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Sample records for materials lunar

  1. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are the following: to investigate the feasibility of the use of local lunar resources for construction of a lunar base structure; to develop a material processing method and integrate the method with design and construction of a pressurized habitation structure; to estimate specifications of the support equipment necessary for material processing and construction; and to provide parameters for systems models of lunar base constructions, supply, and operations. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: comparison of various lunar structures; guidelines for material processing methods; cast lunar regolith; examples of cast basalt components; cast regolith process; processing equipment; mechanical properties of cast basalt; material properties and structural design; and future work.

  2. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  3. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  4. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-11-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  5. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  6. Lunar material transport vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

  7. Investigations of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, G. M.; Fvwaraye, A. O.; Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The investigations were directed at determining the radiation history and surface chronology of lunar materials using the etched particle track technique. The major lunar materials studied are the igneous rocks and double core from Apollo 12, the breccia and soil samples from Apollo 14, and the core samples from Luna 16. In the course of this work two new and potentially important observations were made: (1) Cosmic ray-induced spallation-recoil tracks were identified. The density of such tracks, when compared with the density of tracks induced by a known flux of accelerator protons, yields the time of exposure of a sample within the top meter or two of moon's surface. (2) Natural, fine scale plastic deformation was found to have fragmented pre-existing charged particle tracks, allowing the dating of the mechanical event causing the deformation.

  8. Water in lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speed, R. C.

    1963-01-01

    Two lines of evidence, suggest independently that materials which formed the Moon were not anhydrous: 1. Meteorites, our only sample of extraterrestrial material, contain water in varying amounts. Chondrites average about 0.25% water by weight. Carbonaceous chondrites, however, contain up to 20% water; and, although much of this water may be adsorbed atmospheric and surface water, the abundance of silicate hydrates in these objects indicates that considerable water existed in these meteorites before Earth impact. 2. The gas emission from Alphonsus observed by Kosyrev indicates that volatiles are diffusing out of the Moon. The observed emission was a C, band. Analyses of presumably juvenile gases reaching the Earth's surface show that water generally composes 95% or more of the gas. By analogy, it is suggested that water must be reaching the lunar surface. Consequently, it is reasonable to conclude that water existed in the materials which formed the Moon as well as those which formed the Earth or meteorites (or their source object). An estimate of the water content of the primordial Earth is 0.03%.

  9. Micropaleontological study of lunar material.

    PubMed

    Barghoorn, E S; Phillpott, D; Turnbill, C

    1970-01-30

    Samples of the lunar dust, rock chips, and thin sections of rocks from Tranquillity Base have been examined by use of white light and electron optics. In transmitted and in dark-and bright-field incident light and in the scanning electron beam the material reveals no indication of biological morphology. It is inferred that the lunar regolith has always been devoid of life. section preparations.

  10. Characterization of Standardized Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P.; Sibille, L.; Meeker, G.; Wilson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Lunar exploration requires scientific and engineering studies using standardized testing procedures that ultimately support flight certification of technologies and hardware. This motivates the development of traceable, standardized lunar regolith simulant (SLRS) materials. For details, refer to the 2005 Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials.

  11. Lunar material resources: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of returned lunar samples and a comparison of the physical and chemical processes operating on the Moon and on the Earth provide a basis for predicting both the possible types of material resources (especially minerals and rocks) and the physical characteristics of ore deposits potentially available on the Moon. The lack of free water on the Moon eliminates the classes of ore deposits that are most exploitable on Earth; namely, (1) hydrothermal, (2) secondary mobilization and enrichment, (3) precipitation from a body of water, and (4) placer. The types of lunar materials available for exploitation are whole rocks and their contained minerals, regolith, fumarolic and vapor deposits, and nonlunar materials, including solar wind implantations. Early exploitation of lunar material resources will be primarily the use of regolith materials for bulk shielding; the extraction from regolith fines of igneous minerals such as plagioclase feldspars and ilmenite for the production of oxygen, structural metals, and water; and possibly the separation from regolith fines of solar-wind-implanted volatiles. The only element, compound, or mineral, that by itself has been identified as having the economic potential for mining, processing, and return to Earth is helium-3.

  12. Lunar materials processing system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    The theme of this paper is that governmental resources will not permit the simultaneous development of all viable lunar materials processing (LMP) candidates. Choices will inevitably be made, based on the results of system integration trade studies comparing candidates to each other for high-leverage applications. It is in the best long-term interest of the LMP community to lead the selection process itself, quickly and practically. The paper is in five parts. The first part explains what systems integration means and why the specialized field of LMP needs this activity now. The second part defines the integration context for LMP -- by outlining potential lunar base functions, their interrelationships and constraints. The third part establishes perspective for prioritizing the development of LMP methods, by estimating realistic scope, scale, and timing of lunar operations. The fourth part describes the use of one type of analytical tool for gaining understanding of system interactions: the input/output model. A simple example solved with linear algebra is used to illustrate. The fifth and closing part identifies specific steps needed to refine the current ability to study lunar base system integration. Research specialists have a crucial role to play now in providing the data upon which this refinement process must be based.

  13. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  14. The capture of lunar materials in low lunar orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A scenario is presented for the retrieval of lunar materials sent into lunar orbit to be used as raw materials in space manufacturing operations. The proposal is based on the launch of material from the lunar surface by an electromagnetic mass driver and the capture of this material in low lunar orbit by a fleet of mass catchers which ferry the material to processing facilities when full. Material trajectories are analyzed using the two-body equations of motion, and intercept requirements and the sensitivity of the system to launch errors are determined. The present scenario is shown to be superior to scenarios that place a single mass catcher at the L2 libration point due to increased operations flexibility, decreased mass driver performance requirements and centralized catcher servicing.

  15. Quarantine testing and biocharacterization of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Mieszkuc, B. J.; Simmonds, R. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    Quarantine testing was conducted to ensure the safety of all life on earth. The plants and animals which were exposed to lunar material were carefully observed for prolonged periods to determine if any mutation or changes in growing characteristics and behavior occurred. The quarantine testing was terminated after the Apollo 14 flight when it became apparent that previously returned lunar material contained no potentially harmful agents. Further biological experimentation with the lunar material was conducted to determine its chemical, physical, and nutritional qualities.

  16. Quarantine testing and biocharacterization of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Mieszkuc, B. J.; Simmonds, R. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    Quarantine testing was conducted to ensure the safety of all life on earth. The plants and animals which were exposed to lunar material were carefully observed for prolonged periods to determine if any mutation or changes in growing characteristics and behavior occurred. The quarantine testing was terminated after the Apollo 14 flight when it became apparent that previously returned lunar material contained no potentially harmful agents. Further biological experimentation with the lunar material was conducted to determine its chemical, physical, and nutritional qualities.

  17. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; D'Amico, J.; Defelice, J.; Spannagel, G.

    1972-01-01

    The difference between the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in the rocks 12002 and 15555 provides direct measures of the Ar-37 activities produced by the 2 November 1969 flare. Differences between the Ar-37 activities in 14321 and 15555 give Ar-37 activities produced by the 24 January 1971 flare. The intensities of the two flares were determined by making use of measured Ar-37 cross sections in simulated lunar material. The depth dependence of tritium in samples and its temperature-release pattern provides information about the sources of the tritium and about the intensity of solar flares integrated over the past 30 years.

  18. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; D'Amico, J.; Defelice, J.; Spannagel, G.

    1972-01-01

    The difference between the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in the rocks 12002 and 15555 provides direct measures of the Ar-37 activities produced by the 2 November 1969 flare. Differences between the Ar-37 activities in 14321 and 15555 give Ar-37 activities produced by the 24 January 1971 flare. The intensities of the two flares were determined by making use of measured Ar-37 cross sections in simulated lunar material. The depth dependence of tritium in samples and its temperature-release pattern provides information about the sources of the tritium and about the intensity of solar flares integrated over the past 30 years.

  19. A small scale lunar launcher for early lunar material utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, W. R.; Kubby, J. A.; Dunbar, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    A system for the launching of lunar derived oxygen or raw materials into low lunar orbit or to L2 for transfer to low earth orbit is presented. The system described is a greatly simplified version of the conventional and sophisticated approach suggested by O'Neill using mass drivers with recirculating buckets. An electromagnetic accelerator is located on the lunar surface which launches 125 kg 'smart' containers of liquid oxygen or raw materials into a transfer orbit. Upon reaching apolune a kick motor is fired to circularize the orbit at 100 km altitude or L2. These containers are collected and their payloads transferred to a tanker OTV. The empty containers then have their kick motors refurbished and then are returned to the launcher site on the lunar surface for reuse. Initial launch capability is designed for about 500T of liquid oxygen delivered to low earth orbit per year with upgrading to higher levels, delivery of lunar soil for shielding, or raw materials for processing given the demand.

  20. A small scale lunar launcher for early lunar material utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, W. R.; Kubby, J. A.; Dunbar, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    A system for the launching of lunar derived oxygen or raw materials into low lunar orbit or to L2 for transfer to low earth orbit is presented. The system described is a greatly simplified version of the conventional and sophisticated approach suggested by O'Neill using mass drivers with recirculating buckets. An electromagnetic accelerator is located on the lunar surface which launches 125 kg 'smart' containers of liquid oxygen or raw materials into a transfer orbit. Upon reaching apolune a kick motor is fired to circularize the orbit at 100 km altitude or L2. These containers are collected and their payloads transferred to a tanker OTV. The empty containers then have their kick motors refurbished and then are returned to the launcher site on the lunar surface for reuse. Initial launch capability is designed for about 500T of liquid oxygen delivered to low earth orbit per year with upgrading to higher levels, delivery of lunar soil for shielding, or raw materials for processing given the demand.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDIZED LUNAR REGOLITH SIMULANT MATERIALS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P.; Sibille, L.; Wilson, S.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar exploration activities require scientific and engineering studies that use standardized testing procedures and ultimately support flight certification of hardware and the development of technologies for their use on the lunar surface. It is necessary to anticipate the full range of source materials and environmental constraints that are expected on the Moon and Mars, and to evaluate in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) coupled with testing and development. Historical use of lunar simulants has focused on physical aspects of the lunar regolith for landing and transportation activities. Lunar mare simulants MLS-1 and JSC-1 have been developed, but supplies have been exhausted. Renewed emphasis on exploration and ISRU activities requires development of standardized simulant reference materials that are traceable interlaboratory standards for testing and simulate the lunar regolith in terms of physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. This new generation of lunar regolith simulants must therefore support both technological development and testing methods. These issues were extensively discussed at the 2005 Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials Workshop.

  2. Search for magnetic monopoles in lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, L. W.; Eberhard, P. H.; Ross, R. R.; Watt, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic monopoles in 19.8 kg. of lunar material returned by Apollo 11, 12 and 14 missions were investigated. The search was done with a detector which is capable of detecting any single monopole of any charge equal to or larger than the minimum value compatible with Dirac's theory. Two experiments were performed, each one with different lunar material. In each experiment the lunar material was divided into several measurement samples. No monopole was found. The magnetic charge of each sample was consistent with zero.

  3. Development of Standardized Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P.; Sibille, L.; Meeker, G.; Wilson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Lunar exploration requires studies using standardized testing procedures. Previous lunar simulants focused on physical aspects of the lunar regolith. Renewed lunar exploration requires standardized lunar regolith simulant (SLRS) materials that simulate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of the regolith [l]. A root simulant models an end-member, and a derivative is formed by addition of material [2]. The 2005 Workshop recommended a low-Ti mare basalt and a high-Ca highland anorthosite set of roots. Derivatives involve addition of ilmenite and glassy agglutinates [3]. An ideal SLRS material is homogeneous. Geochemical standards are finely-ground to reduce chemical variability, but lunar simulants have a grain size variation and mineralogy that must match the lunar regolith. The simulant homogeneity is monitored using major, minor, and trace element data of progressively smaller samples compared to bulk material. Both chemical and geotechnical properties depend on the contrast from grain to grain. The variability of simulant material is an inherent property that must be taken into account. Simulant production requires monitoring of adherence to simulant requirements and homogeneity during production. Quality control establishes a traceability to a master set of reference standards.

  4. Electromagnetic launch of lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, William R.; Kolm, Henry H.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar soil can become a source of relatively inexpensive oxygen propellant for vehicles going from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and beyond. This lunar oxygen could replace the oxygen propellant that, in current plans for these missions, is launched from the Earth's surface and amounts to approximately 75 percent of the total mass. The reason for considering the use of oxygen produced on the Moon is that the cost for the energy needed to transport things from the lunar surface to LEO is approximately 5 percent the cost from the surface of the Earth to LEO. Electromagnetic launchers, in particular the superconducting quenchgun, provide a method of getting this lunar oxygen off the lunar surface at minimal cost. This cost savings comes from the fact that the superconducting quenchgun gets its launch energy from locally supplied, solar- or nuclear-generated electrical power. We present a preliminary design to show the main features and components of a lunar-based superconducting quenchgun for use in launching 1-ton containers of liquid oxygen, one every 2 hours. At this rate, nearly 4400 tons of liquid oxygen would be launched into low lunar orbit in a year.

  5. Development of Standardized Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P.; Sibille, L.; Wilson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Lunar exploration requires scientific and engineering studies using standardized testing procedures that ultimately support flight certification of technologies and hardware. It is necessary to anticipate the range of source materials and environmental constraints that are expected on the Moon and Mars, and to evaluate in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) coupled with testing and development. Physical properties of the regolith dominate processes such as excavation and drilling, while chemical properties dominate processes such as elemental extraction. We describe here the development of standardized lunar regolith simulant (SLRS) materials that are traceable interlaboratory standards for testing and technology development. These SLRS materials must simulate the lunar regolith in terms of physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. A comprehensive simulant development program has been outlined and is in progress. A summary of these issues is contained in the 2005 Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials

  6. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Ar37, Ar39, and H3 were measured at four depths (from 0 to 19.5 cm) of the deep core from Apollo 16 and in four other Apollo 16 samples. The Ar37 increased steadily from 40 dpm/kg at the top of the core to 68 dpm/kg at 19-cm depth. The comparison of the Ar37 in the core with that in rock 15555 shows that the solar flare at the time of the Apollo 16 mission was approximately an order of magnitude less intense than solar flares of 24 January 1971 and 2 November 1969, which occurred before the Apollo 14 and 12 missions. The Ar39 activities in the top 19 cm of the deep core varied little with depth. Because the Apollo 16 samples have a much higher Ca content and much lower Fe and Ti contents than do the documented rocks from previous missions, the Ar39 in the Fe, Ca, and K can be determined from Ar39 measurements on lunar material if a Ti cross section is assumed.

  7. Excavation costs for lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, W. D., III

    1979-01-01

    A lunar strip mining system is presented which is capable of excavating and transporting 3 million metric tons of ore per year to a central processing plant on the moon's surface. The mining system would grow from a single front-end loader in the first year, to a fleet of ten haulers in the 30th year. Lunar personnel requirements would consist of a single individual, whose primary function would be to perform maintenance. All of the mining equipment would either operate automatically or by remote control from earth. The projected cost for the lunar mining system is approximately $12 to $37 per ton of ore over the life of the mine, an important part of the overall economics of exploiting lunar resources.

  8. Development of Standardized Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P.; Sibille, L.; Meeker, G.; Wilson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Lunar exploration requires scientific and engineering studies using standardized testing procedures that ultimately support flight certification of technologies and hardware. It is necessary to anticipate the range of source materials and environmental constraints that are expected on the Moon and Mars, and to evaluate in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) coupled with testing and development. We describe here the development of standardized lunar regolith simulant (SLRS) materials that are traceable inter-laboratory standards for testing and technology development. These SLRS materials must simulate the lunar regolith in terms of physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. A summary of these issues is contained in the 2005 Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials [l]. Lunar mare basalt simulants MLS-1 and JSC-1 were developed in the late 1980s. MLS-1 approximates an Apollo 11 high-Ti basalt, and was produced by milling of a holocrystalline, coarse-grained intrusive gabbro (Fig. 1). JSC-1 approximates an Apollo 14 basalt with a relatively low-Ti content, and was obtained from a glassy volcanic ash (Fig. 2). Supplies of MLS-1 and JSC-1 have been exhausted and these materials are no longer available. No highland anorthosite simulant was previously developed. Upcoming lunar polar missions thus require the identification, assessment, and development of both mare and highland simulants. A lunar regolith simulant is manufactured from terrestrial components for the purpose of simulating the physical and chemical properties of the lunar regolith. Significant challenges exist in the identification of appropriate terrestrial source materials. Lunar materials formed under comparatively reducing conditions in the absence of water, and were modified by meteorite impact events. Terrestrial materials formed under more oxidizing conditions with significantly greater access to water, and were modified by a wide range of weathering processes. The composition space of lunar

  9. Trace geochemistry of lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar samples from the Apollo 16 and 17 flights which were analyzed include soil, igneous rock, anorthositic gabbro, orange soil, subfloor basalt, and norite breccia. Up to 57 elements including majors, minors, rare earths and other trace elements were determined in the lunar samples. The analytical techniques used were spark source mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The latter was done either instrumentally or with group radiochemical separations. The differences in abundances of the elements in lunar soils at the various sites are discussed. With regard to the major elements only Si is about the same at all the sites. A detailed analysis which was performed on a sample of the Allende meteorite is summarized.

  10. Method for producing oxygen from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is related to producing oxygen from lunar or Martian materials, particularly from lunar ilmenite in situ. The process includes producing a slurry of the minerals and hot sulfuric acid, the acid and minerals reacting to form sulfates of the metal. Water is added to the slurry to dissolve the minerals into an aqueous solution, the first aqueous solution is separated from unreacted minerals from the slurry, and the aqueous solution is electrolyzed to produce the metal and oxygen.

  11. Microwave processing of lunar materials: potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, T.T.; Cocks, F.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Wright, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The microwave processing of lunar materials holds promise for the production of either water, oxygen, primary metals, or ceramic materials. Extra high frequency microwave (EHF) at between 100 and 500 gigahertz have the potential for selective coupling to specific atomic species and a concomitant low energy requirement for the extraction of specific materials, such as oxygen, from lunar ores. The coupling of ultra high frequency (UHF) (e.g., 2.45 gigahertz) microwave frequencies to hydrogen-oxygen bonds might enable the preferential and low energy cost removal (as H/sub 2/O) of implanted protons from the sun or of adosrbed water which might be found in lunar dust in permanently shadowed polar areas. Microwave melting and selective phase melting of lunar materials could also be used either in the preparation of simplified ceramic geometries (e.g., bricks) with custom-tailored microstructures, or for the direct preparation of hermetic walls in underground structures. Speculatively, the preparation of photovoltaic devices based on lunar materials, especially ilmenite, may be a potential use of microwave processing on the moon. Preliminary experiments on UHF melting of terrestrial basalt, basalt/ilmenite and mixtures show that microwave processing is feasible.

  12. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    Results from a carbon-14 study in size fractions of lunar soil are reported. The 10 to 30 micrometers and 74 to 124 micrometers size fraction results were supplemented by 30 to 37 micrometers results that are given in this report. The gases from the less than 10 micrometers fraction were extracted and purified and carbon-14 counting is now in progress. Meteorites were also studied using carbon-14, with emphasis directed to those recently discovered in the Antarctic.

  13. Discovery and characterization of lunar materials: An incomplete process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D.

    1991-01-01

    Our knowledge of lunar materials is based on (1) sample collections (by the Apollo and Lunar missions, supplemented by Antarctic lunar meteorites); and (2) remote sensing (Earth-based or by spacecraft). The characterization of lunar materials is limited by the small number of sampled sites and the incomplete remote-sensing database (geochemical data collected from orbit cover 20 percent of the lunar surface). There is much about lunar surface materials that remains to be discovered. Listed are some features suspected form present knowledge: (1) Polar Materials; (2) Farside Materials; (3) Crater-Floor Materials; (4) Crater-Wall and Central Peak Materials; (5) Volcanic Shield and Dome Materials; (6) Transient-Event Materials; and (7) Meteoritic and Cometary Materials; This short list of likely discoveries isn't exhaustive. We know much about a few spots on the Moon, but little about the full range of lunar materials.

  14. Apollo 11: exposure of lower animals to lunar material.

    PubMed

    Benschoter, C A; Allison, T C; Boyd, J F; Brooks, M A; Campbell, J W; Groves, R O; Heimpel, A M; Mills, H E; Ray, S M; Warren, J W; Wolf, K E; Wood, E M; Wrenn, R T; Zein-Eldin, Z

    1970-07-31

    Lunar material returned from the first manned landing on the moon was assayed for the presence of replicating agents possibly harmful to life on earth. Ten species of lower animals were exposed to lunar material for 28 days. No pathological effects attributable to contact with lunar material were detected.

  15. Radioactivity in returned lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The H-3, Ar-37, and Ar-39 radioactivities were measured at several depths in the large documented lunar rocks 14321 and 15555. The comparison of the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in rocks 12002, 14321, and 15555 gives direct measures of the amount of Ar-37 produced by the 2 November 1969 and 24 January 1971 solar flares. The tritium contents in the documented rocks decreased with increasing depths. The solar flare intensity averaged over 30 years obtained from the tritium depth dependence was approximately the same as the flare intensity averaged over 1000 years obtained from the Ar-37 measurements. Radioactivities in two Apollo 15 soil samples, H-3 in several Surveyor 3 samples, and tritium and radon weepage were also measured.

  16. Workshop on Production and Uses of Simulated Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A workshop entitled, Production and Uses of Simulated Lunar Materials, was convened to define the need for simulated lunar materials and examine related issues in support of extended space exploration and development. Lunar samples are a national treasure and cannot be sacrificed in sufficient quantity to test lunar resource utilization process adequately. Hence, the workshop focused on a detailed examination of the variety of potential simulants and the methods for their production.

  17. Reactivity of simulated lunar material with fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    Simulated lunar surface material was caused to react with fluorine to determine the feasibility of producing oxygen by this method. The maximum total fluorine pressure used was 53.3 kilonewtons per square meter (400 torr) at temperatures up to 523 K (250 C). Postreaction analysis of both the gas and solid phases indicated that the reaction is feasible but that the efficiency is only about 4 percent of that predicted by theory.

  18. Technicians work with Apollo 14 lunar sample material in Lunar Receiving Lab.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Glove handlers work with freshly opened Apollo 14 lunar sample material in modularized cabinets in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The glove operator on the right starts to pour fine lunar material which he has just taken from a tote bag. This powdery sample was among the last to be revealed of the 90-odd pounds of material brought back to Earth by the Apollo 14 crewmen.

  19. Technicians work with Apollo 14 lunar sample material in Lunar Receiving Lab.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-18

    S71-19489 (18 Feb. 1971) --- Glove handlers work with freshly opened Apollo 14 lunar sample material in modularized cabinets in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The glove operator on the right starts to pour fine lunar material which he has just taken from a tote bag. The powdery sample was among the last to be revealed of the 90-odd pounds of material brought back to Earth by the Apollo 14 crew members.

  20. Demandite, lunar materials and space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Terrestrial industry consumes a wide range of elements in producing the outputs which support and make industrial societies possible. 'Demandite' is a conceptual or synthetic molecule which is composed of the weight fractions of the major elements consumed by industry. Demandite needed for mature industrial activities in space will differ from the terrestrial composition because solar energy must replace hydrocarbon-energy, lunar and asteroidal bulk compositions are different from mineral deposits on the earth, and the major bulk processing in space will be the creation of radiation shielding for human habitats to provide real estate in space complete with water, atmosphere and life-stock elements. Demandite cost may be dominated by earth to deep space transport cost of minor elemental constituents depleted in the lunar soils unless careful attention is given to substitution of materials, searches of the moon (polar regions) and asteroids for the depleted elements, and continuing lowering of earth to deep space transport costs.

  1. Demandite, lunar materials and space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Terrestrial industry consumes a wide range of elements in producing the outputs which support and make industrial societies possible. 'Demandite' is a conceptual or synthetic molecule which is composed of the weight fractions of the major elements consumed by industry. Demandite needed for mature industrial activities in space will differ from the terrestrial composition because solar energy must replace hydrocarbon-energy, lunar and asteroidal bulk compositions are different from mineral deposits on the earth, and the major bulk processing in space will be the creation of radiation shielding for human habitats to provide real estate in space complete with water, atmosphere and life-stock elements. Demandite cost may be dominated by earth to deep space transport cost of minor elemental constituents depleted in the lunar soils unless careful attention is given to substitution of materials, searches of the moon (polar regions) and asteroids for the depleted elements, and continuing lowering of earth to deep space transport costs.

  2. Proceedings of the Lunar Materials Technology Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The meeting was organized around a possible lunar outpost scenario, featuring industrial technologies, systems, and components applicable to the extraction, processing, and fabrication of local materials. Acknowledged space resources experts as well as investigators from outside the field whose knowledge could be applied to space development activities were brought together. Presentations came from a variety of specialists in fields such as minerals processing, environmental control, and communications. The sessions of the symposium were divided into the following areas: resource characterization, energy management, materials processing, environment control, and automation and communications.

  3. The Status of Lunar Simulants: Conclusions and Recommendations from the 2005 Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, L.; Schlagheck, R.

    2005-01-01

    No coordinated program currently exists in the U.S.A to define reference materials to be used as analogs of lunar materials. While such efforts have existed at different times in the past (Apollo Landing Module and Lunar Rover programs and NASA's Space Initiative in the early 1990's), the need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that must be addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and program managers. The 2005 Lunar Regolith Materials Workshop was held at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL on January 24-26,2005 to launch a focused effort of defining the requirements of lunar >simulant materials and make specific recommendations to NASA Headquarters for their production. Nearly 100 scientists and engineers worked during 3 days to accomplish these goals. Their conclusions and recommendations will be presented.

  4. The Status of Lunar Simulants: Conclusions and Recommendations from the 2005 Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, L.; Schlagheck, R.

    2005-01-01

    No coordinated program currently exists in the U.S.A to define reference materials to be used as analogs of lunar materials. While such efforts have existed at different times in the past (Apollo Landing Module and Lunar Rover programs and NASA's Space Initiative in the early 1990's), the need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that must be addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and program managers. The 2005 Lunar Regolith Materials Workshop was held at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL on January 24-26,2005 to launch a focused effort of defining the requirements of lunar >simulant materials and make specific recommendations to NASA Headquarters for their production. Nearly 100 scientists and engineers worked during 3 days to accomplish these goals. Their conclusions and recommendations will be presented.

  5. Research on lunar materials. [optical, chemical, and electrical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts of 14 research reports relating to investigations of lunar samples are presented. The principal topics covered include: (1) optical properties of surface and core samples; (2) chemical composition of the surface layers of lunar grains: Auger electron spectroscopy of lunar soil and ground rock samples; (3) high frequency electrical properties of lunar soil and rock samples and their relevance for the interpretation of lunar radar observations; (4) the electrostatic dust transport process; (5) secondary electron emission characteristics of lunar soil samples and their relevance to the dust transportation process; (6) grain size distribution in surface soil and core samples; and (7) the optical and chemical effects of simulated solar wind (2keV proton and a particle radiation) on lunar material.

  6. Expanding the REE Partitioning Database for Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. This is taken as evidence of a large-scale differentation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were later derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Some plagioclase grains in a lunar impact rock (60635) have been reported to display a negative Eu anomaly, or in some cases single grains display both positive and neagtive anomalies. Cathodoluminescence images reveal that some crystals have a negative anomaly in the core and positive at the rim, or vice versa, and the negative anomalies are not associated with crystal overgrowths. Oxygen fugacity is known to affect Eu partitioning into plagioclase, as under low fO2 conditions Eu can be divalent, and has an ionic radius similar to Ca2+ - significant in lunar samples where plagioclase compositions are predominantly anorthitic. However, there are very few experimental studies of rare earth element (REE) partitioning in plagioclase relevant to lunar magmatism, with only two plagioclase DEu measurements from experiments using lunar materials, and little data in low fO2 conditions relevant to the Moon. We report on REE partitioning experiments on lunar compositions. We investigate two lunar basaltic compositions, high-alumina basalt 14072 and impact melt breccia 60635. These samples span a large range of lunar surface bulk compositions. The experiments are carried out at variable fO2 in 1 bar gas mixing furnaces, and REE are analysed by and LA-ICP-MS. Our results not only greatly expand the existing plagioclase DREE database for lunar compositions, but also investigate the significance of fO2 in Eu partitioning, and in the interpretation of Eu anomalies in lunar materials.

  7. Experimental petrology of lunar material: the nature of mascons, seas, and the lunar interior.

    PubMed

    O'hara, M J; Biggar, G M; Richardson, S W

    1970-01-30

    One-atmosphere melting data show that Apollo 11 samples are near cotectic. Melting relations at pressures up to 35 kilobars show that clinopyroxenite or amphibole peridotite are possible lunar interiors. Mascons cannot be eclogite; they may be ilmenite accumulate. Hot lunar surface material will boil off alkalis.

  8. Toward a spartan scenario for use of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The present discussion has the objective to identify those raw materials for use in manufacture which can most readily be obtained from lunar materials as they are currently known. The state of lunar exploration is incomplete, and concentrated ores may exist for elements now regarded as rare or dispersed. This paper provides a description of minimum possibilities, based on the notion of making do with the least feasible amounts of separation and processing. The discussion is limited to the most abundant materials observed at lunar sites visited by the Apollo missions. The ground rules for use of lunar products are considered along with the tools required to carry out any significant production of raw materials for manufacture, and lunar surface conditions. Readily available materials include unprocessed regolith and minimally processed regolith. A few examples of processing methods are provided, giving attention to thermal release of gases, hydrogen reduction of ilmenite, carbonyl processing, electrolysis of molten silicate, and destructive distillation.

  9. Progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A close-up view of numerous fern plants growning in a sprinkling of lunar soil brought back from the lunar surface by the crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The photograph of the fern plants was taken 50 days after the plants were explosed to the lunar matter. The plants - Ococlea Sensidilis, or more commonly known as Sensitive Fern - were photographed on a dish containing the minimal nutrients for germination. The cabbage-like, darker circle of plants, about 3/8 inch tall at the highest point, is germinating in contact with the lunar material, but the lighter colored, blurred plant material surrounding the cabbage-like clump is not in contact with any of the lunar soil.

  10. Progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted with lunar material

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-10-02

    S69-53666 (30 Sept. 1969) --- A close-up view of numerous fern plants growing in a sprinkling of lunar soil brought back from the lunar surface by the crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The photograph of the fern plants was taken 50 days after the plants were exposed to the lunar matter. The plants - Onoclea sensidilis, or more commonly known as Sensitive Fern - were photographed on a dish containing the minimal nutrients for germination. The cabbage-like, darker circle of plants, about 3/8-inch tall at the highest point, is germinating in contact with the lunar material, but the lighter colored, blurred plant material surrounding the cabbage-like clump is not in contact with any of the lunar soil. The strong thrive of these plants has been termed surprising and outstanding by MSC plant specialists.

  11. Progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A close-up view of numerous fern plants growning in a sprinkling of lunar soil brought back from the lunar surface by the crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The photograph of the fern plants was taken 50 days after the plants were explosed to the lunar matter. The plants - Ococlea Sensidilis, or more commonly known as Sensitive Fern - were photographed on a dish containing the minimal nutrients for germination. The cabbage-like, darker circle of plants, about 3/8 inch tall at the highest point, is germinating in contact with the lunar material, but the lighter colored, blurred plant material surrounding the cabbage-like clump is not in contact with any of the lunar soil.

  12. Mechanical properties of lunar materials under anhydrous, hard vacuum conditions: applications of lunar glass structural components

    SciTech Connect

    Blacic, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Lunar materials and derivatives such as glass may possess very high tensile strengths compared to equivalent materials on earth because of the absence of hydrolytic weakening processes on the moon and in the hard vacuum of free space. Hydrolyzation of Si-O bonds at crack tips or dislocations reduces the strength of silicates by about an order of magnitude in earth environments. However, lunar materials are extremely anhydrous and hydrolytic weakening will be suppressed in free space. Thus, the geomechanical properties of the moon and engineering properties of lunar silicate materials in space environments will be very different than equivalent materials under earth conditions where the action of water cannot be conveniently avoided. Possible substitution of lunar glass for structural metals in a variety of space engineering applications enhances the economic utilization of the moon. 26 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  14. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-02-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  15. Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials: Recommendations for Standardization, Production, and Usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, L.; Carpenter, P.; Schlagheck, R.; French, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Experience gained during the Apollo program demonstrated the need for extensive testing of surface systems in relevant environments, including regolith materials similar to those encountered on the lunar surface. As NASA embarks on a return to the Moon, it is clear that the current lunar sample inventory is not only insufficient to support lunar surface technology and system development, but its scientific value is too great to be consumed by destructive studies. Every effort must be made to utilize standard simulant materials, which will allow developers to reduce the cost, development, and operational risks to surface systems. The Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials Workshop held in Huntsville, AL, on January 24 26, 2005, identified the need for widely accepted standard reference lunar simulant materials to perform research and development of technologies required for lunar operations. The workshop also established a need for a common, traceable, and repeatable process regarding the standardization, characterization, and distribution of lunar simulants. This document presents recommendations for the standardization, production and usage of lunar regolith simulant materials.

  16. Effect of lunar materials on plant tissue culture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Venketeswaran, S.; Baur, P. S.; Croley, T. E.; Scholes, V. E.; Weete, J. D.; Halliwell, R. S.; Hall, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar material collected during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 missions has been used to treat 12 species of higher plant tissue cultures. Biochemical and morphological studies have been conducted on several of these species. Tobacco tissue cultures treated with 0.22 g of lunar material exhibited increased greening more complex chloroplasts, less cytoplasmic vacuolation and greater vesiculation. Pine tissue cultures reacted to treatment by an increased deposition of tannin-like materials. The percentage of dry weight and soluble protein was increased in cultures treated with either lunar or terrestrial rock materials.

  17. Effect of lunar materials on plant tissue culture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Venketeswaran, S.; Baur, P. S.; Croley, T. E.; Scholes, V. E.; Weete, J. D.; Halliwell, R. S.; Hall, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar material collected during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 missions has been used to treat 12 species of higher plant tissue cultures. Biochemical and morphological studies have been conducted on several of these species. Tobacco tissue cultures treated with 0.22 g of lunar material exhibited increased greening more complex chloroplasts, less cytoplasmic vacuolation and greater vesiculation. Pine tissue cultures reacted to treatment by an increased deposition of tannin-like materials. The percentage of dry weight and soluble protein was increased in cultures treated with either lunar or terrestrial rock materials.

  18. Enlarged View - Hypervelocity Impact - Lunar Surface Material - CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-06

    S70-20416 (December 1969) --- Enlarged view show hypervelocity impact on iron particles of lunar surface material returned to Earth by the crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. This photograph, enlarged to 270 times the actual size, was taken by Dr. G. J. Wasserberg, J. DeVaney and K. Evans at the California Institute of Technology.

  19. Properties and composition of lunar materials: Earth analogies.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, E; Anderson, O L

    1970-06-26

    The sound velocity data for the lunar rocks were compared to numerous terrestrial rock types and were found to deviate widely from them. A group of terrestrial materials were found which have velocities comparable to those of the lunar rocks, but they do obey velocity-density relations proposed for earth rocks.

  20. Design concepts for pressurized lunar shelters utilizing indigenous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Happel, John Amin; Willam, Kaspar; Shing, Benson

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to design a pressurized shelter build of indigenous lunar material. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar conditions which impact design; secondary factors; review of previously proposed concepts; cross section of assembly facility; rationale for indigenous materials; indigenous material choices; cast basalt properties; design variables; design 1, cylindrical segments; construction sequence; design 2, arch-slabs with post-tensioned ring girders; and future research.

  1. Radioactivites in returned lunar materials and in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    The cosmic-ray, solar-flare, and solar-wind bombardments of lunar rocks and soils and meteorites were studied by measurements of tritium, carbon-14 and argon radioactivity. The radioactivity integrates the bombardment for a time period equal to several half-lines. H-3, Ar-37, Ar-39, C-14. For the interior samples of lunar rocks and for deep lunar soil samples, the amounts of the radioactivities were equal to those calculated for galactic cosmic-ray interactions. The top near-surface samples of lunar rocks and the shallow lunar soil samples show excess amounts of the radioactivities attributable to solar flares. Lunar soil fines contain a large amount of hydrogen due to implanted solar wind. Studies of the H-3 in lunar soils and in recovered Surveyor-3 materials gave an upper limit for the H-3/H ratio in the solar wind of 10 to the -11th power. Solar wind carbon is also implanted on lunar soil fines. Lunar soils collected on the surface contained a 0.14 component attributable to implanted solar wind C-14. The C-14/H ratio attributed to the solar wind from this C-14 excess is approximately 4 x 10 to the -11th power.

  2. The lunar interior. [compressional velocities of interior materials compared with lunar seismic results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials thought to be important in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower lunar crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. Anorthosite is preferred if lunar basalts result from a small degree of partial melting. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Ca- and Al-rich minerals are important components of both the lower crust and the upper mantle. Most of the moon may have accreted from refractory material rich in Ca, Al, U, and the rare-earth elements. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high-velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high-pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite.

  3. Simulant Materials of Lunar Dust: Requirements and feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, L.

    2005-01-01

    As NASA turns its exploration ambitions towards the Moon once again, the research and development of new technologies for lunar operations face the challenge of meeting the milestones of a fast-pace schedule, reminiscent of the 1960 s Apollo program. While the lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions have revealed much about the Moon, these priceless materials exist in too scarce quantities to be used for technology development and testing. The need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that must be addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and program managers. While the larger size fraction of the lunar regolith has been reproduced in several simulants in the past, little attention has been paid to the fines fraction, commonly refered to as lunar dust. As reported by McKay, this fraction of the lunar regolith below 20 microns can represent upto 30% by mass of the total regolith mass. The issue of reproducing the properties of these fines for research and technology development purposes was addressed by the recently held Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials at Marshall Space Flight Center. Preliminary conclusions from the workshop and con- side-rations concerning the feasibility of producing such materials will be presented here.

  4. Soybean Tissue Culture - Apollo 15 Lunar Material Growth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-10-01

    S71-51315 (1 Oct. 1971) --- A close-up view of soybean tissue culture growing in a synthetic medium and Apollo 15 lunar material. Note the greening occurring in areas in contact with the soil particles.

  5. Interaction of gases with lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, H. F.; Fuller, E. L., Jr.; Gammage, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Quantitative efforts to assess the surface properties of lunar fines, particularly water induced porosity are discussed. Data show that: (1) changes induced in lunar fines are not visible in high energy electron micrographs, (2) scanning micrographs show no change in particle size distribution as a result of reaction with water, (3) water induced changes are internal to the particles themselves, (4) normal laboratory atmosphere blocks alteration reaction with water, and (5) surface properties of mature lunar soils appear to be almost independent of chemical composition and mineralogy, but there are some variations in their reactivity toward water.

  6. Technicians work with Apollo 14 lunar sample material in Lunar Receiving Lab.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Gary Meschi, left, and Jim Bacak, right, glove operators employed by Brown and Root/Northrop on the Manned Spacecraft Center site, work with newly-arrived Apollo 14 lunar sample material in the Sterile Nitrogen Atmospheric Processing (SNAP) line in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) at MSC. Pictured in a tray is Apollo 14 sample no. 14411. Dr. Don Morrison of the Planetary and Earth Sciences Division of the Science and Applications Directorate at MSC is in center background.

  7. Dr. Grant Heikan examines lunar material in sieve from sample container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Grant Heikan, Manned Spacecraft Center and a Lunar Sample preliminary Examination Team member, examines lunar material in a sieve from the bulk sample container which was opened in the Biopreparation Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory.

  8. Dr. Grant Heikan examines lunar material in sieve from sample container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Grant Heikan, Manned Spacecraft Center and a Lunar Sample preliminary Examination Team member, examines lunar material in a sieve from the bulk sample container which was opened in the Biopreparation Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory.

  9. Molten Materials Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Sen, Subhayu

    2008-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction processes as a means to provide pure elements for lunar resource utilization have many advantages. Such processes have. the potential of removing all the oxygen from the lunar soil for use in life support and for propellant. Electrochemical reduction also provides a direct path for the. production of pure metals and silicon which can be utilized for in situ manufacturing and power production. Some of the challenges encountered in the electrolytic reduction processes include the feeding of the electrolytic cell (the transfer of electrolyte containing lunar soil), the withdrawal of reactants and refined products such as the liquidironsiliconalloy with a number of impurities, and the spent regolith slag, produced in the hot electrolytic cell for the reduction of lunar regolith. The paper will discuss some of the possible solutions to the challenges of handling molten materials on the lunar surface, as well as the path toward the construction and testing of a proof-of-concept facility.

  10. Molten Materials Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Sen, Subhayu

    2008-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction processes as a means to provide pure elements for lunar resource utilization have many advantages. Such processes have. the potential of removing all the oxygen from the lunar soil for use in life support and for propellant. Electrochemical reduction also provides a direct path for the. production of pure metals and silicon which can be utilized for in situ manufacturing and power production. Some of the challenges encountered in the electrolytic reduction processes include the feeding of the electrolytic cell (the transfer of electrolyte containing lunar soil), the withdrawal of reactants and refined products such as the liquidironsiliconalloy with a number of impurities, and the spent regolith slag, produced in the hot electrolytic cell for the reduction of lunar regolith. The paper will discuss some of the possible solutions to the challenges of handling molten materials on the lunar surface, as well as the path toward the construction and testing of a proof-of-concept facility.

  11. Large area solar cells from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Read; Calvert, Paul; Corley, Jean

    1992-01-01

    The first goal of the project was to produce polymers from materials available on the Moon. This, apparently simple, aim is made complicated by the fact that there is no carbon on the Moon and there are no polymers (with a couple of irrelevant exceptions) known which do not contain carbon. Because of the abundance of silicon and oxygen in the lunar regolith, it was decided to aim to produce siloxane polymers with the (-Si-O-) backbone found in silicones. A univalent side group is also needed but there are no univalent elements available in the regolith which could plausibly make stable structures. Failing this, hydrogen is a good choice for side group since it accounts for a small fraction of the total weight of the polymer. Thus, a group of target structures such as (-SiH2-O-)n, (-Si(OH)2-O-)n is determined. This goal was approached via a series of simpler syntheses. During the first year, polydimethylsiloxane (-Si(CH3)2-O-)n was made by controlled hydrolysis of SiCl2(CH3)2, which is a routine synthesis, and then an attempt was made to make polydichlorosiloxane by controlled hydrolysis of SiCl4. At the end of the first year, some infra-red spectra indicated that this product had been obtained.

  12. Materials Testing for a Lunar Radio Telescope with the LUNAR Simulant Thermal-Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kristina; Kruger, L.; Yarrish, C.; Burns, J.

    2012-05-01

    The LUNAR (Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research) team has proposed a revolutionary new telescope design that will make observations from the lunar farside. In order to withstand the harsh conditions on the lunar surface, the telescope must be extremely durable, and lightweight to save on launch costs. The LUNAR Radio Array will thus be made of long Kapton arms to that hold the photon-collecting dipoles. The LUNAR Simulation Laboratory team at the University of Colorado has designed and constructed a vacuum chamber to measure the durability of these antennae materials, as well as test deployment scenarios. The chamber replicates the vacuum, thermal, and UV radiation environment on the lunar surface. Additionally, the chamber houses a lunar simulant bed upon which the experiments are performed. The simulant temperature is controlled by a thermal plate underneath the bed. In the early summer of 2012, the team will run an experiment within the chamber to test the thermal properties of a sheet of Kapton film that has been coated with copper to simulate the dipole array. Several thermocouples will be placed on top of the film to monitor the temperature swings between daytime and nighttime conditions. A video camera will monitor the thermal expansion and contraction of the film. This experiment will follow up on previous testing where the film was placed directly on the thermal plate. The team will determine the difference in temperature transition time since the contact area between a solid plate and a bed of particulates is significant.This will be the pilot experiment that the team has done on top of lunar simulant. The team will be testing the thermal properties of the simulant itself, as well as testing the filtration system that guards the vacuum pumps against contamination. Subsequent experiments will use this data as a baseline.

  13. Processing lunar soils for oxygen and other materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, Christian W.; Gibson, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of lunar materials are excellent candidates for lunar oxygen production: ilmenite and silicates such as anorthite. Both are lunar surface minable, occurring in soils, breccias, and basalts. Because silicates are considerably more abundant than ilmenite, they may be preferred as source materials. Depending on the processing method chosen for oxygen production and the feedstock material, various useful metals and bulk materials can be produced as byproducts. Available processing techniques include hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and electrochemical and chemical reductions of silicates. Processes in these categories are generally in preliminary development stages and need significant research and development support to carry them to practical deployment, particularly as a lunar-based operation. The goal of beginning lunar processing operations by 2010 requires that planning and research and development emphasize the simplest processing schemes. However, more complex schemes that now appear to present difficult technical challenges may offer more valuable metal byproducts later. While they require more time and effort to perfect, the more complex or difficult schemes may provide important processing and product improvements with which to extend and elaborate the initial lunar processing facilities. A balanced R&D program should take this into account. The following topics are discussed: (1) ilmenite--semi-continuous process; (2) ilmenite--continuous fluid-bed reduction; (3) utilization of spent ilmenite to produce bulk materials; (4) silicates--electrochemical reduction; and (5) silicates--chemical reduction.

  14. Solar cells for lunar applications by vacuum evaporation of lunar regolith materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex

    1991-01-01

    The National Space Exploration Initiative, specifically the Lunar component, has major requirements for technology development of critical systems, one of which is electrical power. The availability of significant electrical power on the surface of the Moon is a principal driver defining the complexity of the lunar base. Proposals to generate power on the Moon include both nuclear and solar (photovoltaic) systems. A more efficient approach is to attempt utilization of the existing lunar resources to generate the power systems. Synergism may occur from the fact that there have already been lunar materials processing techniques proposed for the extraction of oxygen that would have, as by-products, materials that could be specifically used to generate solar cells. The lunar environment is a vacuum with pressures generally in the 1 x 10(exp -10) torr range. Such conditions provide an ideal environment for direct vacuum deposition of thin film solar cells using the waste silicon, iron, and TiO2 available from the lunar regolith processing meant to extract oxygen. It is proposed, therefore, to grow by vacuum deposition, thin film silicon solar cells from the improved regolith processing by-products.

  15. Transport of lunar material to the sites of the colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppenheimer, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    An 'existence proof' is attempted for the feasibility of transport of lunar material to colonies in space. Masses of lunar material are accelerated to lunar escape by a tracked magnetically levitated mass driver; aim precision is to 1 km miss distance at L5 per mm/sec velocity error at the lunar surface. Mass driver design and linear synchronous motor drive design are discussed; laser-sensed checkpoints aid in velocity and directional precision. Moon-L5 trajectories are calculated. The design of the L5 construction station, or 'catcher vehicle,' is described; loads are received by chambers operating in a 'Venus flytrap' mode. Further research studies needed to round out the concept are listed explicitly.

  16. Radish plant exposed to lunar material collected on the Apollo 12 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The leaves of this radish plant were rubbed with lunar material colleted on the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission in experiments conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The plant was exposed to the material 30 days before this photograph was made. Evidently no ill effects resulted from contact with the lunar soil.

  17. Radish plant exposed to lunar material collected on the Apollo 12 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The leaves of this radish plant were rubbed with lunar material colleted on the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission in experiments conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The plant was exposed to the material 30 days before this photograph was made. Evidently no ill effects resulted from contact with the lunar soil.

  18. Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

  19. Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

  20. Oxygen production on the Lunar materials processing frontier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altenberg, Barbara H.

    1992-01-01

    During the pre-conceptual design phase of an initial lunar oxygen processing facility, it is essential to identify and compare the available processes and evaluate them in order to ensure the success of such an endeavor. The focus of this paper is to provide an overview of materials processing to produce lunar oxygen as one part of a given scenario of a developing lunar occupation. More than twenty-five techniques to produce oxygen from lunar materials have been identified. While it is important to continue research on any feasible method, not all methods can be implemented at the initial lunar facility. Hence, it is necessary during the pre-conceptual design phase to evaluate all methods and determine the leading processes for initial focus. Researchers have developed techniques for evaluating the numerous proposed methods in order to suggest which processes would be best to go to the Moon first. As one section in this paper, the recent evaluation procedures that have been presented in the literature are compared and contrasted. In general, the production methods for lunar oxygen fall into four categories: thermochemical, reactive solvent, pyrolytic, and electrochemical. Examples from two of the four categories are described, operating characteristics are contrasted, and terrestrial analogs are presented when possible. In addition to producing oxygen for use as a propellant and for life support, valuable co-products can be derived from some of the processes. This information is also highlighted in the description of a given process.

  1. Microstructural Studies of Space Weathering Effects in Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.

    2002-01-01

    Space weathering is a term used to include all of the processes which act on material exposed at the surface of a planetary or small body. In the case of the moon, it includes a variety of processes which have formed the lunar regolith, caused the maturation of lunar soils, and formed patina on rock surfaces. The processes include micrometeorite impact and reworking, implantation of solar wind and flare particles, radiation damage and chemical effects from solar particles and cosmic rays, interactions with the lunar atmosphere, and sputtering erosion and deposition. Space weathering effects collectively result in a reddened continuum slope, lowered albedo, and attenuated absorption features in reflectance spectra of lunar soils as compared to finely comminuted rocks from the same Apollo sites. However, the regolith processes that cause these effects are not well known, nor is the petrographic setting of the products of these processes fully understood. An interesting confluence of events occurred in the early 1990s. First, came the discovery of vapor deposited coatings on lunar regolith grains by Keller and McKay, who showed that amorphous coatings from 50-100 nm thick containing fine-grained Fe metal (1-10 nm in diameter) were common in the fine size fraction of several mature lunar soils. The other discovery was the recognition that the optical properties of lunar soils were dominated by fine grain sized material (less than 45 micrometer fraction) by Pieters and coworkers. These discoveries led to coordinated studies that looked at the mineralogy, chemistry, and optical properties of lunar soils as function of composition, maturity, and grain size fraction. One of the major revelations from these studies was the recognition that much of the nanophase Fe metal is surface-correlated especially in the finest size fractions, and that it was this nanophase Fe that dominated the optical properties of the soil.

  2. Microstructural Studies of Space Weathering Effects in Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.

    2002-01-01

    Space weathering is a term used to include all of the processes which act on material exposed at the surface of a planetary or small body. In the case of the moon, it includes a variety of processes which have formed the lunar regolith, caused the maturation of lunar soils, and formed patina on rock surfaces. The processes include micrometeorite impact and reworking, implantation of solar wind and flare particles, radiation damage and chemical effects from solar particles and cosmic rays, interactions with the lunar atmosphere, and sputtering erosion and deposition. Space weathering effects collectively result in a reddened continuum slope, lowered albedo, and attenuated absorption features in reflectance spectra of lunar soils as compared to finely comminuted rocks from the same Apollo sites. However, the regolith processes that cause these effects are not well known, nor is the petrographic setting of the products of these processes fully understood. An interesting confluence of events occurred in the early 1990s. First, came the discovery of vapor deposited coatings on lunar regolith grains by Keller and McKay, who showed that amorphous coatings from 50-100 nm thick containing fine-grained Fe metal (1-10 nm in diameter) were common in the fine size fraction of several mature lunar soils. The other discovery was the recognition that the optical properties of lunar soils were dominated by fine grain sized material (less than 45 micrometer fraction) by Pieters and coworkers. These discoveries led to coordinated studies that looked at the mineralogy, chemistry, and optical properties of lunar soils as function of composition, maturity, and grain size fraction. One of the major revelations from these studies was the recognition that much of the nanophase Fe metal is surface-correlated especially in the finest size fractions, and that it was this nanophase Fe that dominated the optical properties of the soil.

  3. Solar cells for lunar applications by vacuum evaporation of lunar regolith materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Freundlich, Alex

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of the direct fabrication of solar cells on the lunar surface by the vacuum evaporation of lunar regolith is examined as an alternative approach to electric power generation on the surface of the moon. The raw materials for large-scale solar cell growth could be available from the waste products generated in regolith processing for volatiles collection and oxygen extraction. The production of vast areas of solar cells can be implemented through a self-generation process whereby the power generated by grown cells is used to produce more cells.

  4. Isotopes as tracers of the sources of the lunar material and processes of lunar origin.

    PubMed

    Pahlevan, Kaveh

    2014-09-13

    Ever since the Apollo programme, isotopic abundances have been used as tracers to study lunar formation, in particular to study the sources of the lunar material. In the past decade, increasingly precise isotopic data have been reported that give strong indications that the Moon and the Earth's mantle have a common heritage. To reconcile these observations with the origin of the Moon via the collision of two distinct planetary bodies, it has been proposed (i) that the Earth-Moon system underwent convective mixing into a single isotopic reservoir during the approximately 10(3) year molten disc epoch after the giant impact but before lunar accretion, or (ii) that a high angular momentum impact injected a silicate disc into orbit sourced directly from the mantle of the proto-Earth and the impacting planet in the right proportions to match the isotopic observations. Recently, it has also become recognized that liquid-vapour fractionation in the energetic aftermath of the giant impact is capable of generating measurable mass-dependent isotopic offsets between the silicate Earth and Moon, rendering isotopic measurements sensitive not only to the sources of the lunar material, but also to the processes accompanying lunar origin. Here, we review the isotopic evidence that the silicate-Earth-Moon system represents a single planetary reservoir. We then discuss the development of new isotopic tracers sensitive to processes in the melt-vapour lunar disc and how theoretical calculations of their behaviour and sample observations can constrain scenarios of post-impact evolution in the earliest history of the Earth-Moon system.

  5. Progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory with lunar material brought back to Earth by the crew of the Apollo 11 mission. Aseptic cultures of liverwort (marchantia polymorpha) - a species of plant commonly found growing on rocks or in wooded areas - are shown in two rows of sample containers. Seven weeks or some 50 days prior to this photograph 0.22 grams of finely ground lunar material was added to each of the upper samples of cultures. The lower cultures were untreated, and a noted difference can be seen in the upper row and the lower one, both in color and size of the culture.

  6. Development and mechanical properties of structural materials from lunar simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Chandra S.; Girdner, K.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Allen, T.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the technologies for manufacture of structural and construction materials on the Moon, utilizing local lunar soil (regolith), without the use of water, is an important element for habitats and explorations in space. Here, it is vital that the mechanical behavior such as strength and flexural properties, fracture toughness, ductility and deformation characteristics be defined toward establishment of the ranges of engineering applications of the materials developed. The objective is to describe the research results in two areas for the above goal: (1) liquefaction of lunar simulant (at about 100 C) with different additives (fibers, powders, etc.); and (2) development and use of a new triaxial test device in which lunar simulants are first compressed under cycles of loading, and then tested with different vacuums and initial confining or in situ stress.

  7. Development and mechanical properties of structural materials from lunar simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Chandra S.; Girdner, K.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Allen, T.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the technologies for manufacture of structural and construction materials on the Moon, utilizing local lunar soil (regolith), without the use of water, is an important element for habitats and explorations in space. Here, it is vital that the mechanical behavior such as strength and flexural properties, fracture toughness, ductility and deformation characteristics be defined toward establishment of the ranges of engineering applications of the materials developed. The objective is to describe the research results in two areas for the above goal: (1) liquefaction of lunar simulant (at about 100 C) with different additives (fibers, powders, etc.); and (2) development and use of a new triaxial test device in which lunar simulants are first compressed under cycles of loading, and then tested with different vacuums and initial confining or in situ stress.

  8. Progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A progress photograph of sample experiments being conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory with lunar material brought back to Earth by the crew of the Apollo 11 mission. Aseptic cultures of liverwort (marchantia polymorpha) - a species of plant commonly found growing on rocks or in wooded areas - are shown in two rows of sample containers. Seven weeks or some 50 days prior to this photograph 0.22 grams of finely ground lunar material was added to each of the upper samples of cultures. The lower cultures were untreated, and a noted difference can be seen in the upper row and the lower one, both in color and size of the culture.

  9. Apollo 12 lunar material - Effects on plant pigments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material returned by Apollo 12 contained 21 to 35% more total pigment than control tissues. This difference is due primarily to increased chlorophyll a concentrations per gram fresh weight of tissue in experimental cultures. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control cultures.

  10. Structural materials from lunar simulants through thermal liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Chandra S.; Girdner, Kirsten

    1992-01-01

    Thermal liquefaction that allows development of intermediate ceramic composites from a lunar simulant with various admixtures is used to develop structural materials for construction on the moon. Bending and compressive properties of resulting composites are obtained from laboratory tests and evaluated with respect to the use of three different types and fibers.

  11. Structural materials from lunar simulants through thermal liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Chandra S.; Girdner, Kirsten

    1992-01-01

    Thermal liquefaction that allows development of intermediate ceramic composites from a lunar simulant with various admixtures is used to develop structural materials for construction on the moon. Bending and compressive properties of resulting composites are obtained from laboratory tests and evaluated with respect to the use of three different types and fibers.

  12. Enlarged view of hypervelocity impact of lunar surface material

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-06

    S70-20417 (December 1969) --- Enlarged view shows hypervelocity impact of cosmic dust on broken glass particles, taken during the examination of Apollo 11 lunar material by Dr. G. J. Wasserberg, J. DeVaney and K. Evans at California Institute of Technology. The photograph is enlarged 4,850 times actual size.

  13. Enlarged view of hypervelocity impact of lunar surface material

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-06

    S70-20418 (December 1969) --- Enlarged view shows cosmic dust on broken glass particles, photographed by Dr. G. J. Wasserberg, J. DeVaney and K. Evans at California Institute of Technology during examination of the Apollo 11 lunar material. The photograph was enlarged to 1,700 time its actual size.

  14. Apollo 12 lunar material - Effects on plant pigments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material returned by Apollo 12 contained 21 to 35% more total pigment than control tissues. This difference is due primarily to increased chlorophyll a concentrations per gram fresh weight of tissue in experimental cultures. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control cultures.

  15. Lunar Surface Material - Spacecraft Measurements of Density and Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1969-01-01

    The relation of the density of the lunar surface layer to depth is probably best determined from spacecraft measurements of the bearing capacity as a function of depth. A comparison of these values with laboratory measurements of the bearing capacity of low-cohesion particulate materials as a function of the percentage of solid indicates that the bulk density at the lunar surface is about 1.1 grams per cubic centimeter and that it increases nearly linearly to about 1.6 grams per cubic centimeter at a depth of 5 centimeters.

  16. Lunar Surface Material - Spacecraft Measurements of Density and Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1969-01-01

    The relation of the density of the lunar surface layer to depth is probably best determined from spacecraft measurements of the bearing capacity as a function of depth. A comparison of these values with laboratory measurements of the bearing capacity of low-cohesion particulate materials as a function of the percentage of solid indicates that the bulk density at the lunar surface is about 1.1 grams per cubic centimeter and that it increases nearly linearly to about 1.6 grams per cubic centimeter at a depth of 5 centimeters.

  17. Toward a Suite of Standard Lunar Regolith Simulants for NASA's Lunar Missions: Recommendations of the 2005 Workshop of Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, R. A.; Sibille, L.; Carpenter, P.

    2005-01-01

    As NASA turns its exploration ambitions towards the Moon once again, the research and development of new technologies for lunar operations face the challenge of meeting the milestones of a fast-pace schedule, reminiscent of the 1960's Apollo program. While the lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions have revealed much about the Moon, these priceless materials exist in too scarce quantities to be used for technology development and testing. The need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that is being addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and NASA program managers. The issue of reproducing the properties of lunar regolith for research and technology development purposes was addressed by the recently held Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials at Marshall Space Flight Center. The conclusions from the workshop and considerations concerning the feasibility (both technical and programmatic) of producing such materials will be presented here.

  18. Moessbauer search for ferric oxide phases in lunar materials and simulated lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forester, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Moessbauer studies were carried out on lunar fines and on simulated lunar glasses containing magnetic-like precipitates with the primary objective of determining how much, if any, ferric oxide is present in the lunar soils. Although unambiguous evidence of lunar Fe(3+) phases was not obtained, an upper limit was estimated from different portions of the Moessbauer spectra to be between 0.1 and 0.4 wt.% (as Fe3O4). A smaller than 62 microns fraction of 15021,118 showed 0.5 wt.% ferromagnetic iron at 300 K in as-returned condition. After heating to 650 C in an evacuated, sealed quartz tube for 1400 hours, the same sample exhibited 1 wt.% ferromagnetic iron at room temperature. An accompanying decrease in excess absorption area near zero velocity was noted. Thus, the result of the vacuum heat treatment was to convert fine grained iron to larger particles, apparently without the oxidation effects commonly reported.

  19. Moessbauer search for ferric oxide phases in lunar materials and simulated lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forester, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Moessbauer studies were carried out on lunar fines and on simulated lunar glasses containing magnetic-like precipitates with the primary objective of determining how much, if any, ferric oxide is present in the lunar soils. Although unambiguous evidence of lunar Fe(3+) phases was not obtained, an upper limit was estimated from different portions of the Moessbauer spectra to be between 0.1 and 0.4 wt.% (as Fe3O4). A smaller than 62 microns fraction of 15021,118 showed 0.5 wt.% ferromagnetic iron at 300 K in as-returned condition. After heating to 650 C in an evacuated, sealed quartz tube for 1400 hours, the same sample exhibited 1 wt.% ferromagnetic iron at room temperature. An accompanying decrease in excess absorption area near zero velocity was noted. Thus, the result of the vacuum heat treatment was to convert fine grained iron to larger particles, apparently without the oxidation effects commonly reported.

  20. Shock-treated Lunar Soil Simulant: Preliminary Assessment as a Construction Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Bernold, Leonhard E.; Horie, Yasuyuki

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to examine the feasibility of applying dynamic compaction techniques to fabricate construction materials from lunar regolith, preliminary explosive shock-loading experiments on lunar soil simulants were carried out. Analysis of our shock-treated samples suggests that binding additives, such as metallic aluminum powder, may provide the necessary characteristics to fabricate a strong and durable building material (lunar adobe) that takes advantage of a cheap base material available in abundance: lunar regolith.

  1. Long-Term Lunar Radiation Degradation Effects on Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; ORourke, Mary Jane; Koontz, Steve; Alred, John; Hill, Charles; Devivar, Rodrigo; Morera-Felix, Shakira; Atwell, William; Nutt, Steve; Sabbann, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is focused on developing technologies for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit. These technologies are to advance the state-of-the-art and provide for longer duration missions outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere. One technology of great interest for large structures is advanced composite materials, due to their weight and cost savings, enhanced radiation protection for the crew, and potential for performance improvements when compared with existing metals. However, these materials have not been characterized for the interplanetary space environment, and particularly the effects of high energy radiation, which is known to cause damage to polymeric materials. Therefore, a study focusing on a lunar habitation element was undertaken to investigate the integrity of potential structural composite materials after exposure to a long-term lunar radiation environment. An overview of the study results are presented, along with a discussion of recommended future work.

  2. Hydrogen Bearing Material in the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D.; Benna, M.; Colaprete, A.; Retherford, K. D.; Cook, J. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Killen, R. M.; Sarantos, M.

    2015-12-01

    We report on observations of water and its daughters in the lunar exosphere. Data from LADEE NMS, LADEE UVS, and LRO LAMP indicating the presence of H, H2, OH, and H2O are presented in terms of their relationship to external drivers. These observations point to the roles of solar wind and micrometeoroids in the source and release of hydrogen-bearing atoms and molecules in the exosphere. In particular, the implantation of H via solar wind is found to be the largest contributor to H2 in the moon's exosphere. However, the spatial distribution is more consistent with a release mechanism centered on the morning hemisphere. Thus the data are consistent with H2 created through a 2-step process involving the implantation of solar wind and subsequent release by micrometeoroids. This accounts for >12% of the solar wind H budget, leaving < 50% of the solar wind proton budget unobserved. LADEE data are consistent with water mainly being released by micrometeoroids. We present an overall picture of the present-day water cycle occurring on the Moon.

  3. Development and mechanical properties of construction materials from lunar simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Chandra S.

    1990-01-01

    The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. Currently, this research involves two aspects: (1) liquefaction of lunar simulants with various additives in a furnace so as to produce a construction material like an intermediate ceramic; and (2) cyclic loading of simulant with different initial vacuums and densities with respect to the theoretical maximum densities (TMD). In both cases, bending, triaxial compression, extension, and hydrostatic tests will be performed to define the stress-strain strength response of the resulting materials. In the case of the intermediate ceramic, bending and available multiaxial test devices will be used, while for the compacted case, tests will be performed directly in the new device. The tests will be performed by simulating in situ confining conditions. A preliminary review of high-purity metal is also conducted.

  4. Microphysical, microchemical, and adhesive properties of lunar material. III - Gas interaction with lunar material.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, J. J.; Mukherjee, N. R.; Ryan, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Gas adsorption measurements on an Apollo 12 ultrahigh vacuum-stored sample and Apollo 14 and 15 N2-stored samples, show that the cosmic ray track and solar wind damaged surface of lunar soil is very reactive. Room temperature monolayer adsorption of N2 by the Apollo 12 sample at 0.0001 atm was observed. Gas evolution of Apollo 14 lunar soil at liquid nitrogen temperature during adsorption/desorption cycling is probably due to cosmic ray track stored energy release accompanied by solar gas release from depths of 100-200 nm.

  5. Development and mechanical properties of structural materials from lunar simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Chandra S.

    1991-01-01

    Development of versatile engineering materials from locally available materials in space is an important step toward establishment of outposts such as on the moon and Mars. Here development of the technologies for manufacture of structural and construction materials on the moon, utilizing local lunar soil (regolith), without the use of water, is an important element for habitats and explorations in space. It is also vital that the mechanical behavior such as strength and flexural properties, fracture toughness, ductility, and deformation characteristics are defined toward establishment of the ranges of engineering applications of the materials developed. The objectives include two areas: (1) thermal liquefaction of lunar simulant (at about 1100 C) with different additives (fibers, powders, etc.); and (2) development and use of a traxial test device in which lunar simulants are first compacted under cycles of loading, and then tested with different vacuums and initial confining or insitu stress. The second area was described in previous progress reports and publications; since the presently available device allows vacuum levels up to only 10(exp -4) torr, it is recommended that a vacuum pump that can allow higher levels of vacuum is acquired.

  6. Development and mechanical properties of construction materials from lunar simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Chandra S.

    1992-01-01

    Development of versatile engineering materials from locally available materials in space is an important step toward the establishment of outposts on the Moon and Mars. Development of the technologies for manufacture of structural and construction materials on the Moon, utilizing local lunar soil (regolith), without the use of water, is an important element for habitats and explorations in space. It is also vital that the mechanical behavior such as strength and tensile, flexural properties, fracture toughness, ductility, and deformation characteristics are defined toward establishment of the ranges of engineering applications of the materials developed. The objectives include two areas: (1) thermal 'liquefaction' of lunar simulant (at about 1100 C) with different additives (fibers, powders, etc.), and (2) development and use of a new triaxial test device in which lunar simulants are first compacted under cycles of loading, and then tested with different vacuums and initial confining or in situ stress. Details of the development of intermediate ceramic composites (ICC) and testing for their flexural and compression characteristics were described in various reports and papers. The subject of behavior of compacted simulant under vacuum was described in previous progress reports and publications; since the presently available device allows vacuum levels up to only 10(exp -4) torr, it is recommended that a vacuum pump that can allow higher levels of vacuum be utilized for further investigation.

  7. Construction material processed using lunar simulant in various environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Stan; Ocallaghan-Hay, Bridget; Housman, Ralph; Kindig, Michael; King, John; Montegrande, Kevin; Norris, Raymond; Vanscotter, Ryan; Willenborg, Jonathan; Staubs, Harry

    1995-01-01

    The manufacture of construction materials from locally available resources in space is an important first step in the establishment of lunar and planetary bases. The objective of the CoMPULSIVE (Construction Material Processed Using Lunar Simulant In Various Environments) experiment is to develop a procedure to produce construction materials by sintering or melting Johnson Space Center Simulant 1 (JSC-1) lunar soil simulant in both earth-based (1-g) and microgravity (approximately 0-g) environments. The characteristics of the resultant materials will be tested to determine its physical and mechanical properties. The physical characteristics include: crystalline, thermal, and electrical properties. The mechanical properties include: compressive tensile, and flexural strengths. The simulant, placed in a sealed graphite crucible, will be heated using a high temperature furnace. The crucible will then be cooled by radiative and forced convective means. The core furnace element consists of space qualified quartz-halogen incandescent lamps with focusing mirrors. Sample temperatures of up to 2200 C are attainable using this heating method.

  8. Progress Toward Characterization of Juvenile Materials in Lunar Pyroclatic Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    In recent analyses, the 5-band Clementine UV-VIS data have been used to examine the compositions of lunar pyroclastic deposits. A primary goal of these analyses has been the characterization of the primary volcanic or juvenile components of these deposits. The compositions, physical and morphological characteristics, and spatial distributions of juvenile volcanic materials provide information on the distribution of primary mafic materials on the Moon, conditions required for their eruption at the surface, and the behavior of lunar volcanic processes over time. Using current analytical techniques with the new Clementine UV-VIS global mosaic, and data from the GLGM2 geophysical models, to supplement ongoing work with Earth-based spectral reflectance analyses and laboratory investigations, we have adopted a three-pronged approach to these issues involving: (1) compositional analyses of lunar pyroclastic deposits; (2) characterization of the relations between effusive and explosive lunar volcanism; and (3) examination of the global occurrence and distribution of lunar pyroclastic deposits. This report and related work describe progress toward remote characterization of the compositions of juvenile materials in the pyroclastic deposits located at Taurus-Littrow and J. Herschel. These studies have implications for characterization of the relations between the products of effusive and explosive volcanism on the Moon. Analyses of lunar pyroclastic materials, primarily the juvenile picritic glasses, provide unique information on the composition of the mantle and on the nature and origin of associated volatile elements in an otherwise volatile-depleted environment. Possible fundamental differences between picritic glasses and mare basalts, (e.g., lesser fractional crystallization and greater depth of origin for glasses) support their identification as the best examples of primitive materials on the Moon, and attest to their importance in characterizing the lunar interior and

  9. Microwave heating of lunar materials. Appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meek, Thomas T.

    1992-01-01

    Microwave heating of nonmetallic inorganic material has been of interest for many years. Von Hippel in the late 1940's and early 1950's investigated how microwave radiation up to 10 GHz couples to various insulator materials. Perhaps the most work has been done by Wayne Tinga at the University of Edmonton. Most of the work to date has been done at the two frequency bands allowed in industrial use (0.915 GHz and 2.45 GHz). However some work has recently been carried out at 28 GHz and 60 GHz. Work done in this area at Los Alamos National Laboratory is discussed.

  10. Magnetic coercivity and ferromagnetic species in lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1972-01-01

    Lunar samples have reduced coercive force, high values of R sub H (ratio of remanent coercive force to coercive force), and constriction in their magnetic hysteresis loops due to the presence of superparamagnetic and multidomain iron grains. The high R sub H values are also attributable to the magnetic shape effects of the iron grains. Spheres, cubes, and needles, as well as more irregular metal grains were observed. The coercive force values are quite meaningless unless the size and shape distributions are determined. The R sub H and the ratio of saturation remanence to saturation magnetization values can be considered characteristic of the size and shape modes of the ferromagnetic grains in a natural sample, and a classification of natural materials based on their hysteresis characteristics is presented with special reference to lunar samples.

  11. A factory concept for processing and manufacturing with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design for an orbital factory sized to process 1.5 million metric tons per year of raw lunar fines into 0.3 million metric tons of manufacturing materials is presented. A conservative approach involving application of present earth-based technology leads to a design devoid of new inventions. Earth based counterparts to the factory machinery were used to generate subsystem masses and lumped parameters for volume and mass estimates. The results are considered to be conservative since technologies more advanced than those assumed are presently available in many areas. Some attributes of potential space processing technologies applied to material refinement and component manufacture are discussed.

  12. A factory concept for processing and manufacturing with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design for an orbital factory sized to process 1.5 million metric tons per year of raw lunar fines into 0.3 million metric tons of manufacturing materials is presented. A conservative approach involving application of present earth-based technology leads to a design devoid of new inventions. Earth based counterparts to the factory machinery were used to generate subsystem masses and lumped parameters for volume and mass estimates. The results are considered to be conservative since technologies more advanced than those assumed are presently available in many areas. Some attributes of potential space processing technologies applied to material refinement and component manufacture are discussed.

  13. Mafic Materials in Scott Crater? A Test for Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2007-01-01

    Clementine 750 nm and multispectral ratio data, along with Lunar Orbiter and radar data, were used to study the crater Scott in the lunar south polar region. The multispectral data provide evidence for mafic materials, impact melts, anorthositic materials, and a small pyroclastic deposit. High-resolution radar data and Lunar Orbiter photography for this area show differences in color and surface texture that correspond with the locations of the hypothesized mafic and anorthositic areas on the crater floor. This region provides a test case for the upcoming Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Verification of the existence of a mafic deposit at this location is relevant to future lunar resource utilization planning.

  14. Impact metamorphism of lunar surface materials.

    PubMed

    Quaide, W; Bunch, T; Wrigley, R

    1970-01-30

    Silicate grains from Tranquillity Base have shock-induced features ranging from internal fragmentation through complete disruption of the lattice to thermal melting. Half the crystalline grains with diameters less than 125 micrometers have features of shock equivalent to those produced in the laboratory at pressures greater than about 40 kilobars. One quarter have features indicative of pressures greater than 90 kilobars. These properties together with great quantities of melt glass and aluminum-26 in the fine-grained material are indicative of repeated shock-loading by meteoritic bombardment over long periods of time.

  15. Effect of lunar surface material on radiation damage in mice (investigation of biological action of lunar surface material returned to earth by Luna 16 automatic station)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antipov, V. V.; Davydov, B. I.; Gaydamakin, N. A.; Lvova, T. S.; Petrukhin, V. G.; Komarova, S. N.; Skvortsova, Y. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effect was studied of lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility on the radiation reaction (damage) in mice caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. The material was administered to the organism in three ways -- aerogenically, through the esophagus, or peritoneally. It was shown that administering the lunar surface material did not appreciably affect the death of the animals and the reaction of the peripheral blood caused by the action of radiation. In mice which prior to irradiation had been administered inhalationally or peritoneally the lunar surface material, a lag in the increment of bodyweight was observed.

  16. Effect of lunar surface material on radiation damage in mice (investigation of biological action of lunar surface material returned to earth by Luna 16 automatic station)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antipov, V. V.; Davydov, B. I.; Gaydamakin, N. A.; Lvova, T. S.; Petrukhin, V. G.; Komarova, S. N.; Skvortsova, Y. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effect was studied of lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility on the radiation reaction (damage) in mice caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. The material was administered to the organism in three ways -- aerogenically, through the esophagus, or peritoneally. It was shown that administering the lunar surface material did not appreciably affect the death of the animals and the reaction of the peripheral blood caused by the action of radiation. In mice which prior to irradiation had been administered inhalationally or peritoneally the lunar surface material, a lag in the increment of bodyweight was observed.

  17. Development of a material processing plant for lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettsch, Ulix; Ousterhout, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in developing in-situ materials processing plants for both the Moon and Mars. Two of the most important aspects of developing such a materials processing plant is the overall system design and the integration of the different technologies into a reliable, lightweight, and cost-effective unit. The concept of an autonomous materials processing plant that is capable of producing useful substances from lunar regolith was developed. In order for such a materials processing plant to be considered as a viable option, it must be totally self-contained, able to operate autonomously, cost effective, light weight, and fault tolerant. In order to assess the impact of different technologies on the overall systems design and integration, a one-half scale model was constructed that is capable of scooping up (or digging) lunar soil, transferring the soil to a solar furnace, heating the soil in the furnace to liberate the gasses, and transferring the spent soil to a 'tile' processing center. All aspects of the control system are handled by a 386 class PC via D/A, A/D, and DSP (Digital Signal Processor) control cards.

  18. Recent work on use of lunar materials for SPS construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, G. K.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of mounting a small operation on the Moon to productively use lunar materials in support of programs such as the solar power satellite is addressed. A cost effective scenario of a small chemical process plant on the surface of the Moon and a small machine shop located in orbit is presented. The mass of the space installation is compared to the projected outputs in 90 days. It is indicated that the system would have the capability of replicating about 90% of its own components and would provide the metals, glasses, and silicon needed for the contruction of 90% to 96% of the mass of one solar power satellite per year.

  19. Studies related to the evolution of the lunar soil materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Studies of the chemistry and morphology of the lunar samples are reported. The presence of fragments of plagoclase in the centers of the impact craters indicate that the glass spheres were derived by meteoritic impact from high velocity particles, while the glass was at high temperatures. From the study of the Apollo 16 samples, it is suggested that this material was formed in a hot impact ejecta blanket, or in an igneous environment, and later exposed to meteoritic impact. It is suggested that particles from Apollo 17 were formed in a cloud of siliceous vapors.

  20. Metallographic study of metallic fragment of lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mints, R. I.; Petukhova, T. M.; Ivanov, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    A high precision investigation of a metallic fragment from the lunar material returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station revealed three characteristic temperature intervals with different kinetics of solid solution decomposition. The following were found in the structure of the iron-nickel-cobalt alloy: (1) delta-phase and alpha-ferrite of diffusional, displacement origin in the grain boundary and acicular forms; and (2) martensite of isothermal and athermal nature, acicular, lamellar, massive, and dendritic. The diversity of the shapes of structural constituents is associated with the effect on their formation of elastic distortions and various mechanisms of deformation relaxation processes.

  1. How We Used NASA Lunar Set in Planetary Material Science Analog Studies on Lunar Basalts and Breccias with Industrial Materials of Steels and Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berczi, S.; Cech, V.; Jozsa, S.; Szakmany, G.; Fabriczy, A.; Foldi, T.; Varga, T.

    2005-01-01

    Analog studies play important role in space materials education. Various aspects of analogies are used in our courses. In this year two main rock types of NASA Lunar Set were used in analog studies in respect of processes and textures with selected industrial material samples. For breccias and basalts on the lunar side, ceramics and steels were found as analogs on the industrial side. Their processing steps were identified on the basis of their textures both in lunar and in industrial groups of materials.

  2. 'On-line' analyses of simulated solar wind implantations of terrestrial analogs of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, G. E.; Bergesen, P.; Moeller, W.; Maurette, M.; Monart, B.

    1986-01-01

    In connection with the establishment of a lunar base, it would be necessary to provide water, and the feasibility to obtain water from solar wind (SW) implanted lunar soils has been considered. In this context, a project involving the examination of materials under conditions of simulated SW irradiation has been initiated. A description is presented of initial results on oligoclase, ilmenite, and simulated lunar glass (SLG). Attention is given to the reaction chamber, the target materials, the saturation concentrations, aspects of water release, depth profiles, thermal release, effects from helium-3 preimplants, mechanisms of possible water release related to direct emission and thermal release, and lunar soil components enriched in trapped SW hydrogen. It is found that ilmenite stores about twice as much deuterium as the other target materials. However, it is unknown whether the small enrichment factor will be sufficient to make the material a potential source of lunar water.

  3. 'On-line' analyses of simulated solar wind implantations of terrestrial analogs of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, G. E.; Bergesen, P.; Moeller, W.; Maurette, M.; Monart, B.

    1986-01-01

    In connection with the establishment of a lunar base, it would be necessary to provide water, and the feasibility to obtain water from solar wind (SW) implanted lunar soils has been considered. In this context, a project involving the examination of materials under conditions of simulated SW irradiation has been initiated. A description is presented of initial results on oligoclase, ilmenite, and simulated lunar glass (SLG). Attention is given to the reaction chamber, the target materials, the saturation concentrations, aspects of water release, depth profiles, thermal release, effects from helium-3 preimplants, mechanisms of possible water release related to direct emission and thermal release, and lunar soil components enriched in trapped SW hydrogen. It is found that ilmenite stores about twice as much deuterium as the other target materials. However, it is unknown whether the small enrichment factor will be sufficient to make the material a potential source of lunar water.

  4. A Large Lunar Surface Testbed from Low Cost Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    For users needing to simulate the lunar surface, several distinct avenues have been used. Numerous volcanic areas, including Hawaii, have been used. While providing very large areas and scenic interest, field parties to such an area is expensive and limits testing time. An alternative is to build test facilities locally. This has been done many ways, contrast GRC-1, GSC-1, BP-1 and the KSC Morpheus facility [1-4]. GRC-1 is a mixture of sand and clay; GSC-1 and BP-1 are waste materials created in the process of crushing basaltic rock. The Morpheus field used salvaged concrete and crushed quartz rock [5]. Here I report about a 30 m X 30 m test area at MSFC which was both low cost and relatively high fidelity [6].

  5. Exoelectronic emission of particles of lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mints, R. I.; Alimov, V. I.; Melekhin, V. P.; Milman, I. I.; Kryuk, V. I.; Kunin, L. L.; Tarasov, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    A secondary electron multiplier was used to study the thermostimulated exoelectronic emission of particles of lunar surface material returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station. The natural exoemission from fragments of slag, glass, anorthosite, and a metallic particle was recorded in the isochronic and isothermal thermostimulation regimes. The temperature of emission onset depended on the type of regolith fragment. For the first three particles the isothermal drop in emission is described by first-order kinetic equations. For the anorthosite fragment, exoemission at constant temperature is characterized by a symmetric curve with a maximum. These data indicate the presence of active surface defects, whose nature can be due to the prehistory of the particles.

  6. Generation and Evaluation of Lunar Dust Adhesion Mitigating Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Connell, John W.; Lin, Yi; Belcher, Marcus A.; Palmieri, Frank L.

    2011-01-01

    Particulate contamination is of concern in a variety of environments. This issue is especially important in confined spaces with highly controlled atmospheres such as space exploration vehicles involved in extraterrestrial surface missions. Lunar dust was a significant challenge for the Apollo astronauts and will be of greater concern for longer duration, future missions. Passive mitigation strategies, those not requiring external energy, may decrease some of these concerns, and have been investigated in this work. A myriad of approaches to modify the surface chemistry and topography of a variety of substrates was investigated. These involved generation of novel materials, photolithographic techniques, and other template approaches. Additionally, single particle and multiple particle methods to quantitatively evaluate the particle-substrate adhesion interactions were developed.

  7. Utilization of lunar materials and expertise for large scale operations in space: Abstracts. [lunar bases and space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The practicality of exploiting the moon, not only as a source of materials for large habitable structures at Lagrangian points, but also as a base for colonization is discussed in abstracts of papers presented at a special session on lunar utilization. Questions and answers which followed each presentation are included after the appropriate abstract. Author and subject indexes are provided.

  8. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  9. Potassium-uranium systematics of apollo 11 and apollo 12 samples: implications for lunar material history.

    PubMed

    Fanale, F P; Nash, D B

    1971-01-22

    Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 lunar rock suites differ in their potassium-uranium abundance systematics. This difference indicates that relatively little exchange of regolith material has occurred between Mare Tranquillitatis and Oceanus Procellarum. The two suites appear to have been derived from materials of identical potassium and uranium content. It appears unlikely that bulk lunar material has the ratio of potassium to uranium found in chondrites. However, systematic differences in the potassium-uranium ratio between Apollo samples and crustal rocks of the earth do not preclude a common potassium-uranium ratio for bulk earth and lunar material.

  10. Study of friction properties of lunar surface material and its analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dukhovskoy, Y. A.; Motovilov, E. A.; Silin, A. A.; Smorodinov, M. I.; Shvarev, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of instruments for determining the friction properties of the surficial layer of lunar surface material returned by the Luna 16 automatic lunar station, as well as the friction properties of its analogs: andesite-basaltic sand and basalts. The experimental method and results are presented.

  11. The Status of Simulant Materials of Lunar Regolith: Requirements, Feasibility, and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Carpenter, Paul; Schlagheck, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: As NASA turns its exploration ambitions towards the Moon once again, the research and development of new technologies for lunar operations face the challenge of meeting the milestones of a fast-pace schedule, reminiscent of the 1960 s Apollo program. While the lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions have revealed much about the Moon, these priceless materials exist in too scarce quantities to be used for technology development and testing. The need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that is being addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and NASA program managers. While the larger size fraction of the lunar regolith has been reproduced in several simulants in the past, little attention has been paid to the fines fraction, commonly refered to as lunar dust. As reported by McKay and Carrier, this fraction of the lunar regolith below 20 microns can represent up to 30% by mass of the total regolith. The issue of reproducing the properties of lunar regolith for research and technology development purposes was addressed by the recently held Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials at Marshall Space Flight Center. Preliminary conclusions from the workshop and considerations concerning the feasibility of producing such materials will be presented here.

  12. Erosive Wear Characterization of Materials for Lunar Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mpagazehe, Jeremiah N.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Delgado, Irebert R.; Higgs, C. Fred, III

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Apollo missions revealed that exhaust from the retrorockets of landing spacecraft may act to significantly accelerate lunar dust on the surface of the Moon. A recent study by Immer et al. (C. Immer, P.T. Metzger, P.E. Hintze, A. Nick, and R. Horan, Apollo 12 Lunar Module exhaust plume impingement on Lunar Surveyor III, Icarus, Vol. 211, pp. 1089-1102, 2011) investigated coupons returned to Earth from the Surveyor III lunar probe which were subjected to lunar dust impingement by the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landing. Their study revealed that even with indirect impingement, the spacecraft sustained erosive damage from the fast-moving lunar dust particles. In this work, results are presented from a series of erosive wear experiments performed on 6061 Aluminum using the JSC-1AF lunar dust simulant. Optical profilometry was used to investigate the surface after the erosion process. It was found that even short durations of lunar dust simulant impacting at low velocities produced substantial changes in the surface.

  13. Lunar building materials: Some considerations on the use of inorganic polymers. [adhesives, coatings, and binders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    The use of inorganic polymer systems synthesized from the available lunar chemical elements, viz., silicon, aluminum, and oxygen to make adhesives, binders, and sealants needed in the fabrication of lunar building materials and the assembly of structures is considered. Inorganic polymer systems, their background, status, and shortcomings, and the use of network polymers as a possible approach to synthesis are examined as well as glassy metals for unusual structural strength, and the use of cold-mold materials as well as foam-sintered lunar silicates for lightweight shielding and structural building materials.

  14. Electromagnetic energy applied to and gained from lunar materials

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, T.T.; Vaniman, D.T.; Blake, R.D.; Cocks, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic energy may be useful in microwave frequencies for in-situ melting or sintering of lunar regolith. Simple configurations of magnetron or gyrotron tubes might be constructed for unique melting geometries. For energy production, lunar ilmenite has potential applications in photovoltaic devices. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Material Concerns: Evaluating Sulfur Concrete for use in the Lunar Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Toutanji, Houssam

    2006-01-01

    On Earth sulfur "concrete" is an established construction material that has good mechanical properties, generally better than Portland cement, and can be used in corrosive environments. Troilite (FeS) has been found on the moon and raises the question of using extracted sulfur as a lunar construction material, an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. Troilite reduction to elemental sulfur and using it to make concrete in a lunar setting has been previously discussed. However, little has been experimentally done to evaluate its performance in the extreme lunar environment. This study subjected sets of sulfur concrete samples, prepared using JSC-1 lunar simulant, to I ) extended periods of high vacuum and 2) extreme temperature cycles. Here an overview of sulfur concrete and experimentally assessed properties, put in context of the lunar environment, is presented and discussed.

  16. Material Concerns: Evaluating Sulfur Concrete for use in the Lunar Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Toutanji, Houssam

    2006-01-01

    On Earth sulfur "concrete" is an established construction material that has good mechanical properties, generally better than Portland cement, and can be used in corrosive environments. Troilite (FeS) has been found on the moon and raises the question of using extracted sulfur as a lunar construction material, an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. Troilite reduction to elemental sulfur and using it to make concrete in a lunar setting has been previously discussed. However, little has been experimentally done to evaluate its performance in the extreme lunar environment. This study subjected sets of sulfur concrete samples, prepared using JSC-1 lunar simulant, to I ) extended periods of high vacuum and 2) extreme temperature cycles. Here an overview of sulfur concrete and experimentally assessed properties, put in context of the lunar environment, is presented and discussed.

  17. Characterization of lunar surface materials for use in construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.

    1992-01-01

    The Workshop on the Concept of a Common Lunar Lander, which was held at the NASA Johnson Space Center on July 1 and 2, 1991, discussed potential payloads to be placed on the Moon by a common, generic, unmanned, vehicle beginning late in this decade. At this workshop, a variety of payloads were identified including a class of one-meter (and larger) optical telescopes to operate on the lunar surface. These telescopes for lunar-based astronomy are presented in an earlier section of this report. The purpose of this section is to suggest that these and other payloads for the Common Lunar Lander be used to facilitate technology development for the proposed 16-meter Aperture UV/Visible/IR Large Lunar Telescope (LLT) and a large optical aperture-synthesis instrument analogous to the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  18. Uranium-thorium-lead isotope relations in lunar materials.

    PubMed

    Silver, L T

    1970-01-30

    The lead isotopic compositions and uranium, thorium, and lead concentrations have been measured on six samples of material from the Sea of Tranquillity. The leads are moderately to very radiogenic; the initial lead concentrations are very low; the uranium and thorium levels are 0.26 to 0.88 and 0.87 to 3.35 parts per million, respectively. The Th/U ratios cluster about a 3.6 value. Apparent ages calculated for four rocks are 4.1 to 4.2 x 10(9) years. Dust and breccia yield apparent ages of 4.60 to 4.63 x 10(9) years. The uranium-lead ages are concordant, or nearly so, in all cases. The lunar surface is an ancient region with an extended record of events in the early history of the solar system. discrepancy between the rock ages and dust ages poses a fundamental qusestion about rock genesis on the moon.

  19. Is lunar bulk material similar to earth's mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Michael J.

    The Earth and Moon have the same ratios of 18O/17O/16O. The Moon is impoverished in metal compared to Earth. Siderophile trace element concentrations in the Moon are generally lower than in the upper mantle of the Earth, implying separation of metal from silicate following lunar assembly. Refractory elements may be enriched in the Moon compared to the upper mantle of the Earth, but identical concentrations cannot be rigorously excluded. The Moon is depleted in volatile elements compared to Earth, but detailed examination of volatile element ratios suggest that this depletion is not simply related to high temperature processes during lunar assembly. The mg# of the lunar mantle appears to be lower than the upper mantle of the Earth, although extreme lunar estimates overlap the terrestrial value.

  20. Micropaleontological studies of lunar and terrestrial precambrian materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schope, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Optical microscopic and scanning electron microscopic studies of rock chips and dust returned by Apollo 14, 15, 16, and 17 are analyzed along with optical microscopic studies of petrographic thin sections of breccias and basalts returned by Apollo 14, 15, and 16. Results show no evidence of modern or fossil lunar organisms. The lunar surface is now, and apparently has been throughout the geologic past, inimical to known biologic systems.

  1. The feasibility of solar reflector production from lunar materials for solar power in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) investigated the feasibility of producing solar reflectors from indigenous lunar materials for solar power production on the moon. First, lunar construction materials and production processes were reviewed, and candidate materials for reflector production were identified. At the same time, lunar environmental conditions were reviewed for their effect on production of concentrators. Next, conceptual designs and fabrication methods were proposed and studied for production of dish concentrators and heliostats. Finally, fabrication testing was performed on small-scale models using earth analogs of lunar materials. Findings from this initial investigation indicate that production of concentrators from lunar materials may be an attractive approach for solar energy production on the moon. Further design and testing are required to determine the best techniques and approaches to optimize this concept. Four materials were identified as having high potential for solar reflector manufacture. These baseline materials were foamed glass, concrete with glass-fiber reinforcement, a glass-fiber/glass-melt composite, and an iron-glass sintered material.

  2. The feasibility of solar reflector production from lunar materials for solar power in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) investigated the feasibility of producing solar reflectors from indigenous lunar materials for solar power production on the moon. First, lunar construction materials and production processes were reviewed, and candidate materials for reflector production were identified. At the same time, lunar environmental conditions were reviewed for their effect on production of concentrators. Next, conceptual designs and fabrication methods were proposed and studied for production of dish concentrators and heliostats. Finally, fabrication testing was performed on small-scale models using earth analogs of lunar materials. Findings from this initial investigation indicate that production of concentrators from lunar materials may be an attractive approach for solar energy production on the moon. Further design and testing are required to determine the best techniques and approaches to optimize this concept. Four materials were identified as having high potential for solar reflector manufacture. These baseline materials were foamed glass, concrete with glass-fiber reinforcement, a glass-fiber/glass-melt composite, and an iron-glass sintered material.

  3. Standard Lunar Regolith Simulants for Space Resource Utilization Technologies Development: Effects of Materials Choices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Carpenter, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    As NASA turns its exploration ambitions towards the Moon once again, the research and development of new technologies for lunar operations face the challenge of meeting the milestones of a fastpace schedule, reminiscent of the 1960's Apollo program. While the lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions have revealed much about the Moon, these priceless materials exist in too scarce quantities to be used for technology development and testing. The need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that is being addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and NASA program managers. The issue of reproducing the properties of lunar regolith for research and technology development purposes was addressed by the recently held 2005 Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials at Marshall Space Flight Center. The recommendation of the workshop of establishing standard simulant materials to be used in lunar technology development and testing will be discussed here with an emphasis on space resource utilization. The variety of techniques and the complexity of functional interfaces make these simulant choices critical in space resource utilization.

  4. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  5. Development of near-zero water consumption cement materials via the geopolymerization of tektites and its implication for lunar construction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai-tuo; Tang, Qing; Cui, Xue-min; He, Yan; Liu, Le-ping

    2016-01-01

    The environment on the lunar surface poses some difficult challenges to building long-term lunar bases; therefore, scientists and engineers have proposed the creation of habitats using lunar building materials. These materials must meet the following conditions: be resistant to severe lunar temperature cycles, be stable in a vacuum environment, have minimal water requirements, and be sourced from local Moon materials. Therefore, the preparation of lunar building materials that use lunar resources is preferred. Here, we present a potential lunar cement material that was fabricated using tektite powder and a sodium hydroxide activator and is based on geopolymer technology. Geopolymer materials have the following properties: approximately zero water consumption, resistance to high- and low-temperature cycling, vacuum stability and good mechanical properties. Although the tektite powder is not equivalent to lunar soil, we speculate that the alkali activated activity of lunar soil will be higher than that of tektite because of its low Si/Al composition ratio. This assumption is based on the tektite geopolymerization research and associated references. In summary, this study provides a feasible approach for developing lunar cement materials using a possible water recycling system based on geopolymer technology. PMID:27406467

  6. Development of near-zero water consumption cement materials via the geopolymerization of tektites and its implication for lunar construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai-Tuo; Tang, Qing; Cui, Xue-Min; He, Yan; Liu, Le-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The environment on the lunar surface poses some difficult challenges to building long-term lunar bases; therefore, scientists and engineers have proposed the creation of habitats using lunar building materials. These materials must meet the following conditions: be resistant to severe lunar temperature cycles, be stable in a vacuum environment, have minimal water requirements, and be sourced from local Moon materials. Therefore, the preparation of lunar building materials that use lunar resources is preferred. Here, we present a potential lunar cement material that was fabricated using tektite powder and a sodium hydroxide activator and is based on geopolymer technology. Geopolymer materials have the following properties: approximately zero water consumption, resistance to high- and low-temperature cycling, vacuum stability and good mechanical properties. Although the tektite powder is not equivalent to lunar soil, we speculate that the alkali activated activity of lunar soil will be higher than that of tektite because of its low Si/Al composition ratio. This assumption is based on the tektite geopolymerization research and associated references. In summary, this study provides a feasible approach for developing lunar cement materials using a possible water recycling system based on geopolymer technology.

  7. Development of near-zero water consumption cement materials via the geopolymerization of tektites and its implication for lunar construction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Tuo; Tang, Qing; Cui, Xue-Min; He, Yan; Liu, Le-Ping

    2016-07-13

    The environment on the lunar surface poses some difficult challenges to building long-term lunar bases; therefore, scientists and engineers have proposed the creation of habitats using lunar building materials. These materials must meet the following conditions: be resistant to severe lunar temperature cycles, be stable in a vacuum environment, have minimal water requirements, and be sourced from local Moon materials. Therefore, the preparation of lunar building materials that use lunar resources is preferred. Here, we present a potential lunar cement material that was fabricated using tektite powder and a sodium hydroxide activator and is based on geopolymer technology. Geopolymer materials have the following properties: approximately zero water consumption, resistance to high- and low-temperature cycling, vacuum stability and good mechanical properties. Although the tektite powder is not equivalent to lunar soil, we speculate that the alkali activated activity of lunar soil will be higher than that of tektite because of its low Si/Al composition ratio. This assumption is based on the tektite geopolymerization research and associated references. In summary, this study provides a feasible approach for developing lunar cement materials using a possible water recycling system based on geopolymer technology.

  8. Reception and study of lunar surface material in inert gas medium. [considering laboratory vacuum receiving chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkov, Y. A.; Rudnitskiy, Y. M.; Glotov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The reception and study of lunar material returned by the Luna 16 space station is described. The layout of a vacuum receiving chamber for working with material in a helium atmosphere is examined along with the main operations involved in extracting the material from the ampule and drill.

  9. Search for and analysis of radioactive halos in lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    The lunar halo search was conducted because halos in terrestrial minerals serve as pointers to localized radioactivity, and make possible analytical studies on the problems of isotopic dating and mode of crystallization of the host mineral. Ancillary studies were conducted on terrestrial halos and on certain samples of special origin such as tektites and meteorites.

  10. The electrochemical generation of useful chemical species from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Kan J.; Kuchynka, Daniel J.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1989-01-01

    The current status of work on an electrochemical technology for the simultaneous generation of oxygen and lithium from a Li2O containing molten salt (Li2O-LiCl-LiF) is discussed. The electrochemical cell utilizes an oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia, to effect separation between the oxygen evolving and lithium reduction half-cell reactions. The cell, which operates at 700 to 800 C, possesses rapid electrode kinetics at the lithium-alloy electrode with exchange current density values being greater than 60 mA/sq cm, showing high reversibility for this reaction. When used in the electrolytic mode, lithium produced at the negative electrode would be continuously removed from the cell for later use (under lunar conditions) as an easily storable reducting agent (compared to H2) for the chemical refining of lunar ores via the general reaction: 2Li + MO yields Li2O + M where MO represents a lunar ore. Emphasis to this time has been on the simulated lunar ore ilmenite (FeTiO3), which we have found becomes chemically reduced by Li at 432 C. Furthermore, both Fe2O3 and TiO2 have been reduced by Li to give the corresponding metal. This electrochemical approach provides a convenient route for producing metals under lunar conditions and oxygen for the continuous maintenance of human habitats on the Moon's surface. Because of the high reversibility of this electrochemical system, it has also formed the basis for the lithium-oxygen secondary battery. This secondary lithium-oxygen battery system posses the highest theoretical energy density yet investigated.

  11. Estimates of Sputter Yields of Solar-Wind Heavy Ions of Lunar Regolith Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, Abdulmasser F.; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    At energies of approximately 1 keV/amu, solar-wind protons and heavy ions interact with the lunar surface materials via a number of microscopic interactions that include sputtering. Solar-wind induced sputtering is a main mechanism by which the composition of the topmost layers of the lunar surface can change, dynamically and preferentially. This work concentrates on sputtering induced by solar-wind heavy ions. Sputtering associated with slow (speeds the electrons speed in its first Bohr orbit) and highly charged ions are known to include both kinetic and potential sputtering. Potential sputtering enjoys some unique characteristics that makes it of special interest to lunar science and exploration. Unlike the yield from kinetic sputtering where simulation and approximation schemes exist, the yield from potential sputtering is not as easy to estimate. This work will present a preliminary numerical scheme designed to estimate potential sputtering yields from reactions relevant to this aspect of solar-wind lunar-surface coupling.

  12. Estimates of Sputter Yields of Solar-Wind Heavy Ions of Lunar Regolith Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, Abdulmasser F.; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    At energies of approximately 1 keV/amu, solar-wind protons and heavy ions interact with the lunar surface materials via a number of microscopic interactions that include sputtering. Solar-wind induced sputtering is a main mechanism by which the composition of the topmost layers of the lunar surface can change, dynamically and preferentially. This work concentrates on sputtering induced by solar-wind heavy ions. Sputtering associated with slow (speeds the electrons speed in its first Bohr orbit) and highly charged ions are known to include both kinetic and potential sputtering. Potential sputtering enjoys some unique characteristics that makes it of special interest to lunar science and exploration. Unlike the yield from kinetic sputtering where simulation and approximation schemes exist, the yield from potential sputtering is not as easy to estimate. This work will present a preliminary numerical scheme designed to estimate potential sputtering yields from reactions relevant to this aspect of solar-wind lunar-surface coupling.

  13. Solar-Wind Protons and Heavy Ions Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barghouty, N.; Meyer, Fred W; Harris, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Lunar surface materials are exposed to {approx}1 keV/amu solar-wind protons and heavy ions on almost continuous basis. As the lunar surface consists of mostly oxides, these materials suffer, in principle, both kinetic and potential sputtering due to the actions of the solar-wind ions. Sputtering is an important mechanism affecting the composition of both the lunar surface and its tenuous exosphere. While the contribution of kinetic sputtering to the changes in the composition of the surface layer of these oxides is well understood and modeled, the role and implications of potential sputtering remain unclear. As new potential-sputtering data from multi-charged ions impacting lunar regolith simulants are becoming available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's MIRF, we examine the role and possible implications of potential sputtering of Lunar KREEP soil. Using a non-equilibrium model we demonstrate that solar-wind heavy ions induced sputtering is critical in establishing the timescale of the overall solar-wind sputtering process of the lunar surface. We also show that potential sputtering leads to a more pronounced and significant differentiation between depleted and enriched surface elements. We briefly discuss the impacts of enhanced sputtering on the composition of the regolith and the exosphere, as well as of solar-wind sputtering as a source of hydrogen and water on the moon.

  14. The electrochemical generation of useful chemical species from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Kan J.; Kuchynka, Daniel J.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1990-01-01

    Electrochemical cells have been fabricated for the simultaneous generation of oxygen and lithium from a Li2O-containing molten salt (Li2O-LiCl-LiF). The cell utilizes an oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), to effect separation between oxygen evolving and lithium reduction half-cell reactions. The cell, which operates at 700-850 C, possesses rapid electrode kinetics at the lithium-alloy electrode with exchange current density values being greater than 60 mA/sq cm. When used in the electrolytic mode, lithium produced at the negative electrode would be continuously removed from the cell for later use (under lunar conditions) as an easily storable reducing agent for the chemical refining of lunar ores. Because of the high reversibility of this electrochemical system, it has also formed the basis for the lithium-oxygen secondary battery system which possesses the highest theoretical energy density yet investigated.

  15. Structural Concepts and Materials for Lunar Exploration Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Watson, Judith J.; Singhal, Surendra N.

    2006-01-01

    A new project within the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate s Technology Development Program at NASA involves development of lightweight structures and low temperature mechanisms for Lunar and Mars missions. The Structures and Mechanisms project is to develop advanced structure technology for the primary structure of various pressurized elements needed to implement the Vision for Space Exploration. The goals are to significantly enhance structural systems for man-rated pressurized structures by 1) lowering mass and/or improving efficient volume for reduced launch costs, 2) improving performance to reduce risk and extend life, and 3) improving manufacturing and processing to reduce costs. The targeted application of the technology is to provide for the primary structure of the pressurized elements of the lunar lander for both sortie and outpost missions, and surface habitats for the outpost missions. The paper presents concepts for habitats that support six month (and longer) lunar outpost missions. Both rigid and flexible habitat wall systems are discussed. The challenges of achieving a multi-functional habitat that provides micro-meteoroid, radiation, and thermal protection for explorers are identified.

  16. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials and in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary C-14 study on lunar soil was carried out with the University of Toronto Iso Trace accelerator mass spectrometer. This accelerator was recommended for C-14 work by Dr. R. Schneider of A.S. and E., who was the field engineer during the assemblage and start-up operation of the accelerator. After the preliminary study using CO2 from 10084,937 soil, which had previously been counted with low-level mini-proportional counters, it became clear that the Toronto accelerator could carry out C-14/C-13/C-12 ratio measurements on 1 gram meteorite and lunar samples and that the C-14 measurements are done with higher precision and better reliability than elsewhere. A collaborative program with the University of Toronto Iso Trace accelerator group, which is expected to be scientifically fruitful. Arrangements have been made for Dr. R.P. Beukens of the Toronto Accelerator Group to extract the carbon compounds from Antarctic meteorite and lunar samples and to convert the compounds to CO2. During the past two years, a uranium-series dating method was developed for polar ice, which method is being applied to ice from the Allan Hills site, Byrd core, and the Beardsmore glacier.

  17. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials and in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-08-01

    A preliminary C-14 study on lunar soil was carried out with the University of Toronto Iso Trace accelerator mass spectrometer. This accelerator was recommended for C-14 work by Dr. R. Schneider of A.S. and E., who was the field engineer during the assemblage and start-up operation of the accelerator. After the preliminary study using CO2 from 10084,937 soil, which had previously been counted with low-level mini-proportional counters, it became clear that the Toronto accelerator could carry out C-14/C-13/C-12 ratio measurements on 1 gram meteorite and lunar samples and that the C-14 measurements are done with higher precision and better reliability than elsewhere. A collaborative program with the University of Toronto Iso Trace accelerator group, which is expected to be scientifically fruitful. Arrangements have been made for Dr. R.P. Beukens of the Toronto Accelerator Group to extract the carbon compounds from Antarctic meteorite and lunar samples and to convert the compounds to CO2. During the past two years, a uranium-series dating method was developed for polar ice, which method is being applied to ice from the Allan Hills site, Byrd core, and the Beardsmore glacier.

  18. Kinetics of Melting and Dissolution in Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Paul C.

    2002-01-01

    An understanding of the petrogenesis of lunar magmas, particularly mare basalts and the parent magmas to the Mg-rich suite, remains an unfulfilled goal. The fact is not surprising given the complexity of the problem. On the Moon, the source region for lunar magmas is not primitive mantle but rather a series of cumulate rocks that vary widely in both minerology and major and minor element contents. The stratigraphy of the cumulate mantle is not likely to be very regular given that the culumate pile is formed initially in an unstable configuration and subsequent thermal and compositional heterogeneities on a number of length scales. These lithologic heterogeneities, the large range of pressures and temperatures over which melts are generated on the Moon, and the close juxtaposition of cumulate rock with widely varying solidii introduce significant complications to the nature of the melting relations that control melt generation. These factors, coupled with the likelihood that polybaric fractional melting of varying efficiencies ultimately control the composition of planetary progress, are ample reasons why the lunar magmas remain the enigma they are. To make progress, phase equilibria studies must be coupled with a detailed understanding of the time scales and the dynamics of crystal and melt reequilibration processes.

  19. 187Os/186Os in Lunar and Meteoritic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birck, J. L.; Allegre, C. J.

    1993-07-01

    The unique potentiallity of the ^187Re-^1870s radiochronometer stems from the chemical properties of the 2 elements. Their siderophilic nature has made the dating of the metal phase of iron meteorites and chondrites possible [1,2]. In silicate crystallization or melting, Os behaves as a strongly compatible element [3]. For Re the results hereunder show that its behavior is highly variable, depending on context. The development of the highly sensitive negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry [4,5] made possible the extensive analysis of silicate materials. We developed a chemical separation method allowing the analysis of 0,5 g of silicate with an Os blank of 0.3 pg (1pg=10^-12 g). The isotopic measurement of Os has a typical precision of a few permil for 1 pg of Os. A variety of samples has been investigated. Iron Meteorites: The main purpose of this study was to shed some light on the history of Kodaikanal. The silicate inclusions of this meteorite were reset at 3.7 Ga for both the Rb-Sr and the U-Pb chronometers [6,7]. The data from Coahuila, Canyon Diablo, Tlacotepec, and North Chile plot within 1% on the same isochron along with 3 samples from 2 locations inside the meteorite of Kodaikanal. As a consequence the Kodaikanal parent body did not form at 3.7 Ga but at about the same time as the parent bodies of the the majority of the other iron meteorites (~4.5 Ga). The only difference is that Kodaikanal suffered a strong secondary event at 3.7 Ga, which reset Rb/Sr and U-Pb chronometers but did not fractionate the Re/Os ratio. This result has already been suggested by our earlier work [8]. The St Severin Chondrite: A bulk sample and several batches of the metal separated from this chondrite were analysed. They plot on the iron meteorite isochron. However this metal is heterogeneous in Re/Os by a factor of at least 2 and indicates an uncomplete homogeinization of Re/Os between metal grains during parent body metamorphism. Basaltic Materials: Basaltic

  20. Three-Body Abrasion Testing Using Lunar Dust Simulants to Evaluate Surface System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Budinski, Kenneth G.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Klaus, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous unexpected operational issues relating to the abrasive nature of lunar dust, such as scratched visors and spacesuit pressure seal leaks, were encountered during the Apollo missions. To avoid reoccurrence of these unexpected detrimental equipment problems on future missions to the Moon, a series of two- and three-body abrasion tests were developed and conducted in order to begin rigorously characterizing the effect of lunar dust abrasiveness on candidate surface system materials. Two-body scratch tests were initially performed to examine fundamental interactions of a single particle on a flat surface. These simple and robust tests were used to establish standardized measurement techniques for quantifying controlled volumetric wear. Subsequent efforts described in the paper involved three-body abrasion testing designed to be more representative of actual lunar interactions. For these tests, a new tribotester was developed to expose samples to a variety of industrial abrasives and lunar simulants. The work discussed in this paper describes the three-body hardware setup consisting of a rotating rubber wheel that applies a load on a specimen as a loose abrasive is fed into the system. The test methodology is based on ASTM International (ASTM) B611, except it does not mix water with the abrasive. All tests were run under identical conditions. Abraded material specimens included poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), hardened 1045 steel, 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and 1018 steel. Abrasives included lunar mare simulant JSC- 1A-F (nominal size distribution), sieved JSC-1A-F (<25 m particle diameter), lunar highland simulant NU-LHT-2M, alumina (average diameter of 50 m used per ASTM G76), and silica (50/70 mesh used per ASTM G65). The measured mass loss from each specimen was converted using standard densities to determine total wear volume in cm3. Abrasion was dominated by the alumina and the simulants were only similar to the silica (i.e., sand) on the softer materials of

  1. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  2. Absolute age of lunar regolith material from the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinogradov, A. P.; Artemov, Y. M.

    1974-01-01

    By averaging the absolute age of lunar regolith materials from the Sea of Fertility for the fine regolith fraction from the core zone V, an age of 4.65 10 to the 9th power + 0.4 10 to the 9th power years was obtained, employing as the primordial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio 0.69884 (ADOR). Also close to this age value is the age estimate based on the Pb-207/Pb-206 ratio. Using the value 0.69898 (BABI) as a primordial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio reduces the calculated age of the fine regolith fraction to 4.25 X 10 to the 9th power years. The fine fraction of lunar regolith from the Sea of Fertility is also characterized by a minimum addition of radiogenic Sr-87, a minimum Rb/Sr ratio, and a maximum K/Rb ratio compared with analogous lunar material from other points.

  3. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  4. Luminescence, electron paramagnetic resonance, and optical properties of lunar material.

    PubMed

    Geake, J E; Dollfus, A; Garlick, G F; Lamb, W; Walker, C; Steigmann, G A; Titulaer, C

    1970-01-30

    Dust samples have been found to luminesce weakly under proton excitation, but not under ultraviolet. Damage, recovery, and heating effects have been investigated. Chips of breccia show luminescence, from white inclusions only, under ultraviolet and protons. Some rock chips show general luminescence, mainly from plagioclase. No natural or excited thermoluminescence has been found for dust or chips. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum shows the same broad Fe(3+) dipole resonance for dust and for some chips; other chips show no response. The polarization characteristics of dust are found to be identical to those of the Sea of Tranquillity, independently of proton damage. Chips show characteristics unlike any part of the lunar surface.

  5. The electrochemical generation of useful chemical species from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Kan J.; Kuchynka, Daniel J.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1989-01-01

    Electrochemical cells have been fabricated for the simultaneous generation of oxygen and lithium from a Li2O containing molten salt (Li2O-LiCl-LiF). The cell utilizes an oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), to effect separation between oxygen evolving and lithium reduction half-cell reactions. The cell, which operates at 700 to 850 C, possesses rapid electrode kinetics at the lithium-alloy electrode with exchange current density (i sub o) values being greater than 60mA sq cm. When used in the electrolytic mode, lithium produced at the negative electrode would be continuously removed from the cell for later use (under lunar conditions) as an easily storable reducing agent (compared to H2) for the chemical refining of lunar ores. Because of the high reversibility of this electrochemical system, it has also formed tha basis for the lithium oxygen secondary battery system which possesses the highest theoretical energy density yet investigated.

  6. Radioactivity induced in apollo 11 lunar surface material by solar flare protons.

    PubMed

    Heydegger, H R; Turkevich, A

    1970-05-01

    Comparison of values of the specific radioactivities reported for lunar surface material from the Apollo 11 mission with analogous data for stone meteorites suggests that energetic particles from the solar flare of 12 April 1969 may have produced most of the cobalt-56 observed.

  7. Study of sample of Sea of Fertility lunar surface material by the track method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poupeau, G.; Chatrit, G. C.; Pellas, P.

    1974-01-01

    Tracks in crystals of feldspars, olivines, pyroxenes, and in several fragments of basalts from a sample of Luna 16 lunar surface material were studied. A high track density, exceeding 10 to the 8th power cm/2 was found. The tracks were produced mainly by iron group nuclei of cosmic galactic and solar rays.

  8. Determination of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements in lunar surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlenko, L. I.; Simonova, L. V.; Karyakin, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution regularities of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements were investigated in basaltoid rocks of lunar and terrestrial origin. Samples of various regolith zones taken in the area of the Sea of Fertility were analyzed, along with samples of basic and ultrabasic rocks of the East African Rift for their content of the trace admixtures listed. Data obtained on the abundance of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, cobalt, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in Luna 16 lunar surface material were compared with the abundance of these elements in samples of lunar rocks returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, with the exception of scandium; its content in the latter samples was considerably higher.

  9. Determination of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements in lunar surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlenko, L. I.; Simonova, L. V.; Karyakin, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution regularities of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements were investigated in basaltoid rocks of lunar and terrestrial origin. Samples of various regolith zones taken in the area of the Sea of Fertility were analyzed, along with samples of basic and ultrabasic rocks of the East African Rift for their content of the trace admixtures listed. Data obtained on the abundance of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, cobalt, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in Luna 16 lunar surface material were compared with the abundance of these elements in samples of lunar rocks returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, with the exception of scandium; its content in the latter samples was considerably higher.

  10. Electrochemical generation of useful chemical species from lunar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammells, Anthony F.; Semkow, Krystyna W.

    1987-09-01

    A high temperature electrolytic cell which simultaneously generates oxygen at the anode and liquid alkali metals at the cathode is electrochemically characterized. The electrolytic technology being investigated utilizes the oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolyte, yttria stabilized zirconia, which effectively separates the oxygen evolving (at La0.89Sr0.10MnO3) and alkali metal (Li, Na) reducing (from a molten salt at either Pt or FeSi2) half cell reactions. In the finally engineered cell liquid alkali metal would be continuously removed from the cathode compartment and used as an effective reductant for the direct thermochemical refining of lunar ores to their metallic state with simultaneous oxidation of the alkali metal to its oxide. The alkali metal oxide would then be reintroduced into the electrolytic cell to complete the overall system cycle.

  11. Ferromagnetic-superparamagnetic granulometry of lunar surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwerer, F. C.; Nagata, T.

    1976-01-01

    A technique of magnetic granulometry is applied to previously reported data for the temperature dependence of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) in 13 lunar surface samples, including three soils. Observed increases in IRM with decreasing temperature are attributed to changes from superparamagnetic to single-domain types of behavior for fine metallic-iron particles. Based on this hypothesis, the temperature dependence of IRM in the examined samples is analyzed to obtain particle-size distributions over the range of mean diameters from 30 to 130 A. It is found that the distribution functions for the soils and a low-grade breccia vary as the inverse square of particle volume and that the distributions for recrystallized breccias and igneous rocks apparently peak about mean values.

  12. Electrochemical generation of useful chemical species from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammells, Anthony F.; Semkow, Krystyna W.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature electrolytic cell which simultaneously generates oxygen at the anode and liquid alkali metals at the cathode is electrochemically characterized. The electrolytic technology being investigated utilizes the oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolyte, yttria stabilized zirconia, which effectively separates the oxygen evolving (at La0.89Sr0.10MnO3) and alkali metal (Li, Na) reducing (from a molten salt at either Pt or FeSi2) half cell reactions. In the finally engineered cell liquid alkali metal would be continuously removed from the cathode compartment and used as an effective reductant for the direct thermochemical refining of lunar ores to their metallic state with simultaneous oxidation of the alkali metal to its oxide. The alkali metal oxide would then be reintroduced into the electrolytic cell to complete the overall system cycle.

  13. The electrochemical generation of useful chemical species from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammells, Anthony F.; Semkow, Krystyna W.

    1988-01-01

    A high temperature electrolytic cell which simultaneously generates oxygen at the anode and liquid alkali metals at the cathode is electrochemically characterized. The electrolytic technology being investigated utilizes the oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolyte, yttria stabilized zirconia, which effectively separates the oxygen evolving (at La0.89Sr0.10MnO3) and alkali metal (Li, Na) reducing (from a molten salt at either Pt or FeSi2) half cell reactions. In the finally engineered cell liquid alkali metal would be continuously removed from the cathode compartment and used as an effective reductant for the direct thermochemical refining of lunar ores to their metallic state with simultaneous oxidation of the alkali metal to its oxide. The alkali metal oxide would then be reintroduced into the electrolytic cell to complete the overall system cycle.

  14. Specific gravities of lunar materials using helium pycnometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Stetter, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An existing technique, helium pycnometry, has been adapted for the measurement of specific gravities of lunar samples, where surface areas are low (less than 1 sq m/g) and crushing the sample to a fine powder is highly undesirable. The technique is superior to typical liquid immersion methods, in that it is noncontaminating and, where vuggy or porous samples are concerned, should provide a more accurate (higher) absolute density value. The experimental helium pycnometry measurements have been compared in three instances for two rocks with values calculated from a normative mineral composition. The comparison appears good, however, where differences occur, the direct experimental technique appears to provide the better value and to be capable of indicating density variations within a single rock sample.

  15. Specific gravities of lunar materials using helium pycnometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Stetter, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An existing technique, helium pycnometry, has been adapted for the measurement of specific gravities of lunar samples, where surface areas are low (less than 1 sq m/g) and crushing the sample to a fine powder is highly undesirable. The technique is superior to typical liquid immersion methods, in that it is noncontaminating and, where vuggy or porous samples are concerned, should provide a more accurate (higher) absolute density value. The experimental helium pycnometry measurements have been compared in three instances for two rocks with values calculated from a normative mineral composition. The comparison appears good, however, where differences occur, the direct experimental technique appears to provide the better value and to be capable of indicating density variations within a single rock sample.

  16. ''On-line'' analyses of simulated solar wind implantations of terrestrial analogs of lunar materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blanford, G.E.; Borgesen, P.; Maurette, M.; Moeller, W.; Monart, B.

    1986-03-30

    To help assess possible water reserves on the moon derived from the solar wind that could supply a lunar base, oligoclase, ilmenite, and simulated lunar glass have been irradiated with a beam of 2.5 keV/amu deuterium ions to simulate solar wind proton bombardment of lunar materials. For ilmenite and simulated lunar glass the areal density of deuterium D(phi) (D/cm/sup 2/) increases with the incident ion fluence phi until a critical reemission fluence is reached (phi = 3.3-3.5 x 10/sup 17/ D/cm/sup 2/). At this point deuterium begins to be lost from both targets until D(phi) reaches a saturation value D/sub s/ = 2-4 x 10/sup 17/ D/cm/sup 2/ at phi/sub s/ = 1-2 x 10/sup 18/ D/cm/sup 2/. Oligoclase begins losing deuterium when the beam is turned on; D(phi) never reaches a saturation value up to the limit of our experiment (phiapprox. =3 x 10/sup 18/ D/cm/sup 2/). There is a small yield of approx.10/sup -4/ D/sub 2/O/sup +//D/sub incident/ during the implantation. Thermal release patterns for D/sub 2/ in our targets do not correspond to those observed for H/sub 2/ in lunar soils, but the differences may be explainable after further experiments. Although ilmenite stores about twice as much deuterium as the other target materials, it is unknown whether this small enrichment factor will be sufficient to make it a potential source of lunar water.

  17. Evaluation of lunar regolith geopolymer binder as a radioactive shielding material for space exploration applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Carlos; Broussard, Kaylin; Gongre, Matthew; Simicevic, Neven; Mejia, Johanna; Tham, Jessica; Allouche, Erez; Davis, Gabrielle

    2015-09-01

    Future manned missions to the moon will require the ability to build structures using the moon's natural resources. The geopolymer binder described in this paper (Lunamer) is a construction material that consists of up to 98% lunar regolith, drastically reducing the amount of material that must be carried from Earth in the event of lunar construction. This material could be used to fabricate structural panels and interlocking blocks that have radiation shielding and thermal insulation characteristics. These panels and blocks could be used to construct living quarters and storage facilities on the lunar surface, or as shielding panels to be installed on crafts launched from the moon surface to deep-space destinations. Lunamer specimens were manufactured in the laboratory and compressive strength results of up to 16 MPa when cast with conventional methods and 37 MPa when cast using uniaxial pressing were obtained. Simulation results have shown that the mechanical and chemical properties of Lunamer allow for adequate radiation shielding for a crew inside the lunar living quarters without additional requirements.

  18. Lunar resources: Toward living off the lunar land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are addressed: (1) lunar resources and surface conditions; (2) guidelines for early lunar technologies; (3) the lunar farm; (4) the lunar filling station; (5) lunar construction materials; (6) the lunar power company; (7) the electrolysis of molten silicate as a means of producing oxygen and metals for use on the Moon and in near-Earth space.

  19. Results of investigating the physicomechanical properties of a sample of lunar surface material in a research chamber in nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonovich, A. K.; Gromov, V. V.; Dmitriyev, A. N.; Lozhkin, V. A.; Pavlov, P. S.; Rybakov, A. V.; Shvarev, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported on an investigation of the mechanical properties of the lunar surface material sample returned by the Luna 16 automatic station. The study included determination of the specific weight of the surface material, the nature of its disintegration, and the determination of its compressibility characteristics, shear resistance, and bearing capacity. Quantitative data are presented on mechanical properties for the lunar surface material, many of which are determined for the first time. The instruments and experimental techniques are described.

  20. Zirconium and hafnium abundances in some lunar materials and implications of their ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyi, L. L.; Ehmann, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    A new rapid and precise analytical procedure for Zr and Hf has been applied to the study of lunar materials. The results indicate that the Zr/Hf ratios in lunar materials vary in a narrow range from 36.6 to 51.3 while their respective contents vary by a factor of 40. There is a strong Zr, Hf, and major element correlation. This correlation and the Zr and Hf systematics suggest that lunar materials fall into two groups. One group characterized by high Zr and Hf contents and higher Zr/Hf ratios corresponds to materials with a high KREEP content; the other characterized by low Zr and Hf contents and lower Zr/Hf ratios corresponds to materials with high Ti, Fe, Mn, and Mg contents. We believe that the modest Zr and Hf fractionation we observe is related to the extent of stabilization of the metals in the early titanium minerals and a charge disparity under extremely reduced conditions in which Zr exists as 3+, while Hf remains as 4+.

  1. Zirconium and hafnium abundances in some lunar materials and implications of their ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyi, L. L.; Ehmann, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    A new rapid and precise analytical procedure for Zr and Hf has been applied to the study of lunar materials. The results indicate that the Zr/Hf ratios in lunar materials vary in a narrow range from 36.6 to 51.3 while their respective contents vary by a factor of 40. There is a strong Zr, Hf, and major element correlation. This correlation and the Zr and Hf systematics suggest that lunar materials fall into two groups. One group characterized by high Zr and Hf contents and higher Zr/Hf ratios corresponds to materials with a high KREEP content; the other characterized by low Zr and Hf contents and lower Zr/Hf ratios corresponds to materials with high Ti, Fe, Mn, and Mg contents. We believe that the modest Zr and Hf fractionation we observe is related to the extent of stabilization of the metals in the early titanium minerals and a charge disparity under extremely reduced conditions in which Zr exists as 3+, while Hf remains as 4+.

  2. Concepts and strategies for lunar base radiation protection - Prefabricated versus in-situ materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    The most recently accepted environment data are used as inputs for the Langley nucleon and heavy-ion transport codes, BRYNTRN and HZETRN, to examine the shield effectiveness of lunar regolith in comparison with commercially-used shield materials in nuclear facilities. Several of the fabricated materials categorized as neutron absorbers exhibit favorable characteristics for space radiation protection. In particular, polyethylene with additive boron is analyzed with regard to response to the predicted lunar galactic cosmic ray and solar proton flare environment during the course of a complete solar cycle. Although this effort is not intended to be a definitive trade study for specific shielding recommendations, attention is given to several factors that warrant consideration in such trade studies. For example, the transporting of bulk shield material to the lunar site as opposed to regolith-moving and processing equipment is assessed on the basis of recent scenario studies. The transporting of shield material from Earth may also be a viable alternative to the use of regolith from standpoints of cost-effectiveness, EVA time required, and risk factor.

  3. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-06-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  4. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-01-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  5. Materials trade study for lunar/gateway missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Anderson, B. M.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) administrator has identified protection from radiation hazards as one of the two biggest problems of the agency with respect to human deep space missions. The intensity and strength of cosmic radiation in deep space makes this a 'must solve' problem for space missions. The Moon and two Earth-Moon Lagrange points near Moon are being proposed as hubs for deep space missions. The focus of this study is to identify approaches to protecting astronauts and habitats from adverse effects from space radiation both for single missions and multiple missions for career astronauts to these destinations. As the great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions, reduction of mass, without compromising safety, is of paramount importance. The choice of material and selection of the crew profile play major roles in design and mission operations. Material trade studies in shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space mission's to two Earth-Moon co-linear Lagrange points (L1) between Earth and the Moon and (L2) on back side of the moon as seen from Earth, and to the Moon have been studied. It is found that, for single missions, current state-of-the-art knowledge of material provides adequate shielding. On the other hand, the choice of shield material is absolutely critical for career astronauts and revolutionary materials need to be developed for these missions. This study also provides a guide to the effectiveness of multifunctional materials in preparation for more detailed geometry studies in progress. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Materials trade study for lunar/gateway missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Anderson, B. M.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) administrator has identified protection from radiation hazards as one of the two biggest problems of the agency with respect to human deep space missions. The intensity and strength of cosmic radiation in deep space makes this a 'must solve' problem for space missions. The Moon and two Earth-Moon Lagrange points near Moon are being proposed as hubs for deep space missions. The focus of this study is to identify approaches to protecting astronauts and habitats from adverse effects from space radiation both for single missions and multiple missions for career astronauts to these destinations. As the great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions, reduction of mass, without compromising safety, is of paramount importance. The choice of material and selection of the crew profile play major roles in design and mission operations. Material trade studies in shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space mission's to two Earth-Moon co-linear Lagrange points (L1) between Earth and the Moon and (L2) on back side of the moon as seen from Earth, and to the Moon have been studied. It is found that, for single missions, current state-of-the-art knowledge of material provides adequate shielding. On the other hand, the choice of shield material is absolutely critical for career astronauts and revolutionary materials need to be developed for these missions. This study also provides a guide to the effectiveness of multifunctional materials in preparation for more detailed geometry studies in progress. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Materials trade study for lunar/gateway missions.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R K; Wilson, J W; Cucinotta, F A; Anderson, B M; Simonsen, L C

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) administrator has identified protection from radiation hazards as one of the two biggest problems of the agency with respect to human deep space missions. The intensity and strength of cosmic radiation in deep space makes this a 'must solve' problem for space missions. The Moon and two Earth-Moon Lagrange points near Moon are being proposed as hubs for deep space missions. The focus of this study is to identify approaches to protecting astronauts and habitats from adverse effects from space radiation both for single missions and multiple missions for career astronauts to these destinations. As the great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions, reduction of mass, without compromising safety, is of paramount importance. The choice of material and selection of the crew profile play major roles in design and mission operations. Material trade studies in shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space mission's to two Earth-Moon co-linear Lagrange points (L1) between Earth and the Moon and (L2) on back side of the moon as seen from Earth, and to the Moon have been studied. It is found that, for single missions, current state-of-the-art knowledge of material provides adequate shielding. On the other hand, the choice of shield material is absolutely critical for career astronauts and revolutionary materials need to be developed for these missions. This study also provides a guide to the effectiveness of multifunctional materials in preparation for more detailed geometry studies in progress. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sources and Transportation of Bulk, Low-Cost Lunar Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has built the Lunar Surface Testbed using 200 tons of volcanic cinder and ash from the same source used for the simulant series JSC-1. This Technical Memorandum examines the alternatives examined for transportation and source. The cost of low-cost lunar simulant is driven by the cost of transportation, which is controlled by distance and, to a lesser extent, quantity. Metabasalts in the eastern United States were evaluated due to their proximity to MSFC. Volcanic cinder deposits in New Mexico, Colorado, and Arizona were recognized as preferred sources. In addition to having fewer green, secondary minerals, they contain vesicular glass, both of which are desirable. Transportation costs were more than 90% of the total procurement costs for the simulant material.

  9. An analysis of propulsion options for transport of lunar materials to earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, R. H.; Jones, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the results of analyses of space-based transportation systems for the transport of extraterrestrial materials from their point of origin on the lunar surface to final delivery point in earth orbit and transport of equipment and supplies for extraterrestrial processing to the operational site. The emphasis has been on the use of near-term (pre-year 2000) propulsion systems, such as advanced chemical (H2, O2) and nuclear-electric systems. More exotic systems (mass drivers, nuclear-thermal rockets, etc.) were also considered to evaluate the potential to be gained by use of post-year 2000 technologies. Finally, the effects of using extraterrestrial propellants (e.g., H2 from lunar polar water-ice for chemical systems) were compared to those of propulsion systems deriving all or part of their propellants from the earth.

  10. Optimization Shield Materials Trade Study for Lunar/Gateway Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Anderson, B. M.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2002-01-01

    The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in many deep space missions. For this enabling technology, we are developing tools for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of various space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Preliminary studies of deep space missions indicate that for long duration space missions, improved shield materials will be required. The details of this new method and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed. This study will provide a vital tool for evaluating Gateway designs in their usage context. Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is one of the challenges to the Gateway infrastructure designs. We will use the mission optimization software to scope the impact of Gateway operations on human exposures and the effectiveness of alternate shielding materials on Gateway infrastructure designs. It is being proposed to use Moon and the Lagrange points as the hub for deep space missions. This study will provide a guide to the effectiveness of multifunctional materials in preparation to more detailed geometry studies in progress.

  11. Lunar shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voyer, P.; Garcia, M.; Higham, D.; Spackman, D.; Garcia, J.; Chapman, T.; Cook, M.; Jelke, J.; Slingerland, G.; Anderson, K.

    1989-01-01

    Current plans for the extension of human presence into the solar system include the establishment of a permanently occupied base on the Moon for use as a source of raw materials, a transportation node, a facility for the fabrication and launch of elements of the space exploration infrastructure, and a base for scientific investigation and astronomical observatories. All of the aforementioned uses of a lunar base foresee the requirement for a lunar shuttle to operate from the lunar surface to one or more orbiting space stations located in low lunar orbits (LLO). The Utah State University lunar shuttle design is baslined for implementation after a mature lunar base has been established. The shuttle is designed to operate between the lunar base and a space station located in a 400-km-altitude orbit. This orbit was chosen with reference to Apollo experience, which has indicated that very low orbits, on the order of 100-km, may be unstable over periods of many months. After a thorough investigation of the anticipated needs and production capabilities of a lunar base, several design requirements were placed upon the shuttle. These requirements are (1) maximum use of lunar-derived propellant; (2) modularity and payload versatility; (3) two-way transport of 25-metric-ton cargo; (4) human transport capability; (5) satellite servicing; and (6) 3000-kg mass budget.

  12. Using Lunar Impact Glasses to Inform the Amount of Organic Material Delivered to the Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Pham; Zellner, Nicolle

    2017-01-01

    The delivery of organic material via comets and asteroids during the early history of Earth plays an important role in some theories about the origin of life on Earth. Given the close proximity of the Moon to the Earth, the Moon’s impact history can be used to estimate the amount of organic material delivered to the early Earth. Analysis of lunar impact glasses, derived from energetic impacts on the Moon, provide valuable data that can be used to interpret the Moon’s impact flux. Here we present the results of a study of the non-volatile lithophile element compositions of over 500 impact glass samples from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites, along with associated ages of a subset of them. Our analyses show that many of the impact glasses possess compositions exotic to the local regolith in which they were found. Coupled with their ages, these glasses suggest material transport from distant regions of the Moon and may allow an estimate of the number of lunar (and terrestrial) impactors in a given time period. These results have important implications for constraining the Moon’s impact flux and also the amount of organic material delivered to the early Earth. Results of our preliminary study, which investigates the amounts of organic material delivered by comets and asteroids to the Moon (and Earth), will be presented.

  13. Ceramics for Molten Materials Containment, Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, Evan; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a project on Molten Materials Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface, molten materials containment samples of various ceramics were tested to determine their performance in contact with a melt of lunar regolith simulant. The test temperature was 1600 C with contact times ranging from 0 to 12 hours. Regolith simulant was pressed into cylinders with the approximate dimensions of 1.25 dia x 1.25cm height and then melted on ceramic substrates. The regolith-ceramic interface was examined after processing to determine the melt/ceramic interaction. It was found that the molten regolith wetted all oxide ceramics tested extremely well which resulted in chemical reaction between the materials in each case. Alumina substrates were identified which withstood contact at the operating temperature of a molten regolith electrolysis cell (1600 C) for eight hours with little interaction or deformation. This represents an improvement over alumina grades currently in use and will provide a lifetime adequate for electrolysis experiments lasting 24 hours or more. Two types of non-oxide ceramics were also tested. It was found that they interacted to a limited degree with the melt resulting in little corrosion. These ceramics, Sic and BN, were not wetted as well as the oxides by the melt, and so remain possible materials for molten regolith handling. Tests wing longer holding periods and larger volumes of regolith are necessary to determine the ultimate performance of the tested ceramics.

  14. Apollo 12 lunar material - Effects on lipid levels of tobacco tissue cultures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tobacco tissue cultures grown in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12, for a 12-week period, resulted in fluctuations of both the relative and absolute concentrations of endogenous sterols and fatty acids. The experimental tissues contained higher concentrations of sterols than the controls did. The ratio of campesterol to stigmasterol was greater than 1 in control tissues, but less than 1 in the experimental tissues after 3 weeks. High relative concentrations (17.1 to 22.2 per cent) of an unidentified compound or compounds were found only in control tissues that were 3 to 9 weeks of age.

  15. Apollo 12 lunar material: effects on lipid levels of tobacco tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Weete, J D; Walkinshaw, C H; Laseter, J L

    1972-02-11

    Tobacco tissue cultures grown in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12, for a 12-week period, resulted in fluctuations of both the relative and absolute concentrations of endogenous sterols and fatty acids. The experimental tissues contained higher concentrations of sterols than the controls did. The ratio of campesterol to stigmasterol was greater than 1 in control tissues, but less than 1 in the experimental tissues after 3 weeks. High relative concentrations (17.1 to 22.2 percent) of an unidentified compound or compounds were found only in control tissues that were 3 to 9 weeks of age.

  16. An evaluation of ablative materials for a lunar transfer vehicle aerobrake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. G.; Salmassy, O. K.

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation of the utility of an ablative thermal protection system (TPS) for use on a lunar mission return aerobrake has been completed. Requirements are established and criteria developed specifically for the ablator application. A quantitative and qualitative multi-attribute utility analysis is employed to establish a relative ranking among candidates and a performance threshold. A review of the applicable existing ablator material database is made and appropriate thermochemical/melting ablation analysis is employed to evaluate thermal performance. Ablatives are shown to be potentially both performance capable and cost effective in single-use roles. Reusable surface insulation is also shown to be competitive as an ablator with certain modifications.

  17. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  18. Development of construction materials like concrete from lunar soils without water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Chandra S.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Frantziskonis, G.

    1989-01-01

    The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. A unique approach is attempted that utilizes factors such as initial vacuum and then cyclic loading to enhance the mechanical properties of dry materials similar to those available on the moon. The application of such factors is expected to allow reorientation, and coming together, of particles of the materials toward the maximum theoretical density. If such a density can provide deformation and strength properties for even a limited type of construction, the approach can have significant application potential, although other factors such as heat and chemicals may be needed for specific construction objectives.

  19. Interaction of gases with lunar materials. [surface properties of lunar fines, especially on exposure to water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, H. F.; Gammage, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The surface properties of lunar fines were investigated. Results indicate that, for the most part, these properties are independent of the chemical composition and location of the samples on the lunar surface. The leaching of channels and pores by adsorbed water vapor is a distinguishing feature of their surface chemistry. The elements of air, if adsorbed in conjunction with water vapor or liquid water, severely impedes the leaching process. In the absence of air, liquid water is more effective than water vapor in attacking the grains. The characteristics of Apollo 17 orange fines were evaluated and compared with those of other samples. The interconnecting channels produced by water vapor adsorption were found to be wider than usual for other types of fines. Damage tracks caused by heavy cosmic ray nuclei and an unusually high halogen content might provide for stronger etching conditions upon exposure to water vapor.

  20. Investigation of biological activity of fine fraction of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kustov, V. V.; Ostapenko, O. F.; Petrukhin, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The biological action of a sample of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station from a new region of the mare surface on male white mice was studied. The condition and behavior of the animals were observed; the intensity of their oxygen consumption was recorded, and motor activity of the muscles, leucocyte and erythrocytes counts in the peripheral blood, and the activity of whole blood chloinesterase were determined. Experimental results showed that the tested doses of the fine fraction of the lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility were virtually innocuous for white mice.

  1. Lunar bases and space activities of the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, W. W. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The present conference gives attention to such major aspects of lunar colonization as lunar base concepts, lunar transportation, lunar science research activities, moon-based astronomical researches, lunar architectural construction, lunar materials and processes, lunar oxygen production, life support and health maintenance in lunar bases, societal aspects of lunar colonization, and the prospects for Mars colonization. Specific discussions are presented concerning the role of nuclear energy in lunar development, achromatic trajectories and the industrial scale transport of lunar resources, advanced geologic exploration from a lunar base, geophysical investigations of the moon, moon-based astronomical interferometry, the irradiation of the moon by particles, cement-based composites for lunar base construction, electrostatic concentration of lunar soil minerals, microwave processing of lunar materials, a parametric analysis of lunar oxygen production, hydrogen from lunar regolith fines, metabolic support for a lunar base, past and future Soviet lunar exploration, and the use of the moons of Mars as sources of water for lunar bases.

  2. Lunar bases and space activities of the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, W. W. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The present conference gives attention to such major aspects of lunar colonization as lunar base concepts, lunar transportation, lunar science research activities, moon-based astronomical researches, lunar architectural construction, lunar materials and processes, lunar oxygen production, life support and health maintenance in lunar bases, societal aspects of lunar colonization, and the prospects for Mars colonization. Specific discussions are presented concerning the role of nuclear energy in lunar development, achromatic trajectories and the industrial scale transport of lunar resources, advanced geologic exploration from a lunar base, geophysical investigations of the moon, moon-based astronomical interferometry, the irradiation of the moon by particles, cement-based composites for lunar base construction, electrostatic concentration of lunar soil minerals, microwave processing of lunar materials, a parametric analysis of lunar oxygen production, hydrogen from lunar regolith fines, metabolic support for a lunar base, past and future Soviet lunar exploration, and the use of the moons of Mars as sources of water for lunar bases.

  3. Assessment of the Lunar Surface Layer and in Situ Materials to Sustain Construction-related Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Chua, Koon Meng

    1992-01-01

    Present and future technologies to facilitate lunar composition and resource assessment with applications to lunar surface construction are presented. We are particularly interested in the construction activity associated with lunar-based astronomy. We address, as an example, the use of ground-probing radar to help assess subsurface conditions at sites for observatories and other facilities.

  4. A Multi-Wavelength Grain-by-Grain Survey of Lunar Soils in Search of Rare Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S.; Lucey, P. G.; Viti, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon is unique among terrestrial planets for its lack of an atmosphere and global tectonic or volcanic processes. These factors and its position in the inner solar system mean that it is a potential repository of meteoritic material from all of the terrestrial planets. The National Research Council's 2007 report on the Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon highlighted this unique possibility and defined the search for rare materials including those from the early Earth as a key goal for future lunar exploration. Armstrong et al. (2002) estimated that Earth material could be present at the 7 ppm level in surface lunar regolith and emphasized that since a single gram of lunar fines contains over 10 million particles, the search for terran material in lunar soils should begin with the current stock of lunar samples. Joy et al. (2012) demonstrated that mineral and lithologic relics of impactors can survive and be recognized in lunar samples, and recent work by Burchell et al. (2014) suggests that fossil fragments from Earth could survive the extreme shocks associated with transport to the Moon. Following the concept laid out by Armstrong et al. (2002), we are conducting a survey of lunar soil samples using microscopic hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy across visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared wavelengths to conduct a search for rare particles, including those that could be sourced from the early Earth. Our system currently consists of three microscopic imaging spectrometers with ~30 micron spatial resolution, permitting resolved imaging of individual grains. Fields of view of at least 1 cm and scan rates near 1 mm/sec permit rapid processing of relatively large quantities of sample. Existing spectrometers cover the 0.5 to 2.5 micron region, permitting detection and characterization of the common iron-bearing lunar minerals olivine and pyroxene, and the 8-14 micron region, which permits detection of other, rarer minerals of interest such as

  5. Granulometric characteristics of lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakheyev, Y. I.; Vulfson, Y. K.; Ivanov, A. V.; Florenskiy, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    The particle size distributions in the 1-1000 micrometer range along the length of the core of lunar surface material returned by Luna 16 were recorded by electrical impulse as well as sieve methods. The measurements are represented in the form of cumulative functions of the logarithm of size versus the logarithm of particle number, and also as the logarithm of size versus particle mass on a probability scale. The former functions at all depths consist of the super-positioning of two straight lines with slopes from 2.10 to 4.05. The second functions are near linear, which together with the closeness of the calculated asymmetries of the distribution to zero and the nearness of the calculated excess of the distributions to unity indicate the closeness of the recorded distributions to the logarithmically normal law. This agrees with the assumption that regolith particles were formed in a process of intensive mechanical grinding.

  6. Investigation of mechanical and thermal properties of microwave-sintered lunar simulant materials using 2.45 GHz radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meek, T. T.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal properties of lunar simulant material were investigated. An alternative method of examining thermal shock in microwave-sintered lunar samples was researched. A computer code was developed that models how the fracture toughness of a thermally shocked lunar simulant sample is related to the sample hardness as measured by a micro-hardness indentor apparatus. This technique enables much data to be gathered from a few samples. Several samples were sintered at different temperatures and for different times at the temperatures. The melting and recrystallization characteristics of a well-studied binary system were also investigated to see if the thermodynamic barrier for the nucleation of a crystalline phase may be affected by the presence of a microwave field. The system chosen was the albite (sodium alumino silicate) anorthite system (calcium alumino silicate). The results of these investigations are presented.

  7. LUNAR SAMPLES - APOLLO 11

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-08-03

    S69-40749 (July 1969) --- Dr. Grant Heikan, MSC and a Lunar Sample Preliminary Examination Team member, examines lunar material in a sieve from the bulk sample container which was opened in the Biopreparation Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The samples were collected by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during their lunar surface extravehicular activity on July 20, 1969.

  8. Lunar soil properties and soil mechanics. Flow in porous media under rarefied gas conditions. Research phase: Fluid conductivity of lunar surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbut, F. C.; Jih, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental research on fluid conductivity of lunar surface materials is summarized. Theoretical methods were developed for the analysis of transitional and free-molecular flows, and for analysis of lunar permeability probe data in general. Experimental studies of rarefied flows under conditions of a large pressure gradient show flows in the continuum regime to be responsible for the largest portion of the pressure drop between source and sink for one dimensional flow, provided the entrance Knudsen number is sufficiently small. The concept of local similarity leading to a universal nondimensional function of Knudsen number was shown to have approximate validity; flows in all regimes may be described in terms of an area fraction and a single length parameter. Synthetic porous media prepared from glass beads exhibited flow behavior similar in many regards to that of a natural sandstone; studies using artificial stones with known pore configurations may lead to new insight concerning the structure of natural materials. The experimental method involving the use of segmented specimens of large permeability is shown to be fruitful.

  9. Elephant Moraine 87521: The first lunar meteorite composed of predominantly mare material

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, P.H.; Kallemeyn, G.W. )

    1989-12-01

    The trace-element chemistry and detailed petrography of brecciated Antarctic meteorite EET87521 reveal that it is not, as originally classified, a eucrite. Its Fe/Mn ratio and bulk Co content are fair higher than expected for a eucrite. Only one known type of extraterrestrial material resembles EET87521 in all important respects for which constraints exist: very-low-Ti (VLT) lunar mare basalts. Even compared to VLT basalts, EET87521 is enriched in REE. However, other varieties of high-alumina, low-Ti mare basalt are known that contain REE at even higher concentrations than EET87521. Several clasts in EET87521 preserve clear vestiges of coarse-grained igneous, possibly orthocumulate, textures. Mineralogically, these coarse-grained clasts are diverse; e.g., olivine ranges from Fo{sub 15} in one to Fo{sub 67} in another. One clast with an anomalously fine-grained texture is anorthositic and contains exceptionally Mg-rich pyroxene and Na-poor plagioclase, along with the only FeNi-metal in the thin section. Its FeNi-metals have compositions typical of metals incorporated into lunar soils and polymict breccias as debris from metal-rich meteorites. However, the low Ni and Ir contents of our bulk-rock analysis imply that the proportion of impact-projectile matter in our chip sample is probably small. The moderate degree of lithologic diversity among the lithic lasts and the bulk composition in general indicate that EET87521 is dominated by a single rock type: VLT mare basalt.

  10. Lunar In Situ Materials-Based Surface Structure Technology Development Efforts at NASA/MSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiske, M. R.; McGregor, W.; Pope, R.; McLemore, C. A.; Kaul, R.; Smithers, G.; Ethridge, E.; Toutanji, H.

    2007-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the structures to accommodate them, including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. The use of in situ materials will significantly offset required launch upmass and volume issues. Under the auspices of the In Situ Fabrication & Repair (ISFR) Program at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Surface Structures project has been developing materials and construction technologies to support development of these in situ structures. This paper will report on the development of several of these technologies at MSFC's Prototype Development Laboratory (PDL). These technologies include, but are not limited to, development of extruded concrete and inflatable concrete dome technologies based on waterless and water-based concretes, development of regolith-based blocks with potential radiation shielding binders including polyurethane and polyethylene, pressure regulation systems for inflatable structures, production of glass fibers and rebar derived from molten lunar regolith simulant, development of regolithbag structures, and others, including automation design issues. Results to date and lessons learned will be presented, along with recommendations for future activities.

  11. Lunar In Situ Materials-Based Surface Structure Technology Development Efforts at NASA/MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, M. R.; McGregor, W.; Pope, R.; McLemore, C. A.; Kaul, R.; Smithers, G.; Ethridge, E.; Toutanji, H.

    2007-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the structures to accommodate them, including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. The use of in situ materials will significantly offset required launch upmass and volume issues. Under the auspices of the In Situ Fabrication & Repair (ISFR) Program at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Surface Structures project has been developing materials and construction technologies to support development of these in situ structures. This paper will report on the development of several of these technologies at MSFC's Prototype Development Laboratory (PDL). These technologies include, but are not limited to, development of extruded concrete and inflatable concrete dome technologies based on waterless and water-based concretes, development of regolith-based blocks with potential radiation shielding binders including polyurethane and polyethylene, pressure regulation systems for inflatable structures, production of glass fibers and rebar derived from molten lunar regolith simulant, development of regolithbag structures, and others, including automation design issues. Results to date and lessons learned will be presented, along with recommendations for future activities.

  12. Lunar In Situ Materials-Based Habitat Technology Development Efforts at NASA/MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodiford, Melanie P.; Burks, K. H.; Perry M. R.; Cooper, R. W.; Fiske, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    For long duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the structures to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. The use of in situ materials will significantly offset required launch upmass and volume issues. Under the auspices of the In Situ Fabrication & Repair (ISFR) Program at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Habitat Structures project has been developing materials and construction technologies to support development of these in situ structures. This paper will report on the development of several of these technologies at MSFC's Prototype Development Laboratory (PDL). These technologies include, but are not limited to, development of extruded concrete and inflatable concrete dome technologies based on waterless and water-based concretes, development of regolith-based blocks with potential radiation shielding binders including polyurethane and polyethylene, pressure regulation systems for inflatable structures, production of glass fibers and rebar derived from molten lunar regolith simulant, development of regolithbag structures, and others, including automation design issues. Results to date and planned efforts for FY06 will also be presented.

  13. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  14. Material Damage from Impacts of Lunar Soil Particles Ejected by the Rocket Exhaust of Landing Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittbrodt, Audelia C.; Metzger, Philip T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper details the experimentation of lunar stimulant sandblasting. This was done to understand the damage that landing spacecraft on the moon will have to a permanent lunar outpost. The sandblasting was done with JSC-1A onto glass coupons. Correlations between the velocity and the damage done to the glass were not found. Reasons for this and future analyses are discussed.

  15. Lunar cement and lunar concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

  16. Evaluation of lunar rocks and soils for resource utilization: Detailed image analysis of raw materials and beneficiated products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Jerde, Eric A.; Mckay, David S.; Graf, John; Oder, Robin R.

    1993-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon will be the raw materials for fuels and construction needs at a lunar base. This includes sources of materials for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, and other potential construction materials. For most of the bulk material needs, the regolith, and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil, will suffice. But for specific mineral resources, it may be necessary to concentrate minerals from rocks or soils, and it is not always obvious which is the more appropriate feedstock. Besides an appreciation of site geology, the mineralogy and petrography of local rocks and soils is important for consideration of the resources which can provide feedstocks of ilmenite, glass, agglutinates, anorthite, etc. In such studies, it is very time-consuming and practically impossible to correlate particle counts (the traditional method of characterizing lunar soil petrography) with accurate modal analyses and with mineral associations in multi-mineralic grains. But x ray digital imaging, using x rays characteristic of each element, makes all this possible and much more (e.g., size and shape analysis). An application of beneficiation image analysis, in use in our lab (Oxford Instr. EDS and Cameca SX-50 EMP), was demonstrated to study mineral liberation from lunar rocks and soils. Results of x ray image analysis are presented.

  17. Evaluation of lunar rocks and soils for resource utilization: Detailed image analysis of raw materials and beneficiated products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Jerde, Eric A.; Mckay, David S.; Graf, John; Oder, Robin R.

    1993-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon will be the raw materials for fuels and construction needs at a lunar base. This includes sources of materials for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, and other potential construction materials. For most of the bulk material needs, the regolith, and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil, will suffice. But for specific mineral resources, it may be necessary to concentrate minerals from rocks or soils, and it is not always obvious which is the more appropriate feedstock. Besides an appreciation of site geology, the mineralogy and petrography of local rocks and soils is important for consideration of the resources which can provide feedstocks of ilmenite, glass, agglutinates, anorthite, etc. In such studies, it is very time-consuming and practically impossible to correlate particle counts (the traditional method of characterizing lunar soil petrography) with accurate modal analyses and with mineral associations in multi-mineralic grains. But x ray digital imaging, using x rays characteristic of each element, makes all this possible and much more (e.g., size and shape analysis). An application of beneficiation image analysis, in use in our lab (Oxford Instr. EDS and Cameca SX-50 EMP), was demonstrated to study mineral liberation from lunar rocks and soils. Results of x ray image analysis are presented.

  18. Lunar anorthosites.

    PubMed

    Wood, J A; Dickey, J S; Marvin, U B; Powell, B N

    1970-01-30

    Sixty-one of 1676 lunar rock fragments examined were found to be anorthosites, markedly different in composition, color, and specific gravity from mare basalts and soil breccias. Compositional similiarity to Tycho ejecta analyzed by Surveyor 7 suggests that the anorthosites are samples of highlands material, thrown to Tranquillity Base by cratering events. A lunar structural model is proposed in which a 25-kilometer anorthosite crust, produced by magmatic fractionation, floats on denser gabbro. Where early major impacts punched through the crust, basaltic lava welled up to equilibrium surface levels and solidified (maria). Mascons are discussed in this context.

  19. Innovative techniques for the production of energetic radicals for lunar materials processing including photogeneration via concentrated solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, D. E.; Lynch, D. C.; Fazzolari, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) is investigating the use of monatomic chlorine produced in a cold plasma to recover oxygen and metallurgically significant metals from lunar materials. Development of techniques for the production of the chlorine radical (and other energetic radicals for these processes) using local planetary resources is a key step for a successful approach. It was demonstrated terrestrially that the use of UV light to energize the photogeneration of OH radicals from ozone or hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solutions can lead to rapid reaction rates for the breakdown of toxic organic compounds in water. A key question is how to use the expanded solar resource at the lunar surface to generate process-useful radicals. This project is aimed at investigating that question.

  20. Compositional evidence regarding the influx of interplanetary materials onto the lunar surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wasson, J.T.; Boynton, W.V.; Chou, C.-L.; Baedecker, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    Siderophilic element/Ir ratios are higher in mature lunar soils from highlands sites than in those from mare sites. We infer that the population of materials responsible for the early intense bombardment of the Moon had high ratios, and that the population responsible for the essentially constant flux has low ratios. No group of chondrites has siderophile/Ir ratios identical to those in the mare or highlands soils; CM chondrites are the most similar, and CM-like materials may account for a major fraction of Earth-crossing materials during the past 3.7 b.y. Siderophile/Ir ratios may be used to determine the amount of highlands regolith in soils or breccias from the mare-highlands interface areas (Apollo 15 and 17), and to infer the time of formation of highlands breccias whose sideropbiles originated in mature soils. Arguments are summarized against the viewpoint that the siderophiles in most highlands breccias originated in basin-forming projectiles. Differences in mature soil siderophile concentrations at Apollo 14 and 16 indicate a substantially greater concentration at the latter site immediately following the Imbrium event. Siderophile concentrations are used to estimate mean regolith depths at the landing sites; as relative values these are more precise than estimates based on seismic or crater observations. The longlived flux is calculated to be 2.9 g cm-2 b.y.-1 averaged over the past 3.7 b.y. A consideration of the relationship between mass fluence and time indicates that the mass flux decreased with a half-life of about 40 m.y. immediately following the Imbrium event. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  1. Trapped solar wind noble gases, kr81/kr exposure ages and k/ar ages in apollo 11 lunar material.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, P; Geiss, J; Graf, H; Grögler, N; Krähenbühl, U; Schwaller, H; Schwarzmüller, J; Stettler, A

    1970-01-30

    Grain size and etching experiments show that the fine lunar material contains large amounts of trapped solar wind particles. Elemental and isotopic compositions of the noble gases in solar material and in the terrestrial atmosphere are significantly different, except for the Ar(36)/ Ar(38) and the Kr isotope ratios. Exposure ages of two rocks and of the fine material are between 380 and 510 x 10(6) years. Feldspar concentrates give K/Ar ages of 3220 and 3300 x 10(6) years, significantly higher than the unseparated rock.

  2. Workshop on Past and Present Solar Radiation: The Record in Meteoritic and Lunar Regolith Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O. (Compiler); Mckay, D. S. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The principal question addressed in the workshop was the extent to which asteroidal and lunar regoliths have collected and preserved, in meteoritic regolith breccias and in lunar soils and regolith breccias, a record of the flux, energy, and compositional history of the solar wind and solar flares. Six central discussion topics were identified. They are: (1)Trapped solar wind and flare gases, tracks, and micrometeorite pits in regolith components; (2)Comparison between lunar regolith breccias, meteoritic regolith breccias, and the lunar soil; (3)The special role of regolith breccias and the challenge of dating their times of compaction; (4)Implications of the data for the flux and compositional history of solar particle emission, composition, and physical mechanisms in the solar source regions, and the composition of the early nebula; (5)How and to what extent have records of incident radiation been altered in various types of grains; (6)Future research directions

  3. Lunar Beagle and Lunar Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Waugh, Lester J.

    2010-12-01

    The study of the elements and molecules of astrobiological interest on the Moon can be made with the Gas Analysis Package (GAP) and associated instruments developed for the Beagle 2 Mars Express Payload. The permanently shadowed polar regions of the Moon may offer a unique location for the "cold-trapping" of the light elements (i.e. H, C, N, O, etc.) and their simple compounds. Studies of the returned lunar samples have shown that lunar materials have undergone irradiation with the solar wind and adsorb volatiles from possible cometary and micrometeoroid impacts. The Beagle 2's analytical instrument package including the sample processing facility and the GAP mass spectrometer can provide vital isotopic information that can distinguish whether the lunar volatiles are indigenous to the moon, solar wind derived, cometary in origin or from meteoroids impacting on the Moon. As future Lunar Landers are being considered, the suite of instruments developed for the Mars Beagle 2 lander can be consider as the baseline for any lunar volatile or resource instrument package.

  4. Solar Wind Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials: Role and Some Possible Implications of Potential Sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Meyer, F.; Reinhold, c.

    2010-01-01

    Solar-wind induced sputtering of the lunar surface includes, in principle, both kinetic and potential sputtering. The role of the latter mechanism, however, in many focused studies has not been properly ascertained due partly to lack of data but can also be attributed to the assertion that the contribution of solar-wind heavy ions to the total sputtering is quite low due to their low number density compared to solar-wind protons. Limited laboratory measurements show marked enhancements in the sputter yields of slow-moving, highly-charged ions impacting oxides. Lunar surface sputtering yields are important as they affect, e.g., estimates of the compositional changes in the lunar surface, its erosion rate, as well as its contribution to the exosphere as well as estimates of hydrogen and water contents. Since the typical range of solar-wind ions at 1 keV/amu is comparable to the thickness of the amorphous rim found on lunar soil grains, i.e. few 10s nm, lunar simulant samples JSC-1A AGGL are specifically enhanced to have such rims in addition to the other known characteristics of the actual lunar soil particles. However, most, if not all laboratory studies of potential sputtering were carried out in single crystal targets, quite different from the rim s amorphous structure. The effect of this structural difference on the extent of potential sputtering has not, to our knowledge, been investigated to date.

  5. Experimental Demonstration of the Molten Oxide Electrolysis Method for Oxygen and Iron Production from Simulated Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Ethridge, E.; Hudson, S.; Sen, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Marshall Space Flight Center funded effort to conduct an experimental demonstration of the processing of simulated lunar resources by the molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) process to produce oxygen and metal from lunar resources to support human exploration of space. Oxygen extracted from lunar materials can be used for life support and propellant, and silicon and metallic elements produced can be used for in situ fabrication of thin-film solar cells for power production. The Moon is rich in mineral resources, but it is almost devoid of chemical reducing agents, therefore, molten oxide electrolysis, MOE, is chosen for extraction, since the electron is the most practical reducing agent. MOE was also chosen for following reasons. First, electrolytic processing offers uncommon versatility in its insensitivity to feedstock composition. Secondly, oxide melts boast the twin key attributes of highest solubilizing capacity for regolith and lowest volatility of any candidate electrolytes. The former is critical in ensuring high productivity since cell current is limited by reactant solubility, while the latter simplifies cell design by obviating the need for a gas-tight reactor to contain evaporation losses as would be the case with a gas or liquid phase fluoride reagent operating at such high temperatures. In the experiments reported here, melts containing iron oxide were electrolyzed in a low temperature supporting oxide electrolyte (developed by D. Sadoway, MIT).

  6. Lunar prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W.

    1989-02-01

    Missions to study the possible utilization of lunar resources are discussed. Plans for the Lunar Observer mission are described. Results are presented from a review of the feasibility of a low-cost lunar polar mission. Consideration is given to several proposals, including the Lunar Get Away Special, the Lunar Prospector, and the Japanese Muses-A mission.

  7. Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials from Simulated Composition of Lunar and Martian Soils: Selected Properties and Potential Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. S.; Sen, S.; Reis, S. T.; Kim, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In-situ resource processing and utilization on planetary bodies is an important and integral part of NASA's space exploration program. Within this scope and context, our general effort is primarily aimed at developing glass and glass-ceramic type materials using lunar and martian soils, and exploring various applications of these materials for planetary surface operations. Our preliminary work to date have demonstrated that glasses can be successfully prepared from melts of the simulated composition of both lunar and martian soils, and the melts have a viscosity-temperature window appropriate for drawing continuous glass fibers. The glasses are shown to have the potential for immobilizing certain types of nuclear wastes without deteriorating their chemical durability and thermal stability. This has a direct impact on successfully and economically disposing nuclear waste generated from a nuclear power plant on a planetary surface. In addition, these materials display characteristics that can be manipulated using appropriate processing protocols to develop glassy or glass-ceramic magnets. Also discussed in this presentation are other potential applications along with a few selected thermal, chemical, and structural properties as evaluated up to this time for these materials.

  8. Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials from Simulated Composition of Lunar and Martian Soils: Selected Properties and Potential Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. S.; Sen, S.; Reis, S. T.; Kim, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In-situ resource processing and utilization on planetary bodies is an important and integral part of NASA's space exploration program. Within this scope and context, our general effort is primarily aimed at developing glass and glass-ceramic type materials using lunar and martian soils, and exploring various applications of these materials for planetary surface operations. Our preliminary work to date have demonstrated that glasses can be successfully prepared from melts of the simulated composition of both lunar and martian soils, and the melts have a viscosity-temperature window appropriate for drawing continuous glass fibers. The glasses are shown to have the potential for immobilizing certain types of nuclear wastes without deteriorating their chemical durability and thermal stability. This has a direct impact on successfully and economically disposing nuclear waste generated from a nuclear power plant on a planetary surface. In addition, these materials display characteristics that can be manipulated using appropriate processing protocols to develop glassy or glass-ceramic magnets. Also discussed in this presentation are other potential applications along with a few selected thermal, chemical, and structural properties as evaluated up to this time for these materials.

  9. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry.

  10. Neutron activation study of the composition of lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkov, Y. A.; Kirnozov, F. F.; Ivanov, I. N.; Kilesov, G. M.; Ryvkin, B. N.; Shpanov, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    The elemental composition of samples of lunar regolith returned by Luna 16 from the Sea of Fertility was determined by a radio activation method using generator and reactor neutrons, and also by gamma spectrometry with scintillation and Ge(Li) detectors.

  11. Steps toward lunar settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The costs of transporting people and material to low-earth-orbit (LEO), and thence to the lunar surface, will constrain the pace and pattern of lunar development. Beginning as a spartan ''base camp'' completely supplied from Earth, a lunar science-and-resource-development facility could grow in size, amenities, and capability to the point that passenger transport becomes a major expense. At such a stage, some employees of the facility might be given the opportunity to become permanent residents; and at that point, lunar settlement will have begun. We assume growth rates of facilities and staff contained by the annual delivery of 900 tons to LEO. During the base camp era, about 100 tons would be delivered annually to the lunar surface. Within six years, the facility could grow to a collection of 25 modules, housing a staff of about 16 with each member of the staff serving a six-month tour on a staggered schedule. At the end of this first phase, oxygen produced from lunar ilmenite and delivered to lunar orbit for use as propellant would allow annual lunar-bound cargos of about 200 tons. Production from lunar materials of heat shields for aerobraking would enable economical delivery of lunar oxygen to LEO and, therefore, could raise lunar-bound cargoes to about 450 tons. Accumulatin of production capabilities would eventually allow use of lunar construction materials, to build farms and increase per capita living and working space. Once closed-loop environmental systems are in place, transport costs are dominated by staff rotation and the facility is limited to a maximum staff size of about 300. Further expansion requires that some staff become permanent residents.

  12. Lunar Roving Vehicle Parked Beside Boulder on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, a Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) is parked beside a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Litttrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center developed LRV. The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  13. Distribution of materials excavated by the lunar crater Bullialdus and implications for the geologic history of the Nubium region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Stefanie; Pieters, Carle M.; Mustard, John F.; Pinet, Patrick; Chevrel, Serge D.

    1994-08-01

    Previous spectroscopic studies of the lunar crater Bullialdus, located in the Nubium Basin, indicated an unusual stratigraphy of two gabbroic layers overlying a noritic unit. The possible existence of a layered mafic pluton at Bullialdus was suggested. To investigate the geologic context with more detailed spatial information, charge-coupled device (CCD) images of Bullialdus were obtained using eight filters. A linear mixing model was used to investigate the fractional abundances of spectral end-members chosen from within the multispectral image. Since the reflectance properties of lunar materials over this wavelength range are sensitive to variations in composition and soil maturity, fractional abundance images were used to create a new geologic map of the crater. The spatial relationships of the surface materials confirm the previously inferred stratigraphy, and further reveal the central peaks to exhibit two distinct compositional units: noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite. Three models for the origin of the observed stratigraphy are considered: Bullialdus has excavated stratigraphic units containing (1) early mare basalt overlying anorthositic-noritic crustal material, (2) part of a layered mafic pluton, and/or (3) part of an impact melt sheet formed by the Nubium Basin impact event.

  14. Distribution of materials excavated by the lunar crater Bullialdus and implications for the geologic history of the Nubium region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stefanie; Pieters, Carle M.; Mustard, John F.; Pinet, Patrick; Chevrel, Serge D.

    1994-01-01

    Previous spectroscopic studies of the lunar crater Bullialdus, located in the Nubium Basin, indicated an unusual stratigraphy of two gabbroic layers overlying a noritic unit. The possible existence of a layered mafic pluton at Bullialdus was suggested. To investigate the geologic context with more detailed spatial information, charge-coupled device (CCD) images of Bullialdus were obtained using eight filters. A linear mixing model was used to investigate the fractional abundances of spectral end-members chosen from within the multispectral image. Since the reflectance properties of lunar materials over this wavelength range are sensitive to variations in composition and soil maturity, fractional abundance images were used to create a new geologic map of the crater. The spatial relationships of the surface materials confirm the previously inferred stratigraphy, and further reveal the central peaks to exhibit two distinct compositional units: noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite. Three models for the origin of the observed stratigraphy are considered: Bullialdus has excavated stratigraphic units containing (1) early mare basalt overlying anorthositic-noritic crustal material, (2) part of a layered mafic pluton, and/or (3) part of an impact melt sheet formed by the Nubium Basin impact event.

  15. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  16. Lunar Soil Particle Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

  17. Heat-physical properties of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avduyevskiy, V. S.; Anfimov, N. A.; Marov, M. Y.; Treskin, Y. A.; Shalayev, S. P.; Ekonomov, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    Density, specific heat capacity, and coefficient of thermal conductivity were studied on a sample of lunar surface material returned by the Luna 16 automatic station. The study was carried out in a helium-filled chamber. The density of the surface material when freely heaped was 1.2 g/cu cm, and when shaken down -- 1.7 g/cu cm. The specific heat capacity was 0.177 + or - 0.010 cal x g/1 x deg/1. The coefficient of thermal conductivity in the material was 4.8 x 10/6 + or - 1.2 x 10/6 cal x cm/1 x sec/1 x deg/1.

  18. Assimilation by Lunar Mare Basalts: Melting of Crustal Material and Dissolution of Anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnila, A. B.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss techniques for calculating the amount of crustal assimilation possible in lunar magma chambers and dikes based on thermal energy balances, kinetic rates, and simple fluid mechanical constraints. Assuming parent magmas of picritic compositions, we demonstrate the limits on the capacity of such magmas to melt and dissolve wall rock of anorthitic, troctolitic, noritic, and KREEP (quartz monzodiorite) compositions. Significant melting of the plagioclase-rich crustal lithologies requires turbulent convection in the assimilating magma and an efficient method of mixing in the relatively buoyant and viscous new melt. Even when this occurs, the major element chemistry of the picritic magmas will change by less than 1-2 wt %. Diffusion coefficients measured for Al2O3 from an iron-free basalt and an orange glass composition are 10(exp -12) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1340 C and 10(exp -11) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1390 C. These rates are too slow to allow dissolution of plagioclase to significantly affect magma compositions. Picritic magmas can melt significant quantities of KREEP, which suggests that their trace element chemistry may still be affected by assimilation processes; however, mixing viscous melts of KREEP composition with the fluid picritic magmas could be prohibitively difficult. We conclude that only a small part of the total major element chemical variation in the mare basalt and volcanic glass collection is due to assimilation/fractional crystallization processes near the lunar surface. Instead, most of the chemical variation in the lunar basalts and volcanic glasses must result from assimilation at deeper levels or from having distinct source regions in a heterogeneous lunar mantle.

  19. Assimilation by lunar mare basalts: Melting of crustal material and dissolution of anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnila, A. B.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss techniques for calculating the amount of crustal assimilation possible in lunar magma chambers and dikes based on thermal energy balances, kinetic rates, and simple fluid mechanical constraints. Assuming parent magmas of picritic compositions, we demonstrate the limits on the capacity of such magmas to melt and dissolve wall rock of anorthitic, troctolitic, noritic, and KREEP (quartz monzodiorite) compositions. Significant melting of the plagioclase-rich crustal lithologies requires turbulent convection in the assimilating magma and an efficient method of mixing in the relatively buoyant and viscous new melt. Even when this occurs, the major element chemistry of the picritic magmas will change by less than 1-2 wt %. Diffusion coefficients measured for Al2O3 from an iron-free basalt and an orange glass composition are 10(exp -12) sq m/s at 1340 C and 10(exp -11) sq m/s at 1390 C. These rates are too slow to allow dissolution of plagioclase to significantly affect magma compositions. Picritic magmas can melt significant quantities of KREEP, which suggests that their trace element chemistry may still be affected by assimilation processes; however, mixing viscous melts of KREEP composition with the fluid picritic magmas could be prohibitively difficult. We conclude that only a small part of the total major element chemical variation in the mare basalt and volcanic glass collection is due to assimilation/fractional crystallization processes near the lunar surface. Instead, most of the chemical variation in the lunar basalts and volcanic glasses must result from assimilation at deeper levels or from having distinct source regions in a heterogeneous lunar mantle.

  20. Assimilation by Lunar Mare Basalts: Melting of Crustal Material and Dissolution of Anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnila, A. B.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss techniques for calculating the amount of crustal assimilation possible in lunar magma chambers and dikes based on thermal energy balances, kinetic rates, and simple fluid mechanical constraints. Assuming parent magmas of picritic compositions, we demonstrate the limits on the capacity of such magmas to melt and dissolve wall rock of anorthitic, troctolitic, noritic, and KREEP (quartz monzodiorite) compositions. Significant melting of the plagioclase-rich crustal lithologies requires turbulent convection in the assimilating magma and an efficient method of mixing in the relatively buoyant and viscous new melt. Even when this occurs, the major element chemistry of the picritic magmas will change by less than 1-2 wt %. Diffusion coefficients measured for Al2O3 from an iron-free basalt and an orange glass composition are 10(exp -12) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1340 C and 10(exp -11) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1390 C. These rates are too slow to allow dissolution of plagioclase to significantly affect magma compositions. Picritic magmas can melt significant quantities of KREEP, which suggests that their trace element chemistry may still be affected by assimilation processes; however, mixing viscous melts of KREEP composition with the fluid picritic magmas could be prohibitively difficult. We conclude that only a small part of the total major element chemical variation in the mare basalt and volcanic glass collection is due to assimilation/fractional crystallization processes near the lunar surface. Instead, most of the chemical variation in the lunar basalts and volcanic glasses must result from assimilation at deeper levels or from having distinct source regions in a heterogeneous lunar mantle.

  1. Assimilation by lunar mare basalts: Melting of crustal material and dissolution of anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnila, A. B.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss techniques for calculating the amount of crustal assimilation possible in lunar magma chambers and dikes based on thermal energy balances, kinetic rates, and simple fluid mechanical constraints. Assuming parent magmas of picritic compositions, we demonstrate the limits on the capacity of such magmas to melt and dissolve wall rock of anorthitic, troctolitic, noritic, and KREEP (quartz monzodiorite) compositions. Significant melting of the plagioclase-rich crustal lithologies requires turbulent convection in the assimilating magma and an efficient method of mixing in the relatively buoyant and viscous new melt. Even when this occurs, the major element chemistry of the picritic magmas will change by less than 1-2 wt %. Diffusion coefficients measured for Al2O3 from an iron-free basalt and an orange glass composition are 10(exp -12) sq m/s at 1340 C and 10(exp -11) sq m/s at 1390 C. These rates are too slow to allow dissolution of plagioclase to significantly affect magma compositions. Picritic magmas can melt significant quantities of KREEP, which suggests that their trace element chemistry may still be affected by assimilation processes; however, mixing viscous melts of KREEP composition with the fluid picritic magmas could be prohibitively difficult. We conclude that only a small part of the total major element chemical variation in the mare basalt and volcanic glass collection is due to assimilation/fractional crystallization processes near the lunar surface. Instead, most of the chemical variation in the lunar basalts and volcanic glasses must result from assimilation at deeper levels or from having distinct source regions in a heterogeneous lunar mantle.

  2. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  3. Elephant Moraine 87521 - The first lunar meteorite composed of predominantly mare material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of trace-element analyses and detailed petrography obtained for the Elephant Moraine 87521 meteorite (EET87521) found recently in Antarctica. Its high values found for the Fe/Mn ratio and the bulk-Co content indicate that the EET87521 is not, as was originally classified, a eucrite. Moreover, its low Ga/Al and Na/Ca ratios exclude the possibility that it is an SNC meteorite. These and other characteristics (e.g., a very low Ti content) of the EET87521 suggest its affinity with very-low-Ti high-alumina varieties of lunar mare basalt.

  4. Lunar Simulation in the Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar has been assembled at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide a high fidelity lunar simulation facility to test the interactions of lunar dust and lunar dust simulant with candidate aerospace materials and coatings. It has a sophisticated design which enables it to treat dust in a way that will remove adsorbed gases and create a chemically reactive surface. It can simulate the vacuum, thermal, and radiation environments of the Moon, including proximate areas of illuminated heat and extremely cold shadow. It is expected to be a valuable tool in the development of dust repellant and cleaning technologies for lunar surface systems.

  5. Planetary science and resource utilization at a lunar outpost - Chemical analytical facility requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    Unresolved issues of lunar geology are reviewed and the role of a lunar outpost in helping to address them is considered. Plans for in situ resource utilization of lunar materials are examined. Concepts for a lunar outpost are described.

  6. Lunar igneous intrusions.

    PubMed

    El-Baz, F

    1970-01-02

    Photographs taken from Apollo 10 and 11 reveal a number of probable igneous intrusions, including three probable dikes that crosscut the wall and floor of an unnamed 75-kilometer crater on the lunar farside. These intrusions are distinguished by their setting, textures, structures, and brightness relative to the surrounding materials. Recognition of these probable igneous intrusions in the lunar highlands slupports the indications of the heterogeneity of lunar materials and the plausibility of intrusive igneous activity, in addition to extrusive volcanism, on the moon.

  7. Quantitative micro-luminescence and related studies of fine and/or glassy lunar surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R.

    1972-01-01

    Papers on Raman and soft X-ray spectroscopy of lunar glasses and electron microscopy of lunar fines are presented. Individual particles of glasses from Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 samples were analyzed separately. Silicon emission shifts vary between parent rock types and can be interpreted as a range of Si-O distances from 1.612 to 1.637 A. Aluminum emission shifts relate to the amount of 4- and 6-coordinated Al in the glass. Raman spectra show broadened bands. Certain bands recur in many specimens and relate to the main normative minerals for the glass bulk composition, olivine, pyroxene, and anorthite. Quantitative size and shape analyses were carried out on six Apollo 14 and 15 samples of fines by computer evaluation of scanning electron microspace images. For the size range of 0.50 to 30 micron diameter, the distributions are log-normal on a number count basis. Aspect ratios range from 0.1 to 1.0 with an average value of about 0.6. The aspect ratios and a shape complexity factor vary only slightly among the samples.

  8. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  9. Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

  10. Transportation of detrital materials on the lunar surface - Evidence from Apollo 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The thickness frequency distribution of stratigraphic layers intersected by the Apollo 15 deep core suggests that the majority of impact events reworking the lunar soil are small and produce ejecta blankets with an average thickness of less than 1.5 cm. The energy frequency distribution of the meteorites producing the layers may be bimodal. The impacting meteorites produce both normal and reverse graded beds which appear to be the end products of two depositional mechanisms. First, the normally graded beds appear to be produced in base surges as escaping gases fluidize the flowing debris and larger particles move downward in response to Stokes Law. Second, if the gas loss from the base surge is excessive, the fluidization may cease and inertial grain flow dominates. In this situation, the beds are reverse graded as larger particles move under dispersive pressure to the region of minimum shear stress at the upper boundary of the base surge.

  11. Water, hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, carbon-13, and oxygen-18 content of selected lunar material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; O'Neil, J.R.; Adami, L.H.; Gleason, J.D.; Hardcastle, K.

    1970-01-01

    The water content of the breccia is 150 to 455 ppm, with a ??D from -580 to -870 per mil. Hydrogen gas content is 40 to 53 ppm with a ??D of -830 to -970 per mil. The CO2 is 290 to 418 ppm with S 13C = + 2.3 to + 5.1 per mil and ??18O = 14.2 to 19.1 per mil. Non-CO2 carbon is 22 to 100 ppm, ??18C = -6.4 to -23.2 per mil. Lunar dust is 810 ppm H2O (D = 80 ppm) and 188 ppm total carbon (??13C = -17.6 per mil). The 18O analyses of whole rocks range from 5.8 to 6.2 per mil. The temperature of crystallization of type B rocks is 1100?? to 1300??C, based on the oxygen isotope fractionation between coexisting plagioclase and ilmenite.

  12. Magnetic phases in lunar material and their electron magnetic resonance spectra - Apollo 14.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Electron magnetic resonance spectra of soil samples 14163,68, 14148,31, 14149,47, 14156,31, and 14003,60, and of fragmental rocks 14301,66, 14303,42, 14310,68, 14311,36, 14318,36, and 14321,166 have been recorded at 9 and 35 GHz at 300 K and at 9 GHz at 130 K. One spectral component, the characteristic ferromagnetic resonance, of all the soil samples is 50 to 1000 times more intense than any other component in the soils or in the spectra of the rocks. The intensity of this component in Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14 soils varies only within one order of magnitude. It varies with depth below lunar surface but is not correlated with depth. The intensity does not have any correlation with the fraction of glassy particles nor with the fraction of anorthositic particles.

  13. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of Luna 16 sample of lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkov, Y. A.; Fedoseyev, G. A.; Sobornov, O. P.; Nazarkina, G. B.; Bachina, L. P.

    1974-01-01

    Using a scintillation gamma spectrometer with shielding against anticoincidences, the content of the natural radioelements (K, U, and Th) and long-lived cosmogenic radioisotopes (Al-26, Na-22, and Mn-54) in a sample of Sea of Fertility regolith was determined. Based on the content data of natural radioelements, an attempt was made to classify this sample in the scale of petrochemical types of terrestrial rocks arranged in accordance with their silicic content and alkalinity. Within the frame of reference of calcium-uranium systematics of lunar samples, a comparison was made of the K/U ratio obtained for the Sea of Fertility sample with analogous data for other regions of the moon. Also discussed are problems on the depthwise distribution of cosmogenic radioisotopes along the regolith profile.

  14. A Closer Look at Solar Wind Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Meyer, F.; Mansur, L.; Reinhold, C.

    2008-01-01

    Solar-wind induced potential sputtering of the lunar surface may be a more efficient erosive mechanism than the "standard" kinetic (or physical) sputtering. This is partly based on new but limited laboratory measurements which show marked enhancements in the sputter yields of slow-moving, highly-charged ions impacting oxides. The enhancements seen in the laboratory can be orders of magnitude for some surfaces and highly charged incident ions, but seem to depend very sensitively on the properties of the impacted surface in addition to the fluence, energy and charge of the impacting ion. For oxides, potential sputtering yields are markedly enhanced and sputtered species, especially hydrogen and light ions, show marked dependence on both charge and dose.

  15. A Method to Perform Direct Oxygen Analysis on Lunar Simulants and Other Complex Oxide Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    An essential requirement for making space travel and long term missions more efficient and affordable to NASA includes finding innovative ways to supply oxygen for life support and propulsion. In this experiment, carrier gas hot extraction was investigated as a possible method for measuring the oxygen from samples of lunar soil simulants before and after oxygen extraction. The determination of oxygen using the R0600 Oxygen Determinator is usually limited to oxides with low oxygen concentrations, but after the manipulation of certain furnace operating parameters such as analysis time and ramp rate, the R0600 was used to determine the oxygen content of high concentration oxides such as Fe 2O3 , Al2O3 , and SiO2.

  16. Transportation of detrital materials on the lunar surface - Evidence from Apollo 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The thickness frequency distribution of stratigraphic layers intersected by the Apollo 15 deep core suggests that the majority of impact events reworking the lunar soil are small and produce ejecta blankets with an average thickness of less than 1.5 cm. The energy frequency distribution of the meteorites producing the layers may be bimodal. The impacting meteorites produce both normal and reverse graded beds which appear to be the end products of two depositional mechanisms. First, the normally graded beds appear to be produced in base surges as escaping gases fluidize the flowing debris and larger particles move downward in response to Stokes Law. Second, if the gas loss from the base surge is excessive, the fluidization may cease and inertial grain flow dominates. In this situation, the beds are reverse graded as larger particles move under dispersive pressure to the region of minimum shear stress at the upper boundary of the base surge.

  17. The Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    A thick layer of regolith, fragmental and unconsolidated rock material, covers the entire lunar surface. This layer is the result of the continuous impact of meteoroids large and small and the steady bombardment of charged particles from the sun and stars. The regolith is generally about 4-5 m thick in mare regions and 10-15 m in highland areas (McKay et al., 1991) and contains all sizes of material from large boulders to sub-micron dust particles. Below the regolith is a region of large blocks of material, large-scale ejecta and brecciated bedrock, often referred to as the "megaregolith". Lunar soil is a term often used interchangeably with regolith, however, soil is defined as the subcentimeter fraction of the regolith (in practice though, soil generally refers to the submillimeter fraction of the regolith). Lunar dust has been defined in many ways by different researchers, but generally refers to only the very finest fractions of the soil, less than approx.10 or 20 microns. Lunar soil can be a misleading term, as lunar "soil" bears little in common with terrestrial soils. Lunar soil contains no organic matter and is not formed through biologic or chemical means as terrestrial soils are, but strictly through mechanical comminution from meteoroids and interaction with the solar wind and other energetic particles. Lunar soils are also not exposed to the wind and water that shapes the Earth. As a consequence, in contrast to terrestrial soils, lunar soils are not sorted in any way, by size, shape, or chemistry. Finally, without wind and water to wear down the edges, lunar soil grains tend to be sharp with fresh fractured surfaces.

  18. Lunar science. [geophysics, mineralogy and evolution of moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brett, R.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the recent developments in lunar science summarizing the most important lunar findings and the known restraints on the theories of lunar evolution is presented. Lunar geophysics is discussed in sections dealing with the figure of the moon, mascons, and the lunar thermal regime; recent seismic studies and magnetic results are reported. The chemical data on materials taken from lunar orbit are analyzed, and the lunar geology is discussed. Special attention is accorded the subject of minerology, reflecting the information obtained from lunar samples of both mare and nonmare origin. A tentative timetable of lunar events is proposed, and the problem of the moon's origin is briefly treated.

  19. Lunar rated fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupton, Lindsey; Hyde, Steve; Mckillip, Dan; Player, Bryan; Smith, Greg

    1988-01-01

    A catalog of fasteners is presented for a variety of applications to be used in a lunar environment. The fastening applications targeted include: covers, panels, hatches, bearings, wheels, gears, pulleys, anchors for the lunar surface and structural fasteners (general duty preloadable). The robotic installation and removal of each fastener is presented along with a discussion of failure modes. Structural performance data is tabulated for various configurations. Potential materials for the space environment are presented along with recommendations of appropriate solid film lubricants. Three original fastener designs were found suitable for the lunar environment. A structural analysis is presented for each original design.

  20. Lunar outpost agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

  1. Lunar outpost agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

    The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

  2. Lunar outpost agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

  3. LUNAR SAMPLES - APOLLO 11 (MICE)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-08-05

    S69-40940 (August 1969) --- Landrum Young (seated), Brown and Root - Northrop, and Russell Stullken, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), examine mice in the Animal Laboratory which have been inoculated with lunar sample material. The sample material was collected by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during their lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) on July 20, 1969.

  4. The lunar interior.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    For materials thought to be important in the lunar interior, compressional velocities are estimated and compared with lunar seismic data. The results obtained support the conclusion that the moon is an extremely well differentiated body. This is consistent with thermal history calculations which suggest that the moon was close to or in excess of melting (solidus) temperatures throughout most of its volume early in its history.

  5. Water, hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, carbon-13, and oxygen-18 content of selected lunar material.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; O'neil, J R; Adami, L H; Gleason, J D; Hardcastle, K

    1970-01-30

    The water content of the breccia is 150 to 455 ppm, with a deltaD from-580 to -870 per mil. Hydrogen gas content is 40 to 53 ppm with a deltaD of -830 to -970 per mil. The CO(2) is 290 to 418 ppm with delta (13)C = + 2.3 to + 5.1 per mil and delta(18)O = 14.2 to 19.1 per mil. Non-CO(2) carbon is 22 to 100 ppm, delta(13)C = -6.4 to -23.2 per mil. Lunar dust is 810 ppm H(2)O (D = 80 ppm) and 188 ppm total carbon(delta(13)C = -17.6 per mil). The (18)O analyses of whole rocks range from 5.8 to 6.2 per mil. The temperature of crystallization of type B rocks is 1100 degrees to 1300 degrees C, based on the oxygen isotope fractionation between coexisting plagioclase and ilmenite.

  6. Lunar History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

  7. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Goodman, R. E.; Hurlbut, F. C.; Houston, W. N.; Willis, D. R.; Witherspoon, P. A.; Hovland, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of lunar soils and on developing probes to determine the properties of lunar surface materials is summarized. The areas of investigation include the following: soil simulation, soil property determination using an impact penetrometer, soil stabilization using urethane foam or phenolic resin, effects of rolling boulders down lunar slopes, design of borehole jack and its use in determining failure mechanisms and properties of rocks, and development of a permeability probe for measuring fluid flow through porous lunar surface materials.

  8. Lunar Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the programs and missions that are being planned to enhance our knowledge of the moon. (1) Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP): the goal of which is to undertake robotic lunar exploration missions that will return data to advance our knowledge of the lunar environment and allow United States (US) exploration architecture objectives to be accomplished earlier and with less cost through application of robotic systems. LPRP will also reduce risk to crew and maximize crew efficiency by accomplishing tasks through precursor robotic missions, and by providing assistance to human explorers on the Moon. The missions under this program ae: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Lunar Mapping Project. (2) The Altair Project, the goal of which is to land a crew of 4 to and from the surface of the moon. The vehicle, the 3 design reference missions (DRMs) and a Draft Lunar Landing schedule are briefly reviewed. (3) Lunar Science Program (LSP) which describes two different lunar missions: (1) Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and (2) International Lunar Network (ILN).

  9. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    construction elements using lunar regolith simulant and Mars regolith simulant, both with various binder materials. Future planned activities will be discussed as well.

  10. Lunar resources - Toward living off the lunar land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is presented of possibilities for the exploitation of lunar materials already proven to exist by Apollo experience. It is noted that lunar soils contain various materials required for life support, construction, and transportation, but that the high cost of lifting material from the earth's surface suggests that, in the near term, lunar material should be considered for use both on the moon and in LEO. Lunar water production, farming, propellant production, and the production of glass, iron, aluminum, and silicon to be used in lunar construction are discussed. The role of solar power and the possibility of electrolysis of molten silicate as a means of producing oxygen and metals for use on the moon and in near-earth space are examined. The benefits of immediate investment in developmental technology (given extensive project lead times) are stressed.

  11. Lunar Prospector: overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, A. B.

    1998-01-01

    Lunar Prospector is providing a global map of the composition of the moon and analyzing the moon's gravity and magnetic fields. It has been in a polar orbit around the moon since 16 January 1998. Neutron flux data show that there is abundant H, and hence probably abundant water ice, in the lunar polar regions. Gamma-ray and neutron data reveal the distribution of Fe, Ti, and other major and trace elements on the moon. The data delineate the global distributions of a key trace element-rich component of lunar materials called KREEP and of the major rock types. Magnetic mapping shows that the lunar magnetic fields are strong antipodal to Mare Imbrium and Mare Serenitatis and has discovered the smallest known magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and bow shock complex in the solar system. Gravity mapping has delineated seven new gravity anomalies and shown that the moon has a small Fe-rich core of about 300 km radius.

  12. Lunar Prospector: overview.

    PubMed

    Binder, A B

    1998-09-04

    Lunar Prospector is providing a global map of the composition of the moon and analyzing the moon's gravity and magnetic fields. It has been in a polar orbit around the moon since 16 January 1998. Neutron flux data show that there is abundant H, and hence probably abundant water ice, in the lunar polar regions. Gamma-ray and neutron data reveal the distribution of Fe, Ti, and other major and trace elements on the moon. The data delineate the global distributions of a key trace element-rich component of lunar materials called KREEP and of the major rock types. Magnetic mapping shows that the lunar magnetic fields are strong antipodal to Mare Imbrium and Mare Serenitatis and has discovered the smallest known magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and bow shock complex in the solar system. Gravity mapping has delineated seven new gravity anomalies and shown that the moon has a small Fe-rich core of about 300 km radius.

  13. Lunar Resources: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which are found to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industrial capability within the Earth-Moon system. In this way, gradually increasing access to lunar resources may help 'bootstrap' a space-based economy from which the world economy, and possibly also the world's environment, will ultimately benefit.

  14. On prediction and discovery of lunar ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.; Vaniman, David

    1991-01-01

    Sampling of lunar material and remote geochemical, mineralogical, and photogeologic sensing of the lunar surface, while meager, provide first-cut information about lunar composition and geochemical separation processes. Knowledge of elemental abundances in known lunar materials indicates which common lunar materials might serve as ores if there is economic demand and if economical extraction processes can be developed, remote sensing can be used to extend the understanding of the Moon's major geochemical separations and to locate potential ore bodies. Observed geochemical processes might lead to ores of less abundant elements under extreme local conditions.

  15. Lunar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research, concerning lunar surface processes and the nature, origin and derivation of the lunar surface cover, conducted during the period of February 1, 1971 through January 31, 1976 is presented. The principle research involved were: (1) electrostatic dust motion and transport process; (2) seismology properties of fine rock powders in lunar conditions; (3) surface processes that darken the lunar soil and affect the surface chemical properties of the soil grains; (4) laser simulation of micrometeorite impacts (estimation of the erosion rate caused by the microemeteorite flux); (5) the exposure history of the lunar regolith; and (6) destruction of amino acids by exposure to a simulation of the solar wind at the lunar surface. Research papers are presented which cover these general topics.

  16. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    needed for lunar operations (robotic and human), lunar mining, materials processing, manufacturing, transportation, life support and other.

  17. Apollo 17 View of Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This view of the Lunar surface was taken during the Apollo 17 mission. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972.

  18. Lunar horticulture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  19. Lunar horticulture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  20. Analytical and Radio-Histo-Chemical Experiments of Plants and Tissue Culture Cells Treated with Lunar and Terrestrial Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The nature and mechanisms of the apparent simulation of growth originally observed in plants growing in contact with lunar soil during the Apollo project quarantine are examined. Preliminary experiments employing neutron activated lunar soil indicate uptake of a few elements by plants. It was found that while the preliminary neutron activation technique allowed demonstration of uptake of minerals it presented numerous disadvantages for use in critical experiments directed at elucidating possible mechanisms of stimulation.

  1. A geotechnical characterization of lunar soils and lunar soil simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, John Carl

    Many of the essential materials needed for the construction of a lunar base can be produced from the resources found on the lunar surface. Processing natural resources on the moon into useful products will reduce the need, and the cost, to bring everything from earth. The lunar regolith has been intensely studied with respect to understanding the formation of the moon and the earth, but as a construction material, the regolith is poorly characterized and poorly understood. To better understand how to 'work' with the lunar regolith, four loosely related research projects were conducted. Two projects relate to characterizing and understanding the geotechnical properties of regolith, two projects relate to manipulating and processing granular materials in the lunar environment. The shapes of lunar soil grains are characterized using fractals - results directly and quantitatively describe the rugged reentrant nature of the large scale structure and the relatively smooth surface texture of lunar soil grains. The nature of lunar soil cohesion is considered using tensile strength measurements of lunar soil simulant. It is likely that mechanical interlocking of irregular grains is the primary cause of lunar soil cohesion. This mechanism is highly sensitive to grain shape, but relatively insensitive to particle packing density. A series of experiments are conducted to try to understand how granular particles might sort by size in a vacuum. Even in a vacuum, fine particle subjected to shear strain segregate by a mechanism called the random fluctuating sieve The random fluctuating sieve also controls particle motion that determines the structure of wind-blown sand ripples. Hybrid microwave heating was used to sinter large structural bricks from lunar soil stimulant. While heating was prone to thermal runaway, microwave heating holds great promise as a simple, direct method of making sintered structural bricks.

  2. Thermal property measurements on lunar material returned by Apollo 11 and 12 missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horai, K.-I.; Simmons, G.

    1972-01-01

    Measurement of thermal diffusivity on Apollo 11 type A and type C samples in the temperature range between 150 and 440 K under atmospheric pressure. Thermal diffusivity of type C material is lower and less temperature-dependent than type A material. Both types of samples exhibit lower thermal diffusivities than nonporous terrestrial basalt. The rate of heat generation of Apollo 11 and 12 samples was calculated from the concentrations of radioactive elements: potassium, thorium, and uranium. Apollo 11 crystalline rocks show an average rate of heat generation which is not significantly different from terrestrial basalt. The Th/U ratio does not differ greatly from chondritic and terrestrial averages.

  3. Rubidium-strontium, uranium, and thorium-lead dating of lunar material.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, K; Kaushal, S; Lee-Hu, C; Wetherill, G W

    1970-01-30

    Rubidiuom and stronztiulm concentrations and strontium isotopic compositions have been measutred on whole rock samples and density fractions of microgabbro. Density fractionis on two rocks define isochrons of 3400 and 4500 million years with large uincertainties owing to low enrichment of radiogenic strontium. Lead from fine surface material is highly radiogenic. An age of 4750 million years has been calculated from the ratio of (207)Pb/(206)Pb. The concentrations of uiranium, thorium, and lead isotopes are consistent with the evolution of lead in a 4700-million-year-old closed system characterized by the ratios of uranium to lead and of thoriunm to lead in this sutrface material.

  4. The Lunar Orbital Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Cantrell, James N.; Mccurdy, Greg

    1992-01-01

    The establishment of lunar bases will not end the need for remote sensing of the lunar surface by orbiting platforms. Human and robotic surface exploration will necessarily be limited to some proximate distance from the support base. Near real-time, high-resolution, global characterization of the lunar surface by orbiting sensing systems will continue to be essential to the understanding of the Moon's geophysical structure and the location of exploitable minerals and deposits of raw materials. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is an orbiting sensing platform capable of supporting a variety of modular sensing packages. Serviced by a lunar-based shuttle, the LOP will permit the exchange of instrument packages to meet evolving mission needs. The ability to recover, modify, and rotate sensing packages allows their reuse in varying combinations. Combining this flexibility with robust orbit modification capabilities and near real-time telemetry links provides considerable system responsiveness. Maintenance and modification of the LOP orbit are accomplished through use of an onboard propulsion system that burns lunar-supplied oxygen and aluminum. The relatively low performance of such a system is more than compensated for by the elimination of the need for Earth-supplied propellants. The LOP concept envisions a continuous expansion of capability through the incorporation of new instrument technologies and the addition of platforms.

  5. Lunar Polar Coring Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, David; Bealmear, David; Benarroche, Patrice; Henry, Alan; Hudson, Raymond; Rivellini, Tommaso; Tolmachoff, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Plans to build a lunar base are presently being studied with a number of considerations. One of the most important considerations is qualifying the presence of water on the Moon. The existence of water on the Moon implies that future lunar settlements may be able to use this resource to produce things such as drinking water and rocket fuel. Due to the very high cost of transporting these materials to the Moon, in situ production could save billions of dollars in operating costs of the lunar base. Scientists have suggested that the polar regions of the Moon may contain some amounts of water ice in the regolith. Six possible mission scenarios are suggested which would allow lunar polar soil samples to be collected for analysis. The options presented are: remote sensing satellite, two unmanned robotic lunar coring missions (one is a sample return and one is a data return only), two combined manned and robotic polar coring missions, and one fully manned core retrieval mission. One of the combined manned and robotic missions has been singled out for detailed analysis. This mission proposes sending at least three unmanned robotic landers to the lunar pole to take core samples as deep as 15 meters. Upon successful completion of the coring operations, a manned mission would be sent to retrieve the samples and perform extensive experiments of the polar region. Man's first step in returning to the Moon is recommended to investigate the issue of lunar polar water. The potential benefits of lunar water more than warrant sending either astronauts, robots or both to the Moon before any permanent facility is constructed.

  6. Lunar Flashlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Cohen, Barbara; Walden, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Flashlight is a Jet Propulsion Laboratory project, with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) serving as the principal investigator and providing the solar sail propulsion system. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence and abundance of exposed lunar water ice within permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) at the lunar south pole, and to map its concentration at the 1-2 kilometer scale to support future exploration and use. After being ejected in cis-lunar space by the launch vehicle, Lunar Flashlight deploys solar panels and an 85-square-meter solar sail and maneuvers into a low-energy transfer to lunar orbit. The solar sail and attitude control system work to bring the satellite into an elliptical polar orbit, spiraling down over a period of 18 months to a perilune of 30-10 kilometers above the south pole for data collection. Lunar Flashlight uses its solar sail to shine reflected sunlight onto the lunar surface, measuring surface reflectance with a four-filter point spectrometer. The spectrometer measures water ice absorption features (1.5, 1.95 microns) and the continuum between them (1.1, 1.9 microns). The ratios of water ice bands to the continuum will provide a measure of the abundance of surface frost and its variability across PSRs. Water ice abundance will be correlated with other data from previous missions, such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, to provide future human and robotic explorers with a map of potential resources. The mission is enabled by the use of an 85-square-meter solar sail being developed by MSFC.

  7. Evolution of the proto-lunar disk and the origin of the Moon's material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnoz, Sebastien; Michaut, Chloe

    2014-11-01

    The Earth’s Moon is thought to have accreted from an impact generated disk. Whereas many works have studied the impact itself, the evolution of the disk that gave birth to the Moon is largely unknown and in particular its dynamical evolution and coolingtimescale. These are important parameters as they control the onset of the gravitational instability that triggers satellite formation. In particular, the chemical and isotopical composition of the Earth’s moon is thought to be largely inherited from the protolunar disk (formed after an impact on the proto-earth). However, for the moon to form, the disk must cool down first. During this cooling phase, major dynamical, chemical and isotopical restructuration may happen in the disk, and thus, the material that will get ultimately incorporated in the protomoon may be largely different from the average composition of the Earth or its impactor.We have developed a viscous model of a two-phase protolunar disk, including phase transition, gravitational instability and Kelvin Helmoltz instability (KH) to investigate the evolution of this disk on several 10^4 years, from the impact up to its ultimate cooling and assembling into a protomoon. We show that the protolunar disk forms rapidly a dense and compact disk below 2 earth radii, with a high density. This high density promotes long cooling timescales, about 10^4 to 10^5 years. During this phase the material hasenough time to equilibrate isotopicaly. In addition if the disk is turbulent then the gas phase is very mobile an cand efficiently separate from the liquid phase and lead to an incomplete condensation of the disk material, which is a good candidate to explain the today moon devolatilisation with respect to Earth material. Extension of this work to the formation of Ice giant planet's satellites will be also presented.

  8. Glass and ceramics. [lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of glasses and ceramics can be produced from bulk lunar materials or from separated components. Glassy products include sintered regolith, quenched molten basalt, and transparent glass formed from fused plagioclase. No research has been carried out on lunar material or close simulants, so properties are not known in detail; however, common glass technologies such as molding and spinning seem feasible. Possible methods for producing glass and ceramic materials are discussed along with some potential uses of the resulting products.

  9. Lunar cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  10. Distribution and geologic history of materials excavated by the lunar crater Bullialdus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Stefanie; Pieters, Carle M.; Mustard, John F.

    1993-03-01

    The crater Bullialdus is a 61 km, Eratosthenian-age impact crater located on the western edge of Mare Nubium. Previous analysis of the spatial distribution of materials in the area using nine telescopic near-infrared spectra suggested a possible three-layer structure prior to the impact event: two shallow gabbroic layers and one deeper noritic layer (from a potential depth of 5.5 km). The initial interpretation of this stratigraphy was that Bullialdus may have tapped a layered mafic pluton, such as have been invoked to explain the existence of Mg-suite rocks. High-spatial resolution CCD images of Bullialdus were analyzed to better map the spatial distribution of the observed lithologies, and to assess the plausibility of the pluton interpretation.

  11. Distribution and geologic history of materials excavated by the lunar crater Bullialdus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stefanie; Pieters, Carle M.; Mustard, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The crater Bullialdus is a 61 km, Eratosthenian-age impact crater located on the western edge of Mare Nubium. Previous analysis of the spatial distribution of materials in the area using nine telescopic near-infrared spectra suggested a possible three-layer structure prior to the impact event: two shallow gabbroic layers and one deeper noritic layer (from a potential depth of 5.5 km). The initial interpretation of this stratigraphy was that Bullialdus may have tapped a layered mafic pluton, such as have been invoked to explain the existence of Mg-suite rocks. High-spatial resolution CCD images of Bullialdus were analyzed to better map the spatial distribution of the observed lithologies, and to assess the plausibility of the pluton interpretation.

  12. Constraining the Material that Formed the Moon: The Origin of Lunar V, CR, and MN Depletions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chabot, N. L.; Agee, C. B.

    2002-01-01

    The mantles of the Earth and Moon are similarly depleted in V, Cr, and Mn relative to chondritic values. Core formation deep within the Earth was suggested by as the origin of the depletions. Following Earth's core formation, the Moon was proposed to have inherited its mantle from the depleted mantle of the Earth by a giant impact event. This theory implied the Moon was primarily composed of material from the Earth's mantle. Recent systematic metal-silicate experiments of V, Cr, and Mn evaluated the behavior of these elements during different core formation scenarios. The study found that the V, Cr, and Mn depletions in the Earth could indeed be explained by core formation. The conditions of core formation necessary to deplete V, Cr, and Mn in the Earth's mantle were consistent with the deep magma ocean proposed to account for the Earth's mantle abundances of Ni and Co. Using the parameterizations of for the metal-silicate partition coefficients (D) of V, Cr, and Mn, we investigate here the conditions needed to match the depletions in the silicate Moon and determine if such conditions could have been present on the giant impactor.

  13. Mineralogical and chemical properties of the lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, David S.; Ming, Douglas W.

    1989-01-01

    The composition of lunar regolith and its attendant properties are discussed. Tables are provided listing lunar minerals, the abundance of plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, and ilmenite in lunar materials, typical compositions of common lunar minerals, and cumulative grain-size distribution for a large number of lunar soils. Also provided are charts on the chemistry of breccias, the chemistry of lunar glass, and the comparative chemistry of surface soils for the Apollo sites. Lunar agglutinates, constructional particles made of lithic, mineral, and glass fragments welded together by a glassy matrix containing extremely fine-grained metallic iron and formed by micrometeoric impacts at the lunar surface, are discussed. Crystalline, igneous rock fragments, breccias, and lunar glass are examined. Volatiles implanted in lunar materials and regolith maturity are also addressed.

  14. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  15. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  16. Dielectric comparison of lunar and terrestrial fines at lunar conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, R.

    1974-01-01

    The dielectric properties of lunar fines 74241,2 in the audio-frequency range under lunarlike conditions are presented. Results suggest that volatiles are released during storage and transport of the lunar sample. Apparently, subsequent adsorption of volatiles on the sample surface alters its dielectric response. The assumed volatile influence disappears after evacuation. A comparison of the dielectric properties of lunar and terrestrial materials as a function of density, temperature, and frequency indicates that if the terrestrial sample analyzed were completely devoid of atmospheric moisture, it would present dielectric losses smaller than those of the lunar sample. It is concluded that density prevails over temperature as the controlling factor of dielectric permittivity in the lunar regolith and that dielectric losses vary slowly with depth.

  17. Environmental control of lunar samples in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, M. A.; Turner, N. L.; Hurgeton, J. C.; Barbee, M. F.; Flory, D. A.; Simoneit, B. R.

    1973-01-01

    The contamination controls used in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory during the processing of lunar samples are described. Initially, the lunar sample containers were opened and the material was examined in a vacuum complex with approximated lunar surface conditions. The process of examining and distributing the samples from this vacuum complex was time consuming. During both Apollo 11 and 12 missions portions of the lunar samples were processed for allocation in a small sterile glove box in a dry nitrogena atmosphere. After Apollo 12 a new system was installed based upon the experience gained from the small glove box. The system uses dry nitrogen as an environmental blanket and has the capability of being sterilized and of maintaining this sterility.

  18. Lunar science - The Apollo legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The progress made in answering a list of fundamental lunar problems is considered, taking into account the nature of the differences in highlands and mare materials, the chemical composition of the moon, the density and internal structure of the moon, and the state of evolution of the moon. Attention is also given to a number of unanticipated results provided by lunar science. Findings concerning an ancient paleomagnetic field are discussed along with the characteristics of exotic components in the regolith, fundamental material differences observed in lunar surface layers, microcraters, and questions regarding an enhanced iron emission in solar flares.

  19. Lunar science - The Apollo legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The progress made in answering a list of fundamental lunar problems is considered, taking into account the nature of the differences in highlands and mare materials, the chemical composition of the moon, the density and internal structure of the moon, and the state of evolution of the moon. Attention is also given to a number of unanticipated results provided by lunar science. Findings concerning an ancient paleomagnetic field are discussed along with the characteristics of exotic components in the regolith, fundamental material differences observed in lunar surface layers, microcraters, and questions regarding an enhanced iron emission in solar flares.

  20. A Lunar Chronology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Oliver A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses methods used in determination of absolute isotopic ages for the returned lunar material, including the uranium-lead, rubidium-strontium, and argon 40-argon 39 ratio methods. Indicates that there would exist a basin-forming bombardment period for the Moon extending over at least 300 million years. (CC)

  1. A Lunar Chronology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Oliver A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses methods used in determination of absolute isotopic ages for the returned lunar material, including the uranium-lead, rubidium-strontium, and argon 40-argon 39 ratio methods. Indicates that there would exist a basin-forming bombardment period for the Moon extending over at least 300 million years. (CC)

  2. Conceptual design of a lunar colony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, C. (Editor); Hohmann, E. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    A systems engineering study is presented for a proposed lunar colony. The lunar colony was to grow from an existent, 12-man, earth-dependent lunar surface base and was to utilize lunar resources, becoming as earth-independent as possible. An in-depth treatment of some of the aspects of the lunar colony was given. We have found that the use of lunar resources is feasible for oxygen production (both for breathing and for space tug fuel), food production, and building materials. A program is outlined for recycling waste materials developed at the colony as well as a full program for growth and research activity of the colony to a level of 180 colonists. Recommendations for the lunar colony are given.

  3. Lunar Samples - Apollo 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-28

    S69-60354 (29 Nov. 1969) --- A scientist's gloved hand holds one of the numerous rock samples brought back to Earth from the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission. The rocks are under thorough examination in the Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). This sample is a highly shattered basaltic rock with a thin black-glass coating on five of its six sides. Glass fills fractures and cements the rock together. The rock appears to have been shattered and thrown out by a meteorite impact explosion and coated with molten rock material before the rock fell to the surface.

  4. Geopolymers from lunar and Martian soil simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexiadis, Alessio; Alberini, Federico; Meyer, Marit E.

    2017-01-01

    This work discusses the geopolymerization of lunar dust simulant JSC LUNAR-1A and Martian dust simulant JSC MARS-1A. The geopolymerization of JSC LUNAR-1A occurs easily and produces a hard, rock-like, material. The geopolymerization of JSC MARS-1A requires milling to reduce the particle size. Tests were carried out to measure, for both JSC LUNAR-1A and JSC MARS-1A geopolymers, the maximum compressive and flexural strengths. In the case of the lunar simulant, these are higher than those of conventional cements. In the case of the Martian simulant, they are close to those of common building bricks.

  5. Photovoltaic power for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Curtis, Henry B.; Brinker, David J.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    A lunar base is an attractive option for space exploration plans early in the next century. The primary options for a lunar base power system are solar and nuclear. This paper details the requirements for a photovoltaic powered lunar base. Topics covered are (1) requirements for power during the lunar day and during the night, (2) solar cells, present and future availability, efficiency, specific power, and temperature sensitivity, (3) storage options for the lunar night, (4) arrays and system integration, and (5) the potential for production of photovoltaic arrays and storage capability from locally available materials.

  6. Manufacturing High-Fidelity Lunar Agglutinate Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutafson, R. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Rickman, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The lunar regolith is very different from many naturally occurring material on Earth because it forms in the unique, impact-dominated environment of the lunar surface. Lunar regolith is composed of five basic particle types: mineral fragments, pristine crystalline rock fragments, breccia fragments, glasses of various kinds, and agglutinates (glass-bonded aggregates). Agglutinates are abundant in the lunar regolith, especially in mature regoliths where they can be the dominant component.This presentation will discuss the technical feasibility of manufacturing-simulated agglutinate particles that match many of the unique properties of lunar agglutinates.

  7. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  8. Lunar beneficiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    Natural concentrations of industrially valuable minerals are far less likely to be found on the Moon than on the Earth. But that is all the more reason for devising beneficiation processes to concentrate and extract the useful mineral components in lunar rocks and soils. As an example of a useful mineral that can be beneficiated, it has been estimated that ilmenite abundance accounts for 15 and 20 percent of the volume of the Apollo 11 and 17 basalts and 2 and 5 percent by volume in the Apollo 11 and 17 soils. Reduction of lunar ilmenite with hydrogen imported from Earth appears to one of the more practical schemes for obtaining lunar oxygen. While the reported concentrations are significant, a more highly concentrated ilmenite extract would improve the efficiency of the reduction process. The topics covered include electrostatic concentration, magnetic concentration, lunar soil sizing, and electrical sizing.

  9. Concepts and Benefits of Lunar Core Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Bogard, D. D.; Derkowski, B. J.; George, J. A.; Askew, R. S.; Lindsay, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding lunar material at depth is critical to nearly every aspect of NASA s Vision and Strategic Plan. As we consider sending human s back to the Moon for brief and extended periods, we will need to utilize lunar materials in construction, for resource extraction, and for radiation shielding and protection. In each case, we will be working with materials at some depth beneath the surface. Understanding the properties of that material is critical, thus the need for Lunar core drilling capability. Of course, the science benefit from returning core samples and operating down-hole autonomous experiments is a key element of Lunar missions as defined by NASA s Exploration Systems Architecture Study. Lunar missions will be targeted to answer specific questions concerning lunar science and re-sources.

  10. Lunar lander ground support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Lunar Lander Ground Support System (LLGSS) is examined. The basic design time line is around 2010 to 2030 and is referred to as a second generation system, as lunar bases and equipment would have been present. Present plans for lunar colonization call for a phased return of personnel and materials to the moons's surface. During settlement of lunar bases, the lunar lander is stationary in a very hostile environment and would have to be in a state of readiness for use in case of an emergency. Cargo and personnel would have to be removed from the lander and transported to a safe environment at the lunar base. An integrated system is required to perform these functions. These needs are addressed which center around the design of a lunar lander servicing system. The servicing system could perform several servicing functions to the lander in addition to cargo servicing. The following were considered: (1) reliquify hydrogen boiloff; (2) supply power; and (3) remove or add heat as necessary. The final design incorporates both original designs and existing vehicles and equipment on the surface of the moon at the time considered. The importance of commonality is foremost in the design of any lunar machinery.

  11. Lunar cartographic dossier, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimerman, L. A. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The dossier is designed to provide an up to date summary of the extent and quality of cartographic information as well as describing materials available to support lunar scientific investigation and study. It covers the specific photographic, selenodetic and cartographic data considered to be of continuing significance to users of lunar cartographic information. Historical background data is included. Descriptive and evaluative information is presented concerning lunar maps, photomaps and photo mosaics. Discussion comprises identification of series or individual sheet characteristics, control basis, source materials and compilation methodology used. The global, regional and local selenodetic control are described which were produced for lunar feature location in support of lunar mapping or positional study. Further discussion covers the fundamental basis for each control system, number of points produced, techniques employed and evaluated accuracy. Although lunar photography is an informational source rather than a cartographic product, a photography section was included to facilitate correlation to the mapping and control works described. Description of lunar photographic systems, photography and photo support data are presented from a cartographic-photogrammetric viewpoint with commentary on cartographic applications.

  12. Lunar transfer vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeley, Joseph T.

    1993-01-01

    Lunar transportation architectures exist for several different mission scenarios. Direct flights from Earth are possible, as the Apollo program clearly demonstrated. Alternatively, a space transfer vehicle could be constructed in space by using the Space Station as a base of operations, or multiple vehicles could be launched from Earth and dock in LEO without using a space station for support. Similarly, returning personnel could proceed directly to Earth or rendezvous at the Space Station for a ride back home on the Space Shuttle. Multiple design concepts exist which are compatible with these scenarios and which can support requirements of cargo, personnel, and mission objectives. Regardless of the ultimate mission selected, some technologies will certainly play a key role in the design and operation of advanced lunar transfer vehicles. Current technologies are capable of delivering astronauts to the lunar surface, but improvements are needed to affordably transfer the material and equipment that will be needed for establishing a lunar base. Materials and structures advances, in particular, will enable the development of more capable cryogenic fluid management and propulsion systems, improved structures, and more efficient vehicle assembly, servicing and processing.

  13. A Reexamination of Amino Acids in Lunar Soils: Implications for the Survival of Exogenous Organic Material During Impact Delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, Karen L. F.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    Using a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography technique, we have analyzed both the hot water extract and the acid hydrolyzed hot water extract of lunar soil collected during the Apollo 17 mission. Both free amino acids and those derived from acid labile precursors are present at a level of roughly 15 ppb. Based on the D/L amino acid ratios, the free alanine and aspartic acid observed in the hot water extract can be entirely attributed to terrestrial biogenic contamination. However, in the acid labile fraction, precursors which yield amino acids are apparently present in the lunar soil. The amino acid distribution suggests that the precursor is probably solar wind implanted HCN. We have evaluated our results with regard to the meteoritic input of intact organic compounds to the moon based on an upper limit of less than or equal to 0.3 ppb for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, a non-protein amino acid which does not generally occur in terrestrial organisms and which is not a major amino acid produced from HCN, but which is a predominant amino acid in many carbonaceous chondrites. We find that the survival of exogenous organic compounds during lunar impact is less than or equal to 0.8%. This result represents an example of minimum organic impact survivability. This is an important first step toward a better understanding of similar processes on Earth and on Mars, and their possible contribution to the budget of prebiotic organic compounds on the primitive Earth.

  14. A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soils: implications for the survival of exogenous organic material during impact delivery.

    PubMed

    Brinton, K L; Bada, J L

    1996-01-01

    Using a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography technique, we have analyzed both the hot water extract and the acid hydrolyzed hot water extract of lunar soil collected during the Apollo 17 mission. Both free amino acids and those derived from acid labile precursors are present at a level of roughly 15 ppb. Based on the D/L amino acid ratios, the free alanine and aspartic acid observed in the hot water extract can be entirely attributed to terrestrial biogenic contamination. However, in the acid labile fraction, precursors which yield amino acids are apparently present in the lunar soil. The amino acid distribution suggests that the precursor is probably solar wind implanted HCN. We have evaluated our results with regard to the meteoritic input of intact organic compounds to the moon based on an upper limit of < or = 0.3 ppb for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, a non-protein amino acid which does not generally occur in terrestrial organisms and which is not a major amino acid produced from HCN, but which is a predominant amino acid in many carbonaceous chondrites. We find that the survival of exogenous organic compounds during lunar impact is < or = 0.8%. This result represents an example of minimum organic impact survivability. This is an important first step toward a better understanding of similar processes on Earth and on Mars, and their possible contribution to the budget of prebiotic organic compounds on the primitive Earth.

  15. A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soils: Implications for the survival of exogenous organic material during impact delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinton, Karen L. F.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    Using a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography technique, we have analyzed both the hot water extract and the acid hydrolyzed hot water extract of lunar soil collected during the Apollo 17 mission. Both free amino acids and those derived from acid labile precursors are present at a level of roughly 15 ppb. Based on the D/L amino acid ratios, the free alanine and aspartic acid observed in the hot water extract can be entirely attributed to terrestrial biogenic contamination. However, in the acid labile fraction, precursors which yield amino acids are apparently present in the lunar soil. The amino acid distribution suggests that the precursor is probably solar wind implanted HCN. We have evaluated our results with regard to the meteoritic input of intact organic compounds to the moon based on an upper limit of ≤ 0.3 ppb for α-aminoisobutyric acid, a non-protein amino acid which does not generally occur in terrestrial organisms and which is not a major amino acid produced from HCN, but which is a predominant amino acid in many carbonaceous chondrites. We find that the survival of exogenous organic compounds during lunar impact is ≤ 0.8%. This result represents an example of minimum organic impact survivability. This is an important first step toward a better understanding of similar processes on Earth and on Mars, and their possible contribution to the budget of prebiotic organic compounds on the primitive Earth.

  16. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  17. Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples, some of which can be seen in this photograph. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  18. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The

  19. Two wheeled lunar dumptruck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brus, Michael R.; Haleblain, Ray; Hernandez, Tomas L.; Jensen, Paul E.; Kraynick, Ronald L.; Langley, Stan J.; Shuman, Alan G.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a two wheel bulk material transport vehicle is described in detail. The design consists of a modified cylindrical bowl, two independently controlled direct drive motors, and two deformable wheels. The bowl has a carrying capacity of 2.8 m (100 ft) and is constructed of aluminum. The low speed, high HP motors are directly connected to the wheels, thus yielding only two moving parts. The wheels, specifically designed for lunar applications, utilize the chevron tread pattern for optimum traction. The vehicle is maneuvered by varying the relative angular velocities of the wheels. The bulk material being transported is unloaded by utilizing the motors to oscillate the bowl back and forth to a height at which dumping is achieved. The analytical models were tested using a scaled prototype of the lunar transport vehicle. The experimental data correlated well with theoretical predictions. Thus, the design established provides a feasible alternative for the handling of bulk material on the moon.

  20. Design of equipment for lunar dust removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belden, Lacy; Cowan, Kevin; Kleespies, Hank; Ratliff, Ryan; Shah, Oniell; Shelburne, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    NASA has a long range goal of constructing a fully equipped, manned lunar base on the near side of the moon by the year 2015. During the Apollo Missions, lunar dust coated and fouled equipment surfaces and mechanisms exposed to the lunar environment. In addition, the atmosphere and internal surfaces of the lunar excursion module were contaminated by lunar dust which was brought in on articles passed through the airlock. Consequently, the need exists for device or appliance to remove lunar dust from surfaces of material objects used outside of the proposed lunar habitat. Additionally, several concepts were investigated for preventing the accumulation of lunar dust on mechanisms and finished surfaces. The character of the dust and the lunar environment present unique challenges for the removal of contamination from exposed surfaces. In addition to a study of lunar dust adhesion properties, the project examines the use of various energy domains for removing the dust from exposed surfaces. Also, prevention alternatives are examined for systems exposed to lunar dust. A concept utilizing a pressurized gas is presented for dust removal outside of an atmospherically controlled environment. The concept consists of a small astronaut/robotic compatible device which removes dust from contaminated surfaces by a small burst of gas.

  1. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  2. Lunar spectral types.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.; Charette, M. P.; Johnson, T. V.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Pieters, C.; Adams, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Results of observations of the spectral reflectance properties (0.3 to 1.1 micron) of a number of lunar mare, upland, and bright crater areas with the use of ground-based telescopes. These new data are discussed in view of earlier studies in an attempt to provide a basis for more detailed interpretation. The spectral reflectivity curves (0.3 to 1.1 micron) for all lunar areas studied consist of a positive sloping continuum with a superimposed symmetric absorption band centered at 0.95 micron. Upland, mare, and bright crater materials can be identified by their spectral curves. The curves for upland and mare regions show a range of shapes from fresh, bright craters to progressively darker background material that correlates with the apparent age of the surface features. The observed upland material has uniform spectral properties, but the mare material shows some variety, probably due to Ti(3+) dispersed in lunar-soil glass. Copernicus and Aristarchus appear to have exposed upland material from beneath the mare but Kepler has not. This observation suggests that the mare is no deeper than about 15 km in the Copernicus area and about 6 km deep in the Aristarchus area, but in the Kepler area the mare must be at least about 5 km deep.

  3. Lunar spectral types.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.; Charette, M. P.; Johnson, T. V.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Pieters, C.; Adams, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Results of observations of the spectral reflectance properties (0.3 to 1.1 micron) of a number of lunar mare, upland, and bright crater areas with the use of ground-based telescopes. These new data are discussed in view of earlier studies in an attempt to provide a basis for more detailed interpretation. The spectral reflectivity curves (0.3 to 1.1 micron) for all lunar areas studied consist of a positive sloping continuum with a superimposed symmetric absorption band centered at 0.95 micron. Upland, mare, and bright crater materials can be identified by their spectral curves. The curves for upland and mare regions show a range of shapes from fresh, bright craters to progressively darker background material that correlates with the apparent age of the surface features. The observed upland material has uniform spectral properties, but the mare material shows some variety, probably due to Ti(3+) dispersed in lunar-soil glass. Copernicus and Aristarchus appear to have exposed upland material from beneath the mare but Kepler has not. This observation suggests that the mare is no deeper than about 15 km in the Copernicus area and about 6 km deep in the Aristarchus area, but in the Kepler area the mare must be at least about 5 km deep.

  4. Infrared spectra of lunar soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronson, J. R.; Smith, E. M.; Vonthuna, P. C.

    1978-01-01

    Lunar sample measurements were made both under ambient nitrogen pressure and under vacuum conditions. Average emittance values were analyzed for a number of samples which were determined to include silicate minerals, pyroxenes, and fine particle feldspar. Information is also provided on modifications made to emittance apparatus in order to work with smaller sample sizes and to prevent accidental loss or contamination of the lunar sample material.

  5. Lunar soil properties and soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.

    1974-01-01

    The long-range objectives were to develop methods of experimentation and analysis for the determination of the physical properties and engineering behavior of lunar surface materials under in situ environmental conditions. Data for this purpose were obtained from on-site manned investigations, orbiting and softlanded spacecraft, and terrestrial simulation studies. Knowledge of lunar surface material properties are reported for the development of models for several types of lunar studies and for the investigation of lunar processes. The results have direct engineering application for manned missions to the moon.

  6. Lunar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-09

    In this lunar eclipse viewed from Merritt Island, Fla., the full moon takes on a dark red color because it is being lighted slightly by sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere. This light has the blue component preferentially scattered out (this is also why the sky appears blue from the surface of the Earth), leaving faint reddish light to illuminate the Moon. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon line up. They are rare because the Moon usually passes above or below the imaginary line connecting Earth and the Sun. The Earth casts a shadow that the Moon can pass through - when it does, it is called a lunar eclipse.

  7. Simulations of space radiation interactions with materials, with application to dose estimates for lunar shelter and aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tai T.

    This research performed simulations using the state-of-art three dimensional computer codes to investigate the interactions of space radiation with materials and quantify the biological dose onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in a lunar shelter for future manned missions. High-energy space radiation of Trapped Protons, Solar Particle Events, and GCRs particles interactions are simulated using MCNPX and PHITS probabilistic codes. The energy loss and energy deposition within the shielding materials and in a phantom are calculated. The contributions of secondary particles produced by spallation reactions are identified. Recent experimental measurements of absorbed dose in a phantom aboard the International Space Station (ISS) was simulated, and used to determine the most appropriate simulation methodology.

  8. Lunar Lab Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, technicians are transferring mice from a support germ free isolator, through a hypochlorite dunk tank, into the class III cabinetry in the Germ-free and Conventional Animal Laboratories of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, building 37, of the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas. This laboratory was part of the overall physical, chemical, and biological test program of the Apollo 11 returned lunar samples. Aboard the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Edwin Aldrin, Lunar Module (LM) pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. In 2 1/2 hours, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis.

  9. Lunar construction utility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

  10. Lunar Lab Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, a laboratory technician handles a portion of the more than 20 different plant lines that were used within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Building 37 of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. This laboratory was part of the overall physical, chemical, and biological test program of the Apollo 11 returned lunar samples. Aboard the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Edwin Aldrin, Lunar Module (LM) pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. In 2 1/2 hours, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis.

  11. Lunar Lab Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, a laboratory technician handles a portion of the more than 20 different plant lines that were used within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Building 37 of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. This laboratory was part of the overall physical, chemical, and biological test program of Apollo 11 returned lunar samples. Aboard the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Edwin Aldrin, Lunar Module (LM) pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. In 2 1/2 hours, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis.

  12. Lunar Lab Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, technicians are transferring mice from a support germ free isolator, through a hypochlorite dunk tank, into the class III cabinetry in the Germ-free and Conventional Animal Laboratories of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, building 37, of the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas. This laboratory was part of the overall physical, chemical, and biological test program of the Apollo 11 returned lunar samples. Aboard the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Edwin Aldrin, Lunar Module (LM) pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. In 2 1/2 hours, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis.

  13. Lunar Lab Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, laboratory technician Bart Ruark visually inspects a Japanese Qail confined within a class III cabinet in the Intervertebrae, Aves, and Fish Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Building 37 of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. This laboratory was part of the overall physical, chemical, and biological test program of the Apollo 11 returned lunar samples. Aboard the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Edwin Aldrin, Lunar Module (LM) pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. In 2 1/2 hours, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis.

  14. Lunar igneous rocks and the nature of the lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. F.; Walker, D.

    1974-01-01

    Lunar igneous rocks are interpreted, which can give useful information about mineral assemblages and mineral chemistry as a function of depth in the lunar interior. Terra rocks, though intensely brecciated, reveal, in their chemistry, evidence for a magmatic history. Partial melting of feldspathic lunar crustal material occurred in the interval 4.6 to 3.9 gy. Melting of ilmenite-bearing cumulates at depths near 100 km produced parent magmas for Apollo 11 and 17 titaniferous mare basalts in the interval 3.8 to 3.6 gy. Melting of ilmenite-free olivine pyroxenites at depths greater than 200 km produced low-titanium mare basalts in the interval 3.4 to 3.1 gy. No younger igneous rocks have yet been recognized among the lunar samples and present-day melting seems to be limited to depths greater than 1000 km.

  15. Lunar igneous rocks and the nature of the lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. F.; Walker, D.

    1977-01-01

    Lunar igneous rocks, properly interpreted, can give useful information about mineral assemblages and mineral chemistry as a function of depth in the lunar interior. Though intensely brecciated, terra rocks reveal, in their chemistry, evidence for a magmatic history. Partial melting of feldspathic lunar crustal material occurred in the interval 4.6 to 3.9 Gy. Melting of ilmenite-bearing cumulates at depths near 100 km produced parent magmas for Apollo 11 and 17 titaniferous mare basalts in the interval 3.8 to 3.6 Gy. Melting of ilmenite-free olivine pyroxenites (also cumulates?) at depths greater than 200 km produced low-titanium mare basalts in the interval 3.4 to 3.1 Gy. No younger igneous rocks have yet been recognized among the lunar samples and present-day melting seems to be limited to depths greater than 1000 km.

  16. Observations of Lunar Swirls by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glotch, T. D.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Bandfield, J. L.; Hayne, Paul O.; Allen, Carlton C.; Elphic, Richard C.; Paige, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of anomalous, high albedo markings on the lunar surface has been known since the Apollo era. These features, collectively known as lunar swirls, occur on both the mare and highlands. Some swirls are associated with the antipodes of major impact basins, while all are associated with magnetic field anomalies of varying strength. Three mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of the swirls: (1) solar wind standoff due to the presence of magnetic fields, (2) micrometeoroid or comet swarms impacting and disturbing the lunar surface, revealing unweathered regolith, and (3) transport and deposition of fine-grained feldspathic material. Diviner s unique capabilities to determine silicate composition and degree of space weathering of the lunar surface, in addition to its capabilities to determine thermophysical properties from night-time temperature measurements, make it an ideal instrument to examine the swirls and help differentiate among the three proposed formation mechanisms.

  17. Lunar Seismology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary V.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  18. Lunar oasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.; Niehoff, John

    1989-01-01

    The 'lunar oasis' emphasizes development toward self-sufficiency in order to reduce dependence on the earth for resupply, and to enable expansion utilizing indigeneous resources. The oasis phase includes: (1) habitation and work facilities for 10 people, (2) capability for extraction of volatile consumables (H2O, O2, N2, etc.) from indigenous resources for resupply of losses and filling of reservoirs, and (3) a highly closed life support system, including food production. In the consolidation phase, the base grows from 10 to 30 crewmembers. Lunar resources are used for expanding the lunar foothold, including construction of habitats, extraction of metals for the fabrication of products for maintenance and repair, and expansion of the power system. The strategy does not produce propellants for space transportation. A 10-year scenario is laid out, which contains all elements needed to allow the base to enter a self-expanding utilization phase. Three lunar missions yer year, two cargo missions and one crew flight, are required. At the end of a decade, the base is producing more than it requires for its continued support, although it is unlikely to be completely self-sufficient.

  19. Lunar Seismology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary V.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  20. Understanding the Reactivity of Lunar Dust for Future Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William; Taylor, L. A.; Jeevarajan, Antony

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, dust was found to cause numerous problems for various instruments and systems. Additionally, the dust may have caused momentary health issues for some of the astronauts. Therefore, the plan to resume robotic and manned missions to the Moon in the next decade has led to a renewed interest in the properties of lunar dust, ranging from geological to chemical to toxicological. An important property to understand is the reactivity of the dust particles. Due to the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon, there is nothing to protect the lunar soil from ultraviolet radiation, solar wind, and meteorite impacts. These processes could all serve to activate the soil, or produce reactive surface species. On the Moon, these species can be maintained for millennia without oxygen or water vapor present to satisfy the broken bonds. Unfortunately, the Apollo dust samples that were returned to Earth were inadvertently exposed to the atmosphere, causing them to lose their reactive characteristics. In order to aid in the preparation of mitigation techniques prior to returning to the Moon, we measured the ability of lunar dust, lunar dust simulant, and quartz samples to produce hydroxyl radicals in solution[1]. As a first approximation of meteorite impacts on the lunar surface, we ground samples using a mortar and pestle. Our initial studies showed that all three test materials (lunar dust (62241), lunar dust simulant (JSC-1Avf), and quartz) produced hydroxyl radicals after grinding and mixing with water. However, the radical production of the ground lunar dust was approximately 10-fold and 3-fold greater than quartz and JSC-1 Avf, respectively. These reactivity differences between the different samples did not correlate with differences in specific surface area. The increased reactivity produced for the quartz by grinding was attributed to the presence of silicon- or oxygen-based radicals on the surface, as had been seen previously[2]. These radicals may also

  1. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  2. Lunar hand tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, Karl F.; Coleman, Robert D.; Dubnik, Kathy; Marshall, William S.; Mcentee, Amy; Na, Sae H.; Patton, Scott G.; West, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    Tools useful for operations and maintenance tasks on the lunar surface were determined and designed. Primary constraints are the lunar environment, the astronaut's space suit and the strength limits of the astronaut on the moon. A multipurpose rotary motion tool and a collapsible tool carrier were designed. For the rotary tool, a brushless motor and controls were specified, a material for the housing was chosen, bearings and lubrication were recommended and a planetary reduction gear attachment was designed. The tool carrier was designed primarily for ease of access to the tools and fasteners. A material was selected and structural analysis was performed on the carrier. Recommendations were made about the limitations of human performance and about possible attachments to the torque driver.

  3. A lunar space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Lu; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  4. Lunar site characterization and mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar mining requirements do not appear to be excessively demanding in terms of volume of material processed. It seems clear, however, that the labor-intensive practices that characterize terrestrial mining will not suffice at the low-gravity, hard-vacuum, and inaccessible sites on the Moon. New research efforts are needed in three important areas: (1) to develop high-speed, high-resolution through-rock vision systems that will permit more detailed and efficient mine site investigation and characterization; (2) to investigate the impact of lunar conditions on our ability to convert conventional mining and exploration equipment to lunar prototypes; and (3) to develop telerobotic or fully robotic mining systems for operations on the Moon and other bodies in the inner solar system. Other aspects of lunar site characterization and mining are discussed.

  5. Lunar surface mining equipment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podnieks, Egons R.; Siekmeier, John A.

    Results of a NASA-sponsored assessment of the various proposed lunar surface mining equipment concepts submitted to NASA are presented. The proposed equipment was reviewed and evaluated with due consideration of equipment design criteria, basic mining principles, and the lunar environment. On the basis of this assessment, two pieces of mining equipment were conceptualized for surface mining operations: the ripper-excavator-loader, also capable of operating as a load-haul-dump vehicle, and the haulage vehicle, capable of transporting feedstock from the pit, liquid oxygen containers from the processing plant, and materials during construction. Reliable and durable lunar mining equipment is found to be best developed by the evolution of proven terrestrial technology adapted to the lunar environment.

  6. Analogue Materials Measured Under Simulated Lunar and Asteroid Environments: Application to Thermal Infrared Measurements of Airless Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Patterson, W., III; Moriarty, D.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote sensing study of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The near-surface vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon and asteroids creates a thermal gradient in the upper hundred microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2010, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Compared to ambient conditions, these effects include: (1) the Christiansen feature (CF), an emissivity maximum diagnostic of mineralogy and average composition, shifts to higher wavenumbers and (2) an increase in spectral contrast of the CF relative to the Reststrahlen bands (RB), the fundamental molecular vibration bands due to Si-O stretching and bending. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. The Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) is the newest addition to the RELAB at Brown University. The vacuum chamber simulates the space environment experienced by the near-surface soils of the Moon and asteroids. The internal rotation stage allows for six samples and two blackbodies to be measured without breaking vacuum (<10-4 mbar). Liquid nitrogen is used to cool the interior of the chamber, creating a cold, low emission environment (mimicking the space environment) for heated samples to radiate into. Sample cups can be heated in one of three configurations: (1) from below using heaters embedded in the base of the sample cup, (2) from above using a solar-like radiant heat source, and (3) from

  7. Lunar Samples - Apollo 17

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-27

    S72-56362 (27 Dec. 1972) --- Scientist-astronaut Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt (facing camera), Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, was one of the first to look at the sample of "orange" soil which was brought back from the Taurus-Littrow landing site by the Apollo 17 crewmen. Schmitt discovered the material at Shorty Crater during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA). The "orange" sample, which was opened Wednesday, Dec. 27, 1972, is in the bag on a weighing platform in the sealed nitrogen cabinet in the upstairs processing line in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. Just before, the sample was removed from one of the bolt-top cans visible to the left in the cabinet. The first reaction of Schmitt was "It doesn't look the same." Most of the geologists and staff viewing the sample agreed that it was more tan and brown than orange. Closer comparison with color charts showed that the sample had a definite orange cast, according the MSC geology branch Chief William Phinney. After closer investigation and sieving, it was discovered that the orange color was caused by very fine spheres and fragments of orange glass in the midst of darker colored, larger grain material. Earlier in the day the "orange" soil was taken from the Apollo Lunar Sample Return Container No. 2 and placed in the bolt-top can (as was all the material in the ALSRC "rock box").

  8. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  9. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  10. Production of Lunar Concrete Using Molten Sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1993-01-01

    The United States has made a commitment to go back to the moon to stay in the early part of the next century. In order to achieve this objective it became evident to NASA that a Lunar Outpost will be needed to house scientists and astronauts who will be living on the moon for extended periods of time. A study has been undertaken by the authors and supported by NASA to study the feasibility of using lunar regolith with different binders such as molten sulfur, epoxy or hydraulic cement as a construction material for different lunar structures. The basic premise of this study is that it will be more logical and cost effective to manufacture lunar construction materials utilizing indigenous resources rather than transporting needed materials from earth. Lunar concrete (made from Hydraulic Cement and lunar soil) has been studied and suggested as the construction material of choice for some of the lunar projects. Unfortunately, its hydration requires water which is going to be a precious commodity on the moon. Therefore this study explores the feasibility of using binders other than hydraulic cement such as sulfur or epoxy with lunar regolith as a construction material. This report describes findings of this study which deals specifically with using molten sulfur as a binder for Lunar concrete. It describes laboratory experiments in which the sulfur to lunar soil simulant ratios by weight were varied to study the minimum amount of sulfur required to produce a particular strength. The compressive and tensile strengths of these mixes were evaluated. Metal and fiber glass fibers were added to some of the mixes to study their effects on the compressive and tensile strengths. This report also describes experiments where the sulfur is melted and mixed with the lunar regolith in a specially designed vacuum chamber. The properties of the produced concrete were compared to those of concrete produced under normal pressure.

  11. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  12. Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  13. Apollo 17 Astronaut and United States Flag on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is an Apollo 17 Astronaut standing upon the lunar surface with the United States flag in the background. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE)and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  14. Lunar Surface Propagation Modeling and Effects on Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the lunar terrain effects on the signal propagation of the planned NASA lunar wireless communication and sensor systems. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate that the terrain geometry, antenna location, and lunar surface material are important factors determining the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless communication systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, operating frequency, and surface material. The analysis results from this paper are important for the lunar communication link margin analysis in determining the limits on the reliable communication range and radio frequency coverage performance at planned lunar base worksites. Key Words lunar, multipath, path loss, propagation, wireless.

  15. CIS-lunar space infrastructure lunar technologies: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, W.; Hoehn, A.; Johnson, S.; Moos, P.; Wiltberger, N.

    1989-01-01

    Technologies necessary for the creation of a cis-Lunar infrastructure, namely: (1) automation and robotics; (2) life support systems; (3) fluid management; (4) propulsion; and (5) rotating technologies, are explored. The technological focal point is on the development of automated and robotic systems for the implementation of a Lunar Oasis produced by Automation and Robotics (LOAR). Under direction from the NASA Office of Exploration, automation and robotics were extensively utilized as an initiating stage in the return to the Moon. A pair of autonomous rovers, modular in design and built from interchangeable and specialized components, is proposed. Utilizing a buddy system, these rovers will be able to support each other and to enhance their individual capabilities. One rover primarily explores and maps while the second rover tests the feasibility of various materials-processing techniques. The automated missions emphasize availability and potential uses of Lunar resources, and the deployment and operations of the LOAR program. An experimental bio-volume is put into place as the precursor to a Lunar environmentally controlled life support system. The bio-volume will determine the reproduction, growth and production characteristics of various life forms housed on the Lunar surface. Physicochemical regenerative technologies and stored resources will be used to buffer biological disturbances of the bio-volume environment. The in situ Lunar resources will be both tested and used within this bio-volume. Second phase development on the Lunar surface calls for manned operations. Repairs and re-configuration of the initial framework will ensue. An autonomously-initiated manned Lunar oasis can become an essential component of the United States space program.

  16. Lunar Missions and Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    There are two slide presentations contained in this document. The first reviews the lunar missions from Surveyor, Galileo, Clementine, the Lunar Prospector, to upcoming lunar missions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation & Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), ILN and a possible Robotic sample return mission. The information that the missions about the moon is reviewed. The second set of slides reviews the lunar meteorites, and the importance of lunar meteorites to adding to our understanding of the moon.

  17. Dissolution associated with simulated physical weathering of lunar breccia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, R. E.; Ming, D. W.; Galindo, C.; Golden, D. C.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    1997-03-01

    The present examination of a solution in contact with lunar breccia 79135 gives attention to the question as to whether lunar materials can provide a 'soil' for plant growth in lunar base environments. The results obtained show that the essential plant micronutrients Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn, can be freed from such soil via simulated mechanical weathering.

  18. Lunar exploration for resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    The strategy for developing resources on the Moon depends on the stage of space industrialization. A case is made for first developing the resources needed to provide simple materials required in large quantities for space operations. Propellants, shielding, and structural materials fall into this category. As the enterprise grows, it will be feasible to develop additional sources - those more difficult to obtain or required in smaller quantities. Thus, the first materials processing on the Moon will probably take the abundant lunar regolith, extract from it major mineral or glass species, and do relatively simple chemical processing. We need to conduct a lunar remote sensing mission to determine the global distribution of features, geophysical properties, and composition of the Moon, information which will serve as the basis for detailed models of and engineering decisions about a lunar mine.

  19. Meteoroid Risk Assessment of Lunar Habitat Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Steven W.; Stallworth, Roderick; Robinson, Jennifer; Stellingwerf, Robert; Engler, Erich

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary analyses have been performed of meteoroid impacts on lunar surface structures built with elements made from in situ materials. The SPHC hydrodynamic code was used to simulate impacts, and was validated against hypervelocity impact test results. Impact risk will affect necessary wall thicknesses, depth of burial, and placement of lunar base structures.

  20. Lunar fiberglass: Properties and process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Robert; Nichols, Todd

    1987-01-01

    A Clemson University ceramic engineering design for a lunar fiberglass plant is presented. The properties of glass fibers and metal-matrix composites are examined. Lunar geology is also discussed. A raw material and site are selected based on this information. A detailed plant design is presented, and summer experiments to be carried out at Johnson Space Center are reviewed.

  1. The lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change in composition to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Calcium and aluminum are probably important components of the upper mantle and are deficient in the lower mantle. Much of the moon may have accreted from material similar in composition to eucrites. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel, and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite. The thickness of the layer is of the order of 50 km. Cosmic abundances can be maintained if the lower mantle is ferromagnesium silicate with minimal amounts of calcium and aluminum. Achondrites such as eucrites and howardites have more of the required characteristics of the lunar interior than carbonaceous chondrites. A density inversion in the moon is a strong possibility.

  2. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  3. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  4. Proposal for a lunar tunnel-boring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Cooper, David W.; Davila, David, Jr.; Mahendra, Christopher S.; Tagaras, Michael A.

    1988-05-01

    A need exists for obtaining a safe and habitable lunar base that is free from the hazards of radiation, temperature gradient, and micrometeorites. A device for excavating lunar material and simultaneously generating living space in the subselenian environment was studied at the conceptual level. Preliminary examinations indicate that a device using a mechanical head to shear its way through the lunar material while creating a rigid ceramic-like lining meets design constraints using existing technology. The Lunar Tunneler is totally automated and guided by a laser communication system. There exists the potential for the excavated lunar material to be used in conjunction with a surface mining process for the purpose of the extraction of oxygen and other elements. Experiments into lunar material excavation and further research into the concept of a mechanical Lunar Tunneler are suggested.

  5. Proposal for a lunar tunnel-boring machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Cooper, David W.; Davila, David, Jr.; Mahendra, Christopher S.; Tagaras, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    A need exists for obtaining a safe and habitable lunar base that is free from the hazards of radiation, temperature gradient, and micrometeorites. A device for excavating lunar material and simultaneously generating living space in the subselenian environment was studied at the conceptual level. Preliminary examinations indicate that a device using a mechanical head to shear its way through the lunar material while creating a rigid ceramic-like lining meets design constraints using existing technology. The Lunar Tunneler is totally automated and guided by a laser communication system. There exists the potential for the excavated lunar material to be used in conjunction with a surface mining process for the purpose of the extraction of oxygen and other elements. Experiments into lunar material excavation and further research into the concept of a mechanical Lunar Tunneler are suggested.

  6. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D.; Hougen, D.; Shirley, D.

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore the Hadley Rille site; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by Apollo 15 thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of the parts of the Rille that were considered too dangerous to be explored by the Apollo 15 crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. When we asked what we could do to motivate students the way the authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon, we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon, as is going to the Moo n. The students seem to agree.

  7. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  8. Lunar Rb-Sr chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    It has been established with the aid of Rb-Sr studies that lunar chronology consists of five episodes, including the formation of the moon approximately 4.6 AE ago (1 AE = 1000 million years), a period of intense bombardment by planetary debris resulting in the formation of the major lunar basins, the end of this period at 3.9-4.0 AE ago, a period of mare flooding extending from 3.9 to 3.2 AE ago, and a relatively quiescent period from 3.2 AE ago to the present. In addition, Rb-Sr-studies have provided valuable constraints on the geochemical evolution of the moon through the determination of the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios which limit the Rb/Sr ratios of the source materials for lunar rocks. Attention is given to the characteristics of the Rb-Sr method, the analytical techniques, the ages of lunar mare basalts, the non-mare rocks, the studies conducted in connection with the various Apollo missions, the lunar cataclysm, lunar soils, and aspects of crustal contamination.

  9. Lunar hydrogen: A resource for future use at lunar bases and space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Bustin, Roberta; Mckay, David S.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogen abundances were determined for grain size separates of five lunar soils and one soil breccia. The hydrogen abundance studies have provided important baseline information for engineering models undergoing study at the present time. From the studies is appears that there is sufficient hydrogen present in selected lunar materials which could be recovered to support future space activities. It is well known that hydrogen can be extracted from lunar soils by heating between 400 and 800 C. Recovery of hydrogen for regolith materials would involve heating with solar mirrors and collecting the released hydrogen. Current baseline models for the lunar base are requiring the production of 1000 metric tons of oxygen per year. From this requirement it follows that around 117 metric tons per year of hydrogen would be required for the production of water. The ability to obtain hydrogen from the lunar regolith would assist in lowering the operating costs of any lunar base.

  10. Building lunar roads - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Bennett

    The problems involved in constructing lunar roads are explored. The main challenges are airlessness, low gravity, and solar effects, especially temperature extremes. Also involved are the expense of delivering equipment and material to the job site (especially for bridges and other structures), obtaining skilled labor, and providing maintenance. The lunar road will most likely be gravel, but with the size of the material closer to cobblestone to reduce scattering. They will probably be very winding, even on the flats, and feature numerous bridges and some cuts. This traffic will be mostly automatic or teleoperated cargo carriers with a handful of shirtsleeve-pressurized 'passenger cars' large enough to live in for several days.

  11. Lunar Regolith Simulant User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, C. M.; Rickman, D. L.; McLemore, C. A.; Fikes, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Based on primary characteristics, currently or recently available lunar regolith simulants are discussed from the perspective of potential experimental uses. The characteristics used are inherent properties of the material rather than their responses to behavioral (geomechanical, physiochemical, etc.) tests. We define these inherent or primary properties to be particle composition, particle size distribution, particle shape distribution, and bulk density. Comparable information about lunar materials is also provided. It is strongly emphasized that anyone considering either choosing or using a simulant should contact one of the members of the simulant program listed at the end of this document.

  12. Various problems in lunar habitat construction scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Keiji; Ohtsubo, Koji; Oguchi, Mitsuo; Ohya, Haruhiko; Kanbe, Seiichiro; Ashida, Akira; Sano, Kenichi

    1991-10-01

    Many papers describing the lunar base construction have been published previously. Lunar base has been considered to be a useful facility to conduct future scientific programs and to get new nuclear energy resource, namely 3He, for defending the environmental collapse on Earth and also to develop lunar resources such as oxygen and nitrogen for extending human activities in space more economically. The scale of the lunar base and the construction methods adopted are determined by the scenario of a lunar utilization program but constrained by the availability of the established space transportation technologies. As indicated in the scenarios described in papers regarding lunar base construction, the first steps of lunar missions are the investigation of lunar itself for conducting scientific research and for surveying the lunar base construction sites, the second steps are the outpost construction for conducting man-tended missions, for more precise scientific research and studying the lunar base construction methods, and third steps are the construction of a permanent base and the expansion of this lunar base for exploiting lunar resources. The missions within the first and second steps are all possible using the ferry (OTV) similar to the service and command modules of Apollo Spacecraft because all necessary weights to be landed on the lunar surface for these missions seem to be under the equivalent weight of the Apollo Lunar Lander. On the other hand, the permanent facilities constructed on the lunar surface in the third step requires larger quantities of construction materials to be transported from Earth, and a new ferry (advanced OTV) having higher transportation ability, at least above 6 times, compared with Apollo Service and Command Modules, are to be developed. The largest problems in the permament lunar base construction are related to the food production facilities, 30-40 m 2 plant cultivation area per person are required for providing the nutrition

  13. Bullialdus - Strengthening the case for lunar plutons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-11-01

    Although many craters expose materials of a composition different from that of the local surroundings, Bullialdus has excavated material representing three distinct stratigraphic zones that occur in the upper 6 km of crust, the top two of which are gabbroic and the deepest of which is noritic. This three-component stratigraphy at Bullialdus provides strong evidence that the lunar crust includes pockets of compositionally layered material reminiscent of mafic layered plutons. When combined with previous information on the compositional diversity at other large craters, these remote analyses obtained in a geologic context substantially strengthen the hypothesis suggested from lunar samples that plutons play an integral role in lunar crustal evolution.

  14. On The Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Fiske, Michael; Edmunson, Jennifer; Khoshnevis, Behrokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in-situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in-situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. This is important because gamma and particle radiation constitute a serious but reducible threat to long-term survival of human beings, electronics, and other materials in space environments. Also, it is anticipated that surface structures will constitute the primary mass element of lunar or Martian launch requirements. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for self-sufficiency necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the joint MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in situ resources. One such technology, known as Contour Crafting (additive construction), is shown in Figure 1, along with a typical structure fabricated using this technology. This paper will present the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer

  15. A study of lunar models based on Apollo and other data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research concerned with the interpretation of lunar data developed during the Apollo Program is reported. The areas of research include: X-ray emission spectra and molecular orbitals of lunar materials, magnetic properties of lunar rock, lunar features, thermal history and evolution of the moon, and the internal constitution and evolution of the moon.

  16. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation, Monitoring, Solution and Cellular Toxicity Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William; Jeevarajan, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, many undesirable situations were encountered that must be mitigated prior to returning humans to the moon. Lunar dust (that part of the lunar regolith less than 20 microns in diameter) was found to produce several problems with mechanical equipment and could have conceivably produced harmful physiological effects for the astronauts. For instance, the abrasive nature of the dust was found to cause malfunctions of various joints and seals of the spacecraft and suits. Additionally, though efforts were made to exclude lunar dust from the cabin of the lunar module, a significant amount of material nonetheless found its way inside. With the loss of gravity correlated with ascent from the lunar surface, much of the finer fraction of this dust began to float and was inhaled by the astronauts. The short visits tothe Moon during Apollo lessened exposure to the dust, but the plan for future lunar stays of up to six months demands that methods be developed to minimize the risk of dust inhalation. The guidelines for what constitutes "safe" exposure will guide the development of engineering controls aimed at preventing the presence of dust in the lunar habitat. This work has shown the effects of grinding on the activation level of lunar dust, the changes in dissolution properties of lunar simulant, and the production of cytokines by cellular systems. Grinding of lunar dust leads to the production of radicals in solution and increased dissolution of lunar simulant in buffers of different pH. Additionally, ground lunar simulant has been shown to promote the production of IL-6 and IL-8, pro-inflammatory cytokines, by alveolar epithelial cells. These results provide evidence of the need for further studies on these materials prior to returning to the lunar surface.

  17. In Situ Resources for Lunar Base Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaroya, Haym

    1998-01-01

    Lunar resources have been cited in two ways within the context of lunar (and Mars) development. The first is that lunar resources are an economic incentive for lunar development. In other words, there are bountiful natural resources on the Moon that could economically justify a return to the Moon. The other context is that lunar resources could be very useful in creating and maintaining a lunar settlement. There is abundant O; about 45% of the weight of lunar rocks and soils is chemically bound 0. These materials also contain considerable Si, Fe, Ca, Al, Mg, and Ti, which can be extracted as a byproduct of O extraction. In addition, He, H, N, and C can be found in the lunar regolith. All this suggests that many important components can be extracted, resulting in O and H-based rocket fuels that could be used both for Earth-Moon operations and for ships going to Mars. Various metallic ores also suggest other uses. The potentially brightest spot of lunar resources is He-3, a light isotope of He and a potential fuel for nuclear fusion reactors. Unfortunately, these reactors have not been engineered yet. A guess of when they may be on line is in three decades, but that was before Congress cut off funds for the Princeton Tokamak research facility.

  18. Life support systems for lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamponnet, C.

    Future Lunar missions envision three successive scenarios: (i) robotic preparatory missions, (ii) Lunar outpost (man-tended), and (iii) a permanently inhabited Lunar base. As soon as man appears as a key element (i.e. the second and third scenario), development and building of adequate Life Support Systems (LSS) become mandatory. Life Support covers basically all the techniques that enable the crew of the Lunar outpost or base to survive in this hostile environment. The internal structures of these LSS are highly dependent upon the type of missions. Indeed, there are three non-exclusive ways to ensure the autonomy of man on the Moon: (i) provide all the required consumables (oxygen, water, food) at the start of the mission or replenish them during the mission, (ii) regenerate these consumables from waste during the mission, or (iii) use Lunar resources. Man-tended Lunar missions will require Shuttle-like or International Space Station-like types of LSS although continuosly inhabited Lunar bases will require an autonomous (i.e. totally regenerative) type of LSS. Therefore, first manned Lunar missions will use non-regenerative LSS. These LSS will progressively evolve towards a total regeneration of materials using in a first step purely physico-chemical technologies, then using more and more biologically-based technologies and relying more and more on Lunar resources. Moreover, first Lunar outposts and Lunar bases will serve as testbed for the development of the LSS of respectively the future Lunar bases and the future Mars (or other planetary) bases.

  19. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  20. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuck, David L.

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  1. Characterization of Lunar Farside Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S.C.; Garry, W. B.; Ostrach, L. R.; Han, S.-C.; Staid, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    The Moon contains broad and isolated areas of plains that have been recognized as mare, cryptomare, impact ejecta, or impact melt. These deposits have been extensively studied on the lunar nearside by remote sensing via telescopes and numerous spacecraft, and in some cases, in situ robotically and by astronauts. Only recently have the deposits on the entire farside been able to be observed and evaluated to the same degree. There are spatially extensive plains deposits located throughout the lunar farside highlands whose formation has remained ambiguous. Many of the plains deposits in the lunar farside highlands display higher albedos than mare materials. Some deposits are located in close proximity to relatively younger impact craters suggesting that plains could be composed of cryptomare or ejecta materials. Some deposits are within the range in which ejecta from large basin-forming events (e.g., SPA and Orientale) likely distributed large amounts of ejecta across the surface. Here we are conducting a series of observations and models in order to resolve the nature and origin of lunar farside plains deposits. Understanding these plains is important for understanding the volcanic and impact histories of the lunar farside, and is important for future mapping and thermal modeling studies.

  2. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  3. Lunar surface vehicle model competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During Fall and Winter quarters, Georgia Tech's School of Mechanical Engineering students designed machines and devices related to Lunar Base construction tasks. These include joint projects with Textile Engineering students. Topics studied included lunar environment simulator via drop tower technology, lunar rated fasteners, lunar habitat shelter, design of a lunar surface trenching machine, lunar support system, lunar worksite illumination (daytime), lunar regolith bagging system, sunlight diffusing tent for lunar worksite, service apparatus for lunar launch vehicles, lunar communication/power cables and teleoperated deployment machine, lunar regolith bag collection and emplacement device, soil stabilization mat for lunar launch/landing site, lunar rated fastening systems for robotic implementation, lunar surface cable/conduit and automated deployment system, lunar regolith bagging system, and lunar rated fasteners and fastening systems. A special topics team of five Spring quarter students designed and constructed a remotely controlled crane implement for the SKITTER model.

  4. Lunar regolith densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Hon-Yim; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    Core tube samples of the lunar regolith obtained during the Apollo missions showed a rapid increase in the density of the regolith with depth. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the possible cause of this phenomenon, including the densification of the loose regolith material by repeated shaking from the seismic tremors which have been found to occur at regular monthly intervals when the moon and earth are closest to one another. A test bed was designed to study regolith densification. This test bed uses Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS) to conduct shaking experiments in the geotechnical centrifuge with an inflight shake table system. By reproducing realistic in-situ regolith properties, the experiment also serves to test penetrator concepts. The shake table system was designed and used for simulation experiments to study effects of earthquakes on terrestrial soil structures. It is mounted on a 15 g-ton geotechnical centrifuge in which the self-weight induced stresses are replicated by testing an n-th scale model in a gravity field which is n times larger than Earth's gravity. A similar concept applies when dealing with lunar prototypes, where the gravity ratio required for proper simulation of lunar gravity effects is that between the centrifugal acceleration and the lunar gravity. Records of lunar seismic tremors, or moonquakes, were obtained. While these records are being prepared for use as the input data to drive the shake table system, records from the El Centro earthquake of 1940 are being used to perform preliminary tests, using a soil container which was previously used for earthquake studies. This container has a laminar construction, with the layers free to slide on each other, so that the soil motion during the simulated earthquake will not be constrained by the otherwise rigid boundaries. The soil model is prepared by pluviating the MLS from a hopper into the laminar container to a depth of 6 in. The container is mounted on the shake table and the

  5. Tribocharging Lunar Soil for Electrostatic Beneficiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Future human lunar habitation requires using in situ materials for both structural components and oxygen production. Lunar bases must be constructed from thermal-and radiation-shielding materials that will provide significant protection from the harmful cosmic energy which normally bombards the lunar surface. In addition, shipping oxygen from Earth is weight-prohibitive, and therefore investigating the production of breathable oxygen from oxidized mineral components is a major ongoing NASA research initiative. Lunar regolith may meet the needs for both structural protection and oxygen production. Already a number of oxygen production technologies are being tested, and full-scale bricks made of lunar simulant have been sintered. The beneficiation, or separation, of lunar minerals into a refined industrial feedstock could make production processes more efficient, requiring less energy to operate and maintain and producing higher-performance end products. The method of electrostatic beneficiation used in this research charges mineral powders (lunar simulant) by contact with materials of a different composition. The simulant acquires either a positive or negative charge depending upon its composition relative to the charging material.

  6. Astronaut Charles Conrad uses lunar equipment conveyer at Lunar Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander, uses the lunar equipment conveyer (LEC) at the Lunar Module during the Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot.

  7. Lunar and Planetary Bases, Habitats, and Colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes the design and construction of lunar and Mars bases, habitats, and settlements; construction materials and equipment; life support systems; base operations and logistics; thermal management and power systems; and robotic systems.

  8. Adsorption of Hg on lunar samples

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Understanding the presence, migration mechanisms and trapping of indigneous gases and volatiles on the moon is the objective of this study. The rare gases Ar and Xe and highly volatile Hg/sup 0/ and Br/sup 0/ (and/or their compounds) have been determined to be present in the lunar regolith. Evidence for these elements in the moon was recently reviewed. Studies of the sorption behavior of Xe on lunar material have been carried out. We report here preliminary results of a study designed to rationalize the behavior of Hg in lunar material.

  9. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  10. Micropaleontological studies of lunar samples.

    PubMed

    Schopf, J W

    1970-01-30

    Optical and electron microscopic studies of rock chips and dust from the bulk sample box returned by Apollo 11 and of petrographic thin sections and acid-resistant residues of lunar material have yielded no evidence of indigenous biological activity. vestigations.

  11. Lunar Paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M.; Weiss, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    We have completed a reanalysis of the old Apollo paleomagnetic data using modern techniques of analysis and presentation. The principal result from the mare basalts is that several samples, such as 10020, 10017, 10049, and 70215 appear to be carrying primary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) acquired on the Moon as they cooled initially on the lunar surface, but in almost every case alternating field (AF) demagnetization was not carried out to strong enough fields to isolate this primary magnetization properly. When modern measurements are available, the agreement between old Apollo era data and new data is strikingly good. It also appears that the fields recorded by the basalts of Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 are stronger than those recorded by Apollo 12 and Apollo 15 basalts. Indeed it is not clear that any reliable records have come from these younger samples. The histories of breccias are more complicated than those of mare basalts and their NRM is harder to interpret. For regolith breccias, interpretations are complicated because of their strong superparamagnetic components and their complex, polymict lithologies. It would be unwise to use these samples for paleointensity estimates unless one can be sure that the NRM was entirely acquired as TRM during cooling after the shock event, as may be the case for 15498. In contrast, the melt rock and melt breccias, which include samples formed at high temperatures far above the Curie point of any magnetic carriers, have an excellent chance of recording lunar fields faithfully as they cool. This cooling may have taken place in a melt pool in a simple crater, or in a melt layer in a complex crater. Such samples would then have been excavated and deposited in the regolith and some appear to have recorded strong fields, but more work needs to be done to test this suggestion. Other melt rocks and melt breccias have had more complicated histories and appear to have been deposited in ejecta blankets, where final cooling took

  12. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  13. Lunar production of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Perino, Maria Antonietta

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of manufacturing of solar cells on the moon for spacecraft applications is examined. Because of the much lower escape velocity, there is a great advantage in lunar manufacture of solar cells compared to Earth manufacture. Silicon is abundant on the moon, and new refining methods allow it to be reduced and purified without extensive reliance on materials unavailable on the moon. Silicon and amorphous silicon solar cells could be manufactured on the moon for use in space. Concepts for the production of a baseline amorphous silicon cell are discussed, and specific power levels are calculated for cells designed for both lunar and Earth manufacture.

  14. Lunar surface fission power supplies: Radiation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Lee, S.K.

    1994-07-01

    A lunar space fission power supply shield that uses a combination of lunar regolith and materials brought from earth may be optimal for early lunar outposts and bases. This type of shield can be designed such that the fission power supply does not have to be moved from its landing configuration, minimizing handling and required equipment on the lunar surface. Mechanisms for removing heat from the lunar regolith are built into the shield, and can be tested on earth. Regolith activation is greatly reduced compared with a shield that uses only regolith, and it is possible to keep the thermal conditions of the fission power supply close to these seen in free space. For a well designed shield, the additional mass required to be brought fro earth should be less than 1000 kg. Detailed radiation transport calculations confirm the feasibility of such a shield.

  15. Conceptual second-generation lunar equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The spring 1990 Introduction to Design class was asked to conceptually design second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment as a semester design project. The basic assumption made in designing second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment was that a network of permanent lunar bases already existed. The designs were to facilitate the transportation of personnel and materials. The eight topics to choose from included flying vehicles, ground-based vehicles, robotic arms, and life support systems. Two teams of two or three members competed on each topic and results were exhibited at a formal presentation. A clean-propellant powered lunar flying transport vehicle, an extra-vehicular activity life support system, a pressurized lunar rover for greater distances, and a robotic arm design project are discussed.

  16. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  17. Lunar Base Life Support Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of the lunar outpost habitat life support was undertaken to investigate the impact of life support failures and to investigate responses. Some preparatory static analysis for the Lunar Outpost life support model, an earlier version of the model, and an investigation into the impact of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) were reported previously. (Jones, 2008-01-2184, 2008-01-2017) The earlier model was modified to include possible resupply delays, power failures, recycling system failures, and atmosphere and other material storage failures. Most failures impact the lunar outpost water balance and can be mitigated by reducing water usage. Food solids, nitrogen can be obtained only by resupply from Earth. The most time urgent failure is a lass of carbon dioxide removal capability. Life support failures might be survivable if effective operational solutions are provided in the system design.

  18. Electrolysis of simulated lunar melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. H.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Electrolysis of molten lunar soil or rock is examined as an attractive means of wresting useful raw materials from lunar rocks. It requires only hat to melt the soil or rock and electricity to electrolyze it, and both can be developed from solar power. The conductivities of the simple silicate diopside, Mg CaSi2O6 were measured. Iron oxide was added to determine the effect on conductivity. The iron brought about substantial electronic conduction. The conductivities of simulated lunar lavas were measured. The simulated basalt had an AC conductivity nearly a fctor of two higher than that of diopside, reflecting the basalt's slightly higher total concentration of the 2+ ions Ca, Mg, and Fe that are the dominant charge carriers. Electrolysis was shown to be about 30% efficient for the basalt composition.

  19. Feasibility Study on Lunar and Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hidehiko; Takazawa, Yoshisada; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kawazoe, Takeshi; Takano, Yutaka; Namura, Eijiro

    1996-10-01

    This technical memorandum summarizes the results of an in-house study on lunar and Mars drone explorations - observation, landing and mobile explorations and sample returns for lunar and Mars respectively. So far, lunar and planet explorations have been primarily performed by the United States and the Soviet Union. ISAS and ESA have also contributed to some extent. The main purpose has been scientific exploration. There are some arguments that lunar and planet explorations should be performed for scientific purposes and the exploitation of them is not necessary. However, most scientific research involve the existence and survival of humankind, so it is not the fact that they cannot be organized from the side of exploitation. Especially, if NASDA makes approaches to lunar and Mars exploration, it should inevitably embrace exploitation plans. In this preface we provide the outline of lunar and Mars exploitation scenarios set up as a premise of the review on lunar and Mars unmanned exploration plans. Various reviews have been performed on whether the Moon or Mars would allow for human activities or survival. Among them, He mill, the solar powered satellite material mill and construction project of relay station to Mars as well as Mars teraforming plan have important issues. These projects have not yet become feasible because their expected investments are too large to make them practical. However, the present time seems the most appropriate to get with lunar and Mars exploitation projects under international cooperation since the realization of a space station is imminent and the international cooperation is being created with the participation of Russia. The international space station project will be continued until the year 2015. The post project has not yet been decided. Therefore, we expect that Japan would propose two successive projects, one is to construct an orbital service station combining manned abilities of the station and orbital service system and the

  20. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  1. Design of a lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaravelu, A.; Goddard, H.; Gold, R.; Greenwell, S.; Lander, J.; Nordell, B.; Stepp, K.; Styer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a good transportation infrastructure is a major requirement for the establishment of a permanent lunar base. Transportation is characterized by the technology available in a specific time frame and the need to transport personnel and cargo between Earth and Moon, and between lunar bases. In our study, attention was first focused on developing a transportation system for the first generation lunar base. As a first step, a tracked-type multipurpose lunar transportation vehicle was considered as a possible mode of transportation and a detailed study was conducted on the various aspects of the vehicle. Since the vehicle is composed of many moving parts, exposing it to the environment of the Moon, where fine dust particles are prevalent, can cause problems associated with lubrication and friction. The vehicle also posed problems concerning weight and power. Hence, several modifications were made to the above design ideas conceptually, and a Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS) is proposed as a more effective alternative with the following objectives: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from Earth or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light-weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetic levitation using superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e., high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, lower gravity, etc. To achieve the above objectives of designing transportation systems from concept to operation, the project was planned in three phases: (1) conceptual design; (2) detailed analysis and synthesis; and (3) construction, testing, evaluation, and operation. In this project, both phases 1 and 2 have been carried out and work on phase 3 is in progress. In this paper, the details of the Lunar ARTS are discussed and the future work on the vehicle are

  2. Design of a lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaravelu, A.; Goddard, H.; Gold, R.; Greenwell, S.; Lander, J.; Nordell, B.; Stepp, K.; Styer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a good transportation infrastructure is a major requirement for the establishment of a permanent lunar base. Transportation is characterized by the technology available in a specific time frame and the need to transport personnel and cargo between Earth and Moon, and between lunar bases. In our study, attention was first focused on developing a transportation system for the first generation lunar base. As a first step, a tracked-type multipurpose lunar transportation vehicle was considered as a possible mode of transportation and a detailed study was conducted on the various aspects of the vehicle. Since the vehicle is composed of many moving parts, exposing it to the environment of the Moon, where fine dust particles are prevalent, can cause problems associated with lubrication and friction. The vehicle also posed problems concerning weight and power. Hence, several modifications were made to the above design ideas conceptually, and a Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS) is proposed as a more effective alternative with the following objectives: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from Earth or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light-weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetic levitation using superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e., high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, lower gravity, etc. To achieve the above objectives of designing transportation systems from concept to operation, the project was planned in three phases: (1) conceptual design; (2) detailed analysis and synthesis; and (3) construction, testing, evaluation, and operation. In this project, both phases 1 and 2 have been carried out and work on phase 3 is in progress. In this paper, the details of the Lunar ARTS are discussed and the future work on the vehicle are

  3. On the Flow and Fluidization of Granular Materials: Applications to Large Lunar Craters, Cliff Collapses and Asteroid Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holsapple, K. A.

    2011-03-01

    About flows of granular materials and assumptions about fluidization mechanisms to explain large flat craters and landslide run outs. No such mechanisms are needed, the reasons and examples are given.

  4. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  5. Cold press sintering of simulated lunar basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to predict the conditions for which the lunar regolith may be adequately sintered, experiments were conducted in which samples of simulated lunar basalt (MLS-1) were pressed at high pressures and then heated in an electric furnace. This sintering process may be referred to as cold press sintering since the material is pressed at room temperature. Although test articles were produced which possessed compressive strengths comparable to that of terrestrial concrete, the cold press sintering process requires very high press pressures and sintering temperatures in order to achieve that strength. Additionally, the prospect of poor internal heat transfer adversely affecting the quality of sintered lunar material is a major concern. Therefore, it is concluded that cold press sintering will most likely be undesirable for the production of lunar construction materials.

  6. Research for Lunar Exploration: ADVANCE Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work that the author has been involved with in her undergraduate and graduate education and the ADVANCE Program. One project was the Lunar Entry and Approach Platform For Research On Ground (LEAPFROG). This vehicle was to be a completely autonomous vehicle, and was developed in successive academic years with increases in the perofmamnce and capability of the simulated lander. Another research project for the PhD was on long-term lunar radiation degradation of materials to be used for construction of lunar habitats. This research has concentrated on developing and testing light-weight composite materials with high strength characteristics, and the ability of these composite materials to withstand the lunar radiation environment.

  7. Research for Lunar Exploration: ADVANCE Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work that the author has been involved with in her undergraduate and graduate education and the ADVANCE Program. One project was the Lunar Entry and Approach Platform For Research On Ground (LEAPFROG). This vehicle was to be a completely autonomous vehicle, and was developed in successive academic years with increases in the perofmamnce and capability of the simulated lander. Another research project for the PhD was on long-term lunar radiation degradation of materials to be used for construction of lunar habitats. This research has concentrated on developing and testing light-weight composite materials with high strength characteristics, and the ability of these composite materials to withstand the lunar radiation environment.

  8. Microbiological and experimental-histological investigations of lunar samples returned by the Lunar 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaulen, D. R.; Bulatova, T. I.; Fridenshteyn, A. Y.; Skvortsova, Y. B.

    1974-01-01

    Lunar surface material was studied for its content of viable microorganisms (aerobic and anaerobic, fungi, and viruses); the effect of the lunar surface material on the growth of microorganisms and its interaction with somatic cells of mammals was also observed. No viable microorganisms were detected; the samples exhibited neither stimulant or inhibitory action on the growth of microorganisms, and also showed no cytopathogenic action on tissue cultures. A suspension of lunar surface material particles was not toxic when parenterally administered to certain laboratory animals. The particles were subjected to intense phagocytosis by connective tissue cells in vivo and in vitro.

  9. Genesis lunar outpost: An evolutionary lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Gary T. (Compiler); Baschiera, Dino; Fieber, Joe; Moths, Janis

    1990-01-01

    Students at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Department of Agriculture undertook a series of studies of lunar habitats during the 1989 to 1990 academic year. Undergraduate students from architecture and mechanical and structural engineering with backgrounds in interior design, biology and construction technology were involved in a seminar in the fall semester followed by a design studio in the spring. The studies resulted in three design alternatives for lunar habitation and an integrated design for an early stage lunar outpost.

  10. Process to create simulated lunar agglutinate particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Robert J. (Inventor); Gustafson, Marty A. (Inventor); White, Brant C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of creating simulated agglutinate particles by applying a heat source sufficient to partially melt a raw material is provided. The raw material is preferably any lunar soil simulant, crushed mineral, mixture of crushed minerals, or similar material, and the heat source creates localized heating of the raw material.

  11. Origin of lunar light plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, E. C. T.; Hodges, C. A.; Boyce, J. M.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    In order to determine the origin of Cayley-type lunar light plains, their physical properties, distribution, and relative ages are examined from Apollo orbital and Lunar Orbiter photographs. The distribution and apparent age of the plains deposits and data on highly feldspathic breccias indicate that these superficial materials are neither locally derived nor part of the Imbrium ejecta. The existence of a planar facies of continuous ejecta at Orientale and in the ejecta blankets of small craters is demonstrated. The data and interpretation presented support the hypothesis that the surface and near-surface materials of some light plains, including those at the Apollo 16 site, are at least partly composed of ejecta from the Orientale basin and that the materials of many rugged areas, such as the Descartes highlands, are overlain by similar material. The possibility that some Cayley-type plains may have a different origin is not excluded.

  12. Lunar Crustal History Recorded in Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, D.; Park, J.; Bogard. D.; Garrison, D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of 3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. We have dated lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater by the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr techniques. We also have dated an anorthositic white clast (WC) in lunar meteorite Dhofar 908 by the Ar-39-Ar-40 technique and measured whole rock (WR) Sm-Nd data for a companion sample. We discuss the significance of the ages determined for these and other anorthosites for the early magmatic and bombardment history of the moon.

  13. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James; Captain, Janine; Arens, Ellen; Quinn, Jacqueline; Calle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic beneficiation of lunar regolith is a method allowing refinement of specific minerals in the material for processing on the moon. The use of tribocharging the regolith prior to separation was investigated on the lunar simulant MLS-I by passing the dust through static mixers constructed from different materials; aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The amount of charge acquired by the simulant was dependent upon the difference in the work function of the dust and the charging material. XPS and SEM were used to characterize the simulant after it was sieved into five size fractions (> 100 pm, 75-100 pm, 50- 75 pm, 50-25 pm, and < 25 pm), where very little difference in surface composition was observed between the sizes. Samples of the smallest (< 25 pm) and largest (> 100 pm) size fractions were beneficiated through a charge separator using the aluminum (charged the simulant negatively) and PTFE (charged positively) mixers. The mass fractions of the separated simulant revealed that for the larger particle size, significant unipolar charging was observed for both mixers, whereas for the smaller particle sizes, more bipolar charging was observed, probably due to the finer simulant adhering to the inside of the mixers shielding the dust from the charging material. Subsequent XPS analysis of the beneficiated fractions showed the larger particle size fraction having some species differentiation, but very little difference for the smaller.size. Although MLS-1 was made to have similar chemistry to actual lunar dust, its mineralogy is quite different. On-going experiments are using NASA JSC-1 lunar simulant. A vacuum chamber has been constructed, and future experiments are planned in a simulated lunar environment.

  14. [Effect of lunar dust on humans: -lunar dust: regolith-].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Miki, Takeo; Higashi, Toshiaki; Horie, Seichi; Tanaka, Kazunari; Mukai, Chiaki

    2010-09-01

    We reviewed the effect of lunar dust (regolith) on humans by the combination of the hazard/exposure of regolith and microgravity of the moon. With regard to the physicochemical properties of lunar dust, the hazard-related factors are its components, fibrous materials and nanoparticles. Animal exposure studies have been performed using a simulant of lunar dust, and it was speculated that the harmful effects of the simulant lies between those of crystalline silica and titanium dioxide. Fibrous materials may not have a low solubility judging from their components. The nanoparticles in lunar dust may have harmful potentials from the view of the components. As for exposure to regolith, there is a possibility that particles larger than ones in earth (1 gravity) are respirable. In microgravity, 1) the deposition of particles of less than 1 µm in diameter in the human lung did not decrease, 2) the functions of macrophages including phagocytosis were suppressed, 3) pulmonary inflammation was changed. These data on hazard/exposure and microgravity suggest that fine and ultrafine particles in regolith may have potential hazards and risks for humans.

  15. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  16. Mapping Lunar Highlands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-05

    This graphic depicting the bulk density of the lunar highlands on the near and far sides of the moon was generated using gravity data from NASA GRAIL mission and topography data from NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  17. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  18. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  19. LOLA: Defining Lunar Terrain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument on board NASA's LRO spacecraft builds the highest detail topography currently available of the lunar terrain. In this video David Smith, LOLA's P...

  20. Electrified Lunar Polar Craters?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    New research from NASA's Lunar Science Institute indicates that the solar wind may be charging certain regions at the lunar poles to hundreds of volts. In this short video Dr. Bill Farrell discusse...

  1. Topographic analysis of lunar secondary craters of Copernicus and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Aggarwal, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of the topography of lunar secondary craters and the associated herringbone pattern observed on lunar topophotomaps. The topography and the patterns are compared with those of crater pairs produced in the laboratory. The results are used to identify secondaries on the lunar uplands. The chain of craters that was selected for mapping and which is described is known to be a secondary impact crater chain produced by material ejected from Copernicus Crater because it lies on a well-developed ray system of Copernicus. Oberbeck et al. (1977) had hypothesized that most lunar areas exhibit more craters smaller than 50 km than are observed on Mars and Mercury because lower lunar gravity permitted more widespread distribution of secondaries for the moon. After removal of basin secondaries it is found that the surfaces of the lunar uplands are only sparsely populated by craters between 5 and 50 km. The lunar uplands appear then similar to the Mercurian terrain.

  2. Telescope in lunar orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, T.

    1985-01-01

    The use of a large telescope in high lunar orbit 4000 km above the Moon's equator is proposed. It is recognized that the Hubble Space Telescope (ST), will provide the necessary capabilities if it can be transferred to lunar orbit. The Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), will be able to scan the lunar surface, locate small outcrops of minerals important to base development, support early base operations and undertake detailed geophysical exploration of the whole lunar surface.

  3. Lunar electrical conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavy, D.; Madden, T.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that the lunar magnetometer experiment has made important contributions to studies of the lunar interior. Numerical inversions of the lunar electromagnetic response have been carried out, taking into account a void region behind the moon. The amplitude of the transfer function of an eight-layer model is considered along with a model of the temperature distribution inside the moon and the amplitude of the transfer function of a semiconductor lunar model.

  4. Lunar soil and surface processes studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1975-01-01

    Glass particles in lunar soil were characterized and compared to terrestrial analogues. In addition, useful information was obtained concerning the nature of lunar surface processes (e.g. volcanism and impact), maturity of soils and chemistry and heterogeneity of lunar surface material. It is felt, however, that the most important result of the study was that it demonstrated that the investigation of glass particles from the regolith of planetary bodies with little or no atmospheres can be a powerful method for learning about the surface processes and chemistry of planetary surfaces. Thus, the return of samples from other planetary bodies (especially the terrestrial planets and asteroids) using unmanned spacecraft is urged.

  5. Technicians examine largest lunar rock sample collected

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-24

    S71-21245 (24 Feb. 1971) --- Dr. Daniel H. Anderson, an aerospace technologist and test director in the Nonsterile Nitrogen Processing Laboratory in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) looks at much-discussed Apollo 14 basketball-size rock through a microscope. The two moon-exploring crew men of Apollo 14 brought back 90-odd pounds of lunar sample material from their two periods of extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface in the Fra Mauro area.

  6. The properties of the Lunar ejecta cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, S.; Beckmann, U.

    2008-09-01

    The moon is wrapped into a dust enveloped produced by hypervelocity impacts of micrometeoroids or interstellar grains. A more or less constant flux of fast projectiles strikes the lunar surface, produces secondary material and a fraction of it leaves the surface forming the dust envelope. The ejecta particles populating the dust envelope carry precious information about the composition of lunar surface, the properties of the regolith, as well as about the impactor flux itself. Here we discuss the spatial distribution of Lunar ejecta in the vicinity of the moon. We also present our model calculations for the evolution of the electro-static charge carried on the grain.

  7. Solar Cells for Lunar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freundlich, Alex; Ignatiev, Alex

    1997-01-01

    In this work a preliminary study of the vacuum evaporation of silicon extracted from the lunar regolith has been undertaken. An electron gun vacuum evaporation system has been adapted for this purpose. Following the calibration of the system using ultra high purity silicon deposited on Al coated glass substrates, thin films of lunar Si were evaporated on a variety of crystalline substrates as well as on glass and lightweight 1 mil (25 microns) Al foil. Extremely smooth and featureless films with essentially semiconducting properties were obtained. Optical absorption analysis sets the bandgap (about 1.1 eV) and the refractive index (n=3.5) of the deposited thin films close to that of crystalline silicon. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis indicated that these films are essentially comparable to high purity silicon and that the evaporation process resulted in a substantial reduction of impurity levels. All layers exhibited a p-type conductivity suggesting the presence of a p-type dopant in the fabricated layers. While the purity of the 'lunar waste material' is below that of the 'microelectronic-grade silicon', the vacuum evaporated material properties seems to be adequate for the fabrication of average performance Si-based devices such as thin film solar cells. Taking into account solar cell thickness requirements (greater than 10 microns) and the small quantities of lunar material available for this study, solar cell fabrication was not possible. However, the high quality of the optical and electronic properties of evaporated thin films was found to be similar to those obtained using ultra-high purity silicon suggest that thin film solar cell production on the lunar surface with in situ resource utilization may be a viable approach for electric power generation on the moon.

  8. Design for producing fiberglass fabric in a lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrity, J. Lewis; Patel, Suneer; Benson, Rafer M.; Johnson, Michael C.; Storey, Mark A.; Tran, Dai T.; Zahr, Thomas A.; Causby, Dana R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design a method of producing a fabric material on the lunar surface from readily available glass fibers. Various methods for forming fabrics were analyzed to determine which methods were appropriate for the lunar conditions. A nonwoven process was determined to be the most suitable process for making a fabric material out of fiberglass under these conditions. Various resins were considered for adhering the fibers. A single thermoplastic resin (AURUM) was found to be the only applicable resin. The end product of the process was determined to be suitable for use as a roadway surfacing material, canopy materials, reflective material, or packaging material. A cost analysis of the lunar process versus shipping the end-product from the earth suggests that the lunar formation is highly feasible. A design for a lunar, nonwoven process was determined and included in the following document.

  9. Design for producing fiberglass fabric in a lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Rafer M.; Causby, Dana R.; Johnson, Michael C.; Storey, Mark A.; Tran, Dal T.; Zahr, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design a method of producing a fabric material on the lunar surface from readily available glass fibers. Various methods for forming fabrics were analyzed to determine which methods were appropriate for the lunar conditions. A nonwoven process was determined to be the most suitable process for making a fabric material out of fiberglass under these conditions. Various resins were considered for adhering the fibers. A single thermoplastic resin (AURUM) was found to be the only applicable resin. The end product of the process was determined to be suitable for use as a roadway surfacing material, canopy material, reflective material, or packaging material. A cost analysis of the lunar process versus shipping the end-product from the Earth suggests that the lunar formation is highly feasible. A design for a lunar, nonwoven process was determined and is included.

  10. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Flameless atomic abosrption, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, ferromagnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to investigate the evolution of the lunar regolith, the transport of volatile trace metals, and the surface composition of lunar samples. The development of a model for lunar volcanic eruptions is also discussed.

  11. Autonomous Optical Lunar Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; Crouse, Brian; D'souza, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The performance of optical autonomous navigation is investigated for low lunar orbits and for high elliptical lunar orbits. Various options for employing the camera measurements are presented and compared. Strategies for improving navigation performance are developed and applied to the Orion vehicle lunar mission

  12. Lunar Module Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Apollo lunar module communications. It describes several changes in terminology from the Apollo era to more recent terms. It reviews: (1) Lunar Module Antennas and Functions (2). Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (3) No Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (4) Lunar Surface Communications Links (5) Signal-Processing Assembly (6) Instrumentation System (7) Some Communications Problems Encountered

  13. Manned lunar exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    The objectives, major missions, outlines of the systems, system structures, system configurations of the manned lunar surface site, and manned lunar transportation system are presented. Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), pressurized environment conditions, and operation schedule of manned lunar surface site are also outlined. This report is represented in viewgraphs only.

  14. Solar lunar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

  15. Development Issues for Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Carpenter, Paul; Sibille, Laurent; Owens, Charles; French, Raymond; McLemore, Carole

    2006-01-01

    Significant challenges and logistical issues exist for the development of standardized lunar regolith simulant (SLRS) materials for use in the development and testing of flight hardware for upcoming NASA lunar missions. A production program at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the deployment of lunar mare basalt simulant JSC-lA is underway. Root simulants have been proposed for the development of a low-T mare basalt simulant and a high-Ca highland anorthosite simulant, as part of a framework of simulant development outlined in the 2005 Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials Workshop held at MSFC. Many of the recommendation for production and standardization of simulants have already been documented by the MSFC team. But there are a number of unanswered questions related to geology which need ta be addressed prior to the creation of the simulants.

  16. Mapping technologically and economically important materials at lunar and terrestrial sites using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standart, Douglas Laurence

    Project I: Using results from the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer (LP-GRS), we selected thorium (Th) anomalies on the Moon in an effort to detect material rich in KREEP (potassium, rare earth elements, phosphorus) using hyperspectral imagery. Four sites were chosen: Lassell Crater, Hansteen Alpha, Gruithuisen Domes, and Compton-Belkovich Thorium Anomaly (CBTA). Three of these sites are non-mare volcanic features within the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), while Compton-Belkovich is located on the lunar farside. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) hyperspectral imager was used to analyze the composition of these locations. The spectra gathered from all four study sites all show pronounced absorptions at ~2.8 μm, indicating hydroxyl or water. This is significant for three reasons: (1) the strong absorption of hydroxyl/water shown at each of these volcanic sites supports the hypothesis that the lunar mantle is more hydrous than previously thought; (2) it suggests that KREEP may lie, possibly as uncoupled pods, beneath the anorthositic highlands near Compton-Belkovich as well as underlying other areas outside the previously defined PKT; and (3) it suggests that non-mare silicic volcanic features would have erupted prior to mare basalts due to their increased abundance of magmatic water, consistent with basaltic underplating. Project II: By targeting areas with anomalously high Th signatures, as seen by LP-ThGRS, we attempt to determine if Th hotspots are associated with ilmenite-rich basalts. To map ilmenite (FeTiO3), we employ a band depth technique that takes advantage of the fact that the visible-infrared reflectance spectrum of ilmenite exhibits low reflectance and a flat continuum slope. As a result, the spectra of ilmenite-bearing mare basalts will have a reduced 1-μm absorption. We demonstrate this effect by plotting ilmenite concentrations from Apollo basalt samples against the M3-derived, 1-μm absorption depths associated with the locations from which

  17. Innovative techniques for the production of energetic radicals for lunar materials processing including photogeneration via concentrated solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, D. E.; Lynch, D. C.; Fozzolari, R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for photo generation of radicals is discussed that can be used in the recovery of oxygen and metals from extraterrestrial resources. The concept behind this work was to examine methods whereby radicals can be generated and used in the processing of refractory materials. In that regard, the focus is on the use of sunlight. Sunlight provides useful energy for processing in the forms of both thermal and quantum energy. A number of experiments were conducted in the chlorination of metals with and without the aid of UV and near UV light. The results of some of those experiments are discussed.

  18. Lunar Dust Chemical, Electrical, and Mechanical Reactivity: Simulation and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar dust is recognized to be a highly reactive material in its native state. Many, if not all Constellation systems will be affected by its adhesion, abrasion, and reactivity. A critical requirement to develop successful strategies for dealing with lunar dust and designing tolerant systems will be to produce similar material for ground-based testing.

  19. Mechanical properties of lunar regolith and lunar soil simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Through the Surveyor 3 and 7, and Apollo 11-17 missions a knowledge of the mechanical properties of Lunar regolith were gained. These properties, including material cohesion, friction, in-situ density, grain-size distribution and shape, and porosity, were determined by indirect means of trenching, penetration, and vane shear testing. Several of these properties were shown to be significantly different from those of terrestrial soils, such as an interlocking cohesion and tensile strength formed in the absence of moisture and particle cementation. To characterize the strength and deformation properties of Lunar regolith experiments have been conducted on a lunar soil simulant at various initial densities, fabric arrangements, and composition. These experiments included conventional triaxial compression and extension, direct tension, and combined tension-shear. Experiments have been conducted at low levels of effective confining stress. External conditions such as membrane induced confining stresses, end platten friction and material self weight have been shown to have a dramatic effect on the strength properties at low levels of confining stress. The solution has been to treat these external conditions and the specimen as a full-fledged boundary value problem rather than the idealized elemental cube of mechanics. Centrifuge modeling allows for the study of Lunar soil-structure interaction problems. In recent years centrifuge modeling has become an important tool for modeling processes that are dominated by gravity and for verifying analysis procedures and studying deformation and failure modes. Centrifuge modeling is well established for terrestrial enginering and applies equally as well to Lunar engineering. A brief review of the experiments is presented in graphic and outline form.

  20. Mechanical properties of lunar regolith and lunar soil simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Through the Surveyor 3 and 7, and Apollo 11-17 missions a knowledge of the mechanical properties of Lunar regolith were gained. These properties, including material cohesion, friction, in-situ density, grain-size distribution and shape, and porosity, were determined by indirect means of trenching, penetration, and vane shear testing. Several of these properties were shown to be significantly different from those of terrestrial soils, such as an interlocking cohesion and tensile strength formed in the absence of moisture and particle cementation. To characterize the strength and deformation properties of Lunar regolith experiments have been conducted on a lunar soil simulant at various initial densities, fabric arrangements, and composition. These experiments included conventional triaxial compression and extension, direct tension, and combined tension-shear. Experiments have been conducted at low levels of effective confining stress. External conditions such as membrane induced confining stresses, end platten friction and material self weight have been shown to have a dramatic effect on the strength properties at low levels of confining stress. The solution has been to treat these external conditions and the specimen as a full-fledged boundary value problem rather than the idealized elemental cube of mechanics. Centrifuge modeling allows for the study of Lunar soil-structure interaction problems. In recent years centrifuge modeling has become an important tool for modeling processes that are dominated by gravity and for verifying analysis procedures and studying deformation and failure modes. Centrifuge modeling is well established for terrestrial enginering and applies equally as well to Lunar engineering. A brief review of the experiments is presented in graphic and outline form.

  1. Average chemical composition of the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkevich, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The available data on the chemical composition of the lunar surface at eleven sites (3 Surveyor, 5 Apollo and 3 Luna) are used to estimate the amounts of principal chemical elements (those present in more than about 0.5% by atom) in average lunar surface material. The terrae of the moon differ from the maria in having much less iron and titanium and appreciably more aluminum and calcium.

  2. Human safety in the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    Any attempt to establish a continuously staffed base or permanent settlement on the Moon must safely meet the challenges posed by the Moon's surface environment. This environment is drastically different from the Earth's, and radiation and meteoroids are significant hazards to human safety. These dangers may be mitigated through the use of underground habitats, the piling up of lunar materials as shielding, and the use of teleoperated devices for surface operations. The lunar environment is detailed along with concepts for survival.

  3. Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

  4. Electric propulsion for lunar exploration and lunar base development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1992-01-01

    Using electric propulsion to deliver materials to lunar orbit for the development and construction of a lunar base was investigated. Because the mass of the base and its life-cycle resupply mass are large, high specific impulse propulsion systems may significantly reduce the transportation system mass and cost. Three electric propulsion technologies (arcjet, ion, and magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) propulsion) were compared with oxygen/hydrogen propulsion for a lunar base development scenario. Detailed estimates of the orbital transfer vehicles' (OTV's) masses and their propellant masses are presented. The fleet sizes for the chemical and electric propulsion systems are estimated. Ion and MPD propulsion systems enable significant launch mass savings over O2/H2 propulsion. Because of the longer trip time required for the low-thrust OTV's, more of them are required to perform the mission model. By offloading the lunar cargo from the manned O2/H2 OTV missions onto the electric propulsion OTV's, a significant reduction of the low Earth orbit (LEO) launch mass is possible over the 19-year base development period.

  5. Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-07-01

    The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

  6. Lunar Base Sitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-12-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  7. Lunar Base Sitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  8. Lunar radiator shade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for rejecting waste heat from a system located on or near the lunar equator is presented. The system utilizes a reflective catenary shaped trough deployed about a vertical radiator to shade the radiator from heat emitted by the hot lunar surface. The catenary shaped trough is constructed from a film material and is aligned relative to the sun so that incoming solar energy is focused to a line just above the vertical radiator and can thereby isolate the radiator from the effects of direct sunlight. The film is in a collapsed position between side by side support rods, all of which are in a transport case. To deploy the film and support rods, a set of parallel tracks running perpendicular to length of the support rods are extended out from the transport case. After the support tracks are deployed, the support rods are positioned equidistant from each other along the length of the support tracks so that the flexible film shade between adjacent support rods is unfolded and hangs in a catenary shaped trough. A heat radiator is supported between each pair of support rods above each hanging reflective trough.

  9. Lunar Regolith Bagging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Sebrina; Lundberg, Kimberly; Mcgarity, Ginger; Silverman, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A regolith container to be used as a fundamental building block in radiation protection of a habitable lunar base was designed. Parameters for the container are its: size, shape, material, and structural design. Also, a machine was designed to fill the regolith container which is capable of grasping and opening an empty container, filling it, closing it when full, and depositing it on the surface of the Moon. The simple design will bag lunar soil in a relatively short amount of time, with a low equipment weight, and with moving parts distanced from the dirt. The bags are made out of Kevlar 149 with a fabric weight of 6 oz. per square yard. All machine parts are composed of aluminum 6061-T6. Assuming that the vehicle runs at 7 km/hr for 8 hours a day, the machine will bag the necessary 450 cu m of soil in about 12 days. The total mass of the bags and the machine to be shipped to the Moon will be 687 kg. The cost of shipping this weight will be $6.23 million.

  10. Lunar Base Sitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  11. Lunar Paleomagnetism: The Case for an Ancient Lunar Dynamo. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M.; Weiss, B. P.; Gattacceca, J.

    2010-12-01

    other explanation. Such NRM carried by the small amount of single domain iron and iron nickel present in the samples can be very stable. The troctolite 76535 is an example of such a sample. It cooled over thousands of years, or longer, which is far too long for any possible transient fields associated with impacts and must carry a TRM like NRM. Note that despite predictions that even km sized craters may generate fields up to 0.1T at 1 crater radius, no unambiguous evidence for paleomagnetic recording of such fields over individual craters has materialized. There are numerous other candidate samples having experienced <~5 GPa carrying stable NRM, which have been analyzed, or are being presently investigated. The only other obvious source of a field to explain stable TRM in lunar rocks is that of surface lunar fields, but over the mare these are too weak to account for the NRM of mare basalts. In summary, recent advances in our understanding of SRM and reanalysis of lunar paleomagnetism lead us to conclude that lunar paleomagnetism is most easily explained by a lunar dynamo.

  12. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. T.; Hammond, D. K.; Jeevarajan, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to returning to the moon, understanding the effects of lunar dust on both human physiology and mechanical equipment is a pressing concern, as problems related to lunar dust during the Apollo missions have been well documented (J.R. Gaier, The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions. 2005, NASA-Glenn Research Center. p. 65). While efforts were made to remove the dust before reentering the lunar module, via brushing of the suits or vacuuming, a significant amount of dust was returned to the spacecraft, causing various problems. For instance, astronaut Harrison Schmitt complained of hay fever effects caused by the dust, and the abrasive nature of the material was found to cause problems with various joints and seals of the spacecraft and suits. It is clear that, in order to avoid potential health and performance problems while on the lunar surface, the reactive properties of lunar dust must be quenched. It is likely that soil on the lunar surface is in an activated form, i.e. capable of producing oxygen-based radicals in a humidified air environment, due to constant exposure to meteorite impacts, UV radiation, and elements of the solar wind. An activated silica surface serves as a good example. An oxygen-based radical species arises from the breaking of Si-OSi bonds. This system is comparable to that expected for the lunar dust system due to the large amounts of agglutinic glass and silicate vapor deposits present in lunar soil. Unfortunately, exposure to the Earth s atmosphere has passivated the active species on lunar dust, leading to efforts to reactivate the dust in order to understand the true effects that will be experienced by astronauts and equipment on the moon. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is commonly used for the study of radical species, and has been used previously to study silicon- and oxygen-based radicals, as well as the hydroxyl radicals produced by these species in solution (V. Vallyathan, et al., Am. Rev

  13. On the beneficiation and comminution of lunar regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    A major concern in the area of planning for future lunar missions and for establishing a lunar base is the selection of a chemical process for liberation of oxygen from lunar regolith (Lunar Liquid Oxygen or LLOX), and for extraction of other useful materials. The processes currently being considered all require regolith feedstock in various stages of beneficiation. This paper addresses the applicability of terrestrial based comminution (particle grinding and sizing) and beneficiation (mineral/ore separation and concentration) equipment for use in the lunar environment. Classification techniques (screening, settling, cyclonic, and pneumatic), grinding operations (tumbling, fluid energy, impact, and ultrasonic mills), and beneficiation techniques (magnetic and electrostatic) am assessed for use on the lunar surface. The question of optimal source material (rock or regolith) is also addressed.

  14. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The students of the Florida A&M/Florida State University College of Engineering continued their design from 1988 to 1989 on a first generation lunar transportation vehicle for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focused on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three-cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. Its purpose will be the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 km). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the astronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat retraints; heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model has been built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  15. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey; Conley, Gerald; Diaz, Claudine; Dimella, Timothy; Dodson, Pete; Hykin, Jeff; Richards, Byron; Richardson, Kroy; Shetzer, Christie; Vandyke, Melissa

    1990-01-01

    A first generation lunar transportation vehicle was designed for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focussed on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. It's purpose will be for the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 kilometers). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the asronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include: a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat restraints, heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model was built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  16. Systems engineering studies of lunar base construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.

    1991-11-01

    Many ingenious concepts have been proposed for lunar base construction, but few systematic studies exist which relate time-consistent lunar base construction technologies and the choice of lunar base approach with the long-term SEI objectives - i.e., lunar indigenous base construction and Mars Exploration equipment development. To fill this gap, CSC has taken a two-pronged approach. First, the Center undertook basic geotechnical investigations of lunar soil, fabrication of a scale prototype of a lunar construction crane, a multi-robot construction team laboratory experiment, and a preliminary design of lunar base structures. Second, during Jun. and Jul. 1991 two lunar base construction systems engineering studies were accomplished - a 'near term lunar base' study, and a 'far-term lunar base' study. The goals of these studies were to define the major lunar base construction research problems in consistent technology/construction frameworks, and to define design requirements for construction equipment such as a lunar crane and a regolith mover. The 'near-term lunar base' study examined three different construction concepts for a lunar base comprised of pre-fabricated, pre-tested, Space Station Freedom-type modules, which would be covered with regolith shielding. Concept A used a lunar crane for unloading and transportation; concept B, a winch and cart; and concept C, a walker to move the modules from the landing site to the base site and assemble them. To evaluate the merits of each approach, calculations were made of mass efficiency measure, source mass, reliability, far-term base mass, Mars base mass, and base assembly time. The model thus established was also used to define the requirements for crane speed and regolith mover m(sup 3)/sec rates. A major problem addressed is how to 'mine' the regolith and stack it over the habitats as shielding. To identify when the cost of using indigenous lunar materials to construct the base exceeds the cost of development and

  17. Systems engineering studies of lunar base construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Many ingenious concepts have been proposed for lunar base construction, but few systematic studies exist which relate time-consistent lunar base construction technologies and the choice of lunar base approach with the long-term SEI objectives - i.e., lunar indigenous base construction and Mars Exploration equipment development. To fill this gap, CSC has taken a two-pronged approach. First, the Center undertook basic geotechnical investigations of lunar soil, fabrication of a scale prototype of a lunar construction crane, a multi-robot construction team laboratory experiment, and a preliminary design of lunar base structures. Second, during Jun. and Jul. 1991 two lunar base construction systems engineering studies were accomplished - a 'near term lunar base' study, and a 'far-term lunar base' study. The goals of these studies were to define the major lunar base construction research problems in consistent technology/construction frameworks, and to define design requirements for construction equipment such as a lunar crane and a regolith mover. The 'near-term lunar base' study examined three different construction concepts for a lunar base comprised of pre-fabricated, pre-tested, Space Station Freedom-type modules, which would be covered with regolith shielding. Concept A used a lunar crane for unloading and transportation; concept B, a winch and cart; and concept C, a walker to move the modules from the landing site to the base site and assemble them. To evaluate the merits of each approach, calculations were made of mass efficiency measure, source mass, reliability, far-term base mass, Mars base mass, and base assembly time. The model thus established was also used to define the requirements for crane speed and regolith mover m(sup 3)/sec rates. A major problem addressed is how to 'mine' the regolith and stack it over the habitats as shielding. To identify when the cost of using indigenous lunar materials to construct the base exceeds the cost of development and

  18. Apollo 12 Lunar Module exhaust plume impingement on Lunar Surveyor III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immer, Christopher; Metzger, Philip; Hintze, Paul E.; Nick, Andrew; Horan, Ryan

    2011-02-01

    Understanding plume impingement by retrorockets on the surface of the Moon is paramount for safe lunar outpost design in NASA's planned return to the Moon for the Constellation Program. Visual inspection, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and surface scanned topology have been used to investigate the damage to the Lunar Surveyor III spacecraft that was caused by the Apollo 12 Lunar Module's close proximity landing. Two parts of the Surveyor III craft returned by the Apollo 12 astronauts, Coupons 2050 and 2051, which faced the Apollo 12 landing site, show that a fine layer of lunar regolith coated the materials and was subsequently removed by the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landing rocket. The coupons were also pitted by the impact of larger soil particles with an average of 103 pits/cm 2. The average entry size of the pits was 83.7 μm (major diameter) × 74.5 μm (minor diameter) and the average estimated penetration depth was 88.4 μm. Pitting in the surface of the coupons correlates to removal of lunar fines and is likely a signature of lunar material imparting localized momentum/energy sufficient to cause cracking of the paint. Comparison with the lunar soil particle size distribution and the optical density of blowing soil during lunar landings indicates that the Surveyor III spacecraft was not exposed to the direct spray of the landing Lunar Module, but instead experienced only the fringes of the spray of soil. Had Surveyor III been exposed to the direct spray, the damage would have been orders of magnitude higher.

  19. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  20. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  1. Lunar Surface Reactor Shielding Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Shawn; Lipinksi, Ronald; McAlpine, William

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear reactor system could provide power to support a long term human exploration to the moon. Such a system would require shielding to protect astronauts from its emitted radiations. Shielding studies have been performed for a Gas Cooled Reactor (GCR) system because it is considered to be the most suitable nuclear reactor system available for lunar exploration, based on its tolerance of oxidizing lunar regolith and its good conversion efficiency (Wright, 2003). The goals of the shielding studies were to provide optimal material shielding configuration that reduces the dose (rem) to the required level in order to protect astronauts, and to estimate the mass of regolith that would provide an equivalent protective effect if it were used as the shielding material. All calculations were performed using MCNPX code, a Monte Carlo transport code.

  2. Lunar Surface Reactor Shielding Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Shawn; Lipinksi, Ronald; McAlpine, William

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear reactor system could provide power to support a long term human exploration to the moon. Such a system would require shielding to protect astronauts from its emitted radiations. Shielding studies have been performed for a Gas Cooled Reactor (GCR) system because it is considered to be the most suitable nuclear reactor system available for lunar exploration, based on its tolerance of oxidizing lunar regolith and its good conversion efficiency (Wright, 2003). The goals of the shielding studies were to provide optimal material shielding configuration that reduces the dose (rem) to the required level in order to protect astronauts, and to estimate the mass of regolith that would provide an equivalent protective effect if it were used as the shielding material. All calculations were performed using MCNPX code, a Monte Carlo transport code.

  3. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  4. Inflatable structures for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1995-01-01

    The first step in the human expansion into space consists of the construction of a human-tended base on the Moon. Establishment of a lunar base depends upon the development of a structure capable of accomodating human life and activities in a shirt sleeve environment. Design and construction of a structure on the Moon require addressing a host of issues and loads that are not encountered on Earth. A lunar structure is essentially a pressure vessel since the internal pressure is the dominating load. The external pressure is effectively an absolute vacuum and the dead loads from both the material mass and a protective regolith layer are quite small due to low lunar gravity. An inflatable structure made of a thin membrane integrated with an inflated supporting frame is highly efficient in resisting the internal pressure loading and the dead loads. Preliminary design computations for a generic lunar inflatable structure are presented.

  5. Inflatable structures for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1995-01-01

    The first step in the human expansion into space consists of the construction of a human-tended base on the Moon. Establishment of a lunar base depends upon the development of a structure capable of accomodating human life and activities in a shirt sleeve environment. Design and construction of a structure on the Moon require addressing a host of issues and loads that are not encountered on Earth. A lunar structure is essentially a pressure vessel since the internal pressure is the dominating load. The external pressure is effectively an absolute vacuum and the dead loads from both the material mass and a protective regolith layer are quite small due to low lunar gravity. An inflatable structure made of a thin membrane integrated with an inflated supporting frame is highly efficient in resisting the internal pressure loading and the dead loads. Preliminary design computations for a generic lunar inflatable structure are presented.

  6. The velocity structure of the lunar crust.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    Seismic refraction data, obtained at the Apollo 14 and 16 sites, when combined with other lunar seismic data, allow a compressional wave velocity profile of the lunar near-surface and crust to be derived. The regolith, although variable in thickness over the lunar surface, possesses surprisingly similar seismic properties. Underlying the regolith at both the Apollo 14 Fra Mauro site and the Apollo 16 Descartes site is low-velocity brecciated material or impact derived debris. Key features of the lunar seismic velocity profile are: (1) velocity increases from 100 to 300 m/sec in the upper 100 m to about 4 km/sec at 5 km depth, (2) a more gradual increase from about 4 km/sec to about 6 km/sec at 25 km depth,(3) a discontinuity at a depth of 25 km, and (4) a constant value of about 7 km/sec at depths from 25 km to about 60 km.

  7. Prospecting for lunar resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G.; Martel, L.

    Large space settlements on the Moon (thousands of people) will require use of indigenous resources to build and maintain the infrastructure and generate products for export. Prospecting for these resources is a crucial step in human migration to space and needs to begin before settlement and the establishment of industrial complexes. We are devising a multi-faceted approach to prospect for resources. A central part of this work is developing the methodology for prospecting the Moon and other planetary bodies. This involves a number of investigations: (1) It is essential to analyze the economics of planetary ore deposits. Ore deposits are planetary materials that we can mine, process, and deliver to customers at a profit. The planetary context tosses in some interesting twists to this definition. (2) We are also making a comprehensive theoretical assessment of potential lunar ore deposits. Our understanding of the compositions, geological histories, and geological processes on the Moon will lead to significant differences in how we assess wh a t types of ores could be present. For example, the bone-dry nature of the Moon (except at the poles) eliminates all ore deposits associated with hydrothermal fluids. (3) We intend to search for resources using existing data for the Moon. Thus, prospecting can begin immediately. We have a wealth of remote sensing data for the Moon. We also have a good sampling of the Moon by the Apollo and Luna missions, and from lunar meteorites. We can target specific types of deposits already identified (e.g. lunar pyroclastic deposits) and look for other geological settings that might have produced ores and other materials of economic value. Another approach we will take is to examine all data available to look for anomalies. Examples are unusual spectral properties, large disagreements between independent techniques that measure the same property, unusual elemental ratios, or simply exceptional properties such as elemental abundances much

  8. Sulfur "Concrete" for Lunar Applications - Sublimation Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Toutanji, Houssam

    2006-01-01

    Melting sulfur and mixing it with an aggregate to form "concrete" is commercially well established and constitutes a material that is particularly well-suited for use in corrosive environments. Discovery of the mineral troilite (FeS) on the moon poses the question of extracting the sulfur for use as a lunar construction material. This would be an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. However, the viability of sulfur concrete in a lunar environment, which is characterized by lack of an atmosphere and extreme temperatures, is not well understood. Here it is assumed that the lunar ore can be mined, refined, and the raw sulfur melded with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, bricks. This study evaluates pure sulfur and two sets of small sulfur concrete samples that have been prepared using JSC-1 lunar stimulant and SiO2 powder as aggregate additions. Each set was subjected to extended periods in a vacuum environment to evaluate sublimation issues. Results from these experiments are presented and discussed within the context of the lunar environment.

  9. Lunar apatite with terrestrial volatile abundances.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jeremy W; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R; Guan, Yunbin; Eiler, John M; Stolper, Edward M; Taylor, Lawrence A

    2010-07-22

    The Moon is thought to be depleted relative to the Earth in volatile elements such as H, Cl and the alkalis. Nevertheless, evidence for lunar explosive volcanism has been used to infer that some lunar magmas exsolved a CO-rich and CO(2)-rich vapour phase before or during eruption. Although there is also evidence for other volatile species on glass spherules, until recently there had been no unambiguous reports of indigenous H in lunar rocks. Here we report quantitative ion microprobe measurements of late-stage apatite from lunar basalt 14053 that document concentrations of H, Cl and S that are indistinguishable from apatites in common terrestrial igneous rocks. These volatile contents could reflect post-magmatic metamorphic volatile addition or growth from a late-stage, interstitial, sulphide-saturated melt that contained approximately 1,600 parts per million H(2)O and approximately 3,500 parts per million Cl. Both metamorphic and igneous models of apatite formation suggest a volatile inventory for at least some lunar materials that is similar to comparable terrestrial materials. One possible implication is that portions of the lunar mantle or crust are more volatile-rich than previously thought.

  10. Sulfur "Concrete" for Lunar Applications - Sublimation Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Toutanji, Houssam

    2006-01-01

    Melting sulfur and mixing it with an aggregate to form "concrete" is commercially well established and constitutes a material that is particularly well-suited for use in corrosive environments. Discovery of the mineral troilite (FeS) on the moon poses the question of extracting the sulfur for use as a lunar construction material. This would be an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. However, the viability of sulfur concrete in a lunar environment, which is characterized by lack of an atmosphere and extreme temperatures, is not well understood. Here it is assumed that the lunar ore can be mined, refined, and the raw sulfur melded with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, bricks. This study evaluates pure sulfur and two sets of small sulfur concrete samples that have been prepared using JSC-1 lunar stimulant and SiO2 powder as aggregate additions. Each set was subjected to extended periods in a vacuum environment to evaluate sublimation issues. Results from these experiments are presented and discussed within the context of the lunar environment.

  11. Lunar Science for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    sites on local to regional geologic scales is needed to assess regolith resources as well as science activities that can be accomplished from a lunar outpost. Critical resources will include O, H, other solar-wind-implanted gases, and construction materials; understanding their distribution and concentration within the local geologic setting is required. Assessment of ilmenite-rich regolith developed on high-Ti basalt surfaces is a key resource development activity. Early missions can contribute importantly to network science such as seismic and heat-flow experiments. Consideration must be given to synergistic activities with a view to long-term results and/or international collaboration, for example, through use of communication satellites to better determine far-side gravity and to test models of crust/mantle structure, impact-basin formation and compensation, and thermal history.

  12. Developing a new controllable lunar dust simulant: BHLD20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2017-07-01

    Identifying and eliminating the negative effects of lunar dust are of great importance for future lunar exploration. Since the available lunar samples are limited, developing terrestrial lunar dust simulant becomes critical for the study of lunar dust problem. In this work, beyond the three existing lunar dust simulants: JSC-1Avf, NU-LHT-1D, and CLDS-i, we developed a new high-fidelity lunar dust simulant named as BHLD20. And we concluded a methodology that soil and dust simulants can be produced by variations in portions of the overall procedure, whereby the properties of the products can be controlled by adjusting the feedstock preparation and heating process. The key ingredients of our innovative preparation route include: (1) plagioclase, used as a major material in preparing all kinds of lunar dust simulants; (2) a muffle furnace, applied to expediently enrich the glass phase in feedstock, with the production of some composite particles; (3) a one-step sand-milling technique, employed for mass pulverization without wasting feedstock; and (4) a particle dispersant, utilized to prevent the agglomeration in lunar dust simulant and retain the real particle size. Research activities in the development of BHLD20 can help solve the lunar dust problem.

  13. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  14. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning, and

  15. A primer in lunar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Schultz, P. H. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Primary topics in lunar geology range from the evolution of the solar system to lunar photointerpretation, impact crater formation, and sampling to analyses on various Apollo lunar landing site geomorphologies.

  16. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  17. Lunar based massdriver applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehresmann, Manfred; Gabrielli, Roland Atonius; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, René

    2017-05-01

    The results of a lunar massdriver mission and system analysis are discussed and show a strong case for a permanent lunar settlement with a site near the lunar equator. A modular massdriver concept is introduced, which uses multiple acceleration modules to be able to launch large masses into a trajectory that is able to reach Earth. An orbital mechanics analysis concludes that the launch site will be in the Oceanus Procellarum a flat, Titanium rich lunar mare area. It is further shown that the bulk of massdriver components can be manufactured by collecting lunar minerals, which are broken down into its constituting elements. The mass to orbit transfer rates of massdriver case study are significant and can vary between 1.8 kt and 3.3 megatons per year depending on the available power. Thus a lunar massdriver would act as a catalyst for any space based activities and a game changer for the scale of feasible space projects.

  18. A lunar polar expedition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Thomas

    This paper reviews issues related to a five-person expedition to the lunar north pole which primarily addresses site selection and the requirements for transportation, power, and life support. A one-year stay on the lunar surface is proposed based on available technology, and proposals are detailed for incorporating flight-proven systems, abort or rescue options, and the use of the base as the nucleus for subsequent operations. Specific details are given regarding lunar orbital data, the characteristics of the proposed base, power and consumables requirements, and equipment such as two-person lunar roving vehicles and space suits. During the expedition: (1) water is recycled; (2) Autolanders are used to deliver equipment; (3) two rovers are included in the mass budget; (4) the lunar surface is studied in detail. A polar lunar-base site offers the advantages of unobstructed astronomy, enhanced heat rejection, and the potential for reuse.

  19. Radiological operational scenario for a permanent lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, Percival D.

    An operational scenario for a lunar base is postulated based on 30 lunar base personnel and 2 year tours of duty plus stipulated numbers of EVA's and sorties in the lunar rover vehicles. It is also postulated that the main shielding material for the lunar base units (habitats, laboratories, etc.) will be lunar regolith. Using the solar minimum period as the basis, total accumulated dose equivalents for the galactic cosmic radiation over the two year period are computed at various shielding depths. Depths of regolith of over 20 g/sq cm are sufficient to reduce the total dose equivalents to well under the present limits. The second arm of the radiological health strategy -- continuous and all-encompassing radiation dosimetry -- is also discussed in some detail. It is also emphasized that monitoring of the base personnel for genetic mutations and chromosomal aberrations must be part of the radiological health program in the lunar base.

  20. An engineer/constructor's view of lunar resource development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Carleton H.

    1992-01-01

    A strawman lunar outpost scenario has been postulated as a special focus to guide the papers in this symposium. This scenario describes an evolving facility with basic components, personnel, and activities intended to support lunar missions that lead to a permanent occupation on the lunar surface. The engineer/constructor's view of establishing a lunar outpost is largely concerned with identifying and analyzing the logistics needed to transform the engineering designs on paper into a constructed and operating facility. This means that all aspects of the outpost design will be examined to satisfy constructability requirements and to develop a construction management plan that leads to successful facility startup and routine operations. Whether the facility is to be devoted to materials production, vehicle refueling, or science projects will influence the construction plan in its details, but the construction of all lunar facilities will be mainly governed by the difficult logistics path from Earth to the lunar surface.

  1. Lunar launch and landing facilities and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Florida Institute of Technology established an Interdisciplinary Design Team to design a lunar based facility whose primary function involves launch and landing operations for future moon missions. Both manned and unmanned flight operations were considered in the study with particular design emphasis on the utilization (or reutilization) of all materials available on the moon. This resource availability includes man-made materials which might arrive in the form of expendable landing vehicles as well as in situ lunar minerals. From an engineering standpoint, all such materials are considered as to their suitability for constructing new lunar facilities and/or repairing or expanding existing structures. Also considered in this design study was a determination of the feasibility of using naturally occurring lunar materials to provide fuel components to support lunar launch operations. Conventional launch and landing operations similar to those used during the Apollo Program were investigated as well as less conventional techniques such as rail guns and electromagnetic mass drivers. The Advanced Space Design team consisted of students majoring in Physics and Space Science as well as Electrical, Mechanical, Chemical and Ocean Engineering.

  2. Chemical composition of lunar material.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, J A; Abbey, S; Champ, W H

    1970-01-30

    Chemical and emission spectrographic analyses of three Apollo 11 samples, 10017-29, 10020-30, and 10084-132, are given. Major and minor constituents were determined both by conventional rock analysis methods and by a new composite scheme utilizing a lithium fluoborate method for dissolution of the samples and atomic absorption spectroscopy and colorimetry. Trace constituents were determined by optical emission spectroscopy involving a d-c arc, air-jet controlled.

  3. Remote detection of widespread indigenous water in lunar pyroclastic deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, Ralph E.; Li, Shuai

    2017-08-01

    Laboratory analyses of lunar samples provide a direct means to identify indigenous volatiles and have been used to argue for the presence of Earth-like water content in the lunar interior. Some volatile elements, however, have been interpreted as evidence for a bulk lunar mantle that is dry. Here we demonstrate that, for a number of lunar pyroclastic deposits, near-infrared reflectance spectra acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument onboard the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter exhibit absorptions consistent with enhanced OH- and/or H2O-bearing materials. These enhancements suggest a widespread occurrence of water in pyroclastic materials sourced from the deep lunar interior, and thus an indigenous origin. Water abundances of up to 150 ppm are estimated for large pyroclastic deposits, with localized values of about 300 to 400 ppm at potential vent areas. Enhanced water content associated with lunar pyroclastic deposits and the large areal extent, widespread distribution and variable chemistry of these deposits on the lunar surface are consistent with significant water in the bulk lunar mantle. We therefore suggest that water-bearing volcanic glasses from Apollo landing sites are not anomalous, and volatile loss during pyroclastic eruptions may represent a significant pathway for the transport of water to the lunar surface.

  4. Lunar Shelter Habitability Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. Samuel; Loats, Harry L., Jr.; Hay, George M.

    1971-01-01

    Results are reported of an Investigation to determine the capability of pressure suited personnel to deploy lunar shelter/airlock structures install mockup life support, power and miscellaneous equipment within and outside the shelter, and adequately utilize this equipment after installation. Information was obtained on: (1) dimensional requirements for lunar shelter interiors, hatches, and airlocks, (2) limitations imposed on lunar shelter design by pressure suited crewmen, (3) times associated with various work tasks, and (4) redesign recommendations for a lunar stay time extension module (STEM).

  5. Lunar Dust 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Largely due to rock and soil samples returned during the Apollo program, much has been learned about the composition and properties of lunar regolith. Although, for the most part, the mineral composition resembles terrestrial minerals, the characteristics of the lunar environment have led to very different weathering processes. These result in substantial differences in the particle shapes, particle size distributions, and surface chemistry. These differences lead to non-intuitive adhesion, abrasion, and possible health properties that will pose challenges to future lunar missions. An overview of lunar dust composition and properties will be given with a particular emphasis on possible health effects.

  6. The lunar dust environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Eberhard; Horanyi, Mihaly; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2011-11-01

    Each year the Moon is bombarded by about 10 6 kg of interplanetary micrometeoroids of cometary and asteroidal origin. Most of these projectiles range from 10 nm to about 1 mm in size and impact the Moon at 10-72 km/s speed. They excavate lunar soil about 1000 times their own mass. These impacts leave a crater record on the surface from which the micrometeoroid size distribution has been deciphered. Much of the excavated mass returns to the lunar surface and blankets the lunar crust with a highly pulverized and "impact gardened" regolith of about 10 m thickness. Micron and sub-micron sized secondary particles that are ejected at speeds up to the escape speed of 2300 m/s form a perpetual dust cloud around the Moon and, upon re-impact, leave a record in the microcrater distribution. Such tenuous clouds have been observed by the Galileo spacecraft around all lunar-sized Galilean satellites at Jupiter. The highly sensitive Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the LADEE mission will shed new light on the lunar dust environment. LADEE is expected to be launched in early 2013. Another dust related phenomenon is the possible electrostatic mobilization of lunar dust. Images taken by the television cameras on Surveyors 5, 6, and 7 showed a distinct glow just above the lunar horizon referred to as horizon glow (HG). This light was interpreted to be forward-scattered sunlight from a cloud of dust particles above the surface near the terminator. A photometer onboard the Lunokhod-2 rover also reported excess brightness, most likely due to HG. From the lunar orbit during sunrise the Apollo astronauts reported bright streamers high above the lunar surface, which were interpreted as dust phenomena. The Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) Experiment was deployed on the lunar surface by the Apollo 17 astronauts in order to characterize the lunar dust environment. Instead of the expected low impact rate from interplanetary and interstellar dust, LEAM registered hundreds of signals

  7. LUNAR AND PLANETARY RESEARCH.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SPECTRA, LUNAR ENVIRONMENTS, MERCURY ( PLANET ), PLANETS , SURFACE PROPERTIES, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH....MARS( PLANET ), *VENUS( PLANET ), *MOON, *ASTRONOMY, OPTICAL SCANNING, SPECTROSCOPY, OPTICAL ANALYSIS, INFRARED SPECTRA, ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA, VISIBLE

  8. Survey of Dust Issues for Lunar Seals and the RESOLVE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar dust poses a challenge to long term missions on the moon. Assessment of material capabilities in the lunar environment is needed. Protecting and/or cleaning sealing surfaces of lunar dust must be addressed for re-usable seals. The RESOLVE project poses a challenging seal problem.

  9. In Situ Test Method for the Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, C. R.; Calle, Carlos I.; CLements, S. J.; Mantovani, J.; Ritz, M. I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper serves to illustrate the testing methods necessary to classify the electrostatic properties of lunar dust using in situ instrumentation and the required techniques therein. A review of electrostatic classification of lunar simulant materials is provided as is its relevance to the success of future human lunar missions.

  10. Conceptual design of a lunar oxygen pilot plant Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective was to develop conceptual designs of two pilot plants to produce oxygen from lunar materials. A lunar pilot plant will be used to generate engineering data necessary to support an optimum design of a larger scale production plant. Lunar oxygen would be of primary value as spacecraft propellant oxidizer. In addition, lunar oxygen would be useful for servicing nonregenerative fuel cell power systems, providing requirements for life support, and to make up oxygen losses from leakage and airlock cycling. Thirteen different lunar oxygen production methods are described. Hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and extraction of solar-wind hydrogen from bulk lunar soil were selected for conceptual design studies. Trades and sensitivity analyses were performed with these models.

  11. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.; Bleacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) are a series of weeklong professional development workshops, accompanied by quarterly follow-up sessions, designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Participants learn about lunar science and exploration, gain tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, find out about the latest research results from LRO scientists, work with data from LRO and other lunar missions, and learn how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks and through authentic research experiences. LWEs are held around the country, primarily in locations underserved with respect to NASA workshops. Where possible, workshops also include tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help participants better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. Scientist and engineer involvement is a central tenant of the LWEs. LRO scientists and engineers, as well as scientists working on other lunar missions, present their research or activities to the workshop participants and answer questions about lunar science and exploration. This interaction with the scientists and engineers is consistently ranked by the LWE participants as one of the most interesting and inspiring components of the workshops. Evaluation results from the 2010 and 2011 workshops, as well as preliminary analysis of survey responses from 2012 participants, demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts among LWE participants in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and effectively share LRO data with students. Teachers reported increased confidence in helping students conduct research using lunar data, and learned about programs that would allow their students to make authentic

  12. Preliminary Examination of lunar Samples from Apollo 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This is the first scientific report on the examination of the lunar samples returned from the Apollo 12 mission. Analyses of 34 kilograms of lunar rocks and fines reveal significant differences from the samples from Tranquillity Base, most notably in age, texture, amount of solar wind material, and in mineral and chemical composition. (LC)

  13. Mice examined in Animal Laboratory of Lunar Receiving Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Landrum Young (seated), Brown and Root-Northrup, and Russell Stullken, Manned Spacecraft Center, examine mice in the Animal laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory which have been inoculated with lunar sample material. wish for peace for all mankind. astronauts will be released from quarantine on August 11, 1969. Donald K. Slayton (right), MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; and Lloyd Reeder, training coordinator.

  14. Preliminary Examination of lunar Samples from Apollo 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This is the first scientific report on the examination of the lunar samples returned from the Apollo 12 mission. Analyses of 34 kilograms of lunar rocks and fines reveal significant differences from the samples from Tranquillity Base, most notably in age, texture, amount of solar wind material, and in mineral and chemical composition. (LC)

  15. Plume induced environments on future lunar mission vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochelle, Bill; Hughes, Ruston; Fitzgerald, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to identify potential plume heating/impingement problem areas on vehicles used for future lunar missions. This is accomplished by comparison with lunar module plume investigations performed during 1968-1971. All material is presented in viewgraph format.

  16. Thermal conductivity of heterogeneous mixtures and lunar soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, R. I.; Prakouras, A. G.; Crane, R.; Khader, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The theoretical evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity of granular materials is discussed with emphasis upon the heat transport properties of lunar soil. The following types of models are compared: probabilistic, parallel isotherm, stochastic, lunar, and a model based on nonlinear heat flow system synthesis.

  17. Plume induced environments on future lunar mission vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochelle, Bill; Hughes, Ruston; Fitzgerald, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to identify potential plume heating/impingement problem areas on vehicles used for future lunar missions. This is accomplished by comparison with lunar module plume investigations performed during 1968-1971. All material is presented in viewgraph format.

  18. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface. PMID:26611148

  19. Radiation and Plasma Environments for Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Diekmann, Anne M.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Harine, Katherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Space system design for lunar orbit and extended operations on the lunar surface requires analysis of potential system vulnerabilities to plasma and radiation environments to minimize anomalies and assure that environmental failures do not occur during the mission. Individual environments include the trapped particles in Earth s radiation belts, solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays, plasma environments encountered in transit to the moon and on the lunar surface (solar wind, terrestrial magnetosheath and magnetotail, and lunar photoelectrons), and solar ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet photons. These are the plasma and radiation environments which contribute to a variety of effects on space systems including total ionizing dose and dose rate effects in electronics, degradation of materials in the space environment, and charging of spacecraft and lunar dust. This paper provides a survey of the relevant charged particle and photon environments of importance to lunar mission design ranging from the lowest (approx.few 10 s eV) photoelectron energies to the highest (approx.GeV) cosmic ray energies.

  20. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-11-01

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface.