capacitors. The presence of unwanted gas was identified as the source of the heat. An aging phenomena was discovered in polycarbonate based capacitors. CO build-up was noted to increase with the number of times the capacitor had been discharged. Improved quality control was cited as being essential for the improvement of capacitor lifetimes.

  20. Detection of carbonaceous material in naga bhasma.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Rai, S B

    2012-03-01

    Traditional medicines have maintained their popularity in all regions of the developing world and are being adopted increasingly by people worldwide. Indian traditional system of medicine Ayurveda make use of unique metallic-herbal preparations (called Bhasma) which involves different processing steps including repeated steps of calcination of metal in the presence of natural precursor (herbal juices, decoctions, and powders, etc). It has been recently established that Bhasma contains nano/sub-micron size particles and different nutrient elements. However, the role and the end product of the raw materials, especially the herbal parts, used during the synthesis of the drug (Bhasma) is one of the important but unanswered problems in such medicinal preparations. Present work on Naga Bhasma is an attempt to understand the role of natural precursors in detail. Our results on infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy along with thermal measurements identify the presence of carbonaceous material (hydrogenated amorphous carbon) in the drug along with other compounds. In addition, this work also suggests the science and mechanism behind such complex preparations which could help in standardization of such medicines.

  1. Detection of Carbonaceous Material in Naga Bhasma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S. K.; Rai, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional medicines have maintained their popularity in all regions of the developing world and are being adopted increasingly by people worldwide. Indian traditional system of medicine Ayurveda make use of unique metallic-herbal preparations (called Bhasma) which involves different processing steps including repeated steps of calcination of metal in the presence of natural precursor (herbal juices, decoctions, and powders, etc). It has been recently established that Bhasma contains nano/sub-micron size particles and different nutrient elements. However, the role and the end product of the raw materials, especially the herbal parts, used during the synthesis of the drug (Bhasma) is one of the important but unanswered problems in such medicinal preparations. Present work on Naga Bhasma is an attempt to understand the role of natural precursors in detail. Our results on infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy along with thermal measurements identify the presence of carbonaceous material (hydrogenated amorphous carbon) in the drug along with other compounds. In addition, this work also suggests the science and mechanism behind such complex preparations which could help in standardization of such medicines. PMID:23326003

  2. Organic materials able to detect analytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Aimee (Inventor); Swager, Timothy M. (Inventor); Zhu, Zhengguo (Inventor); Bulovic, Vladimir (Inventor); Madigan, Conor Francis (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to polymers with lasing characteristics that allow the polymers to be useful in detecting analytes. In one aspect, the polymer, upon an interaction with an analyte, may exhibit a change in a lasing characteristic that can be determined in some fashion. For example, interaction of an analyte with the polymer may affect the ability of the polymer to reach an excited state that allows stimulated emission of photons to occur, which may be determined, thereby determining the analyte. In another aspect, the polymer, upon interaction with an analyte, may exhibit a change in stimulated emission that is at least 10 times greater with respect to a change in the spontaneous emission of the polymer upon interaction with the analyte. The polymer may be a conjugated polymer in some cases. In one set of embodiments, the polymer includes one or more hydrocarbon side chains, which may be parallel to the polymer backbone in some instances. In another set of embodiments, the polymer may include one or more pendant aromatic rings. In yet another set of embodiments, the polymer may be substantially encapsulated in a hydrocarbon. In still another set of embodiments, the polymer may be substantially resistant to photobleaching. In certain aspects, the polymer may be useful in the detection of explosive agents, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT).

  3. Materials dispersion and biodynamics project research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1992-01-01

    The Materials Dispersion and Biodynamics Project (MDBP) focuses on dispersion and mixing of various biological materials and the dynamics of cell-to-cell communication and intracellular molecular trafficking in microgravity. Research activities encompass biomedical applications, basic cell biology, biotechnology (products from cells), protein crystal development, ecological life support systems (involving algae and bacteria), drug delivery (microencapsulation), biofilm deposition by living organisms, and hardware development to support living cells on Space Station Freedom (SSF). Project goals are to expand the existing microgravity science database through experiments on sounding rockets, the Shuttle, and COMET program orbiters and to evolve,through current database acquisition and feasibility testing, to more mature and larger-scale commercial operations on SSF. Maximized utilization of SSF for these science applications will mean that service companies will have a role in providing equipment for use by a number of different customers. An example of a potential forerunner of such a service for SSF is the Materials Dispersion Apparatus (MDA) 'mini lab' of Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc. (ITA) in use on the Shuttle for the Commercial MDAITA Experiments (CMIX) Project. The MDA wells provide the capability for a number of investigators to perform mixing and bioprocessing experiments in space. In the area of human adaptation to microgravity, a significant database has been obtained over the past three decades. Some low-g effects are similar to Earth-based disorders (anemia, osteoporosis, neuromuscular diseases, and immune system disorders). As new information targets potential profit-making processes, services and products from microgravity, commercial space ventures are expected to expand accordingly. Cooperative CCDS research in the above mentioned areas is essential for maturing SSF biotechnology and to ensure U.S. leadership in space technology

  4. Covariance Spectroscopy for Fissile Material Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rusty Trainham, Jim Tinsley, Paul Hurley, Ray Keegan

    2009-06-02

    Nuclear fission produces multiple prompt neutrons and gammas at each fission event. The resulting daughter nuclei continue to emit delayed radiation as neutrons boil off, beta decay occurs, etc. All of the radiations are causally connected, and therefore correlated. The correlations are generally positive, but when different decay channels compete, so that some radiations tend to exclude others, negative correlations could also be observed. A similar problem of reduced complexity is that of cascades radiation, whereby a simple radioactive decay produces two or more correlated gamma rays at each decay. Covariance is the usual means for measuring correlation, and techniques of covariance mapping may be useful to produce distinct signatures of special nuclear materials (SNM). A covariance measurement can also be used to filter data streams because uncorrelated signals are largely rejected. The technique is generally more effective than a coincidence measurement. In this poster, we concentrate on cascades and the covariance filtering problem.

  5. Material degradation detection by magnetic method

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, A.; Maeda, N.; Sugibayashi, T.

    1995-08-01

    To be able to evaluate the life of nuclear power plant becomes inevitable as the plant operating period extends. So, magnetic methods using Barkhausen noise (BHN) and B-H curve were applied to detect the degradation by fatigue and thermal aging. Low alloy steel (SA 508 cl.2) was fatigued, and duplex stainless steel (SCS 14A) was aged at 400 C. For the degradation by thermal aging, BHN and B-H curve were measured and good correlations between magnetic properties and aging time were obtained. For fatigue, BHN was measured at predetermined loading cycles and, at each predetermined cycle, the effect of stress or strain condition in the measurement was evaluated. The results showed that BHN was affected by the stress or strain condition in the measurement, the cause of which seemed to be the change of internal stress condition, and by identifying the measuring condition, good correlation between BHN and fatigue damage was obtained.

  6. Long Range, Passive Detection of Fissile Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, L; Ziock, K P

    2005-02-03

    We have recently completed a large-area, coded-aperture, gamma-ray imager for use in searching for radiation sources. The instrument was constructed to verify that weak point sources can be detected at considerable distances if one uses imaging to overcome fluctuations in the natural background. The instrument uses a rank-19, one-dimensional coded aperture to cast shadow patterns onto a 0.57 m{sup 2} NaI(Tl) detector composed of 57 individual cubes each 10 cm on a side. These are arranged in a 19 x 3 array. The mask is composed of four-centimeter thick, one-meter high, 10-cm wide lead blocks. The instrument is mounted in the back of a small truck from which images are obtained as one drives through a region.

  7. 2010 Membranes: Materials & Processes Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Lin

    2010-07-30

    The GRC series on Membranes: Materials and Processes have gained significant international recognition, attracting leading experts on membranes and other related areas from around the world. It is now known for being an interdisciplinary and synergistic meeting. The next summer's edition will keep with the past tradition and include new, exciting aspects of material science, chemistry, chemical engineering, computer simulation with participants from academia, industry and national laboratories. This edition will focus on cutting edge topics of membranes for addressing several grand challenges facing our society, in particular, energy, water, health and more generally sustainability. During the technical program, we want to discuss new membrane structure and characterization techniques, the role of advanced membranes and membrane-based processes in sustainability/environment (including carbon dioxide capture), membranes in water processes, and membranes for biological and life support applications. As usual, the informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the oral presentations and posters, and ample opportunity to meet many outstanding colleagues make this an excellent conference for established scientists as well as for students. A Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on the weekend prior to the GRC meeting will provide young researchers an opportunity to present their work and network with outstanding experts. It will also be a right warm-up for the conference participants to join and enjoy the main conference.

  8. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Bowen, H. K.; Kenney, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The goals and activities of the center are discussed. The center activities encompass all engineering materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, composites, superconductors, and thin films. Processes include crystallization, solidification, nucleation, and polymer synthesis.

  9. Metallic and Ceramic Materials Research. Task Order 0005: Metallic, Materials, Methods, Characterization and Testing Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2016-0013 METALLIC AND CERAMIC MATERIALS RESEARCH Task Order 0005: Metallic, Materials, Methods , Characterization and...FORCE BASE , OH 45433-7750 AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings...specifications, or other data included in this document for any purpose other than Government procurement does not in any way obligate the U.S. Government. The

  10. Combined research effort on aggregate road materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Hoff, Inge; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Wigum, Børge Johannes; Fladvad, Marit; Rieksts, Karlis; Loranger, Benoit; Barbieri, Diego

    2017-04-01

    In European countries, the average aggregate consumption per capita is 5 tons per year (European Aggregates Association 2016), while the corresponding number in Norway is 11 tons (Neeb 2015). Due to the increased demand for sand and gravel for construction purposes, e.g. in road construction, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards the use of crushed rock aggregates. Neeb (2015) reports that half of the Norwegian aggregate production (sand, gravel and crushed rock) is used for road construction, and 33 % of the overall sold tonnage of crushed rock is exported. This resource has been more and more preferred over sand and gravel due to the significant technological development of its process and utilization phase. In Norway, the development and implementation of crushed aggregate technology has been the main approach to solve natural resource scarcity (Danielsen and Kuznetsova 2015). In order to reduce aggregates transportation, it is aimed to use local aggregates and aggregates processed from rock excavations, tunneling, road cuts, etc. One issue focused in this research is the influence from blasting and processing on the final quality of the crushed aggregates, specifically relating to the properties for road construction purposes. It is therefor crucial to plan utilization of available materials for use in different road layers following the same production line. New developments and improved availability of mobile crushing and screening equipment could produce more sustainable and profitable sources of good quality aggregate materials from small volume deposits in proximity to construction sites. One of the biggest challenges today to use these materials is that the pavement design manual sets rigid requirements for pavement layers. Four research projects are being conducted in Norway to improve the use of local materials for road construction. Four aspects are to be covered by the research: a) geological characteristics of the materials, their b

  11. Radioactive Material Used In Research | RadTown USA | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-12-09

    Some laboratories use radioactive material to assist their research. Radioactive materials are used in research settings to help researchers create and test new medicines, technologies and procedures for plants, animals and people. Research laboratories must follow strict rules to order, store, use and dispose of radioactive material.

  12. Terahertz detection using mechanical resonators based on 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassel, Juha; Oksanen, Mika; Elo, Teemu; Seppä, Heikki; Hakonen, Pertti J.

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated a THz detection scheme based on mixing of electrical signals in a voltage-dependent capacitance made out of suspended graphene. We have analyzed both coherent and incoherent detection regimes and compared their performance with the state of the art. Using a high-amplitude local oscillator, we anticipate potential for quantum limited detection in the coherent mode. The sensitivity stems from the extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties of atomically thin graphene or graphene-related 2D materials.

  13. Apparatus and method for detecting flaws in conductive material

    SciTech Connect

    Hockey, Ronald L.; Riechers, Douglas M.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an improved sensing unit for detecting flaws in conductive material wherein the sensing coil is positioned away from a datum of either the datum point, the datum orientation, or a combination thereof. Position of the sensing coil away from a datum increases sensitivity for detecting flaws having a characteristic volume less than about 1 mm.sup.3, and further permits detection of subsurface flaws. Use of multiple sensing coils permits quantification of flaw area or volume.

  14. Apparatus and method for detecting flaws in conductive material

    SciTech Connect

    Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.

    1999-11-16

    The present invention is an improved sensing unit for detecting flaws in conductive material wherein the sensing coil is positioned away from a datum of either the datum point, the datum orientation, or a combination thereof. Position of the sensing coil away from a datum increases sensitivity for detecting flaws having a characteristic volume less than about 1 mm{sup 3}, and further permits detection of subsurface flaws. Use of multiple sensing coils permits quantification of flaw area or volume.

  15. Indentation Methods in Advanced Materials Research Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, George Mathews; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Hutchings, Ian; Sakai, Mototsugu; Moody, Neville; Sundararajan, G.; Swain, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Since its commercialization early in the 20th century, indentation testing has played a key role in the development of new materials and understanding their mechanical behavior. Progr3ess in the field has relied on a close marriage between research in the mechanical behavior of materials and contact mechanics. The seminal work of Hertz laid the foundations for bringing these two together, with his contributions still widely utilized today in examining elastic behavior and the physics of fracture. Later, the pioneering work of Tabor, as published in his classic text 'The Hardness of Metals', exapdned this understanding to address the complexities of plasticity. Enormous progress in the field has been achieved in the last decade, made possible both by advances in instrumentation, for example, load and depth-sensing indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based in situ testing, as well as improved modeling capabilities that use computationally intensive techniques such as finite element analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. The purpose of this special focus issue is to present recent state of the art developments in the field.

  16. Detection of fissionable materials in cargoes using monochromatic photon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danagoulian, Areg; Lanza, Richard; O'Day, Buckley; LNSP Team

    2015-04-01

    The detection of Special Nuclear Materials (e.g. Pu and U) and nuclear devices in the commercial cargo traffic is one of the challenges posed by the threat of nuclear terrorism. Radiography and active interrogation of heavily loaded cargoes require ~ 1 - 10MeV photons for penetration. In a proof-of-concept system under development at MIT, the interrogating monochromatic photon beam is produced via a 11B(d , nγ) 12C reaction. To achieve this, a boron target is used along with the 3 MeV d+ RFQ accelerator at MIT-Bates. The reactions results in the emission of very narrow 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV gammas lines. The photons, after traversing the cargo, are detected by an array of NaI(Tl) detectors. A spectral analysis of the transmitted gammas allows to independently determine the areal density and the atomic number (Z) of the cargo. The proposed approach could revolutionize cargo inspection, which, in its current fielded form has to rely on simple but high dose bremsstrahlung sources. Use of monochromatic sources would significantly reduce the necessary dose and allow for better determination of the cargo's atomic number. The general methodology will be described and the preliminary results from the proof-of-concept system will be presented and discussed. Supported by NSF/DNDO Collaborative Research ARI-LA Award ECCS-1348328.

  17. Organic materials and devices for detecting ionizing radiation

    DOEpatents

    Doty, F. Patrick; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2007-03-06

    A .pi.-conjugated organic material for detecting ionizing radiation, and particularly for detecting low energy fission neutrons. The .pi.-conjugated materials comprise a class of organic materials whose members are intrinsic semiconducting materials. Included in this class are .pi.-conjugated polymers, polyaromatic hydrocarbon molecules, and quinolates. Because of their high resistivities (.gtoreq.10.sup.9 ohmcm), these .pi.-conjugated organic materials exhibit very low leakage currents. A device for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation can be made by applying an electric field to a layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material to measure electron/hole pair formation. A layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material can be made by conventional polymer fabrication methods and can be cast into sheets capable of covering large areas. These sheets of polymer radiation detector material can be deposited between flexible electrodes and rolled up to form a radiation detector occupying a small volume but having a large surface area. The semiconducting polymer material can be easily fabricated in layers about 10 .mu.m to 100 .mu.m thick. These thin polymer layers and their associated electrodes can be stacked to form unique multi-layer detector arrangements that occupy small volume.

  18. Functional ceramic materials database: an online resource for materials research.

    PubMed

    Scott, D J; Manos, S; Coveney, P V; Rossiny, J C H; Fearn, S; Kilner, J A; Pullar, R C; Alford, N Mc N; Axelsson, A-K; Zhang, Y; Chen, L; Yang, S; Evans, J R G; Sebastian, M T

    2008-02-01

    We present work on the creation of a ceramic materials database which contains data gleaned from literature data sets as well as new data obtained from combinatorial experiments on the London University Search Instrument. At the time of this writing, the database contains data related to two main groups of materials, mainly in the perovskite family. Permittivity measurements of electroceramic materials are the first area of interest, while ion diffusion measurements of oxygen ion conductors are the second. The nature of the database design does not restrict the type of measurements which can be stored; as the available data increase, the database may become a generic, publicly available ceramic materials resource.

  19. Noncontacting thermoelectric detection of material imperfections in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Peter B. Nagy; Adnan H. Nayfeh; Waseem I. Faidi; Hector Carreon; Balachander Lakshminaraya; Feng Yu; Bassam Abu-Nabah

    2005-06-17

    This project was aimed at developing a new noncontacting thermoelectric method for nondestructive detection of material imperfections in metals. The method is based on magnetic sensing of local thermoelectric currents around imperfections when a temperature gradient is established throughout a conducting specimen by external heating and cooling. The surrounding intact material serves as the reference electrode therefore the detection sensitivity could be very high if a sufficiently sensitive magnetometer is used in the measurements. This self-referencing, noncontacting, nondestructive inspection technique offers the following distinct advantages over conventional methods: high sensitivity to subtle variations in material properties, unique insensitivity to the size, shape, and other geometrical features of the specimen, noncontacting nature with a substantial stand-off distance, and the ability to probe relatively deep into the material. The potential applications of this method cover a very wide range from detection metallic inclusions and segregations, inhomogeneities, and tight cracks to characterization of hardening, embrittlement, fatigue, texture, and residual stresses.

  20. Detection of Shielded Nuclear Material in a Cargo Container

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Jones; D. R. Norman; K. J. Haskell; J. W. Sterbentz; W. Y. Yoon; S. M. Watson; J. T. Johnson; J. M. Zabriskie; B. D. Bennett; R. W. Watson; J. F. Hamon

    2005-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University’s Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., "calibration" pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved

  1. Process Diagnostics: Materials, Combustion Fusion. Volume 117. Materials Research Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    reference volume for professionals working in the area of materials process control as well as a graduate level textbook for a course in applied ... spectroscopy or process engineering that might be given as part of a chemistry, physics, chemical or materials engineering curriculum.

  2. Photoacoustic image reconstruction: material detection and acoustical heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeder, S.; Kronbichler, M.; Wall, W. A.

    2017-05-01

    The correct consideration of acoustical heterogeneities in the context of photoacoustic image reconstruction is an open topic. In this publication a physically motivated algorithm is proposed that reconstructs the optical absorption and diffusion coefficients using a gradient-based scheme. The simultaneous reconstruction of both material properties allows for a subsequent material identification and an accordant update of the acoustical material properties. The algorithm is general in terms of illumination scenarios, detection geometries and applications. No prior knowledge on material distributions needs to be provided, only expected materials have to be specified. Numerical experiments are performed to gain insight into the complex inverse problem and to validate the proposed method. Results show that acoustical heterogeneities are correctly detected improving the optical images.

  3. Automatic detection of high-Z materials in cargo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perticone, David; Eilbert, Richard; Gillett, Nick; McNabb, Ronald S., Jr.; Ozcandarli, Altan; Stillson, Jeffrey

    2010-08-01

    The United States Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Cargo Advanced Automatic Radiography System (CAARS) was an advanced technology demonstration to detect high-Z materials (Z, the atomic number, >= 72) in full sized cargo systems such as a 74 foot length tractor-trailer. The L-3 CAARS was one of two CAARS prototypes developed and tested under the program. The L-3 system utilized MeV range dual-energy photons to determine Z and a sophisticated image processing based detection algorithm to accomplish the detection. This paper describes the L-3 CAARS hardware, the physics approach to measuring Z, and presents some results from the system.

  4. Solid oxide materials research accelerated electrochemical testing

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.; Arey, B.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop methods for accelerated testing of cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells under selected operating conditions. The methods would be used to evaluate the performance of LSM cathode material.

  5. RESEARCH ON RELAXATION PROCESSES IN MAGNETIC MATERIALS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES, FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS, FERRITES , EUROPIUM COMPOUNDS, GALLIUM COMPOUNDS, OXIDES, DYSPROSIUM, HOLMIUM...GARNET), (* MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, YTTRIUM, CRYSTALS, IRON COMPOUNDS, POROSITY, THEORY, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, SINGLE CRYSTALS, MAGNETIC MATERIALS

  6. Ion beam deposition in materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhr, R. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Noggle, T. S.; Herbots, N.; Haynes, T. E.; Appleton, B. R.

    1989-02-01

    Ion beam deposition (IBD) is the direct formation of thin films using a low-energy (tens of eV) mass-analyzed ion beam. The process allows depositions in which the energy, isotopic species, deposition rate, defect production, and many other beam and sample parameters can be accurately controlled. This paper will review recent research at ORNL on the IBD process and the effects of deposition parameters on the materials properties of deposited thin films, epitaxial layers, and isotopic heterostructures. A variety of techniques including ion scattering/channeling, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy has been used for analysis. The fabrication of isotopic heterostructures of 74Ge and 30Si will be discussed, as well as the fabrication of metal and semiconductor overlayers on Si and Ge. The use of IBD for low-temperature epitaxy of 30Si on Si and 76Ge on Ge will be presented. The use of self-ion sputter cleaning and in situ reactive ion cleaning as methods for preparing single-crystal substrates for epitaxial deposition will be discussed. Examples of IBD formation of oxides and suicides on Si at low temperatures will also be presented.

  7. Heat induced damage detection in composite materials by terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzieński, Maciej; Mieloszyk, Magdalena; Rahani, Ehsan Kabiri; Kundu, Tribikram; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2015-03-01

    In recent years electromagnetic Terahertz (THz) radiation or T-ray has been increasingly used for nondestructive evaluation of various materials such as polymer composites and porous foam tiles in which ultrasonic waves cannot penetrate but T-ray can. Most of these investigations have been limited to mechanical damage detection like inclusions, cracks, delaminations etc. So far only a few investigations have been reported on heat induced damage detection. Unlike mechanical damage the heat induced damage does not have a clear interface between the damaged part and the surrounding intact material from which electromagnetic waves can be reflected back. Difficulties associated with the heat induced damage detection in composite materials using T-ray are discussed in detail in this paper. T-ray measurements are compared for different levels of heat exposure of composite specimens.

  8. Low energy impact detection on carbon fiber reinforced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gros, X.E.

    1995-03-01

    Impact damages, even of small magnitude, affect the mechanical properties of a composite material by reducing its structural integrity. Low energy impacts are not always visible to the naked eye, and they need to be accurately localized for safety and quality reasons. The results of low energy impact detection (0.5--6.0 J) on carbon fiber reinforced materials, carried out with four different NDT techniques--visual, infrared, X-rays, and eddy current--are presented in this paper. Probability of detection (POD) curves are plotted to compare the potential of each technique in regards to carbon fiber reinforced materials. Inspection results have shown that eddy currents are well suited to detect and quantify low energy impacts in carbon fiber composites.

  9. Proceedings of the symposium on Nuclear Radiation Detection Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, D.L.; Burger, A.; Franks, L.; Schieber, M.

    2008-07-01

    This symposium provides a venue for the presentation of the latest results and discussion of radiation detection materials from both experimental and theoretical standpoints. As advances are made in this area of materials, additional experimental and theoretical approaches are used to both guide the growth of materials and to characterize the materials that have a wide array of applications for detecting different types of radiation. The types of detector materials for semiconductors and scintillators include a variety of molecular compounds such as lanthanum halides (LaX{sub 3}), zinc oxide (ZnO), lead iodide (PbI{sub 2}), cadmium telluride (CdTe), mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}), thallium bromide (TlBr), as well as others, such as cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). An additional class of scintillators includes those based on organic compounds and glasses. Ideally, desired materials used for radiation detection have attributes such as appropriate-range band-gaps, high atomic numbers of the central element, high densities, performance at room temperature, and strong mechanical properties, and are low cost in terms of their production. There are significant gaps in the knowledge related to these materials that are very important in making radiation detector materials that are higher quality in terms of their reproducible purity, homogeneity, and mechanical integrity. The topics that are the focal point of this symposium address these issues so that much better detectors may be made in the future. Topics cover the following areas: - Material growth: on-going developments regarding cadmium telluride (CdTe), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}), cadmium manganese telluride (CMT), LaX{sub 3}, and all other detector materials; new materials with potential for radiation detection (II-VI, III-VI, III-VII compounds, neutron detectors, nano-materials, and ceramic scintillators); purification techniques; and growth methods; - Characterization: experimental

  10. Surface crack detection in different materials with inductive thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald-Tranta, Beata

    2017-05-01

    Inductive thermography has been proved to be an excellent method for detecting surface cracks in metallic materials. The Joule heating is generated directly in the workpiece due to the induced eddy current and its penetration depth is determined by material properties and by the excitation frequency. Whether an additional temperature increase or a colder area around the crack occurs, is determined by the ratio of the crack depth to the penetration depth. It is investigated how material parameters, excitation frequency, crack depth and its inclination angle affect the temperature distribution around a crack after a short heating pulse. With finite element simulations material independent results are calculated showing in which frequency and temporal range crack detection is possible. These results are analyzed more closely for four selected metals: ferro-magnetic and non-magnetic steel, aluminum and titanium.

  11. Nuclear materials detection using high-energy γ-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklich, Bradley J.; Smith, Donald L.

    2005-12-01

    The FIGARO technique uses 6-7 MeV γ-rays produced in the 19F(p, αγ)16O reaction to detect materials used in nuclear weapons or associated with their production. These γ-rays induce neutron emission via the photoneutron and photofission processes in nuclear materials. Previous experiments have shown that FIGARO gives responses specific to nuclear materials with little or no response to common benign materials. The technique is also resistant to both photon and neutron shielding countermeasures. We present preliminary results from modeling studies of neutron detection rates with simulated air cargo and intermodal shipping containers. A general methodology to compare operating performance based on receiver-operator-characteristic curves is also discussed.

  12. Miscellaneous radioactive materials detected during uranium mill tailings surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management directed the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pollutant Assessments Group in the conduct of radiological surveys on properties in Monticello, Utah, associated with the Mendaciously millsite National Priority List site. During these surveys, various radioactive materials were detected that were unrelated to the Monticello millsite. The existence and descriptions of these materials were recorded in survey reports and are condensed in this report. The radioactive materials detected are either naturally occurring radioactive material, such as rock and mineral collections, uranium ore, and radioactive coal or manmade radioactive material consisting of tailings from other millsites, mining equipment, radium dials, mill building scraps, building materials, such as brick and cinderblock, and other miscellaneous sources. Awareness of the miscellaneous and naturally occurring material is essential to allow DOE to forecast the additional costs and schedule changes associated with remediation activities. Also, material that may pose a health hazard to the public should be revealed to other regulatory agencies for consideration.

  13. Numerical study of thermoacoustic detection of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yan; Hu, Hanping

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, to study the applicability of thermoacoustic detection of composite materials, the distribution of thermoacoustic waves was numerically calculated when there was a nickel domain inside the silicon domain by applying a sinusoidally varying heat source on the surface of solid silicon domain. By changing the width, thickness and position of the internal nickel domain, the applicable conditions of detecting whether there is another material inside the silicon domain by the distribution of the thermoacoustic waves were studied. In addition, a method of judging the width of the inner nickel domain was given. And the corresponding error was studied.

  14. Functionalized apertures for the detection of chemical and biological materials

    DOEpatents

    Letant, Sonia E.; van Buuren, Anthony W.; Terminello, Louis J.; Thelen, Michael P.; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J.; Hart, Bradley R.

    2010-12-14

    Disclosed are nanometer to micron scale functionalized apertures constructed on a substrate made of glass, carbon, semiconductors or polymeric materials that allow for the real time detection of biological materials or chemical moieties. Many apertures can exist on one substrate allowing for the simultaneous detection of numerous chemical and biological molecules. One embodiment features a macrocyclic ring attached to cross-linkers, wherein the macrocyclic ring has a biological or chemical probe extending through the aperture. Another embodiment achieves functionalization by attaching chemical or biological anchors directly to the walls of the apertures via cross-linkers.

  15. Anomaly and error detection in computerized materials control & accountability databases

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Hoffbauer, B.; Yarbro, T.F.

    1997-09-01

    Unites States Department of Energy sites use computerized material control and accountability (MC&A) systems to manage the large amounts of data necessary to control and account for their nuclear materials. Theft or diversion of materials from these sites would likely result in anomalies in the data, and erroneous information greatly reduces the value of the information to its users. Therefore, it is essential that MC&A data be periodically assessed for anomalies or errors. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been developing expert systems to provide efficient, cost-effective, automated error and anomaly detection. Automated anomaly detection can provide assurance of the integrity of data, reduce inventory frequency, enhance assurance of physical inventory, detect errors in databases, and gain a better perspective on overall facility operations. The Automated MC&A Database Assessment Project is aimed at improving anomaly and error detection in MC&A databases and increasing confidence in the data. We are working with data from the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility and the Material Accountability and Safeguards System, the Facility`s near-real-time computerized nuclear material accountability and safeguards system. This paper describes progress in customizing the expert systems to the needs of the users of the data and reports on our results.

  16. Thermal Infrared Spectral Band Detection Limits for Unidentified Surface Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkland, Laurel E.; Herr, Kenneth C.; Salisbury, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Infrared emission spectra recorded by airborne or satellite spectrometers can be searched for spectral features to determine the composition of rocks on planetary surfaces. Surface materials are identified by detections of characteristic spectral bands. We show how to define whether to accept an observed spectral feature as a detection when the target material is unknown. We also use remotely sensed spectra measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System to illustrate the importance of instrument parameters and surface properties on band detection limits and how the variation in signal-to-noise ratio with wavelength affects the bands that are most detectable for a given instrument. The spectrometer's sampling interval, spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio as a function of wavelength, and the sample's surface properties influence whether the instrument can detect a spectral feature exhibited by a material. As an example, in the 6-13 micrometer wavelength region, massive carbonates exhibit two bands: a very strong, broad feature at approximately 6.5 micrometers and a less intense, sharper band at approximately 11.25 micrometers. Although the 6.5-micrometer band is stronger and broader in laboratory-measured spectra, the 11.25-micrometer band will cause a more detectable feature in TES spectra.

  17. Materials Research for Superconducting Machinery-IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    LABORATORIES Preparation of a Handbook on Mechanical , Thermal, Electrical, and Magnetic properties of Materials for Superconducting Machinery. Eldridge, E. A...Properties of Structural Materials Program Area Mechanical Properties 1. Fracture and Fitigue a. Materials Group Second Year Program (FY 75...crack growth rate tests from 4-300 K on structural alloys, and the effects of stress level and frequency. Mechanical , magnetic, electrical loss

  18. Dredged Material Research: Notes, News, Reviews, etc

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    MARRIAGE OF MARICULTURE AND MATERIAL (DREDGED THAT IS!) In August 1974 the Dow Chemical Company submitted an unsolicited proposal to the DMRP for an...34Investigation of Mariculture as an Alternative Use of Dredged Material Containment Areas." Since the unique, innovative approach proposed was...advantages and disadvantages for the landowners and the Government f80880 of combining dredged material disposal with mariculture , and evaluate

  19. Protective materials with real-time puncture detection capability

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, R.E.; Stampfer, J.F.; Valdez-Boyle, L.S.; Ramsey, D.R.

    1996-08-01

    The protection of workers from chemical, biological, or radiological hazards requires the use of protective materials that can maintain their integrity during use. An accidental puncture in the protective material can result in a significant exposure to the worker. A five ply material has been developed that incorporates two layers of an electrically conductive polymer sandwiched between three layers of a nonconductive polymer. A normally open circuit that is connected between the conductive layers will be closed by puncturing the material with either a conductive or nonconductive object. This can be used to activate an audible alarm or visual beacon to warn the worker of a breach in the integrity of the material. The worker is not connected to the circuit, and the puncture can be detected in real-time, even when caused by a nonconductor.

  20. Composite materials research in support of supersonic propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Two engine components, fan blades and exhaust systems, were selected for composite materials development efforts in support of the supersonic cruise aircraft research (SCAR) engine program. The materials selected were boron/aluminum for fan blades and silicon carbide/superalloy sheet for the exhaust system. The current status of the research into applying these two composite materials to SCAR engines is reviewed.

  1. Modular Detection System for Special Nuclear Material (MODES_SNM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Georgios

    2014-02-01

    The MODES_SNM project, funded by the European Community within the scope of the FP7 security theme, explores new techniques for the design and demonstration of novel technologies for the detection of dangerous radioactive materials. Noble gas pressurized detectors are developed and optimized to build a human portable modular detector system to detect and identify illicit SNM. Since masked or shielded SNM is hard to detect, the MODES_SNM detector system will be sensitive to both fast and thermal neutrons and to photons emitted by the SNM. Thus, the project aims to increase the detection sensitivity of shielded SNM, to reduce the false alarm rate and to provide a mobile system to be used by both experts and non-experts in the field of radiation detection. The project now enters into its final phase towards the construction and characterization of a working prototype to be tested under laboratory conditions and in a real world environment.

  2. Material limitations on the detection limit in refractometry.

    PubMed

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Nunes, Pedro S; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η, with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window (λ ≳ 1100 nm) of silicon the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because the silicon absorbs strongly.

  3. Material Limitations on the Detection Limit in Refractometry

    PubMed Central

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Nunes, Pedro S.; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η, with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window (λ ≳ 1100 nm) of silicon the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because the silicon absorbs strongly. PMID:22291513

  4. Quantitation and detection of vanadium in biologic and pollution materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is presented of special considerations and methodology for determining vanadium in biological and air pollution materials. In addition to descriptions of specific analysis procedures, general sections are included on quantitation of analysis procedures, sample preparation, blanks, and methods of detection of vanadium. Most of the information presented is applicable to the determination of other trace elements in addition to vanadium.

  5. Noncontact ultrasound detection of exotic insects in wood packing materials

    Treesearch

    Mary R. Fleming; Dinesh K. Agrawal; Mahesh C. Bhardwaj; Leah S. Bauer; John J. Janowiak; Deborah L. Miller; Jeffrey E. Shield; Kelli Hoover; Rustum Roy

    2005-01-01

    Nondestructive methods for detection of wood-boring insects such as the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) inside solid wood packing materials is a valuable tool in the fight to exclude exotic insects from attacking a nation?s timber resources. Nondestructive, non-contact, ultrasound was investigated as...

  6. Colorectal cancer screening with odour material by canine scent detection

    PubMed Central

    Kohnoe, Shunji; Yamazato, Tetsuro; Satoh, Yuji; Morizono, Gouki; Shikata, Kentaro; Morita, Makoto; Watanabe, Akihiro; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Fumio; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective Early detection and early treatment are of vital importance to the successful treatment of various cancers. The development of a novel screening method that is as economical and non-invasive as the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed. A study was undertaken using canine scent detection to determine whether odour material can become an effective tool in CRC screening. Design Exhaled breath and watery stool samples were obtained from patients with CRC and from healthy controls prior to colonoscopy. Each test group consisted of one sample from a patient with CRC and four control samples from volunteers without cancer. These five samples were randomly and separately placed into five boxes. A Labrador retriever specially trained in scent detection of cancer and a handler cooperated in the tests. The dog first smelled a standard breath sample from a patient with CRC, then smelled each sample station and sat down in front of the station in which a cancer scent was detected. Results 33 and 37 groups of breath and watery stool samples, respectively, were tested. Among patients with CRC and controls, the sensitivity of canine scent detection of breath samples compared with conventional diagnosis by colonoscopy was 0.91 and the specificity was 0.99. The sensitivity of canine scent detection of stool samples was 0.97 and the specificity was 0.99. The accuracy of canine scent detection was high even for early cancer. Canine scent detection was not confounded by current smoking, benign colorectal disease or inflammatory disease. Conclusions This study shows that a specific cancer scent does indeed exist and that cancer-specific chemical compounds may be circulating throughout the body. These odour materials may become effective tools in CRC screening. In the future, studies designed to identify cancer-specific volatile organic compounds will be important for the development of new methods for early detection of CRC

  7. Securing Special Nuclear Material: Recent Advances in Neutron Detection and Their Role in Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Bernstein, A.; Vanier, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Neutron detection is an integral part of the global effort to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear material (SNM). Applications relying on neutron-detection technology range from traditional nuclear non-proliferation objectives, such as safeguarding nuclear material and verifying stockpile reductions, to the interdiction of SNM—a goal that has recently risen in priority to a level on par with traditional applications. Large multi-national programs targeting detection and safeguards have deployed radiation-detection assets across the globe. Alongside these deployments of commercially available technology, significant research and development efforts have been directed towards the creation of next-generation assets. While much of this development has focused on gamma-ray spectrometers, neutron-detection technology remains an important component of the global strategy because of the capability of neutrons to penetrate materials that readily absorb gamma rays and the unique multiplicity signatures offered by neutrons. One particularly acute technology-development challenge results from dwindling supplies of 3He, partially triggered by widespread deployment of high-efficiency systems for portal monitoring. Other emerging missions, such as the desire to detect SNM at greater standoff distances, have also stimulated neutron-detection technology development. In light of these needs for novel neutron-detection technologies, this manuscript reviews the signatures of neutrons emitted by SNM, the principles of neutron detection, and various strategies under investigation for detection in the context of nonproliferation.

  8. Electronic detection of ultra-heavy nuclei by pyroelectric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    A recent prediction by the authors that pyroelectric materials may be capable of detecting ultra-heavy nuclei has been confirmed. Charge pulse signals from pyroelectric crystals of lithium tantalate exposed to Au ions and a pulsed beam of Ni-58 ions, and from pyroelectric films of polyvinylidene fluoride exposed to a pulsed beam of Ni-58 ions, have been measured using pulse electronics with time constants in the microsecond range. These studies show that pyroelectric materials, in general, are capable of detecting incident nuclei having very high mass and charge. In particular, pyroelectric polymers, such as polyvinylidene fluoride, are readily available as inexpensive flexible films. This new class of charged particle detector could eventually find applications in large-area experiments for detection and trajectory determination of low-energy, ultra-heavy nuclei.

  9. Electronic detection of ultra-heavy nuclei by pyroelectric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    A recent prediction by the authors that pyroelectric materials may be capable of detecting ultra-heavy nuclei has been confirmed. Charge pulse signals from pyroelectric crystals of lithium tantalate exposed to Au ions and a pulsed beam of Ni-58 ions, and from pyroelectric films of polyvinylidene fluoride exposed to a pulsed beam of Ni-58 ions, have been measured using pulse electronics with time constants in the microsecond range. These studies show that pyroelectric materials, in general, are capable of detecting incident nuclei having very high mass and charge. In particular, pyroelectric polymers, such as polyvinylidene fluoride, are readily available as inexpensive flexible films. This new class of charged particle detector could eventually find applications in large-area experiments for detection and trajectory determination of low-energy, ultra-heavy nuclei.

  10. Research Opportunities for Materials with Ultrafine Microstructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-31

    electronic configuration imparts activity . Research aimed at characterizing catalytically active sites has included studies of the nature of the adsorption...findings to date and prospects for commercialization, a number of recommendations for specific research and development activities are made. The principal...recommendations for specific research and development activities are made. The principal conclusion is that a new and exciting field of research and

  11. [Research strategy on molecular identification of animal medical material].

    PubMed

    Huang, Luqi; Tang, Shihuan; Li, Junde; Zhao, Jingxue

    2011-02-01

    This paper summarized and analyzed the status quo and problems about molecular identification of animal medical material, based on the facts, we proposed some research strategies, including uniting to tackle key problems, expanding the research species, accelerating manufacture and generalization of molecular identification kit, priming the research project of DNA barcoding, and establishing standard database on animal medical material.

  12. 7 CFR 3406.17 - Program application materials-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Program application materials-research. 3406.17... FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of a Research Proposal § 3406.17 Program application materials—research. Program application materials in an...

  13. 7 CFR 3406.17 - Program application materials-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Program application materials-research. 3406.17... FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of a Research Proposal § 3406.17 Program application materials—research. Program application materials in an...

  14. Progress in materials and structures at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.; Lauver, R. W.; Halford, G. R.; Davies, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of power and propulsion system technology is discussed. Specific emphasis is placed on the following: high temperature materials; composite materials; advanced design and life prediction; and nondestructive evaluation. Future areas of research are also discussed.

  15. Electrical Materials Research for NASAs Hybrid Electric Commercial Aircraft Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Randy

    2017-01-01

    A high-level description of NASA GRC research in electrical materials is presented with a brief description of the AATTHGEP funding project. To be presented at the Interagency Advanced Power Group Electrical Materials panel session.

  16. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, Shawn E.; Lehman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.

    2014-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a highly automated facility developed in a joint venture/partnership between NASA and ESA center dot Allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses onboard the International Space Station (ISS) center dot Multi-user facility for high temperature materials science research center dot Launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module ?Research goals center dot Provide means of studying materials processing in space to develop a better understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms involved center dot Benefit materials science research via the microgravity environment of space where the researcher can better isolate the effects of gravity during solidification on the properties of materials center dot Use the knowledge gained from experiments to make reliable predictions about conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials

  17. Fatigue and fracture research in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fatigue, fracture, and impact behavior of composite materials are investigated. Bolted and bonded joints are included. The solutions developed are generic in scope and are useful for a wide variety of structural applications. The analytical tools developed are used to demonstrate the damage tolerance, impact resistance, and useful fatigue life of structural composite components. Standard tests for screening improvements in materials and constituents are developed.

  18. Detection of circumstellar material in a normal type Ia supernova.

    PubMed

    Patat, F; Chandra, P; Chevalier, R; Justham, S; Podsiadlowski, Ph; Wolf, C; Gal-Yam, A; Pasquini, L; Crawford, I A; Mazzali, P A; Pauldrach, A W A; Nomoto, K; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Elias-Rosa, N; Hillebrandt, W; Leonard, D C; Pastorello, A; Renzini, A; Sabbadin, F; Simon, J D; Turatto, M

    2007-08-17

    Type Ia supernovae are important cosmological distance indicators. Each of these bright supernovae supposedly results from the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf star that, after accreting material from a companion star, exceeds some mass limit, but the true nature of the progenitor star system remains controversial. Here we report the spectroscopic detection of circumstellar material in a normal type Ia supernova explosion. The expansion velocities, densities, and dimensions of the circumstellar envelope indicate that this material was ejected from the progenitor system. In particular, the relatively low expansion velocities suggest that the white dwarf was accreting material from a companion star that was in the red-giant phase at the time of the explosion.

  19. Neutron detection using boron gallium nitride semiconductor material

    SciTech Connect

    Atsumi, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Yoku; Nakano, Takayuki; Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we developed a new neutron-detection device using a boron gallium nitride (BGaN) semiconductor in which the B atom acts as a neutron converter. BGaN and gallium nitride (GaN) samples were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, and their radiation detection properties were evaluated. GaN exhibited good sensitivity to α-rays but poor sensitivity to γ-rays. Moreover, we confirmed that electrons were generated in the depletion layer under neutron irradiation. This resulted in a neutron-detection signal after α-rays were generated by the capture of neutrons by the B atoms. These results prove that BGaN is useful as a neutron-detecting semiconductor material.

  20. Mass spectrometric detection of solid and vapor explosive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, William R.; Green, D.; Mercado, Alvaro G.

    1994-10-01

    The detection by chemical sensors of explosive devices in a terrorist or contraband scenario usually involves the acquisition of material in the vapor or solid form. Whether in the vapor form in ambient air or in solid form in a matrix of innocuous material, the chemical compounds may be present at very low concentrations or may be present in concentrations higher by orders of magnitude. In this study, a characterization of a tandem mass spectrometer detection system has been made to evaluate a variety of parameters as it relates to explosive chemicals in both the vapor and solid phases. In particular, a range of concentrations of standard solutions of RDX, PETN and TNT have been injected in determine the sensitivity, dynamic range, and lower level of detection of the SCIEX contraband tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. Techniques for the introduction of samples include heated nebulization and direct injection/thermal desorption from a real time sampler belt. As well, explosive vapors produced by a special generator were injected in a 1 l/min stream of room air and used to characterize instrumental performance. Solid material was presented in a form simulating fingerprint material and then transferred to the detector using a real time sampling system and then thermally desorbed into the mass spectrometer ionization chamber.

  1. Fissile Material Detection by Differential Die Away Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Timothy J.; Strellis, Dan A.; Stevenson, John; Keeley, Doug; Gozani, Tsahi

    2009-03-10

    Detection and interdiction of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in transportation is one of the most critical security issues facing the United States. Active inspection by inducing fission in fissile nuclear materials, such as {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu, provides several strong and unique signatures that make the detection of concealed nuclear materials technically very feasible. Differential Die-Away Analysis (DDAA) is a very efficient, active neutron-based technique that uses the abundant prompt fission neutrons signature. It benefits from high penetrability of the probing and signature neutrons, high fission cross section, high detection sensitivity, ease of deployment and relatively low cost. DDAA can use any neutron source or energy as long as it can be suitably pulsed. The neutron generator produces pulses of neutrons that are directed into a cargo. As each pulse passes through the cargo, the neutrons are thermalized and absorbed. If SNM is present, the thermalized neutrons create a new source of (fission) neutrons with a distinctive time profile. An efficient laboratory system was designed, fabricated and tested under a US Government DHS DNDO contract. It was shown that a small uranium sample can be detected in a large variety of cargo types and configurations within practical measurement times using commercial compact (d,T) sources. Using stronger sources and wider detector distribution will further cut inspection time. The system can validate or clear alarms from a primary inspection system such as an automated x-ray system.

  2. Fissile Material Detection by Differential Die Away Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Timothy J.; Strellis, Dan A.; Stevenson, John; Keeley, Doug; Gozani, Tsahi

    2009-03-01

    Detection and interdiction of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in transportation is one of the most critical security issues facing the United States. Active inspection by inducing fission in fissile nuclear materials, such as 235U and 239Pu, provides several strong and unique signatures that make the detection of concealed nuclear materials technically very feasible. Differential Die-Away Analysis (DDAA) is a very efficient, active neutron-based technique that uses the abundant prompt fission neutrons signature. It benefits from high penetrability of the probing and signature neutrons, high fission cross section, high detection sensitivity, ease of deployment and relatively low cost. DDAA can use any neutron source or energy as long as it can be suitably pulsed. The neutron generator produces pulses of neutrons that are directed into a cargo. As each pulse passes through the cargo, the neutrons are thermalized and absorbed. If SNM is present, the thermalized neutrons create a new source of (fission) neutrons with a distinctive time profile. An efficient laboratory system was designed, fabricated and tested under a US Government DHS DNDO contract. It was shown that a small uranium sample can be detected in a large variety of cargo types and configurations within practical measurement times using commercial compact (d,T) sources. Using stronger sources and wider detector distribution will further cut inspection time. The system can validate or clear alarms from a primary inspection system such as an automated x-ray system.

  3. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.   The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  4. Basic and Applied Research in Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-30

    investigation of sintering and hot pressing of materials of interest. To- ward tho?e ends, the studies begun tlie previous year on the cuprous halides...somewhat < 0.2 eV/ion. It does .■.ppciir, linwever, that the activation energy value for ■ — »""’"•■^■••■■■■■■WP«""’F»>""WWW^lir’^»»lWW»’" lilli ...material. The model predicts that particles which are more noarly wet by the material will be more effective than non- wetted particles in rotrmling

  5. Cascaded image analysis for dynamic crack detection in material testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, U.; Maas, H.-G.

    Concrete probes in civil engineering material testing often show fissures or hairline-cracks. These cracks develop dynamically. Starting at a width of a few microns, they usually cannot be detected visually or in an image of a camera imaging the whole probe. Conventional image analysis techniques will detect fissures only if they show a width in the order of one pixel. To be able to detect and measure fissures with a width of a fraction of a pixel at an early stage of their development, a cascaded image analysis approach has been developed, implemented and tested. The basic idea of the approach is to detect discontinuities in dense surface deformation vector fields. These deformation vector fields between consecutive stereo image pairs, which are generated by cross correlation or least squares matching, show a precision in the order of 1/50 pixel. Hairline-cracks can be detected and measured by applying edge detection techniques such as a Sobel operator to the results of the image matching process. Cracks will show up as linear discontinuities in the deformation vector field and can be vectorized by edge chaining. In practical tests of the method, cracks with a width of 1/20 pixel could be detected, and their width could be determined at a precision of 1/50 pixel.

  6. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  7. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  8. Psychological Research on Advanced Terrain Representation: Formatting the Visual Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Research Note 84-68 ’[ PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON ADVANCED TERRAIN REPRESENTATION: FORMATTING THE VISUAL MATERIAL Robert N. Kraft and John F... PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON ADVANCED TERRAINRearhNt REPRESENTATION: FORMATTING THE VISUAL MATERIAL RearhNt 4. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT "UNDER DDI/PR 82-9-331 1...will be based on a generalization of sur- rogate travel. The purpose of conducting this psychological research was to- DD 1473 EDITION Oil I NOV065 IS

  9. Research into Practice: How Research Appears in Pronunciation Teaching Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levis, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Research into pronunciation has often disregarded its potential to inform pedagogy. This is due partly to the historical development of pronunciation teaching and research, but its effect is that there is often a mismatch between research and teaching. This paper looks at four areas in which the (mis)match is imperfect but in which a greater…

  10. Research into Practice: How Research Appears in Pronunciation Teaching Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levis, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Research into pronunciation has often disregarded its potential to inform pedagogy. This is due partly to the historical development of pronunciation teaching and research, but its effect is that there is often a mismatch between research and teaching. This paper looks at four areas in which the (mis)match is imperfect but in which a greater…

  11. [PCR detection of transgenic elements in feed raw material].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yu, Dao-Jian; Kang, Lin; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Jin, Xian-Zhong; Yang, Wei-Dong; Huang, Pei-Qing; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Cheng, Ying-Hui

    2002-05-01

    Based on the heterogeneous genes usually used in transgenic crops, the PCR technique was performed with primers derived from CaMV 35S promoter (35S-promoter,originated from cauliflower mosaic virus), NOS terminator (nopaline synthase-terminator,derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens), EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene, and CryIA(b) (delta-endotoxin,evolved from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki) gene to detect transgenic agents from feed raw materials of soybean dregs and corn gluten meal, respectively. Endogenous corn Zein (a protein extracted from corn gluten) gene, soybean Lectin (chitin-binding protein) gene and negative, positive control were applied for avoiding false results. The method established here has been successfully applied in detecting transgenic elements in imported feed raw material.

  12. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Szymurski, S.R.

    1994-12-01

    Objective is to accelerate phaseout of CFC refrigerants. Since its start in 1991, the MCLR program has initiated twenty-five research projects and the ARTI Refrigerant Database. The MCLR program is now entering its final phase. This phase will include over a dozen new research projects which will be completed in the next two years. This presentation highlights accomplishments of the MCLR program and outlines new projects to be conducted in the final phase.

  13. Evolutionary Design of a Robotic Material Defect Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Gary; Howsman, Tom; Craft, Mike; ONeil, Daniel; Steincamp, Jim; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the post-flight inspection of SSME engines, several inaccessible regions must be disassembled to inspect for defects such as cracks, scratches, gouges, etc. An improvement to the inspection process would be the design and development of very small robots capable of penetrating these inaccessible regions and detecting the defects. The goal of this research was to utilize an evolutionary design approach for the robotic detection of these types of defects. A simulation and visualization tool was developed prior to receiving the hardware as a development test bed. A small, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) robot was selected from several candidates as the proof of concept robot. The basic approach to detect the defects was to utilize Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) sensors to detect changes in contrast of an illuminated surface. A neural network, optimally designed utilizing a genetic algorithm, was employed to detect the presence of the defects (cracks). By utilization of the COTS robot and US sensors, the research successfully demonstrated that an evolutionarily designed neural network can detect the presence of surface defects.

  14. Fluorescent Silicate Materials for the Detection of Paraoxon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-19

    Silica Films for Rapid TNT Detection. Colloid Polym . Sci. 2007, 285, 721-728. 16. Tao, S.; Li, G.; Zhu, H., Metalloporphyrins as Sensing Elements for...Figure 2) [22-24]. In addition, polymerization (condensation)-induced phase separation has been used to produce macroporous frameworks which...silicate material. The organic bridging groups provide binding characteristics normally associated with organic polymers . Through control of parameters

  15. Fast Detection of Material Deformation through Structural Dissimilarity

    SciTech Connect

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Parkinson, Dilworth

    2015-10-29

    Designing materials that are resistant to extreme temperatures and brittleness relies on assessing structural dynamics of samples. Algorithms are critically important to characterize material deformation under stress conditions. Here, we report on our design of coarse-grain parallel algorithms for image quality assessment based on structural information and on crack detection of gigabyte-scale experimental datasets. We show how key steps can be decomposed into distinct processing flows, one based on structural similarity (SSIM) quality measure, and another on spectral content. These algorithms act upon image blocks that fit into memory, and can execute independently. We discuss the scientific relevance of the problem, key developments, and decomposition of complementary tasks into separate executions. We show how to apply SSIM to detect material degradation, and illustrate how this metric can be allied to spectral analysis for structure probing, while using tiled multi-resolution pyramids stored in HDF5 chunked multi-dimensional arrays. Results show that the proposed experimental data representation supports an average compression rate of 10X, and data compression scales linearly with the data size. We also illustrate how to correlate SSIM to crack formation, and how to use our numerical schemes to enable fast detection of deformation from 3D datasets evolving in time.

  16. Anomaly detection applied to a materials control and accounting database

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Spanks, L.; Yarbro, T.

    1995-09-01

    An important component of the national mission of reducing the nuclear danger includes accurate recording of the processing and transportation of nuclear materials. Nuclear material storage facilities, nuclear chemical processing plants, and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities collect and store large amounts of data describing transactions that involve nuclear materials. To maintain confidence in the integrity of these data, it is essential to identify anomalies in the databases. Anomalous data could indicate error, theft, or diversion of material. Yet, because of the complex and diverse nature of the data, analysis and evaluation are extremely tedious. This paper describes the authors work in the development of analysis tools to automate the anomaly detection process for the Material Accountability and Safeguards System (MASS) that tracks and records the activities associated with accountable quantities of nuclear material at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Using existing guidelines that describe valid transactions, the authors have created an expert system that identifies transactions that do not conform to the guidelines. Thus, this expert system can be used to focus the attention of the expert or inspector directly on significant phenomena.

  17. 7 CFR 3406.17 - Program application materials-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program application materials-research. 3406.17... RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of a Research Proposal § 3406.17 Program application materials—research...

  18. Multifunctional Materials and Structures Gordon Research Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-08

    Discussion Leader 9:05 am - 9:40 am Richard Weinkamer (Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Germany) "Osteocyte Networks, Functional...34Reconfigurable Materials from Programmable Colloids " 9:05 pm - 9:25 pm Discussion 9:25 pm - 9:30 pm General Discussion Tuesday 7:30 am - 8:30 am...Purdue University Poster Presenter Registered Skorb, Katsiaryna Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces Attendee Registered Smith, Lisa

  19. 2013 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-18

    National University), who showed breakthrough results in nanowire solar cells and lasers. Tsenunobu Kimoto (Kyoto University) presented a comprehensive...band alignment between rutile and anatase TiO2 [D. O. Scanlon, et al., Nature Materials 12, 798 (2013)]. The photolysis of water on the surface of... TiO2 was first demonstrated in 1972, but the origin of the superior performance of mixed polymorph samples has remained elusive. Here state-of-the-art

  20. 2014 Materials Research Society (MRS) Fall Meeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-18

    Number: Sub Contractors (DD882) Names of Faculty Supported Names of Under Graduate students supported Names of Personnel receiving masters degrees Names...in Bismuth Ferrite under Varying Epitaxial Strain States Michael Jablonski, Drexel University Ferroelectric materials find use in a number of...and Eric A. Armour and Balakrishnan Krishnan and Soo Min Lee and George D. Papasouliotis MRS Online Proceedings Library, Volume 1736, 2015, mrsf14-1736

  1. Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

    2014-07-15

    A gas sensitive material comprising SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals doped with In.sub.2O.sub.3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.

  2. Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

    2012-12-25

    A gas sensitive material comprising SnO2 nanocrystals doped with In2O3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.

  3. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  4. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1990-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena, modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-base superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. This paper will present recent research activities at NASA's Lewis Research Center on single-crystal blading material, related to creep and fatique. The goal of these research efforts is to improve the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  5. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1987-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. Recent research activities at Lewis on single-crystal blading material as well as future research initiatives on metal matrix composites related to creep and fatigue are discussed. The goal of these research efforts is improving the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  6. Planning Document for Hazardous Materials Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    with mercury might not be that harmful, the inhalation of mercury vapors, or consumption through other pathways (as in the Minamata case in Kyushu... Japan ) is known to have disastrous health effects. In the case of radionuclides, extensive research has been done on maximum permissible concentrations

  7. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wrigley, C. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Results of hydrogen-passivated polycrysalline silicon solar cell research are summarized. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. Treatments with molecular hydrogen showed no effect on large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon solar cells.

  8. Materials research in Europe: Mapping excellence and looking ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Gerd; Tunger, Dirk; Smith, Alan; Preston, Stuart; Knott, Brian

    2007-03-01

    The European Research Area has been established to coordinate national research policies and to encourage shared objectives, expertise, and resources throughout the European Union. To accomplish these goals, the European Research Area first needs knowledge of existing resources, fields of excellence, and potential for improvements as well as an idea of the direction of future research. This article describes the SMART project, established by the European Commission to identify important research topics for the future in the field of materials technology and to map materials research regions of excellence.

  9. Basic and Applied Research in Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    heterogeneous catalysis and materials for energy storage. In the first project, standard batches of Pt/ SiO2 catalysts were prepared and characterized utilizing a variety of techniques, e.g., x-ray diffraction, isotopic exchange between deuterium and cyclopentane, etc. The purpose of these studies is to elucidate information on the nature of the catalyst crystallites, the effect of the support upon the catalyst behavior, the effect of metallic particle size on catalytic characteristics and the effect of the method of catalyst preparation upon catalytic activity. The

  10. Strategic Research Directions in Microgravity Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G.; Semmes, Ed; Cook, Beth; Wargo, Michael J.; Marzwell, Neville

    2003-01-01

    The next challenge of space exploration is the development of the capabilities for long-term missions beyond low earth orbit. NASA s scientific advisory groups and internal mission studies have identified several fundamental issues which require substantial advancements in new technology if these goals are to be accomplished. Crews must be protected from the severe radiation environment beyond the earth s magnetic field. Chemical propulsion must be replaced by systems that require less mass and are more efficient. The overall launch complement must be reduced by developing repair and fabrication techniques which utilize or recycle available materials.

  11. A Compton imaging device for radioactive material detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, A. S.; Baird, W.; Kippen, R. Marc; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Sullivan, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    The most serious terrorist threat we face today may come from radiological dispersion devices and unsecured nuclear weapons. It is imperative for national security that we develop and implement radiation detection technology capable of locating and tracking nuclear material moving across and within our borders. Many radionuclides emit gamma rays in the 0.2-3 MeV range. Unfortunately, current gamma ray detection technology is inadequate for providing precise and efficient measurements of localized radioactive sources. Common detectors available today suffer from large background rates and have only minimal ability to localize the position of the source without the use of mechanical collimators, which reduces efficiency. Imaging detectors using the Compton scattering process have the potential to provide greatly improved sensitivity through their ability to reject off-source background. We are developing a prototype device to demonstrate the Compton imaging technology. The detector consists of several layers of pixelated silicon detectors followed by an array of CsI crystals coupled to photodiodes. Here we present the concept of our detector design and results from Monte Carlo simulations of our prototype detector. Development of technologies for detecting and characterizing radiation from various nuclear materials is important for many fields, including homeland security, astrophysics, and medical imaging. Unfortunately, in many cases we now largely use detection technologies that were developed in the 1960s. While sufficient for some purposes, these technologies have proved inadequate for remote sensing of radioactive nuclear materials - a crucial capability required for enhanced homeland security. Passive gamma ray detection is the most direct means of providing this capability, but current detectors are severely limited in sensitivity and detection range due to confusion from off-source backgrounds, and they cannot precisely localize sources when they are

  12. Governing the postmortem procurement of human body material for research.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Kristof; Capitaine, Laura; Pennings, Guido; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2015-03-01

    Human body material removed post mortem is a particularly valuable resource for research. Considering the efforts that are currently being made to study the biochemical processes and possible genetic causes that underlie cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, it is likely that this type of research will continue to gain in importance. However, post mortem procurement of human body material for research raises specific ethical concerns, more in particular with regard to the consent of the research participant. In this paper, we attempt to determine which consent regime should govern the post mortem procurement of body material for research. In order to do so, we assess the various arguments that could be put forward in support of a duty to make body material available for research purposes after death. We argue that this duty does in practice not support conscription but is sufficiently strong to defend a policy of presumed rather than explicit consent.

  13. Fluorescent Silicate Materials for the Detection of Paraoxon

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brandy J.; Melde, Brian J.; Thomas, Cassandra; Malanoski, Anthony P.; Leska, Iwona A.; Charles, Paul T.; Parrish, Damon A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Porphyrins are a family of highly conjugated molecules that strongly absorb visible light and fluoresce intensely. These molecules are sensitive to changes in their immediate environment and have been widely described for optical detection applications. Surfactant-templated organosilicate materials have been described for the semi-selective adsorption of small molecule contaminants. These structures offer high surface areas and large pore volumes within an organized framework. The organic bridging groups in the materials can be altered to provide varied binding characteristics. This effort seeks to utilize the tunable binding selectivity, high surface area, and low materials density of these highly ordered pore networks and to combine them with the unique spectrophotometric properties of porphyrins. In the porphyrin-embedded materials (PEMs), the organosilicate scaffold stabilizes the porphyrin and facilitates optimal orientation of porphyrin and target. The materials can be stored under ambient conditions and offer exceptional shelf-life. Here, we report on the design of PEMs with specificity for organophosphates and compounds of similar structure. PMID:22294928

  14. Process Research of Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    A passivation process (hydrogenation) that will improve the power generation of solar cells fabricated from presently produced, large grain, cast polycrystalline silicon (Semix), a potentially low cost material are developed. The first objective is to verify the operation of a DC plasma hydrogenation system and to investigate the effect of hydrogen on the electrical performance of a variety of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. The second objective is to parameterize and optimize a hydrogenation process for cast polycrystalline silicon, and will include a process sensitivity analysis. The sample preparation for the first phase is outlined. The hydrogenation system is described, and some early results that were obtained using the hydrogenation system without a plasma are summarized. Light beam induced current (LBIC) measurements of minicell samples, and their correlation to dark current voltage characteristics, are discussed.

  15. Fullerene-based materials research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, P. A.; Henderson, C. C.; Rohlfing, C. M.; Loy, D. A.; Assink, R. A.; Gillen, K. T.; Jacobs, S. J.; Dugger, M. T.

    1995-05-01

    The chemistry and physical properties of fullerenes, the third, molecular allotrope of carbon, have been studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Early computational work investigated the stability of fullerene isomers and oxides, which was followed by extensive work on hydrogenated fullerenes. Our work led to the first synthesis of a polymer containing C60 and the synthesis of the simplest hydrocarbon derivatives of C60 and C70. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment ((plus minus) 0.1 kcal/mol in the relative stability of isomers) has provided insight into the chemical nature of fullerenes and has yielded a sound basis for prediction of the structure of derivatized fullerenes. Such derivatives are the key to the preparation of fullerene-based materials.

  16. The Use of Fast Neutron Detection for Materials Accountability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakae, L. F.; Chapline, G. F.; Glenn, A. M.; Kerr, P. L.; Kim, K. S.; Ouedraogo, S. A.; Prasad, M. K.; Sheets, S. A.; Snyderman, N. J.; Verbeke, J. M.; Wurtz, R. E.

    2014-02-01

    For many years at LLNL, we have been developing time-correlated neutron detection techniques and algorithms for applications such as Arms Control, Threat Detection and Nuclear Material Assay. Many of our techniques have been developed specifically for the relatively low efficiency (a few percent) inherent in man-portable systems. Historically, thermal neutron detectors (mainly 3He) were used, taking advantage of the high thermal neutron interaction cross-sections, but more recently we have been investigating the use of fast neutron detection with liquid scintillators, inorganic crystals, and in the near future, pulse-shape discriminating plastics that respond over 1000 times faster (nanoseconds versus tens of microseconds) than thermal neutron detectors. Fast neutron detection offers considerable advantages, since the inherent nanosecond production timescales of fission and neutron-induced fission are preserved and measured instead of being lost in the thermalization of thermal neutron detectors. We are now applying fast neutron technology to the safeguards regime in the form of high efficiency counters. Faster detector response times and sensitivity to neutron momentum show promise in measuring, differentiating, and assaying samples that have modest to very high count rates, as well as mixed neutron sources (e.g., Pu oxide or Mixed Cm and Pu). Here we report on measured results with our existing liquid scintillator array and promote the design of a nuclear material assay system that incorporates fast neutron detection, including the surprising result that fast liquid scintillator becomes competitive and even surpasses the precision of 3He counters measuring correlated pairs in modest (kg) samples of plutonium.

  17. [Problems in medicinal materials research of new traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Ting; He, Yan-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Medicinal materials research and development of new drug of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research is the premise and foundation of new drug research and development, it throughout the whole process of new drug research. Medicinal materials research is one of the main content of the pharmaceutical research of new drug of TCM, and it is also the focus of the new medicine pharmaceutical evaluation content. This article through the analysis of the present problems existing in the development of TCM research of new drug of TCM, from medicine research concept, quality stability, quality standard, etc are expounded, including medicine research idea value medicine study should focus on the important role and from the purpose for the top-level design of new drug research problem. Medicinal materials quality stability should pay attention to the original, medicinal part, origin, processing, storage, planting (breeding), and other aspects. Aspect of quality standard of medicinal materials should pay attention to establish the quality standards of conform to the characteristics of new drug of TCM. As the instruction of TCM new drug research and development and the scientific nature of the review, and provide the basis for medicinal material standards.

  18. Detection of special nuclear materials with the associate particle technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, Cédric; Deyglun, Clément; Pérot, Bertrand; Eléon, Cyrille; Normand, Stéphane; Sannié, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenolé; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R&D program against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRN-E) threats, CEA is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with fast neutrons produced by an associated particle sealed tube neutron generator. The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction produces an alpha particle and a 14 MeV neutron almost back to back, allowing tagging neutron emission both in time and direction with an alpha particle position-sensitive sensor embedded in the generator. Fission prompt neutrons and gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons which are tagged by an alpha particle are detected in coincidence with plastic scintillators. This paper presents numerical simulations performed with the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo computer code and with post processing software developed with the ROOT data analysis package. False coincidences due to neutron and photon scattering between adjacent detectors (cross talk) are filtered out to increase the selectivity between nuclear and benign materials. Accidental coincidences, which are not correlated to an alpha particle, are also taken into account in the numerical model, as well as counting statistics, and the time-energy resolution of the data acquisition system. Such realistic calculations show that relevant quantities of SNM (few kg) can be distinguished from cargo and shielding materials in 10 min acquisitions. First laboratory tests of the system under development in CEA laboratories are also presented.

  19. Active millimeter wave detection of concealed layers of dielectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, N. J.; Baker, J. G.; Rezgui, N. D.; Southgate, M.; Alder, J. F.

    2007-04-01

    Extensive work has been published on millimetre wave active and passive detection and imaging of metallic objects concealed under clothing. We propose and demonstrate a technique for revealing the depth as well as the outline of partially transparent objects, which is especially suited to imaging layer materials such as explosives and drugs. The technique uses a focussed and scanned FMCW source, swept through many GHz to reveal this structure. The principle involved is that a parallel sided dielectric slab produces reflections at both its upper and lower surfaces, acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer. This produces a pattern of alternating reflected peaks and troughs in frequency space. Fourier or Burg transforming this pattern into z-space generates a peak at the thickness of the irradiated sample. It could be argued that though such a technique may work for single uniform slabs of dielectric material, it will give results of little or no significance when the sample both scatters the incident radiation and gives erratic reflectivities due to its non-uniform thickness and permittivity . We show results for a variety of materials such as explosive simulants, powder and drugs, both alone and concealed under clothing or in a rucksack, which display strongly directional reflectivities at millimeter wavelengths, and whose location is well displayed by a varying thickness parameter as the millimetre beam is scanned across the target. With this system we find that samples can easily be detected at standoff distances of at least 4.6m.

  20. Microwave nondestructive detection of chloride in cement based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benally, Aaron D.; Bois, Karl J.; Nowak, Paul S.; Zoughi, Reza

    1999-12-01

    Preliminary results pertaining to the near-field microwave nondestructive detection and evaluation of chloride in cement paste and mortar specimens are presented. The technique used for this purpose utilizes an open-ended rectangular waveguide at the aperture of which the reflection properties of the specimens are measured. It is shown that the magnitude of reflection coefficient is a useful parameter for detecting chloride in these specimens. Furthermore, the difference in the amount of chloride present in these various specimens, at the time of mixing, can also be determined. Reflection property measurements were conducted in S-band (2.6 GHz-3.95 GHz) and X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) for two sets of four mortar specimens with 0.50 and 0.60 water-to-cement ratio and varying salt (NaCl) contents added to the mixing water used in producing these specimens. It is shown that the reflection properties of these materials vary considerably as a function of their chloride content. Also, by monitoring the daily variation in the reflection coefficient of each specimen during the curing period, the effect of chloride on curing can be nondestructively ascertained. Finally, it is shown that the detection and evaluation of chloride content in cement based materials can be performed using a simple comparative process with respect to a non-contaminated specimen.

  1. Microwave nondestructive detection of chloride in cement based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Benally, Aaron D.; Bois, Karl J.; Zoughi, Reza; Nowak, Paul S.

    1999-12-02

    Preliminary results pertaining to the near-field microwave nondestructive detection and evaluation of chloride in cement paste and mortar specimens are presented. The technique used for this purpose utilizes an open-ended rectangular waveguide at the aperture of which the reflection properties of the specimens are measured. It is shown that the magnitude of reflection coefficient is a useful parameter for detecting chloride in these specimens. Furthermore, the difference in the amount of chloride present in these various specimens, at the time of mixing, can also be determined. Reflection property measurements were conducted in S-band (2.6 GHz-3.95 GHz) and X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) for two sets of four mortar specimens with 0.50 and 0.60 water-to-cement ratio and varying salt (NaCl) contents added to the mixing water used in producing these specimens. It is shown that the reflection properties of these materials vary considerably as a function of their chloride content. Also, by monitoring the daily variation in the reflection coefficient of each specimen during the curing period, the effect of chloride on curing can be nondestructively ascertained. Finally, it is shown that the detection and evaluation of chloride content in cement based materials can be performed using a simple comparative process with respect to a non-contaminated specimen.

  2. Challenges and Opportunities in Interdisciplinary Materials Research Experiences for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vohra, Yogesh; Nordlund, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) offer a broad range of interdisciplinary materials research experiences to undergraduate students with diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, applied mathematics, and engineering. The research projects offered cover a broad range of topics including high pressure physics, microelectronic materials, nano-materials, laser materials, bioceramics and biopolymers, cell-biomaterials interactions, planetary materials, and computer simulation of materials. The students welcome the opportunity to work with an interdisciplinary team of basic science, engineering, and biomedical faculty but the challenge is in learning the key vocabulary for interdisciplinary collaborations, experimental tools, and working in an independent capacity. The career development workshops dealing with the graduate school application process and the entrepreneurial business activities were found to be most effective. The interdisciplinary university wide poster session helped student broaden their horizons in research careers. The synergy of the REU program with other concurrently running high school summer programs on UAB campus will also be discussed.

  3. 2003 research briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems and Materials Modeling and Computational Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  4. 2005 Research Briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  5. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  6. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wrigley, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Results of hydrogen-passivated polycrystalline silicon solar cells are summarized. Very small grain or short minority-carrier diffusion length silicon was used. Hydrogenated solar cells fabricated from this material appear to have effective minority-carrier diffusion lengths that are still not very long, as shown by the open-circuit voltages of passivated cells that are still significantly less than those of single-crystal solar cells. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. However, the open-circuit voltage, which is sensitive to grain boundary recombination, is sometimes 20 to 40 mV less. The goal was to minimize variations in open-circuit voltage and fill-factor caused by defects by passivating these defects using a hydrogenation process. Treatments with molecular hydrogen showed no effect on large-grain cast polycrystaline silicon solar cells.

  7. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    PubMed Central

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-01-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet. PMID:27877788

  8. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends.

    PubMed

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand's consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  9. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  10. Detecting nuclear materials smuggling: performance evaluation of container inspection policies.

    PubMed

    Gaukler, Gary M; Li, Chenhua; Ding, Yu; Chirayath, Sunil S

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, the United States, along with many other countries, has significantly increased its detection and defense mechanisms against terrorist attacks. A potential attack with a nuclear weapon, using nuclear materials smuggled into the country, has been identified as a particularly grave threat. The system for detecting illicit nuclear materials that is currently in place at U.S. ports of entry relies heavily on passive radiation detectors and a risk-scoring approach using the automated targeting system (ATS). In this article we analyze this existing inspection system and demonstrate its performance for several smuggling scenarios. We provide evidence that the current inspection system is inherently incapable of reliably detecting sophisticated smuggling attempts that use small quantities of well-shielded nuclear material. To counter the weaknesses of the current ATS-based inspection system, we propose two new inspection systems: the hardness control system (HCS) and the hybrid inspection system (HYB). The HCS uses radiography information to classify incoming containers based on their cargo content into "hard" or "soft" containers, which then go through different inspection treatment. The HYB combines the radiography information with the intelligence information from the ATS. We compare and contrast the relative performance of these two new inspection systems with the existing ATS-based system. Our studies indicate that the HCS and HYB policies outperform the ATS-based policy for a wide range of realistic smuggling scenarios. We also examine the impact of changes in adversary behavior on the new inspection systems and find that they effectively preclude strategic gaming behavior of the adversary. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Code System to Detect Recurring Loss of Special Nuclear Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    PICARD, R. R.

    2001-08-23

    Version 00 NRCPAGE is used in safeguards applications to detect a recurring loss of special nuclear material by frequent evaluation (sequential analysis) of accountability data. Standard sequential testing procedures are traditionally based on sequences of independent and normally distributed measurements. This same approach can be applied to materials balance (MB) data. Here, the term materials balance has a meaning similar to inventory difference and represents a materials loss indicator localized in time and space. However, distinct Mbs cannot be reasonably treated as statistically independent and may not always be reasonably treated as normally distributed. Furthermore, the covariance structure associated with a given MB sequence is not known and must be estimated. Nonindependence is treated by converting the MB sequence to the innovation sequence, sometimes called the ITMUF sequence or the sequence of MUF residuals, which are statistically independent and amenable to sequential test procedures. A one-sided page's test, effective for a wide range of recurring loss scenarios, is applied to the standardized innovation sequence. The program can be easily modified to suit particular needs; the models for the assumption of multivariate normality for MBs when computing the innovation sequence or the test procedure can be changed as can the input/output format, dimensioning, local error checking, and simulation work. Input files can be sequentially constructed using local text editors to update existing files. Output files can be read by graphics, report writer, or other stand-alone utility routines.

  12. DFT Studies of Semiconductor and Scintillator Detection Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Koushik

    2013-03-01

    Efficient radiation detection technology is dependent upon the development of new semiconductor and scintillator materials with advanced capabilities. First-principles based approaches can provide vital information about the structural, electrical, optical and defect properties that will help develop new materials. In addition to the predictive power of modern density functional methods, these techniques can be used to establish trends in properties that may lead to identifying new materials with optimum properties. We will discuss the properties of materials that are of current interest both in the field of scintillators and room temperature semiconductor detectors. In case of semiconductors, binary compounds such as TlBr, InI, CdTe and recently developed ternary chalcohalide Tl6SeI4 will be discussed. Tl6SeI4 mixes a halide (TlI) with a chalcogenide (Tl2Se), which results in an intermediate band gap (1.86 eV) between that of TlI (2.75 eV) and Tl2Se (0.6 eV). For scintillators, we will discuss the case of the elpasolite compounds whose rich chemical compositions should enable the fine-tuning of the band gap and band edges to achieve high light yield and fast scintillation response.

  13. Advanced Propulsion Research Interest in Materials for Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of material science and technology in the area of propulsion energetics. The authors note that conventional propulsion systems are near peak performance and further refinements in manufacturing, engineering design and materials will only provide incremental increases in performance. Energetic propulsion technologies could potential solve the problems of energy storage density and energy-to-thrust conversion efficiency. Topics considered include: the limits of thermal propulsion systems, the need for energetic propulsion research, emerging energetic propulsion technologies, materials research needed for advanced propulsion, and potential research opportunities.

  14. Detection of trace materials with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a multi-channel detector.

    PubMed

    Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2006-01-01

    FTIR spectroscopy is one of the most powerful methods for material characterization. However, the sensitivity of this analytical tool is often very limited especially for materials with weak infrared absorption or when spectral bands of the targeted trace material overlap with the spectral bands of major components. Fortunately, for heterogeneous samples, there is an opportunity to improve the sensitivity of detection by using an imaging approach. This paper explores the opportunity of enhancing the sensitivity of FTIR spectroscopy to detect trace amounts of materials using the FTIR imaging approach based on a focal plane array (FPA) detector. Model sample tablets of ibuprofen in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) have been used to exemplify the detection limits of FTIR spectroscopy using: (a) a conventional mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector and (b) a FPA detector. The sensitivity level was compared and it has been found that for this particular set of samples, the lowest concentration of ibuprofen in HPMC that can be detected using attenuated total reflection (ATR) measuring mode with the single element MCT detector was 0.35 wt% while using the FPA detector, the presence of drug has been detected in a sample that contains as little as 0.075 wt% of drug. The application of using this enhanced sensitivity offered by the multi-channel detector to probe trace amounts of drug particles left on the surface of a finger after handling a small amount of the drug has also been demonstrated. These results have broad implications for forensic, biomedical and pharmaceutical research.

  15. The Task of Detecting Illicit Nuclear Material: Status and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzes, Richard

    2006-04-01

    In August 1994, police at the Munich airport intercepted a suitcase from Moscow with half a kilogram of nuclear-reactor fuel, of which 363 grams was weapons- grade plutonium. A few months later police seized 2.7 kilograms of highly enriched uranium from a former worker at a Russian nuclear institute and his accomplices in Prague. These are just two of 18 incidents involving the smuggling of weapons grade nuclear materials between 1993 and 2004 reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The consequences of a stolen or improvised nuclear device being exploded in a U.S. city would be world changing. The concern over the possibility of a nuclear weapon, or the material for a weapon or a radiological dispersion device, being smuggled across U.S. borders has led to the deployment of radiation detection equipment at the borders. Related efforts are occurring around the world. Radiation portal monitors are used as the main screening tool, supplemented by handheld detectors, personal radiation detectors, and x-ray imaging systems. Passive detection techniques combined with imaging, and possibly active techniques, are the current available tools for screening cargo for items of concern. There are a number of physics limitations to what is possible with each technology given the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials, commercial sources, and medical radionuclides in the stream of commerce. There have been a number of lessons learned to date from the various efforts in the U.S. and internationally about the capability for interdicting illicit nuclear material.

  16. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Wiemann, Dora K.; Choi, Junoh; Howell, Stephen W.

    2015-09-01

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development of room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.

  17. TERA-MIR radiation: materials, generation, detection and applications III (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mauro F.

    2016-10-01

    This talk summarizes the achievements of COST ACTION MP1204 during the last four years. [M.F. Pereira, Opt Quant Electron 47, 815-820 (2015).]. TERA-MIR main objectives are to advance novel materials, concepts and device designs for generating and detecting THz and Mid Infrared radiation using semiconductor, superconductor, metamaterials and lasers and to beneficially exploit their common aspects within a synergetic approach. We used the unique networking and capacity-building capabilities provided by the COST framework to unify these two spectral domains from their common aspects of sources, detectors, materials and applications. We created a platform to investigate interdisciplinary topics in Physics, Electrical Engineering and Technology, Applied Chemistry, Materials Sciences and Biology and Radio Astronomy. The main emphasis has been on new fundamental material properties, concepts and device designs that are likely to open the way to new products or to the exploitation of new technologies in the fields of sensing, healthcare, biology, and industrial applications. End users are: research centres, academic, well-established and start-up Companies and hospitals. Results are presented along our main lines of research: Intersubband materials and devices with applications to fingerprint spectroscopy; Metamaterials, photonic crystals and new functionalities; Nonlinearities and interaction of radiation with matter including biomaterials; Generation and Detection based on Nitrides and Bismides. The talk is closed by indicating the future direction of the network that will remain active beyond the funding period and our expectations for future joint research.

  18. Magnetite Core-Shell Nanoparticles in Nondestructive Flaw Detection of Polymeric Materials.

    PubMed

    Hetti, Mimi; Wei, Qiang; Pohl, Rainer; Casperson, Ralf; Bartusch, Matthias; Neu, Volker; Pospiech, Doris; Voit, Brigitte

    2016-10-04

    Nondestructive flaw detection in polymeric materials is important but difficult to achieve. In this research, the application of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) in nondestructive flaw detection is studied and realized, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Superparamagnetic and highly magnetic (up to 63 emu/g) magnetite core-shell nanoparticles are prepared by grafting bromo-end-group-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (Br-PGMA) onto surface-modified Fe3O4 NPs. These Fe3O4-PGMA NPs are blended into bisphenol A diglycidylether (BADGE)-based epoxy to form homogeneously distributed magnetic epoxy nanocomposites (MENCs) after curing. The core Fe3O4 of the Fe3O4-PGMA NPs endows the MENCs with magnetic property, which is crucial for nondestructive flaw detection of the materials, while the shell PGMA promotes colloidal stability and prevents NP aggregation during curing. The eddy current testing (ET) technique is first applied to detect flaws in the MENCs. Through the brightness contrast of the ET image, surficial and subsurficial flaws in MENCs can be detected, even for MENCs with low content of Fe3O4-PGMA NPs (1 wt %). The incorporation of Fe3O4-PGMA NPs can be easily extended to other polymer and polymer-based composite systems and opens a new and very promising pathway toward MNP-based nondestructive flaw detection in polymeric materials.

  19. Research Plan for Fire Signatures and Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the prevention, suppression, and detection of fires aboard a spacecraft is presented. The topics include: 1) Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression Sub-Element Products; 2) FPDS Organizing Questions; 3) FPDS Organizing Questions; 4) Signatures, Sensors, and Simulations; 5) Quantification of Fire and Pre-Fire Signatures; 6) Smoke; 7) DAFT Hardware; 8) Additional Benefits of DAFT; 9) Development and Characterization of Sensors 10) Simulation of the Transport of Smoke and Fire Precursors; and 11) FPDS Organizing Questions.

  20. Review of Physics Related Research and Development Activities in Nondestructive Characterization of Solid Rocket Motor Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Lee H.

    1998-10-01

    The perception that solid rocket motors (srm) are of relatively simple mechanical construction with a long history in private, military, and NASA applications may lead some to believe that little is left to be done in terms of basic and applied research and development in support of this technology. The fact is that srm?s are very complicated primarily because of the complexity of the materials from which they are built. The reliability and performance of srm?s are determined by the ballistic and mechanical properties of each individual material component, and by the manufacturing processes that conjoin these materials. In order to insure reliability and good performance, there are on-going materials research and development activities in the srm community. Included are activities involving the development of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods used for materials and processes characterization. Typical applications include: detection and characterization of defects in fiber reinforced composite materials, detection of weak bonds and debonds, verification of surface cleanliness prior to bonding, characterization of aging materials and bondlines, measurement of elastic properties in filled polymeric materials, monitoring of cure in polymeric materials, and measurement of film or coating thicknesses. NDE methods and physics principles upon which they are based will be described. Challenges and future research and development directions will be identified.

  1. Advances in thermoelectric materials research: Looking back and moving forward.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Tritt, Terry M

    2017-09-29

    High-performance thermoelectric materials lie at the heart of thermoelectrics, the simplest technology applicable to direct thermal-to-electrical energy conversion. In its recent 60-year history, the field of thermoelectric materials research has stalled several times, but each time it was rejuvenated by new paradigms. This article reviews several potentially paradigm-changing mechanisms enabled by defects, size effects, critical phenomena, anharmonicity, and the spin degree of freedom. These mechanisms decouple the otherwise adversely interdependent physical quantities toward higher material performance. We also briefly discuss a number of promising materials, advanced material synthesis and preparation techniques, and new opportunities. The renewable energy landscape will be reshaped if the current trend in thermoelectric materials research is sustained into the foreseeable future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. Rapid test for the detection of hazardous microbiological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordmueller, Mario; Bohling, Christian; John, Andreas; Schade, Wolfgang

    2009-09-01

    After attacks with anthrax pathogens have been committed since 2001 all over the world the fast detection and determination of biological samples has attracted interest. A very promising method for a rapid test is Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is an optical method which uses time-resolved or time-integrated spectral analysis of optical plasma emission after pulsed laser excitation. Even though LIBS is well established for the determination of metals and other inorganic materials the analysis of microbiological organisms is difficult due to their very similar stoichiometric composition. To analyze similar LIBS-spectra computer assisted chemometrics is a very useful approach. In this paper we report on first results of developing a compact and fully automated rapid test for the detection of hazardous microbiological material. Experiments have been carried out with two setups: A bulky one which is composed of standard laboratory components and a compact one consisting of miniaturized industrial components. Both setups work at an excitation wavelength of λ=1064nm (Nd:YAG). Data analysis is done by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with an adjacent neural network for fully automated sample identification.

  3. Damage detection in composite materials using Lamb wave methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Seth S.; Spearing, S. Mark; Soutis, Constantinos

    2002-04-01

    Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This paper presents part of an experimental and analytical survey of candidate methods for in situ damage detection of composite materials. Experimental results are presented for the application of Lamb wave techniques to quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy test specimens containing representative damage modes, including delamination, transverse ply cracks and through-holes. Linear wave scans were performed on narrow laminated specimens and sandwich beams with various cores by monitoring the transmitted waves with piezoceramic sensors. Optimal actuator and sensor configurations were devised through experimentation, and various types of driving signal were explored. These experiments provided a procedure capable of easily and accurately determining the time of flight of a Lamb wave pulse between an actuator and sensor. Lamb wave techniques provide more information about damage presence and severity than previously tested methods (frequency response techniques), and provide the possibility of determining damage location due to their local response nature. These methods may prove suitable for structural health monitoring applications since they travel long distances and can be applied with conformable piezoelectric actuators and sensors that require little power.

  4. Materials and light thermal structures research for advanced space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Earl A.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1991-01-01

    The Light Thermal Structures Center at the University of Virginia sponsors educational and research programs focused on the development of reliable, lightweight structures to function in hostile thermal environments. Technology advances in materials and design methodology for light thermal structures will contribute to improved space vehicle design concepts with attendant weight savings. This paper highlights current research activities in three areas relevant to space exploration: low density, high temperature aluminum alloys, composite materials, and structures with thermal gradients. Advances in the development of new aluminum-lithium alloys and mechanically alloyed aluminum alloys are described. Material properties and design features of advanced composites are highlighted. Research studies in thermal structures with temperature gradients include inelastic panel buckling and thermally induced unstable oscillations. Current and future research is focused on the integration of new materials with applications to structural components with thermal gradients.

  5. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  6. NASA research on structures and materials for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, P. A.; Heldenfels, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The technology and data base necessary for sound technical decisions regarding long haul supersonic cruise aircraft transportation systems are considered. The objectives and status of the research elements in the structures and materials program phase of the program are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on reductions in structural mass by research on advanced structural concepts, light-weight materials, improved loads, aeroelastic predictive techniques, and by development of efficient structural design procedures.

  7. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Progress made in the following research areas is reported: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid state physics, materials chemistry); chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques); nuclear sciences; fossil energy; advanced isotope separation technology; energy storage; magnetic fusion energy; and nuclear waste management.

  8. Researching Instructional Materials Evaluation: Adding Socio-Cultural Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Rhonda S.; And Others

    A research project to evaluate materials for teacher education is described that reviews the development of evaluation tools, provides new measures, and applies the new measures to current visual materials. It is expected that as the study continues, it will reveal several explicit and implicit ideological stereotypes and assumptions about beliefs…

  9. Research and Development in the Educational Materials Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Corp. of New York, NY.

    Under the sponsorship of the Carnegie Corporation and the Ford Foundation, a study was instituted to examine research and development in the educational materials industry. Using the open-ended interview method, data was collected from executives of major book publishers and their subsidiaries, and producers of materials other than books.…

  10. Research and Design of Rootkit Detection Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Leian; Yin, Zuanxing; Shen, Yuli; Lin, Haitao; Wang, Hongjiang

    Rootkit is one of the most important issues of network communication systems, which is related to the security and privacy of Internet users. Because of the existence of the back door of the operating system, a hacker can use rootkit to attack and invade other people's computers and thus he can capture passwords and message traffic to and from these computers easily. With the development of the rootkit technology, its applications are more and more extensive and it becomes increasingly difficult to detect it. In addition, for various reasons such as trade secrets, being difficult to be developed, and so on, the rootkit detection technology information and effective tools are still relatively scarce. In this paper, based on the in-depth analysis of the rootkit detection technology, a new kind of the rootkit detection structure is designed and a new method (software), X-Anti, is proposed. Test results show that software designed based on structure proposed is much more efficient than any other rootkit detection software.

  11. Detecting superlight dark matter with Fermi-degenerate materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, Yonit; Pyle, Matt; Zhao, Yue; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2016-08-08

    We examine in greater detail the recent proposal of using superconductors for detecting dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit of O(keV). Detection of suc light dark matter is possible if the entire kinetic energy of the dark matter is extracted in the scattering, and if the experiment is sensitive to O(meV) energy depositions. This is the case for Fermi-degenerate materials in which the Fermi velocity exceeds the dark matter velocity dispersion in the Milky Way of ~10–3. We focus on a concrete experimental proposal using a superconducting target with a transition edge sensor in order to detect the small energy deposits from the dark matter scatterings. Considering a wide variety of constraints, from dark matter self-interactions to the cosmic microwave background, we show that models consistent with cosmological/astrophysical and terrestrial constraints are observable with such detectors. A wider range of viable models with dark matter mass below an MeV is available if dark matter or mediator properties (such as couplings or masses) differ at BBN epoch or in stellar interiors from those in superconductors. We also show that metal targets pay a strong in-medium suppression for kinetically mixed mediators; this suppression is alleviated with insulating targets.

  12. Detecting superlight dark matter with Fermi-degenerate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Pyle, Matt; Zhao, Yue; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2016-08-01

    We examine in greater detail the recent proposal of using superconductors for detecting dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit of O (keV). Detection of suc light dark matter is possible if the entire kinetic energy of the dark matter is extracted in the scattering, and if the experiment is sensitive to O (meV) energy depositions. This is the case for Fermi-degenerate materials in which the Fermi velocity exceeds the dark matter velocity dispersion in the Milky Way of ˜ 10-3. We focus on a concrete experimental proposal using a superconducting target with a transition edge sensor in order to detect the small energy deposits from the dark matter scatterings. Considering a wide variety of constraints, from dark matter self-interactions to the cosmic microwave background, we show that models consistent with cosmological/astrophysical and terrestrial constraints are observable with such detectors. A wider range of viable models with dark matter mass below an MeV is available if dark matter or mediator properties (such as couplings or masses) differ at BBN epoch or in stellar interiors from those in superconductors. We also show that metal targets pay a strong in-medium suppression for kinetically mixed mediators; this suppression is alleviated with insulating targets.

  13. Detecting superlight dark matter with Fermi-degenerate materials

    DOE PAGES

    Hochberg, Yonit; Pyle, Matt; Zhao, Yue; ...

    2016-08-08

    We examine in greater detail the recent proposal of using superconductors for detecting dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit of O(keV). Detection of suc light dark matter is possible if the entire kinetic energy of the dark matter is extracted in the scattering, and if the experiment is sensitive to O(meV) energy depositions. This is the case for Fermi-degenerate materials in which the Fermi velocity exceeds the dark matter velocity dispersion in the Milky Way of ~10–3. We focus on a concrete experimental proposal using a superconducting target with a transition edge sensor in order tomore » detect the small energy deposits from the dark matter scatterings. Considering a wide variety of constraints, from dark matter self-interactions to the cosmic microwave background, we show that models consistent with cosmological/astrophysical and terrestrial constraints are observable with such detectors. A wider range of viable models with dark matter mass below an MeV is available if dark matter or mediator properties (such as couplings or masses) differ at BBN epoch or in stellar interiors from those in superconductors. We also show that metal targets pay a strong in-medium suppression for kinetically mixed mediators; this suppression is alleviated with insulating targets.« less

  14. Solution-processed hybrid materials for light detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adinolfi, Valerio

    Inorganic semiconductors form the foundation of modern electronics and optoelectronics. These materials benefit from excellent optoelectronic properties, but applications are generally limited due to high cost of fabrication. More recently, organic semiconductors have emerged as a low-cost alternative for light emitting devices. Organic materials benefit from facile, low temperature fabrication and offer attractive features such as flexibility and transparency. However, these materials are inherently limited by poor electronic transport. In recent years, new materials have been developed to overcome the dichotomy between performance and the cost. Hybrid organic--inorganic semiconductors combine the superior electronic properties of inorganic materials with the facile assembly of organic systems to yield high-performance, low-cost electronics. This dissertation focuses on the development of solution-processed light detectors using hybrid material systems, particularly colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) and hybrid perovskites. First, advanced architectures for colloidal quantum dot light detectors are presented. These devices overcome the responsivity--speed--dark current trade-off that has limited past reports of CQD-based devices. The photo-junction field effect transistors presented in this work decrease the dark current of CQD detectors by two orders of magnitude, ultimately reducing power consumption (100x) and noise current (10x). The detector simultaneously benefits from high gain (˜10 electrons/photon) and fast time response (˜ 10 mus). This represents the first CQD-based three-terminal-junction device reported in the literature. Building on this success, hybrid perovskite devices are then presented. This material system has become a focal point of the semiconductor research community due to its relatively unexplored nature and attractive optoelectronic properties. Herein we present the first extensive electronic characterization of single crystal organolead

  15. Research on IPv6 intrusion detection system Snort-based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zihao; Wang, Hui

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the common intrusion detection technologies, discusses the work flow of Snort intrusion detection system, and analyzes IPv6 data packet encapsulation and protocol decoding technology. We propose the expanding Snort architecture to support IPv6 intrusion detection in accordance with CIDF standard combined with protocol analysis technology and pattern matching technology, and present its composition. The research indicates that the expanding Snort system can effectively detect various intrusion attacks; it is high in detection efficiency and detection accuracy and reduces false alarm and omission report, which effectively solves the problem of IPv6 intrusion detection.

  16. PREFACE: 7th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, Roberts

    2013-12-01

    The 7th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2013) was held at Luleå University of Technology on the 21-22 March 2013 in Luleå, SWEDEN. This conference is intended as a meeting place for researchers involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE). This is great opportunity to present their on-going research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering, exchange ideas, strengthen co-operation as well as establish new contacts. More than 60 participants representing six countries attended the meeting, in total 26 oral talks and 19 posters were presented during two days. This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of articles from EEIGM-7 conference. Following tradition from previous EEIGM conferences, it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering. The papers presented in this issue deal not only with basic research but also with applied problems of materials science. The presented topics include theoretical and experimental investigations on polymer composite materials (synthetic and bio-based), metallic materials and ceramics, as well as nano-materials of different kind. Special thanks should be directed to the senior staff of Division of Materials Science at LTU who agreed to review submitted papers and thus ensured high scientific level of content of this collection of papers. The following colleagues participated in the review process: Professor Lennart Walström, Professor Roberts Joffe, Professor Janis Varna, Associate Professor Marta-Lena Antti, Dr Esa Vuorinen, Professor Aji Mathew, Professor Alexander Soldatov, Dr Andrejs Purpurs, Dr Yvonne Aitomäki, Dr Robert Pederson. Roberts Joffe October 2013, Luleå Conference photograph EEIGM7 conference participants, 22 March 2013 The PDF

  17. Progress of applied superconductivity research at Materials Research Laboratories, ITRI (Taiwan)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, R. S.; Wang, C. M.

    1995-01-01

    A status report based on the applied high temperature superconductivity (HTS) research at Materials Research Laboratories (MRL), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) is given. The aim is to develop fabrication technologies for the high-TC materials appropriate to the industrial application requirements. To date, the majorities of works have been undertaken in the areas of new materials, wires/tapes with long length, prototypes of magnets, large-area thin films, SQUID's and microwave applications.

  18. Development of reference materials to detect 15 different human papillomavirus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jee Eun; Kang, Young Soon; Seo, Hyun Hee; Choi, Ju-yeon; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Kim, Tae-Jin; Hong, Sung Ran; Kim, Sung Soon

    2014-06-10

    Accurate human papillomavirus (HPV) typing is essential for evaluating and monitoring HPV vaccines in cervical cancer screening and in epidemiological surveys. In our country, different HPV DNA detection and genotyping methodologies have been established for diagnosing and monitoring HPV-related disease in clinical practice and for research. However, there is a lack of reference materials to standardize the methods for HPV detection and genotyping. In this study, we constructed candidate reference materials comprising 15 targets (13 types of high-risk HPV, two types of low-risk HPV). We evaluated whether the candidate reference materials could be used as the reference for HPV detection and genotyping using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Standard curves for the wide linear range (10(1)-10(6)copies/μL) produced high correlation regression coefficient R(2) of 0.99. The reaction efficiencies were 96.3% to 101.2% for the standard curves, indicating highly efficient reactions. Specific genotypes were detected in single or multiple mixed samples. Our results suggest that these reference materials may provide useful standards for standardizing quality assurance for different HPV-typing assays and for proficiency testing in diagnostic laboratories.

  19. DOE Automotive Composite Materials Research: Present and Future Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-08-10

    One method of increasing automotive energy efficiency is through mass reduction of structural components by the incorporation of composite materials. Significant use of glass reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20--30% reduction in vehicle weight while the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials could yield a 40--60% reduction in mass. Specific areas of research for lightweighting automotive components are listed, along with research needs for each of these categories: (1) low mass metals; (2) polymer composites; and (3) ceramic materials.

  20. First Materials Science Research Rack Capabilities and Design Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D.; King, R.; Cobb, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) will accommodate dual Experiment Modules (EM's) and provide simultaneous on-orbit processing operations capability. The first international Materials Science Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 is an international cooperative research activity between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the European Space Agency's (ESA) European Space Research and Technology Center. (ESTEC). This International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) will contain the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) developed by ESA as an Experiment Module. The MSL Experiment Module will accommodate several on-orbit exchangeable experiment-specific Module Inserts. Module Inserts currently planned are a Quench Module Insert, Low Gradient Furnace, Solidification with Quench Furnace, and Diffusion Module Insert. The second Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 configuration is a commercial device supplied by MSFC's Space Products Department (SPD). It includes capabilities for vapor transport processes and liquid metal sintering. This Experiment Module will be replaced on-orbit with other NASA Materials Science EMs.

  1. First Materials Science Research Rack Capabilities and Design Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D.; King, R.; Cobb, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) will accommodate dual Experiment Modules (EM's) and provide simultaneous on-orbit processing operations capability. The first international Materials Science Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 is an international cooperative research activity between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the European Space Agency's (ESA) European Space Research and Technology Center. (ESTEC). This International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) will contain the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) developed by ESA as an Experiment Module. The MSL Experiment Module will accommodate several on-orbit exchangeable experiment-specific Module Inserts. Module Inserts currently planned are a Quench Module Insert, Low Gradient Furnace, Solidification with Quench Furnace, and Diffusion Module Insert. The second Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 configuration is a commercial device supplied by MSFC's Space Products Department (SPD). It includes capabilities for vapor transport processes and liquid metal sintering. This Experiment Module will be replaced on-orbit with other NASA Materials Science EMs.

  2. Materials Development and Research--Making the Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of applied linguistics the activities involved in developing instructional materials and those working in second language research and the more theoretical areas of applied linguistics are often seen to have little connection. This paper is an exploration of some of the kinds of interaction that are possible between research, theory…

  3. Interdisciplinary research concerning the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    Research projects involving the development of ceramic materials are discussed. The following areas of research are reported: (1) refractory structural ceramics, (2) solid electrolyte ceramics, and (3) ceramic processing. The laboratory equipment used and the procedures followed for various development and evaluation techniques are described.

  4. Breast Self-Examination: Programs and Materials Available for Teaching and Research

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Linda Del; Desmeules, Louise

    1985-01-01

    There is an abundance of information of breast self-examination (BSE) as a method of detecting breast cancer. This article describes the various teaching programs and sources of information available to physician, nurse and patient. Materials featuring old, young, black or white women are available; many can be obtained in English, French, Spanish and Braille. These materials range from annotated bibliographies, pamphlets and research reports to programs of continuing education for physicians, nurses and patients. PMID:21274089

  5. [Research progress of scaffold materials in skeletal muscle tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiyi; Liao, Hua

    2010-11-01

    To review the current researches of scaffold materials for skeletal muscle tissue engineering, to predict the development trend of scaffold materials in skeletal muscle tissue engineering in future. The related literature on skeletal muscle tissue engineering, involving categories and properties of scaffold materials, preparative technique and biocompatibility, was summarized and analyzed. Various scaffold materials were used in skeletal muscle tissue engineering, including inorganic biomaterials, biodegradable polymers, natural biomaterial, and biomedical composites. According to different needs of the research, various scaffolds were prepared due to different biomaterials, preparative techniques, and surface modifications. The development trend and perspective of skeletal muscle tissue engineering are the use of composite materials, and the preparation of composite scaffolds and surface modification according to the specific functions of scaffolds.

  6. 78 FR 11903 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...: Name: Site Visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at Northwestern University, also called the Multifunctional Nanoscale Material Structures Materials Research... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...

  7. Tooth regeneration: challenges and opportunities for biomedical material research.

    PubMed

    Du, Chang; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2006-03-01

    Tooth regeneration presents many challenges to researchers in the fields of biology, medicine and material science. This review considers the opportunities for biomedical material research to contribute to this multidisciplinary endeavor. We present short summaries and an overview on the collective knowledge of tooth developmental biology, advances in stem-cell research, and progress in the understanding of the tooth biomineralization principles as they provide the foundation for developing strategies for reparative and regenerative medicine. We emphasize that various biomaterials developed via biomimetic strategies have great potential for tooth tissue engineering and regeneration applications. The current practices in tooth tissue engineering approaches and applications of biomimetic carriers or scaffolds are also discussed.

  8. Statistical Signal Processing Research for Landmine Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-02

    Duke University Durham, NC 27705 - REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE b. ABSTRACT UU c. THIS PAGE UU 2 . REPORT TYPE Final Report 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU...Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Vancouver, BC, pp. 874-877 , July 2011. ( 2 ) Tantum. S. L., Morton, K.D. Jr., Torrione, P.A... Physics -based features for contextual factors affecting landmine detection with ground-penetrating radar,” SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, April

  9. Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    SciTech Connect

    Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    The materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR program the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Preliminary results from these projects are reported in technical progress reports prepared by each researcher.

  10. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin, D.A.; Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.

    1993-04-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR program the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Detailed results from these projects are reported in technical reports prepared by each researcher.

  11. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    SciTech Connect

    Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.

    1992-10-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR pregrain the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing several research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Preliminary results is from these projects are reported in technical progress reports prepared by each researcher.

  12. Development and evaluation of novel sensing materials for detecting food contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja

    evaluated as sensor material for the detection of alcohols at low concentrations. The results indicated that the QCM sensors exhibited a good sensitivity to 1-hexanol and 1-pentanol with the estimated LDLs in the range of 2-3 ppm and 3-5 ppm, respectively. This research work was successful in developing multiple novel sensing materials to detect alcohols and acid associated with meat contaminations at low concentrations.

  13. Life Science Research Facility materials management requirements and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Programs Office at NASA Ames Research Center has defined hypothetical experiments for a 90-day mission on Space Station to allow analysis of the materials necessary to conduct the experiments and to assess the impact on waste processing of recyclable materials and storage requirements of samples to be returned to earth for analysis as well as of nonrecyclable materials. The materials include the specimens themselves, the food, water, and gases necessary to maintain them, the expendables necessary to conduct the experiments, and the metabolic products of the specimens. This study defines the volumes, flow rates, and states of these materials. Process concepts for materials handling will include a cage cleaner, trash compactor, biological stabilizer, and various recycling devices.

  14. Life Science Research Facility materials management requirements and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Programs Office at NASA Ames Research Center has defined hypothetical experiments for a 90-day mission on Space Station to allow analysis of the materials necessary to conduct the experiments and to assess the impact on waste processing of recyclable materials and storage requirements of samples to be returned to earth for analysis as well as of nonrecyclable materials. The materials include the specimens themselves, the food, water, and gases necessary to maintain them, the expendables necessary to conduct the experiments, and the metabolic products of the specimens. This study defines the volumes, flow rates, and states of these materials. Process concepts for materials handling will include a cage cleaner, trash compactor, biological stabilizer, and various recycling devices.

  15. Development of a flaw detection material for the magnetic particle method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnokova, A. A.; Kalayeva, S. Z.; Ivanova, V. A.

    2017-08-01

    The issues of increasing the effectiveness of the magnetic particle method of nondestructive testing by using a new flaw detection material is considered in the paper. The requirements for flaw detection materials are determined, which ensure the effectiveness of the inspection method. A new flaw detection material - magnetic fluids from iron-containing waste products - has been developed.

  16. Detection and Characterization of Malathion Adherence to Piping Materials Used in Water Distribution Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MALATHION ADHERENCE TO PIPING MATERIALS USED IN WATER DISTRIBUTION... DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MALATHION ADHERENCE TO PIPING MATERIALS USED IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS THESIS Presented to the Faculty...AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-096 DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MALATHION ADHERENCE TO PIPING MATERIALS USED IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

  17. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, Shawn; Leman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.

    2013-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1000 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400C. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  18. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, Shawn; Frazier, Natalie; Lehman, John; Aicher, Winfried

    2013-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1000 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400C. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  19. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, S. E.; Lehman, J. R.; Frazier, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400degC. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  20. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, Shawn; Frazier, Natalie; Lehman, John

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400?C. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  1. [Peculiarities of chemico-toxicological analysis of biological material aimed to detection of narcotic and psychoactive substances misuse by servicemen].

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, P V; Kirichek, A V; Shabalina, A E; Smirnov, A V; Petukhov, A E

    2016-02-01

    The authors give an approval of military personnel biosphere research, which is necessary for prevention and early detection of substance misuse among military personnel of the Armed Forces. The article provides documents, regulating procedure of the chemico-toxicological analysis of a biological material, and staging of early detection of substance misuse among conscripts and professional soldiers. The authors gave information about main current problems of this activity, revealed its disadvantages and detected prevention measures.

  2. A Survey of Insider Attack Detection Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-25

    tion for research purposes. Because of the scarcity of real data, Chinchani et. al. created RACOON [Error! Reference source not found.], a system for...Mathematical Foundations. MITRE Cor- poration, 1973. [2] Chinchani R, Muthukrishnan A, Chandrasekaran M, Upadhyaya S, RACOON : Rapidly Gen- erating User

  3. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  4. Molecularly Engineered Energy Materials, an Energy Frontier Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2016-09-28

    Molecularly Engineered Energy Materials (MEEM) was established as an interdisciplinary cutting-edge UCLA-based research center uniquely equipped to attack the challenge of rationally designing, synthesizing and testing revolutionary new energy materials. Our mission was to achieve transformational improvements in the performance of materials via controlling the nano-and mesoscale structure using selectively designed, earth-abundant, inexpensive molecular building blocks. MEEM has focused on materials that are inherently abundant, can be easily assembled from intelligently designed building blocks (molecules, nanoparticles), and have the potential to deliver transformative economic benefits in comparison with the current crystalline-and polycrystalline-based energy technologies. MEEM addressed basic science issues related to the fundamental mechanisms of carrier generation, energy conversion, as well as transport and storage of charge and mass in tunable, architectonically complex materials. Fundamental understanding of these processes will enable rational design, efficient synthesis and effective deployment of novel three-dimensional material architectures for energy applications. Three interrelated research directions were initially identified where these novel architectures hold great promise for high-reward research: solar energy generation, electrochemical energy storage, and materials for CO2 capture. Of these, the first two remained throughout the project performance period, while carbon capture was been phased out in consultation and with approval from BES program manager.

  5. Physics Education in a Multidisciplinary Materials Research Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, W. D.

    1997-03-01

    The MINT Center, an NSF Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, is a multidisciplinary research program focusing on materials information storage. It involves 17 faculty, 10 post-doctoral fellows and 25 graduate students from six academic programs including Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Electric al Engineering and Chemical Engineering, whose research is supported by university, federal and industrial funds. The research facilities (15,000 ft^2) which include faculty and student offices are located in one building and are maintained by the university and the Center at no cost to participating faculty. The academic requirements for the students are determined by the individual departments along relatively rigid, traditional grounds although several materials and device courses are offered for students from all departments. Within the Center, participants work in teams assigning responsibilities and sharing results at regularly scheduled meetings. Bi-weekly research seminars for all participants provide excellent opportunities for students to improve their communication skills and to receive critical input from a large, diverse audience. Strong collaboration with industrial partners in the storage industry supported by workshops, research reviews, internships, industrial visitors and participation in industry consortia give students a broader criteria for self-evaluation, higher motivation and excellent career opportunities. Physics students, because of their rigorous basic training, are an important element in a strong materials sciences program, but they often are deficient in the behavior and characterization of real materials. The curriculum for physics students should be broadened to prepare them fully for a rewarding career in this emerging discipline.

  6. Development Approach for the Accommodation of Materials Science Research for the Materials Science Research Facility on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility comprised of autonomous Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR's) for research in the microgravity environment afforded by the International Space Station (ISS). The initial MSRF concept consists of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR-1, MSRR-2, and MSRR-3) which will be developed for a phased deployment beginning on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3). The facility will house materials processing apparatus and common subsystems required for operating each device. Each MSRR is a stand alone autonomous rack and will be comprised of either on-orbit replaceable Experiment Modules, Module Inserts, investigation unique apparatus, and/or multiuser generic processing apparatus. Each MSRR will support a wide range of materials science themes in the NASA research program and will use the ISS Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). MSRF is being developed for the United States Laboratory Module and will provide the apparatus for satisfying near-term and long-range Materials Science Discipline goals and objectives.

  7. Development Approach for the Accommodation of Materials Science Research for the Materials Science Research Facility on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility comprised of autonomous Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR's) for research in the microgravity environment afforded by the International Space Station (ISS). The initial MSRF concept consists of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR-1, MSRR-2, and MSRR-3) which will be developed for a phased deployment beginning on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3). The facility will house materials processing apparatus and common subsystems required for operating each device. Each MSRR is a stand alone autonomous rack and will be comprised of either on-orbit replaceable Experiment Modules, Module Inserts, investigation unique apparatus, and/or multiuser generic processing apparatus. Each MSRR will support a wide range of materials science themes in the NASA research program and will use the ISS Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). MSRF is being developed for the United States Laboratory Module and will provide the apparatus for satisfying near-term and long-range Materials Science Discipline goals and objectives.

  8. PREFACE: 6th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwat, David; Ayadi, Zoubir; Jamart, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    The 6th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2011) was held at the European School of Materials Engineering (EEIGM) on the 7-8 November 2011 in Nancy, France. This biennial conference organized by the EEIGM is a wonderful opportunity for all scientists involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE), to present their research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering. This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and provides a forum for the exchange of ideas, co-operation and future orientations by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. This edition of the conference included a round-table discussion on composite materials within the Interreg IVA project '+Composite'. Following the publication of the proceedings of AMR 2009 in Volume 5 of this journal, it is with great pleasure that we present this selection of articles to the readers of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Once again it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering, covering basic and applicative research on organic and composite materials, metallic materials and ceramics, and characterization methods. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are offered to the sponsors of the conference including EEIGM-Université de Lorraine, AMASE, DocMASE, Grand Nancy, Ville de Nancy, Region Lorraine, Fédération Jacques Villermaux, Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle, Casden and '+Composite'. Zoubir Ayadi, David Horwat and Brigitte Jamart

  9. NASA Lewis Research Center's Preheated Combustor and Materials Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemets, Steve A.; Ehlers, Robert C.; Parrott, Edith

    1995-01-01

    The Preheated Combustor and Materials Test Facility (PCMTF) in the Engine Research Building (ERB) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is one of two unique combustor facilities that provide a nonvitiated air supply to two test stands, where the air can be used for research combustor testing and high-temperature materials testing. Stand A is used as a research combustor stand, whereas stand B is used for cyclic and survivability tests of aerospace materials at high temperatures. Both stands can accommodate in-house and private industry research programs. The PCMTF is capable of providing up to 30 lb/s (pps) of nonvitiated, 450 psig combustion air at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1150 g F. A 5000 gal tank located outdoors adjacent to the test facility can provide jet fuel at a pressure of 900 psig and a flow rate of 11 gal/min (gpm). Gaseous hydrogen from a 70,000 cu ft (CF) tuber is also available as a fuel. Approximately 500 gpm of cooling water cools the research hardware and exhaust gases. Such cooling is necessary because the air stream reaches temperatures as high as 3000 deg F. The PCMTF provides industry and Government with a facility for studying the combustion process and for obtaining valuable test information on advanced materials. This report describes the facility's support systems and unique capabilities.

  10. Materials and Components Technology Division research summary, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The Materials and Components Technology Division (MCT) provides a research and development capability for the design, fabrication, and testing of high-reliability materials, components, and instrumentation. Current divisional programs related to nuclear energy support the development of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR): life extension and accident analyses for light water reactors (LWRs); fuels development for research and test reactors; fusion reactor first-wall and blanket technology; and safe shipment of hazardous materials. MCT Conservation and Renewables programs include major efforts in high-temperature superconductivity, tribology, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), and thermal sciences. Fossil Energy Programs in MCT include materials development, NDE technology, and Instrumentation design. The division also has a complementary instrumentation effort in support of Arms Control Technology. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the database.

  11. Metrology and Characterization Challenges for Emerging Research Materials and Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, C. Michael; Herr, Dan; Obeng, Yaw

    2011-11-10

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) Emerging Research Materials (ERM) and Emerging Research Devices (ERD) Technology Workgroups have identified materials and devices that could enable continued increases in the density and performance of future integrated circuit (IC) technologies and the challenges that must be overcome; however, this will require significant advances in metrology and characterization to enable progress. New memory devices and beyond CMOS logic devices operate with new state variables (e.g., spin, redox state, etc.) and metrology and characterization techniques are needed to verify their switching mechanisms and scalability, and enable improvement of operation of these devices. Similarly, new materials and processes are needed to enable these new devices. Additionally, characterization is needed to verify that the materials and their interfaces have been fabricated with required quality and performance.

  12. Water detection in thermal insulating materials by high resolution imaging with holographic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capineri, L.; Falorni, P.; Becthel, T.; Ivashov, S.; Razevig, V.; Zhuravlev, A.

    2017-01-01

    The present research is aimed at the application of high resolution holographic images for the detection and characterization of low water content (0.2-1 g) water patches in insulating materials. The images acquired with manual scanning with high frequency (7 GHz) holographic radar with I/Q outputs are compared with a high speed electromechanical scanner with 4 GHz holographic radar. Small patches of the order of 22 mm  ×  22 mm buried at 18 mm into insulating materials with a low dielectric constant, have been accurately reconstructed with the high frequency holographic radar but they can also be detected with the lower frequency holographic radar at even greater depths.

  13. [The advance in researches for biomedical intelligent polymer materials].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhibin; Tang, Changwei; Qiu, Kai; Chen, Yuanwei; Xiong, Yanfang; Wan, Changxiu

    2004-10-01

    The properties of biomedical intelligent polymer materials can be changed obviously when there is a little physical or chemical change in external condition. They are in the forms of solids, solutions and polymers on the surface of carrier, including aqueous solution of hydrophilic polymers, cross-linking hydrophilic polymers (i.e. hydrogels) and the polymers on the surface of carrier. In this paper are reviewed the progress in researches and the application of biomedical intelligent polymer materials.

  14. Cooperative Research Alliance Multiscale Modeling of Electronic Materials (MSME)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-19

    Infrastructure & Capabilities Electro Optics & Photonics Bio & Nano Power & Energy • Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy Facility • MOCVD, MBE semiconductor...Dielectric Deposition • LPCVD High Temperature Processing and Wafer Bonding • RIE/ICP • Auger /XPS • AFM • FIB • Micro Raman Electronic...Research of Materials Initiative Q. Wei, J. Mater Sci, 42, 2007 Tungsten Shear Bands Protection Materials Power & Energy Opto- electronics

  15. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Natalie C.; Johnson, Jimmie; Aicher, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses onboard the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U. S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has performed virtually flawlessly logging more than 550 hours of operating time. Materials science is an integral part of development of new materials for everyday life here on Earth. The goal of studying materials processing in space is to develop a better understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms involved. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility containing two furnace inserts in which Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one material sample, can be processed up to temperatures of 1400C. Once an SCA is installed by a Crew Member, the experiment can be run by automatic command or science conducted via telemetry commands from the ground. Initially, 12 SCAs were processed in the first furnace insert for a team of European and US investigators. The processed samples have been returned to Earth for evaluation and comparison of their properties to samples similarly processed on the ground. A preliminary examination of the samples indicates that the majority of the desired science objectives have been successfully met leading to significant improvements in the understanding of alloy solidification processes. The second furnace insert will be installed in the facility in January 2011 for processing the remaining SCA currently on orbit. Six SCAs are planned for launch summer 2011, and additional batches are

  16. Ground-Based Research within NASA's Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ground-based research in Materials Science for NASA's Microgravity program serves several purposes, and includes approximately four Principal Investigators for every one in the flight program. While exact classification is difficult. the ground program falls roughly into the following categories: (1) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Theoretical Studies; (2) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Bringing to Maturity New Research; (3) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Enabling Characterization; (4) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Thermophysical Property Determination; (5) Radiation Shielding; (6) Preliminary In Situ Resource Utilization; (7) Biomaterials; (8) Nanostructured Materials; (9) Materials Science for Advanced Space Propulsion. It must be noted that while the first four categories are aimed at using long duration low gravity conditions, the other categories pertain more to more recent NASA initiatives in materials science. These new initiatives address NASA's future materials science needs in the realms of crew health and safety, and exploration, and have been included in the most recent NASA Research Announcements (NRA). A description of each of these nine categories will be given together with examples of the kinds of research being undertaken.

  17. Ground-Based Research within NASA's Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ground-based research in Materials Science for NASA's Microgravity program serves several purposes, and includes approximately four Principal Investigators for every one in the flight program. While exact classification is difficult. the ground program falls roughly into the following categories: (1) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Theoretical Studies; (2) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Bringing to Maturity New Research; (3) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Enabling Characterization; (4) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Thermophysical Property Determination; (5) Radiation Shielding; (6) Preliminary In Situ Resource Utilization; (7) Biomaterials; (8) Nanostructured Materials; (9) Materials Science for Advanced Space Propulsion. It must be noted that while the first four categories are aimed at using long duration low gravity conditions, the other categories pertain more to more recent NASA initiatives in materials science. These new initiatives address NASA's future materials science needs in the realms of crew health and safety, and exploration, and have been included in the most recent NASA Research Announcements (NRA). A description of each of these nine categories will be given together with examples of the kinds of research being undertaken.

  18. Materials and Components Technology Division research summary, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This division has the purpose of providing a R and D capability for design, fabrication, and testing of high-reliability materials, components, and instrumentation. Current divisional programs are in support of the Integral Fast Reactor, life extension for light water reactors, fuels development for the new production reactor and research and test reactors, fusion reactor first-wall and blanket technology, safe shipment of hazardous materials, fluid mechanics/materials/instrumentation for fossile energy systems, and energy conservation and renewables (including tribology, high- temperature superconductivity). Separate abstracts have been prepared for the data base.

  19. Long range view of materials research for civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of various material technology advancements on the economics of civil transport aircraft is investigated. Benefits of advances in both airframe and engine materials are considered. Benefits are measured primarily by improvements in return on investment for an operator. Materials research and development programs which lead to the greatest benefits are assessed with regards to cost, risk, and commonality with other programs. Emphasis of the paper is on advanced technology subsonic/transonic transports (ATT type aircraft) since these are likely to be the next generation of commercial transports.

  20. Long range view of materials research for civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The impact of various material technology advancements on the economics of civil transport aircraft is investigated. Benefits of advances in both airframe and engine materials are considered. Benefits are measured primarily by improvements in return on investment for an operator. Materials research and development programs which lead to the greatest benefits are assessed with regards to cost, risk, and commonality with other programs. Emphasis of the paper is on advanced technology subsonic/transonic transports (ATT type aircraft) since these are likely to be the next generation of commercial transports.

  1. Type-II superlattice materials for mid-infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gail J.; Haugan, Heather; Szmulowicz, Frank; Mahalingam, Krishnamur; Grazulis, L.; Houston, Shanee

    2005-03-01

    Type-II superlattices composed of alternating thin layers of InAs and GaSb, have been shown to be a highly flexible infrared materials system in which the energy band gap can be adjusted anywhere between 360 meV and 40 meV. These superlattices (SLs) are the III-V equivalent to the well established HgxCd1-xTe alloys used for infrared detection in the short, mid and long wavelength bands of the infrared spectrum. There are many possible designs for these superlattices that will produce the same narrow band gap by adjusting individual layer thicknesses and interface composition. Systematic growth and characterization studies were performed to determine optimum superlattice designs suitable for infrared detection in the 3 to 5 μm wavelength band. For these studies the individual layer thicknesses were less than 35Å. The effects of adding different thickness InSb-like interfaces were also studied. Through precision molecular beam epitaxy, design changes as small as 3Å to the SL layers could be studied. Significant changes were observed in the infrared photoresponse spectra of the various SL samples. The infrared properties of the various designs of these type-II superlattices were modeled using an 8-band Envelope Function Approximation. The infrared photoresponse spectra, combined with quantum mechanical modeling of predicted absorption spectra, were a key factor in the design optimization of the InAs/GaSb superlattices with band gaps in the range of 200 to 360 meV.

  2. SAW/GC detection of taggants and other volatile compounds associated with contraband materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Watson, Gary W.; McGuirre, David S.; Williams, Dudley

    1997-02-01

    Research on a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Gas Chromatography (GC) non-intrusive inspection system has demonstrated the ability to identify and quantify the presence of non- volatile contraband vapors in less than 10 seconds. The technique can be used to detect volatile compounds associated with the contraband compound as well. This is important because volatile taggants in explosives make them easy to detect and volatile organic compounds are routinely used in the manufacturing of illicit drugs. The results of tests with volatile organic compounds associated with drugs of abuse, and volatile taggants for explosives are presented. The latter materials are particularly useful in detecting plastic explosives and results for Semtex and C-4 spiked with a taggant show that detectability is improved. Similar testing protocols and methods for drugs, currency, organo-phosphate agents, and taggant compounds have also been demonstrated. The SAW/GC method needs no high voltages, utilizes essentially all solid state devices, and involves no radioactive or hazardous materials SAW detection systems have demonstrated dynamic ranges greater than 1,000,000 and the ability to selectively screen for vapors from explosive and drugs of abuse at the part per billion level with little or no interference. Most important for law-enforcement, SAW/GC devices can be produced in small packages at low cost.

  3. Intrusion Detection Technology Research Based on Apriori Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanguang, Li; Yu, Ni

    Intrusion Detection is one of the important parts of the security system. The research has been carried out at home.and abroad for decades in the regard. However, with a variety of new method of attack, the demand of the Intrusion.Detection methods and algorithms have also been asked to improve. By analyzing the technology of Intrusion.Detection System and Data mining in this paper, the author uses Apriori algorithm which is the classic of association.rules in Web-based Intrusion Detection System and applies the rule base generated by the Apriori algorithm to.identify a variety of attacks, improves the overall performance of the detection system.

  4. Graphdiyne as a promising material for detecting amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Gao, Pengfei; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    The adsorption of glycine, glutamic acid, histidine and phenylalanine on single-layer graphdiyne/ graphene is investigated by ab initio calculations. The results show that for each amino acid molecule, the adsorption energy on graphdiyne is larger than the adsorption energy on graphene and dispersion interactions predominate in the adsorption. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that at room temperature the amino acid molecules keep migrating and rotating on graphdiyne surface and induce fluctuation in graphdiyne bandgap. Additionally, the photon absorption spectra of graphdiyne-amino-acid systems are investigated. We uncover that the presence of amino acid molecules makes the photon absorption peaks of graphdiyne significantly depressed and shifted. Finally, quantum electronic transport properties of graphdiyne-amino-acid systems are compared with the transport properties of pure graphdiyne. We reveal that the amino acid molecules induce distinct changes in the electronic conductivity of graphdiyne. The results in this paper reveal that graphdiyne is a promising two-dimensional material for sensitively detecting amino acids and may potentially be used in biosensors.

  5. Detection of xanthomegnin in epidermal materials infected with Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Ahmad, I; Borst, I; Summerbell, R C

    2000-11-01

    Xanthomegnin, a mutagenic mycotoxin best known as an agent of nephropathy and death in farm animals exposed to food-borne Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi, was first isolated about 35 y ago as a diffusing pigment from cultures of the dermatophyte, Trichophyton megninii. This study investigates the production of xanthomegnin by the most common dermatophytic species, Trichophyton rubrum, both in dermatologic nail specimens and in culture. In view of the labile nature of xanthomegnin, a chromatographic procedure was developed to allow high-performance liquid chromatography analysis within 1 h of sample extraction. In cultures, Tricho- phyton rubrum produced xanthomegnin as a major pigment that appears to give the culture its characteristic red colony reverse. Xanthomegnin was also repeatedly extracted from human nail and skin material infected by Trichophyton rubrum. The level of xanthomegnin present, however, varied among the clinical samples studied. Xanthomegnin was not detected in uninfected nails. These results show that patients with Trichophyton rubrum infections may be exposed to xanthomegnin, although the consequences of such an exposure are not currently known.

  6. Special Nuclear Material Detection with a Water Cherenkov based Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sweany, M; Bernstein, A; Bowden, N; Dazeley, S; Svoboda, R

    2008-11-10

    Fission events from Special Nuclear Material (SNM), such as highly enriched uranium or plutonium, produce a number of neutrons and high energy gamma-rays. Assuming the neutron multiplicity is approximately Poissonian with an average of 2 to 3, the observation of time correlations between these particles from a cargo container would constitute a robust signature of the presence of SNM inside. However, in order to be sensitive to the multiplicity, one would require a high total efficiency. There are two approaches to maximize the total efficiency; maximizing the detector efficiency or maximizing the detector solid angle coverage. The advanced detector group at LLNL is investigating one way to maximize the detector size. We are designing and building a water Cerenkov based gamma and neutron detector for the purpose of developing an efficient and cost effective way to deploy a large solid angle car wash style detector. We report on our progress in constructing a larger detector and also present preliminary results from our prototype detector that indicates detection of neutrons.

  7. Automated Guided-Wave Scanning Developed to Characterize Materials and Detect Defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Richard E.; Gyekenyeski, Andrew L.; Roth, Don J.

    2004-01-01

    The Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Group of the Optical Instrumentation Technology Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a scanning system that uses guided waves to characterize materials and detect defects. The technique uses two ultrasonic transducers to interrogate the condition of a material. The sending transducer introduces an ultrasonic pulse at a point on the surface of the specimen, and the receiving transducer detects the signal after it has passed through the material. The aim of the method is to correlate certain parameters in both the time and frequency domains of the detected waveform to characteristics of the material between the two transducers. The scanning system is shown. The waveform parameters of interest include the attenuation due to internal damping, waveform shape parameters, and frequency shifts due to material changes. For the most part, guided waves are used to gauge the damage state and defect growth of materials subjected to various mechanical or environmental loads. The technique has been applied to polymer matrix composites, ceramic matrix composites, and metal matrix composites as well as metallic alloys. Historically, guided wave analysis has been a point-by-point, manual technique with waveforms collected at discrete locations and postprocessed. Data collection and analysis of this type limits the amount of detail that can be obtained. Also, the manual movement of the sensors is prone to user error and is time consuming. The development of an automated guided-wave scanning system has allowed the method to be applied to a wide variety of materials in a consistent, repeatable manner. Experimental studies have been conducted to determine the repeatability of the system as well as compare the results obtained using more traditional NDE methods. The following screen capture shows guided-wave scan results for a ceramic matrix composite plate, including images for each of nine calculated parameters. The system can

  8. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Participant Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    These materials are the handouts for school administrators participating in RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops. The purposes of the workshops are to develop skills for improving schools and to increase teamwork skills. The handouts correspond to the 16 subsets that make up the five-day workshop: (1) orientation; (2) identifying…

  9. Research Tools and Materials | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Research Tools can be found in TTC's Available Technologies and in scientific publications. They are freely available to non-profits and universities through a Material Transfer Agreement (or other appropriate mechanism), and available via licensing to companies. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  10. Materials for hydrogen storage: current research trends and perspectives.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Annemieke W C; Areán, Carlos Otero

    2008-02-14

    Storage and transport of hydrogen constitutes a key enabling technology for the advent of a hydrogen-based energy transition. Main research trends on hydrogen storage materials, including metal hydrides, porous adsorbents and hydrogen clathrates, are reviewed with a focus on recent developments and an appraisal of the challenges ahead. .

  11. Action Research to Support Teachers' Classroom Materials Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Emily; Burns, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Language teachers constantly create, adapt and evaluate classroom materials to develop new curricula and meet their learners' needs. It has long been argued (e.g. by Stenhouse, L. [1975]. "An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development." London: Heinemann) that teachers themselves, as opposed to managers or course book writers,…

  12. Action Research to Support Teachers' Classroom Materials Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Emily; Burns, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Language teachers constantly create, adapt and evaluate classroom materials to develop new curricula and meet their learners' needs. It has long been argued (e.g. by Stenhouse, L. [1975]. "An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development." London: Heinemann) that teachers themselves, as opposed to managers or course book writers,…

  13. Development of an Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility at Princeton

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A B; Tully, C G; Austin, R; Calaprice, F; McDonald, K; Ascione, G; Baker, G; Davidson, R; Dudek, L; Grisham, L; Kugel, H; Pagdon, K; Stevenson, T; Woolley, R; Zwicker, A

    2010-11-17

    The need for a fundamental understanding of material response to a neutron and/or high heat flux environment can yield development of improved materials and operations with existing materials. Such understanding has numerous applications in fields such as nuclear power (for the current fleet and future fission and fusion reactors), aerospace, and other research fields (e.g., high-intensity proton accelerator facilities for high energy physics research). A proposal has been advanced to develop a facility for testing various materials under extreme heat and neutron exposure conditions at Princeton. The Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility comprises an environmentally controlled chamber (48 m^3) capable of high vacuum conditions, with extreme flux beams and probe beams accessing a central, large volume target. The facility will have the capability to expose large surface areas (1 m^2) to 14 MeV neutrons at a fluence in excess of 10^13 n/s. Depending on the operating mode. Additionally beam line power on the order of 15-75 MW/m2 for durations of 1-15 seconds are planned... The multi-second duration of exposure can be repeated every 2-10 minutes for periods of 10-12 hours. The facility will be housed in the test cell that held the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), which has the desired radiation and safety controls as well as the necessary loading and assembly infrastructure. The facility will allow testing of various materials to their physical limit of thermal endurance and allow for exploring the interplay between radiation-induced embrittlement, swelling and deformation of materials, and the fatigue and fracturing that occur in response to thermal shocks. The combination of high neutron energies and intense fluences will enable accelerated time scale studies. The results will make contributions for refining predictive failure modes (modeling) in extreme environments, as well as providing a technical platform for the development of new alloys, new

  14. Left Handed Materials Research for Air Force Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-31

    a high Tc superconducting material, such as YBCO , with mixed results. 3. After optimizing the key figures of merit of our single frequency (~3...amplification, our microwave spectrometer has the potential to detect superconducting grains of YBCO weighing as little as 1 microgram, or nanometer...thickness YBCO superconducting films with mass as low as 10 nanograms. We designed and built our system to operate at temperatures between 4K and 400K. A

  15. Acute cytotoxicity of fossil-energy-related comparative research materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of five fossil-energy-related comparative research materials have been examined under acute static conditions for toxic effects by use of the Tetrahymena assay system. Cells were exposed to various concentrations of extracts, and cytolysis and population growth impairment were monitored. In addition, chemical class fractionation and major organic elemental analysis were performed. Synthetic fossil fuel materials are more toxic than conventional petroleum crude oils and coal-derived materials are more toxic than crude shale oil. Synthetic fossil-fuel-related materials have a higher nitrogen and oxygen content and a greater aromaticity than do natural crude oils. Acute toxicity appears to be correlated with ether-soluble acid content, mono- and diaromatic hydrocarbon content, and ether-soluble base. 22 refs.

  16. Acute cytotoxicity of fossil-energy-related comparative research materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of five fossil-energy-related comparative research materials have been examined under acute static conditions for toxic effects by use of the Tetrahymena assay system. Cells were exposed to various concentrations of extracts, and cytolysis and population growth impairment were monitored. In addition, chemical class fractionation and major organic elemental analysis were performed. Synthetic fossil fuel materials are more toxic than conventional petroleum crude oils and coal-derived materials are more toxic than crude shale oil. Synthetic fossil-fuel-related materials have a higher nitrogen and oxygen content and a greater aromaticity than do natural crude oils. Acute toxicity appears to be correlated with ether-soluble acid (phenolic) content, mono- and diaromatic hydrocarbon content, and ether-soluble base (primary aromatic amines and azaarenes) content.

  17. Systems and methods for neutron detection using scintillator nano-materials

    DOEpatents

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2016-03-08

    In one embodiment, a neutron detector includes a three dimensional matrix, having nanocomposite materials and a substantially transparent film material for suspending the nanocomposite materials, a detector coupled to the three dimensional matrix adapted for detecting a change in the nanocomposite materials, and an analyzer coupled to the detector adapted for analyzing the change detected by the detector. In another embodiment, a method for detecting neutrons includes receiving radiation from a source, converting neutrons in the radiation into alpha particles using converter material, converting the alpha particles into photons using quantum dot emitters, detecting the photons, and analyzing the photons to determine neutrons in the radiation.

  18. Basic Research in Materials Science and Economic Sustainable Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermeier, H.-U.

    2000-09-01

    The necessity of public funding of basic research has been proclaimed by V. Bush 1945 in the `social contract for science' and this concept has been unanimously accepted as a vital prerequisite for the wealth of nations during the past 50 years. Recent developments gave rise to a paradigm shift away from the Bush's concept. In this paper this development is critically explored and the economical impact of research is discussed. Current evolution in knowledge generation and a change of the political boundary conditions require a new concept for an integrated research system. Examples taken from the semiconductor industry serve as an indicator of the enabling importance of materials science and condensed matter physics in the past. Basic research in materials science of functional ceramics generated new developments that are believed to have similar impact in the future. Already appearing and in the years ahead more emphasized nature of materials science as an multidisciplinary activity serves a model for the proposal of the vision of an integrated system of basic research and education. This is a prerequisite to master the challenges we are facind in the next century. A science based winning culture is the model for the future.

  19. The changing role of the National Laboratories in materials research

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.; Fluss, M.

    1995-06-02

    The role of the National Laboratories is summarized from the era of post World War II to the present time. The U.S. federal government policy for the National Laboratories and its influence on their materials science infrastructure is reviewed with respect to: determining overall research strategies, various initiatives to interact with industry (especially in recent years), building facilities that serve the nation, and developing leading edge research in the materials sciences. Despite reductions in support for research in the U.S. in recent years, and uncertainties regarding the specific policies for R&D in the U.S., there are strong roles for materials research at the National Laboratories. These roles will be centered on the abilities of the National Laboratories to field multidisciplinary teams, the use of unique cutting edge facilities, a focus on areas of strength within each of the labs, increased teaming and partnerships, and the selection of motivated research areas. It is hoped that such teaming opportunities will include new alliances with China, in a manner similar, perhaps, to those recently achieved between the U.S. and other countries.

  20. Single molecule detection with graphene and other two-dimensional materials: nanopores and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Arjmandi-Tash, Hadi; Belyaeva, Liubov A.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene and other two dimensional (2D) materials are currently integrated into nanoscaled devices that may – one day – sequence genomes. The challenge to solve is conceptually straightforward: cut a sheet out of a 2D material and use the edge of the sheet to scan an unfolded biomolecule from head to tail. As the scan proceeds – and because 2D materials are atomically thin – the information provided by the edge might be used to identify different segments – ideally single nucleotides – in the biomolecular strand. So far, the most efficient approach was to drill a nano-sized pore in the sheet and use this pore as a channel to guide and detect individual molecules by measuring the electrochemical ionic current. Nanoscaled gaps between two electrodes in 2D materials recently emerged as powerful alternatives to nanopores. This article reviews the current status and prospects of integrating 2D materials in nanopores, nanogaps and similar devices for single molecule biosensing applications. We discuss the pros and cons, the challenges, and the latest achievements in the field. To achieve high-throughput sequencing with 2D materials, interdisciplinary research is essential. PMID:26612268

  1. Single molecule detection with graphene and other two-dimensional materials: nanopores and beyond.

    PubMed

    Arjmandi-Tash, Hadi; Belyaeva, Liubov A; Schneider, Grégory F

    2016-02-07

    Graphene and other two dimensional (2D) materials are currently integrated into nanoscaled devices that may - one day - sequence genomes. The challenge to solve is conceptually straightforward: cut a sheet out of a 2D material and use the edge of the sheet to scan an unfolded biomolecule from head to tail. As the scan proceeds - and because 2D materials are atomically thin - the information provided by the edge might be used to identify different segments - ideally single nucleotides - in the biomolecular strand. So far, the most efficient approach was to drill a nano-sized pore in the sheet and use this pore as a channel to guide and detect individual molecules by measuring the electrochemical ionic current. Nanoscaled gaps between two electrodes in 2D materials recently emerged as powerful alternatives to nanopores. This article reviews the current status and prospects of integrating 2D materials in nanopores, nanogaps and similar devices for single molecule biosensing applications. We discuss the pros and cons, the challenges, and the latest achievements in the field. To achieve high-throughput sequencing with 2D materials, interdisciplinary research is essential.

  2. Research on gradient index material containing silver ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhimei; Liu, Tong; Kang, Lijun; Li, Yulin; Wang, Lili; Kong, Yu'e.; Li, Tonghai

    2006-01-01

    Since the gradient index material has important applications at photoelectric system, imaging system, and integrated-optical system. Now, researches on gradient index material containing silver ions are more popular, it is difficult to get glass with high silver content as silver ion is extruded from molten glass at the molten temperature. Two-step ion-exchange process including Ag +- Na + and Na + - Ag + ion-exchange is used to get gradient index. This paper is based on the research in our lab, by adjusting the glass composition to get a series of sodium-rich glass then drawing the fusioned glass into fiber with diameter of 1mm used for ion-exchange. We used mixed molten salt for ion- exchange, then we researched on the choice of silver salt, the advantage and disadvantage of mixed molten salt and single molten salt, and the coloring up problem after ion-exchange.

  3. Some applications of microanalytical electron microscopy in materials research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.

    1985-10-01

    Electron microscopy has made extraordinary progress over the past 30 years and has become an indispensible tool for research in materials science. In this paper a review is given of some applications of microdiffraction and microanalysis in our current materials science research projects at the University of California, Berkeley. The topics discussed include: (1) The problem of solute atom partitioning in steels; this includes the difficulties of measuring carbon contents and methods of utilizing diffraction, lattice imaging, energy dispersive x-ray (EDXS) and electron energy loss (EELS) spectroscopies and atom probe analysis will be illustrated. (2) Utilization of CBED and EDXS techniques in zirconia ceramics research. (3) Applications of CBED to the study of el-Fe2O3 particles used in magnetic recording systems. (4) Applications of CBED and EDXS to rare earth permanent magnets. (5) Channelling enhanced microanalysis. 50 refs., 21 figs.

  4. Detecting circulating tumor material and digital pathology imaging during pancreatic cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Radim; Divi, Rao; Verma, Mukesh

    2017-06-15

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Clinical symptoms typically present late when treatment options are limited and survival expectancy is very short. Metastatic mutations are heterogeneous and can accumulate up to twenty years before PC diagnosis. Given such genetic diversity, detecting and managing the complex states of disease progression may be limited to imaging modalities and markers present in circulation. Recent developments in digital pathology imaging show potential for early PC detection, making a differential diagnosis, and predicting treatment sensitivity leading to long-term survival in advanced stage patients. Despite large research efforts, the only serum marker currently approved for clinical use is CA 19-9. Utility of CA 19-9 has been shown to improve when it is used in combination with PC-specific markers. Efforts are being made to develop early-screening assays that can detect tumor-derived material, present in circulation, before metastasis takes a significant course. Detection of markers that identify circulating tumor cells and tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) in biofluid samples offers a promising non-invasive method for this purpose. Circulating tumor cells exhibit varying expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers depending on the state of tumor differentiation. This offers a possibility for monitoring disease progression using minimally invasive procedures. EVs also offer the benefit of detecting molecular cargo of tumor origin and add the potential to detect circulating vesicle markers from tumors that lack invasive properties. This review integrates recent genetic insights of PC progression with developments in digital pathology and early detection of tumor-derived circulating material.

  5. Detecting circulating tumor material and digital pathology imaging during pancreatic cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, Radim; Divi, Rao; Verma, Mukesh

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Clinical symptoms typically present late when treatment options are limited and survival expectancy is very short. Metastatic mutations are heterogeneous and can accumulate up to twenty years before PC diagnosis. Given such genetic diversity, detecting and managing the complex states of disease progression may be limited to imaging modalities and markers present in circulation. Recent developments in digital pathology imaging show potential for early PC detection, making a differential diagnosis, and predicting treatment sensitivity leading to long-term survival in advanced stage patients. Despite large research efforts, the only serum marker currently approved for clinical use is CA 19-9. Utility of CA 19-9 has been shown to improve when it is used in combination with PC-specific markers. Efforts are being made to develop early-screening assays that can detect tumor-derived material, present in circulation, before metastasis takes a significant course. Detection of markers that identify circulating tumor cells and tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) in biofluid samples offers a promising non-invasive method for this purpose. Circulating tumor cells exhibit varying expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers depending on the state of tumor differentiation. This offers a possibility for monitoring disease progression using minimally invasive procedures. EVs also offer the benefit of detecting molecular cargo of tumor origin and add the potential to detect circulating vesicle markers from tumors that lack invasive properties. This review integrates recent genetic insights of PC progression with developments in digital pathology and early detection of tumor-derived circulating material. PMID:28656074

  6. Methods of detection and identificationoc carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhalivyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

    2013-11-12

    Methods for detecting and identifying carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials are disclosed. The methods may comprise detection of photo-nuclear reaction products of nitrogen and carbon to detect and identify the carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials.

  7. Device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhilavyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Laptev, Valery Dmitrievich; Pakhomov, Nikolay Ivanovich; Shvedunov, Vasily Ivanovich; Rykalin, Vladimir Ivanovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

    2014-03-25

    A device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials is described. In particular, the device performs the detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials by photo-nuclear detection. The device may comprise a race-track microtron, a breaking target, and a water-filled Cherenkov radiation counter.

  8. Electromagnetic material changes for remote detection and monitoring: a feasibility study: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Jordan, David V.; Kelly, James F.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Campbell, Luke W.

    2009-09-01

    A new concept for radiation detection is proposed, allowing a decoupling of the sensing medium and the readout. An electromagnetic material, such as a magnetic ceramic ferrite, is placed near a source to be tracked such as a shipping container. The electromagnetic material changes its properties, in this case its magnetic permeability, as a function of radiation. This change is evident as a change in reflection frequency and magnitude when probed using a microwave/millimeter-wave source. This brief report discusses modeling of radiation interaction of various candidate materials using a radiation detector modeling code Geant4, system design considerations for the remote readout, and some theory of the material interaction physics. The theory of radiation change in doped magnetic insulator ferrites such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG) seems well founded based on literature documentation of the photomagnetic effect. The literature also suggests sensitivity of permittivity to neutrons in some ferroelectrics. Research to date indicates that experimental demonstration of these effects in the context of radiation detection is warranted.

  9. Detection of material property errors in handbooks and databases using artificial neural networks with hidden correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Evans, J. R. G.; Yang, S. F.

    2010-11-01

    The authors have discovered a systematic, intelligent and potentially automatic method to detect errors in handbooks and stop their transmission using unrecognised relationships between materials properties. The scientific community relies on the veracity of scientific data in handbooks and databases, some of which have a long pedigree covering several decades. Although various outlier-detection procedures are employed to detect and, where appropriate, remove contaminated data, errors, which had not been discovered by established methods, were easily detected by our artificial neural network in tables of properties of the elements. We started using neural networks to discover unrecognised relationships between materials properties and quickly found that they were very good at finding inconsistencies in groups of data. They reveal variations from 10 to 900% in tables of property data for the elements and point out those that are most probably correct. Compared with the statistical method adopted by Ashby and co-workers [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 454 (1998) p. 1301, 1323], this method locates more inconsistencies and could be embedded in database software for automatic self-checking. We anticipate that our suggestion will be a starting point to deal with this basic problem that affects researchers in every field. The authors believe it may eventually moderate the current expectation that data field error rates will persist at between 1 and 5%.

  10. Capability of Thermographic Imaging Defined for Detection in High-Temperature Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.

    1997-01-01

    Significant effort and resources are being expended to develop ceramic matrix (CMC), metal matrix (MMC), and polymer matrix (PMC) composites for high-temperature engine components and other parts in advanced aircraft. The objective of this NASA Lewis Research Center study was to evaluate the ability of a thermographic imaging technique for detecting artificially created defects (flat-bottom holes) of various diameters and depths in four composite systems (two CMC's, one MMC, and one PMC) of interest as high-temperature structural materials.

  11. Silicon carbide alloys: Research reports in materials science

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The book draws from work done on other silicon materials, silicon nitrides and sialons, to emphasize the importance of the SiC system. A comprehensive treatment of non-oxide silicon ceramics, this work is of special interest to researchers involved in ceramics, materials science, and high-temperature technology. This book covers the alloys of silicon carbide with aluminum nitride. Crystallography and experimental methods including sample preparation, furnace methods, X-ray and electron diffraction, optical and electron microscopy and chemical analysis are covered.

  12. The use of containerless processing in researching reactive materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. K. R.; Krishnan, Shankar; Nordine, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    It has recently become possible to perform containerless, high-temperature liquid-phase processing of many nonvolatile materials without resort to orbital microgravity, thereby facilitating the conduct of materials research in conjunction with noncontact diagnostic instruments. The melt-levitation techniques are electromagnetic, aerodynamic, acoustic, aeroacoustic, and electrostatic; nonorbital microgravity conditions are obtainable aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft on parabolic flight paths, as well as in drop tubes and towers. Applications encompass the purification of metals and the creation of nonequilibrium and metastable structures. Process control and property measurements include optical pyrometry and emissivity, laser polarimetry, and drop calorimetry.

  13. First Materials Science Research Facility Rack Capabilities and Design Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, S.; Higgins, D.; Kitchens, L.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) is the primary facility for U.S. sponsored materials science research on the International Space Station. MSRR-1 is contained in an International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) equipped with the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for the best possible microgravity environment. MSRR-1 will accommodate dual Experiment Modules and provide simultaneous on-orbit processing operations capability. The first Experiment Module for the MSRR-1, the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL), is an international cooperative activity between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the European Space Agency's (ESA) European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC). The MSL Experiment Module will accommodate several on-orbit exchangeable experiment-specific Module Inserts which provide distinct thermal processing capabilities. Module Inserts currently planned for the MSL are a Quench Module Insert, Low Gradient Furnace, and a Solidification with Quench Furnace. The second Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 configuration is a commercial device supplied by MSFC's Space Products Development (SPD) Group. Transparent furnace assemblies include capabilities for vapor transport processes and annealing of glass fiber preforms. This Experiment Module is replaceable on-orbit. This paper will describe facility capabilities, schedule to flight and research opportunities.

  14. First Materials Science Research Facility Rack Capabilities and Design Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, S.; Higgins, D.; Kitchens, L.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) is the primary facility for U.S. sponsored materials science research on the International Space Station. MSRR-1 is contained in an International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) equipped with the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for the best possible microgravity environment. MSRR-1 will accommodate dual Experiment Modules and provide simultaneous on-orbit processing operations capability. The first Experiment Module for the MSRR-1, the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL), is an international cooperative activity between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the European Space Agency's (ESA) European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC). The MSL Experiment Module will accommodate several on-orbit exchangeable experiment-specific Module Inserts which provide distinct thermal processing capabilities. Module Inserts currently planned for the MSL are a Quench Module Insert, Low Gradient Furnace, and a Solidification with Quench Furnace. The second Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 configuration is a commercial device supplied by MSFC's Space Products Development (SPD) Group. Transparent furnace assemblies include capabilities for vapor transport processes and annealing of glass fiber preforms. This Experiment Module is replaceable on-orbit. This paper will describe facility capabilities, schedule to flight and research opportunities.

  15. Analytical SuperSTEM for extraterrestrial materials research

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J P; Dai, Z R

    2009-09-08

    Electron-beam studies of extraterrestrial materials with significantly improved spatial resolution, energy resolution and sensitivity are enabled using a 300 keV SuperSTEM scanning transmission electron microscope with a monochromator and two spherical aberration correctors. The improved technical capabilities enable analyses previously not possible. Mineral structures can be directly imaged and analyzed with single-atomic-column resolution, liquids and implanted gases can be detected, and UV-VIS optical properties can be measured. Detection limits for minor/trace elements in thin (<100 nm thick) specimens are improved such that quantitative measurements of some extend to the sub-500 ppm level. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be carried out with 0.10-0.20 eV energy resolution and atomic-scale spatial resolution such that variations in oxidation state from one atomic column to another can be detected. Petrographic mapping is extended down to the atomic scale using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) imaging. Technical capabilities and examples of the applications of SuperSTEM to extraterrestrial materials are presented, including the UV spectral properties and organic carbon K-edge fine structure of carbonaceous matter in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), x-ray elemental maps showing the nanometer-scale distribution of carbon within GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides), the first detection and quantification of trace Ti in GEMS using EDS, and detection of molecular H{sub 2}O in vesicles and implanted H{sub 2} and He in irradiated mineral and glass grains.

  16. Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology Based on NASA's Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, James A.

    2003-01-01

    The grant NAG-1 -2125, Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology, based on NASA s Materials Research, involves collaborative effort among the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC), Norfolk State University (NSU), national research centers, private industry, technical societies, colleges and universities. The collaboration aims to strengthen math, science and technology education by providing outreach related to materials science and technology (MST). The goal of the project is to transfer new developments from LaRC s Center for Excellence for Structures and Materials and other NASA materials research into technical education across the nation to provide educational outreach and strengthen technical education. To achieve this goal we are employing two main strategies: 1) development of the gateway website and 2) using the National Educators Workshop: Update in Engineering Materials, Science and Technology (NEW:Updates). We have also participated in a number of national projects, presented talks at technical meetings and published articles aimed at improving k-12 technical education. Through the three years of this project the NSU team developed the successful MST-Online site and continued to upgrade and update it as our limited resources permitted. Three annual NEW:Updates conducted from 2000 though 2002 overcame the challenges presented first by the September 11,2001 terrorist attacks and the slow U.S. economy and still managed to conduct very effective workshops and expand our outreach efforts. Plans began on NEW:Update 2003 to be hosted by NASA Langley as a part of the celebration of the Centennial of Controlled Flight.

  17. Associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe: Detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    Continued research and development of the APSTNG shows the potential for practical field use of this technology for detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials. The APSTNG (associated-particle sealed-tube generator) inspects the item to be examined using penetrating 14-MeV neutrons generated by the deuterium-tritium reaction inside a compact accelerator tube. An alpha detector built into the sealed tube detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron emitted in a cone encompassing the volume to be inspected. Penetrating high-energy gamma-rays from the resulting neutron reactions identify specific nuclides inside the volume. Flight-times determined from the detection times of gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and allow a coarse 3-D image to be obtained of nuclides identified in the prompt spectrum. The generator and detectors can be on the same side of the inspected object, on opposite sides, or with intermediate orientations. Thus, spaces behind walls and other confined regions can be inspected. Signals from container walls can be discriminated against using the flight-time technique. No collimators or shielding are required, the neutron generator is relatively small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. The use of 14-MeV neutrons yields a much higher cross-section for detecting nitrogen than that for systems based on thermal-neutron reactions alone, and the broad range of elements with significant 14-MeV neutron cross-sections extends explosives detection to other elements including low-nitrogen compounds, and allows detection of many other substances. Proof-of-concept experiments have been successfully performed for conventional explosives, chemical warfare agents, cocaine, and fissionable materials.

  18. Electrostatic Levitation: A Tool to Support Materials Research in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan; SanSoucie, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Containerless processing represents an important topic for materials research in microgravity. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container, which permits studies of deeply undercooled melts, and high-temperature, highly reactive materials. Containerless processing provides data for studies of thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable state formation, microstructure formation, undercooling, and nucleation. The European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) jointly developed an electromagnetic levitator facility (MSL-EML) for containerless materials processing in space. The electrostatic levitator (ESL) facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center provides support for the development of containerless processing studies for the ISS. Apparatus and techniques have been developed to use the ESL to provide data for phase diagram determination, creep resistance, emissivity, specific heat, density/thermal expansion, viscosity, surface tension and triggered nucleation of melts. The capabilities and results from selected ESL-based characterization studies performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center will be presented.

  19. Sodium fast reactor fuels and materials : research needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, Matthew R.; Porter, Douglas; Wright, Art; Lambert, John; Hayes, Steven; Natesan, Ken; Ott, Larry J.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2011-09-01

    An expert panel was assembled to identify gaps in fuels and materials research prior to licensing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) design. The expert panel considered both metal and oxide fuels, various cladding and duct materials, structural materials, fuel performance codes, fabrication capability and records, and transient behavior of fuel types. A methodology was developed to rate the relative importance of phenomena and properties both as to importance to a regulatory body and the maturity of the technology base. The technology base for fuels and cladding was divided into three regimes: information of high maturity under conservative operating conditions, information of low maturity under more aggressive operating conditions, and future design expectations where meager data exist.

  20. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-06

    other nuclear facilities, tracking materials at border crossings and choke points, screening maritime cargo containers, and examining actual or...generate low levels of neutrons. Some commercial goods contain radioactive material, such as ceramics (which may contain uranium) and kitty litter (which...alert individuals to the presence of elevated levels of radiation. They may use any of several types of detector material. They are lightweight and

  1. Detecting strain in birefringent materials using spectral polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragucci, Anthony J. (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Huebschman, Michael L. (Inventor); Garner, Harold R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method, computer program product and system for analyzing multispectral images from a plurality of regions of birefringent material, such as a polymer film, using polarized light and a corresponding polar analyzer to identify differential strain in the birefringent material. For example, the birefringement material may be low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, polyester, nylon, or cellophane film. Optionally, the method includes generating a real-time quantitative strain map.

  2. Simplicity as a Route to Impact in Materials Research.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinchun; Lind, Kara R; Yuan, Bin; Shaw, Santosh; Siemianowski, Oskar; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2017-05-01

    Materials scientists and engineers desire to have an impact. In this Progress Report we postulate a close correlation between impact - whether academic, technological, or scientific - and simple solutions, here defined as solutions that are inexpensive, reliable, predictable, highly performing, "stackable" (i.e., they can be combined and compounded with little increase in complexity), and "hackable" (i.e., they can be easily modified and optimized). In light of examples and our own experience, we propose how impact can be pursued systematically in materials research through a simplicity-driven approach to discovery-driven or problem-driven research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Materials Data Facility: Data Services to Advance Materials Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaiszik, B.; Chard, K.; Pruyne, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Tuecke, S.; Foster, I.

    2016-08-01

    With increasingly strict data management requirements from funding agencies and institutions, expanding focus on the challenges of research replicability, and growing data sizes and heterogeneity, new data needs are emerging in the materials community. The materials data facility (MDF) operates two cloud-hosted services, data publication and data discovery, with features to promote open data sharing, self-service data publication and curation, and encourage data reuse, layered with powerful data discovery tools. The data publication service simplifies the process of copying data to a secure storage location, assigning data a citable persistent identifier, and recording custom (e.g., material, technique, or instrument specific) and automatically-extracted metadata in a registry while the data discovery service will provide advanced search capabilities (e.g., faceting, free text range querying, and full text search) against the registered data and metadata. The MDF services empower individual researchers, research projects, and institutions to (I) publish research datasets, regardless of size, from local storage, institutional data stores, or cloud storage, without involvement of third-party publishers; (II) build, share, and enforce extensible domain-specific custom metadata schemas; (III) interact with published data and metadata via representational state transfer (REST) application program interfaces (APIs) to facilitate automation, analysis, and feedback; and (IV) access a data discovery model that allows researchers to search, interrogate, and eventually build on existing published data. We describe MDF's design, current status, and future plans.

  4. The Materials Data Facility: Data services to advance materials science research

    SciTech Connect

    Blaiszik, B.; Chard, K.; Pruyne, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Tuecke, S.; Foster, I.

    2016-08-01

    With increasingly strict data management requirements from funding agencies and institutions, expanding focus on the challenges of research replicability, and growing data sizes and heterogeneity, new data needs are emerging in the materials community. The materials data facility (MDF) operates two cloudhosted services, data publication and data discovery, with features to promote open data sharing, self-service data publication and curation, and encourage data reuse, layered with powerful data discovery tools. The data publication service simplifies the process of copying data to a secure storage location, assigning data a citable persistent identifier, and recording custom (e.g., material, technique, or instrument specific)and automatically-extractedmetadata in a registrywhile the data discovery service will provide advanced search capabilities (e.g., faceting, free text range querying, and full text search) against the registered data and metadata. TheMDF services empower individual researchers, research projects, and institutions to (I) publish research datasets, regardless of size, from local storage, institutional data stores, or cloud storage, without involvement of thirdparty publishers; (II) build, share, and enforce extensible domain-specific custom metadata schemas; (III) interact with published data and metadata via representational state transfer (REST) application program interfaces (APIs) to facilitate automation, analysis, and feedback; and (IV) access a data discovery model that allows researchers to search, interrogate, and eventually build on existing published data. We describe MDF’s design, current status, and future plans.

  5. Materials research for passive solar systems: solid-state phase-change materials

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Webb, J.D.; Burrows, R.W.; McFadden, J.D.O.; Christensen, C.

    1985-03-01

    A set of solid-state phase-change materials is being evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol (C/sub 5/H/sub 12/O/sub 4/), pentaglycerinve (C/sub 5/H/sub 12/O/sub 3/), and neopentyl glycol (C/sub 5/H/sub 12/O/sub 2/). Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature betweeen 25/sup 0/C and 188/sup 0/C, and have latent heats of transformation between 20 and 70 cal/g. Transformation temperatures, specific heats, and latent heats of transformation have been measured for a number of these materials. Limited cyclic experiments suggest that the solid solutions are stable. These phase-change materials exhibit large amounts of undercooling; however, the addition of certain nucleating agents as particulate dispersions in the solid phase-change material greatly reduces this effect. Computer simulations suggest that the use of an optimized solid-state phase-change material in a Trombe wall could provide better performance than a concrete Trombe wall four times thicker and nine times heavier. Nevertheless, a higher cost of the phase-change materials (approx. =$0.70 per pound) is likely to limit their applicability in passive solar systems unless their performance can be significantly improved through further research.

  6. Method and apparatus for detection of fluorescently labeled materials

    DOEpatents

    Stern, David; Fiekowsky, Peter

    2004-05-25

    Fluorescently marked targets bind to a substrate 230 synthesized with polymer sequences at known locations. The targets are detected by exposing selected regions of the substrate 230 to light from a light source 100 and detecting the photons from the light fluoresced therefrom, and repeating the steps of exposure and detection until the substrate 230 is completely examined. The resulting data can be used to determine binding affinity of the targets to specific polymer sequences.

  7. Method and apparatus for detection of fluorescently labeled materials

    DOEpatents

    Stern, David; Fiekowsky, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Fluorescently marked targets bind to a substrate 230 synthesized with polymer sequences at known locations. The targets are detected by exposing selected regions of the substrate 230 to light from a light source 100 and detecting the photons from the light fluoresced therefrom, and repeating the steps of exposure and detection until the substrate 230 is completely examined. The resulting data can be used to determine binding affinity of the targets to specific polymer sequences.

  8. Editorial - Proceedings on Basic Research on Ionic-Covalent Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-05-01

    The third symposium on Basic Research on Ionic-Covalent Materials for Nuclear Applications, originally initiated at the EMRS in Nice (May 2011), attracted 80 registered participants. During 4 days, 54 oral talks and 22 posters were presented. The overall high quality of the majority of the contributions was appreciated, in particular the great efforts of the invited speakers to convey their expertise in an excellent tutorial way.

  9. New Recommendation on Biological Materials Could Hamper Muscular Dystrophy Research

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Pauline; Woods, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The new ‘Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers to member States on research on biological materials of human origin’, adopted in Europe in May 2016 is confusing and lacks specificity on the research use of biomaterials taken from persons not able to consent. It is possible to interpret the relevant clauses in a restrictive manner and doing so would hamper biobank research, by requiring researchers or biobank curators to examine individual records in detail, to check they are adhering to the Recommendation. This would be particularly problematic for muscular dystrophy and other rare disease research, the progress of which relies increasingly on the sharing of biomaterials and data internationally, as it will add complexity to the logistics of biomaterials and data sharing and introduce barriers for researchers preparing biomaterials for sharing. Such barriers are contradictory to EC policies on promoting and funding rare disease research and removing barriers to better care and treatment. Such policies work in concert with international progress in rare disease research, in particular the NIH’s Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Centre. The rare disease community has in recent years worked to create a common framework of harmonised approaches to enable the responsible, voluntary, and secure sharing of biomaterials and data. These efforts are supported by the European Commission in such moves as FP7 funding to advance rare disease research and the introduction of National Plans for rare disease; and are bolstered by similar efforts in the USA via the Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program and the NIH/NCATS Patient Registry developments. Introducing Recommendations from the Committee of Ministers, containing clauses which are incompatible to the efforts to advance rare disease research, seems counter-productive. PMID:28133562

  10. Area Reports. Advanced materials and devices research area. Silicon materials research task, and advanced silicon sheet task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Silicon Materials Task and the Advanced Silicon Sheet Task are to identify the critical technical barriers to low-cost silicon purification and sheet growth that must be overcome to produce a PV cell substrate material at a price consistent with Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project objectives and to overcome these barriers by performing and supporting appropriate R&D. Progress reports are given on silicon refinement using silane, a chemical vapor transport process for purifying metallurgical grade silicon, silicon particle growth research, and modeling of silane pyrolysis in fluidized-bed reactors.

  11. An overview of the Nuclear Materials Focus Area research program

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERSON,GARY D.; POLANSKY,GARY F.; OSBORNE,KEN K.; RANDALL,VIRGINIA

    2000-02-25

    The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) is responsible for providing comprehensive needs identification, integration of technology research and development activities, and technology deployment for stabilization, packaging, and interim storage of surplus nuclear materials within the DOE complex. The NMFA was chartered in April 1999 by the Office of Science and Technology (OST), an organizational component of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). OST manages a national program to conduct basic and applied research, and technology development, demonstration, and deployment assistance that is essential to completing a timely and cost-effective cleanup of the DOE nuclear weapons complex. DOE/EM provides environmental research results, as well as cleanup technologies and systems, to meet high-priority end-user needs, reduce EM's major cost centers and technological risks, and accelerate technology deployments. The NMFA represents the segment of EM that focuses on technological solutions for re-using, transforming, and disposing excess nuclear materials and is jointly managed by the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office and the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

  12. Advances in Materials Research: An Internship at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrios, Elizabeth A.; Roberson, Luke B.

    2011-01-01

    My time at Kennedy Space Center. was spent immersing myself in research performed in the Materials Science Division of the Engineering Directorate. My Chemical Engineering background provided me the ability to assist in many different projects ranging from tensile testing of composite materials to making tape via an extrusion process. However, I spent the majority of my time on the following three projects: (1) testing three different materials to determine antimicrobial properties; (2) fabricating and analyzing hydrogen sensing tapes that were placed at the launch pad for STS-133 launch; and (3) researching molten regolith electrolysis at KSC to prepare me for my summer internship at MSFC on a closely related topic. This paper aims to explain, in detail, what I have learned about these three main projects. It will explain why this research is happening and what we are currently doing to resolve the issues. This paper will also explain how the hard work and experiences that I have gained as an intern have provided me with the next big step towards my career at NASA.

  13. Detecting Shielded Special Nuclear Materials Using Multi-Dimensional Neutron Source and Detector Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santarius, John; Navarro, Marcos; Michalak, Matthew; Fancher, Aaron; Kulcinski, Gerald; Bonomo, Richard

    2016-10-01

    A newly initiated research project will be described that investigates methods for detecting shielded special nuclear materials by combining multi-dimensional neutron sources, forward/adjoint calculations modeling neutron and gamma transport, and sparse data analysis of detector signals. The key tasks for this project are: (1) developing a radiation transport capability for use in optimizing adaptive-geometry, inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) neutron source/detector configurations for neutron pulses distributed in space and/or phased in time; (2) creating distributed-geometry, gas-target, IEC fusion neutron sources; (3) applying sparse data and noise reduction algorithms, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and wavelet transform analysis, to enhance detection fidelity; and (4) educating graduate and undergraduate students. Funded by DHS DNDO Project 2015-DN-077-ARI095.

  14. Method and apparatus for detecting flaws in conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.

    1998-07-07

    The present invention uses a magnet in relative motion to a conductive material, and a coil that is stationary with respect to the magnet to measure perturbation or variation in the magnetic field in the presence of an inclusion. The magnet and coil sensor may be on the same side of the conductive material. 18 figs.

  15. Method and apparatus for detecting flaws in conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Hockey, Ronald L.; Riechers, Douglas M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention uses a magnet in relative motion to a conductive material, and a coil that is stationary with respect to the magnet to measure perturbation or variation in the magnetic field in the presence of an inclusion. The magnet and coil sensor may be on the same side of the conductive material.

  16. Neuromorphic Computing – From Materials Research to Systems Architecture Roundtable

    SciTech Connect

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Stevens, Rick; Pino, Robinson; Pechan, Michael

    2015-10-29

    Computation in its many forms is the engine that fuels our modern civilization. Modern computation—based on the von Neumann architecture—has allowed, until now, the development of continuous improvements, as predicted by Moore’s law. However, computation using current architectures and materials will inevitably—within the next 10 years—reach a limit because of fundamental scientific reasons. DOE convened a roundtable of experts in neuromorphic computing systems, materials science, and computer science in Washington on October 29-30, 2015 to address the following basic questions: Can brain-like (“neuromorphic”) computing devices based on new material concepts and systems be developed to dramatically outperform conventional CMOS based technology? If so, what are the basic research challenges for materials sicence and computing? The overarching answer that emerged was: The development of novel functional materials and devices incorporated into unique architectures will allow a revolutionary technological leap toward the implementation of a fully “neuromorphic” computer. To address this challenge, the following issues were considered: The main differences between neuromorphic and conventional computing as related to: signaling models, timing/clock, non-volatile memory, architecture, fault tolerance, integrated memory and compute, noise tolerance, analog vs. digital, and in situ learning New neuromorphic architectures needed to: produce lower energy consumption, potential novel nanostructured materials, and enhanced computation Device and materials properties needed to implement functions such as: hysteresis, stability, and fault tolerance Comparisons of different implementations: spin torque, memristors, resistive switching, phase change, and optical schemes for enhanced breakthroughs in performance, cost, fault tolerance, and/or manufacturability.

  17. Earth materials research: Report of a Workshop on Physics and Chemistry of Earth Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The report concludes that an enhanced effort of earth materials research is necessary to advance the understanding of the processes that shape the planet. In support of such an effort, there are new classes of experiments, new levels of analytical sensitivity and precision, and new levels of theory that are now applicable in understanding the physical and chemical properties of geological materials. The application of these capabilities involves the need to upgrade and make greater use of existing facilities as well as the development of new techniques. A concomitant need is for a sample program involving their collection, synthesis, distribution, and analysis.

  18. Using Person Fit Statistics to Detect Outliers in Survey Research.

    PubMed

    Felt, John M; Castaneda, Ruben; Tiemensma, Jitske; Depaoli, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Context: When working with health-related questionnaires, outlier detection is important. However, traditional methods of outlier detection (e.g., boxplots) can miss participants with "atypical" responses to the questions that otherwise have similar total (subscale) scores. In addition to detecting outliers, it can be of clinical importance to determine the reason for the outlier status or "atypical" response. Objective: The aim of the current study was to illustrate how to derive person fit statistics for outlier detection through a statistical method examining person fit with a health-based questionnaire. Design and Participants: Patients treated for Cushing's syndrome (n = 394) were recruited from the Cushing's Support and Research Foundation's (CSRF) listserv and Facebook page. Main Outcome Measure: Patients were directed to an online survey containing the CushingQoL (English version). A two-dimensional graded response model was estimated, and person fit statistics were generated using the Zh statistic. Results: Conventional outlier detections methods revealed no outliers reflecting extreme scores on the subscales of the CushingQoL. However, person fit statistics identified 18 patients with "atypical" response patterns, which would have been otherwise missed (Zh > |±2.00|). Conclusion: While the conventional methods of outlier detection indicated no outliers, person fit statistics identified several patients with "atypical" response patterns who otherwise appeared average. Person fit statistics allow researchers to delve further into the underlying problems experienced by these "atypical" patients treated for Cushing's syndrome. Annotated code is provided to aid other researchers in using this method.

  19. Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-07-03

    Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

  20. Guidelines for composite materials research related to general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, N. F.; Humphreys, E. A.; Rosen, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for research on composite materials directed toward the improvement of all aspects of their applicability for general aviation aircraft were developed from extensive studies of their performance, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness. Specific areas for research and for manufacturing development were identified and evaluated. Inputs developed from visits to manufacturers were used in part to guide these evaluations, particularly in the area of cost effectiveness. Throughout the emphasis was to direct the research toward the requirements of general aviation aircraft, for which relatively low load intensities are encountered, economy of production is a prime requirement, and yet performance still commands a premium. A number of implications regarding further directions for developments in composites to meet these requirements also emerged from the studies. Chief among these is the need for an integrated (computer program) aerodynamic/structures approach to aircraft design.

  1. 77 FR 2096 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at... Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139. Type of Meeting: Part open. Contact Person: Dr. Charles Ying, Program Director, Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials...

  2. MicroRNA Detection: Current Technology and Research Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Eric A.; Broyles, David; Head, Trajen; Deo, Sapna K.

    2015-07-01

    The relatively new field of microRNA (miR) has experienced rapid growth in methodology associated with its detection and bioanalysis as well as with its role in -omics research, clinical diagnostics, and new therapeutic strategies. The breadth of this area of research and the seemingly exponential increase in number of publications on the subject can present scientists new to the field with a daunting amount of information to evaluate. This review aims to provide a collective overview of miR detection methods by relating conventional, established techniques [such as quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), microarray, and Northern blotting (NB)] and relatively recent advancements [such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), highly sensitive biosensors, and computational prediction of microRNA/targets] to common miR research strategies. This should guide interested readers toward a more focused study of miR research and the surrounding technology.

  3. Low Gravity Materials Science Research for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Semmes, Edmund B.; Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Cook, Mary Beth; Wargo, Michael J.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    2004-01-01

    On January 14, 2004, the President of the United States announced a new vision for the United States civil space program. The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has the responsibility to implement this new vision. The President also created a Presidential Commission 'to obtain recommendations concerning implementation of the new vision for space exploration.' The President's Commission recognized that achieving the exploration objectives would require significant technical innovation, research, and development in focal areas defined as 'enabling technologies.' Among the 17 enabling technologies identified for initial focus were advanced structures; advanced power and propulsion; closed-loop life support and habitability; extravehicular activity system; autonomous systems and robotics; scientific data collection and analysis; biomedical risk mitigation; and planetary in situ resource utilization. The Commission also recommended realignment of NASA Headquarters organizations to support the vision for space exploration. NASA has aggressively responded in its planning to support the vision for space exploration and with the current considerations of the findings and recommendations from the Presidential Commission. This presentation will examine the transformation and realignment activities to support the vision for space exploration that are underway in the microgravity materials science program. The heritage of the microgravity materials science program, in the context of residence within the organizational structure of the Office of Biological and Physical Research, and thematic and sub-discipline based research content areas, will be briefly examined as the starting point for the ongoing transformation. Overviews of future research directions will be presented and the status of organizational restructuring at NASA Headquarters, with respect to influences on the microgravity materials science program, will be discussed

  4. Low Gravity Materials Science Research for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Semmes, Edmund B.; Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Cook, Mary Beth; Wargo, Michael J.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    2004-01-01

    On January 14, 2004, the President of the United States announced a new vision for the United States civil space program. The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has the responsibility to implement this new vision. The President also created a Presidential Commission 'to obtain recommendations concerning implementation of the new vision for space exploration.' The President's Commission recognized that achieving the exploration objectives would require significant technical innovation, research, and development in focal areas defined as 'enabling technologies.' Among the 17 enabling technologies identified for initial focus were advanced structures; advanced power and propulsion; closed-loop life support and habitability; extravehicular activity system; autonomous systems and robotics; scientific data collection and analysis; biomedical risk mitigation; and planetary in situ resource utilization. The Commission also recommended realignment of NASA Headquarters organizations to support the vision for space exploration. NASA has aggressively responded in its planning to support the vision for space exploration and with the current considerations of the findings and recommendations from the Presidential Commission. This presentation will examine the transformation and realignment activities to support the vision for space exploration that are underway in the microgravity materials science program. The heritage of the microgravity materials science program, in the context of residence within the organizational structure of the Office of Biological and Physical Research, and thematic and sub-discipline based research content areas, will be briefly examined as the starting point for the ongoing transformation. Overviews of future research directions will be presented and the status of organizational restructuring at NASA Headquarters, with respect to influences on the microgravity materials science program, will be discussed

  5. Novel Chalcogenide Materials for x ray and Gamma ray Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    then heated to 800 oC in 8h and kept there for 1 d, and finally cooled to room temperature in 1 d. Orange red crystals can be picked out from the...a new heavy atom chalcogenide family of semiconductors for room temperature gamma radiation detection. Its goal was to accelerate nuclear detector...selection criteria relevant to γ-ray detection at room temperature. These include heavy element composition, extended structures and wide energy

  6. Porphyrin-Embedded Silicate Materials for Detection of Hydrocarbon Solvents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-14

    in the detection of gaseous pollutants: Detection of benzene using cationic porphyrins in polymer films . Sens. Actuat. B Chem. 1999, 54, 243-251. 2...porphyrin structure or incorporation of a metal into the central coordination site. Porphyrins are often incorporated into thin films for these sensing...900 equipped with an Optima-210 (50 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 m film ) fused silica capillary column (Macherey-Nagel). GC instrument parameters were set for

  7. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center. Report for FY 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    The work described, while involving research in the broad field of materials processing, has two common features: the problems are closed related to space precessing of materials and have both practical and fundamental significance. An interesting and important feature of many of the projects is that the interdisciplinary nature of the problem mandates complementary analytical modeling/experimental approaches. An other important aspect of many of the projects is the increasing use of mathematical modeling techniques as one of the research tools. The predictive capability of these models, when tested against measurements, plays a very important role in both the planning of experimental programs and in the rational interpretation of the results. Many of the projects described have a space experiment as their ultimate objective. Mathematical models are proving to be extremely valuable in projecting the findings of ground - based experiments to microgravity conditions.

  8. Research needs for material mixing at extremes: workshop overview & charge

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Malcolm John

    2011-01-06

    Workshop goals are: (1) Raise the general awareness of material mixing problems in extreme conditions; (2) Peer into the future (15 years) for mixing experiments/diagnostics, theory/modeling and simulation/predictions in relation to material mixing; (3) Identify priority research directions, capability opportunities (especially with respect to MaRIE), and projected capability needs (not just MaRIE); and (4) The production of a MaRIE report, a peer reviewed journal paper, and a proposal for a decadal study. The last 25 years has seen substantial progress with understanding material mixing in low energy environments, particularly with the development of high fidelity experimental multi-probe diagnostics, direct numerical simulations, and science based theories and mathematical models. We now need to move such advances to the high energy environment with a goal to increase our understanding and predictability, and raise our confidence in scientifically informed decision making. Thus, this workshop is charged to look to the future ({approx} 15 years), and explore opportunities to advance our current understanding of material mixing in extreme conditions.

  9. Neutron Scattering for Materials Science. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Volume 166

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    ISBN 1-55899-048-8 Volume 161-Properties of II-VI Semiconductors: Bulk Crystals, Epitaxial Films, Quantum Well Structures and Dilute Magnetic Systems...now a well -established technique which has been used by condensed matter scientists to probe both the structure and the dynamical interactions in... well be at a watershed stage. We wish to thank the Materials Research Society for support- ing our proposal to sponsor such a symposium and to the MRS

  10. Process research on non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with he process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-CZ sheet material are investigated. All investigations are being performed using dendritic web silicon, but all processes are directly applicable to other ribbon forms of sheet material. The technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CZ silicon using liquid dopant techniques was determined. Numerous commercially available liquid phosphorus and boron dopant solutions are investigated. Temperature-time profiles to achieve N(+) and P(+) sheet resistivities of 60 + or - 10 and 40 + or - s10 ohms per square centimeter respectively are established. A study of the optimal method of liquid dopant application is performed. The technical feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask was also determined.

  11. Electrical research on solar cells and photovoltaic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic study of the properties of various polymer pottant materials and of the electrochemical corrosion mechanisms in solar cell materials is required for advancing the technology of terrestrial photovoltaic modules. The items of specific concern in this sponsored research activity involve: (1) kinetics of plasticizer loss in PVB, (2) kinetics of water absorption and desorption in PVB, (3) kinetics of water absorption and desorption in EVA, (4) the electrical properties at PVB as a function of temperature and humidity, (5) the electrical properties of EVA as a function of temperature and humidity, (6) solar cell corrosion characteristics, (7) water absorption effects in PVB and EVA, and (8) ion implantation and radiation effects in PVB and EVA.

  12. Polyazulene based materials for heavy metal ions detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprisanu, A.; Ungureanu, E. M.; Isopescu, R.; Birzan, L.; Mihai, M.; Vasiliu, C.

    2017-06-01

    Azulene is a special monomer used to functionalize electrodes, due to its spontaneous electron drift from the seven-membered ring to the five-membered ring. The seven-membered ring of the molecule may act as electron acceptor, while the five-membered ring - as electron donor. This leads to very attractive properties for the synthesis of functional advanced materials like: materials with nonlinear optical and photorefractive properties, cathode materials for lithium batteries, or light emitting diodes based on organic materials. Azulene derivatives have been used rarely to the metal ions electroanalysis. Our study concerns the synthesis and electrochemical characterization of a new azulene based monomer 4-(azulen-1-yl)-2,6-bis((E)-2-(thiophen-3-yl)vinyl)pyridine (L). L has been used to obtain modified electrodes by electrochemical polymerization. PolyL films modified electrodes have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry in ferrocene solutions. The complexing properties of polyL based functional materials have been investigated towards heavy metals (Pb, Cd Hg, Cu) by preconcentration - anodic stripping technique in order to analyze the content of these cations from water samples.

  13. Contributive research in compound semiconductor material and related devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twist, James R.

    1988-05-01

    The objective of this program was to provide the Electronic Device Branch (AFWAL/AADR) with the support needed to perform state of the art electronic device research. In the process of managing and performing on the project, UES has provided a wide variety of scientific and engineering talent who worked in-house for the Avionics Laboratory. These personnel worked on many different types of research programs from gas phase microwave driven lasers, CVD and MOCVD of electronic materials to Electronic Device Technology for new devices. The fields of research included MBE and theoretical research in this novel growth technique. Much of the work was slanted towards the rapidly developing technology of GaAs and the general thrust of the research that these tasks started has remained constant. This work was started because the Avionics Laboratory saw a chance to advance the knowledge and level of the current device technology by working in the compounds semiconductor field. UES is pleased to have had the opportunity to perform on this program and is looking forward to future efforts with the Avionics Laboratory.

  14. Detecting special nuclear material using muon-induced neutron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, Elena; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Matthew Durham, J.; Fabritius, Joseph, II; Hecht, Adam; Milner, Edward C.; Miyadera, Haruo; Morris, Christopher L.; Perry, John; Poulson, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The penetrating ability of cosmic ray muons makes them an attractive probe for imaging dense materials. Here, we describe experimental results from a new technique that uses neutrons generated by cosmic-ray muons to identify the presence of special nuclear material (SNM). Neutrons emitted from SNM are used to tag muon-induced fission events in actinides and laminography is used to form images of the stopping material. This technique allows the imaging of SNM-bearing objects tagged using muon tracking detectors located above or to the side of the objects, and may have potential applications in warhead verification scenarios. During the experiment described here we did not attempt to distinguish the type or grade of the SNM.

  15. Materials processing research opportunities in powder injection molding

    SciTech Connect

    German, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    Materials processing is an active area with many research opportunities for advanced instrumentation, control, and modeling. Among new materials processing routes, powder injection molding (PIM) has rapidly grown from a curiosity to a viable production technique over just a few years. This manufacturing technique is applicable to all materials, and is the preferred fabrication route for many complex-shaped, high-performance components for surgical tools, computer hardware, automotive systems, consumer products, and turbine components. This presentation introduces the use of a computer controlled injection molding machine to shape powders (metal, carbide, composite, and ceramic) in a high productivity setting. After molding the organic is extracted and the powder structure is sintered to full density. Much research is needed in process modeling, control, inspection, and optimization. This presentation summarizes the basic technology and several important factors relevant to manufacturing. An important development is in minimization of molding defects via closed-loop feedback control using pressure, temperature, and optical sensors. Recent progress has occurred using in situ guided waves for ultrasonic inspection of the molded part. Neural networks are being generated to allow assessment of processing changes as required from the integrated robot, visual imaging, pressure, and ultrasonic sensors. Similar, but less refined efforts are occurring in die compaction technology. As another example, computer simulation of heat transfer is needed during sintering to understand sources of component warpage during densification. A furnace equipped with visual imaging and residual gas analysis is being used to assist in verification of such computer simulations. These tools are still in the research stage, so future integration into the manufacturing environment will bring new challenges.

  16. Demand artifact: objectively detecting biased participants in advertising research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Felicia; Schertzer, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Detecting and reducing the effect of biased participants continues to be an important task for researchers. However, the lack of objective measures to assess demand artifact has made it difficult to effectively address this issue. This paper reports two experiments that apply a theory-based post-experimental inquiry that can systematically identify biased participants in consumer research. The results demonstrate how easily and effectively researchers can incorporate this tool into experimental studies of all types and reduce the likelihood of systematic error.

  17. Materials Degradation and Detection (MD2): Deep Dive Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Henager, Charles H.; Johnson, Bradley R.

    2013-02-01

    An effort is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a fundamental and general framework to foster the science and technology needed to support real-time monitoring of early degradation in materials used in the production of nuclear power. The development of such a capability would represent a timely solution to the mounting issues operators face with materials degradation in nuclear power plants. The envisioned framework consists of three primary and interconnected “thrust” areas including 1) microstructural science, 2) behavior assessment, and 3) monitoring and predictive capabilities. A brief state-of-the-art assessment for each of these core technology areas is discussed in the paper.

  18. Detection of covered materials in the TDS-THz setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palka, Norbert

    2013-05-01

    We report on a new method for extracting the characteristic features of covered materials, including Hexogen, in the range 0.5-1.8 THz. This time domain spectroscopy-based technique takes into account only part of the signal reflected from a covered sample, and analyzes it by Fourier transform. The obtained power spectrum has distinctive peaks that correspond to peaks measured in the transmission configuration and can be applied for further identification. We showed results obtained for the samples of hexogen, lactose, and tartaric acid covered with commonly used packaging materials such as plastic, foil, paper and cotton.

  19. Low Noise, High Detectivity Photodetectors based on Organic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fawen

    Organic photodetectors (OPDs) are potentially useful in many applications because of their light weight, flexibility and good form factors. Despite the high detectivities that have been frequently reported for OPDs recently, the application of these OPDs for weak light detection has been rarely demonstrated. In this thesis, low noise, high gain photodetectors based on organic and ZnO nanoparticles were proposed and demonstrated for highly sensitive UV light detection. The nanocomposite photodetector works in a hybrid mode of photodiode and photoconductor with the transition controlled by the UV light illumination. The nanocomposite detector shows two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than silicon detectors in the UV range, which is the first time an organic, solution-processed detector has been shown to significantly outperform the inorganic photonic devices. In the fullerene-based photodetector, the dark-current has been successfully reduced by a cross-linked TPD (C-TPD) buffer layer. The high detectivity of 3.6 x 1011 cm Hz½ W-1 (Jones) at 370 nm and the wide Linear dynamic range (LDR) of 90 dB, along with a response speed faster than 20 kHz, suggests that the fullerene-based organic photodetectors proposed here can open the way for many potential applications. The ZnO nanoparticles have been introduced into the C-TPD buffer layer of the fullerene-based photodetector to increase the photoconductive gain and reduce the noise current. The peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) value of approximately 400% and the peak specific detectivity of 6.5 x 10 12 Jones at the wavelength of 390 nm, along with the record high LDR of 120 dB, enable the photodetector to be used in wide range of applications such as imaging, communication, and defense. The extremely high sensitivity of the photodetector also makes it particularly attractive for very weak light detection.

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  1. Research experience for undergraduates in robotics and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yih, T. C.; Tansel, I. N.; Wu, K. H.

    1993-03-01

    Florida International University successfully completed the proposed project entitled, 'Research Experience for Undergraduates in Robotics and Materials.' Nineteen students designed and manufactured a 'user-friendly' industrial robot with three functional axes and an IBM-PC-based C-based controller. The accuracy of the robot is 0.0005 inch when two axes are used. An operator can control the motions of the robot with a few hours of training by using the PC-based controller mouse. The controller also provides graphical simulation of the robot motions.

  2. Nanoindentation in Materials Research: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Warren; Pharr, George Mathews

    2010-01-01

    The method we introduced in 1992 for measuring hardness and elastic modulus by nanoindentation testing has been widely adopted and used in the characterization of mechanical behavior at small scales. Since its original development, the method has undergone numerous refinements and changes brought about by improvements to testing equipment and techniques, as well as advances in our understanding of the mechanics of elastic-plastic contact. In this article, we briefly review the history of the method, comment on its capabilities and limitations, and discuss some of the emerging areas in materials research where it has played, or promises to play, an important role.

  3. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced processing techniques for non-CZ silicon sheet material that might improve the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic module production were investigated. Specifically, the simultaneous diffusion of liquid boron and liquid phosphorus organometallic precursors into n-type dendritic silicon web was examined. The simultaneous junction formation method for solar cells was compared with the sequential junction formation method. The electrical resistivity of the n-n and p-n junctions was discussed. Further research activities for this program along with a program documentation schedule are given.

  4. Materials Science and Engineering-1989 Publications (Naval Research Laboratory)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-29

    Antamanide J.H. Konnert, P. D’Antonio, J.M. Cowley, and Analog. Crystal Structure of A. Higgs , H-J. Ou Perhydrosymmetric antamanide, Ultramicroscopy, 30, 371...Paired Boson Superconductor" Molecular Beam Epitaxy" W. Jin, S.D. Mahanti, A.K. Rajagopal A. Christou, N. Flevaris, A. Georgakilas, Solid State...33(3), 347-358 Si(100)" "Neutron Scattering from Fermion and S.M. Prokes, W.F. Tseng, A- Christou Boson Superconductors" Materials Research Society

  5. Effects of antenna length and material on output power and detection of miniature radio transmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, J.W.; Bower, N.; Juhnke, S.; Dingmon, L.; Van Den, Tillaart; Thomas, T.

    2007-01-01

    The optimal antenna of transmitters used in small aquatic animals is often a compromise between efficient radio wave propagation and effects on animal behavior. Radio transmission efficiency generally increases with diameter and length of the conductor, but increased antenna length or weight can adversely affect animal behavior. We evaluated the effects of changing antenna length and material on the subsequent tag output power, reception, and detection of tagged fish. In a laboratory, we compared the relative signal strengths in water of 150 MHz transmitters over a range of antenna lengths (from 6 to 30 cm) and materials (one weighing about half of the other). The peak relative signal strengths were at 20 and 22 cm, which are approximately one wavelength underwater at the test frequency. The peak relative signal strengths at these lengths were approximately 50% greater than those of 30 cm antennas, a length commonly used in fisheries research. Few significant differences were present in distances for the operator to hear or the telemetry receiver to decode transmitters from a boat-mounted receiving system based on antenna length, but the percent of tagged fish detected passing a hydroelectric dam fitted with an array of receiving systems was significantly greater at the antenna length with peak output power in laboratory tests. This study indicates careful choice of antenna length and material of small transmitters can be used to reduce weight and possible antenna effects on animal behavior, to maximize tag output power and detection, or to balance these factors based on the needs of the application. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. EDITORIAL: Combinatorial and High-Throughput Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    The success of combinatorial and high-throughput methodologies relies greatly on the availability of various characterization tools with new and improved capabilities [1]. Indeed, how useful can a combinatorial library of 250, 400, 25 000 or 2 000 000 compounds be [2-5] if one is unable to characterize its properties of interest fairly quickly? How useful can a set of thousands of spectra or chromatograms be if one is unable to analyse them in a timely manner? For these reasons, the development of new approaches for materials characterization is one of the most active areas in combinatorial materials science. The importance of this aspect of research in the field has been discussed in numerous conferences including the Pittsburgh Conferences, the American Chemical Society Meetings, the American Physical Society Meetings, the Materials Research Society Symposia and various Gordon Research Conferences. Naturally, the development of new measurement instrumentation attracts the attention not only of practitioners of combinatorial materials science but also of those who design new software for data manipulation and mining. Experimental designs of combinatorial libraries are pursued with available and realistic synthetic and characterization capabilities in mind. It is becoming increasingly critical to link the design of new equipment for high-throughput parallel materials synthesis with integrated measurement tools in order to enhance the efficacy of the overall experimental strategy. We have received an overwhelming response to our proposal and call for papers for this Special Issue on Combinatorial Materials Science. The papers in this issue of Measurement Science and Technology are a very timely collection that captures the state of modern combinatorial materials science. They demonstrate the significant advances that are taking place in the field. In some cases, characterization tools are now being operated in the factory mode. At the same time, major challenges

  7. Materials processing in space programs tasks. [NASA research tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E.

    1981-01-01

    Active research tasks as of the end of fiscal year 1981 of the materials processing in space program, NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications are summarized to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program, its history, strategy, and overall goal are described the organizational structures and people involved are identified and a list of recent publications is given for each research task. Four categories: Crystal Growth; Solidification of Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluids, Transports, and Chemical Processes, and Ultrahigh Vacuum and Containerless Processing Technologies are used to group the tasks. Some tasks are placed in more than one category to insure complete coverage of each category.

  8. Materials and neutronic research at the Low Energy Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, David V.

    2016-04-01

    In the decade since the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) at Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM) produced its first neutrons, the facility has made important contributions to the international neutron scattering community. LENS employs a 13MeV proton beam at up to 4kW beam power onto one of two Be targets to produce neutrons for research in fields ranging from radiation effects in electronics to studies of the structure of fluids confined in nanoporous materials. The neutron source design at the heart of LENS facilitates relatively rapid hands-on access to most of its components which provides a foundation for a research program in experimental neutronics and affords numerous opportunities for novel educational experiences. We describe in some detail a number of the unique capabilities of this facility.

  9. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection Using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard R. Tittmann; P.M. Lenahan; David Spears; Rhys Williams

    2008-11-25

    The objective of this project is to develop anovel technique for remote, non-destructive, non-radiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs. We propse the development of a detection system based on magnetic resonance principles (NAR), which would work where radiation detection is not possible. The approach would be non-intrusive, penetrating, applicable to many materials of interest for Nonproliferation, and be able to identify the nuclear samples under investigation.

  10. [The gas chromatographic detection of acetylene in cadaveric material].

    PubMed

    Iablochkin, V D

    1999-01-01

    Acetylene traces were detected by gas chromatography in the cadaveric right crural muscle of a 30-year-old man dead from an explosion of an acetylene reservoir at a plant. Acetylene was identified using the absolute calibration method on 3 standard gas chromatographic columns, reaction gas chromatography, and acetylene "deduction" by silver sulfate on silicagel.

  11. Simulation of Neutron Backscattering applied to organic material detection

    SciTech Connect

    Forero, N. C.; Cruz, A. H.; Cristancho, F.

    2007-10-26

    The Neutron Backscattering technique is tested when performing the task of localizing hydrogenated explosives hidden in soil. Detector system, landmine, soil and neutron source are simulated with Geant4 in order to obtain the number of neutrons detected when several parameters like mine composition, relative position mine-source and soil moisture are varied.0.

  12. Shock Compression Induced Hot Spots in Energetic Material Detected by Thermal Imaging Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Wei; Dlott, Dana

    2014-06-01

    The chemical reaction of powder energetic material is of great interest in energy and pyrotechnic applications since the high reaction temperature. Under the shock compression, the chemical reaction appears in the sub-microsecond to microsecond time scale, and releases a large amount of energy. Experimental and theoretical research progresses have been made in the past decade, in order to characterize the process under the shock compression. However, the knowledge of energy release and temperature change of this procedure is still limited, due to the difficulties of detecting technologies. We have constructed a thermal imaging microscopy apparatus, and studied the temperature change in energetic materials under the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and ultrasound exposure. Additionally, the real-time detection of the localized heating and energy concentration in composite material is capable with our thermal imaging microscopy apparatus. Recently, this apparatus is combined with our laser driven flyer plate system to provide a lab-scale source of shock compression to energetic material. A fast temperature increase of thermite particulars induced by the shock compression is directly observed by thermal imaging with 15-20 μm spatial resolution. Temperature change during the shock loading is evaluated to be at the order of 10^9K/s, through the direct measurement of mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) emission intensity change. We observe preliminary results to confirm the hot spots appear with shock compression on energetic crystals, and will discuss the data and analysis in further detail. M.-W. Chen, S. You, K. S. Suslick, and D. D. Dlott, {Rev. Sci. Instr., 85, 023705 (2014) M.-W. Chen, S. You, K. S. Suslick, and D. D. Dlott, {Appl. Phys. Lett., 104, 061907 (2014)} K. E. Brown, W. L. Shaw, X. Zheng, and D. D. Dlott, {Rev. Sci. Instr., 83, 103901 (2012)}

  13. Inorganic/organic doped carbon aerogels as biosensing materials for the detection of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Dong, Sheying; Li, Nan; Suo, Gaochao; Huang, Tinglin

    2013-12-17

    In this article, three different inorganic/organic doped carbon aerogel (CA) materials (Ni-CA, Pd-CA, and Ppy-CA) were, respectively, mixed with ionic liquid (IL) to form three stable composite films, which were used as enhanced elements for an integrated sensing platform to increase the surface area and to improve the electronic transmission rate. Subsequently, the effect of the materials performances such as adsorption, specific surface area and conductivity on electrochemistry for myoglobin (Mb) was discussed using N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Moreover, they could act as sensors toward the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with lower detection limits (1.68 μM, 1.02 μM, and 0.85 μM, for Ni-CA/IL/Mb-CPE, Pd-CA/IL/Mb-CPE, and Ppy-CA/IL/Mb-CPE, respectively) and smaller apparent Michaelis-Menten constants KM. The results indicated that the electroconductibility of the doped CA materials would become dominant, thus playing an important role in facilitating the electron transfer. Meanwhile, the synergetic effect with [BMIm]BF4 IL improved the capability of the composite inorganic/organic doped CA/IL matrix for protein immobilization. This work demonstrates the feasibility and the potential of a series of CA-based hybrid materials as biosensors, and further research and development are required to prepare other functional CAs and make them valuable for more extensive application in biosensing.

  14. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    DOEpatents

    Slaughter, Dennis R.; Pohl, Bertram A.; Dougan, Arden D.; Bernstein, Adam; Prussin, Stanley G.; Norman, Eric B.

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  15. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Liedl, G.L.

    1993-06-01

    MATRIX, a participating research team of Midwest x-ray scattering specialists, continues to operate beam line X-18A at NSLS. Operations of this line now provides state-of-the-art capabilities to a wide range of people in the Materials Science and Engineering research community. Improvements of the beam line continue to be a focus of MATRIX. Throughout this past year the emphasis has been shifting towards improvement in ``user friendly`` aspects. Simplified control operations and a shift to single-user personal computer has been a major part of the effort. Over the past year all 232 operational days were fully utilized. Beam line tests coupled with MATRIX members combined to use 284 days. General user demand for use of the beam line continues to be strong and four groups were provided 48 operating days. Research production has been growing as NSLS and the beam line become a more stable type of operation. For 1992 the MATRIX group published six articles. To date, for 1993 the same group has published, submitted, or has in preparation nine articles. Recent research milestones include: the first quantitative structural information on the as-quenched and early stages of decomposition of supersaturated Al-Li alloys; the first quantitative diffuse scattering measurements on a complex system (Co substitute for Cu YBCO superconductor); demonstration of capabilities of a new UHV surface diffraction chamber with in-situ characterization and temperature control (30-1300K); feasibility of phasing structure factors in a quasicrystal using multiple Bragg scattering.

  16. Application of Chemistry in Materials Research at NASA GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavandi, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    Overview of NASA GRC Materials Development. New materials enabled by new chemistries offering unique properties and chemical processing techniques. Durability of materials in harsh environments requires understanding and modeling of chemical interaction of materials with the environment.

  17. Research activity with different types of scintillation materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, K.-T.; Borisevich, A.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Houzvicka, J.; Korjik, M.; Novotny, R. W.; Zaunick, H.-G.; Zimmermann, S.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest and demand in the development of new types of scintillation materials for experimental high energy physics. Future detector developments will focus on cheap, fast, and radiation hard materials, especially for application in collider experiments. The most recent results obtained by the Giessen group in close cooperation with colleagues from different institutes will be presented. The new start of the mass production of high quality lead tungstate crystals (PbWO4, PWO) for electromagnetic calorimetry was started by the company CRYTUR (Turnov, Czech Republic). We will present a detailed progress report on the research program of lead tungstate performed in the last two years. The latest results in the development of LuAG:Ce, YAG:Ce and LYSO:Ce inorganic fibers, grown by the micro pulling down method and cut with the heated wire technique as well as new glass ceramics material BaO*2SiO2 (DSB) doped by Ce and Gd will be presented. In addition, different samples of the organic plastic scintillator EJ-260 produced by the company Eljen Technology (Sweetwater, USA) have been characterized. The study has focused on the change of performance after irradiation with 150 MeV protons up to an integral fluence of 5-1013 protons/cm2 as well as with a strong 60Co gamma-source accumulating an integral dose of 100 Gy.

  18. Novel High Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Materials: Final Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sam

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and goals of this project were to investigate and develop high efficient, lightweight, and cost effective materials for potential photovoltaic applications, such as solar energy conversion or photo detector devices. Specifically, as described in the original project proposal, the target material to be developed was a block copolymer system containing an electron donating (or p-type) conjugated polymer block coupled to an electron withdrawing (or n-type) conjugated polymer block through a non-conjugated bridge unit. Due to several special requirements of the targeted block copolymer systems, such as electron donating and withdrawing substituents, conjugated block structures, processing requirement, stability requirement, size controllability, phase separation and self ordering requirement, etc., many traditional or commonly used block copolymer synthetic schemes are not suitable for this system. Therefore, the investigation and development of applicable and effective synthetic protocols became the most critical and challenging part of this project. During the entire project period, and despite the lack of a proposed synthetic polymer postdoctoral research associate due to severe shortage of qualified personnel in the field, several important accomplishments were achieved in this project and are briefly listed and elaborated. A more detailed research and experimental data is listed in the Appendix.

  19. NASA Sponsored Research Involving Crystallization of Biological Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton

    2000-01-01

    An overview of NASA's plans for the performing experiments involving the crystallization of biological materials on the International Space Station (ISS) is presented. In addition, a brief overview of past work is provided as background. Descriptions of flight hardware currently available for use on the ISS are given and projections of future developments are discussed. In addition, experiment selection and funding is described. As of the flight of STS-95, these crystallization projects have proven to be some of the most successful in the history of microgravity research. The NASA Microgravity Research Division alone has flown 185 different proteins, nucleic acids, viruses, and complexes on 43 different missions. 37 of the 185 have resulted, in, diffraction patterns with higher resolution than was obtained in all previous ground based experiments. This occurred despite the fact that an average of only 41 samples per protein were flown. A number of other samples have shown improved signal to noise characteristics, i.e. relative Wilson plots, when compared to the best ground experiments. In addition, a number of experiments investigating the effects of microgravity conditions on the crystallization of biological material have been conducted.

  20. NASA Sponsored Research Involving Crystallization of Biological Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton

    2000-01-01

    An overview of NASA's plans for the performing experiments involving the crystallization of biological materials on the International Space Station (ISS) is presented. In addition, a brief overview of past work is provided as background. Descriptions of flight hardware currently available for use on the ISS are given and projections of future developments are discussed. In addition, experiment selection and funding is described. As of the flight of STS-95, these crystallization projects have proven to be some of the most successful in the history of microgravity research. The NASA Microgravity Research Division alone has flown 185 different proteins, nucleic acids, viruses, and complexes on 43 different missions. 37 of the 185 have resulted, in, diffraction patterns with higher resolution than was obtained in all previous ground based experiments. This occurred despite the fact that an average of only 41 samples per protein were flown. A number of other samples have shown improved signal to noise characteristics, i.e. relative Wilson plots, when compared to the best ground experiments. In addition, a number of experiments investigating the effects of microgravity conditions on the crystallization of biological material have been conducted.

  1. Detecting Defects in Aircraft Materials by Nuclear Technique (pas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Emad. A.

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is one of the nuclear techniques used in material science. The present measurements are used to study the behavior of defect concentration in one of the most important materials aluminum alloys which is the 7075 alloy. It has been shown that positrons can become trapped at imperfect locations in solids and their mean lifetime can be influenced by changes in the concentration of such defects. No changes have been observed in the mean lifetime values after the saturation of defect concentration. The mean lifetime and trapping rates are studied for samples deformed up to 58.3%. The concentration of defect range vary from 1015 to 1018cm-3 at the thickness reduction from 2.3 to 58.3%. The dislocation density varies from 108 to 1011cm/cm3.

  2. Detecting Defects in Aircraft Materials by Nuclear Technique (pas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Emad. A.

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is one of the nuclear techniques used in material science. The present measurements are used to study the behavior of defect concentration in one of the most important materials — aluminum alloy — which is a 7075 alloy. It has been shown that positrons can become trapped in imperfect locations in solids and their mean lifetime can be influenced by changes in the concentration of such defects. No changes have been observed in the mean lifetime values after the saturation of defect concentration. The mean lifetime and trapping rates were studied for samples deformed up to 58.3%. The concentration of defect range varies (from 1015 to 1018 cm-3) at the thickness reduction, (from 2.3 to 58.3%). The range of the dislocation density varies (from 108 to 1011 cm/cm3).

  3. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-04

    such as thorium and uranium, is present everywhere, often in trace amounts. Cosmic rays generate low levels of neutrons. Some commercial goods contain...radioactive material, such as ceramics (which may contain uranium) and kitty litter (which may contain thorium and uranium). Other radioactive...11 HEU that has been through a nuclear reactor picks up small quantities of U-232, which decays through intermediate steps to thallium-208, which

  4. Detection of ultraviolet radiation using tissue equivalent radiochromic gel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bero, M. A.; Abukassem, I.

    2009-05-01

    Ferrous Xylenol-orange Gelatin gel (FXG) is known to be sensitive to ionising radiation such as γ and X-rays. The effect of ionising radiation is to produce an increase in the absorption over a wide region of the visible spectrum, which is proportional to the absorbed dose. This study demonstrates that FXG gel is sensitive to ultraviolet radiation and therefore it could functions as UV detector. Short exposure to UV radiation produces linear increase in absorption measured at 550nm, however high doses of UV cause the ion indicator colour to fad away in a manner proportional to the incident UV energy. Light absorbance increase at the rate of 1.1% per minute of irradiation was monitored. The exposure level at which the detector has linear response is comparable to the natural summer UV radiation. Evaluating the UV ability to pass through tissue equivalent gel materials shows that most of the UV gets absorbed in the first 5mm of the gel materials, which demonstrate the damaging effects of this radiation type on human skin and eyes. It was concluded that FXG gel dosimeter has the potential to offer a simple, passive ultraviolet radiation detector with sensitivity suitable to measure and visualises the natural sunlight UV exposure directly by watching the materials colour changes.

  5. Fault detection system for Argentine Research Reactor instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Polenta, H.P. ); Bernard, J.A. ); Ray, A. )

    1993-01-20

    The design and implementation of a redundancy management scheme for the on-line detection and isolation of faulty sensors is presented. Such a device is potentially useful in reactor-powered spacecraft for enhancing the processing capabilities of the main computer. The fault detection device can be used as an integral part of intelligent instrumentation systems. The device has been built using an 8-bit microcontroller and commercially available electronic hardware. The software is completely portable. The operation of this device has been successfully demonstrated for real-time validation of sensor data on Argentina's RA-1 Research Reactor.

  6. Fault detection system for Argentine Research Reactor instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polenta, Héctor P.; Bernard, John A.; Ray, Asok

    1993-01-01

    The design and implementation of a redundancy management scheme for the on-line detection and isolation of faulty sensors is presented. Such a device is potentially useful in reactor-powered spacecraft for enhancing the processing capabilities of the main computer. The fault detection device can be used as an integral part of intelligent instrumentation systems. The device has been built using an 8-bit microcontroller and commercially available electronic hardware. The software is completely portable. The operation of this device has been successfully demonstrated for real-time validation of sensor data on Argentina's RA-1 Research Reactor.

  7. Focused Research Group in Correlated Electron and Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ziqiang

    2016-02-17

    While the remarkable physical properties of correlated and complex electronic materials hold great promise for technological applications, one of the key values of the research in this field is its profound impact on fundamental physics. The transition metal oxides, pnictides, and chalcogenides play a key role and occupy an especially important place in this field. The basic reason is that the outer shell of transition metals contains the atomic d-orbitals that have small spatial extent, but not too small to behave as localized orbtials. These d-electrons therefore have a small wave function overlap in a solid, e.g. in an octahedral environment, and form energy bands that are relatively narrow and on the scale of the short-range intra-atomic Coulomb repulsion (Hubbard U). In this intermediate correlation regime lies the challenge of the many-body physics responsible for new and unconventional physical properties. The study of correlated electron and complex materials represents both the challenge and the vitality of condensed matter and materials physics and often demands close collaborations among theoretical and experimental groups with complementary techniques. Our team has a track record and a long-term research goal of studying the unusual complexities and emergent behaviors in the charge, spin, and orbital sectors of the transition metal compounds in order to gain basic knowledge of the quantum electronic states of matter. During the funding period of this grant, the team continued their close collaborations between theory, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy and made significant progress and contributions to the field of iron-based superconductors, copper-oxide high-temperature superconductors, triangular lattice transition metal oxide cobaltates, strontium ruthenates, spin orbital coupled iridates, as well as topological insulators and other topological quantum states of matter. These results include both new

  8. [Participant research in reference to historical and dialectical materialism: a contribution to nursing research].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M A

    1991-07-01

    Based upon the studies of Castellanos e Salum (1988) and Egry et al (1991), the author makes a theoretical approach of the participant research as an strategy related to the dialectical and historical materialism, emphasizing its in two main lines: - the dialectical method of exposition and the process of becoming aware.

  9. Early detection of critical material degradation by means of electromagnetic multi-parametric NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Szielasko, Klaus; Tschuncky, Ralf; Rabung, Madalina; Altpeter, Iris; Dobmann, Gerd; Seiler, Georg; Herrmann, Hans-Georg; Boller, Christian

    2014-02-18

    With an increasing number of power plants operated in excess of their original design service life an early recognition of critical material degradation in components will gain importance. Many years of reactor safety research allowed for the identification and development of electromagnetic NDE methods which detect precursors of imminent damage with high sensitivity, at elevated temperatures and in a radiation environment. Regarding low-alloy heat-resistant steel grade WB 36 (1.6368, 15NiCuMoNb5), effects of thermal and thermo-mechanical aging on mechanical-technological properties and several micromagnetic parameters have been thoroughly studied. In particular knowledge regarding the process of copper precipitation and its acceleration under thermo-mechanical load has been enhanced. Whilst the Cu-rich WB 36 steel is an excellent model material to study and understand aging effects related to neutron radiation without the challenge of handling radioactive specimens in a hot cell, actually neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel materials were investigated as well. The neutron fluence experienced and the resulting shift of the ductile-brittle transition temperature were determined electromagnetically, and it was shown that weld and base material can be distinguished from the cladded side of the RPV wall. Low-cycle fatigue of the austenitic stainless steel AISI 347 (1.4550, X6CrNiNb18-10) has been characterized with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) at temperatures of up to 300 °C. Time-of-flight and amplitude of the transmitted ultrasound signal were evaluated against the number of load cycles applied and observed as an indication of the imminent material failure significantly earlier than monitoring stresses or strains.

  10. Early detection of critical material degradation by means of electromagnetic multi-parametric NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szielasko, Klaus; Tschuncky, Ralf; Rabung, Madalina; Seiler, Georg; Altpeter, Iris; Dobmann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans-Georg; Boller, Christian

    2014-02-01

    With an increasing number of power plants operated in excess of their original design service life an early recognition of critical material degradation in components will gain importance. Many years of reactor safety research allowed for the identification and development of electromagnetic NDE methods which detect precursors of imminent damage with high sensitivity, at elevated temperatures and in a radiation environment. Regarding low-alloy heat-resistant steel grade WB 36 (1.6368, 15NiCuMoNb5), effects of thermal and thermo-mechanical aging on mechanical-technological properties and several micromagnetic parameters have been thoroughly studied. In particular knowledge regarding the process of copper precipitation and its acceleration under thermo-mechanical load has been enhanced. Whilst the Cu-rich WB 36 steel is an excellent model material to study and understand aging effects related to neutron radiation without the challenge of handling radioactive specimens in a hot cell, actually neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel materials were investigated as well. The neutron fluence experienced and the resulting shift of the ductile-brittle transition temperature were determined electromagnetically, and it was shown that weld and base material can be distinguished from the cladded side of the RPV wall. Low-cycle fatigue of the austenitic stainless steel AISI 347 (1.4550, X6CrNiNb18-10) has been characterized with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) at temperatures of up to 300 °C. Time-of-flight and amplitude of the transmitted ultrasound signal were evaluated against the number of load cycles applied and observed as an indication of the imminent material failure significantly earlier than monitoring stresses or strains.

  11. Detection of explosive materials by differential reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Rolf E.; Fuller, Anna M.; Schöllhorn, Claus; Holloway, Paul H.

    2006-06-01

    It is shown that traces of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) display strong and distinct structures in differential reflectograms, near 420 and 250nm. These characteristic peaks are not observed from moth balls, nail polish, polyvinyl chloride, starch, soap, paper, epoxy, aspirin, polycarbonate, aspartame, polystyrene, polyester, fertilizer, or sugar, to mention a few substances which may be in or on a suitcase. The described technique for detection of TNT is fast, inexpensive, reliable, and portable and does not require contact with the surveyed substance. Moreover, we have developed a curve recognition program for field applications of the technique. The origin of the spectra is discussed.

  12. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  13. Air-coupled detection of nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves to assess material nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Sebastian; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J

    2014-08-01

    This research presents a new technique for nonlinear Rayleigh surface wave measurements that uses a non-contact, air-coupled ultrasonic transducer; this receiver is less dependent on surface conditions than laser-based detection, and is much more accurate and efficient than detection with a contact wedge transducer. A viable experimental setup is presented that enables the robust, non-contact measurement of nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves over a range of propagation distances. The relative nonlinearity parameter is obtained as the slope of the normalized second harmonic amplitudes plotted versus propagation distance. This experimental setup is then used to assess the relative nonlinearity parameters of two aluminum alloy specimens (Al 2024-T351 and Al 7075-T651). These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique - the average standard deviation of the normalized second harmonic amplitudes, measured at locations along the propagation path, is below 2%. Experimental validation is provided by a comparison of the ratio of the measured nonlinearity parameters of these specimens with ratios from the absolute nonlinearity parameters for the same materials measured by capacitive detection of nonlinear longitudinal waves.

  14. Detecting psychological phenomena: taking bottom-up research seriously.

    PubMed

    Haig, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    For more than 50 years, psychology has been dominated by a top-down research strategy in which a simplistic account of the hypothetico-deductive method is paired with null hypothesis testing in order to test hypotheses and theories. As a consequence of this focus on testing, psychologists have failed to pay sufficient attention to a complementary, bottom-up research strategy in which data-to-theory research is properly pursued.This bottom-up strategy has 2 primary aspects: the detection of phenomena, mostly in the form of empirical generalizations, and the subsequent understanding of those phenomena through the abductive generation of explanatory theories. This article provides a methodologically informative account of phenomena detection with reference to psychology. It begins by presenting the important distinctions between data, phenomena, and theory. It then identifies a number of different methodological strategies that are used to identify empirical phenomena. Thereafter, it discusses aspects of the nature of science that are prompted by a consideration of the distinction between data, phenomena, and explanatory theory. Taken together, these considerations press for significant changes in the way we think about and practice psychological research. The adoption of these changes would help psychology correct a number of its major current research deficiencies.

  15. Water Level Detection in Silty Materials Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Siriwardane, Hema J.; Pyakurel, Sandeep; Kiriakidis, Ricardo; Ingram, Ronald

    2007-03-01

    Detection of water level in silty soils can be complicated because of capillary action. In this study, the water level in a silty soil sample was detected using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique in the laboratory. The soil sample has dimensions of 62 cm × 48 cm × 46 cm and was kept in a clear Plexiglas container which facilitated water level measurements. Two ground-coupled antennas with frequencies of 900 MHz and 1,500 MHz were used in this study. The soil sample was dry at the beginning of the experiment. The water level in the soil sample was raised to a pre-determined level and radar readings were taken at different times over 24 hours. The moisture content in the soil sample above the water level increased with time due to capillary action. At the end of the experiment, the variation of moisture content with depth of the sample was experimentally determined. The GPR observations were compared with measured water depth in the soil sample. The paper presents the comparison of water level as determined by GPR with the variation of experimentally determined moisture content in the silty soil sample. This study includes an investigation on the effects of capillary action on GPR measurements.

  16. Improved detection of radioactive material using a series of measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jenelle

    The goal of this project is to develop improved algorithms for detection of radioactive sources that have low signal compared to background. The detection of low signal sources is of interest in national security applications where the source may have weak ionizing radiation emissions, is heavily shielded, or the counting time is short (such as portal monitoring). Traditionally to distinguish signal from background the decision threshold (y*) is calculated by taking a long background count and limiting the false negative error (alpha error) to 5%. Some problems with this method include: background is constantly changing due to natural environmental fluctuations and large amounts of data are being taken as the detector continuously scans that are not utilized. Rather than looking at a single measurement, this work investigates looking at a series of N measurements and develops an appropriate decision threshold for exceeding the decision threshold n times in a series of N. This methodology is investigated for a rectangular, triangular, sinusoidal, Poisson, and Gaussian distribution.

  17. Conveyor apparatus for detecting radioactive material in garments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.N.; Humphrey, M.D.

    1989-09-12

    This patent describes an apparatus for detecting radioactive particles in garments. It comprises a conveyor assembly for receiving, moving and discharging garments; and a radiation detector assembly including first and second radiation detector means, each of which includes a face that is primarily sensitive to beta radiation throughout its entire area, a shield means for shielding the first detector means from ambient radiation, and a height adjustable mounting means for mounting the first radiation detector means and the shield means over the conveyor assembly and for adjusting the distance between the detector means and the top side of the garments moved by the conveyor assembly while maintaining the shield means in the same shielding orientation relative to the detector means. The second radiation detector means being disposed under the conveyor assembly so that the first radiation detector means detects beta radiation emitted substantially from the top side of the garments while the second radiation detector means beta radiation emitted substantially from the bottom side of the garments.

  18. Detecting special nuclear materials in containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    DOEpatents

    Norman, Eric B.; Prussin, Stanley G.

    2007-10-02

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a container. The system and its method include irradiating the container with an energetic beam, so as to induce a fission in the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  19. Double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for versatile hazardous materials detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Jennifer L.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Munson, Chase A.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ST-LIBS) system capable of detecting a variety of hazardous materials at tens of meters. The use of a double-pulse laser improves the sensitivity and selectivity of ST-LIBS, especially for the detection of energetic materials. In addition to various metallic and plastic materials, the system has been used to detect bulk explosives RDX and Composition-B, explosive residues, biological species such as the anthrax surrogate Bacillus subtilis, and chemical warfare simulants at 20 m. We have also demonstrated the discrimination of explosive residues from various interferents on an aluminum substrate.

  20. Nondestructive image detection of surface and sub-surface defects of solid materials by OBD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Baixuan; Gong, Jian

    1996-09-01

    The measurement principle for detecting surface and sub-surface defects in solid materials by the optical beam deflection method (OBD) is described. The detectable depth of sub-surface defects is predicted through calculating the dependence of the surface temperature distribution of a solid sample, typically metal Al, on the thickness of the solid material and modulation frequencies of a pump laser. The defects in surface and sub-surface of some samples such as carbon film coated on glass, C/C composite material and metallic Al, etc., experimentally detected and directly displayed by grey image or 3D image.

  1. Administering and Detecting Protein Marks on Arthropods for Dispersal Research.

    PubMed

    Hagler, James R; Machtley, Scott A

    2016-01-28

    Monitoring arthropod movement is often required to better understand associated population dynamics, dispersal patterns, host plant preferences, and other ecological interactions. Arthropods are usually tracked in nature by tagging them with a unique mark and then re-collecting them over time and space to determine their dispersal capabilities. In addition to actual physical tags, such as colored dust or paint, various types of proteins have proven very effective for marking arthropods for ecological research. Proteins can be administered internally and/or externally. The proteins can then be detected on recaptured arthropods with a protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe protocols for externally and internally tagging arthropods with protein. Two simple experimental examples are demonstrated: (1) an internal protein mark introduced to an insect by providing a protein-enriched diet and (2) an external protein mark topically applied to an insect using a medical nebulizer. We then relate a step-by-step guide of the sandwich and indirect ELISA methods used to detect protein marks on the insects. In this demonstration, various aspects of the acquisition and detection of protein markers on arthropods for mark-release-recapture, mark-capture, and self-mark-capture types of research are discussed, along with the various ways that the immunomarking procedure has been adapted to suit a wide variety of research objectives.

  2. Radiological Health Protection Issues Associated with Use of Active Detection Technology Systems for Detection of Radioactive Threat Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Z such as carbon (graphite) or beryllium oxide . Proton interactions with the target material produce secondary charged pions. If the proton kinetic...cadmium- zinc telluride (CZT), or cadmium telluride (CdTe) that will provide a suitable detection efficiency. The output of the crystalline detectors...radioactivity may also be generated in lubricating materials or other environmental contaminates (especially if ADT systems are operated in dirty environments

  3. Raman detection of improvised explosive device (IED) material fabricated using drop-on-demand inkjet technology on several real world surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Mikella E.; Holthoff, Ellen L.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2015-05-01

    The requirement to detect hazardous materials (i.e., chemical, biological, and explosive) on a host of materials has led to the development of hazard detection systems. These new technologies and their capabilities could have immediate uses for the US military, national security agencies, and environmental response teams in efforts to keep people secure and safe. In particular, due to the increasing use by terrorists, the detection of common explosives and improvised explosive device (IED) materials have motivated research efforts toward detecting trace (i.e., particle level) quantities on multiple commonly encountered surfaces (e.g., textiles, metals, plastics, natural products, and even people). Non-destructive detection techniques can detect trace quantities of explosive materials; however, it can be challenging in the presence of a complex chemical background. One spectroscopic technique gaining increased attention for detection is Raman. One popular explosive precursor material is ammonium nitrate (AN). The material AN has many agricultural applications, however it can also be used in the fabrication of IEDs or homemade explosives (HMEs). In this paper, known amounts of AN will be deposited using an inkjet printer into several different common material surfaces (e.g., wood, human hair, textiles, metals, plastics). The materials are characterized with microscope images and by collecting Raman spectral data. In this report the detection and identification of AN will be demonstrated.

  4. Infrared spectroscopy for chemical agent detection using tailored hypersorbent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Dmitry A.; McGill, R. Andrew; Stievater, Todd H.; Furstenberg, Robert; Pruessner, Marcel W.; Nguyen, Viet

    2015-06-01

    We report long-wave infrared (LWIR, 5-15 μm) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR, 2.5 - 5 μm) differential absorption spectra of different nerve agent simulants and common solutes sorbed to poly(methyldi(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-trifluoromethyl- 2-hydroxypent-4-enyl)silane, HCSFA2, an NRL developed hypersorbent polymer. HCSFA2 is a strong hydrogen-bond acidic polymer which exhibits large gas-polymer partitions for a variety of hazardous chemicals with hydrogen-bond basic properties such as the phosphonate ester G-nerve agents or their simulants. The measured ATR-FTIR differential absorption spectra show complex fingerprint signal changes in the resonances for the sorbent material itself, as well as new resonances arising from chemical bonding between the solute or analyte and the sorbent or the solute itself being present in the sorbent.

  5. Bias detection and certified reference materials for random measurands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhin, Andrew L.

    2015-12-01

    A problem that frequently occurs in metrology is the bias checking of data obtained by a laboratory against the specified value and uncertainty estimate given in the certificate of analysis. The measurand—a property of a certified reference material (CRM)—is supposed to be random with a normal distribution whose parameters are given by the certificate specifications. The laboratory’s data from subsequent measurements of the CRM (a CRM experiment) are summarized by the sample mean value and its uncertainty which is commonly based on a repeatability standard deviation. New confidence intervals for the lab’s bias are derived. Although they may lack intuitive appeal, those obtained by using higher order asymptotic methods, compared and contrasted in this paper, are recommended.

  6. Application of acoustic emission to flaw detection in engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moslehy, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring of structures under operating loads to provide an early warning of possible failure to locate flaws in test specimens subjected to uniaxial tensile loading is presented. Test specimens used are mild steel prismatic bars with small holes at different locations. When the test specimen is loaded, acoustic emission data are automatically collected by two acoustic transducers located at opposite sides of the hole and processed by an acoustic emission analyzer. The processed information yields the difference in arrival times at the transducers, which uniquely determines the flaw location. By using this technique, flaws were located to within 8 percent of their true location. The use of acoustic emission in linear location to locate a flaw in a material is demonstrated. It is concluded that this one-dimensional application could be extended to the general flaw location problem through triangulation.

  7. SQUID-amplified photon detection: from cosmology to material science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Kent

    2014-03-01

    Superconducting photon detectors amplified by SQUIDs are playing an increasingly important role in science ranging from cosmology to materials characterization. The most widely used superconducting photon detector uses a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES), which is a superconducting film biased in the narrow transition region between the normal and superconducting state. The film is voltage biased, and the current flowing through it is measured with a SQUID. An incident photon increases the resistance of the TES, which reduces the current through the SQUID. Large arrays of SQUID-coupled TES detectors are read out by cryogenic multiplexing of the SQUIDs with a time-division, frequency-division, or code-division multiplexing scheme. SQUID-coupled TES detectors are now widely deployed in ground- and balloon-borne observatories to measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. By measuring the power and the polarization of the CMB, new constraints have been placed on cosmological parameters, as well as the absolute masses and number of neutrino species. Experiments are now being conducted to search for the signature of gravitational waves in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, which would provide strong evidence of inflation at GUT energy scales. Remarkably, very similar sensor arrays to those developed for CMB measurements can also be used for spectroscopic measurements at synchrotron and free-electron laser x-ray light sources. SQUID-coupled TES sensors provide spectroscopic resolution previously only achieved with dispersive detectors based on gratings and crystal diffraction, but with the high efficiency of semiconductor x-ray detectors. I will describe experiments using SQUID-coupled TES arrays for x-ray emission and x-ray absorption spectroscopy of materials, and plans to develop much larger arrays for next-generation light sources.

  8. Shearographic and holographic defect detection for composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnack, Eckart; Klumpp, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    Presence and growth of edge delaminations in carbon-fiber/epoxy (CFRP) tensile specimens can be detected by shearography and by holographic interferometry. The in-plane component of the displacement field on the object surface lowers the contrast in the interferogram for either technique. This effect is analyzed quantitatively. The comparison shows that both techniques have about the same sensitivity against in-plane object movements. The influence of object creep motions and of mechanical setup vibrations is also compared. Our experiments have shown that the main advantage of shearography in this application is the intrinsic differentiation of the measured out-of-plane displacement field; it allows clear contour identification of the defective regions in the CFRP specimens.

  9. Detecting and analyzing research communities in longitudinal scientific networks

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Raffaele; Kennelly Okraku, Therese; McCarty, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that collaborative teams and communities tend to produce the highest-impact scientific work. This paper proposes a new method to (1) Identify collaborative communities in longitudinal scientific networks, and (2) Evaluate the impact of specific research institutes, services or policies on the interdisciplinary collaboration between these communities. First, we apply community-detection algorithms to cross-sectional scientific collaboration networks and analyze different types of co-membership in the resulting subgroups over time. This analysis summarizes large amounts of longitudinal network data to extract sets of research communities whose members have consistently collaborated or shared collaborators over time. Second, we construct networks of cross-community interactions and estimate Exponential Random Graph Models to predict the formation of interdisciplinary collaborations between different communities. The method is applied to longitudinal data on publication and grant collaborations at the University of Florida. Results show that similar institutional affiliation, spatial proximity, transitivity effects, and use of the same research services predict higher degree of interdisciplinary collaboration between research communities. Our application also illustrates how the identification of research communities in longitudinal data and the analysis of cross-community network formation can be used to measure the growth of interdisciplinary team science at a research university, and to evaluate its association with research policies, services or institutes. PMID:28797047

  10. Detection of Biological Materials Using Ion Mobility Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rodacy, P.J.; Sterling, J.P.; Butler, M.A.

    1999-03-01

    Traditionally, Ion Mobility Spectroscopy has been used to examine ions of relatively low molecular weight and high ion mobility. In recent years, however, biomolecules such as bradykinin, cytochrome c, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), apomyoglobin, and lysozyme, have been successfully analyzed, but studies of whole bio-organisms have not been performed. In this study an attempt was made to detect and measure the mobility of two bacteriophages, {lambda}-phage and MS2 using electrospray methods to inject the viruses into the ion mobility spectrometer. Using data from Yeh, et al., which makes a comparison between the diameter of non-biologic particles and the specific particle mobility, the particle mobility for the MS2 virus was estimated to be 10{sup {minus}2} cm{sup 2}/volt-sec. From this mobility the drift time of these particles in our spectrometer was calculated to be approximately 65 msec. The particle mobility for the {lambda}-phage virus was estimated to be 10{sup {minus}3} cm{sup 2}/volt-sec. which would result in a drift time of 0.7 sec. Spectra showing the presence of a viral peak at the expected drift time were not observed. However, changes in the reactant ion peak that could be directly attributed to the presence of the viruses were observed. Virus clustering, excessive collisions, and the electrospray injection method limited the performance of this IMS. However, we believe that an instrument specifically designed to analyze such bioagents and utilizing other injection and ionization methods will succeed in directly detecting viruses and bacteria.

  11. Research on lunar materials. [optical, chemical, and electrical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts of 14 research reports relating to investigations of lunar samples are presented. The principal topics covered include: (1) optical properties of surface and core samples; (2) chemical composition of the surface layers of lunar grains: Auger electron spectroscopy of lunar soil and ground rock samples; (3) high frequency electrical properties of lunar soil and rock samples and their relevance for the interpretation of lunar radar observations; (4) the electrostatic dust transport process; (5) secondary electron emission characteristics of lunar soil samples and their relevance to the dust transportation process; (6) grain size distribution in surface soil and core samples; and (7) the optical and chemical effects of simulated solar wind (2keV proton and a particle radiation) on lunar material.

  12. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non- CZ sheet material were investigated. All work was performed using dendritic web silicon. The following tasks are discussed and associated technical results are given: (1) determining the technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CT silicon using dopant techniques; (2) determining the feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask; (3) determining the feasibility of applying liquid anti-reflective solutions using meniscus coating equipment; (4) studying the production of uniform, high efficiency solar cells using ion implanation junction formation techniques; and (5) quantifying cost improvements associated with process improvements.

  13. Requirements for the Development of Bacillus Anthracis Spore Reference Materials Used to Test Detection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Jamie L.; Wang, Lili; Morrow, Jayne B.; Cole, Kenneth D.

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis spores have been used as biological weapons and the possibility of their further use requires surveillance systems that can accurately and reliably detect their presence in the environment. These systems must collect samples from a variety of matrices, process the samples, and detect the spores. The processing of the sample may include removal of inhibitors, concentration of the target, and extraction of the target in a form suitable for detection. Suitable reference materials will allow the testing of each of these steps to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the detection systems. The development of uniform and well-characterized reference materials will allow the comparison of different devices and technologies as well as assure the continued performance of detection systems. This paper discusses the special requirements of reference materials for Bacillus anthracis spores that could be used for testing detection systems. The detection of Bacillus anthracis spores is based on recognition of specific characteristics (markers) on either the spore surface or in the nucleic acids (DNA). We have reviewed the specific markers and their relevance to characterization of reference materials. We have also included the approach for the characterization of candidate reference materials that we are developing at the NIST laboratories. Additional applications of spore reference materials would include testing sporicidal treatments, techniques for sampling the environment, and remediation of spore-contaminated environments. PMID:27274929

  14. Research of the chemiluminescence detection apparatus for nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Yu; Ni, Xuxiang; Yan, Huimin

    2016-10-01

    The multifunctional nutrition analyzer, which integrates four detection functions, can make fast, accurate, quantitative analysis for a variety of nutrients. In this article we focus on researching the luminescence detection system. Compared with other means, luminescence detection needs no excitation light, and the detection sensitivity is improved due to the reduction of the background light. The apparatus consists of an displacement platform, a microporous plate, a combination of an aspheric lens and a plano-convex lens, an optical fiber and a photon counter connected with a computer. A theoretical light intensity formula is established as a reference and a comparison of the experimental data. In the experiment we applies ATP detection reagent as the experimental reagent, whose magnitudes of concentration are from 10-6 mol/L to 10-12 mol/L. The sensitivity of the apparatus could reach a magnitude of concentration of 0.1nmol/L, and it is estimated to be further improved by at least two magnitudes in theory with the system and the reagent optimized.

  15. Research of the fluorescence detection apparatus for nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Yan, Huimin; Ni, Xuxiang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Shibing

    2015-10-01

    The research of the multifunctional analyzer of Clinical Nutrition, which integrates the absorbance, luminescence, fluorescence and other optical detection methods, can overcome the functional limitations of a single technology on human nutrition analysis, and realize a rapid and accurate analysis of the nutrients. This article focuses on the design of fluorescence detection module that uses a photomultiplier tube(PMT) to detect weak fluorescence, and utilizes the single photon counting method to measure the fluorescence intensity, and then according to the relationship between the fluorescent marker and fluorescence intensity, the concentration of the analyte can be derived. Using fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC, the most widely used fluorescein currently)to mark antibodies in the experiment, therefore, according to the maximum absorption wavelength and the maximum emission wavelength of the fluorescein isothiocyanate, to select the appropriate filters to set up the optical path. In addition, the fluorescence detection apparatus proposed in this paper uses an aspherical lens with large numerical aperture, in order to improve the capacity of signal acquisition more effectively, and the selective adoption of flexible optical fiber can realize a compact opto-mechanical structure, which is also conducive to the miniaturization of the device. The experimental results show that this apparatus has a high sensitivity, can be used for the detection and analysis of human nutrition.

  16. Interdisciplinary research on the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The advancement of material performance and design methodology as related to brittle materials was investigated. The processing and properties of ceramic materials as related to design requirements was also studied.

  17. Detection and characterization of lower LIDT regions in KDP material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommiès, Matthieu; Damiani, David; Piombini, Hervé; Bertussi, Bertrand; Capoulade, Jérémie; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Mathis, Hervé

    2005-12-01

    At very high powers the energy for a single shot in the LIL/LMJ laser is today limited among others by the robustness of the KDP-based components used for frequency conversion. Subsequently it is vitally important to improve as much as possible the Laser Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) of these components to make possible even more powerful shots. The exceptionally large aperture of such lasers (40*40 cm2) required the development of rapid growth methods. Investigations are under way to improve the damage resistance of such materials by implementing more efficient conditioning procedures. In this work we focus on composition heterogeneities induced by the rapid growth method in KDP crystals and we examine the impact on the laser-damage resistance. Two LIDT measurement facilities are used to investigate KDP triplers robustness. Spatially resolved LIDT measurements at 355 nm show that the LID resistance is significantly lower in some regions. The efficiency of the excimer conditioning in the different regions is also addressed.

  18. Nanosized grain polycrystalline scintillators for special nuclear materials detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. F.; Cooley, J.; Stanek, C.; Byler, D.; Volz, H.; Dickerson, R.; Dombrowski, D.; Tucker, T.; Bartram, B.; Ewing, B.; Mauro, M.; Weinberg, R.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the limits of polycrystalline ceramic scintillator in countering the nuclear threat. The goal was to develop a polycrystalline LaBr 3:Ce, which can be processed from ceramic forming techniques and can be produced in large size scintillator panels with lower cost and high production rate. Three high purity raw powders were used as the starting materials including LaBr 3, LaCl 3, and CeBr 3. Powder characteristics were measured. A melt spinning method was used to synthesize the nanoparticle LaBr 3:Ce with stoichiometric compositions. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and the average particle size of the synthesized nanoparticle LaBr 3:Ce was about 50 nm. The melt spun powders were consolidated using a "Nanosintering" method to achieve a high density while maintaining the stoichiometric composition. The grain size of the sintered polycrystalline is about 50 nm, which shows no grain growth during the densification process.

  19. Research of radiation resistant Er doped fiber for space detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian-ping; Zhang, Ge; Wang, Pu-pu; Li, Run-dong; Jiang, Cong; Xiao, Chun

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, erbium doped fibers for space detection are researched for feature of radiation resistance. Fibers with different coated carbon are hydrogen loaded and radiated, and too thick of carbon layer around fiber would not bring best radiation-resistant performance, since thick carbon layer would make the entering of hydrogen difficult. We also research the duration of saturated hydrogen loading under the high and low temperature respectively, and it's found that the fibers' photo sensitivities tend to be flat after some days. Hydrogen is reloaded into the fibers which have been loaded once, this help us to deep understand the mechanism of hydrogen loading for the fiber gratings. Loss and wave width changes are also researched under different radiation dose.

  20. Additive Manufacturing Materials Study for Gaseous Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Steer, C.A.; Durose, A.; Boakes, J.

    2015-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques may lead to improvements in many areas of radiation detector construction; notably the rapid manufacturing time allows for a reduced time between prototype iterations. The additive nature of the technique results in a granular microstructure which may be permeable to ingress by atmospheric gases and make it unsuitable for gaseous radiation detector development. In this study we consider the application of AM to the construction of enclosures and frames for wire-based gaseous radiation tracking detectors. We have focussed on oxygen impurity ingress as a measure of the permeability of the enclosure, and the gas charging and discharging curves of several simplistic enclosure shapes are reported. A prototype wire-frame is also presented to examine structural strength and positional accuracy of an AM produced frame. We lastly discuss the implications of this study for AM based radiation detection technology as a diagnostic tool for incident response scenarios, such as the interrogation of a suspect radiation-emitting package. (authors)

  1. Next Generation Detection Systems for Radioactive Material Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, R.; Regan, P. H.; Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    Compton Suppression techniques have been widely used to reduce the Minimum Detectable Activity of various radionuclides when performing gamma spectroscopy of environmental samples. This is achieved by utilising multiple detectors to reduce the contribution of photons that Compton Scatter out the detector crystal, only partially depositing their energy. Photons that are Compton Scattered out of the primary detector are captured by a surrounding detector, and the corresponding events vetoed from the final dataset using coincidence based fast-timing electronics. The current work presents the use of a LynxTM data acquisition module from Canberra Industries (USA) to collect data in 'List-Mode', where each event is time stamped for offline analysis. A post-processor developed to analyse such datasets allows the optimisation of the coincidence delay, and then identifies and suppresses events within this time window. This is the same process used in conventional systems with fast-timing electronics, however, in the work presented, data can be re-analysed using multiple time and energy windows. All data is also preserved and recorded (in traditional systems, coincident events are lost as they are vetoed in real time), and the results are achieved with a greatly simplified experimental setup. Monte-Carlo simulations of Compton Suppression systems have been completed to support the optimisation work, and are also presented here.

  2. Cross-validated detection of crack initiation in aerospace materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanniamparambil, Prashanth A.; Cuadra, Jefferson; Guclu, Utku; Bartoli, Ivan; Kontsos, Antonios

    2014-03-01

    A cross-validated nondestructive evaluation approach was employed to in situ detect the onset of damage in an Aluminum alloy compact tension specimen. The approach consisted of the coordinated use primarily the acoustic emission, combined with the infrared thermography and digital image correlation methods. Both tensile loads were applied and the specimen was continuously monitored using the nondestructive approach. Crack initiation was witnessed visually and was confirmed by the characteristic load drop accompanying the ductile fracture process. The full field deformation map provided by the nondestructive approach validated the formation of a pronounced plasticity zone near the crack tip. At the time of crack initiation, a burst in the temperature field ahead of the crack tip as well as a sudden increase of the acoustic recordings were observed. Although such experiments have been attempted and reported before in the literature, the presented approach provides for the first time a cross-validated nondestructive dataset that can be used for quantitative analyses of the crack initiation information content. It further allows future development of automated procedures for real-time identification of damage precursors including the rarely explored crack incubation stage in fatigue conditions.

  3. Development of stimulus material for research in alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Fey, Werner; Moggi, Franz; Rohde, Kristina B; Michel, Chantal; Seitz, Andrea; Stein, Maria

    2017-03-01

    The availability of appropriate stimulus material is a key concern for an experimental approach to research on alcohol use disorders (AUDs). A large number of such stimuli are necessary to evoke relevant alcohol-related associations. We report the development of a large stimulus database consisting of 457 pictures of alcoholic beverages and 398 pictures of neutral objects. These stimuli were rated by 18 inpatients hospitalized due to severe AUD and 18 healthy controls along four dimensions: arousal, valence, alcohol-relatedness, and craving. Physical parameters of the pictures were assessed. After outlier removal, 831 stimuli that were characterized as either alcohol-related or neutral were retained in the final stimulus pool. Alcohol-related pictures (versus neutral pictures) evoked higher arousal, more craving and were judged to have higher alcohol-relatedness and a more negative valence. Group comparisons indicated that in patients, neutral pictures evoked more craving and had higher alcohol-relatedness than they did in controls. Physical parameters such as visual complexity, luminance, and color were extracted from these pictures, and extreme values were normalized to minimize mean differences between alcoholic and neutral stimuli. The pictures met the qualitative requirements for (neurophysiological) research. A data file containing rating values and physical parameters will be provided upon request.

  4. The Role of Materials Research in Ceramics and ARCHAEOLOGY1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandiver, Pamela

    2001-08-01

    Materials research has been applied successfully to the study of archaeological ceramics for the last fifty years. To learn about our history and the human condition is not just to analyze and preserve the objects but also to investigate and understand the knowledge and skills used to produce and use them. Many researchers have probed the limits and methods of such studies, always mindful that a glimpse at ancient reality lies in the details of time and place, context of finds, and experimentally produced data, usually compared with standards that were collected in an equivalent ethnographic setting or that were fabricated in a laboratory in order to elucidate the critical questions in a technology that could be understood in no other way. The basis of most studies of ancient technology has been established as microstructure; composition and firing; methods and sequence of manufacture; differentiation of use; use-wear and post-depositional processes; technological variability that can be interpreted as a pattern of stasis or innovation, which can be related to cultural continuity or change; and interpretation that can involve technology, subsistence trade, organization, and symbolic group- and self-definition.

  5. Detection and analysis of defects in composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, R.; Warmbrodt, S.; Woytowitz, P.

    1993-12-31

    Digital nondestructive test (NDT) techniques, such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), digital ultrasonics (UT), and eddy current (ET) are now being applied to the inspection of composite structures. One of the advantages of these NDT techniques is that the resulting digital data can be evaluated using computers. Current computer graphics workstations have the performance and storage capabilities required to process the typically large NDT data sets. Software is available to visualize and analyze the NDT data. In this way, digital NDT data can be used as input to a computer-based system for evaluating the integrity of composite structures containing defects. Failure Analysis Associates, Inc. (FaAA) is developing such a system, which are referred to as IPES, an Integrated Part Evaluation System. IPES provides the following capabilities: (1) Visualize NDT data from X-ray computed tomography, digital ultrasonics, and eddy current inspections using state-of-the-art scientific visualization and image processing software. (2) Automatically detect defects from NDT data and compare the defects with accept/reject criteria. The FaAA CLASSIFY code applies to the NDT data a user-defined defect criteria based on a defect`s NDT signature, size, shape, and location. (3) Predict the response of structures containing defects by using NDT data in finite element analysis. The FaAA FANDEP code automatically assigns NDT data to a finite element mesh. The data is then used to account for the presence of a defect in the finite element analysis. Within IPES, these capabilities can be used separately or in combination. This paper describes the IPES system, its capabilities and applications to NDT and quality control of composite structures.

  6. Opportunities for Materials Science and Biological Research at the OPAL Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, S. J.

    2008-03-01

    Neutron scattering techniques have evolved over more than 1/2 century into a powerful set of tools for determination of atomic and molecular structures. Modern facilities offer the possibility to determine complex structures over length scales from ˜0.1 nm to ˜500 nm. They can also provide information on atomic and molecular dynamics, on magnetic interactions and on the location and behaviour of hydrogen in a variety of materials. The OPAL Research Reactor is a 20 megawatt pool type reactor using low enriched uranium fuel, and cooled by water. OPAL is a multipurpose neutron factory with modern facilities for neutron beam research, radioisotope production and irradiation services. The neutron beam facility has been designed to compete with the best beam facilities in the world. After six years in construction, the reactor and neutron beam facilities are now being commissioned, and we will commence scientific experiments later this year. The presentation will include an outline of the strengths of neutron scattering and a description of the OPAL research reactor, with particular emphasis on it's scientific infrastructure. It will also provide an overview of the opportunities for research in materials science and biology that will be possible at OPAL, and mechanisms for accessing the facilities. The discussion will emphasize how researchers from around the world can utilize these exciting new facilities.

  7. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. Many of these types of materials also are represented in the... materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? (a) The...

  8. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. Many of these types of materials also are represented in the... materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? (a) The...

  9. Material Property Estimation for Direct Detection of DNAPL using Integrated Ground-Penetrating Radar Velocity, Imaging and Attribute Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, John H.; Holbrook, W. Stephen; Smithson, Scott B.

    2004-12-31

    The focus of this project is direct detection of DNAPLs, specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from multi-fold surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine state-of-the-art GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material property estimation to determine the location and extent of residual and/or pooled DNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. An important byproduct of our research is state-of-the-art imaging which allows us to pinpoint attribute anomalies, characterize stratigraphy, identify fracture zones, and locate buried objects.

  10. Material Property Estimation for Direct Detection of DNAPL using Integrated Ground-Penetrating Radar Velocity, Imaging and Attribute Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Bradford; Stephen Holbrook; Scott B. Smithson

    2004-12-09

    The focus of this project is direct detection of DNAPL's specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from multi-fold surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine state-of-the-art GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material property estimation to determine the location and extent of residual and/or pooled DNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. An important byproduct of our research is state-of-the-art imaging which allows us to pinpoint attribute anomalies, characterize stratigraphy, identify fracture zones, and locate buried objects.

  11. Commissioning and field tests of a van-mounted system for the detection of radioactive sources and Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Cester, D.; Lunardon, M.; Stevanato, L.; Viesti, G.; Chandra, R.; Davatz, G.; Friederich, H.; Gendotti, U.; Murer, D.; Swiderski, L.; Moszynski, M.; Resnati, F.; Rubbia, A.; Iovene, A.; Petrucci, S.; Tintori, C.; Caccia, M.; Chmill, V.; Santoro, R.; Martemyianov, A.; Doherty, M.; Christodoulou, G.; Stainer, T.; Touramanis, C.

    2015-07-01

    MODES SNM project aimed to carry out technical research in order to develop a prototype for a mobile, modular detection system for radioactive sources and Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Its main goal was to deliver a tested prototype of a modular mobile system capable of passively detecting weak or shielded radioactive sources with accuracy higher than that of currently available systems. By the end of the project all the objectives have been successfully achieved. Results from the laboratory commissioning and the field tests will be presented. (authors)

  12. Advanced Materials Research Status and Requirements. Volume 1. Technical Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    systems. 1.2 Applications. This document provides a review of several of the mast prominent metal matrix and polymer matrix composite materials. The...Candidate Materials. This document provides a review of some of the most prominent metal matrix and polymer matrix composite materials. The material...of the most prominent metal matrix and polymer matrix composite materials. * As seen in Figures 3-2 and 3-3, the polymer matrix composites such as

  13. Technologies for Fissile Material Detection and Prevention of Fissile Material Introduction into International Shipping

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J

    2003-07-01

    Prevention of the introduction of fissile materials into international shipping, and hence into a given country, is a complex problem. Some pieces of the solution to the puzzle are conceptually well defined, but lack definition of a technical pathway and/or operational implementation. Other elements are a little more fuzzy, and some elements are probably undefined at this point in time. This paper reviews the status of the more well-defined elements, and suggests needed additional measures to enhance the probability that fissile materials are not illicitly introduced into distant countries. International commerce proceeds through a number of steps from point of origin to final destination. Each step offers the possibility of a well-defined choke point to monitor and interdict the illicit shipment of fissile materials. However, because there are so many potential points and venues of entry into a large country such as the United States (e.g., air cargo, shipping containers, truck and rail transport, private vehicles, boats and planes, commercial passenger travel), it behooves the world to ensure that fissile material does not illicitly leave its point of origin.

  14. Application of pristine and doped SnO2 nanoparticles as a matrix for agro-hazardous material (organophosphate) detection

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naushad; Athar, Taimur; Fouad, H.; Umar, Ahmad; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    With an increasing focus on applied research, series of single/composite materials are being investigated for device development to detect several hazardous, dangerous, and toxic molecules. Here, we report a preliminary attempt of an electrochemical sensor fabricated using pristine Ni and Cr–doped nano tin oxide material (SnO2) as a tool to detect agro-hazardous material, i.e. Organophosphate (OP, chlorpyrifos). The nanomaterial was synthesized using the solution method. Nickel and chromium were used as dopant during synthesis. The synthesized material was calcined at 1000 °C and characterized for morphological, structural, and elemental analysis that showed the formation of agglomerated nanosized particles of crystalline nature. Screen-printed films of powder obtained were used as a matrix for working electrodes in a cyclic voltammogram (CV) at various concentrations of organophosphates (0.01 to 100 ppm). The CV curves were obtained before and after the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on the nanomaterial matrix. An interference study was also conducted with hydroquinone to ascertain the selectivity. The preliminary study indicated that such material can be used as suitable matrix for a device that can easily detect OP to a level of 10 ppb and thus contributes to progress in terms of desired device technology for the food and agricultural-industries. PMID:28195202

  15. Application of pristine and doped SnO2 nanoparticles as a matrix for agro-hazardous material (organophosphate) detection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naushad; Athar, Taimur; Fouad, H; Umar, Ahmad; Ansari, Z A; Ansari, S G

    2017-02-14

    With an increasing focus on applied research, series of single/composite materials are being investigated for device development to detect several hazardous, dangerous, and toxic molecules. Here, we report a preliminary attempt of an electrochemical sensor fabricated using pristine Ni and Cr-doped nano tin oxide material (SnO2) as a tool to detect agro-hazardous material, i.e. Organophosphate (OP, chlorpyrifos). The nanomaterial was synthesized using the solution method. Nickel and chromium were used as dopant during synthesis. The synthesized material was calcined at 1000 °C and characterized for morphological, structural, and elemental analysis that showed the formation of agglomerated nanosized particles of crystalline nature. Screen-printed films of powder obtained were used as a matrix for working electrodes in a cyclic voltammogram (CV) at various concentrations of organophosphates (0.01 to 100 ppm). The CV curves were obtained before and after the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on the nanomaterial matrix. An interference study was also conducted with hydroquinone to ascertain the selectivity. The preliminary study indicated that such material can be used as suitable matrix for a device that can easily detect OP to a level of 10 ppb and thus contributes to progress in terms of desired device technology for the food and agricultural-industries.

  16. Application of pristine and doped SnO2 nanoparticles as a matrix for agro-hazardous material (organophosphate) detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Naushad; Athar, Taimur; Fouad, H.; Umar, Ahmad; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.

    2017-02-01

    With an increasing focus on applied research, series of single/composite materials are being investigated for device development to detect several hazardous, dangerous, and toxic molecules. Here, we report a preliminary attempt of an electrochemical sensor fabricated using pristine Ni and Cr-doped nano tin oxide material (SnO2) as a tool to detect agro-hazardous material, i.e. Organophosphate (OP, chlorpyrifos). The nanomaterial was synthesized using the solution method. Nickel and chromium were used as dopant during synthesis. The synthesized material was calcined at 1000 °C and characterized for morphological, structural, and elemental analysis that showed the formation of agglomerated nanosized particles of crystalline nature. Screen-printed films of powder obtained were used as a matrix for working electrodes in a cyclic voltammogram (CV) at various concentrations of organophosphates (0.01 to 100 ppm). The CV curves were obtained before and after the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on the nanomaterial matrix. An interference study was also conducted with hydroquinone to ascertain the selectivity. The preliminary study indicated that such material can be used as suitable matrix for a device that can easily detect OP to a level of 10 ppb and thus contributes to progress in terms of desired device technology for the food and agricultural-industries.

  17. 77 FR 2095 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at the... of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. Type of Meeting: Part open. Contact Person: Dr. Thomas Rieker, Program Director, Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room...

  18. Non-destructive observation of electrically detected magnetic resonance in bulk material using AC bias.

    PubMed

    Sato, Toshiyuki; Yokoyama, Hidekatsu; Ohya, Hiroaki

    2005-07-01

    DC bias is normally found in conventional measurements of electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR). Usually, electrodes are formed on the sample surface to make ohmic contacts for detecting changes in the electrical characteristics of the sample material. Thus, destructive procedures are required to detect the EDMR signal of bulk material with such methods. An AC bias detection technique was developed to allow the non-destructive EDMR measurement of bulk materials. An AC bridge circuit was constructed to detect the change in impedance of the sample, which when changed by ESR, an unbalanced AC voltage can be detected. By detecting this AC bias, it is possible to cancel the effects, such as Shottky barriers, that disturb the ohmic contact between the electrodes and a sample material. Further, the AC bias current penetrates the thin surface layer of a sample such as silicon oxide, which normally obstructs a DC current. This method was utilized using conductive rubber contacts for non-destructive EDMR measurements of part of a silicon wafer. EDMR spectra observed were the same as those obtained by the conventional method of using DC bias detection.

  19. Non-destructive observation of electrically detected magnetic resonance in bulk material using AC bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Toshiyuki; Yokoyama, Hidekatsu; Ohya, Hiroaki

    2005-07-01

    DC bias is normally found in conventional measurements of electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR). Usually, electrodes are formed on the sample surface to make ohmic contacts for detecting changes in the electrical characteristics of the sample material. Thus, destructive procedures are required to detect the EDMR signal of bulk material with such methods. An AC bias detection technique was developed to allow the non-destructive EDMR measurement of bulk materials. An AC bridge circuit was constructed to detect the change in impedance of the sample, which when changed by ESR, an unbalanced AC voltage can be detected. By detecting this AC bias, it is possible to cancel the effects, such as Shottky barriers, that disturb the ohmic contact between the electrodes and a sample material. Further, the AC bias current penetrates the thin surface layer of a sample such as silicon oxide, which normally obstructs a DC current. This method was utilized using conductive rubber contacts for non-destructive EDMR measurements of part of a silicon wafer. EDMR spectra observed were the same as those obtained by the conventional method of using DC bias detection.

  20. Method and system based on pulsed neutron generator for fissile material detection in luggage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogolubov, Ye. P.; Korotkov, S. A.; Korytko, L. A.; Morukov, V. G.; Nazarov, V. I.; Polkanov, Yu. G.; Khasaev, T. O.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of fissile material (FM) detection in passenger luggage. Different methods of control of unauthorized FM movement were analyzed. Application of differential die-away technique was substantiated. Experimental prototype with sensitivity of uranium-235 detection equal to 5 g during 5 s was described. A method for revealing deliberate FM masking by neutron-absorbing shields is suggested.

  1. Application research of the balance detector on coherent detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaixia; Huang, Yongmei

    2016-09-01

    The principles of coherent detection and balanced detectors are analyzed respectively in this article. It mainly talked about the balance detector applications in coherent detection. Obtained by the theoretical analysis that we can not only make full use of the local oscillator optical power but also eliminate the noise of the LO light more effectively by using the balanced detector. The most important is that it can improve the SNR of the system. This paper also makes a research on the factors that affect the performance of the balanced detector. The simulation results show that the response of the photo-diode consistency should be gain at least 90% in order to improve the SNR effectively. It further validates that the laser intensity noise indeed declined by using the balanced detector.

  2. Research on the detection technology to dim and small target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Feng; Huang, Jianming; Wei, Xiangquan

    2015-03-01

    With the development of Space Technology, the demand to Space Surveillance System is more urgent than before. The paper studies the dim and small target of long range. Firstly, it describes the research status of dim and small target abroad and the two detection principle of DBT and TBD. Secondly, it focuses on the higher-order correlation method, dynamic programming method and projection transformation method of TBD. Finally, it studies the image sequence simulation of different signal to noise ratio (SNR) with the real-time data from the aircraft in orbit. The image sequence is used to experimental verification. The test results show the dim and small target detection capability and applicable occasion of different methods. At the same time, it provides a new idea to the development of long-distance optical detector.

  3. Research progress of Si-based germanium materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buwen, Cheng; Cheng, Li; Zhi, Liu; Chunlai, Xue

    2016-08-01

    Si-based germanium is considered to be a promising platform for the integration of electronic and photonic devices due to its high carrier mobility, good optical properties, and compatibility with Si CMOS technology. However, some great challenges have to be confronted, such as: (1) the nature of indirect band gap of Ge; (2) the epitaxy of dislocation-free Ge layers on Si substrate; and (3) the immature technology for Ge devices. The aim of this paper is to give a review of the recent progress made in the field of epitaxy and optical properties of Ge heterostructures on Si substrate, as well as some key technologies on Ge devices. High crystal quality Ge epilayers, as well as Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with high Ge content, were successfully grown on Si substrate with a low-temperature Ge buffer layer. A local Ge condensation technique was proposed to prepare germanium-on-insulator (GOI) materials with high tensile strain for enhanced Ge direct band photoluminescence. The advances in formation of Ge n+p shallow junctions and the modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge contacts were a significant progress in Ge technology. Finally, the progress of Si-based Ge light emitters, photodetectors, and MOSFETs was briefly introduced. These results show that Si-based Ge heterostructure materials are promising for use in the next-generation of integrated circuits and optoelectronic circuits. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61036003, 61435013) and the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (No. 2013CB632103).

  4. Detecting submerged bodies: controlled research using side-scan sonar to detect submerged proxy cadavers.

    PubMed

    Healy, Carrie A; Schultz, John J; Parker, Kenneth; Lowers, Bim

    2015-05-01

    Forensic investigators routinely deploy side-scan sonar for submerged body searches. This study adds to the limited body of literature by undertaking a controlled project to understand how variables affect detection of submerged bodies using side-scan sonar. Research consisted of two phases using small and medium-sized pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses as proxies for human bodies to investigate the effects of terrain, body size, frequency, swath width, and state of decomposition. Results demonstrated that a clear, flat, sandy pond floor terrain was optimal for detection of the target as irregular terrain and/or vegetation are major limitations that can obscure the target. A higher frequency towfish was preferred for small bodies, and a 20 m swath width allowed greater visibility and easier maneuverability of the boat in this environment. Also, the medium-sized carcasses were discernable throughout the 81-day study period, indicating that it is possible to detect bodies undergoing decomposition with side-scan sonar.

  5. Overview of DOE-NE Structural Materials Research, Materials Challenges and Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, Stuart A.; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2012-06-12

    This presentation summarized materials conditions for application of nanomaterials to reactor components. Material performance is essential to reactor performance, economics, and safety. A modern reactor design utilizes many different materials and material systems to achieve safe and reliable performance. Material performance in these harsh environments is very complex and many different forms of degradation may occur (often together in synergistic fashions). New materials science techniques may also help understand degradation modes and develop new manufacturing and fabrication techniques.

  6. Nanostructured materials detect epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase and carcinoembryonic antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Surdu-Bob, Carmen Cristina; Badulescu, Marius

    2015-09-01

    New nanostructured materials based on thin films of Cu and Ni deposited on textile material (veil), as well as gold nanostructured microspheres were used for the design of new stochastic sensors. The stochastic sensors were able to detect simultaneously a panel of biomarkers comprising epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase, and carcinoembryonic antigen from whole blood samples with high reliabilities - recovery tests higher than 97.00%, with a RSD (%) lower than 0.1%. The stochastic sensors had shown high sensitivities and low determination levels for the detection of the proposed panel of biomarkers making early detection of lung cancer possible by fast screening of whole blood.

  7. High-power, photofission-inducing bremsstrahlung source for intense pulsed active detection of fissile material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zier, J. C.; Mosher, D.; Allen, R. J.; Commisso, R. J.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Jackson, S. L.; Murphy, D. P.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.

    2014-06-01

    Intense pulsed active detection (IPAD) is a promising technique for detecting fissile material to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear materials. With IPAD, fissions are induced in a brief, intense radiation burst and the resulting gamma ray or neutron signals are acquired during a short period of elevated signal-to-noise ratio. The 8 MV, 200 kA Mercury pulsed-power generator at the Naval Research Laboratory coupled to a high-power vacuum diode produces an intense 30 ns bremsstrahlung beam to study this approach. The work presented here reports on Mercury experiments designed to maximize the photofission yield in a depleted-uranium (DU) object in the bremsstrahlung far field by varying the anode-cathode (AK) diode gap spacing and by adding an inner-diameter-reducing insert in the outer conductor wall. An extensive suite of diagnostics was fielded to measure the bremsstrahlung beam and DU fission yield as functions of diode geometry. Delayed fission neutrons from the DU proved to be a valuable diagnostic for measuring bremsstrahlung photons above 5 MeV. The measurements are in broad agreement with particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations of electron dynamics and radiation transport. These show that with increasing AK gap, electron losses to the insert and outer conductor wall increase and that the electron angles impacting the bremsstrahlung converter approach normal incidence. The diode conditions for maximum fission yield occur when the gap is large enough to produce electron angles close to normal, yet small enough to limit electron losses.

  8. Optical detection of special nuclear materials: an alternative approach for standoff and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. Bruce; Reeve, S. W.; Burns, W. A.; Allen, Susan D.

    2010-04-01

    Termed Special Nuclear Material (SNM) by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, fissile materials, such as 235U and 239Pu, are the primary components used to construct modern nuclear weapons. Detecting the clandestine presence of SNM represents an important capability for Homeland Security. An ideal SNM sensor must be able to detect fissile materials present at ppb levels, be able to distinguish between the source of the detected fissile material, i.e., 235U, 239Pu, 233U or other fission source, and be able to perform the discrimination in near real time. A sensor with such capabilities would provide not only rapid identification of a threat but, ultimately, information on the potential source of the threat. For example, current detection schemes for monitoring clandestine nuclear testing and nuclear fuel reprocessing to provide weapons grade fissile material rely largely on passive air sampling combined with a subsequent instrumental analysis or some type of wet chemical analysis of the collected material. It would be highly useful to have a noncontact method of measuring isotopes capable of providing forensic information rapidly at ppb levels of detection. Here we compare the use of Kr, Xe and I as "canary" species for distinguishing between 235U and 239Pu fission sources by spectroscopic methods.

  9. Interdisciplinary research on the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several investigations concerning the properties and processing of brittle ceramic materials as related to design considerations are briefly described. Surface characterization techniques, fractography, high purity materials, creep properties, impact and thermal shock resistance, and reaction bonding are discussed.

  10. Measurement of materialism and spiritualism in substance abuse research.

    PubMed

    Mathew, R J; Mathew, V G; Wilson, W H; Georgi, J M

    1995-07-01

    A modified version of an instrument called the Mathew Materialism-Spiritualism Scale (MMSS), originally developed in India, was evaluated for possible use in substance abuse research in the U.S. The scale was administered to 62 individuals recovering from substance use, 20 clergy people and 61 general controls. Test-retest reliability for the MMSS was verified by administering it to 18 control subjects on two separate occasions, 7 days apart. The Pearson correlation for the MMSS total scores was 0.83 (p < .0001). Internal consistency was examined with Cronbach's alpha in the entire sample of 143 subjects; the result for the total score was .93. Factor analysis showed a factor structure compatible with the subscales proposed by the developer. Women, in general, obtained higher spirituality scores. Members of the recovering group obtained significantly higher scores on "character" and "mysticism" than the general controls. When general controls were divided into MAST positive and MAST negative individuals, the MAST positive group obtained lower scores than the recovering group for "God," "mysticism" and "character." MAST negative individuals had lower scores on "mysticism" than the recovering group. Christians had higher scores on "God" and "religion" subscales than did nonChristians and agnostics. The results of this study need confirmation using an improved methodology and larger sample sizes. However, they suggest that the scale may be useful for the study of spirituality in the U.S.

  11. ISS Material Science Research Rack HWIL Interface Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Philip J.; Ballard, Gary H.; Crumbley, Robert T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the first Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) interface simulation is described. Dynamic Concepts developed this HWIL simulation system with funding and management provided by the Flight Software group (ED14) of NASA-MSFC's Avionics Department. The HWIL system has been used both as a flight software development environment and as a software qualification tool. To fulfill these roles, the HWIL simulator accurately models the system dynamics of many MSRR-1 subsystems and emulates most of the internal interface signals. The modeled subsystems include the Experiment Modules, the Thermal Environment Control System, the Vacuum Access System, the Solid State Power Controller Module, and the Active Rack Isolation Systems. The emulated signals reside on three separate MIL-STD-1553B digital communication buses, the ISS Medium Rate Data Link, and several analog controller and sensor signals. To enhance the range of testing, it was necessary to simulate several off-nominal conditions that may occur in the interfacing subsystems.

  12. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-05-09

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material.

  13. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-01-01

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material. PMID:28486438

  14. Improved explosive collection and detection with rationally assembled surface sampling materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Bays, J. Timothy; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Addleman, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    Sampling and detection of trace explosives is a key analytical process in modern transportation safety. In this work we have explored some of the fundamental analytical processes for collection and detection of trace level explosive on surfaces with the most widely utilized system, thermal desorption IMS. The performance of the standard muslin swipe material was compared with chemically modified fiberglass cloth. The fiberglass surface was modified to include phenyl functional groups. When compared to standard muslin, the phenyl functionalized fiberglass sampling material showed better analyte release from the sampling material as well as improved response and repeatability from multiple uses of the same swipe. The improved sample release of the functionalized fiberglass swipes resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. Various physical and chemical properties were systematically explored to determine optimal performance. The results herein have relevance to improving the detection of other explosive compounds and potentially to a wide range of other chemical sampling and field detection challenges.

  15. Research on energy transmission calculation problem on laser detecting submarine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Li, Yingchao; Zhang, Lizhong; Wang, Chao; An, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The laser detection and identification is based on the method of using laser as the source of signal to scan the surface of ocean. If the laser detection equipment finds out the target, it will immediately reflect the returning signal, and then through receiving and disposing the returning signal by the receiving system, to realize the function of detection and identification. Two mediums channels should be though in the process of laser detection transmission, which are the atmosphere and the seawater. The energy loss in the process of water transport, mainly considering the surface reflection and scattering attenuation and internal attenuation factors such as seawater. The energy consumption though atmospheric transmission, mainly considering the absorption of atmospheric and the attenuation causing by scattering, the energy consumption though seawater transmission, mainly considering the element such as surface reflection, the attenuation of scattering and internal attenuation of seawater. On the basis of the analysis and research, through the mode of establishment of atmospheric scattering, the model of sea surface reflection and the model of internal attenuation of seawater, determine the power dissipation of emitting lasers system, calculates the signal strength that reaches the receiver. Under certain conditions, the total attenuation of -98.92 dB by calculation, and put forward the related experiment scheme by the use of Atmospheric analog channel, seawater analog channel. In the experiment of the theory, we use the simulation pool of the atmosphere and the sea to replace the real environment where the laser detection system works in this kind of situation. To start with, we need to put the target in the simulating seawater pool of 10 meters large and then control the depth of the target in the sea level. We, putting the laser detection system in position where it is 2 kilometers far from one side, secondly use the equipment to aim at the target in some

  16. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Searcy, A.W.; Muller, R.H.; Peterson, C.V.

    1984-07-01

    Progress is reported in the following fields: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid-state physics, materials chemistry), chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques), actinide chemistry, fossil energy, electrochemical energy storage systems, superconducting magnets, semiconductor materials and devices, and work for others. (DLC)

  17. Synopsis of utilization research on SRIC raw materials

    Treesearch

    John B. Crist

    1983-01-01

    The take-home message of this paper is this: Raw materials produced using SRIC are suitable for many reconstituted end products. Juvenility, rapid growth, and bark contents do not greatly hinder the usefulness of the raw materials. In the future, increased industrial acceptance of SRIC methods and materials should be a major thrust and is discussed.

  18. The research of weld defect detection based on high precision displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kelin; Gao, Chao

    2016-11-01

    Welding is one of the very common process in industrial production. It is a kind of manufacturing process and technology which joint mental or other thermoplastic materials by heating, high temperature or high pressure. Welding quality will directly affect the final quality of workpiece. So during the welding process, each links have strict standard and welding quality evaluation has different indicators. Therefore, how to make a rapid detection to weld defect has become a valuable research. This topic is aimed at weld defect detection of small workpiece. The study contains the selection of sensor, design of detection system, hardware platform, software design, user interface design, etc. In the end, a set of high accuracy detector of weld defect will be designed.

  19. Hyperspectral depth-profiling with deep Raman spectroscopy for detecting chemicals in building materials.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngho; Song, Si Won; Sung, Jiha; Jeong, Young-Su; Park, Chan Ryang; Kim, Hyung Min

    2017-09-25

    Toxic chemicals inside building materials have long-term harmful effects on human bodies. To prevent secondary damage caused by the evaporation of latent chemicals, it is necessary to detect the chemicals inside building materials at an early stage. Deep Raman spectroscopy is a potential candidate for on-site detection because it can provide molecular information about subsurface components. However, it is very difficult to spectrally distinguish the Raman signal of the internal chemicals from the background signal of the surrounding materials and to acquire the geometric information of chemicals. In this study, we developed hyperspectral wide-depth spatially offset Raman spectroscopy coupled with a data processing algorithm to identify toxic chemicals, such as chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in building materials. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the chemicals and the thickness of the building material were also measured from one-dimensional (1D) spectral variation.

  20. Sustainable exposure prevention through innovative detection and remediation technologies from the NIEHS Superfund Research Program.

    PubMed

    Henry, Heather F; Suk, William A

    2017-03-01

    Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups. Primary prevention success is ultimately governed by the widespread acceptance of the prevention tool. And, in like fashion, detection and remediation technologies must convey technical and sustainability advantages to be adopted for use. Hence, sustainability - economic, environmental, and societal - drives innovation in detection and remediation technology. The National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) is mandated to advance innovative detection, remediation, and toxicity screening technology development through grants to universities and small businesses. SRP recognizes the importance of fast, accurate, robust, and advanced detection technologies that allow for portable real-time, on-site characterization, monitoring, and assessment of contaminant concentration and/or toxicity. Advances in non-targeted screening, biological-based assays, passive sampling devices (PSDs), sophisticated modeling approaches, and precision-based analytical tools are making it easier to quickly identify hazardous "hotspots" and, therefore, prevent exposures. Innovation in sustainable remediation uses a variety of approaches: in situ remediation; harnessing the natural catalytic properties of biological processes (such as bioremediation and phytotechnologies); and application of novel materials science (such as nanotechnology, advanced

  1. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois is an interdisciplinary laboratory operated in the College of Engineering. Its focus is the science of materials and it supports research in the areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. This report addresses topics such as: an MRL overview; budget; general programmatic and institutional issues; new programs; research summaries for metallurgy, ceramics, solid state physics, and materials chemistry.

  2. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois is an interdisciplinary laboratory operated in the College of Engineering. Its focus is the science of materials and it supports research in the areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. This report addresses topics such as: an MRL overview; budget; general programmatic and institutional issues; new programs; research summaries for metallurgy, ceramics, solid state physics, and materials chemistry.

  3. New Optical Sensing Materials for Application in Marine Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, S.; Klimant, I.

    2012-04-01

    Optical chemosensors are versatile analytical tools which find application in numerous fields of science and technology. They proved to be a promising alternative to electrochemical methods and are applied increasingly often in marine research. However, not all state-of-the- art optical chemosensors are suitable for these demanding applications since they do not fully fulfil the requirements of high luminescence brightness, high chemical- and photochemical stability or their spectral properties are not adequate. Therefore, development of new advanced sensing materials is still of utmost importance. Here we present a set of novel optical sensing materials recently developed in the Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry which are optimized for marine applications. Particularly, we present new NIR indicators and sensors for oxygen and pH which feature high brightness and low level of autofluorescence. The oxygen sensors rely on highly photostable metal complexes of benzoporphyrins and azabenzoporphyrins and enable several important applications such as simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and chlorophyll or ultra-fast oxygen monitoring (Eddy correlation). We also developed ulta-sensitive oxygen optodes which enable monitoring in nM range and are primary designed for investigation of oxygen minimum zones. The dynamic range of our new NIR pH indicators based on aza-BODIPY dyes is optimized for the marine environment. A highly sensitive NIR luminescent phosphor (chromium(III) doped yttrium aluminium borate) can be used for non-invasive temperature measurements. Notably, the oxygen, pH sensors and temperature sensors are fully compatible with the commercially available fiber-optic readers (Firesting from PyroScience). An optical CO2 sensor for marine applications employs novel diketopyrrolopyrrol indicators and enables ratiometric imaging using a CCD camera. Oxygen, pH and temperature sensors suitable for lifetime and ratiometric imaging of analytes

  4. Material Aging and Degradation Detection and Remaining Life Assessment for Plant Life Management

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Henager, Charles H.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Pitman, Stan G.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-12-31

    One of the major factors that may impact long term operations is structural material degradation, Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined, and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided.

  5. Using Electronic Neutron Generators in Active Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2008-10-01

    Experiments have been performed at Idaho National Laboratory to study methodology and instrumentation for performing neutron active interrogation die-away analyses for the purpose of detecting shielded fissionable material. Here we report initial work using a portable DT electronic neutron generator with a He-3 fast neutron detector to detect shielded fissionable material including >2 kg quantities of enriched uranium and plutonium. Measurements have been taken of bare material as well as of material hidden within a large plywood cube. Results from this work have demonstrated the efficacy of the die-away neutron measurement technique for quickly detecting the presence of special nuclear material hidden within plywood shields by analyzing the time dependent neutron signals in-between neutron generator pulses. Using a DT electronic neutron generator operating at 300 Hz with a yield of approximately 0.36 x 10**8 neutrons per second, 2.2 kg of enriched uranium hidden within a 0.60 m x 0.60 m x 0.70 m volume of plywood was positively detected with a measurement signal 2-sigma above the passive background within 1 second. Similarly, for a 500 second measurement period a lower detection limit of approaching the gram level could be expected with the same simple set-up.

  6. Materials Science Research Rack-1 Fire Suppressant Distribution Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, P. O.

    2002-01-01

    Fire suppressant distribution testing was performed on the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1), a furnace facility payload that will be installed in the U.S. Lab module of the International Space Station. Unlike racks that were tested previously, the MSRR-1 uses the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) to reduce vibration on experiments, so the effects of ARIS on fire suppressant distribution were unknown. Two tests were performed to map the distribution of CO2 fire suppressant throughout a mockup of the MSRR-1 designed to have the same component volumes and flowpath restrictions as the flight rack. For the first test, the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 60 percent, achieved within 45 s of discharge initiation, meeting the requirement to reach 50 percent throughout the rack within 1 min. For the second test, one of the experiment mockups was removed to provide a worst-case configuration, and the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 58 percent. Comparing the results of this testing with results from previous testing leads to several general conclusions that can be used to evaluate future racks. The MSRR-1 will meet the requirements for fire suppressant distribution. Primary factors that affect the ability to meet the CO2 distribution requirements are the free air volume in the rack and the total area and distribution of openings in the rack shell. The length of the suppressant flowpath and degree of tortuousness has little correlation with CO2 concentration. The total area of holes in the rack shell could be significantly increased. The free air volume could be significantly increased. To ensure the highest maximum CO2 concentration, the PFE nozzle should be inserted to the stop on the nozzle.

  7. Structural materials research for lighter-than-air systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alley, V. L., Jr.; Mchatton, A. D.

    1975-01-01

    Inflatable systems have widespread applications in military, government, and industrial sectors. Improvements in inflatable materials have followed each salient advancement in textiles. The new organic fiber, Kevlar, is a recent and most significant advancement that justified reexamination of old and new inflatable materials' applications. A fertile frontier exists in integrating Kevlar with various other material combinations, in optimization of geometric features, and in selection of thermomechanical characteristics' compatibility with the environment. Expectations regarding Kevlar have been justified by the performance of two experimental materials. Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymers appear promising as a constituent adhesive for low temperature applications. Biaxial testing for both strength and material elastic properties is a technology area needing greater awareness and technology growth along with improved facilities. Because of dramatic materials' advancements, inflatable systems appear to be moving toward an increased position in tomorrow's aerospace industry.

  8. Detecting Unknown Artificial Urban Surface Materials Based on Spectral Dissimilarity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jilge, Marianne; Heiden, Uta; Habermeyer, Martin; Mende, André; Juergens, Carsten

    2017-08-08

    High resolution imaging spectroscopy data have been recognised as a valuable data resource for augmenting detailed material inventories that serve as input for various urban applications. Image-specific urban spectral libraries are successfully used in urban imaging spectroscopy studies. However, the regional- and sensor-specific transferability of such libraries is limited due to the wide range of different surface materials. With the developed methodology, incomplete urban spectral libraries can be utilised by assuming that unknown surface material spectra are dissimilar to the known spectra in a basic spectral library (BSL). The similarity measure SID-SCA (Spectral Information Divergence-Spectral Correlation Angle) is applied to detect image-specific unknown urban surfaces while avoiding spectral mixtures. These detected unknown materials are categorised into distinct and identifiable material classes based on their spectral and spatial metrics. Experimental results demonstrate a successful redetection of material classes that had been previously erased in order to simulate an incomplete BSL. Additionally, completely new materials e.g., solar panels were identified in the data. It is further shown that the level of incompleteness of the BSL and the defined dissimilarity threshold are decisive for the detection of unknown material classes and the degree of spectral intra-class variability. A detailed accuracy assessment of the pre-classification results, aiming to separate natural and artificial materials, demonstrates spectral confusions between spectrally similar materials utilizing SID-SCA. However, most spectral confusions occur between natural or artificial materials which are not affecting the overall aim. The dissimilarity analysis overcomes the limitations of working with incomplete urban spectral libraries and enables the generation of image-specific training databases.

  9. Plasma-materials interactions and edge-plasma physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the: Pisces Program; Pisces Facilities; Pisces Experiments: Materials and Surface Physics; Pisces Experiments: Edge Plasma Physics; and, Theoretical Analysis: Edge Plasma Behavior.

  10. Scientific Applications of Optical Instruments to Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherow, William K.

    1997-01-01

    Microgravity is a unique environment for materials and biotechnology processing. Microgravity minimizes or eliminates some of the effects that occur in one g. This can lead to the production of new materials or crystal structures. It is important to understand the processes that create these new materials. Thus, experiments are designed so that optical data collection can take place during the formation of the material. This presentation will discuss scientific application of optical instruments at MSFC. These instruments include a near-field scanning optical microscope, a miniaturized holographic system, and a phase-shifting interferometer.

  11. Scientific Applications of Optical Instruments to Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherow, William K.

    1997-01-01

    Microgravity is a unique environment for materials and biotechnology processing. Microgravity minimizes or eliminates some of the effects that occur in one g. This can lead to the production of new materials or crystal structures. It is important to understand the processes that create these new materials. Thus, experiments are designed so that optical data collection can take place during the formation of the material. This presentation will discuss scientific application of optical instruments at MSFC. These instruments include a near-field scanning optical microscope, a miniaturized holographic system, and a phase-shifting interferometer.

  12. Energetic Material Detection by Laser Photofragmentation-Fragment Detection (PF-FD) Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    their profilometer, and Mr. Donovan Harris for the use of his imaging microscope. Support from the National Research Council Postdoctoral Research... mJ /pulse at 454 nm and 20−50 µJ at 226 nm. Both lasers systems operate at a repetition rate of 10 pulses per second (pps) and each pulse is about 6...They claim that the NO temperature depends somewhat on morphology and laser 9 fluence (1−60 mJ /cm2), with larger fluencies yielding hotter NO

  13. Materials Research for Advanced Inertial Instrumentation. Task 3. Rare Earth Magnetic Material Technology as Related to Gyro Torquers and Motors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    Technical Report No. 2 4. TILE *~ub~kL S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Materials Research for Advanced Inertial Research ReportInstrumentation...change, and physical properties compatible with beryllium . Because of its favorable strength-to-weight ratio, beryllium is the structural material of...ficient to match that of beryllium . 1.2 Objectives The objectives of the present program are to develop improved sin- tering procedures to produce

  14. Home Economics Education Instructional Materials from "Abstracts of Instructional and Research Materials in Vocational and Technical Education," 1972-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Erma D., Comp.

    Over 700 resumes of instructional materials for home economics education, which have appeared in "Abstracts of Instructional and Research Materials in Vocational and Technical Education" (AIM/ARM) between 1972 and 1975, are included in this compilation. (The first edition of the series, containing resumes from 1967 through 1971, is available in…

  15. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? (a)...

  16. Abstracts of Instructional and Research Materials in Vocational and Technical Education. Vol. 7, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The publication is presented with the purpose of providing educators easy access to current materials relevant to vocational-technical instruction and research. The document has three major sections: Instructional Materials, Research Materials, and Projects in Progress. The first two sections have three subsections: abstracts, subject index, and…

  17. Abstracts of Instructional and Research Materials in Vocational and Technical Education Volume 7, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The publication is presented with the purpose of providing educators easy access to current materials relevant to vocational-technical instruction and research. The document has three major sections: Instructional Materials, Research Materials, and Projects in Progress. The first two sections have three subsections: abstracts, subject index, and…

  18. Abstracts of Instructional and Research Materials in Vocational and Technical Education. Volume 8, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The publication is presented with the purpose of providing educators easy access to current materials relevant to vocational-technical instruction and research. In the abstract section instructional materials (30 items) are followed by research materials (168 items) with the subject and author indexes providing access to both categories. The…

  19. Abstracts of Instructional and Research Materials in Vocational and Technical Education. Volume 8, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The publication is presented with the purpose of providing educators easy access to current materials relevant to vocational-technical instruction and research. In the abstract section instructional materials (75 items) are followed by research materials (75 items) with the subject and author indexes providing access to both categories. The…

  20. Abstracts of Instructional and Research Materials in Vocational and Technical Education. Volume 8, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The publication is presented with the purpose of providing educators easy access to current materials relevant to vocational-technical instruction and research. In the abstract section instructional materials (97 items) are followed by research materials (103 items) with the subject and author indexes providing access to both categories. The…