Science.gov

Sample records for materials property information

  1. MPOD: A Material Property Open Database linked to structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepponi, Giancarlo; Gražulis, Saulius; Chateigner, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Inspired by the Crystallography Open Database (COD), the Material Properties Open Database (MPOD) was given birth. MPOD aims at collecting and making publicly available at no charge tensorial properties (including scalar properties) of phases and linking such properties to structural information of the COD when available. MPOD files are written with the STAR file syntax, used and developed for the Crystallographic Information Files. A dictionary containing new definitions has been written according to the Dictionary Definition Language 1, although some tricks were adopted to allow for multiple entries still avoiding ambiguousness. The initial set includes mechanical properties, elastic stiffness and compliance, internal friction; electrical properties, resistivity, dielectric permittivity and stiffness, thermodynamic properties, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, diffusivity and expansion; electromechanical properties, piezoelectricity, electrostriction, electromechanical coupling; optical properties; piezooptic and photoelastic properties; superconducting properties, critical fields, penetration and coherence lengths. Properties are reported in MPOD files where the original published paper containing the data is cited and structural and experimental information is also given. One MPOD file contains information relative to only one publication and one phase. The files and the information contained therein can also be consulted on-line at http://www.materialproperties.org.

  2. Effective Materials Property Information Management for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Weiju; Cebon, David; Arnold, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses key principles for the development of materials property information management software systems. There are growing needs for automated materials information management in various organizations. In part these are fueled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing, product design and engineering analysis. But equally important, organizations are being driven by the need for consistency, quality and traceability of data, as well as control of access to sensitive information such as proprietary data. Further, the use of increasingly sophisticated nonlinear, anisotropic and multi-scale engineering analyses requires both processing of large volumes of test data for development of constitutive models and complex materials data input for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) software. And finally, the globalization of economy often generates great needs for sharing a single "gold source" of materials information between members of global engineering teams in extended supply chains. Fortunately, material property management systems have kept pace with the growing user demands and evolved to versatile data management systems that can be customized to specific user needs. The more sophisticated of these provide facilities for: (i) data management functions such as access, version, and quality controls; (ii) a wide range of data import, export and analysis capabilities; (iii) data "pedigree" traceability mechanisms; (iv) data searching, reporting and viewing tools; and (v) access to the information via a wide range of interfaces. In this paper the important requirements for advanced material data management systems, future challenges and opportunities such as automated error checking, data quality characterization, identification of gaps in datasets, as well as functionalities and business models to fuel database growth and maintenance are discussed.

  3. Effective Materials Property Information Management for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Cebon, David; Barabash, Oleg M

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses key principles for the development of materials property information management software systems. There are growing needs for automated materials information management in various organizations. In part these are fuelled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing, product design and engineering analysis. But equally important, organizations are being driven by the needs for consistency, quality and traceability of data, as well as control of access to proprietary or sensitive information. Further, the use of increasingly sophisticated nonlinear, anisotropic and multi-scale engineering analyses requires both processing of large volumes of test data for development of constitutive models and complex materials data input for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) software. And finally, the globalization of economy often generates great needs for sharing a single gold source of materials information between members of global engineering teams in extended supply-chains. Fortunately material property management systems have kept pace with the growing user demands and evolved to versatile data management systems that can be customized to specific user needs. The more sophisticated of these provide facilities for: (i) data management functions such as access, version, and quality controls; (ii) a wide range of data import, export and analysis capabilities; (iii) data pedigree traceability mechanisms; (iv) data searching, reporting and viewing tools; and (v) access to the information via a wide range of interfaces. In this paper the important requirements for advanced material data management systems, future challenges and opportunities such as automated error checking, data quality characterization, identification of gaps in datasets, as well as functionalities and business models to fuel database growth and maintenance are discussed.

  4. Effective Materials Property Information Management for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Weiju; Cebon, David; Arnold, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses key principles for the development of materials property information management software systems. There are growing needs for automated materials information management in various organizations. In part these are fueled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing, product design and engineering analysis. But equally important, organizations are being driven by the need for consistency, quality and traceability of data, as well as control of access to sensitive information such as proprietary data. Further, the use of increasingly sophisticated nonlinear, anisotropic and multi-scale engineering analyses requires both processing of large volumes of test data for development of constitutive models and complex materials data input for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) software. And finally, the globalization of economy often generates great needs for sharing a single "gold source" of materials information between members of global engineering teams in extended supply chains. Fortunately, material property management systems have kept pace with the growing user demands and evolved to versatile data management systems that can be customized to specific user needs. The more sophisticated of these provide facilities for: (i) data management functions such as access, version, and quality controls; (ii) a wide range of data import, export and analysis capabilities; (iii) data "pedigree" traceability mechanisms; (iv) data searching, reporting and viewing tools; and (v) access to the information via a wide range of interfaces. In this paper the important requirements for advanced material data management systems, future challenges and opportunities such as automated error checking, data quality characterization, identification of gaps in datasets, as well as functionalities and business models to fuel database growth and maintenance are discussed.

  5. Effective Materials Property Information Management for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Cebon, David; Arnold, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses key principles for the development of materials property information management software systems. There are growing needs for automated materials information management in industry, research organizations and government agencies. In part these are fuelled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing, product design and development and engineering analysis. But equally important, organizations are being driven to employ sophisticated methods and software tools for managing their mission-critical materials information by the needs for consistency, quality and traceability of data, as well as control of access to proprietary or sensitive information. Furthermore the use of increasingly sophisticated nonlinear, anisotropic and multi-scale engineering analysis approaches, particularly for composite materials, requires both processing of much larger volumes of test data for development of constitutive models and much more complex materials data input requirements for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) software. And finally, the globalization of engineering processes and outsourcing of design and development activities generates much greater needs for sharing a single gold source of materials information between members of global engineering teams in extended supply-chains. Fortunately material property management systems have kept pace with the growing user demands. They have evolved from hard copy archives, through simple electronic databases, to versatile data management systems that can be customized to specific user needs. The more sophisticated of these provide facilities for: (i) data management functions such as access control, version control, and quality control; (ii) a wide range of data import, export and analysis capabilities; (iii) mechanisms for ensuring that all data is traceable to its pedigree sources: details of testing programs, published sources, etc; (iv) tools for searching, reporting and viewing the data; and (v

  6. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  7. Materials properties data base computerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baur, R. G.; Donthnier, M. L.; Moran, M. C.; Mortman, I.; Pinter, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Material property data plays a key role in the design of jet engine components. Consistency, accuracy and efficient use of material property data is of prime importance to the engineering community. The system conception, development, implementation, and future plans for computer software that captures the Material Properties Handbook into a scientific data base are described. The engineering community is given access to raw data and property curves, display of multiple curves for material evaluation and selection, direct access by design analysis computer programs, display of the material specification, and a historical repository for the material evolution. The impact of this activity includes significant productivity gains and cost reductions; all users have access to the same information nd provides consistent, rapid response to the needs of the engineering community. Future plans include incorporating the materials properties data base into a network environment to access information from other data bases and download information to engineering work stations.

  8. Ultrasonic material property determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabian, S.

    1986-01-01

    The use and potential offered by ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to determine and/or monitor material properties is explored. The basis for such unique measurements along with examples of materials from a variety of industries are presented.

  9. Thermophysical and Electronic Properties Information Analysis Center (TEPIAC). A Continuing Systematic Program on Data Tables of Thermophysical and Electronic Properties of Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    PROPERTIES OF SELECTED FERROUS ALLOYING ELEMENTS Contents Foreword to the Series, David R. Lide, Jr. xi Preface to the Series, Y. S. Touloukian xiii... properties , transport properties , electronic properties , electrical properties , magnetic properties , optical properties , metals, alloys , ceramics...the entire staff of the Thermophysical and Electronic Properties Information Analysis Center. Dr. Y. S. Touloukian , Director of CINDAS, and Dr. C. Y. Ho

  10. Materials management information systems.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The hospital materials management function--ensuring that goods and services get from a source to an end user--encompasses many areas of the hospital and can significantly affect hospital costs. Performing this function in a manner that will keep costs down and ensure adequate cash flow requires effective management of a large amount of information from a variety of sources. To effectively coordinate such information, most hospitals have implemented some form of materials management information system (MMIS). These systems can be used to automate or facilitate functions such as purchasing, accounting, inventory management, and patient supply charges. In this study, we evaluated seven MMISs from seven vendors, focusing on the functional capabilities of each system and the quality of the service and support provided by the vendor. This Evaluation is intended to (1) assist hospitals purchasing an MMIS by educating materials managers about the capabilities, benefits, and limitations of MMISs and (2) educate clinical engineers and information system managers about the scope of materials management within a healthcare facility. Because software products cannot be evaluated in the same manner as most devices typically included in Health Devices Evaluations, our standard Evaluation protocol was not applicable for this technology. Instead, we based our ratings on our observations (e.g., during site visits), interviews we conducted with current users of each system, and information provided by the vendor (e.g., in response to a request for information [RFI]). We divided the Evaluation into the following sections: Section 1. Responsibilities and Information Requirements of Materials Management: Provides an overview of typical materials management functions and describes the capabilities, benefits, and limitations of MMISs. Also includes the supplementary article, "Inventory Cost and Reimbursement Issues" and the glossary, "Materials Management Terminology." Section 2. The

  11. Thermophysical and Electronic Properties Information Analysis Center (TEPIAC): A Continuing Systematic Program on Data Tables of Thermophysical and Electronic Properties of Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    properties , optical properties , metals, alloys , ceramics, cermets, intermetallics, polymers, composites, elements, compounds, glasses, coatings, systems...Electronic Properties Information Analysis Center. Dr. Y. S. Touloukian , Director of CINDAS, and Dr. C. Y. Ho, Assistant Director- Research, have been... Properties of Rocks and Minerals . . . 77 Volume 111-1. Properties of Selected Ferrous Alloying Elements ....... ................. 85 Volume 111-2

  12. Thermophysical and Electronic Properties Information Analysis Center (TEPIAC): A Continuing Systematic Program on Tables of Thermophysical and Electronic Properties of Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    properties , metals, alloys , ceramics, cermets , intermetallic s, polymers, composites, elements compounds, glasses, coatings, systems, materials, data...d. Photoluminescence - - - - 21. Piezoelectric propertiese . Thermolumi nescence • - t a. Piezoelectric effect 18. Magnetoelectric properties b...electrical , magnetic , and opti- cal ) properties to be given priority coverage include elements , inorganic compounds, alloys , intermetallics

  13. Rhenium material properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaglow, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  14. Rhenium material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Biaglow, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  15. Property rights in genetic information.

    PubMed

    Spinello, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    The primary theme of this paper is the normative case against ownership of one's genetic information along with the source of that information (usually human tissues samples). The argument presented here against such "upstream" property rights is based primarily on utilitarian grounds. This issue has new salience thanks to the Human Genome Project and "bio-prospecting" initiatives based on the aggregation of genetic information, such as the one being managed by deCODE Genetics in Iceland. The rationale for ownership is twofold: ownership will protect the basic human rights of privacy and autonomy and it will enable the data subjects to share in the tangible benefits of the genetic research. Proponents of this viewpoint often cite the principle of genetic exceptionalism, which asserts that genetic information needs a higher level of protection than other kinds of personal information such as financial data. We argue, however, that the recognition of such ownership rights would lead to inefficiency along with the disutility of genetic discoveries. Biomedical research will be hampered if property rights in genes and genetic material are too extensive. We contend that other mechanisms such as informed consent and strict confidentiality rules can accomplish the same result as a property right without the liabilities of an exclusive entitlement.

  16. Advanced materials: Information and analysis needs

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Lee, R.; Trumble, D.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the findings of a study to identify the types of information and analysis that are needed for advanced materials. The project was sponsored by the US Bureau of Mines (BOM). It includes a conceptual description of information needs for advanced materials and the development and implementation of a questionnaire on the same subject. This report identifies twelve fundamental differences between advanced and traditional materials and discusses the implications of these differences for data and analysis needs. Advanced and traditional materials differ significantly in terms of physical and chemical properties. Advanced material properties can be customized more easily. The production of advanced materials may differ from traditional materials in terms of inputs, the importance of by-products, the importance of different processing steps (especially fabrication), and scale economies. The potential for change in advanced materials characteristics and markets is greater and is derived from the marriage of radically different materials and processes. In addition to the conceptual study, a questionnaire was developed and implemented to assess the opinions of people who are likely users of BOM information on advanced materials. The results of the questionnaire, which was sent to about 1000 people, generally confirm the propositions set forth in the conceptual part of the study. The results also provide data on the categories of advanced materials and the types of information that are of greatest interest to potential users. 32 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  17. Optical Properties Of Polymeric Films Of Bacteriorhodopsin And Its Functional Variants: New Materials For Optical Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampp, Norbert; Braeuchle, Christoph R.; Oesterhelt, Dieter

    1990-01-01

    Purple membrane (PM) from Halobacterium halobium consists of a two-dimensional crystal of the photochromic retinal protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Purple membrane embedded in inert polymer matrices can be used as reversible recording medium in holography. The thermal and photochemical stability (at least 100.000 recording cycles at room temperature), the high quantum yield (70%), the high resolution (~ 5000 lines/mm) and the wide spectral range (400-680 nm) of these films are promising features for any possible technical application. The variability of this material was restricted to chemical modifications of the chromophoric group for a long time. new class of BR based recording media is introduced by the availability of variants of BR with a modified amino acid sequence. After generation of a mutant strain PM variants can be easily produced by the same cultivation and purification procedures as the PM of the wildtype and therefore are available in virtually unlimited amounts, too. As an example the properties of PM-films containing the variant BR-326, which differs from the wildtype by a single amino acid, are reported here. The improved diffraction efficiency (~ 2-fold) and increased sensitivity (~ 50%) of films containing BR-326 give an impression of the new possibilities for optimizing reversible recording media by biochemical and gentechnological methods as an alternative or an addition to conventional chemical methods.

  18. Mean deformation metrics for quantifying 3D cell-matrix interactions without requiring information about matrix material properties.

    PubMed

    Stout, David A; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Estrada, Jonathan B; Toyjanova, Jennet; Kesari, Haneesh; Reichner, Jonathan S; Franck, Christian

    2016-03-15

    Mechanobiology relates cellular processes to mechanical signals, such as determining the effect of variations in matrix stiffness with cell tractions. Cell traction recorded via traction force microscopy (TFM) commonly takes place on materials such as polyacrylamide- and polyethylene glycol-based gels. Such experiments remain limited in physiological relevance because cells natively migrate within complex tissue microenvironments that are spatially heterogeneous and hierarchical. Yet, TFM requires determination of the matrix constitutive law (stress-strain relationship), which is not always readily available. In addition, the currently achievable displacement resolution limits the accuracy of TFM for relatively small cells. To overcome these limitations, and increase the physiological relevance of in vitro experimental design, we present a new approach and a set of associated biomechanical signatures that are based purely on measurements of the matrix's displacements without requiring any knowledge of its constitutive laws. We show that our mean deformation metrics (MDM) approach can provide significant biophysical information without the need to explicitly determine cell tractions. In the process of demonstrating the use of our MDM approach, we succeeded in expanding the capability of our displacement measurement technique such that it can now measure the 3D deformations around relatively small cells (∼10 micrometers), such as neutrophils. Furthermore, we also report previously unseen deformation patterns generated by motile neutrophils in 3D collagen gels.

  19. Mean deformation metrics for quantifying 3D cell–matrix interactions without requiring information about matrix material properties

    PubMed Central

    Stout, David A.; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Estrada, Jonathan B.; Toyjanova, Jennet; Kesari, Haneesh; Reichner, Jonathan S.; Franck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Mechanobiology relates cellular processes to mechanical signals, such as determining the effect of variations in matrix stiffness with cell tractions. Cell traction recorded via traction force microscopy (TFM) commonly takes place on materials such as polyacrylamide- and polyethylene glycol-based gels. Such experiments remain limited in physiological relevance because cells natively migrate within complex tissue microenvironments that are spatially heterogeneous and hierarchical. Yet, TFM requires determination of the matrix constitutive law (stress–strain relationship), which is not always readily available. In addition, the currently achievable displacement resolution limits the accuracy of TFM for relatively small cells. To overcome these limitations, and increase the physiological relevance of in vitro experimental design, we present a new approach and a set of associated biomechanical signatures that are based purely on measurements of the matrix's displacements without requiring any knowledge of its constitutive laws. We show that our mean deformation metrics (MDM) approach can provide significant biophysical information without the need to explicitly determine cell tractions. In the process of demonstrating the use of our MDM approach, we succeeded in expanding the capability of our displacement measurement technique such that it can now measure the 3D deformations around relatively small cells (∼10 micrometers), such as neutrophils. Furthermore, we also report previously unseen deformation patterns generated by motile neutrophils in 3D collagen gels. PMID:26929377

  20. Packaging Materials Properties Data

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D.

    1991-10-30

    Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection . data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.

  1. Packaging materials properties data

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the US Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.

  2. Mechanical Properties of MEMS Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    thermal strain for polysilicon (data points) compared with bulk silicon (Thermophysical Properties of Matter, Volume 13, Y. S. Touloukian , Editor...AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2004-76 Final Technical Report March 2004 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEMS MATERIALS Johns Hopkins University...TITLE AND SUBTITLE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEMS MATERIALS 6. AUTHOR(S) W. N. Sharpe, Jr., K. J. Hemker - Dept of Mechanical Engineering R. L

  3. RCRA Sustainable Materials Management Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This asset includes a broad variety of documents, descriptive data, technical analyses and guidance materials relative to voluntary improvements in resource conservation, the beneficial use of sustainable materials and the management of non-hazardous wastes and materials. Included in this asset are participant information and outreach materials of various voluntary programs relating to better materials and waste management programs. An example is the WasteWise program and Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Challenges, which help organizations and businesses apply sustainable materials management practices to reduce municipal and select industrial wastes. Also included in this asset are guidance materials to assist municipalities in recycling and reuse of municipal solid waste, including diverting materials to composting, and the use of conversion methods such as anaerobic digestion. Another component are the data necessary to compile reports on the characterization of municipal solid waste (including such waste streams as food waste, yard and wood waste, discarded electronics, and household non-hazardous waste), the recycled content of manufactured goods, and other analyses performed using such tools as the Waste Assessment Reduction Model (WARM).For industrial non-hazardous waste, this asset includes guidance and outreach materials on industrial materials recycling and waste minimization. Finally, this asset includes research analyses on sustainable materia

  4. Development of the Structural Materials Information Center

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, C.B.; Naus, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a Structural Aging Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to identify potential structural safety issues related to continued service of nuclear power plants and to establish criteria for evaluating and resolving these issues. One of the tasks in this program focuses on the establishment of a Structural Materials Information Center where data and information on the time variation of concrete and other structural material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors are being collected and assembled into a data base. This data base will be used to assist in the prediction of potential long-term deterioration of critical structural components in nuclear power plants and to establish limits on hostile environmental exposure for these structures and materials. Two complementary data base formats have been developed. The Structural Materials Handbook is an expandable, hard-copy reference document that contains complete sets of data and information for selected portland cement concrete, metallic reinforcement, prestressing tendon, and structural steel materials. Baseline data, reference properties and environmental information are presented in the handbook as tables, notes and graphs. The handbook, which will be published in four volumes, serves as the information source for the electronic data base. The Structural Materials Electronic Data Base is accessible by an IBM-compatible personal computer and provides an efficient means for searching the various data base files to locate materials with similar properties. Properties will be reported in the International System of Units (SI) and in customary units whenever possible. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Materials And Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) LDEF materials database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John M.; Strickland, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) is a collection of materials data which was computerized and is available to engineers in the aerospace community involved in the design and development of spacecraft and related hardware. Consisting of various database segments, MAPTIS provides the user with information such as material properties, test data derived from tests specifically conducted for qualification of materials for use in space, verification and control, project management, material information, and various administrative requirements. A recent addition to the project management segment consists of materials data derived from the LDEF flight. This tremendous quantity of data consists of both pre-flight and post-flight data in such diverse areas as optical/thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, atomic concentration surface analysis data, as well as general data such as sample placement on the satellite, A-O flux, equivalent sun hours, etc. Each data point is referenced to the primary investigator(s) and the published paper from which the data was taken. The MAPTIS system is envisioned to become the central location for all LDEF materials data. This paper consists of multiple parts, comprising a general overview of the MAPTIS System and the types of data contained within, and the specific LDEF data element and the data contained in that segment.

  6. Dental materials with antibiofilm properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhejun; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Oral bacteria have evolved to form biofilms on hard tooth surfaces and dental materials. The antibiofilm effect of materials used for the restoration of oral function affects oral health. In this review we describe the features involved in the formation of oral biofilms on different surfaces in the oral cavity and the antibiofilm properties of dental materials. An electronic search of scientific papers from 1987 to 2013 was performed with PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google search engines using the following search terms: antibiofilm, dental material, dental hard tissue, endodontic material, implant material, oral biofilm, and restorative material. Selected inclusion criteria resulted in 179 citations from the scientific, peer-reviewed literature. Oral biofilms form not only on dental hard tissue, but also on a wide range of dental materials used in cariology, endodontics, restorative dentistry and periodontology, resulting in destruction of dental hard tissue and even infection. Therefore, there has been a continuous effort to develop the antibiofilm properties of dental materials used for different purposes. Specific antimicrobial design in the composition and application of new materials (e.g. bioceramic sealer, resin composite, implant coating) demonstrates an improvement of the antibiofilm properties of these materials compared to earlier generations. A significant number of dental materials have been shown to affect biofilm growth by inhibiting the adhesion of bacteria, limiting their growth or killing microbes in the biofilms formed in vitro. Incorporation of an appropriate amount of antibacterial agent could provide dental materials with antibiofilm activity without significantly influencing their mechanical properties. However, more randomized and double-blind clinical studies of sufficient length with these materials are needed to confirm long term success following their use in the dental clinic. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by

  7. Mechanical properties of nanophase materials

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W.; Fougere, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    It has become possible in recent years to synthesize new materials under controlled conditions with constituent structures on a nanometer size scale (below 100 nm). These novel nanophase materials have grain-size dependent mechanical properties significantly different than those of their coarser-grained counterparts. For example, nanophase metals are much stronger and apparently less ductile than conventional metals, while nanophase ceramics are more ductile and more easily formed than conventional ceramics. The observed mechanical property changes are related to grain size limitations and/or the large percentage of atoms in grain boundary environments; they can also be affected by such features as flaw populations, strains and impurity levels that can result from differing synthesis and processing methods. An overview of what is presently known about the mechanical properties of nanophase materials, including both metals and ceramics, is presented. Some possible atomic mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior in these materials are considered in light of their unique structures.

  8. Spacecraft Charging Sensitivity to Material Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating spacecraft charging behavior of a vehicle in the space environment requires knowledge of the material properties relevant to the charging process. Implementing surface and internal charging models requires a user to specify a number of material electrical properties including electrical resistivity parameters (dark and radiation induced), dielectric constant, secondary electron yields, photoemission yields, and breakdown strength in order to correctly evaluate the electric discharge threat posed by the increasing electric fields generated by the accumulating charge density. In addition, bulk material mass density and/or chemical composition must be known in order to analyze radiation shielding properties when evaluating internal charging. We will first describe the physics of spacecraft charging and show how uncertainties in material properties propagate through spacecraft charging algorithms to impact the results obtained from charging models. We then provide examples using spacecraft charging codes to demonstrate their sensitivity to material properties. The goal of this presentation is to emphasize the importance in having good information on relevant material properties in order to best characterize on orbit charging threats.

  9. Properties of aircraft tire materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Richard N.; Clark, Samuel K.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is presented of measured elastomeric composite response suitable for linear structural and thermoelastic analysis in aircraft tires. Both real and loss properties are presented for a variety of operating conditions including the effects of temperature and frequency. Suitable micro-mechanics models are used for predictions of these properties for other material combinations and the applicability of laminate theory is discussed relative to measured values.

  10. Thermal protection materials: Thermophysical property data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. D.; Curry, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    This publication presents a thermophysical property survey on materials that could potentially be used for future spacecraft thermal protection systems (TPS). This includes data that was reported in the 1960's as well as more current information reported through the 1980's. An attempt was made to cite the manufacturers as well as the data source in the bibliography. This volume represents an attempt to provide in a single source a complete set of thermophysical data on a large variety of materials used in spacecraft TPS analysis. The property data is divided into two categories: ablative and reusable. The ablative materials have been compiled into twelve categories that are descriptive of the material composition. An attempt was made to define the Arrhenius equation for each material although this data may not be available for some materials. In a similar manner, char data may not be available for some of the ablative materials. The reusable materials have been divided into three basic categories: thermal protection materials (such as insulators), adhesives, and structural materials.

  11. Accelerating materials property predictions using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Wang, Chenchen; Jiang, Xun; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar; Ramprasad, Ramamurthy

    2013-09-30

    The materials discovery process can be significantly expedited and simplified if we can learn effectively from available knowledge and data. In the present contribution, we show that efficient and accurate prediction of a diverse set of properties of material systems is possible by employing machine (or statistical) learning methods trained on quantum mechanical computations in combination with the notions of chemical similarity. Using a family of one-dimensional chain systems, we present a general formalism that allows us to discover decision rules that establish a mapping between easily accessible attributes of a system and its properties. It is shown that fingerprints based on either chemo-structural (compositional and configurational information) or the electronic charge density distribution can be used to make ultra-fast, yet accurate, property predictions. Harnessing such learning paradigms extends recent efforts to systematically explore and mine vast chemical spaces, and can significantly accelerate the discovery of new application-specific materials.

  12. Mechanical properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, H. Richard; Cornwell, L. R.

    1993-01-01

    A composite material incorporates high strength, high modulus fibers in a matrix (polymer, metal, or ceramic). The fibers may be oriented in a manner to give varying in-plane properties (longitudinal, transverse-stress, strain, and modulus of elasticity). The lay-up of the composite laminates is such that a center line of symmetry and no bending moment exist through the thickness. The laminates are tabbed, with either aluminum or fiberglass, and are ready for tensile testing. The determination of the tensile properties of resin matrix composites, reinforced by continuous fibers, is outlined in ASTM standard D 3039, Tensile Properties of Oriented Fiber Composites. The tabbed flat tensile coupons are placed into the grips of a tensile machine and load-deformation curves plotted. The load-deformation data are translated into stress-strain curves for determination of mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity).

  13. Satellite material contaminant optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. E.; Bertrand, W. T.; Seiber, B. L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, P. M.; Holt, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. Presented here are infrared (4000 to 700 cm(-1)) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K geranium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contents determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing and properties for other materials will be available in the future.

  14. [Mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Bai, Yu-xing; Zhang, Kun-ya

    2010-09-14

    To investigate the mechanical properties of various brands of thermoplastic materials under different test conditions so as to analyze their influencing factors so as to provide a reference for improving the effect of invisible orthodontics. Three brands of thermoplastic materials, DR, Biolon and Erkodent, were selected. They were tested by Instron testing machine to measure their maximal stress and modulus under different processing modes, including pre-thermoforming, post-thermoforming and dipped in artificial saliva for two weeks after thermoforming. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Analyzed the mechanical properties change-trend under each test condition. The modulus (MPa) and maximum stress (MPa) of control group were significantly higher than those of thermoforming group (DR: 9.63±0.68 vs 7.85±0.61, 267±8 vs 199±6; Erkodent: 8.28±0.28 vs 7.59±0.45, 226±6 vs 199±6; Biolon: 8.85±0.41 vs 7.07±0.22, 237±6 vs 169±7, all P<0.05). The modulus (MPa) and maximum stress (MPa) of thermoforming group were significantly lower than those of saliva immersion group (DR: 7.85±0.61 vs 9.14±0.41, 199±6 vs 243±7; Erkodent: 7.59 ± 0.45 vs 8.38±0.29, 199±6 vs 212±7; Biolon: 7.07±0.22 vs 7.90±0.31, 169±7 vs 197±5, all P<0.05). The different brands of thermoplastic materials have different mechanical properties. The different processing modes influence the mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials. The mechanical properties decrease after thermoforming and increase after saliva immersion.

  15. Dynamic properties of ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Wise, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Controlled impact methods have been employed to obtain dynamic response properties of armor materials. Experimental data have been obtained for high-strength ceramics. Continued analysis of time-resolved velocity interferometer measurements has produced systematic material-property data for Hugoniot and release response, initial and post-yield strength, pressure-induced phase transformation, and dynamic fracture strength. A new technique has been developed to measure hydrodynamic properties of ceramic through shock-wave experiments on metal-ceramic composites and data obtained for silicon carbide. Additional data on several titanium diboride ceramics and high-quality aluminum oxide ceramic have been acquired, and issues regarding the influence of microstructure on dynamic properties have emerged. Comparison of dynamic (Hugoniot elastic limit) strength and indentation hardness data has been performed and important correlations revealed. Innovative impact experiments on confined and unconfined alumina rods using axial and transverse VISAR diagnostics have been demonstrated which permit acquisition of multiaxial dynamic response data. Dynamic failure properties of a high-density aluminosilicate glass, similar in composition to the intergranular glassy phase of some aluminas, have been investigated with regard to yield, spall, and failure-wave propagation.

  16. Thermoacoustic properties of fibrous materials.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Carl; Raspet, Richard

    2010-06-01

    The thermoacoustic properties of fibrous materials are studied using a computational fluid simulation as a test of proposed analytical models for propagation in porous materials with an ambient temperature gradient. The acoustic properties of porous materials have been understood in terms of microstructural models that approximate the material as an array of pores with empirical shape factors used to fit the pore theory to the material. An extension of these theories of acoustics to the thermoacoustic case with an ambient temperature gradient has been proposed by Roh et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 1413-1422 (2007)] and a model based on Wilson's relaxation approximation for porous acoustics [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 1136-1145 (1993)] is proposed herein, but the predictions of these analytical models have not been tested successfully against measurements. Accurately characterizing the effects of the applied temperature gradient in a wide bandwidth laboratory setup have proven difficult; as a result, the authors conducted a numerical simulation of propagation within a fibrous geometry in order to test the predictions of the analytical models. The results for several fibrous samples show that the models yield a reliable prediction of thermoacoustic performance from the shape factors and relaxation times.

  17. Modeling Non-Linear Material Properties in Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-28

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-16013 MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS Michael F. Macri Andrew G...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS ...systems are increasingly incorporating composite materials into their design. Many of these systems subject the composites to environmental conditions

  18. Electronic Information Management and Intellectual Property Rights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Information Management and Intellectual Property Rights (i) Booksellers are primarily concerned with buying printed books, and sometimes journals and...newspapers, in bulk and selling on to the end-user (the public). Their role is still primarily as distributors of printed material. Some booksellers ...act as information intermediaries to sell on to other intermediaries especially libraries. Booksellers are therefore of very limited importance in

  19. Visual and haptic representations of material properties.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Elisabeth; Wiebel, Christiane B; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2013-01-01

    Research on material perception has received an increasing amount of attention recently. Clearly, both the visual and the haptic sense play important roles in the perception of materials, yet it is still unclear how both senses compare in material perception tasks. Here, we set out to investigate the degree of correspondence between the visual and the haptic representations of different materials. We asked participants to both categorize and rate 84 different materials for several material properties. In the haptic case, participants were blindfolded and asked to assess the materials based on haptic exploration. In the visual condition, participants assessed the stimuli based on their visual impressions only. While categorization performance was less consistent in the haptic condition than in the visual one, ratings correlated highly between the visual and the haptic modality. PCA revealed that all material samples were similarly organized within the perceptual space in both modalities. Moreover, in both senses the first two principal components were dominated by hardness and roughness. These are two material features that are fundamental for the haptic sense. We conclude that although the haptic sense seems to be crucial for material perception, the information it can gather alone might not be quite fine-grained and rich enough for perfect material recognition.

  20. Upgrades to the TPSX Material Properties Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, T. H.; Milos, F. S.; Partridge, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The TPSX Material Properties Database is a web-based tool that serves as a database for properties of advanced thermal protection materials. TPSX provides an easy user interface for retrieving material property information in a variety of forms, both graphical and text. The primary purpose and advantage of TPSX is to maintain a high quality source of often used thermal protection material properties in a convenient, easily accessible form, for distribution to government and aerospace industry communities. Last year a major upgrade to the TPSX web site was completed. This year, through the efforts of researchers at several NASA centers, the Office of the Chief Engineer awarded funds to update and expand the databases in TPSX. The FY01 effort focuses on updating correcting the Ames and Johnson thermal protection materials databases. In this session we will summarize the improvements made to the web site last year, report on the status of the on-going database updates, describe the planned upgrades for FY02 and FY03, and provide a demonstration of TPSX.

  1. Upgrades to the TPSX Material Properties Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, T. H.; Milos, F. S.; Partridge, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The TPSX Material Properties Database is a web-based tool that serves as a database for properties of advanced thermal protection materials. TPSX provides an easy user interface for retrieving material property information in a variety of forms, both graphical and text. The primary purpose and advantage of TPSX is to maintain a high quality source of often used thermal protection material properties in a convenient, easily accessible form, for distribution to government and aerospace industry communities. Last year a major upgrade to the TPSX web site was completed. This year, through the efforts of researchers at several NASA centers, the Office of the Chief Engineer awarded funds to update and expand the databases in TPSX. The FY01 effort focuses on updating correcting the Ames and Johnson thermal protection materials databases. In this session we will summarize the improvements made to the web site last year, report on the status of the on-going database updates, describe the planned upgrades for FY02 and FY03, and provide a demonstration of TPSX.

  2. Thermoelectric properties of correlated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, Jan; Haule, Kristjan; Miyake, Takashi; Georges, Antoine; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The discovery of large Seebeck coefficients in transition metal compounds such as FeSi, FeSb2, or the iron pnictides, has stirred renewed interest in the potential merits of electronic correlation effects for thermoelectric properties. The notorious sensitivity in this class of materials to small changes in composition (doping, chemical pressure) and external stimuli (temperature, pressure), makes a reliable and, possibly, predictive description cumbersome, while at the same time providing an arena of possibilities in the search for high performance thermoelectrics. Based on state-of-the-art electronic structure methods (density functional theory with the dynamical mean field theory) we here compute the thermoelectric response for several of the above mentioned exemplary materials from first principles. With the ultimate goal to understand the origin of a large thermoelectricity in these systems, we discuss various many-body renormalizations, and identify correlation controlled ingredients that are pivotal for thermopower enhancements.

  3. Dielectric properties of agricultural materials and their application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book is prepared as a comprehensive source of information on dielectric properties of agricultural materials for scientific researchers and engineers involved in practical application of radio-frequency and microwave energy for potential problem solutions. Dielectric properties of materials det...

  4. Material Properties Measurements for Selected Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S. J.; Isbell, W. M.; Jones, A. H.; Maiden, C. J.; Perkins, R. D.; Shipman, F. H.

    1968-01-01

    Hugoniot equation of state measurements were made on Coconino sandstone, Vacaville basalt, Kaibab limestone, Mono Crater, pumice and Zelux (a polycarbonate resin) for pressures to 2 Mb. A single data point was obtained for fused quartz at 1.6 Mb. In addition to the hugoniot studies, the uniaxial compressive stress behavior of Vacaville basalt and Zelux was investigated at strain rates from about 10(exp -5)/sec to 10(exp 3)/second. The data presented include the stress - strain relations as a function of strain rate for these two materials.

  5. "TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

  6. "TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

  7. Optical properties of photochromic and thermochromic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yeon-Gon

    The optical properties of some thin film materials can be altered by an external stimulus. Photochromic and thermochromic materials, including inorganic and organic substances, have optical properties that can be changed in a reversible manner by irradiation and temperature respectively. These materials can be used in applications such as radiation or thermal sensors, information storage devices and smart window applications in buildings and cars. In this work, major effort was concentrated on passive thermal control coatings based on photochromic and thermochromic materials. The inorganic photochromic materials were based on tungsten and molybdenum oxide films and the organic photochromic materials included spiropyrans and spirooxazines. In addition, photochromic composite organic-inorganic films and thermochromic vanadium oxide films were prepared. The samples were synthesized using sputtering, sol-gel process, and thermal oxidation. The optical properties were investigated for the first time by ultraviolet/visible/infrared (UV/VIS/IR) spectroscopic ellipsometry, attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared ellipsometry, spectrophotometry, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For amorphous oxide films, the oxygen deficiency was important in determining the photochromic properties of the films. In the mid-infrared region, no photochromism was observed for the films. The optical properties of organic-inorganic composite films changed in the VIS/NIR wavelength region markedly in a reversible process, with UV irradiation. The composite films containing tungsten heteropolyoxometalate (HPOM) showed faster coloration and bleaching than pure tungsten oxide films. The composite films with molybdenum HPOM showed faster coloration and much slower bleaching than tungsten HPOM. The spiropyran and spirooxazine doped polymeric films were investigated for the first time using infrared and ATR ellipsometry. The infrared optical functions obtained by ATR measurements were a little smaller

  8. Online directory of databases for material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hampel, V.E.; Bollinger, W.A.; Gaynor, C.A.; Oldani, J.J.

    1984-05-01

    We have created an online directory of databases of material properties on the Technology Information System at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL/TIS). This directory is intended to provide interactive access to scientific and technical databases available to the public that contain information pertaining to nuclear, atomic, molecular, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of substances. The directory is based on work done earlier by Joseph Hilsenrath of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS/OSRD) and Jack H. Westbrook of General Electric Corporation. In addition to the 101 data files previously reported, we have updated the information and identified more than 38 new numeric databases and predictive systems in these fields. We have included, where applicable, entries contained in the directories published by Cuadra Associates, CODATA, and UNESCO. In addition to describing the contents of the databases, we have provided updated information on the availability of the databases and their online access over public telephone and data networks. The online directory is prepared for use by scientists and engineers and should enhance the sharing of S and T resources over communication networks. This directory is expected to become particularly important to the national and international magnetic- and laser-energy fusion projects, nuclear criticality safety, and computer aided engineering programs. Some of the numeric databases are directly accessible by authorized users via the TIS Intelligent Gateway Processor at LLNL (TIS/IGP), with self-guiding procedures for the downloading, merging, post-processing, and graphical/statistical analysis of data.

  9. Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 150 NIST Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials (Web, free access)   Property Data Summaries are topical collections of property values derived from surveys of published data. Thermal, mechanical, structural, and chemical properties are included in the collections.

  10. 77 FR 24269 - Proposed Information Collection (Description of Materials) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Description of Materials) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... information needed to determine if proposed construction material meets regulatory requirements and if the property is suitable for mortgage insurance. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the...

  11. 31 CFR 542.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 542.304 Section 542.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 542.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 542.304 Section 542.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 542.307 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 542.307 Section 542.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 542.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 542.304 Section 542.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 542.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 542.304 Section 542.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 548.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 548.304 Section 548.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 548.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 548.304 Section 548.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 548.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 548.304 Section 548.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 548.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 548.304 Section 548.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 548.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 548.304 Section 548.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 587.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 587.304 Section 587.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF...

  2. 31 CFR 586.309 - Information and informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information and informational materials. 586.309 Section 586.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF...

  3. 31 CFR 549.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 549.304 Section 549.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  4. 31 CFR 536.306 - Information and informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information and informational materials. 536.306 Section 536.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  5. 31 CFR 536.306 - Information and informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information and informational materials. 536.306 Section 536.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 536.306 - Information and informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information and informational materials. 536.306 Section 536.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 536.306 - Information and informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information and informational materials. 536.306 Section 536.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 536.306 - Information and informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information and informational materials. 536.306 Section 536.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 594.305 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 594.305 Section 594.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 594.305 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 594.305 Section 594.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS...

  11. 31 CFR 537.308 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that such controls promote the nonproliferation or antiterrorism policies of the United States; or (2... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS... information or informational materials, with respect to exports, does not include items: (1) That were, as of...

  12. 31 CFR 545.305 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information or informational materials. 545.305 Section 545.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN)...

  13. Dynamic Deformation Properties of Energetic Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    the dynamic mechanical properties and detonation of energetic materials. It also included some preliminary data on the effect of particle size on the...study of the dynamic mechanical properties and detonation of energetic materials. It also included some preliminary data on the effect of particle size...qualitative only. 33 5. DEFLAGRATION-TO- DETONATION (DDT) STUDIES As part of an on-going programme to investigate the properties of ultrafine energetic

  14. Composite Material Property Nondestructive Characterization Using Obliquely Insonified Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Mal, A. K.; Lih, S.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of reflected ultrasonic waves induced by oblique insonification of composite materials is a powerful tool for providing informations about defects and material properties. A device was developed to manipulate a pair of transmitting and receiving transducers at vrious angles of wave incidence and propagation with the fiber orientation.

  15. Drug Abuse Information, Teacher Resource Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Haskell, Comp.

    This informational publication is to be used as an aid for teachers, bringing them basic facts regarding drugs and drug abuse. Its purpose is to (1) give additional teacher background information and (2) enrich any course of study that has been developed on drug abuse. To use the material most effectively, it is suggested the teacher have an…

  16. Reflector and Shield Material Properties for Project Prometheus

    SciTech Connect

    J. Nash

    2005-11-02

    This letter provides updated reflector and shield preliminary material property information to support reactor design efforts. The information provided herein supersedes the applicable portions of Revision 1 to the Space Power Program Preliminary Reactor Design Basis (Reference (a)). This letter partially answers the request in Reference (b) to provide unirradiated and irradiated material properties for beryllium, beryllium oxide, isotopically enriched boron carbide ({sup 11}B{sub 4}C) and lithium hydride. With the exception of {sup 11}B{sub 4}C, the information is provided in Attachments 1 and 2. At the time of issuance of this document, {sup 11}B{sub 4}C had not been studied.

  17. Materials And Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) LDEF materials data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Materials Data Base was developed by the LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG). The LDEF Materials Data Base is envisioned to eventually contain the wide variety and vast quantity of materials data generated from LDEF. The data is searchable by optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, exposure parameters (such as atomic oxygen flux) and author(s) or principal investigator(s). Tne LDEF Materials Data Base was incorporated into the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS). MAPTIS is a collection of materials data which has been computerized and is available to engineers, designers, and researchers in the aerospace community involved in the design and development of spacecraft and related hardware. The LDEF Materials Data Base is described and step-by-step example searches using the data base are included. Information on how to become an authorized user of the system is included.

  18. Dynamic properties of ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    The present study offers new data and analysis on the transient shock strength and equation-of-state properties of ceramics. Various dynamic data on nine high strength ceramics are provided with wave profile measurements, through velocity interferometry techniques, the principal observable. Compressive failure in the shock wave front, with emphasis on brittle versus ductile mechanisms of deformation, is examined in some detail. Extensive spall strength data are provided and related to the theoretical spall strength, and to energy-based theories of the spall process. Failure waves, as a mechanism of deformation in the transient shock process, are examined. Strength and equation-of-state analysis of shock data on silicon carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, silicon dioxide and aluminum nitride is presented with particular emphasis on phase transition properties for the latter two. Wave profile measurements on selected ceramics are investigated for evidence of rate sensitive elastic precursor decay in the shock front failure process.

  19. Properties of doped semiconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemskov, V. S.

    The papers contained in this volume focus on the physicochemical principles of the doping of semiconductor materials. Topics discussed include impurity atoms and atomic levels, phase diagrams of the semiconductor-dopant system, distribution coefficients, dopant diffusion, and macro- and microsegregation of doping components. Attention is also given to the interaction between dopant atoms and lattice defects and the structure and decomposition of semiconductor-dopant solid solutions. Experimental data are presented for single crystals and epitaxial films of III-V, IV-VI, and II-VI semiconductors.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    to zero charcxal NaCI tetrylt NI i,(’IO, PETN* graphite lMlr picric acid N’N, RDX4 glass borax composition B llaNO, HMX0 CaCO, ltgI oxalic at-id...aromatic secondary explosives tetryl, picric acid (trinitrophenol) or TNT could be ignited between glass anvils. These materials showed comparatively little...tartaric acid Net orga,,,c solds sucrose bhlsting, gunpowder gelit in polystyrene These matf:rials igiot-d Ibt the instert of th- ,’,suro drop. t These

  1. Material properties derived from three-dimensional shape representations.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Phillip J; Anderson, Barton L

    2015-10-01

    Retinal image structure is due to a complex mixture of physical sources that includes the surface's 3D shape, light-reflectance and transmittance properties, and the light field. The visual system can somehow discriminate between these different sources of image structure and recover information about the objects and surfaces in the scene. There has been significant debate about the nature of the representations that are used to derive surface reflectance properties such as specularity (gloss). Specularity could be derived either directly from 2D image properties or by exploiting information that can only be derived from representations in which 3D shape has been made explicit. We recently provided evidence that 3D shape information can play a critical role in the perception of material specularity, but the shape manipulation in our prior study also significantly changed 2D image properties (Marlow, Todorović, & Anderson, 2015). Here, we held fixed all monocularly visible 2D image properties and manipulated 3D shape stereoscopically. When binocularly fused, the depicted 3D shapes induced striking transformations in the surfaces' apparent material properties, which vary from matte to 'metallic'. Our psychophysical measurements of perceived specularity reveal that 3D shape information can play a critical role in material perception for both singly-curved surfaces and more complex geometries that curve in two directions. These results provide strong evidence that the perception of material specularity can depend on physical constraints derived from representations in which three-dimensional shape has been made explicit.

  2. Advanced processing and properties of superhard materials

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, J.

    1995-06-01

    The author reviews fundamental aspects of Superhard Materials with hardness close to that of diamond. These materials include cubic boron nitride (c-BN), carbon nitride ({beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and diamondlike carbon. Since these materials are metastable at normal temperatures and pressures, novel methods of synthesis and processing of these materials are required. This review focuses on synthesis and processing, detailed materials characterization and properties of c-BN and {beta}C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and diamondlike carbon films.

  3. Important physical properties of peat materials

    Treesearch

    D.H. Boelter

    1968-01-01

    Peat materials from 12 bogs in northern Minnesota, U.S.A., showed significant differences in physical properties. It is pointed out that 1) these properties can be related to the hydrology of organic soils only if the soils represent undisturbed field conditions, and 2) volumetric expressions of water content are necessary to correctly evaluate the amount of water in a...

  4. Dynamic strength properties of permeable fibrous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanchuk, A.A.; Karpinos, D.M.; Kondrat'ev, Yu.V.; Nezhentsev, Yu.I.; Rutkovskii, A.E.; Bikernieks, V.Ya.; Peterson, O.O.; Pekhovich, V.A.

    1986-11-01

    The authors assess the porosity and fracture properties of porous samples of molybdenum, tungsten, and steel-Kh18N9T through a variety of mechanical tests including impact, bend, and notch. They study the interplay and interdependence of these properties in view of looking for materials suited for processes of transpiration cooling and sound and vibration damping.

  5. 31 CFR 500.332 - Information and informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS... and informational materials with respect to U.S. exports do not include items: (1) That would be controlled for export pursuant to section 5 of the Export Administration Act of 1979, 50 U.S.C. App. 2401...

  6. 31 CFR 544.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that such controls promote the nonproliferation or antiterrorism policies of the United States; or (2... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION... informational materials, with respect to United States exports, does not include items: (1) That were, as of...

  7. 31 CFR 544.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that such controls promote the nonproliferation or antiterrorism policies of the United States; or (2... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION... informational materials, with respect to United States exports, does not include items: (1) That were, as of...

  8. 31 CFR 544.304 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that such controls promote the nonproliferation or antiterrorism policies of the United States; or (2... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION... informational materials, with respect to United States exports, does not include items: (1) That were, as of...

  9. Guidelines for identification of concrete in a materials property database

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, C.B.; Frohnsdorff, G.

    1995-12-31

    Guidelines for the identification of concrete in a materials property database are presented to address the complex problem of distinguishing one concrete from another. These guidelines are based on a logical scheme for systematically organizing and subdividing data and information about concrete and its constituents; they reflect consensus recommendations for a multilevel material description and designation system. Aspects of the guidelines include a classification system used to establish a series of primary identifiers, methods for reporting constituent information and mixture proportions, fields describing the source of the concrete and its processing history, and recommendations for reporting baseline or reference properties.

  10. Nonlinear optical properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, Joseph W.; Inguva, Ramarao

    1991-01-01

    The optical properties of a new class of composite nonlinear materials composed of coated grains, such as cadmium sulfide with a silver coating, are examined. These materials exhibit intrinsic optical bistability and resonantly enhanced conjugate reflectivity. The threshold for intrinsic optical bistability is low enough for practical applications in optical communications and optical computing. Some problems associated with the fabrication of these materials are addressed. Based on preliminary results, switching times are expected to be in the subpicosecond range.

  11. Emergent properties of magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratcliff, William Davis, II

    In Tolstoy's War and Peace, history is presented as a tapestry spun from the daily interactions of large numbers of individuals. Even if one understands individuals, it is very difficult to predict history. Similarly, the interactions of large numbers of electrons give rise to properties that one would not initially guess from their microscopic interactions. During the course of my dissertation, I have explored emergent phenomena in a number of contexts. In ZnCr2O4, geometric frustration gives rise to a plethora of equivalent ground states. From these, a lower dimensional set of collinear spins on hexagons are selected to form the building blocks of the lattice. In MgTi2O4, quantum spins dimerize and form a unique chiral ordering pattern on the spinel lattice. Descending into two dimensions, differences in size and charge give rise to an ordering between triangular layers of magnetic and nonmagnetic ions. This triangular lattice allows for the possibility of observing the RVB spin liquid state, or perhaps a valence bond crystal and initial measurements are promising. Also, on the spinel lattice, ionic ordering gives rise to one dimensional chains with their own interesting physics. Finally, in the SrCoxTi1-x O3, system we find that upon reduction, tiny clusters of Co metal precipitate out and chemical inhomogeneity on the microscale may determine much of the physics. This has relevance to a number of recent claims of room temperature ferromagnism in dilute magnetic systems. In all of these systems, complex behavior emerges from well understood microscopic behavior. For me, this is the fascination of strongly correlated electronic systems.

  12. From Microstructures to Predict Properties of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke-Gang

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the precise and fundamental manner in which materials structures (nanostructures or microstructures) and their evolution influences properties and service lifetimes of advanced materials profoundly impacts material design and today materials design plays an increasingly important rôle in many engineering applications. Linking structures to properties and predicting properties of materials is fundamental step for materials design. First, a framework of applications of multiscale modeling to property prediction of advanced materials will be briefly presented. As an example, a methodology will be shown to link micro-scale to the continuum scale, integrating microstructure modeling with the large Thermo-Calc^ database. This paradigm was successfully applied to the case of Fe-12Ni-6Mn maraging steel. Next, methodology for integrating first-principle calculation into simulations of microstructure evolution will be reviewed. Our methods are sufficiently reliable to permit control and fabrication of quantum-dots structures, nanocrystals, and particle-reinforced nanocomposites, as well as assist in the predictive behavior of macro-scale colloids, aerosols, and other soft matter systems.

  13. 76 FR 16621 - Critical Materials Strategy Request for Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Critical Materials Strategy Request for Information AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... information from stakeholders on rare earth elements and other materials used in energy technologies to support analyses updating its 2010 Critical Materials Strategy. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  14. Information-based screens for deep traps in semiconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Kim; Shah, Kunal; Jones, Dumont

    2011-03-01

    The key to a successful materials search is the ability to suggest promising materials and a priori eliminate unfruitful inquiry. For semiconducting radiation detection materials, performance is characterized by several key properties; band gap, density, electron mobility, and carrier lifetime. The material's proclivity to form defects is critical, as even simple antisite and vacancy defects can be sufficiently deep to affect effective carrier lifetime and mobility. We have developed a new model for defect formation proclivity, leveraging prior defect models (van Vechten and Feichter) and our information-based work. Our approach is based upon classification of materials chemistry and properties consistent with high concentrations of particular defects (e.g. antisites and vacancies). One issue is that nearly any charged local defect can potentially form a deep trap, so the screen must cover different defect types. Second, the screening model for new materials cannot rely on generally unknown factors such as 3D crystal geometry. The resulting model is intended to provide design guidance on expected defect behavior for candidate detection materials for which there is little or no prior information. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from U.S. Department of Homeland Security under Contract No. HSHQDC-08-X-00872.

  15. Tactual perception of liquid material properties.

    PubMed

    Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, studies into the tactual perception of two liquid material properties, viscosity and wetness, are reviewed. These properties are very relevant in the context of interaction with liquids, both real, such as cosmetics or food products, and simulated, as in virtual reality or teleoperation. Both properties have been the subject of psychophysical characterisation in terms of magnitude estimation experiments and discrimination experiments, which are discussed. For viscosity, both oral and manual perception is discussed, as well as the perception of the viscosity of a mechanical system. For wetness, the relevant cues are identified and factors affecting perception are discussed. Finally, some conclusions are drawn pertaining to both properties.

  16. [A medical consumable material management information system].

    PubMed

    Tang, Guoping; Hu, Liang

    2014-05-01

    Medical consumables material is essential supplies to carry out medical work, which has a wide range of varieties and a large amount of usage. How to manage it feasibly and efficiently that has been a topic of concern to everyone. This article discussed about how to design a medical consumable material management information system that has a set of standardized processes, bring together medical supplies administrator, suppliers and clinical departments. Advanced management mode, enterprise resource planning (ERP) applied to the whole system design process.

  17. Hazardous materials information hotline using System 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, J.E.; Fuchel, K.

    1984-04-30

    The Center for Assessment of Chemical and Physical Hazards (CACPH) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a computer hotline service for the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. This service provides access to health and safety information for over 800 chemicals and hazardous materials. The data base uses System 2000 on a CDC 6600 and provides information on the chemical name and its synonyms, 17 categories of health and safety information, composition of chemical mixtures, categories of chemicals, use and hazards, and physical, chemical and toxicity attributes. In order to make this information available to people unfamiliar with System 2000, a user-friendly interface was developed using a Fortran PLEX Program. 1 reference, 1 figure.

  18. Bone Material Properties in Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta entrains changes at every level in bone tissue, from the disorganization of the collagen molecules and mineral platelets within and between collagen fibrils to the macroarchitecture of the whole skeleton. Investigations using an array of sophisticated instruments at multiple scale levels have now determined many aspects of the effect of the disease on the material properties of bone tissue. The brittle nature of bone in osteogenesis imperfecta reflects both increased bone mineralization density-the quantity of mineral in relation to the quantity of matrix within a specific bone volume-and altered matrix-matrix and matrix mineral interactions. Contributions to fracture resistance at multiple scale lengths are discussed, comparing normal and brittle bone. Integrating the available information provides both a better understanding of the effect of current approaches to treatment-largely improved architecture and possibly some macroscale toughening-and indicates potential opportunities for alternative strategies that can influence fracture resistance at longer-length scales. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. Fundamentals of ultrasonic NDE for microstructure/material property interrelations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1982-01-01

    Some fundamental aspects of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation for material properties and microstructure assessment are given. Ultrasonic wave interaction concepts, some recent findings, and practical ramifications are illustrated. The concepts are discussed in nonmathematical, narrative form. Additional information can be found in the references cited herein.

  20. ESTEC wiring test programme materials related properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wires are considered as EEE parts and are covered within the ESA SCC specification series (ESA SCC 3901/XXX). This specification defines the principal properties of the wires including insulation/lay-up and electrical properties. Some additional space related materials requirements are also included, requirements such as outgassing and silver plating thickness. If a project has additional materials requirements over and above those covered by the relevant SCC specification, then additional testing is required. This is especially true for crewed spacecraft. The following topics are discussed in this context: additional requirements for manned spacecraft; flammability; arc tracking; thermal decomposition; microbial surface growth; and ageing.

  1. ESTEC wiring test programme materials related properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wires are considered as EEE parts and are covered within the ESA SCC specification series (ESA SCC 3901/XXX). This specification defines the principal properties of the wires including insulation/lay-up and electrical properties. Some additional space related materials requirements are also included, requirements such as outgassing and silver plating thickness. If a project has additional materials requirements over and above those covered by the relevant SCC specification, then additional testing is required. This is especially true for crewed spacecraft. The following topics are discussed in this context: additional requirements for manned spacecraft; flammability; arc tracking; thermal decomposition; microbial surface growth; and ageing.

  2. Studies of molecular properties of polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Long, Edward R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace environment effects (high energy electrons, thermal cycling, atomic oxygen, and aircraft fluids) on polymeric and composite materials considered for structural use in spacecraft and advanced aircraft are examined. These materials include Mylar, Ultem, and Kapton. In addition to providing information on the behavior of the materials, attempts are made to relate the measurements to the molecular processes occurring in the material. A summary and overview of the technical aspects are given along with a list of the papers that resulted from the studies. The actual papers are included in the appendices and a glossary of technical terms and definitions is included in the front matter.

  3. Calibrating Nonlinear Soil Material Properties for Seismic Analysis Using Soil Material Properties Intended for Linear Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, Robert Edward; Coleman, Justin Leigh

    2015-08-01

    Seismic analysis of nuclear structures is routinely performed using guidance provided in “Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures and Commentary (ASCE 4, 1998).” This document, which is currently under revision, provides detailed guidance on linear seismic soil-structure-interaction (SSI) analysis of nuclear structures. To accommodate the linear analysis, soil material properties are typically developed as shear modulus and damping ratio versus cyclic shear strain amplitude. A new Appendix in ASCE 4-2014 (draft) is being added to provide guidance for nonlinear time domain SSI analysis. To accommodate the nonlinear analysis, a more appropriate form of the soil material properties includes shear stress and energy absorbed per cycle versus shear strain. Ideally, nonlinear soil model material properties would be established with soil testing appropriate for the nonlinear constitutive model being used. However, much of the soil testing done for SSI analysis is performed for use with linear analysis techniques. Consequently, a method is described in this paper that uses soil test data intended for linear analysis to develop nonlinear soil material properties. To produce nonlinear material properties that are equivalent to the linear material properties, the linear and nonlinear model hysteresis loops are considered. For equivalent material properties, the shear stress at peak shear strain and energy absorbed per cycle should match when comparing the linear and nonlinear model hysteresis loops. Consequently, nonlinear material properties are selected based on these criteria.

  4. Intellectual property and information controversy (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    As advanced information has been proceeded rapidly, intellectual property has become more important than ever as business resources of enterprises. Based on the former report by the author "present status of and trend in intellectual property" this paper describes "information" related intellectual property controversy which have been occurred, that is, 1) affairs related to computer hardwares and softwares (the case of compatible machines and OS, the case of application softwares, computer crimes) and 2) affairs on trade secret (the case of revealing enterprises'secret, the case of industrial espionage). It also discusses how intellectual property should be protected and utilized from now on.

  5. Intellectual property analysis of holographic materials business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingand, Nadya; Hunt, David

    2006-02-01

    The paper presents an overview of intellectual property in the field of holographic photosensitive materials and highlights the possibilities offered by patent searching and analysis. Thousands of patent documents relevant to holographic materials have been uncovered by the study. The search was performed in the following databases: U.S. Patent Office, European Patent Office, and Japanese Patent Office for the time frame of 1971 through November 2005. The patent analysis has unveiled trends in patent temporal distribution, leading IP portfolios, companies competition within the holographic materials market and other interesting insights.

  6. Systems and methods for predicting materials properties

    DOEpatents

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Fischer, Chris; Tibbetts, Kevin; Morgan, Dane; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2007-11-06

    Systems and methods for predicting features of materials of interest. Reference data are analyzed to deduce relationships between the input data sets and output data sets. Reference data includes measured values and/or computed values. The deduced relationships can be specified as equations, correspondences, and/or algorithmic processes that produce appropriate output data when suitable input data is used. In some instances, the output data set is a subset of the input data set, and computational results may be refined by optionally iterating the computational procedure. To deduce features of a new material of interest, a computed or measured input property of the material is provided to an equation, correspondence, or algorithmic procedure previously deduced, and an output is obtained. In some instances, the output is iteratively refined. In some instances, new features deduced for the material of interest are added to a database of input and output data for known materials.

  7. Electromagnetic properties of material coated surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, L.; Berrie, J.; Burkholder, R.; Dominek, A.; Walton, E.; Wang, N.

    1989-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of material coated conducting surfaces were investigated. The coating geometries consist of uniform layers over a planar surface, irregularly shaped formations near edges and randomly positioned, electrically small, irregularly shaped formations over a surface. Techniques to measure the scattered field and constitutive parameters from these geometries were studied. The significance of the scattered field from these geometries warrants further study.

  8. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  9. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  10. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  11. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  12. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  13. Antibacterial properties of temporary filling materials.

    PubMed

    Slutzky, Hagay; Slutzky-Goldberg, I; Weiss, E I; Matalon, S

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of temporary fillings. The direct contact test (DCT) was used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of Revoltek LC, Tempit, Systemp inlay, and IRM. These were tested in contact with Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis. The materials were examined immediately after setting, 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after aging in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey multiple comparison. Systemp inlay, Tempit, and IRM exhibited antibacterial properties when in contact with S. mutans for at least 7 days, Tempit and IRM sustained this ability for at least 14 days. When in contact with E. faecalis Tempit and IRM were antibacterial immediately after setting, IRM sustained this ability for at least 1 day. Our study suggests that the difference in temporary filling materials may influence which microorganism will be able to invade the root canal system.

  14. Intellectual Property in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Steven W.; Lyman, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Nearly every academic practice is being transformed by information technology. The concept of "piracy," or "theft," presumes that ideas can still be treated as if they are property, and if so, that the rules controlling the movement of idea-properties can be enforced. (MLW)

  15. Properties of five toughened matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Dow, Marvin B.

    1992-01-01

    The use of toughened matrix composite materials offers an attractive solution to the problem of poor damage tolerance associated with advanced composite materials. In this study, the unidirectional laminate strengths and moduli, notched (open-hole) and unnotched tension and compression properties of quasi-isotropic laminates, and compression-after-impact strengths of five carbon fiber/toughened matrix composites, IM7/E7T1-2, IM7/X1845, G40-800X/5255-3, IM7/5255-3, and IM7/5260 have been evaluated. The compression-after-impact (CAI) strengths were determined primarily by impacting quasi-isotropic laminates with the NASA Langley air gun. A few CAI tests were also made with a drop-weight impactor. For a given impact energy, compression after impact strengths were determined to be dependent on impactor velocity. Properties and strengths for the five materials tested are compared with NASA data on other toughened matrix materials (IM7/8551-7, IM6/1808I, IM7/F655, and T800/F3900). This investigation found that all five materials were stronger and more impact damage tolerant than more brittle carbon/epoxy composite materials currently used in aircraft structures.

  16. Informed Consent, Body Property, and Self-Sovereignty.

    PubMed

    Rao, Radhika

    2016-09-01

    Recent cases involving biosamples taken from indigenous tribes and newborn babies reveal the emptiness of informed consent. This venerable doctrine often functions as a charade, a collective fiction which thinly masks the uncomfortable fact that the subjects of human research are not actually afforded full information regarding the types of research that may be contemplated, nor do they provide meaningful consent. But if informed consent fails to provide adequate protection to the donors of biological materials, why not turn to principles of property law? Property is power, yet current law permits everyone except for those who donate biological materials to possess property rights. The reluctance to invoke property probably stems from fears of resurrecting slavery and the commodification of human beings. But ironically, avoidance of property transforms the subjects of human research into objects that can be owned only by others, resulting in new forms of oppression and exploitation. Human research subjects are autonomous individuals who should not only possess the power to contribute their biological materials, but also the right to help control the course of research, and to share in the resulting benefits or profits. Conferring body property might enable research subjects to regain power and a measure of self-sovereignty. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  17. Measurement of textile materials thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, M.; Duvaut, T.; Chirtoc, M.; Bachmann, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The determination of thermal properties of textile materials is difficult and subject to errors. Here we used two experimental methods. A PhotoPyroElectric method (Front PPE configuration with a modulated heat flow imposed on the surface of the sensor) and a commercial device (Alambeta) based the hot plate method. Two theorical approaches for the latter device were used. We tested the two methods on different textile materials (cotton, modal, wool and spacer). We observe good agreement between thermal conductivities measured with the two methods.

  18. First principles simulation of materials properties

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, W.A.; Stocks, G.M.; Jordan, R.G.; Liu, Y.; Qui, L.; Johnson, D.D.; Pinski, F.J.; Staunton, J.B.; Ginatempo, B.

    1994-08-01

    We have developed a hybrid, parallel computer code for calculating the electronic structure of both ordered and substitutionally disordered materials. By using PVM3.3, we can integrate into our local computer environment multiple parallel and vector supercomputers as well as high performance workstations. Without this approach, calculations of materials properties of large systems would be otherwise untenable due to a lack of computer resources. For example, we have determined the short-range order intensity and its electronic origin for the Ag-Mg alloy system, including an estimate of the order-disorder (spinodal) temperature.

  19. Temperature dependent phonon properties of thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, Olle; Broido, David; Fultz, Brent

    2015-03-01

    We present recent developments using the temperature dependent effective potential technique (TDEP) to model thermoelectric materials. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to generate an effective Hamiltonian that reproduce neutron scattering spectra, thermal conductivity, phonon self energies, and heat capacities. Results are presented for (among others) SnSe, Bi2Te3, and Cu2Se proving the necessity of careful modelling of finite temperature properties for strongly anharmonic materials. Supported by the Swedish Research Council (VR) Project Number 637-2013-7296.

  20. Thermal expansion properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. R.; Kural, M. H.; Mackey, G. B.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal expansion data for several composite materials, including generic epoxy resins, various graphite, boron, and glass fibers, and unidirectional and woven fabric composites in an epoxy matrix, were compiled. A discussion of the design, material, environmental, and fabrication properties affecting thermal expansion behavior is presented. Test methods and their accuracy are discussed. Analytical approaches to predict laminate coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) based on lamination theory and micromechanics are also included. A discussion is included of methods of tuning a laminate to obtain a near-zero CTE for space applications.

  1. Micro-mechanical properties of bio-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakiev, V.; Markovsky, A.; Aznakayev, E.; Zakiev, I.; Gursky, E.

    2005-09-01

    Investigation of physical-mechanical characteristics of stomatologic materials (ceramics for crowns, silver amalgam, cements and materials on a polymeric basis) properties by the modern methods and correspondence their physical-mechanical properties to the physical-mechanical properties of native teeth is represented. The universal device "Micron-Gamma" is built for this purpose. This device allows investigate the physical-mechanical characteristics of stomatologic materials (an elastic modulus, micro-hardness, destruction energy, resistance to scratching) by the methods of continuous indentation, scanning and pricking. A new effective method as well as its device application for the investigation of surface layers of materials and their physical-mechanical properties by means of the constant indenting of an indenter is realized. This method is based on the automatic registration of loading (P) on the indenter with the simultaneous measurement of its indentation depth (h). The results of investigations are presented on a loading diagram P=f(h) and as a digital imaging on the PC. This diagram allows get not only more diverse characteristics in the real time regime but also gives new information about the stomatologic material properties. Therefore, we can to investigate the wide range of the physical-mechanical properties of stomatologic materials. "Micron-alpha" is digital detection device for light imaging applications. It enables to detect the very low material surface relief heights and restoration of surface micro topography by a sequence data processing of interferential data of partially coherent light also. "Micron-alpha" allows: to build 2D and 3D imaging of a material surface; to estimate the quantitatively characteristics of a material surface; to observe the imaging interferential pictures both in the white and in the monochromatic light; to carry out the investigation of blood cells, microbes and biological macromolecules profiles. The method allows

  2. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selling visual information materials. 811.4... SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.4 Selling visual information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve the...

  3. Mechanical Properties of Infrared Transmitting Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    William L. Gaiser, Eglin Air Force Base Dr. George Hayes, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake Dr. Dale Holter , U.S. Army Missile Command Prof. Ray...Laboratory; and numerical work has been performed at Systems, Science and Software ; California Research Technology; shock Hydrodynamics; General Atomic...Hageman, 6. A. Gurtman, and M. Baker, "Influence of ABM Material Properties on Erosion Resulting from Particle Impact," Systems, Science, and Software

  4. Magnetic properties of Martian surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargraves, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The hypothesis that the magnetic properties of the Martian surface material are due to the production of a magnetic phase in the clay mineral nontronite by transient shock heating is examined. In the course of the investigation a magnetic material is produced with rather unusual properties. Heating from 900 C to 1000 C, of natural samples of nontronite leads first to the production of what appears to be Si doped maghemite gamma (-Fe2O3). Although apparently metastable, the growth of gamma -Fe2O3 at these temprtures is unexpected, and its relative persistence of several hours at 1000 C is most surprising. Continued annealing of this material for longer periods promote the crystallization of alpha Fe2O3 and cristobalite (high temperature polymorph of SiO2). All available data correlate this new magnetic material with the cristobalite hence our naming it magnetic ferri cristobalite. Formation of this magnetic cristobalite, however, may require topotactic growth from a smectite precursor.

  5. On Structure and Properties of Amorphous Materials

    PubMed Central

    Stachurski, Zbigniew H.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical, optical, magnetic and electronic properties of amorphous materials hold great promise towards current and emergent technologies. We distinguish at least four categories of amorphous (glassy) materials: (i) metallic; (ii) thin films; (iii) organic and inorganic thermoplastics; and (iv) amorphous permanent networks. Some fundamental questions about the atomic arrangements remain unresolved. This paper focuses on the models of atomic arrangements in amorphous materials. The earliest ideas of Bernal on the structure of liquids were followed by experiments and computer models for the packing of spheres. Modern approach is to carry out computer simulations with prediction that can be tested by experiments. A geometrical concept of an ideal amorphous solid is presented as a novel contribution to the understanding of atomic arrangements in amorphous solids. PMID:28824158

  6. Acoustical properties of highly porous fibrous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Highly porous, fibrous bulk sound absorbing materials are studied with a view toward understanding their acoustical properties and performance in a wide variety of applications including liners of flow ducts. The basis and criteria for decoupling of acoustic waves in the pores of the frame and compressional waves in the frame structure are established. The equations of motion are recast in a form that elucidates the coupling mechanisms. The normal incidence surface impedance and absorption coefficient of two types of Kevlar 29 and an open celled foam material are studied. Experimental values and theoretical results are brought into agreement when the structure factor is selected to provide a fit to the experimental data. A parametric procedure for achieving that fit is established. Both a bulk material quality factor and a high frequency impedance level are required to characterize the real and imaginary part of the surface impedance and absorption coefficient. A derivation of the concepts of equivalent density and dynamic resistance is presented.

  7. Material modeling of biofilm mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Laspidou, C S; Spyrou, L A; Aravas, N; Rittmann, B E

    2014-05-01

    A biofilm material model and a procedure for numerical integration are developed in this article. They enable calculation of a composite Young's modulus that varies in the biofilm and evolves with deformation. The biofilm-material model makes it possible to introduce a modeling example, produced by the Unified Multi-Component Cellular Automaton model, into the general-purpose finite-element code ABAQUS. Compressive, tensile, and shear loads are imposed, and the way the biofilm mechanical properties evolve is assessed. Results show that the local values of Young's modulus increase under compressive loading, since compression results in the voids "closing," thus making the material stiffer. For the opposite reason, biofilm stiffness decreases when tensile loads are imposed. Furthermore, the biofilm is more compliant in shear than in compression or tension due to the how the elastic shear modulus relates to Young's modulus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond crystals: the dialectic of materials and information.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Mackay, Alan L

    2012-06-28

    We argue for a convergence of crystallography, materials science and biology, that will come about through asking materials questions about biology and biological questions about materials, illuminated by considerations of information. The complex structures now being studied in biology and produced in nanotechnology have outstripped the framework of classical crystallography, and a variety of organizing concepts are now taking shape into a more modern and dynamic science of structure, form and function. Absolute stability and equilibrium are replaced by metastable structures existing in a flux of energy-carrying information and moving within an energy landscape of complex topology. Structures give place to processes and processes to systems. The fundamental level is that of atoms. As smaller and smaller groups of atoms are used for their physical properties, quantum effects become important; already we see quantum computation taking shape. Concepts move towards those in life with the emergence of specifically informational structures. We now see the possibility of the artificial construction of a synthetic living system, different from biological life, but having many or all of the same properties. Interactions are essentially nonlinear and collective. Structures begin to have an evolutionary history with episodes of symbiosis. Underlying all the structures are constraints of time and space. Through hierarchization, a more general principle than the periodicity of crystals, structures may be found within structures on different scales. We must integrate unifying concepts from dynamical systems and information theory to form a coherent language and science of shape and structure beyond crystals. To this end, we discuss the idea of categorizing structures based on information according to the algorithmic complexity of their assembly.

  9. Beyond crystals: the dialectic of materials and information

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Mackay, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    We argue for a convergence of crystallography, materials science and biology, that will come about through asking materials questions about biology and biological questions about materials, illuminated by considerations of information. The complex structures now being studied in biology and produced in nanotechnology have outstripped the framework of classical crystallography, and a variety of organizing concepts are now taking shape into a more modern and dynamic science of structure, form and function. Absolute stability and equilibrium are replaced by metastable structures existing in a flux of energy-carrying information and moving within an energy landscape of complex topology. Structures give place to processes and processes to systems. The fundamental level is that of atoms. As smaller and smaller groups of atoms are used for their physical properties, quantum effects become important; already we see quantum computation taking shape. Concepts move towards those in life with the emergence of specifically informational structures. We now see the possibility of the artificial construction of a synthetic living system, different from biological life, but having many or all of the same properties. Interactions are essentially nonlinear and collective. Structures begin to have an evolutionary history with episodes of symbiosis. Underlying all the structures are constraints of time and space. Through hierarchization, a more general principle than the periodicity of crystals, structures may be found within structures on different scales. We must integrate unifying concepts from dynamical systems and information theory to form a coherent language and science of shape and structure beyond crystals. To this end, we discuss the idea of categorizing structures based on information according to the algorithmic complexity of their assembly. PMID:22615461

  10. MEASUREMENT OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF DAMAGED ENERGETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P C; Hust, G; Dehaven, M; Chidester, S; Glascoe, L; Hoffman, M; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-10

    We recently conducted damaged experiments on three explosives (mechanical damage on LX-04 and thermal experiments on HPP and PBXN-9) and characterized the effect of damage on some material properties. The MTS equipment was used to apply compressive cycling to LX-04 pressed parts and the results showed that older LX-04 parts became mechanically weaker than newer parts. After repeated compressive cycling for over 20,000 times, older LX-04 parts failed but newer LX-04 parts survived. Thermal insults were applied to PBXN-9 and HPP at 180 C and 200 C, respectively in unconfined conditions for several hours. The thermally-damaged HPP sample suffered 12.0% weight losses and a volume expansion of 20% was observed. Porosity of the damaged HPP increased to 25% after thermal exposure, which led to higher gas permeability. Burn rates of damaged PBXN-9 were 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of pristine samples but burn rates of damaged HPP were only slightly higher than those of pristine HPP. Small-scale safety tests (impact, friction, and spark) showed no significant sensitization when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature. Gas permeation measurements showed that gas permeability in damaged materials was several orders of magnitude higher than that in pristine materials. In-situ measurements of gas permeability at high temperatures were made on HPP samples and the results showed that the gas permeability increased by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude.

  11. Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

    2005-06-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

  12. The role of material properties in adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    When two solid surfaces are brought into contact strong adhesive bond forces can develop between the materials. The magnitude of the forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between solids is addressed from a theoretical consideration of the electronic nature of the surfaces and experimentally relating bond forces to the nature of the interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties correlated with adhesion include, atomic or molecular orientation, reconstruction and segregation as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where dissimilar solids are in contact the contribution of each is considered as is the role of their interactive chemistry on bond strength. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structure, crystallographic orientation and state. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include metals, alloys, ceramics, polymers and diamond. They are reviewed both in single and polycrystalline form. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  13. Measurement of material mechanical properties in microforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Wang; Xu, Zhenying; Hui, Huang; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2006-02-01

    As the rapid market need of micro-electro-mechanical systems engineering gives it the wide development and application ranging from mobile phones to medical apparatus, the need of metal micro-parts is increasing gradually. Microforming technology challenges the plastic processing technology. The findings have shown that if the grain size of the specimen remains constant, the flow stress changes with the increasing miniaturization, and also the necking elongation and the uniform elongation etc. It is impossible to get the specimen material properties in conventional tensile test machine, especially in the high precision demand. Therefore, one new measurement method for getting the specimen material-mechanical property with high precision is initiated. With this method, coupled with the high speed of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera and high precision of Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM), the elongation and tensile strain in the gauge length are obtained. The elongation, yield stress and other mechanical properties can be calculated from the relationship between the images and CCD camera movement. This measuring method can be extended into other experiments, such as the alignment of the tool and specimen, micro-drawing process.

  14. Synthesis of new materials with properties ameliorated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baira, F.; Benfarhi, S.; Zidani, S.

    2012-09-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer in nature. It is used mainly for the production of paper bet also as a reinforcement in the polymer matrixes[1]. The modification of this polysaccharide presents a great interest, for it is the main constituent of agricultural wastes. It is well known that the microcrystalline cellulose gives, after chemical modification, new biodegradable materials[2], which may be used, for instance, for packaging. The esterification of cellulose necessitates an acid pretreatment which makes hydroxyl groups more accessible by breaking hydrogen bonds. X-rays diffraction analysis showed a feeble diminution of the treated samples cristallinity[3]. Cellulose, activated in this way, is esterified in a classic way in DMF, in the presence of triethylamine, LiCl and acid chloride at 60C° for 24 hours[4]. The obtained ester is precipitated in MeOH. The residue, dissolved in CHCl3, gives after evaporation in the open air, a plastic film surface. The water drop test has shown the hydrophobe properties of the plastic film surface. Our work is the study of the preparation of composite materials from the basis of their derivatives. Well as the study of the photopolymerisation kinetic, and the chemical degradation. The obtained films were analyzed by IR-TF, and the volumetrie[5,6]. As a conclusion, we have prepared composite materials with improved properties with reference to the matrix alone.

  15. Mechanical properties of nanostructure of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Baohua; Gao, Huajian

    2004-09-01

    Natural biological materials such as bone, teeth and nacre are nanocomposites of protein and mineral with superior strength. It is quite a marvel that nature produces hard and tough materials out of protein as soft as human skin and mineral as brittle as classroom chalk. What are the secrets of nature? Can we learn from this to produce bio-inspired materials in the laboratory? These questions have motivated us to investigate the mechanics of protein-mineral nanocomposite structure. Large aspect ratios and a staggered alignment of mineral platelets are found to be the key factors contributing to the large stiffness of biomaterials. A tension-shear chain (TSC) model of biological nanostructure reveals that the strength of biomaterials hinges upon optimizing the tensile strength of the mineral crystals. As the size of the mineral crystals is reduced to nanoscale, they become insensitive to flaws with strength approaching the theoretical strength of atomic bonds. The optimized tensile strength of mineral crystals thus allows a large amount of fracture energy to be dissipated in protein via shear deformation and consequently enhances the fracture toughness of biocomposites. We derive viscoelastic properties of the protein-mineral nanostructure and show that the toughness of biocomposite can be further enhanced by the viscoelastic properties of protein.

  16. Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbein, Meyer

    1939-01-01

    A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

  17. 32 CFR 811.2 - Release of visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of visual information materials. 811.2... SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.2 Release of visual information materials. (a) Only the Secretary of the Air Force for Public Affairs (SAF/PA) clears and releases...

  18. 75 FR 48706 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for... Act (NCVIA) (42 U.S.C. 300aa-26), the CDC must develop vaccine information materials that all health.... CDC seeks written comment on proposed new vaccine information materials for rotavirus vaccine. DATES...

  19. Mechanical properties of dental investment materials.

    PubMed

    Low, D; Swain, M V

    2000-07-01

    Measurement of the elastic modulus (E) of investment materials has been difficult because of their low strength. However, these values are essential for engineering simulation and there are many methods available to assess the elasticity of materials. The present study compared two different methods with one of the methods being non-destructive in nature and can be used for specimens prepared for other tests. Two different types of investment materials were selected, gypsum-and phosphate-bonded. Method 1 is a traditional three-point bending test. Twelve rectangular bars with dimension of (70 x 9 x 3 mm) were prepared and placed on supports 56.8 mm apart. The test was conducted at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min by use of a universal testing machine. The load applied to the test specimen and the corresponding deflection were measured until the specimen fractured. The E value was calculated from a linear part of the stress-strain plot. Method 2 is an ultra micro-indentation system to determine near surface properties of materials with nanometer resolution. The measurement procedure was programmed such that the specimens were indented with an initial contact force of 5 mN then followed by a maximum force of 500 mN. Measurement consisted of 10 indentations conducted with a spherical stainless steel indenter (R = 250 microm) that were equally spaced (500 microm). The E value rose asymptotically with depth of penetration and would approach the three-point bending test value at approximately four time's maximum contact depth for both materials. Both methods are practical ways of measuring the E of investment materials.

  20. Material properties of the plantar aponeurosis.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, H B; Luo, Z P; Growney, E S; Berglund, L J; An, K N

    1994-10-01

    Material properties of the plantar aponeurosis were determined by a two-dimensional video tracking method to simultaneously measure the aponeurosis deformation. Failure loads averaged 1189 +/- 244 N and were higher in men. Average stiffness of the intact fascia was 203.7 +/- 50.5 N/mm at a loading rate of 11.12 N/sec and it did not vary significantly for the loading rates of 11.12 to 1112 N/sec. The high tensile loads required for failure were consistent with clinical and biomechanical studies and indicated the importance of the aponeurosis in foot function and arch stability.

  1. Physical Properties of Thin Film Semiconducting Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouras, N.; Djebbouri, M.; Outemzabet, R.; Sali, S.; Zerrouki, H.; Zouaoui, A.; Kesri, N.

    2005-10-01

    The physics and chemistry of semiconducting materials is a continuous question of debate. We can find a large stock of well-known properties but at the same time, many things are not understood. In recent years, porous silicon (PS-Si), diselenide of copper and indium (CuInSe2 or CIS) and metal oxide semiconductors like tin oxide (SnO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been subjected to extensive studies because of the rising interest their potential applications in fields such as electronic components, solar panels, catalysis, gas sensors, in biocompatible materials, in Li-based batteries, in new generation of MOSFETS. Bulk structure and surface and interface properties play important roles in all of these applications. A deeper understanding of these fundamental properties would impact largely on technological application performances. In our laboratory, thin films of undoped and antimony-doped films of tin oxide have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition. Spray pyrolysis was used for ZnO. CIS was prepared by flash evaporation or close-space vapor transport. Some of the deposition parameters have been varied, such as substrate temperature, time of deposition (or anodization), and molar concentration of bath preparation. For some samples, thermal annealing was carried out under oxygen (or air), under nitrogen gas and under vacuum. Deposition and post-deposition parameters are known to strongly influence film structure and electrical resistivity. We investigated the influence of film thickness and thermal annealing on structural optical and electrical properties of the films. Examination of SnO2 by x-ray diffraction showed that the main films are polycrystalline with rutile structure. The x-ray spectra of ZnO indicated a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Characterizations of CIS films with compositional analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning microscopy, spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence were carried out.

  2. Interdisciplinary research on the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several investigations concerning the properties and processing of brittle ceramic materials as related to design considerations are briefly described. Surface characterization techniques, fractography, high purity materials, creep properties, impact and thermal shock resistance, and reaction bonding are discussed.

  3. Relevant optical properties for direct restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Pecho, Oscar E; Ghinea, Razvan; do Amaral, Erika A Navarro; Cardona, Juan C; Della Bona, Alvaro; Pérez, María M

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate relevant optical properties of esthetic direct restorative materials focusing on whitened and translucent shades. Enamel (E), body (B), dentin (D), translucent (T) and whitened (Wh) shades for E (WhE) and B (WhB) from a restorative system (Filtek Supreme XTE, 3M ESPE) were evaluated. Samples (1 mm thick) were prepared. Spectral reflectance (R%) and color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, C* and h°) were measured against black and white backgrounds, using a spectroradiometer, in a viewing booth, with CIE D65 illuminant and d/0° geometry. Scattering (S) and absorption (K) coefficients and transmittance (T%) were calculated using Kubelka-Munk's equations. Translucency (TP) and opalescence (OP) parameters and whiteness index (W*) were obtained from differences of CIELAB color coordinates. R%, S, K and T% curves from all shades were compared using VAF (Variance Accounting For) coefficient with Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Color coordinates and optical parameters were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test with Bonferroni correction (α=0.0007). Spectral behavior of R% and S were different for T shades. In addition, T shades showed the lowest R%, S and K values, as well as the highest T%, TP an OP values. In most cases, WhB shades showed different color and optical properties (including TP and W*) than their corresponding B shades. WhE shades showed similar mean W* values and higher mean T% and TP values than E shades. When using whitened or translucent composites, the final color is influenced not only by the intraoral background but also by the color and optical properties of multilayers used in the esthetic restoration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Material Properties of the Posterior Human Sclera☆

    PubMed Central

    Grytz, Rafael; Fazio, Massimo A.; Girard, Michael J.A.; Libertiaux, Vincent; Bruno, Luigi; Gardiner, Stuart; Girkin, Christopher A.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the material properties of posterior and peripapillary sclera from human donors, and to investigate the macro- and micro-scale strains as potential control mechanisms governing mechanical homeostasis. Posterior scleral shells from 9 human donors aged 57–90 years were subjected to IOP elevations from 5 to 45 mmHg and the resulting full-field displacements were recorded using laser speckle interferometry. Eye-specific finite element models were generated based on experimentally measured scleral shell surface geometry and thickness. Inverse numerical analyses were performed to identify material parameters for each eye by matching experimental deformation measurements to model predictions using a microstructure-based constitutive formulation that incorporates the crimp response and anisotropic architecture of scleral collagen fibrils. The material property fitting produced models that fit both the overall and local deformation responses of posterior scleral shells very well. The nonlinear stiffening of the sclera with increasing IOP was well reproduced by the uncrimping of scleral collagen fibrils, and a circumferentially-aligned ring of collagen fibrils around the scleral canal was predicted in all eyes. Macroscopic in-plane strains were significantly higher in peripapillary region then in the mid-periphery. In contrast, the meso- and micro-scale strains at the collagen network and collagen fibril level were not significantly different between regions. The elastic response of the posterior human sclera can be characterized by the anisotropic architecture and crimp response of scleral collagen fibrils. The similar collagen fibril strains in the peripapillary and mid-peripheral regions support the notion that the scleral collagen architecture including the circumpapillary ring of collagen fibrils evolved to establish optimal load bearing conditions at the collagen fibril level. PMID:23684352

  5. Materials properties data management: Approaches to a critical national need

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The US has taken a leading role in the application of modern computer technology to design and manufacturing processes through the development of computerized design and manufacturing systems (CAD/CAM systems), which are now in place in some of our large industries. However, a corresponding use of computer technology in the storage, dissemination, and analysis of materials properties data vital to the design process has been only weakly developed. It is obvious that the CAD/CAM system could be improved by rapid access to appropriate computerized data bases containing properly evaluated materials properties data. Of equal importance is the provision of such information to our many relatively small industries, which may not have a staff of materials specialists and, therefore, find themselves in an unfavorable position with respect to foreign competitors in those countries where technology receives strong federal support. In the absence of a rational materials data management policy, the US is allowing the hemorrhaging of a vital national resource. The consequences of this neglect are serious and are listed. This report outlines some of the problems associated with the development of materials properties data bases and describes the essential features and advantages of a National Computerized Materials Properties Data Bank Network cooperatively established by our federal government and the private sector. Such a system would be a positive factor in increasing product reliability and improving the competitive position of the US in a world market environment where maximum use of advanced technology is decisive for success. Two sections of the report have been entered individually.

  6. Test Methods for Measuring Material Properties of Composite Materials in all Three Material Axes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-24

    Elastic Properties Strength Properties ASTM Ref. In-Plane Tension Ex, Ey, νxy STx, STy D 3039 In-Plane Compression ECx, ECy, νCxy SCx, SCy D 6641 In...as required. The in-plane tension test was conducted using ASTM D 3039 /D 3039M “Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Composite...properties were determined for fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) with respect to all three material orientations using existing ASTM standards when

  7. 75 FR 61412 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) program Cooperative Agreements. DATES: Comments... Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Cooperative Agreements. OMB Number: 0596-NEW. Type...

  8. Interdisciplinary research on the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The advancement of material performance and design methodology as related to brittle materials was investigated. The processing and properties of ceramic materials as related to design requirements was also studied.

  9. Thermophysical Properties of Selected Aerospace Materials. Part 2. Thermophysical Properties of Seven Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    Determining Thermal Conductivity of Solids from 20 to 600 K," Cryogenics, 5( 1), 17-20, 1965. 11. Garth, R.C. and Sailer , V.L., "Thermal Conductivity of...34Thermal Property Data Utilized for Asset Materials," McDonnell Aircraft Corp. Rept. A656, 45 pp., 1964. [AD 480 414] 23. Makarounls, O., " Solar

  10. Spacecraft dielectric material properties and spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Wall, J. A.; Cotts, D. B.; Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of spacecraft charging is reviewed, and criteria for selecting and testing semiinsulating polymers (SIPs) to avoid charging are discussed and illustrated. Chapters are devoted to the required properties of dielectric materials, the charging process, discharge-pulse phenomena, design for minimum pulse size, design to prevent pulses, conduction in polymers, evaluation of SIPs that might prevent spacecraft charging, and the general response of dielectrics to space radiation. SIPs characterized include polyimides, fluorocarbons, thermoplastic polyesters, poly(alkanes), vinyl polymers and acrylates, polymers containing phthalocyanine, polyacene quinones, coordination polymers containing metal ions, conjugated-backbone polymers, and 'metallic' conducting polymers. Tables summarizing the results of SIP radiation tests (such as those performed for the NASA Galileo Project) are included.

  11. Spacecraft dielectric material properties and spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Wall, J. A.; Cotts, D. B.; Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of spacecraft charging is reviewed, and criteria for selecting and testing semiinsulating polymers (SIPs) to avoid charging are discussed and illustrated. Chapters are devoted to the required properties of dielectric materials, the charging process, discharge-pulse phenomena, design for minimum pulse size, design to prevent pulses, conduction in polymers, evaluation of SIPs that might prevent spacecraft charging, and the general response of dielectrics to space radiation. SIPs characterized include polyimides, fluorocarbons, thermoplastic polyesters, poly(alkanes), vinyl polymers and acrylates, polymers containing phthalocyanine, polyacene quinones, coordination polymers containing metal ions, conjugated-backbone polymers, and 'metallic' conducting polymers. Tables summarizing the results of SIP radiation tests (such as those performed for the NASA Galileo Project) are included.

  12. Online directory of databases for material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hampel, V.E.; Bollinger, W.A.; Gaynor, C.A.; Oldani, J.J.

    1984-05-01

    This directory is intended to provide interactive access to scientific and technical databases available to the public that contain information pertaining to nuclear, atomic, molecular, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of substances. In addition to the 101 data files previously reported, we have updated the information and identified more than 38 new numeric databases and predictive systems in these fields. We have included, where applicable, entries contained in the directories published by Cuadra Associates, CODATA, and UNESCO. In addition to describing the contents of the databases, we have provided updated information on the availability of the databases and their online access over public telephone and data networks. This directory is expected to become particularly important to the national and international magnetic- and laser-energy fusion projects, nuclear criticality safety, and computer aided engineering programs. Some of the numeric databases are directly accessible by authorized users via the TIS Intelligent Gateway Processor at LLNL (TIS/IGP), with self-guiding procedures for the downloading, merging, post-processing, and graphical/statistical analysis of data.

  13. Modeling Mechanical Properties of Carbon Molecular Clusters and Carbon Nanostructural Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014264 TITLE: Modeling Mechanical Properties of Carbon Molecular...Clusters and Carbon Nanostructural Materials DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report...Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 740 © 2003 Materials Research Society 17.2 Modeling mechanical properties of carbon molecular clusters and carbon

  14. 75 FR 23218 - Information Collection; Inventory Property Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Inventory Property Management AGENCY: Farm Service Agency... Management. The information is used to evaluate applicant requests to purchase inventory property, determine... Desk Officer for Agriculture, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and...

  15. 78 FR 47273 - Information Collection; Inventory Property Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Inventory Property Management AGENCY: Farm Service Agency... Inventory Property Management. The information is used to evaluate applicant requests to purchase inventory... Desk Officer for Agriculture, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and...

  16. Mechanical properties of low dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Deepika

    Recent advances in low dimensional materials (LDMs) have paved the way for unprecedented technological advancements. The drive to reduce the dimensions of electronics has compelled researchers to devise newer techniques to not only synthesize novel materials, but also tailor their properties. Although micro and nanomaterials have shown phenomenal electronic properties, their mechanical robustness and a thorough understanding of their structure-property relationship are critical for their use in practical applications. However, the challenges in probing these mechanical properties dramatically increase as their dimensions shrink, rendering the commonly used techniques inadequate. This dissertation focuses on developing techniques for accurate determination of elastic modulus of LDMs and their mechanical responses under tensile and shear stresses. Fibers with micron-sized diameters continuously undergo tensile and shear deformations through many phases of their processing and applications. Significant attention has been given to their tensile response and their structure-tensile properties relations are well understood, but the same cannot be said about their shear responses or the structure-shear properties. This is partly due to the lack of appropriate instruments that are capable of performing direct shear measurements. In an attempt to fill this void, this dissertation describes the design of an inexpensive tabletop instrument, referred to as the twister, which can measure the shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of micron-sized individual fibers. An automated system applies a pre-determined twist to the fiber sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and KevlarRTM 119, were found to have G = 17 and 2.4 GPa, respectively. In addition to measuring the shear

  17. Access and control of information and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Gerald S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper introduces the technology of two pioneering patents for the secure distribution of information and intellectual property. The seminal technology has been used in the control of sensitive material such as medical records and imagery in distributed networks. It lends itself to the implementation of an open architecture access control system that provides local or remote user selective access to digital information stored on any computer system or storage medium, down to the data element, pixel, and sub-pixel levels. Use of this technology is especially suited for electronic publishing, health care records, MIS, and auditing.

  18. Determining significant material properties: A discovery approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karplus, Alan K.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to further understanding of materials science. The experiment itself can be informative for persons of any age past elementary school, and even for some in elementary school. The preparation of the plastic samples is readily accomplished by persons with resonable dexterity in the cutting of paper designs. The completion of the statistical Design of Experiments, which uses Yates' Method, requires basic math (addition and subtraction). Interpretive work requires plotting of data and making observations. Knowledge of statistical methods would be helpful. The purpose of this experiment is to acquaint students with the seven classes of recyclable plastics, and provide hands-on learning about the response of these plastics to mechanical tensile loading.

  19. Bridging the Implementation Gap through Chemical and Materials Information Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Information • Consistent data management with common data connectivity • Customized interfaces & tools – intuitive user experience • Track materials to components • Target implementation strategies

  20. 31 CFR 576.306 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that such controls promote the nonproliferation or antiterrorism policies of the United States; or (2... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY... materials, with respect to United States exports, does not include items: (1) That were, as of April 30...

  1. 31 CFR 576.306 - Information or informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that such controls promote the nonproliferation or antiterrorism policies of the United States; or (2... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY... materials, with respect to United States exports, does not include items: (1) That were, as of April 30...

  2. Material properties of novel polymeric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gene

    This dissertation will study the material properties of two types of novel polymer films (polyelectrolyte multilayer films and photolithographic polymer films). The formation of polylelectrolyte multilayer films onto functionalized aluminum oxide surfaces and functionalized poly(ethylene terephthaltate) (PET) were studied. Functionalization of the aluminum oxide surfaces was achieved via silane coupling. Functionalization of PET surfaces was achieved via hydrolysis and amidation. Surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to monitor the polyelectrolyte multilayer formation. Mechanical properties of the aluminum oxide supported polyelectrolyte multilayer films were tested using a simplified peel test. XPS was used to analyze the surfaces before and after peel. Single lap shear joint specimens were constructed to test the adhesive shear strength of the PET-supported polyelectrolyte multilayer film samples with the aid of a cyanoacrylate adhesive. The adhesive shear strength and its relation with the type of functionalization, number of polyelectrolyte layers, and the effect of polyelectrolyte conformation using added salt were explored. Also, characterization on the single lap joints after adhesive failure was carried out to determine the locus of failure within the multilayers by using XPS and SEM. Two types of photolithographic polymers were formulated and tested. These two polymers (photocrosslinkable polyacrylate (PUA), and a photocrosslinkable polyimide (HRP)) were used to investigate factors that would affect the structural integrity of these particular polymers under environmental variables such as processing (time, UV cure, pressure, and temperature) and ink exposure. Thermomechanical characterization was carried out to see the behavior of these two polymers under these environmental variables. Microscopic techniques were employed to study the morphological behavior of

  3. Material properties from contours: New insights on object perception.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Baingio; Deiana, Katia

    2015-10-01

    In this work we explored phenomenologically the visual complexity of the material attributes on the basis of the contours that define the boundaries of a visual object. The starting point is the rich and pioneering work done by Gestalt psychologists and, more in detail, by Rubin, who first demonstrated that contours contain most of the information related to object perception, like the shape, the color and the depth. In fact, by investigating simple conditions like those used by Gestalt psychologists, mostly consisting of contours only, we demonstrated that the phenomenal complexity of the material attributes emerges through appropriate manipulation of the contours. A phenomenological approach, analogous to the one used by Gestalt psychologists, was used to answer the following questions. What are contours? Which attributes can be phenomenally defined by contours? Are material properties determined only by contours? What is the visual syntactic organization of object attributes? The results of this work support the idea of a visual syntactic organization as a new kind of object formation process useful to understand the language of vision that creates well-formed attribute organizations. The syntax of visual attributes can be considered as a new way to investigate the modular coding and, more generally, the binding among attributes, i.e., the issue of how the brain represents the pairing of shape and material properties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. INFORMATION ABOUT NARCOTICS - RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR TEACHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABRAMS, IRVING; HAWKINS, BARBARA A.

    A SHORT HISTORY OF NARCOTICS AND THEIR LEGAL CONTROL IN THE UNITED STATES IS PRESENTED WITH AN EXPLANATION OF ADDICTION AND METHODS OF ITS PREVENTION. TEACHERS ARE INFORMED OF WAYS IN WHICH TO IDENTIFY ADDICTED STUDENTS. FOR EXAMPLE, THEY MAY BE CLOSELY OBSERVED IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES, AND ABNORMALITIES INVESTIGATED BY A PHYSICIAN.…

  5. INFORMATION ABOUT NARCOTICS - RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR TEACHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABRAMS, IRVING; HAWKINS, BARBARA A.

    A SHORT HISTORY OF NARCOTICS AND THEIR LEGAL CONTROL IN THE UNITED STATES IS PRESENTED WITH AN EXPLANATION OF ADDICTION AND METHODS OF ITS PREVENTION. TEACHERS ARE INFORMED OF WAYS IN WHICH TO IDENTIFY ADDICTED STUDENTS. FOR EXAMPLE, THEY MAY BE CLOSELY OBSERVED IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES, AND ABNORMALITIES INVESTIGATED BY A PHYSICIAN.…

  6. Public Information Materials for Language Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Criminal Justice Reference Service, Rockville, MD.

    Fourteen programs that provide civil rights and criminal justice information to non-English speakers are described. The services provided by each program are summarized and a contact address is provided. The programs are located in Albany, New York; Chester County, Pennsylvania; Rockville, Maryland; Dade County, Florida; Lansing, Michigan; Laredo,…

  7. Hygrothermal Simulations of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. The computational approach for heat transfer via the ground is well defined (EN-ISO-13370:, 2007) together with simplified methods (Staszczuk, Radon, & Holm). Though the soil moisture transfer is generally ignored, it is proven not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, & Hens, 2004). Even though reliable material properties of soils are required to perform realistic hygrothermal calculations of soils coupled to buildings, such material properties have not been well defined in hygrothermal calculations tools. Typical building constructions which are greatly influenced by soils are basements, crawl spaces and slab on grade and reliable hygrothermal performance of such construction are highly requested; as it is ranked within the top 10 Building America Enclosure Research Ideas according to Enclosures STC - Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting, February 29, 2012 Austin, TX. There exists an extensive amount of measurements on soil properties in Soil Science though this information must be gathered as well as adapted to be applicable in Building Science and for hygrothermal simulation purposes. Soil properties are important when analyzing and designing both new building constructions and retrofitting measures, where the outer boundary of the buildings enclosure consists of soil materials. Concerning basement energy retrofits, interior solutions of improving the energy demand has to cooperate with the existing soil properties and must therefore be designed thereafter. In concerns of exterior retrofits, the soil material can be replaced, if needed, with a more suitable filling material, though this approach applies only for basement walls. The soil material beneath the basement floor can naturally not be replaced hence the soil properties of this part of the buildings enclosure still must be taken into consideration. This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first

  8. A Secure Information Framework with APRQ Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupa, Ch.

    2017-08-01

    Internet of the things is the most trending topics in the digital world. Security issues are rampant. In the corporate or institutional setting, security risks are apparent from the outset. Market leaders are unable to use the cryptographic techniques due to their complexities. Hence many bits of private information, including ID, are readily available for third parties to see and to utilize. There is a need to decrease the complexity and increase the robustness of the cryptographic approaches. In view of this, a new cryptographic technique as good encryption pact with adjacency, random prime number and quantum code properties has been proposed. Here, encryption can be done by using quantum photons with gray code. This approach uses the concepts of physics and mathematics with no external key exchange to improve the security of the data. It also reduces the key attacks by generation of a key at the party side instead of sharing. This method makes the security more robust than with the existing approach. Important properties of gray code and quantum are adjacency property and different photons to a single bit (0 or 1). These can reduce the avalanche effect. Cryptanalysis of the proposed method shows that it is resistant to various attacks and stronger than the existing approaches.

  9. A Secure Information Framework with APRQ Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupa, Ch.

    2016-08-01

    Internet of the things is the most trending topics in the digital world. Security issues are rampant. In the corporate or institutional setting, security risks are apparent from the outset. Market leaders are unable to use the cryptographic techniques due to their complexities. Hence many bits of private information, including ID, are readily available for third parties to see and to utilize. There is a need to decrease the complexity and increase the robustness of the cryptographic approaches. In view of this, a new cryptographic technique as good encryption pact with adjacency, random prime number and quantum code properties has been proposed. Here, encryption can be done by using quantum photons with gray code. This approach uses the concepts of physics and mathematics with no external key exchange to improve the security of the data. It also reduces the key attacks by generation of a key at the party side instead of sharing. This method makes the security more robust than with the existing approach. Important properties of gray code and quantum are adjacency property and different photons to a single bit (0 or 1). These can reduce the avalanche effect. Cryptanalysis of the proposed method shows that it is resistant to various attacks and stronger than the existing approaches.

  10. Description of the Structural Materials Information Center being established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, B.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a Structural aging Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to identify potential structural safety issues related to continued service of nuclear power plants and to establish criteria for evaluating and resolving these issues. One of the tasks in this program focuses on the establishment of a Structural Materials Information Center where data and information on the time variation of concrete and concrete-related material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors will be collected and assembled into a database. This database will be used to assist in the prediction of potential long-term deterioration of critical structural components in nuclear power plants and to establish limits on hostile environmental exposure for these structures and materials. Materials property data and information will be collected at the Structural Materials Information Center from open literature, published references, and identifiable sources. Initially, the database will include portland cement concrete, metallic reinforcement, prestressing tendon and structural steel materials. Then, as data and information for other material systems are obtained, the database will be expanded and updated. The database will be developed and presented in two complementary formats. The Structural Materials Handbook will be published in four volumes as an expandable, hard copy handbook. The Materials Electronic Database will be developed to reflect the same information as contained in the handbook, but will be formatted for use on an IBM or IBM-compatible personal computer.

  11. The Hazardous Materials Information System. Users Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    only on hazardous materials used by the Government. Keep in mind that the HMIS is a growing system. Just because an item is not listed in the system does...NoO-0729 W. R. GRACE & CO POLYCEL I (CIC) A-A-1543 8520-00-270-0065 CONTINENTAL CHEM CORP BORAX A-A-S 7930-00-281-4731 PAUL CO PRODUCTS INC...As was written earlier, the HMIS is a growing database. Some items in the supply system have not yet been entered into HMIS. Therefore, to be sure

  12. Synthesis Properties and Electron Spin Resonance Properties of Titanic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jung Min; Lee, Jun; Kim, Tak Hee; Sun, Min Ho; Jang, Young Bae; Cho, Sung June

    2009-04-19

    Titanic materials were synthesized by hydrothermal method of TiO{sub 2} anatase in 10M LiOH, 10M NaOH, and 14M KOH at 130 deg. C for 30 hours. Alkaline media were removed from the synthesized products using 0.1N HCl aqueous solution. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm, and electron spin resonance. Different shapes of synthesized products were observed through the typical electron microscope and indicated that the formation of the different morphologies depends on the treatment conditions of highly alkaline media. Many micropores were observed in the cubic or octahedral type of TiO{sub 2} samples through the typical electron microscope and Langmuir adsorption-desorption isotherm of liquid nitrogen at 77 deg. K. Electron spin resonance studies have also been carried out to verify the existence of paramagnetic sites such as oxygen vacancies on the titania samples. The effect of alkali metal ions on the morphologies and physicochemical properties of nanoscale titania are discussed.

  13. Transport and magnetic properties in topological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tian

    The notion of topology has been the central topic of the condensed matter physics in recent years, ranging from 2D quantum hall (QH) and quantum spin hall (QSH) states, 3D topological insulators (TIs), topological crystalline insulators (TCIs), 3D Dirac/Weyl semimetals, and topological superconductors (TSCs) etc. The key notion of the topological materials is the bulk edge correspondence, i.e., in order to preserve the symmetry of the whole system (bulk+edge), edge states must exist to counter-compensate the broken symmetry of the bulk. Combined with the fact that the bulk is topologically protected, the edge states are robust due to the bulk edge correspondence. This leads to interesting phenomena of chiral edge states in 2D QH, helical edge states in 2D QSH, "parity anomaly'' (time reversal anomaly) in 3D TI, helical edge states in the mirror plane of TCI, chiral anomaly in Dirac/Weyl semimetals, Majorana fermions in the TSCs. Transport and magnetic properties of topological materials are investigated to yield intriguing phenomena. For 3D TI Bi1.1Sb0.9Te 2S, anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is observed, and for TCI Pb1-x SnxSe, Seebeck/Nernst measurements reveal the anomalous sign change of Nernst signals as well as the massive Dirac fermions. Ferroelectricity and pressure measurements show that TCI Pb1-xSnxTe undergoes quantum phase transition (QPT) from trivial insulator through Weyl semimetal to anomalous insulator. Dirac semimetals Cd3As2, Na 3Bi show interesting results such as the ultrahigh mobility 10 7cm2V-1s-1 protected from backscattering at zero magnetic field, as well as anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) for Cd3As2, and the negative longitudinal magnetoresistance (MR) due to chiral anomaly for Na3Bi. In-plane and out-of-plane AHE are observed for semimetal ZrTe5 by in-situ double-axes rotation measurements. For interacting system Eu2Ir2O7, full angle torque magnetometry measurements reveal the existence of orthogonal magnetization breaking the symmetry of

  14. The Materials Commons: A Collaboration Platform and Information Repository for the Global Materials Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchala, Brian; Tarcea, Glenn; Marquis, Emmanuelle. A.; Hedstrom, Margaret; Jagadish, H. V.; Allison, John E.

    2016-08-01

    Accelerating the pace of materials discovery and development requires new approaches and means of collaborating and sharing information. To address this need, we are developing the Materials Commons, a collaboration platform and information repository for use by the structural materials community. The Materials Commons has been designed to be a continuous, seamless part of the scientific workflow process. Researchers upload the results of experiments and computations as they are performed, automatically where possible, along with the provenance information describing the experimental and computational processes. The Materials Commons website provides an easy-to-use interface for uploading and downloading data and data provenance, as well as for searching and sharing data. This paper provides an overview of the Materials Commons. Concepts are also outlined for integrating the Materials Commons with the broader Materials Information Infrastructure that is evolving to support the Materials Genome Initiative.

  15. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    SciTech Connect

    Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

    2011-05-04

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  16. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  17. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  18. Determination of Thermal Properties of Composting Bulking Materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric hea...

  19. Nonlinear Dynamic Properties of Layered Composite Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, Igor V.; Topol, Heiko; Weichert, Dieter; Danishevs'kyy, Vladyslav V.

    2010-09-30

    We present an application of the asymptotic homogenization method to study wave propagation in a one-dimensional composite material consisting of a matrix material and coated inclusions. Physical nonlinearity is taken into account by considering the composite's components as a Murnaghan material, structural nonlinearity is caused by the bonding condition between the components.

  20. 46 CFR 164.013-3 - Material properties and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... polyethylene foam shall be all new material complying with the requirements outlined in this specification... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Material properties and workmanship. 164.013-3 Section..., AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab...

  1. Preliminary Material Properties Handbook. Volume 1: English Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    good polishing characteristics. It is more isotropic than other grades of beryllium with 45,000 psi typical yield strength and 4,000 psi typical micro...Materials program provides the aerospace industry with typical properties of emerging materials and other materials of interest that have not met all the...described by industry, government, or company specifications. 15. SUBJECT TERMS emerging materials; typical properties; international metals 16

  2. Fabrication of nanoscale to macroscale nickel-multiwall carbon nanotube hybrid materials with tunable material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Ahmed M.; Majdi, Tahereh; Ghosh, Suvojit; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2016-12-01

    To utilize their superior properties, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) must be manipulated and aligned end-to-end. We describe a nondestructive method to magnetize MWNTs and provide a means to remotely manipulate them through the electroless deposition of magnetic nickel nanoparticles on their surfaces. The noncovalent bonds between Ni nanoparticles and MWNTs produce a Ni-MWNT hybrid material (NiCH) that is electrically conductive and has an enhanced magnetic susceptibility and elastic modulus. Our experiments show that MWNTs can be plated with Ni for Ni:MWNT weight ratios of γ = 1, 7, 14 and 30, to control the material properties. The phase, atom-level, and morphological information from x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dark field STEM, and atomic force microscopy clarify the plating process and reveal the mechanical properties of the synthesized material. Ni metalizes at the surface of the Pd catalyst, forming a continuous wavy layer that encapsulates the MWNT surfaces. Subsequently, Ni acts as an autocatalyst, allowing the plating to continue even after the original Pd catalyst has been completely covered. Raising γ increases the coating layer thickness from 10 to 150 nm, which influences the NiCH magnetic properties and tunes its elastic modulus from 12.5 to 58.7 GPa. The NiCH was used to fabricate Ni-MWNT macrostructures and tune their morphologies by changing the direction of an applied magnetic field. Leveraging the hydrophilic Ni-MWNT outer surface, a water-based conductive ink was created and used to print a conductive path that had an electrical resistivity of 5.9 Ω m, illustrating the potential of this material for printing electronic circuits.

  3. From Print to Nonprint Materials: Library Information Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of advanced technology and its effects on libraries and information delivery systems describes online information systems and CD-ROMs at the Georgia Institute of Technology Library; explains the changes in information services from supply-oriented to demand-driven, and considers nonprint materials and their effect on the publishing…

  4. Cytocompatibility and Antibacterial Properties of Capping Materials

    PubMed Central

    Arciola, Carla Renata; Monaco, Annachiara; Lombardini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), and Biodentine (Septodont). To evaluate antimicrobial activity, materials were challenged in vitro with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis in the agar disc diffusion test. Cytocompatibility of the assayed materials towards rat MDPC-23 cells was evaluated at different times by both MTT and apoptosis assays. Results significantly differed among the different materials tested. Both bacterial growth inhibition halos and cytocompatibility performances were significantly different among materials with different composition. MTA-based products showed lower cytotoxicity and valuable antibacterial activity, different from calcium hydroxide-based materials, which exhibited not only higher antibacterial activity but also higher cytotoxicity. PMID:24959601

  5. Cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of capping materials.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Claudio; Arciola, Carla Renata; Beltrami, Riccardo; Monaco, Annachiara; Dagna, Alberto; Lombardini, Marco; Visai, Livia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), and Biodentine (Septodont). To evaluate antimicrobial activity, materials were challenged in vitro with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis in the agar disc diffusion test. Cytocompatibility of the assayed materials towards rat MDPC-23 cells was evaluated at different times by both MTT and apoptosis assays. Results significantly differed among the different materials tested. Both bacterial growth inhibition halos and cytocompatibility performances were significantly different among materials with different composition. MTA-based products showed lower cytotoxicity and valuable antibacterial activity, different from calcium hydroxide-based materials, which exhibited not only higher antibacterial activity but also higher cytotoxicity.

  6. Magnetic properties of frictional volcanic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan; Biggin, Andrew; Ferk, Annika; Leonhardt, Roman

    2015-04-01

    During dome-building volcanic eruptions, highly viscous magma extends through the upper conduit in a solid-like state. The outer margins of the magma column accommodate the majority of the strain, while the bulk of the magma is able to extrude, largely undeformed, to produce magma spines. Spine extrusion is often characterised by the emission of repetitive seismicity, produced in the upper <1 km by magma failure and slip at the conduit margins. The rheology of the magma controls the depth at which fracture can occur, while the frictional properties of the magma are important in controlling subsequent marginal slip processes. Upon extrusion, spines are coated by a carapace of volcanic fault rocks which provide insights into the deeper conduit processes. Frictional samples from magma spines at Mount St. Helens (USA), Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) and Mount Unzen (Japan) have been examined using structural, thermal and magnetic analyses to reveal a history of comminution, frictional heating, melting and cooling to form volcanic pseudotachylyte. Pseudotachylyte has rarely been noted in volcanic materials, and the recent observation of its syn-eruptive formation in dome-building volcanoes was unprecedented. The uniquely high thermal conditions of volcanic environments means that frictional melt remains at elevated temperatures for longer than usual, causing slow crystallisation, preventing the development of some signature "quench" characteristics. As such, rock-magnetic tests have proven to be some of the most useful tools in distinguishing pseudotachylytes from their andesite/ dacite hosts. In volcanic pseudotachylyte the mass normalised natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) when further normalised with the concentration dependent saturation remanence (Mrs) was found to be higher than the host rock. Remanence carriers are defined as low coercive materials across all samples, and while the remanence of the host rock displays similarities to an anhysteretic remanent

  7. Metallurgy and properties of plasma spray formed materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Liaw, Y. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Poorman, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental metallurgy of vacuum plasma spray formed materials is the key to enhancing and developing full material properties. Investigations have shown that the microstructure of plasma sprayed materials must evolve from a powder splat morphology to a recrystallized grain structure to assure high strength and ductility. A fully, or near fully, dense material that exhibits a powder splat morphology will perform as a brittle material compared to a recrystallized grain structure for the same amount of porosity. Metallurgy and material properties of nickel, iron, and copper base alloys will be presented and correlated to microstructure.

  8. Absorption properties of waste matrix materials

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, J.B.

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for studies of the limiting critical concentration of radioactive waste matrix materials. Calculated limiting critical concentration values for some common waste materials are listed. However, for systems containing large quantities of waste materials, differences up to 10% in calculated k{sub eff} values are obtained by changing cross section data sets. Therefore, experimental results are needed to compare with calculation results for resolving these differences and establishing realistic biases.

  9. Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Pallin, Simon B

    2012-10-01

    The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

  10. Mangold Property Management, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mangold Property Management, Inc. (the Company) is located in Monterey, California. The settlement involves the lease of properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Salinas and Monterey, California.

  11. Materials for energy, drug, and information storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peifu

    It is generally recognized that H2O adsorption on a porous material would inhibit H2 adsorption. However, Chapter 3 reports that stable H2O-functionalized ZIF-8(a representative MOF), which was obtained by the simple water treatment of ZIF-8 at ambient temperature, can increase its H2 adsorption heat from 5.2 to 10.1 kJ/mol. As a result, the reversible H2 capacity at ambient temperature increased by 77%. A suitable isotherm equation for C2H2 adsorption on various MOFs has not been found. Chapter 4 demonstrates that Dubinin-Astakhov equation can be exploited as a general isotherm model to depict C2H 2 adsorption on MOF-5, ZIF-8, HKUST-1, and MIL-53. Furthermore, it was found that the adsorption of C2H2 on the defected MIL-53 is stronger than that on MIL-53 without defection, reflected by adsorption-heat increase from 19.3 to 25.1 kJ/mol. Chapter 5 finds that the adsorption of CO2 on the defected ZIF-8 is stronger than that on ZIF-8 without defection, reflected by initial adsorption-heat increase from 16.0 to 22.8 kJ/mol. As a result, the specific reversible CO2 capacity per surface area increased with increasing defects. A novel strategy was developed to enhance the hydrophilicity on the external surface of ZIF-8 without reducing or blocking the internal pores in Chapter 6. A simple ball-milling approach combined with water treatment results in a significantly higher cell viability without compromising its hydroxyurea loading and release capacity. It's a challenge to build a memristor with odd-symmetric I--V features. In Chapter 7, a novel strategy, in which two same asymmetric switch components can be combined as a symmetric device, is reported to create an odd-symmetric memristor. Furthermore, with this strategy, the surface-sulphurization was performed on both sides of a Ag foil, leading to a Ag2S/Ag/Ag2S odd-symmetric memristor consisting of two asymmetric Ag2S/Ag memristive switches. Chapter 8 demonstrate that 2H phase of bulk MoS2 possessed an ohmic feature

  12. Thermoelectric Properties of Solution Synthesized Nanostructured Materials.

    PubMed

    Finefrock, Scott W; Yang, Haoran; Fang, Haiyu; Wu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric nanocomposites made by solution synthesis and compression of nanostructured chalcogenides could potentially be low-cost, scalable alternatives to traditional solid-state synthesized materials. We review the progress in this field by comparing the power factor and/or the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, of four classes of materials: (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3, PbTe, ternary and quaternary copper chalcogenides, and silver chalcogenides. We also discuss the thermal conductivity reduction associated with multiphased nanocomposites. The ZT of the best solution synthesized materials are, in several cases, shown to be equal to or greater than the corresponding bulk materials despite the generally reduced mobility associated with solution synthesized nanocomposites. For the solution synthesized materials with the highest performance, the synthesis and processing conditions are summarized to provide guidance for future work.

  13. NDE Elastic Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites are increasingly replacing metallic alloys as structural materials for primary components of fracture-critical structures. This trend is a result of the growing understanding of material behavior and recognition of the desirable properties of composites. A research program was conducted on NDE methods for determining the elastic properties of composites.

  14. Hazardous materials management using a Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.; Fish, J.; Campbell, D.; Freshour, N.; Hammond, B.; Bray, O.; Hollingsworth, M.

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous materials management includes interactions among materials, personnel, facilities, hazards, and processes of various groups within a DOE site`s environmental, safety & health (ES&H) and line organizations. Although each group is charged with addressing a particular aspect of these properties and interactions, the information it requires must be gathered into a coherent set of common data for accurate and consistent hazardous material management and regulatory reporting. It is these common data requirements which the Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS) is designed to satisfy. CGTIS collects information at the point at which a process begins or a material enters a facility, and maintains that information, for hazards management and regulatory reporting, throughout the entire life-cycle by providing direct on-line links to a site`s multitude of data bases to bring information together into one common data model.

  15. Elastic properties of superconductors and materials with weakly correlated spins.

    PubMed

    Binek, Christian

    2017-07-07

    It is shown that in the ergodic regime, the temperature dependence of Young's modulus is solely determined by the magnetic properties of a material. For the large class of materials with paramagnetic or diamagnetic response, simple functional forms of the temperature derivative of Young's modulus are derived and compared with experimental data and empirical results. Superconducting materials in the Meissner phase are ideal diamagnets. As such, they display remarkable elastic properties. Constant diamagnetic susceptibility gives rise to a temperature independent elastic modulus for ceramic and single crystalline superconductors alike. The thermodynamic approach established in this report, paves the way to tailor elastic material parameters through the design of magnetic properties.

  16. Visual Vibrometry: Estimating Material Properties from Small Motions in Video.

    PubMed

    Davis, Abe; Bouman, Katherine L; Chen, Justin G; Rubinstein, Michael; Buyukozturk, Oral; Durand, Fredo; Freeman, William T

    2016-11-01

    The estimation of material properties is important for scene understanding, with many applications in vision, robotics, and structural engineering. This paper connects fundamentals of vibration mechanics with computer vision techniques in order to infer material properties from small, often imperceptible motion in video. Objects tend to vibrate in a set of preferred modes. The frequencies of these modes depend on the structure and material properties of an object. We show that by extracting these frequencies from video of a vibrating object, we can often make inferences about that object's material properties. We demonstrate our approach by estimating material properties for a variety of objects by observing their motion in high-speed and regular frame rate video.

  17. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  18. Magnetic porous composite material: Synthesis and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretyat'ko, P. I.; Kulikov, L. A.; Melikhov, I. V.; Perfil'ev, Yu. D.; Pal', A. F.; Timofeev, M. A.; Gudoshnikov, S. A.; Usov, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    A new method of obtaining magnetic porous composite materials is described, which is based on the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) in the form of solid-phase combustion. The SHS process involves transformation of the nonmagnetic α-Fe2O3 particles (contained in the initial mixture) into magnetic Fe3O4 particles. The synthesized material comprises a porous carbonaceous matrix with immobilized Fe3O4 particles. The obtained composite has been characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. The sorption capacity of the porous material has been studied.

  19. 28 CFR 5.402 - Labeling informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... means or instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce a still or motion picture film which contains informational materials shall insert at the beginning of such film a statement which is reasonably adapted...

  20. Focus on Parents: The Parenting Materials Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Renato

    To bridge the gap between producers of parenting materials and potential users, the National Institute of Education funded the Southwest Educational Laboratory to design, develop, and research the effectiveness of a model Parenting Materials Information Center. During the last 2 years this model has been developed to include more than 1400…

  1. Human Genetics. Informational and Educational Materials, Vol. I, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Human Genetic Diseases (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This catalogue, prepared by the National Clearinghouse for Human Genetic Diseases, provides educational and informational materials on the latest advances in testing, diagnosing, counseling, and treating individuals with a concern for genetic diseases. The materials include books, brochures, pamphlets, journal articles, audio cassettes,…

  2. JH & JH Properties, LLC Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    JH & JH Properties, LLC (the Company) is located in Fargo, North Dakota. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Fargo, North Dakota.

  3. Mechanical Properties and Simulated Wear of Provisional Resin Materials.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, T; Barkmeier, W W; Tsujimoto, A; Scheidel, D; Erickson, R L; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    2015-01-01

    .5); LX, 63.7 (4.5); UF, 70.5 (8.0); and Z1, 7.6 (1.2). Volume loss (mm(3)) and SDs for 200,000 cycles were as follows: PP, 0.311 (0.049); IG, 0.737 (0.074); LX, 0.919 (0.053); UF, 1.046 (0.127); and Z1, 0.111 (0.017). The two-way ANOVA showed a significant difference among materials (p<0.001) and number of cycles for both facet depth and volume loss. The post hoc test revealed differences (p<0.05) in wear values among the tested materials examined in this study. The findings provide valuable information regarding the flexural properties and the relative wear behavior of the provisional resins examined in this study.

  4. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  5. Generating information-rich high-throughput experimental materials genomes using functional clustering via multitree genetic programming and information theory.

    PubMed

    Suram, Santosh K; Haber, Joel A; Jin, Jian; Gregoire, John M

    2015-04-13

    High-throughput experimental methodologies are capable of synthesizing, screening and characterizing vast arrays of combinatorial material libraries at a very rapid rate. These methodologies strategically employ tiered screening wherein the number of compositions screened decreases as the complexity, and very often the scientific information obtained from a screening experiment, increases. The algorithm used for down-selection of samples from higher throughput screening experiment to a lower throughput screening experiment is vital in achieving information-rich experimental materials genomes. The fundamental science of material discovery lies in the establishment of composition-structure-property relationships, motivating the development of advanced down-selection algorithms which consider the information value of the selected compositions, as opposed to simply selecting the best performing compositions from a high throughput experiment. Identification of property fields (composition regions with distinct composition-property relationships) in high throughput data enables down-selection algorithms to employ advanced selection strategies, such as the selection of representative compositions from each field or selection of compositions that span the composition space of the highest performing field. Such strategies would greatly enhance the generation of data-driven discoveries. We introduce an informatics-based clustering of composition-property functional relationships using a combination of information theory and multitree genetic programming concepts for identification of property fields in a composition library. We demonstrate our approach using a complex synthetic composition-property map for a 5 at. % step ternary library consisting of four distinct property fields and finally explore the application of this methodology for capturing relationships between composition and catalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction for 5429 catalyst compositions in a

  6. Characterization of Triaxial Braided Composite Material Properties for Impact Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Biniendak, Wieslaw K.; Arnold, William A.; Littell, Justin D.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of impact simulations for aircraft components made with triaxial braided carbon fiber composites is currently limited by inadequate material property data and lack of validated material models for analysis. Improvements to standard quasi-static test methods are needed to account for the large unit cell size and localized damage within the unit cell. The deformation and damage of a triaxial braided composite material was examined using standard quasi-static in-plane tension, compression, and shear tests. Some modifications to standard test specimen geometries are suggested, and methods for measuring the local strain at the onset of failure within the braid unit cell are presented. Deformation and damage at higher strain rates is examined using ballistic impact tests on 61- by 61- by 3.2-mm (24- by 24- by 0.125-in.) composite panels. Digital image correlation techniques were used to examine full-field deformation and damage during both quasi-static and impact tests. An impact analysis method is presented that utilizes both local and global deformation and failure information from the quasi-static tests as input for impact simulations. Improvements that are needed in test and analysis methods for better predictive capability are examined.

  7. Millimeter Wave Dielectric Properties of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Kenneth J.; Afsar, M. N.

    1983-10-01

    Highly accurate continuous spectra of the absorption coefficient and refractive index of some potentially useful materials have been made over the 60-420 GHz range. Measurements have been made on some common ceramic, semiconductor, crystalline and glass materials. The absorption coefficient of low loss materials increases with frequency which implies that microwave data cannot be used for the design of millimeter wave dielectric waveguides, devices, windows and quasi-optical elements. The data in this paper show the millimeter wave frequency dependence of tan δ, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity and the optical constants, namely, the refractive index and absorption coefficient. The measurements have been made in a plane-wave Michelson interferometer operating as a polarizing, dispersive Fourier transform spectrometer. The accuracy and reproducability of the refractive index is six significant figures.

  8. 77 FR 20007 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Property Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Property Management... recipient must request in writing EDA's approval to undertake an incidental use of property acquired or... information allows EDA to determine whether an incidental use of property acquired or improved with EDA...

  9. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Son, Sehwan; Lin, Hong-Cheu

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidene) phenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl) 4'-[(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it.

  10. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, S.I.; Son, S.; Lin, H.C.

    1995-05-02

    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidenephenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl)-4{prime}-[(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it. 4 figs.

  11. Dynamic Deformation Properties of Energetic Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    references are provided for further reading. Materials The materials that have been used are ultrafine PETN and RDX prepared by a proprietary method by ICI...density of the loose powder on delivery is ~15 % of the theoretical maximum density (TMD). The ultrafine HNS that was used was HNS IV as supplied by...ultrafine PETN . A - Point at which initiation takes place; B - Detonation wave travelling at 5.6 ± 0.3 mm ms-1. 37 Figure 1.31. Negative streak

  12. Tuning Surface Properties of Low Dimensional Materials via Strain Engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengchun; Liu, Fuzhu; Wu, Chao; Yang, Sen

    2016-08-01

    The promising and versatile applications of low dimensional materials are largely due to their surface properties, which along with their underlying electronic structures have been well studied. However, these materials may not be directly useful for applications requiring properties other than their natal ones. In recent years, strain has been shown to be an additionally useful handle to tune the physical and chemical properties of materials by changing their geometric and electronic structures. The strategies for producing strain are summarized. Then, the electronic structure of quasi-two dimensional layered non-metallic materials (e.g., graphene, MX2, BP, Ge nanosheets) under strain are discussed. Later, the strain effects on catalytic properties of metal-catalyst loaded with strain are focused on. Both experimental and computational perspectives for dealing with strained systems are covered. Finally, an outlook on engineering surface properties utilizing strain is provided. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. 42 CFR 431.307 - Distribution of information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of information materials. 431.307 Section 431.307 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...” greetings, general public announcements, partisan voting information and alien registration notices. (c)...

  14. Information Resources in Pesticides, Environmental Health and Hazardous Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Winfred F.

    This directory of information centers, selected abstracting and indexing publications, and a discussion of journal capabilities and limitations has been prepared by the Hazardous Materials Advisory Committee of the Environmental Protection Agency. For selected information resources, each of the 20 entries includes name and location of the…

  15. 32 CFR 705.16 - Navy produced public information material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information material. (a) Still photo—(1) General. (i) The policy and procedures given for media produced still photos in § 705.10, apply to Navy produced photos. (ii) The Office of Information does not issue... photographers and who are attending the event as spectators will not be discouraged from taking photos....

  16. 32 CFR 705.16 - Navy produced public information material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information material. (a) Still photo—(1) General. (i) The policy and procedures given for media produced still photos in § 705.10, apply to Navy produced photos. (ii) The Office of Information does not issue... photographers and who are attending the event as spectators will not be discouraged from taking photos....

  17. 32 CFR 705.16 - Navy produced public information material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information material. (a) Still photo—(1) General. (i) The policy and procedures given for media produced still photos in § 705.10, apply to Navy produced photos. (ii) The Office of Information does not issue... photographers and who are attending the event as spectators will not be discouraged from taking photos....

  18. 32 CFR 705.16 - Navy produced public information material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information material. (a) Still photo—(1) General. (i) The policy and procedures given for media produced still photos in § 705.10, apply to Navy produced photos. (ii) The Office of Information does not issue... photographers and who are attending the event as spectators will not be discouraged from taking photos....

  19. Handbook of the Properties of Optical Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    EFFECTIVE MASS - - MOBILITY - - A-2 ARSEWIC SELENIOE (As2 Se3 ) OPTICAL PROPERTIES TRANSMISSION RANGE: 9 - 11n Optical Absorption Coefficient = 0.079...of 55 KRS-5 as a function of wavelength. A-2120 ZINC SELENIOE ZnSe 0 STRUCTURE CRYSTALLINE SYMMETRY = Cubic, 43m LATTICE CONSTANTS (A) = a = 5.667

  20. Fish gelatin: Material properties and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The main difference between fish gelatin and mammalian gelatin is fish gelatin’s lower gelation temperature. This property limits the use of fish gelatin in applications that currently utilize mammalian gelatin. However, fish gelatin remains an attractive alterative to mammalian gelatin due to relig...

  1. Effects of tritium on material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The effecs of tritium on deformation and fracture of metals are reviewed with emphasis on similarities and differences between tritium and the other hydrogen isotopes. Helium generated by radioactive decay of tritium introduces time dependent property changes not observed with protium or deuterium. On-going studies and topics for further investigations are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Processing and Properties of Airframe Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    All other test conditions conformed to ASTM E 647 using a compact type (CT) specimen with B = 12.7 mm and W = 50 nm. Tests were conducted in lab ...International Scince Center SC5358. 2AR 3c64-24U 40ism. Fig. 14 Grain structures of the constituent fine grain (a), coarse grain (b) materials, and the

  3. 48 CFR 1852.245-80 - Government property management information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... management information. 1852.245-80 Section 1852.245-80 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.245-80 Government property management information. As prescribed in 1845.107-70(k)(1), insert the following provision. Government Property Management Information (JAN 2011) (a)...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.245-80 - Government property management information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management information. 1852.245-80 Section 1852.245-80 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.245-80 Government property management information. As prescribed in 1845.107-70(k)(1), insert the following provision. Government Property Management Information (JAN 2011) (a)...

  5. 48 CFR 1852.245-80 - Government property management information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... management information. 1852.245-80 Section 1852.245-80 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.245-80 Government property management information. As prescribed in 1845.107-70(k)(1), insert the following provision. Government Property Management Information (JAN 2011) (a)...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.245-80 - Government property management information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management information. 1852.245-80 Section 1852.245-80 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.245-80 Government property management information. As prescribed in 1845.107-70(k)(1), insert the following provision. Government Property Management Information (JAN 2011) (a)...

  7. Shaped Charge Liner Materials: Resources, Processes, Properties, Costs, and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Shaped Charge Liner Materials: Resources, Processes, Properties, Costs, and Applications 2 6. AUTHOC Steven M. Buc 7...summaries of the mineral availability, Cq prmarymetal refinement processeb, material costs in raw form and as finished shaped charge liners , relevant... liner materials. 94-11479 gI 14, SUBJECT TERMS iSt NUMBER OF PAGIS 13chrg wrhad :xplosively formed penetrators material R. PRCE COEV" processing

  8. Multiscale Modeling of Carbon/Phenolic Composite Thermal Protection Materials: Atomistic to Effective Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Lawson, John W.; Monk, Joshua D.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation ablative thermal protection systems are expected to consist of 3D woven composite architectures. It is well known that composites can be tailored to achieve desired mechanical and thermal properties in various directions and thus can be made fit-for-purpose if the proper combination of constituent materials and microstructures can be realized. In the present work, the first, multiscale, atomistically-informed, computational analysis of mechanical and thermal properties of a present day - Carbon/Phenolic composite Thermal Protection System (TPS) material is conducted. Model results are compared to measured in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical and thermal properties to validate the computational approach. Results indicate that given sufficient microstructural fidelity, along with lowerscale, constituent properties derived from molecular dynamics simulations, accurate composite level (effective) thermo-elastic properties can be obtained. This suggests that next generation TPS properties can be accurately estimated via atomistically informed multiscale analysis.

  9. MatProps: Material Properties Database and Associated Access Library

    SciTech Connect

    Durrenberger, J K; Becker, R C; Goto, D M; Neely, J R; Wallin, B K

    2007-08-13

    Coefficients for analytic constitutive and equation of state models (EOS), which are used by many hydro codes at LLNL, are currently stored in a legacy material database (Steinberg, UCRL-MA-106349). Parameters for numerous materials are available through this database, and include Steinberg-Guinan and Steinberg-Lund constitutive models for metals, JWL equations of state for high explosives, and Mie-Gruniesen equations of state for metals. These constitutive models are used in most of the simulations done by ASC codes today at Livermore. Analytic EOSs are also still used, but have been superseded in many cases by tabular representations in LEOS (http://leos.llnl.gov). Numerous advanced constitutive models have been developed and implemented into ASC codes over the past 20 years. These newer models have more physics and better representations of material strength properties than their predecessors, and therefore more model coefficients. However, a material database of these coefficients is not readily available. Therefore incorporating these coefficients with those of the legacy models into a portable database that could be shared amongst codes would be most welcome. The goal of this paper is to describe the MatProp effort at LLNL to create such a database and associated access library that could be used by codes throughout the DOE complex and beyond. We have written an initial version of the MatProp database and access library and our DOE/ASC code ALE3D (Nichols et. al., UCRL-MA-152204) is able to import information from the database. The database, a link to which exists on the Sourceforge server at LLNL, contains coefficients for many materials and models (see Appendix), and includes material parameters in the following categories--flow stress, shear modulus, strength, damage, and equation of state. Future versions of the Matprop database and access library will include the ability to read and write material descriptions that can be exchanged between codes. It will

  10. Data base for crack growth properties of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, Royce G.; Lawrence, Victor B.; Nguy, Henry L.

    1988-01-01

    A computerized data base of crack growth properties of materials was developed for use in fracture control analysis of rocket engine components and other NASA space hardware. The software system has files of basic crack growth rate data, other fracture mechanics material properties such as fracture toughness and environmental crack growth threshold values, and plotting and fitting routines for deriving material properties for use in fracture control analysis. An extensive amount of data was collected and entered, and work is continuing on compiling additional data. The data base and software codes are useful both for fracture control analysis and for evaluation or development of improved crack growth theories.

  11. Size-Dependent Materials Properties Toward a Universal Equation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Due to the lack of experimental values concerning some material properties at the nanoscale, it is interesting to evaluate this theoretically. Through a “top–down” approach, a universal equation is developed here which is particularly helpful when experiments are difficult to lead on a specific material property. It only requires the knowledge of the surface area to volume ratio of the nanomaterial, its size as well as the statistic (Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein) followed by the particles involved in the considered material property. Comparison between different existing theoretical models and the proposed equation is done. PMID:20596422

  12. [Characteristics of collagen's material bifidogenic properties].

    PubMed

    Sheveleva, S A; Batishcheva, S Iu

    2012-01-01

    It is still essential to search for new, available food ingredients with bifidogenic effect, to study their safety, efficacy and production effectiveness upon the creation of functional foods. The review considers protein products such as collagens and their hydrolyzates, which are used in culture mediums as growth factor. They are treated, besides carbohydrate prebiotics, as potential bifidogenic nutrients. Collagen hydralyzates contain all amino acids, required for bifidobacteria growth. That is why it is considered essential to provide control over its biosafety. However, recyclable materials of animal origin are included into a list of Specific Risk Materials of prion disease agents transmitting. Collagen hydralyzates are preserved up to distal intestine parts. This fact approximates their qualities to oligosaccharids' type of prebiotic food fibers, related to the lack of absorption and hydrolytic stability. The additional study of mechanisms of bifidobacteria's forcing is required. It can be made at the expense of the modification of the albuminous cell metabolism during the collagen hydralyzats' unilization.

  13. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkind, A. J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W. A.

    1984-04-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve type silver zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO2 and several nickel electrodes for nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities. After the first discharge AgNiO2 can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)2 largely eliminate this.

  14. Structure and Properties of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-02

    into 5 distinct classes - i) normal , N; ii) mixed, M; iii) hetero, H; iv) azido complexe., C: and v) metal organo complexes, 0. These abbreviations are...Energetic materials represent a multibillion dollar industry for both commercial and military uses. These are among the earliest of man-made classes of...new class of high-nitrogen molecules that may prove to be high performance explosives. INTRODUCTION The goal of the high explosives synthesis effort

  15. Optical properties of nanostructured materials: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flory, François; Escoubas, Ludovic; Berginc, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Depending on the size of the smallest feature, the interaction of light with structured materials can be very different. This fundamental problem is treated by different theories. If first order theories are sufficient to describe the scattering from low roughness surfaces, second order or even higher order theories must be used for high roughness surfaces. Random surface structures can then be designed to distribute the light in different propagation directions. For complex structures such as black silicon, which reflects very little light, the theory needs further development. When the material is periodically structured, we speak about photonic crystals or metamaterials. Different theoretical approaches have been developed and experimental techniques are rapidly progressing. However, some work still remains to understand the full potential of this field. When the material is structured in dimension much smaller than the wavelength, the notion of complex refractive index must be revisited. Plasmon resonance can be excited by a progressing wave on metallic nanoparticles inducing a shaping of the absorption band and of the dispersion of the extinction coefficient. This addresses the problem of the permittivity of such metallic nanoparticles. The coupling between several metallic nanoparticles induces a field enhancement in the surrounding media, which can increase phenomena like scattering, absorption, luminescence, or Raman scattering. For semiconductor nanoparticles, electron confinement also induces a modulated absorption spectra. The refractive index is then modified. The bandgap of the material is changed because of the discretization of the electron energy, which can be controlled by the nanometers size particles. Such quantum dots behave like atoms and become luminescent. The lifetime of the electron in the excited states are much larger than in continuous energy bands. Electrons in coupled quantum dots behave as they do in molecules. Many applications

  16. Molecularly imprinted materials: synthesis, properties, applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisichkin, Georgii V.; Krutyakov, Yu A.

    2006-10-01

    This review is devoted to the method of molecular imprinting. The physicochemical fundamentals and mechanisms of covalent and non-covalent molecular imprinting aimed at the development of organic polymeric sorbents capable of molecular recognition are considered. Attention is focused on the preparation of molecular imprints on mineral supports. The mechanisms of molecular recognition in adsorption are discussed. Application fields of materials with molecular imprints are briefly surveyed.

  17. Materials properties: heterogeneity and appropriate sampling modes.

    PubMed

    Esbensen, Kim H

    2015-01-01

    The target audience for this Special Section comprises parties related to the food and feed sectors, e.g., field samplers, academic and industrial scientists, laboratory personnel, companies, organizations, regulatory bodies, and agencies who are responsible for sampling, as well as project leaders, project managers, quality managers, supervisors, and directors. All these entities face heterogeneous materials, and the characteristics of heterogeneous materials needs to be competently understood by all of them. Before delivering analytical results for decision-making, one form or other of primary sampling is always necessary, which must counteract the effects of the sampling target heterogeneity. Up to five types of sampling error may arise as a specific sampling process interacts with a heterogeneous material; two sampling errors arise because of the heterogeneity of the sampling target, and three additional sampling errors are produced by the sampling process itself-if not properly understood, reduced, and/or eliminated, which is the role of Theory of Sampling. This paper discusses the phenomenon and concepts involved in understanding, describing, and managing the adverse effects of heterogeneity in sampling.

  18. Temperature dependent terahertz properties of energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Abul K.; Whitley, Von H.; Brown, Kathryn E.; Ahmed, Towfiq; Sorensen, Christian J.; Moore, David S.

    2016-04-01

    Reliable detection of energetic materials is still a formidable challenge which requires further investigation. The remote standoff detection of explosives using molecular fingerprints in the terahertz spectral range has been an evolving research area for the past two decades. Despite many efforts, identification of a particular explosive remains difficult as the spectral fingerprints often shift due to the working conditions of the sample such as temperature, crystal orientation, presence of binders, etc. In this work, we investigate the vibrational spectrum of energetic materials including RDX, PETN, AN, and 1,3-DNB diluted in a low loss PTFE host medium using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) at cryogenic temperatures. The measured absorptions of these materials show spectral shifts of their characteristic peaks while changing their operating temperature from 300 to 7.5 K. We have developed a theoretical model based on first principles methods, which is able to predict most of the measured modes in 1, 3-DNB between 0.3 to 2.50 THz. These findings may further improve the security screening of explosives.

  19. Optical techniques for determining dynamic material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.L.; Stahl, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Miniature plates are laser-launched with a 10-Joule Nd:YAG for one-dimensional (1-D) impacts on to target materials much like gas gun experiments and explosive plane wave plate launch. By making the experiments small, flyer plates (3 mm diameter x 50 micron thick) and targets (10 mm diameter x 200 micron thick), 1-D impact experiments can be performed in a standard laser-optical laboratory with minimum confinement and collateral damage. The laser-launched plates do not require the traditional sabot on gas guns nor the explosives needed for explosive planewave lenses, and as a result are much more amenable to a wide variety of materials and applications. Because of the small size very high pressure gradients can be generated with relative ease. The high pressure gradients result in very high strains and strain rates that are not easily generated by other experimental methods. The small size and short shock duration (1 - 20 ns) are ideal for dynamically measuring bond strengths of micron-thick coatings. Experimental techniques, equipment, and dynamic material results are reported.

  20. Sustainability Product Properties in Building Information Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    24 1.6 Reduce environmental impact of materials ............................................................... 24 1.6.1...protect and conserve water, optimize energy performance, reduce environmental impact of ma- terials, and enhance indoor environmental quality. These...sumption and daily data reports, at a minimum) by October 1, 2012. 1.6 Reduce environmental impact of materials Executive Order 13423 directs Federal

  1. Mechanical properties of a porous mullite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viens, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Modulus of rupture specimens were used to determine crack growth parameters of a porous mullite material. Strength testing was performed in ambient and moist environments. The power law crack growth rate parameters n and 1n B in 50 percent relative humidity were found to be 44.98 and 0.94, respectively. The inert strength, fracture toughness, and elastic modulus were also determined and found to be 19 MPa, 055 MPa(m) exp 1/2, and 11.6 GPa, respectively.

  2. Processing and Properties of Airframe Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    heat treaments No. 1, 2, 3. Load increment data only, R = 0.1 ........................... 35 3.3-30 Ratio of crack branching to main crack vs AK for...12 3.3-2 Light micrograph of Ti-6Al-4V forged material, as forged ................ 12 3.3-3 SEM of Ti-6A1-4V plate given heat treatment...No. 1. Beta phase is white ........................................................ 15 3.3-4 SEM of Ti-6A1-4V, plate, given heat treatment No. 2. Beta

  3. Interdisciplinary research concerning the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The nature and properties of ceramic materials as they relate to solid state physics and metallurgy are studied. Special attention was given to the applications of ceramics to NASA programs and national needs.

  4. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  5. Outgassing Properties of Chemically Polished Titanium Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurisu, Hiroki; Kimoto, Gou; Fujii, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Setsuo; Matsuura, Mitsuru; Ishizawa, Katsunobu; Nomura, Takeru; Murashige, Nobuyuki

    We developed a chemical polishing (CP) for titanium materials applicable to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) and extremely high vacuum (XHV) systems. The surface roughness, Ra, of the chemically polished titanium is obtained to be 25 nm by the atomic force microscopy measurement. This value is smaller than those of the base metal (BM) and the buff-polished (BP) samples. The thickness of the surface oxide layer of CP sample is estimated to be 7 nm by the cross section of transmission electron micrograph. Amount of desorption gas of CP sample obtained by the thermal desorption measurement is smaller than those of BM and BP sample, and is the same as that of the mechanochemically polished (MCP) sample. The outgassing rate of CP sample after baking at 150°C×20 h is obtained to be 7×10-13 Pa•m•s-1. This value is lower than that of standard vacuum materials by two orders of magnitude after the ordinary baking.

  6. MIDAS (Material Implementation, Database, and Analysis Source): A comprehensive resource of material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Norquist, P; Barton, N; Durrenberger, K; Florando, J; Attia, A

    2010-12-13

    MIDAS is aimed to be an easy-to-use and comprehensive common source for material properties including both experimental data and models and their parameters. At LLNL, we will develop MIDAS to be the central repository for material strength related data and models with the long-term goal to encompass other material properties. MIDAS will allow the users to upload experimental data and updated models, to view and read materials data and references, to manipulate models and their parameters, and to serve as the central location for the application codes to access the continuously growing model source codes. MIDAS contains a suite of interoperable tools and utilizes components already existing at LLNL: MSD (material strength database), MatProp (database of materials properties files), and MSlib (library of material model source codes). MIDAS requires significant development of the computer science framework for the interfaces between different components. We present the current status of MIDAS and its future development in this paper.

  7. Distributed databases for materials study of thermo-kinetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toher, Cormac

    2015-03-01

    High-throughput computational materials science provides researchers with the opportunity to rapidly generate large databases of materials properties. To rapidly add thermal properties to the AFLOWLIB consortium and Materials Project repositories, we have implemented an automated quasi-harmonic Debye model, the Automatic GIBBS Library (AGL). This enables us to screen thousands of materials for thermal conductivity, bulk modulus, thermal expansion and related properties. The search and sort functions of the online database can then be used to identify suitable materials for more in-depth study using more precise computational or experimental techniques. AFLOW-AGL source code is public domain and will soon be released within the GNU-GPL license.

  8. Thermal Properties of Structural Materials Used in LWR Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Daw; J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson

    2011-01-01

    High temperature material property data for structural materials used in existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs) are limited. Often, extrapolated values recommended in the literature differ significantly. To reduce uncertainties in predictions relying upon extrapolated data for LWR vessel and penetration materials, high temperature tests were completed on SA533 Grade B, Class 1 (SA533B1) low alloy steel, Stainless Steel 304 (SS304), and Inconel 600 using material property measurement systems available in the High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Properties measured include thermal expansion, specific heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity for temperatures up to 1200 °C. From these results, thermal conductivity and density were calculated. Results show that, in some cases, previously recommended values for these materials differ significantly from measured values at high temperatures.

  9. Electrical properties of commercial sheet insulation materials for cryogenic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Pace, Marshall O

    2008-01-01

    Dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low-temperature power applications. Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. In this work we report the dielectric properties of some commercially available materials in sheet form. The selected materials are polypropylene laminated paper from Sumitomo Electric U.S.A., Inc., porous polyethylene (Tyvek\\texttrademark) from Dupont, and polyamide paper (Nomex\\texttrademark) from Dupont. The dielectric properties are characterized with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 50 to 300 K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the materials are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure.

  10. Film Implementation of a Neutron Detector (FIND): Critical Materials Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    absorption factor much less than one. Other- wise, the measured count rate will be the product of the neutron absorption factor, neutron flux, and detector...TECHNICAL REPORT 1957 September 2007 Film Implementation of a Neutron Detector (FIND): Critical Materials Properties W. C. McGinnis SSC San...TECHNICAL REPORT 1957 September 2007 Film Implementation of a Neutron Detector (FIND): Critical Materials Properties W. C. McGinnis SSC San Diego

  11. A Reference Guide for Cryogenic Properties of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weisend, John G

    2003-09-16

    A thorough knowledge of the behavior of materials at cryogenic temperatures is critical for the design of successful cryogenic systems. Over the past 50 years, a tremendous amount of material properties at cryogenic temperatures have been measured and published. This guide lists resources for finding these properties. It covers online databases, computer codes, conference proceedings, journals, handbooks, overviews and monographs. It includes references for finding reports issued by government laboratories and agencies. Most common solids and fluids used in cryogenics are covered.

  12. Intellectual property and information controversy(I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper deals with intellectual property as the results of various intellectual activities such as R & D, and intellectual proprietary rights which protect it. New technology, designs, literary works, computer programs, semiconductor chips, new plant breeding, brands, trading secrets, CI and others, and legislations which protect them are described. Then, the background of the fact that intellectual proprietary rights are emphasized as analyzed. The author points out items as follows; movement toward much larger size of R & D, generation of the areas to be newly protected, trend in enforcement of intellectual property protection, commercialization of intellectual property, trend in software evolution, movement in technological protectionism, and the present status on each item.

  13. Sharing health materials and information in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ritson, R

    1988-01-01

    The recent emergence of intercountry networks of collaboration on training materials for the health sector is a positive indication of increasing self-reliance in developing countries. Several developing countries are collaborating -- sharing staff, equipment, and consultants -- to produce their own health training materials. Over 20 countries now participate in the Interregional Health Learning Materials (HLM) Program, which is coordinated by a central clearinghouse in the Division of Health Manpower Development at the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva. The primary objective of the Interregional HLM Program are 2-fold: to enable developing countries to produce their own relevant teaching, learning, and promotional materials for their national health care staffs; and to encourage interregional sharing of scarce resources and to promote exchange of materials and production experiences. To operate effectively on a longterm basis, national HLM projects must be well integrated into a national ministerial infrastructure or face possible collapse when financing is withdrawn. Those countries participating in the Interregional HLM Programs are being equipped with compatible microcomputers and are beginning to exchange training materials texts on diskettes for adaptation purposes. To share materials and information, a reliable transfer system must be available and microcomputers equipped with word processing software. The exchange of information on the production of national training materials have focused primarily on 4 main language groups -- the English-speaking network, the francophone group, the Portuguese-language countries in Africa, and the Arab network.

  14. Properties of Materials Using Acoustic Waves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    information about the viscosity of either the inner or the outer fluid from the measurements. 2) water-propane, water- isobutane , and water-butane: At one...atmosphere pressure, the boiling points of propane, isobutane , and butane are -42.1 0C, -11.7 0C, and -0.58C, respectively. Therefore, the samples were...superheated by about 640C to 230C in our measurements. The inferred interfacial tension is 52 dyne/cm for water-propane, 50 dyne/cm for water- isobutane

  15. Novel thermal properties of nanostructured materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, J. A.

    1999-01-13

    A new class of heat transfer fluids, termed nanofluids, has been developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids. Due to the orders-of-magnitude larger thermal conductivities of solids compared to those of liquids such as water, significantly enhanced thermal properties are obtained with nanofluids. For example, an approximately 20% improvement in effective thermal conductivity is observed when 5 vol.% CuO nanoparticles are added to water. Even more importantly, the heat transfer coefficient of water under dynamic flow conditions is increased more than 15% with the addition of less than 1 vol.% CuO particles. The use of nanofluids could impact many industrial sectors, including transportation, energy supply and production, electronics, textiles, and paper production by, for example, decreasing pumping power needs or reducing heat exchanger sizes. In contrast to the enhancement in effective thermal transport rates that is obtained when nanoparticles are suspended in fluids, nanocrystalline coatings are expected to exhibit reduced thermal conductivities compared to coarse-grained coatings. Reduced thermal conductivities are predicted to arise because of a reduction in the mean free path of phonons due to presence of grain boundaries. This behavior, combined with improved mechanical properties, makes nanostructured zirconia coatings excellent candidates for future applications as thermal barriers. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films are being produced by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques. Preliminary results have indicated that the thermal conductivity is reduced by approximately a factor-of-two at room temperature in 10 nm grain-sized YSZ compared to coarse-grained or single crystal YSZ.

  16. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 °C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kgsystem), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/Lsystem). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material properties-and most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  17. Analytic Thermoelectric Couple Modeling: Variable Material Properties and Transient Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jonathan A.; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2015-01-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of the operation of a thermoelectric couple a set of analytic solutions have been derived for a variable material property couple and a transient couple. Using an analytic approach, as opposed to commonly used numerical techniques, results in a set of useful design guidelines. These guidelines can serve as useful starting conditions for further numerical studies, or can serve as design rules for lab built couples. The analytic modeling considers two cases and accounts for 1) material properties which vary with temperature and 2) transient operation of a couple. The variable material property case was handled by means of an asymptotic expansion, which allows for insight into the influence of temperature dependence on different material properties. The variable property work demonstrated the important fact that materials with identical average Figure of Merits can lead to different conversion efficiencies due to temperature dependence of the properties. The transient couple was investigated through a Greens function approach; several transient boundary conditions were investigated. The transient work introduces several new design considerations which are not captured by the classic steady state analysis. The work helps to assist in designing couples for optimal performance, and also helps assist in material selection.

  18. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Pallin, Simon B.

    2017-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. However they are important when numerical simulation of coupled heat and moisture transport for below-grade building components are performed as their temperature and moisture content has an influence on the durability of the below-grade building component. Soils can be classified by soil texture. According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCA), 12 different soils can be defined on the basis of three soil components: clay, sand, and silt. This study shows how existing material properties for typical American soils can be transferred and used for the calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport of building components in contact with soil. Furthermore a thermal validation with field measurements under known boundary conditions is part of this study, too. Field measurements for soil temperature and moisture content for two specified soils are carried out right now under known boundary conditions. As these field measurements are not finished yet, the full hygrothermal validation is still missing

  19. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  20. Perspective: Interactive material property databases through aggregation of literature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Ram; Sparks, Taylor D.

    2016-05-01

    Searchable, interactive, databases of material properties, particularly those relating to functional materials (magnetics, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, etc.) are curiously missing from discussions of machine-learning and other data-driven methods for advancing new materials discovery. Here we discuss the manual aggregation of experimental data from the published literature for the creation of interactive databases that allow the original experimental data as well additional metadata to be visualized in an interactive manner. The databases described involve materials for thermoelectric energy conversion, and for the electrodes of Li-ion batteries. The data can be subject to machine-learning, accelerating the discovery of new materials.

  1. Materials thermal and thermoradiative properties/characterization technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, D. P.; Ho, C. Y.

    1989-01-01

    Reliable properties data on well characterized materials are necessary for design of experiments and interpretation of experimental results. The activities of CINDAS to provide data bases and predict properties are discussed. An understanding of emissivity behavior is important in order to select appropriate methods for non-contact temperature determination. Related technical issues are identified and recommendations are offered.

  2. State-of-the-art review of materials properties of nuclear waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, J. E.; Nelson, R. D.; Turcotte, R. P.; Gray, W. J.; Merz, M. D.; Roberts, F. P.; Weber, W. J.; Westsik, Jr., J. H.; Clark, D. E.

    1981-04-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) was established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assemble a standardized nuclear waste materials data base for use in research, systems and facility design, safety analyses, and waste management decisions. This centralized data base will be provided through the means of a Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. The first issue of the Handbook will be published in the fall of 1981 in looseleaf format so that it can be updated as additional information becomes available. To ensure utmost reliability, all materials data appearing in the Handbook will be obtained by standard procedures defined in the Handbook and approved by an independent Materials Review Board (MRB) comprised of materials experts from Department of Energy laboratories and from universities and industry. In the interim before publication of the Handbook there is need for a report summarizing the existing materials data on nuclear waste forms. This review summarizes materials property data for the nuclear waste forms that are being developed for immobilization of high-level radioactive waste. It is intended to be a good representation of the knowledge concerning the properties of HLW forms as of March 1981. The table of contents lists the following topics: introduction which covers waste-form categories, and important waste-form materials properties; physical properties; mechanical properties; chemical durability; vaporization; radiation effects; and thermal phase stability.

  3. Use of material dielectric properties for agricultural applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of dielectric properties of materials for applications in agriculture are reviewed, and research findings on use of dielectric heating of materials and on sensing of product moisture content and other quality factors are discussed. Dielectric heating applications, include treatment of seed...

  4. Use of material dielectric properties in agricultural applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of dielectric properties of materials for applications in agriculture are reviewed, and research findings on use of dielectric heating of materials and on sensing of product moisture content and other quality factors are discussed. Dielectric heating applications, include treatment of seed...

  5. Heat Transmission Properties of Insulating and Building Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 81 NIST Heat Transmission Properties of Insulating and Building Materials (Web, free access)   NIST has accumulated a valuable and comprehensive collection of thermal conductivity data. Version 1.0 of the database includes data for over 2000 measurements, covering several categories of materials including concrete, fiberboard, plastics, thermal insulation, and rubber.

  6. Material Properties for Fiber-Reinforced Silica Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Rouanet, Stephane; Moses, John; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Ceramic fiber-reinforced silica aerogels are novel materials for high performance insulation, including thermal protection materials. Experimental data are presented for the thermal and mechanical properties, showing the trends exhibited over a range of fiber loadings and silica aerogel densities. Test results are compared to that of unreinforced bulk aerogels.

  7. Opalescence and fluorescence properties of indirect and direct resin materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Hoon; Yu, Bin; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2008-08-01

    To measure the opalescence and fluorescence properties of indirect and direct resin materials before and after polymerization, and to determine the influence of the material and shade group combination on these properties. BelleGlass NG (BG, indirect resin) and Estelite Sigma (ES, direct resin), each composed in 3 shade groups (EN, OD and TL for BG; BS, AS and OP for ES) out of a total of 16 shades were investigated. Resin material was packed into a mold (the BEC condition) and polymerized with a light-polymerization unit (CWL). Secondary polymerization (CIC) was performed for BG. Color was measured in the BEC, CWL, and CIC conditions, and the opalescence parameter (OP) and fluorescence parameter (FL) were calculated. For the OP, the mean for BG material was 24.3 before polymerization, which changed to 19.9 after polymerization (CIC). In the case of ES, the mean OP before polymerization was 25.6, which changed to 12.4 after polymerization (CWL). For the FL, the mean FL for BG was 2.5 before polymerization, which changed to 0.7 after polymerization. In the case of ES, the mean FL before polymerization was 1.2, which did not change after polymerization. Material and shade group combination influenced the OP and FL values (p<0.05). The opalescence and fluorescence properties of resin materials varied depending on the material, shade group, and polymerization. Clinically, these properties should be considered when neighboring teeth are restored with different types of material.

  8. Tribological properties of aluminium-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias Victoria, Patricia

    In order to improve the tribological performance of the aluminium-steel contact, two research lines have been followed: (1) Use of the ordered fluids liquid crystals and ionic liquids as lubricant additives. (2) Tribological behaviour of new powder metallurgy aluminium materials processed by mechanical milling. A parafinic-naftenic base oil modified by a 1wt% of four additives has been used: Three liquid crystals with increasing polarity: 4,4' -dibutylazobenzene (LC1) < colesteryl linoleate (LC2) < n-dodecyl ammonium chloride (LC3), and the ionic liquid 1-ethyl, 3-methyl-imidazolonium tetrafluoroborate. This is the first time that a ionic liquid is studied as lubricant additive. Viscosity measurements at 25 and 100°C, maximum number of molecules by unit aluminium surface and comparative costs of the additives showed the advantage of the ionic additives over the neutral ones. Pin-on-disk tests were performed according to ASTM G99. Influence of load, speed and temperature on friction and wear was studied for each additive. While the ionic liquid gives low friction (<0.1) and wear (≤10-5 mm3m-1), the performance of the liquid crystalline additives depends on the conditions. LC3 shows a higher lubricating ability than the neutral LC1 and LC2 under high load, speed or temperature. Only the ionic liquid shows tribochemical interaction (by SEM and EDS) with the steel and aluminium surfaces, with an increment in the fluorine content inside the wear track. The second line was to study the influence of the process conditions on the dry and lubricated wear of new powder-metallurgy aluminium materials. MA Al-NH3 milled under NH3 atmosphere was compared with (MA Al-Air) processed in air and with Al-1 which has not been mechanically alloyed. Conditions for mild to severe wear transition have been established. Al-1 is always under a severe wear regime. MA Al-NH3 shows transition to severe wear at 150°C, showing a 60% reduction in wear rate with respect to MA Al-Air and a two

  9. Thermophysical Properties of Polymer Materials with High Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, S. M.; Gefle, O. S.; Dneprovskii, S. N.; Amitov, E. T.

    2015-06-01

    Results of studies on the main thermophysical properties of new thermally conductive polymer materials are presented. It is shown that modification of polymer dielectrics by micron-sized fillers allows thermally conductive materials with thermal conductivity not less than 2 W/(m K) to be produced, which makes it possible to use such materials as cooling elements of various electrical engineering and semiconductor equipment and devices.

  10. Measurement and modelling of magnetic properties of soft magnetic composite material under 2D vector magnetisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. G.; Zhu, J. G.; Zhong, J. J.

    2006-07-01

    This paper reports the measurement and modelling of magnetic properties of SOMALOY TM 500, a soft magnetic composite (SMC) material, under different 2D vector magnetisations, such as alternating along one direction, circularly and elliptically rotating in a 2D plane. By using a 2D magnetic property tester, the B- H curves and core losses of the SMC material have been measured with different flux density patterns on a single sheet square sample. The measurements can provide useful information for modelling of the magnetic properties, such as core losses. The core loss models have been successfully applied in the design of rotating electrical machines with SMC core.

  11. Quantitative property-structural relation modeling on polymeric dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ke

    Nowadays, polymeric materials have attracted more and more attention in dielectric applications. But searching for a material with desired properties is still largely based on trial and error. To facilitate the development of new polymeric materials, heuristic models built using the Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPR) techniques can provide reliable "working solutions". In this thesis, the application of QSPR on polymeric materials is studied from two angles: descriptors and algorithms. A novel set of descriptors, called infinite chain descriptors (ICD), are developed to encode the chemical features of pure polymers. ICD is designed to eliminate the uncertainty of polymer conformations and inconsistency of molecular representation of polymers. Models for the dielectric constant, band gap, dielectric loss tangent and glass transition temperatures of organic polymers are built with high prediction accuracy. Two new algorithms, the physics-enlightened learning method (PELM) and multi-mechanism detection, are designed to deal with two typical challenges in material QSPR. PELM is a meta-algorithm that utilizes the classic physical theory as guidance to construct the candidate learning function. It shows better out-of-domain prediction accuracy compared to the classic machine learning algorithm (support vector machine). Multi-mechanism detection is built based on a cluster-weighted mixing model similar to a Gaussian mixture model. The idea is to separate the data into subsets where each subset can be modeled by a much simpler model. The case study on glass transition temperature shows that this method can provide better overall prediction accuracy even though less data is available for each subset model. In addition, the techniques developed in this work are also applied to polymer nanocomposites (PNC). PNC are new materials with outstanding dielectric properties. As a key factor in determining the dispersion state of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix

  12. Characterization of the physical properties for solid granular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Jonathan R.; Shadle, Lawrence J.; Guenther, Chris; Benyahia, Sofiane; Mei, Joseph S.; Banta, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the behavior of a system is strongly governed by the components within that system. For multiphase systems incorporating solid powder-like particles, there are many different physical properties which need to be known to some level of accuracy for proper design, modeling, or data analysis. In the past, the material properties were determined initially as a secondary part of the study or design. In an attempt to provide results with the least level of uncertainty, a procedure was developed and implemented to provide consistent analysis of several different types of materials. The properties that were characterized included particle sizing and size distributions, shape analysis, density (particle, skeletal and bulk), minimum fluidization velocities, void fractions, particle porosity, and assignment within the Geldart Classification. In the methods used for this experiment, a novel form of the Ergun equation was used to determine the bulk void fractions and particle density. Materials of known properties were initially characterized to validate the accuracy and methodology, prior to testing materials of unknown properties. The procedures used yielded valid and accurate results, with a high level of repeatability. A database of these materials has been developed to assist in model validation efforts and future designs. It is also anticipated that further development of these procedures wil be expanded increasing the properties included in the database.

  13. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Semelsberger, Troy; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kg system), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/L system). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material propertiesdand most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  14. Perceiving environmental properties from motion information: Minimal conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, Dennis R.; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1989-01-01

    The status of motion as a minimal information source for perceiving the environmental properties of surface segregation, three-dimensional (3-D) form, displacement, and dynamics is discussed. The selection of these particular properties was motivated by a desire to present research on perceiving properties that span the range of dimensional complexity.

  15. Non-invasive, energy-based assessment of patient-specific material properties of arterial tissue.

    PubMed

    Smoljkić, M; Vander Sloten, J; Segers, P; Famaey, N

    2015-10-01

    The mechanical properties of human biological tissue vary greatly. The determination of arterial material properties should be based on experimental data, i.e. diameter, length, intramural pressure, axial force and stress-free geometry. Currently, clinical data provide only non-invasively measured pressure-diameter data for superficial arteries (e.g. common carotid and femoral artery). The lack of information forces us to take into account certain assumptions regarding the in situ configuration to estimate material properties in vivo. This paper proposes a new, non-invasive, energy-based approach for arterial material property estimation. This approach is compared with an approach proposed in the literature. For this purpose, a simplified finite element model of an artery was used as a mock experimental situation. This method enables exact knowledge of the actual material properties, thereby allowing a quantitative evaluation of material property estimation approaches. The results show that imposing conditions on strain energy can provide a good estimation of the material properties from the non-invasively measured pressure and diameter data.

  16. The U.S. national nuclear forensics library, nuclear materials information program, and data dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, Stephen Philip; Brisson, Marcia; Curry, Michael

    2011-02-17

    Nuclear forensics assessments to determine material process history requires careful comparison of sample data to both measured and modeled nuclear material characteristics. Developing centralized databases, or nuclear forensics libraries, to house this information is an important step to ensure all relevant data will be available for comparison during a nuclear forensics analysis and help expedite the assessment of material history. The approach most widely accepted by the international community at this time is the implementation of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, which would be developed and maintained by individual nations. This is an attractive alternative toan international database since it provides an understanding that each country has data on materials produced and stored within their borders, but eliminates the need to reveal any proprietary or sensitive information to other nations. To support the concept of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, the United States Department of Energy has developed a model library, based on a data dictionary, or set of parameters designed to capture all nuclear forensic relevant information about a nuclear material. Specifically, information includes material identification, collection background and current location, analytical laboratories where measurements were made, material packaging and container descriptions, physical characteristics including mass and dimensions, chemical and isotopic characteristics, particle morphology or metallurgical properties, process history including facilities, and measurement quality assurance information. While not necessarily required, it may also be valuable to store modeled data sets including reactor burn-up or enrichment cascade data for comparison. It is fully expected that only a subset of this information is available or relevant to many materials, and much of the data populating a National Nuclear Forensics library would be process analytical or material accountability

  17. Classification-free threat detection based on material-science-informed clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Siyang; Wolter, Scott D.; Greenberg, Joel A.

    2017-05-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) is well-known for yielding composition and structural information about a material. However, in some applications (such as threat detection in aviation security), the properties of a material are more relevant to the task than is a detailed material characterization. Furthermore, the requirement that one first identify a material before determining its class may be difficult or even impossible for a sufficiently large pool of potentially present materials. We therefore seek to learn relevant composition-structure-property relationships between materials to enable material-identification-free classification. We use an expert-informed, data-driven approach operating on a library of XRD spectra from a broad array of stream of commerce materials. We investigate unsupervised learning techniques in order to learn about naturally emergent groupings, and apply supervised learning techniques to determine how well XRD features can be used to separate user-specified classes in the presence of different types and degrees of signal degradation.

  18. 45 CFR 800.113 - Benefit plan material or information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benefit plan material or information. 800.113 Section 800.113 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT MULTI-STATE PLAN PROGRAM Multi-State Plan Program Issuer Requirements § 800.113 Benefit...

  19. 45 CFR 800.113 - Benefit plan material or information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benefit plan material or information. 800.113 Section 800.113 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT MULTI-STATE PLAN PROGRAM Multi-State Plan Program Issuer Requirements § 800.113 Benefit...

  20. 75 FR 5561 - Information Collection; Disposal of Mineral Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... surface resources, and to affect a binding contract agreement. Forest Service employees will evaluate the... to request form FS-2800-9 (Contract of Sale for Minerals Materials). Interested parties are asked to... contract. If this information is not collected, the Forest Service would not comply with...

  1. 78 FR 24716 - Information Collection: Disposal of Mineral Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... resources, and to affect a binding contract agreement. Forest Service employees will evaluate the collected... to request form FS-2800-9 (Contract of Sale for Minerals Materials). Interested parties are asked to... contract. If this information is not collected, the Forest Service would be unable to comply with...

  2. Selected Transistor Material for the Information-Seeking Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringold, Dorman R.

    This study was undertaken to identify and organize meaningful and useful basic materials on transistor principles and applications, and to explore some of the elements required for adult teaching. It was limited to the apparent needs of information-seeking adults in greater Los Angeles who desired occupational skills. A literature review…

  3. Selected Transistor Material for the Information-Seeking Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringold, Dorman R.

    This study was undertaken to identify and organize meaningful and useful basic materials on transistor principles and applications, and to explore some of the elements required for adult teaching. It was limited to the apparent needs of information-seeking adults in greater Los Angeles who desired occupational skills. A literature review…

  4. Printed health information materials: evaluation of readability and suitability.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Carol; Hosei, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This study examined readability and suitability of printed health information materials colleted from multiple sources. In phase I, nursing students used Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG; McLaughlin, 1969) to assess the readability of 21 materials collected from the community. In phases II and III, nursing students and registered nurses used SMOG and the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM; Doak, Doak, & Root, 1996) to evaluate 15 prenatal materials from a Healthy Start program. SMOG assigns a reading grade level based on the number of words with 3 or more syllables. SAM has 22 items in 6 evaluation areas: content, literacy demand, graphics, layout and typography, learning stimulation and motivation, and cultural appropriateness. Major findings included that 53% to 86% of the printed materials had a reading level at or higher than 9th grade; materials lacked summary, interaction, and modeled behaviors, and registered nurses rated more materials as not suitable and fewer as superior for suitability qualities than students. Improving printed materials to have lower reading levels and better suitability qualities are indicated.

  5. Cardiac Tissue Structure, Properties, and Performance: A Materials Science Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Golob, Mark; Moss, Richard L.; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2014-01-01

    From an engineering perspective, many forms of heart disease can be thought of as a reduction in biomaterial performance, in which the biomaterial is the tissue comprising the ventricular wall. In materials science, the structure and properties of a material are recognized to be interconnected with performance. In addition, for most measurements of structure, properties, and performance, some processing is required. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding cardiac tissue structure, properties, and performance as well as the processing steps taken to acquire those measurements. Understanding the impact of these factors and their interactions may enhance our understanding of heart function and heart failure. We also review design considerations for cardiac tissue property and performance measurements because, to date, most data on cardiac tissue has been obtained under non-physiological loading conditions. Novel measurement systems that account for these design considerations may improve future experiments and lead to greater insight into cardiac tissue structure, properties, and ultimately performance. PMID:25081385

  6. MISSE in the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, DeWitt; Finckenor, Miria; Henrie, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) data is now being collected and distributed through the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. MISSE data has been instrumental in many programs and continues to be an important source of data for the space community. To facilitate great access to the MISSE data the International Space Station (ISS) program office and MAPTIS are working to gather this data into a central location. The MISSE database contains information about materials, samples, and flights along with pictures, pdfs, excel files, word documents, and other files types. Major capabilities of the system are: access control, browsing, searching, reports, and record comparison. The search capabilities will search within any searchable files so even if the desired meta-data has not been associated data can still be retrieved. Other functionality will continue to be added to the MISSE database as the Athena Platform is expanded

  7. Representation of the material properties of objects in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Goda, Naokazu; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Okazawa, Gouki; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2014-02-12

    Information about the material from which objects are made provide rich and useful clues that enable us to categorize and identify those objects, know their state (e.g., ripeness of fruits), and properly act on them. However, despite its importance, little is known about the neural processes that underlie material perception in nonhuman primates. Here we conducted an fMRI experiment in awake macaque monkeys to explore how information about various real-world materials is represented in the visual areas of monkeys, how these neural representations correlate with perceptual material properties, and how they correspond to those in human visual areas that have been studied previously. Using a machine-learning technique, the representation in each visual area was read out from multivoxel patterns of regional activity elicited in response to images of nine real-world material categories (metal, wood, fur, etc.). The congruence of the neural representations with either a measure of low-level image properties, such as spatial frequency content, or with the visuotactile properties of materials, such as roughness, hardness, and warmness, were tested. We show that monkey V1 shares a common representation with human early visual areas reflecting low-level image properties. By contrast, monkey V4 and the posterior inferior temporal cortex represent the visuotactile properties of material, as in human ventral higher visual areas, although there were some interspecies differences in the representational structures. We suggest that, in monkeys, V4 and the posterior inferior temporal cortex are important stages for constructing information about the material properties of objects from their low-level image features.

  8. A summary of the fatigue properties of wind turbine materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.

    2000-01-01

    Modern wind turbines are fatigue-critical machines that are typically used to produce electrical power from the wind. The materials used to construct these machines are subjected to a unique loading spectrum that contains several orders of magnitude more cycles than other fatigue-critical structures, e.g. an aeroplane. To facilitate fatigue designs, a large database of material properties has been generated over the past several years that is specialized to materials typically used in wind turbines. This article reviews the fatigue data that have been developed especially for wind turbines. Major sections are devoted to the properties developed for metals (primarily aluminium), wood and fibreglass. Special emphasis is placed on the fibreglass discussion because this material is currently the material of choice for wind turbine blades. The article focuses on the data developed in the US, but cites European references that provide important insights. Published in 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A Summary of the Fatigue Properties of Wind Turbine Materials

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND, HERBERT J.

    1999-10-07

    Modern wind turbines are fatigue critical machines that are typically used to produce electrical power from the wind. The materials used to construct these machines are subjected to a unique loading spectrum that contains several orders of magnitude more cycles than other fatigue critical structures, e.g., an airplane. To facilitate fatigue designs, a large database of material properties has been generated over the past several years that is specialized to materials typically used in wind turbines. In this paper, I review these fatigue data. Major sections are devoted to the properties developed for wood, metals (primarily aluminum) and fiberglass. Special emphasis is placed on the fiberglass discussion because this material is current the material of choice for wind turbine blades. The paper focuses on the data developed in the U.S., but cites European references that provide important insights.

  10. Investigation of thermal properties of raw materials of asphalt mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.

    2017-02-01

    Asphalt mixtures are composite materials, which are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and bitumen. During the mixing process mineral materials were blended with bitumen at relatively high temperature (∼200 °C). As the binding process come off in these higher temperature range, thermal properties of asphaltic materials are important. The aim of this project is to reveal the thermal properties of raw materials. During our research two types of mineral aggregates were tested (limestone and dolomite) by different methods. Differential thermal analysis, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were investigated at technologically important temperatures. The results showed that the structure of mineral materials did not change at elevated temperatures, expansion of samples was neglible, while thermal conductivity changed by temperature.

  11. Properties of Extruded PS-212 Type Self-Lubricating Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, W. J.; Sliney, H. E.; Soltis, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    Research has been underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center since the 1960's to develop high temperature, self-lubricating materials. The bulk of the research has been done in-house by a team of researchers from the Materials Division. A series of self-lubricating solid material systems has been developed over the years. One of the most promising is the composite material system referred to as PS-212 or PM-212. This material is a powder metallurgy product composed of metal bonded chromium carbide and two solid lubricating materials known to be self-lubricating over a wide temperature range. NASA feels this material has a wide potential in industrial applications. Simplified processing of this material would enhance its commercial potential. Processing changes have the potential to reduce processing costs, but tribological and physical properties must not be adversely affected. Extrusion processing has been employed in this investigation as a consolidation process for PM-212/PS-212. It has been successful in that high density bars of EX-212 (extruded PM-212) can readily be fabricated. Friction and strength data indicate these properties have been maintained or improved over the P.M. version. A range of extrusion temperatures have been investigated and tensile, friction, wear, and microstructural data have been obtained. Results indicate extrusion temperatures are not critical from a densification standpoint, but other properties are temperature dependent.

  12. Perceived object stability depends on shape and material properties.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Julian; Barnett-Cowan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Humans can detect whether an unstable object will fall or right itself, suggesting that the visual system can extract an object's center of mass (COM) and relate this to its base of support. While the COM can be approximated by its shape, this assumes uniform density. We created images of computer-generated goblets made of different materials to assess whether the visual system estimates an object's COM from both shape and material properties. The images were either uniformly dense (e.g., glass, gold, etc.) or made of composite materials (e.g., glass and gold) and positioned upright or upside-down near a table ledge. We compared each goblet's critical angle (CA), the angle at which each goblet is equally likely to fall or right itself, to the perceived CA in a two-alternative-forced-choice paradigm. Participants also rank-ordered 20 materials by density on a questionnaire. The results show that observers accurately estimate the CA for all goblets and are sensitive to subtle changes of an object's COM with change in shape and composite material properties. Importantly, rated density - as measured from the questionnaire - and true material density were positively correlated, suggesting that humans might maintain a representation of relative material density with which to assess object stability. We conclude that the brain is able to assess an object's behavior in a gravitational environment by forming a reliable assessment of an object's COM from both its geometric shape and material properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Strength properties of fly ash based controlled low strength materials.

    PubMed

    Türkel, S

    2007-08-25

    Controlled low strength material (CLSM) is a flowable mixture that can be used as a backfill material in place of compacted soils. Flowable fill requires no tamping or compaction to achieve its strength and typically has a load carrying capacity much higher than compacted soils, but it can still be excavated easily. The selection of CLSM type should be based on technical and economical considerations for specific applications. In this study, a mixture of high volume fly ash (FA), crushed limestone powder (filler) and a low percentage of pozzolana cement have been tried in different compositions. The amount of pozzolana cement was kept constant for all mixes as, 5% of fly ash weight. The amount of mixing water was chosen in order to provide optimum pumpability by determining the spreading ratio of CLSM mixtures using flow table method. The shear strength of the material is a measure of the materials ability to support imposed stresses on the material. The shear strength properties of CLSM mixtures have been investigated by a series of laboratory tests. The direct shear test procedure was applied for determining the strength parameters Phi (angle of shearing resistance) and C(h) (cohesion intercept) of the material. The test results indicated that CLSM mixtures have superior shear strength properties compared to compacted soils. Shear strength, cohesion intercept and angle of shearing resistance values of CLSM mixtures exceeded conventional soil materials' similar properties at 7 days. These parameters proved that CLSM mixtures are suitable materials for backfill applications.

  14. Corrosion properties of second-generation conductive materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groshart, E.

    1984-01-01

    Since the introduction of silver-filled epoxy adhesives and silver-filled nitrocellulose lacquer as RFI control materials, a number of new materials have been introduced. The resin carriers have been changed in an effort to make the materials more usable or more EPA acceptable and the fillers have been varied in an effort to make the materials less costly. The corrosion-related properties of second-generation materials were assessed, including adhesives, caulks, and greases. Aluminum 2024 was used as the only substrate material. Ten days of salt fog was used as the corrosive environment. If a noble material such as silver, nickel, or carbon is sandwiched with aluminum an increase in dc resistance results given enough time. If this is unsatisfactory electrically it should either not be used or have all corrosive environments excluded.

  15. Improved expanding ring technique for determining dynamic material properties.

    PubMed

    Liang, M Z; Li, X Y; Qin, J G; Lu, F Y

    2013-06-01

    An improved expanding ring experimental technique has been described to determine dynamic material properties under conditions approximating uniform one-dimensional tensile loading. There are mainly explosive expanding ring technique and electromagnetic expanding ring technique currently, for which exist many limitations in practical applications. The work reported herein is an attempt to overcome this difficulty by lateral efficiency loading produced by projectile, made of low-density material, impacting the same material filling. The lateral efficiency loading is a convenient and effective method, which allows materials to be in uniform uniaxial stress conditions at a high stress rate. The procedure is illustrated by experiments performed on 1100-0 aluminum rings.

  16. Optical method for determining the mechanical properties of a material

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.; Stoner, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample, comprising the steps of: (a) acquiring data from the sample using at least one probe beam wavelength to measure, for times less than a few nanoseconds, a change in the reflectivity of the sample induced by a pump beam; (b) analyzing the data to determine at least one material property by comparing a background signal component of the data with data obtained for a similar delay time range from one or more samples prepared under conditions known to give rise to certain physical and chemical material properties; and (c) analyzing a component of the measured time dependent reflectivity caused by ultrasonic waves generated by the pump beam using the at least one determined material property. The first step of analyzing may include a step of interpolating between reference samples to obtain an intermediate set of material properties. The material properties may include sound velocity, density, and optical constants. In one embodiment, only a correlation is made with the background signal, and at least one of the structural phase, grain orientation, and stoichiometry is determined.

  17. Optical method for determining the mechanical properties of a material

    DOEpatents

    Maris, H.J.; Stoner, R.J.

    1998-12-01

    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample, comprising the steps of: (a) acquiring data from the sample using at least one probe beam wavelength to measure, for times less than a few nanoseconds, a change in the reflectivity of the sample induced by a pump beam; (b) analyzing the data to determine at least one material property by comparing a background signal component of the data with data obtained for a similar delay time range from one or more samples prepared under conditions known to give rise to certain physical and chemical material properties; and (c) analyzing a component of the measured time dependent reflectivity caused by ultrasonic waves generated by the pump beam using the at least one determined material property. The first step of analyzing may include a step of interpolating between reference samples to obtain an intermediate set of material properties. The material properties may include sound velocity, density, and optical constants. In one embodiment, only a correlation is made with the background signal, and at least one of the structural phase, grain orientation, and stoichiometry is determined. 14 figs.

  18. Acoustical properties of selected tissue phantom materials for ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Zell, K; Sperl, J I; Vogel, M W; Niessner, R; Haisch, C

    2007-10-21

    This note summarizes the characterization of the acoustic properties of four materials intended for the development of tissue, and especially breast tissue, phantoms for the use in photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. The materials are agar, silicone, polyvinyl alcohol gel (PVA) and polyacrylamide gel (PAA). The acoustical properties, i.e., the speed of sound, impedance and acoustic attenuation, are determined by transmission measurements of sound waves at room temperature under controlled conditions. Although the materials are tested for application such as photoacoustic phantoms, we focus here on the acoustic properties, while the optical properties will be discussed elsewhere. To obtain the acoustic attenuation in a frequency range from 4 MHz to 14 MHz, two ultrasound sources of 5 MHz and 10 MHz core frequencies are used. For preparation, each sample is cast into blocks of three different thicknesses. Agar, PVA and PAA show similar acoustic properties as water. Within silicone polymer, a significantly lower speed of sound and higher acoustical attenuation than in water and human tissue were found. All materials can be cast into arbitrary shapes and are suitable for tissue-mimicking phantoms. Due to its lower speed of sound, silicone is generally less suitable than the other presented materials.

  19. Neural networks as tools for predicting materials properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, B.G.; Noid, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    Materials science is of fundamental significance to science and technology because our industrial base and society depend upon our ability to develop advanced materials. Materials and materials processing cuts across almost every sector of industry. The key in all of these areas is the ability to rapidly screen possible designs which will have significant impact. However up to now materials design and processing have been to a large extent empirical sciences. In addition we are still unable to design new alloys and polymers to meet application specific requirements. Being able to do so quickly and at minimum cost would provide an incredible advantage. Obviously, the ability to predict physical, chemical, or mechanical properties of compounds prior to their synthesis is of great technological value in optimizing their design, processing, or recycling. In addition, in order to realize the ultimate goal of materials by computational design, the reverse problem, prediction of chemical structure based on desired properties, has to be resolved. Research at ORNL has lead to the development of a novel computational paradigm (coupling computational neural networks with graph theory, genetic algorithms, wavelet theory, fuzzy logic, molecular dynamics, and quantum chemistry) capable of performing accurate computational synthesis (both predictions of properties or the design of compounds that have specified performance criteria). The computational paradigm represents a hybrid of a number of emerging technologies and has proven to work very well for test compounds ranging from small organic molecules to polymeric materials. Fundamental to the method is the neural network-based formulation of the correlations between structure and properties. The advantages of this method is in its ease of use, speed, accuracy, and that it can be used to predict both properties from structure, and also structure from properties.

  20. Cyclic cryopreservation affects the nanoscale material properties of trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Landauer, Alexander K; Mondal, Sumona; Yuya, Philip A; Kuxhaus, Laurel

    2014-11-07

    Tissues such as bone are often stored via freezing, or cryopreservation. During an experimental protocol, bone may be frozen and thawed a number of times. For whole bone, the mechanical properties (strength and modulus) do not significantly change throughout five freeze-thaw cycles. Material properties at the trabecular and lamellar scales are distinct from whole bone properties, thus the impact of freeze-thaw cycling at this scale is unknown. To address this, the effect of repeated freezing on viscoelastic material properties of trabecular bone was quantified via dynamic nanoindentation. Vertebrae from five cervine spines (1.5-year-old, male) were semi-randomly assigned, three-to-a-cycle, to 0-10 freeze-thaw cycles. After freeze-thaw cycling, the vertebrae were dissected, prepared and tested. ANOVA (factors cycle, frequency, and donor) on storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangent, were conducted. Results revealed significant changes between cycles for all material properties for most cycles, no significant difference across most of the dynamic range, and significant differences between some donors. Regression analysis showed a moderate positive correlation between cycles and material property for loss modulus and loss tangent, and weak negative correlation for storage modulus, all correlations were significant. These results indicate that not only is elasticity unpredictably altered, but also that damping and viscoelasticity tend to increase with additional freeze-thaw cycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Determined Through Molecular Modeling Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    The potential for gains in material properties over conventional materials has motivated an effort to develop novel nanostructured materials for aerospace applications. These novel materials typically consist of a polymer matrix reinforced with particles on the nanometer length scale. In this study, molecular modeling is used to construct fully atomistic models of a carbon nanotube embedded in an epoxy polymer matrix. Functionalization of the nanotube which consists of the introduction of direct chemical bonding between the polymer matrix and the nanotube, hence providing a load transfer mechanism, is systematically varied. The relative effectiveness of functionalization in a nanostructured material may depend on a variety of factors related to the details of the chemical bonding and the polymer structure at the nanotube-polymer interface. The objective of this modeling is to determine what influence the details of functionalization of the carbon nanotube with the polymer matrix has on the resulting mechanical properties. By considering a range of degree of functionalization, the structure-property relationships of these materials is examined and mechanical properties of these models are calculated using standard techniques.

  2. Diffused holographic information storage and retrieval using photorefractive optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Deanna Kay

    Holography offers a tremendous opportunity for dense information storage, theoretically one bit per cubic wavelength of material volume, with rapid retrieval, of up to thousands of pages of information simultaneously. However, many factors prevent the theoretical storage limit from being reached, including dynamic range problems and imperfections in recording materials. This research explores new ways of moving closer to practical holographic information storage and retrieval by altering the recording materials, in this case, photorefractive crystals, and by increasing the current storage capacity while improving the information retrieved. As an experimental example of the techniques developed, the information retrieved is the correlation peak from an optical recognition architecture, but the materials and methods developed are applicable to many other holographic information storage systems. Optical correlators can potentially solve any signal or image recognition problem. Military surveillance, fingerprint identification for law enforcement or employee identification, and video games are but a few examples of applications. A major obstacle keeping optical correlators from being universally accepted is the lack of a high quality, thick (high capacity) holographic recording material that operates with red or infrared wavelengths which are available from inexpensive diode lasers. This research addresses the problems from two positions: find a better material for use with diode lasers, and reduce the requirements placed on the material while maintaining an efficient and effective system. This research found that the solutions are new dopants introduced into photorefractive lithium niobate to improve wavelength sensitivities and the use of a novel inexpensive diffuser that reduces the dynamic range and optical element quality requirements (which reduces the cost) while improving performance. A uniquely doped set of 12 lithium niobate crystals was specified and

  3. 31 CFR 515.545 - Transactions related to information and informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transactions related to information and informational materials. 515.545 Section 515.545 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  4. 31 CFR 500.550 - Transactions related to information and informational materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions related to information and informational materials. 500.550 Section 500.550 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  5. Evaluation of the Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Program for the Aerospace Materials Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, F. L.; March, J. F.

    The Aerospace Materials Information Center (AMIC) Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) program was evaluated by an interview technique after one year of operation. The data base for the SDI consists of the periodic document index records input to the AMIC system. The users are 63 engineers, scientists, and technical administrators at the…

  6. Development and Demonstration of Material Properties Database and Software for the Simulation of Flow Properties in Cementitious Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Flach, G.

    2015-03-30

    This report describes work performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in fiscal year 2014 to develop a new Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) software module designated as FLOExcel. FLOExcel incorporates a uniform database to capture material characterization data and a GoldSim model to define flow properties for both intact and fractured cementitious materials and estimate Darcy velocity based on specified hydraulic head gradient and matric tension. The software module includes hydraulic parameters for intact cementitious and granular materials in the database and a standalone GoldSim framework to manipulate the data. The database will be updated with new data as it comes available. The software module will later be integrated into the next release of the CBP Toolbox, Version 3.0. This report documents the development efforts for this software module. The FY14 activities described in this report focused on the following two items that form the FLOExcel package; 1) Development of a uniform database to capture CBP data for cementitious materials. In particular, the inclusion and use of hydraulic properties of the materials are emphasized; and 2) Development of algorithms and a GoldSim User Interface to calculate hydraulic flow properties of degraded and fractured cementitious materials. Hydraulic properties are required in a simulation of flow through cementitious materials such as Saltstone, waste tank fill grout, and concrete barriers. At SRNL these simulations have been performed using the PORFLOW code as part of Performance Assessments for salt waste disposal and waste tank closure.

  7. Phase 2 STS new user development program. Volume 5: Informational materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdowell, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The informational material which should be provided to the user is described. Recommendations are made as to how the informational material should be derived and maintained, the timeliness or phasing of its use, and the applicability of existing informational material.

  8. Investigating the thermophysical properties of indurated materials on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Nathaniel William

    Indurated materials have been observed on the surface of Mars at every landing site and inferred from orbital remote-sensing data by the Viking, Mars Global Surveyor, and Mars Odyssey spacecraft. However, indurated materials on Mars are poorly understood because there is no ground truth for the indurated surfaces inferred from thermal remote-sensing data. I adopted two approaches to investigate indurated materials on Mars: (1) remote-sensing analysis of the Isidis basin, which shows some of the highest thermal inertia values derived from TES 1 observations, and (2) laboratory analyses of terrestrial indurated materials. To characterize the surface of the Isidis basin, I combined a variety of remote-sensing datasets, including thermal inertia data derived from TES and MO-THEMIS, TES albedo, THEMIS thermal and visible imaging, and Earth-based radar observations. From these observations I concluded that the thermal inertia values in the Isidis basin are likely the result of variations in the degree of cementation of indurated materials. To examine the thermophysical properties of indurated materials I collected four examples of terrestrial indurated materials. These included two types of gypcrete collected from a gypcrete deposit near Upham Hills, NM, clay-materials from Lunar Lake Playa, NV, and a pyroclastic material from the Bandelier Tuff near Los Alamos, NM. Despite significant differences in their physical properties and origins, all of these materials have thermal inertia values consistent with inferred indurated surfaces on Mars. There are no strong correlations between the thermal and physical properties of the collected samples due to thermal effects of the fabrics of the indurated materials. 1 Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. 2 Thermal Emission Imaging System onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft

  9. Design of meta-materials with novel thermoelastic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Seth

    The development of new techniques in micro-manufacturing in recent years has enabled the fabrication of material microstructures with essentially arbitrary designs, including those with multiple constituent materials and void space in nearly any geometry. With an essentially open design space, the onus is now on the engineer to design composite materials which are optimal for their purpose. These new materials, called meta-materials or materials with architected microstructures, offer the potential to mix and match properties in a way that exceeds that of traditional composites. We concentrate on the thermal and elastic properties of isotropic meta-materials, and design microstructures with combinations of Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, and mass density which are not found among naturally-occurring or traditional composite materials. We also produce designs with thermal expansion far below other materials. We use homogenization theory to predict the material properties of a bulk meta-material comprised of a periodic lattice of unit cells, then use topology optimization to rearrange two constituent materials and void space within the unit cell in order to extremize an objective function which yields the combinations of properties we seek. This method is quite general and can be extended to consider additional properties of interest. We constrain the design space to satisfy material isotropy directly (2D), or to satisfy cubic symmetry (3D), from which point an isotropy constraint function is easily applied. We develop and use filtering, nonlinear interpolation, and thresholding methods to render the design problem well-posed, and as a result ensure our designs are manufacturable. We have written two computer implementations of this design methodology. The first is for creating two-dimensional designs, which can run on a serial computer in approximately half an hour. The second is a parallel implementation to allow

  10. Molecule-based electrorheological material with luminescence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Xing; Liao, Fu-Hui; Shang, Yan-Li; Jia, Yun-Ling; Li, Jun-Ran

    2013-02-01

    Molecule-based electrorheological (ER) materials with luminescence property, based on β-cyclodextrin [(C6O5H10)7, β-CD] inclusion compounds between β-CD (host) and the rare earth (RE) (RE=Tb, Eu) complex (guest), have been synthesized as a novel type of ER materials using β-CD, Tb(NO3)3, Eu(NO3)3, sulphosalicylic acid (C7H6O6S·2H2O, SSA) and m-phthalic acid (C8H6O4, MPA) as original materials. The composition, ER performance, luminescence property and dielectric property of the materials have been studied. The results show that the rare earth complex in the cavity of β-CD may enhance the ER performance of β-CD, and the complex (Tb-SSA) of Tb3+ can improve more effectively the ER activity of β-CD than that (Eu-MPA) of Eu3+ among both of the complexes. The composition and structure are the dominant factors in improving the ER effect. The fluorescence intensity, fluorescence lifetime and emission quantum yield of the particle materials and their suspensions in silicone oil have been tested, and fine luminescence performance has been detected. The material with ER activity and luminescence performance is a novel multifunctional material which would have wide application prospect.

  11. Characterization of mouthguard materials: thermal properties of commercialized products.

    PubMed

    Gould, Trenton E; Piland, Scott G; Shin, Junghwan; McNair, Olivia; Hoyle, Charles E; Nazarenko, Sergei

    2009-12-01

    Several mechanisms have been purported to describe how mouthguards protect the orofacial complex against injury. As the properties needed for these mechanisms to be effective are temperature and frequency dependent, the specific aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive thermal characterization of commercial mouthguard materials. Five commercially representative thermoplastic mouthguard materials (Essix Resin, Erkoflex, Proform-regular, Proform-laminate, and Polyshok) were tested. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) techniques were implemented to measure thermal transitions and mechanical properties. Measurements were conducted three times per sample. One-way ANOVA and one-sample t-tests were used to test for differences between commercial products on selected mean thermal property values. The DSC measurements indicated no differences between commercial materials for mean glass transition (p=0.053), onset melt (p=0.973), or peak melt (p=0.436) temperatures. Likewise, DMA measurements revealed no differences between commercial materials for the mean glass transition (p=0.093), storage modulus (p=0.257), or loss modulus (p=0.172) properties, respectively. The one-sample t-tests revealed that glass transition temperatures were different from intra-oral temperature (p<0.005) for all materials. Commercialized mouthguard materials are sensitive to repetitive heating and cooling cycles, prolonged thermal treatment, and have glass transitions well below their end-use intra-oral temperature. As such, these materials are functioning as elastomers and not optimal mechanical damping materials. Dental clinicians, healthcare practitioners, or end-users should be aware that these materials are at best problematic with respect to this protective mechanism.

  12. Atomistic methodologies for material properties of 2D materials at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen

    Research on two dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and MoS2, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology. Due to the extraordinary properties of 2D materials, research extends from fundamental science to novel applications of 2D materials. From an engineering point of view, understanding the material properties of 2D materials under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of 2D-material-based devices at the nanoscale. Even at the nanoscale, molecular systems typically consist of a vast number of atoms. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations enable us to understand the properties of assemblies of molecules in terms of their structure and the microscopic interactions between them. From a continuum approach, mechanical properties and thermal properties, such as strain, stress, and heat capacity, are well defined and experimentally measurable. In MD simulations, material systems are considered to be discrete, and only interatomic potential, interatomic forces, and atom positions are directly obtainable. Besides, most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable since there is no singularity in MD simulations. However, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at the nanoscale. Therefore, equivalent definition of a physical quantity both in atomic scale and macroscopic scale is necessary in order to understand molecular and continuum scale phenomena concurrently. This work introduces atomistic simulation methodologies, based on interatomic potential and interatomic forces, as a tool to unveil the mechanical properties, thermal properties and fracture mechanical properties of 2D materials at the nanoscale. Among many 2D materials, graphene and MoS2 have attracted intense interest. Therefore, we applied our

  13. Review of materials property data for nondestructive characterization of pipeline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Lucinda Jeanette

    The oil and gas industry relies on an aging infrastructure of pipeline for transportation and distribution of product; therefore, it is important to assess the condition of the pipeline, using accurate material and mechanical properties, to ensure failures are minimized. Nondestructive evaluation techniques are currently being used to assess pipeline, but necessary mechanical properties (yield strength, tensile strength, fracture toughness, and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature) are not yet able to be adequately characterized by these methods. There are many issues to consider when addressing this problem. There is variability within the manufacturing processes due to simple inaccuracies in the processes themselves, and changes in practices over the years. There is also variability in the destructive techniques used for assessment of mechanical properties before the pipe is put into service. Current focus in the industry tends to be on pipe installed in the 1950's and 1960's because about half of the pipe currently in service was installed during these time periods, but it is equally important to verify the properties of modern pipe Therefore, nondestructive methods of measurement are commonly used for determining defect severity (e.g. magnetic flux leakage and ultrasonic) are being explored to determine what other properties can be measured to relate to mechanical properties. For future activities, it is advised to compare the accuracies of both destructive and nondestructive methods of determining properties, should some method of nondestructive evaluation become a more viable technique for mechanical property measurements, either directly or indirectly. The relationships between what can be measured (chemical content, grain size, microstructure, hardness, coercivity, permeability, etc) and the mechanical properties desired listed previously, show that there is a strong relationship between hardness and yield strength. This is already well known in the

  14. Analyzing readability of medicines information material in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Kasesnik, Karin; Kline, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Readability has been claimed to be an important factor for understanding texts describing health symptoms and medications. Such texts may be a factor which indirectly affects the health of the population. Despite the expertise of physicians, the readability of information sources may be important for acquiring essential treatment information. The aim of this study was to measure the readability level of medicines promotion material in Slovenia. Methods: The Flesch readability formula was modified to comply with Slovene texts. On the basis of determining the Slovene readability algorithm, the readability ease related to the readability grade level of different Slovene texts was established. In order to estimate an adjustment of the texts to the recommended readability grade level of the targeted population, readability values of English texts were set. One sample t-test and standard deviations from the arithmetic mean values were used as statistical tests. Results: The results of the research showed low readability scores of the Slovene texts. Difficult readability values were seen in different types of examined texts: in patient information leaflets, in the summaries of product characteristics, in promotional materials, while describing over-the-counter medications and in the materials for creating disease awareness. Especially low readability values were found within the texts belonging to promotional materials intended for the physicians. None of researched items, not even for the general public, were close to primary school grade readability levels and therefore could not be described as easily readable. Conclusion: This study provides an understanding of the level of readability of selected Slovene medicines information material. It was concluded that health-related texts were not compliant with general public or with healthcare professional needs. PMID:23093886

  15. Chemistry and properties of blends of acetylene terminated materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a NASA program to develop new high temperature/high performance structural materials, the chemistry and properties of acetylene-containing materials and their cured resins are under investigation. The objective of this work is to develop materials that are readily processable (i.e., 200-300 C and about 1.4 MPa or less) and possess usable mechanical properties at temperatures as high as 177 C. An acetylene-terminated aspartimide (ATA) was blended with an equal weight of an acetylene-terminated arylene ether (ATAE) oligomer. The blend was subsequently thermally cured to yield a resin which was evaluated in the form of neat resin moldings, adhesive specimens, and laminates. Adhesive specimens and laminates gave good mechanical properties to temperatures as high as 177 C. In addition, preliminary laminate work is presented on the resin from a blend of a new N-methyl substituted ATA and an ATAE.

  16. Heteroatom-doped graphene materials: syntheses, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuewan; Sun, Gengzhi; Routh, Parimal; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Huang, Wei; Chen, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Heteroatom doping can endow graphene with various new or improved electromagnetic, physicochemical, optical, and structural properties. This greatly extends the arsenal of graphene materials and their potential for a spectrum of applications. Considering the latest developments, we comprehensively and critically discuss the syntheses, properties and emerging applications of the growing family of heteroatom-doped graphene materials. The advantages, disadvantages, and preferential doping features of current synthesis approaches are compared, aiming to provide clues for developing new and controllable synthetic routes. We emphasize the distinct properties resulting from various dopants, different doping levels and configurations, and synergistic effects from co-dopants, hoping to assist a better understanding of doped graphene materials. The mechanisms underlying their advantageous uses for energy storage, energy conversion, sensing, and gas storage are highlighted, aiming to stimulate more competent applications.

  17. Compendium of information on identification and testing of materials for plastic solar thermal collectors

    SciTech Connect

    McGinniss, V.D.; Sliemers, F.A.; Landstrom, D.K.; Talbert, S.G.

    1980-07-31

    This report is intended to organize and summarize prior and current literature concerning the weathering, aging, durability, degradation, and testing methodologies as applied to materials for plastic solar thermal collectors. Topics covered include (1) rate of aging of polymeric materials; (2) environmental factors affecting performance; (3) evaluation and prediction of service life; (4) measurement of physical and chemical properties; (5) discussion of evaluation techniques and specific instrumentation; (6) degradation reactions and mechanisms; (7) weathering of specific polymeric materials; and (8) exposure testing methodology. Major emphasis has been placed on defining the current state of the art in plastics degradation and on identifying information that can be utilized in applying appropriate and effective aging tests for use in projecting service life of plastic solar thermal collectors. This information will also be of value where polymeric components are utilized in the construction of conventional solar collectors or any application where plastic degradation and weathering are prime factors in material selection.

  18. Inversion of Scattered Waves for Material Properties in Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Gritto, Roland; Korneev, Valeri A.; Johnson, Lane R.

    1999-07-01

    The authors apply a recently developed low-frequency, non-linear inversion method which includes near and far field terms to a crosshole data set to determine the bulk and shear modulus, as well as the density for a fractured zone in a granitic rock mass. The method uses the scattered elastic wavefield which is extracted from the recorded data before the inversion is performed. The inversion result is appraised by investigating the resolution and standard deviation of the model estimates. The sensitivity of the three parameters to different features of the medium is revealed. While the bulk modulus appears to be sensitive to voids and welded contacts, the density is mostly affected by fractured zones. The shear modulus is least constrained due to the absence of S wave anisotropy information. It is shown that the three medium parameters are generally sensitive to other medium features than those determined by velocity inversions. Thus this method is viewed as a complimentary approach to travel time tomography which provides more insight into the material properties of inhomogeneous media.

  19. Cellulose materials modified by antiseptics and their antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, N E; Panarin, E F; Zaikina, N A; Kudina, N P; Yongfa, H; Su, L S; Bobasheva, A S; Lavrentiev, V V

    1998-01-01

    Adsorption properties of dressing cellulose materials with respect to surfactant antiseptics were studied. These antiseptics are a complex of the copolymer of N-vinylpyrrolidone and crotonic acid with dimethylbenzylalkylammonium chloride (a synthetic polymer with a wide spectrum of antimicrobial effect) and its low molecular weight analogue (dimethylbenzylalkylammonium chloride). It was established that cellulose materials reversibly adsorb mentioned surfactant antiseptics depending on their concentration in the initial solutions. Maximum release of surfactant antiseptics is achieved at solutions at pH = 7.0. Microbiological tests of cellulose materials modified by antiseptics have shown that they exhibit antimicrobial activity. These results can be used in medical practice in clinics for imparting antimicrobial properties to dressing materials.

  20. Spectral reflectance properties of carbon-bearing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Gaffey, Michael J.; Moslow, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    The 0.3-2.6 micrometers spectral reflectance properties of carbon polymorphs (graphite, carbon black, diamond), carbides (silicon carbide, cementite), and macromolecular organic-bearing materials (coal, coal tar extract, oil sand, oil shale) are found to vary from sample to sample and among groups. The carbon polymorphs are readily distinguishable on the basis of their visible-near infrared spectral slopes and shapes. The spectra of macromolecular organic-bearing materials show increases in reflectance toward longer wavelengths, exceeding the reflectance rise of more carbon-rich materials. Reflectance spectra of carbonaceous materials are affected by the crystal structure, composition, and degree of order/disorder of the samples. The characteristic spectral properties can potentially be exploited to identify individual carbonaceous grains in meteorites (as separates or in situ) or to conduct remote sensing geothermometry and identification of carbonaceous phases on asteroids.

  1. Fabrication, properties, and tritium recovery from solid breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E. ); Kondo, T. ); Roux, N. ); Tanaka, S. ); Vollath, D. )

    1991-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 133 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Predicting and Designing Optical Properties of Inorganic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondinelli, James M.; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    2015-07-01

    Modern first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and related techniques enable the predictive modeling of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of materials without adjustable or empirical parameters. Today, atomistic calculations are an indispensable tool by which to understand the interrelationship between the underlying structure and the measured optical properties and are particularly suited for the design of new materials with desirable optical responses and performance. In this article, we discuss the first-principles design methodology, and we review recent results from the literature that exemplify the predictive power of the method for numerous inorganic materials and nanostructures. We also discuss topics of active research and future opportunities that will enable the wider adoption of atomistic simulation techniques for predictive materials design.

  3. Large scale Hugoniot material properties for Danby Marble

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, E.J.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents the results of simulation experiments of nuclear underground testing carried out using the HYDROPLUS methodology for yield verifications of non-standard tests. The objective of this test series was to demonstrate the accuracy of stress and velocity measurements in hard, low porosity rock, to obtain comparisons of large-scale material properties with those obtained from laboratory testing of the same material, and to address the problems posed by a material having a clear precursor wave preceding the main shock wave. The test series consisted of three individual experimental tests. The first established material properties of the Danby marble selected for use in the experiments. The second and third tests looked at stress and velocity gage errors obtained when gages were placed in boreholes and grouted into place.

  4. Material Property Characterization of AS4/VRM-34 Textile Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenoble, Ray W.; Johnston, William M

    2013-01-01

    Several material properties (modulus, strengths, and fracture toughness) of a textile composite have been evaluated to provide input data to analytical models of Pultruded Rod Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS). The material system is based on warp-knitted preforms of AS4 carbon fibers and VRM-34 epoxy resin, which have been processed via resin infusion and oven curing. Tensile, compressive, shear, and fracture toughness properties have been measured at ambient and elevated temperatures. All specimens were tested in as-fabricated (dry) condition. Specimens were tested with and without through-thickness stitching.

  5. Characterization of Viscoelastic Properties of Polymeric Materials Through Nanoindentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Bandorawalla, T.; Herring, H. M.; Gates, T. S.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoindentation is used to determine the dynamic viscoelastic properties of six polymer materials. It is shown that varying the harmonic frequency of the nanoindentation does not have any significant effect on the measured storage and loss moduli of the polymers. Agreement is found between these results and data from DMA testing of the same materials. Varying the harmonic amplitude of the nanoindentation does not have a significant effect on the measured properties of the high performance resins, however, the storage modulus of the polyethylene decreases as the harmonic amplitude increases. Measured storage and loss moduli are also shown to depend on the density of the polyethylene.

  6. Cyclic material properties tests supporting elastic-plastic analysis development

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.C.; Minicucci, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    Correlation studies have shown that hardening models currently available in the ABAQUS finite element code (isotropic, kinematic) do not accurately capture the inelastic strain reversals that occur due to structural rebounding from a rapidly applied transient dynamic load. The purpose of the Cyclic Material properties Test program was to obtain response data for the first several cycles of inelastic strain reversal from a cyclic properties test. This data is needed to develop elastic-plastic analysis methods that can accurately predict strains and permanent sets in structures due to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. Test specimens were cycled at inelastic strain levels typical of rapidly applied transient dynamic analyses (0.5% to 4.0%). In addition to the inelastic response data, cyclic material properties for high yield strength (80 ksi) steel were determined including a cyclic stress-strain curve for a stabilized specimen. Two test methods, the Incremental Step method and the Companion specimen Method, were sued to determine cyclic properties. The incrementally decreasing strain amplitudes in the first loading block of the Incremental Step method test is representative of the response of structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loads. The inelastic strain history data generated by this test program will be used to support development of a material model that can accurately predict inelastic material behavior including inelastic strain reversals. Additionally, this data can be used to verify material model enhancements to elastic-plastic finite element analysis codes.

  7. Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, A K; Rotaru, G-M; Derler, S; Spano, F; Camenzind, M; Annaheim, S; Stämpfli, R; Schmid, M; Rossi, R M

    2016-02-01

    For many applications in research, material development and testing, physical skin models are preferable to the use of human skin, because more reliable and reproducible results can be obtained. This article gives an overview of materials applied to model physical properties of human skin to encourage multidisciplinary approaches for more realistic testing and improved understanding of skin-material interactions. The literature databases Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms 'skin model', 'skin phantom', 'skin equivalent', 'synthetic skin', 'skin substitute', 'artificial skin', 'skin replica', and 'skin model substrate.' Articles addressing material developments or measurements that include the replication of skin properties or behaviour were analysed. It was found that the most common materials used to simulate skin are liquid suspensions, gelatinous substances, elastomers, epoxy resins, metals and textiles. Nano- and micro-fillers can be incorporated in the skin models to tune their physical properties. While numerous physical skin models have been reported, most developments are research field-specific and based on trial-and-error methods. As the complexity of advanced measurement techniques increases, new interdisciplinary approaches are needed in future to achieve refined models which realistically simulate multiple properties of human skin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Characterization of mechanical properties of materials using ultrasound broadband spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Megha; Prasad, Abhinav; Bellare, Jayesh R; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the characterization of homogenous materials (metals, alloys, glass and polymers) by a simple broadband ultrasonic interrogation method. The novelty lies in the use of ultrasound in a continuous way with very low input power (0 dBm or less) and analysis of the transmitted acoustic wave spectrum for material property characterization like speed of sound, density and dimensions of a material. Measurements were conducted on various thicknesses of samples immersed in liquid where continuous-wave, frequency swept ultrasonic energy was incident normal to the sample surface. The electro-acoustic transmission response is analyzed in the frequency domain with respect to a specifically constructed multi-layered analytical model. From the acoustic signature of the sample materials, material properties such as speed of sound and acoustic impedance can be calculated with experimentally derived values found to be in general agreement with the literature and with pulse-echo technique establishing the basis for a non-contact and non-destructive technique for material characterization. Further, by looking at the frequency spacing of the peaks of water when the sample is immersed, the thickness of the sample can be calculated independently from the acoustic response. This technique can prove to be an effective non-contact, non-destructive and fast material characterization technique for a wide variety of materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical properties of some polymer materials used for tooth positioners.

    PubMed

    Collett, A R; Cook, W D; West, V C

    1994-10-01

    The chemical composition, thermal behaviour and mechanical properties of three tooth positioner materials, Urethane P1 (P1), White Rubber (WR) and Elastocryl (EL) were investigated. Infra-red spectrophotometry indicated the P1 polyurethane material to be of the polyether type, and EL to be a blend of poly(ethyl methacrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate) while WR appeared to be filled cis-poly (isoprene) (natural rubber). The glass transition temperature (Tg) for EL was determined as approximately 10 degrees C, and for both P1 and WR the Tg was less than -50 degrees C. The stress relaxation behaviour was assessed in compression by measuring the stress variation with time. The results for all three materials conformed to the superelastic theory of rubber elasticity. EL exhibited both a more rapid rate and higher degree of stress relaxation than did P1 and WR. Recovery from deformation was assessed by compressing cylinders for given periods of time and then measuring the level of reduced residual strain of the material with time. All three materials exhibited significant residual strain (epsilon(t)) over 'clinically relevant' time periods, and the reduced residual strain (epsilon(t)/epsilon(O)) following deformation was greater for EL than P1 or WR. There was some indication that the three materials have some permanent set following deformation. It was concluded that, in considering desirable mechanical properties of tooth positioner materials, EL is the least suitable of the three examined, with none of the materials being ideal.

  10. Material properties and fracture mechanics in relation to ceramic machining

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, L.V.

    1993-12-02

    Material removal rate, surface finish, and subsurface damage are largely governed by fracture mechanics and plastic deformation, when ceramics are machined using abrasive methods. A great deal of work was published on the fracture mechanics of ceramics in the late 1970s and early 1980s, although this work has never resulted in a comprehensive model of the fixed abrasive grinding process. However, a recently published model describes many of the most important features of the loose abrasive machining process, for example depth of damage, surface roughness, and material removal rate. Many of the relations in the loose abrasive machining model can be readily discerned from fracture mechanics models, in terms of material properties. By understanding the mechanisms of material removal, from a material properties perspective, we can better estimate how one material will machine in relation to another. Although the fracture mechanics models may have been developed for loose abrasive machining, the principles of crack initiation and propagation are equally valuable for fixed abrasive machining. This report provides a brief review of fracture in brittle materials, the stress distribution induced by abrasives, critical indenter loads, the extension of cracks, and the relation of the fracture process to material removal.

  11. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  12. Database for the Tribological Properties of Self-Lubricating Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, T. R.; Thom, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    A test program to determine the tribological properties of several self-lubricating composites was performed. Testing was done using an LFW-1 Friction and Wear machine. Each material was tested at four load levels (66 N, 133 N, 266 N, and 400 N) under ambient conditions. The coefficient of friction and wear rate was determined for each material, and a relative ranking of the composites was made.

  13. Realization of New and Enhanced Materials Properties Through Nanostructural Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-11

    methods have been used to guide the design of novel new organic electroactive materials (e.g., electro - optic binary chromophore organic glasses...These new materials have yielded electro - optic coefficients as high as 450 pm/V (15 times lithium niobate) with auxiliary properties of modest optical... electro - optic activity has been achieved for the first time and theoretical conclusions have been verified by a number of new measurement techniques

  14. Characterization of Elastic Properties of Interfaces in Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    29.50 ± 3.5*. Although this variance is too large to be explained by the shift in energy flow (analogous to the Goos - Hanchen shift in optics), its...JHU-CNDE-IW.7 AD-A228 119 Characterization of Elastic Properties of Interfaces in Composite Materials T.M. Hsieh, K.A. Hirshman, EA. Lindgren, M...Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has placed a great deal of emphasis on the development of new composite materials, specifically metal and

  15. Means for ultrasonic testing when material properties vary

    DOEpatents

    Beller, Laurence S.

    1979-01-01

    A device is provided for maintaining constant sensitivity in an ultrasonic testing device, despite varying attenuation due to the properties of the material being tested. The device includes a sensor transducer for transmitting and receiving a test signal and a monitor transducer positioned so as to receive ultrasonic energy transmitted through the material to be tested. The received signal of the monitor transducer is utilized in analyzing data obtained from the sensor transducer.

  16. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  17. Material properties of mouse cervical tissue in normal gestation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kyoko; Mahendroo, Mala; Vink, Joy; Wapner, Ronald; Myers, Kristin

    2016-05-01

    An appropriately timed cervical remodeling process is critical for a healthy delivery, yet little is known about the material property changes of the cervix in pregnancy because obtaining human tissue samples is difficult. Rodent models offer advantages including accurately timed pregnant tissues and genetically altered models. Determining the material properties of the mouse cervix, however, is challenging because of its small size and complex geometry. The aim of this study is to quantify cervical material property changes in a normal mouse pregnancy using a microstructurally-inspired porous fiber composite model. We mechanically test intact, whole, gestation-timed mouse cervix by pulling apart tensioned sutures through its inner canal. To interpret our mechanical testing results, we conduct an inverse finite element analysis, taking into account the combined loading state of the thick-walled cylindrical tissue. We fit the material model to previous osmotic swelling data and load-deformation data from this study using a nonlinear optimization scheme, and validate the model by predicting a separate set of deformation data. Overall, the proposed porous fiber composite model captures the mechanical behavior of the mouse cervix in large deformation. The evolution of cervical material parameters indicates that in a normal mouse pregnancy, the cervix begins to soften between day 6 and day 12 of a 19-day gestation period. The material parameter associated with the collagen fiber stiffness decreases from 3.4MPa at gestation day 6 to 9.7e-4MPa at gestation day 18, while the ground substance stiffness decreases from 2.6e-1MPa to 7.0e-4MPa. Accelerated cervical remodeling can lead to extremely premature births. Little is known, however, about the material property changes of the cervix in pregnancy because pregnant human tissue samples are limited. Rodent models overcome this limitation and provide access to gestation-timed samples. Measuring the material property changes

  18. Mechanical and superconducting properties of materials from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, David Joel

    This thesis explores the mechanical and superconducting properties of materials using ab initio calculations. First, calculations of the ideal strength are presented, beginning with calculations of the ideal shear strength of aluminum and copper, which are both ductile fcc metals. The ideal shear strength of tungsten is then investigated. Tungsten has the interesting property that dislocations are active on several slip systems. A study of the ideal shear and tensile strength of molybdenum and niobium is then presented, which provides an interesting comparison in that the shear strength of niobium is suprisingly low, which leads to a different failure mode in the two systems. Calculations of the ideal shear and tensile strength of diamond, silicon and germanium are then presented. These are very different materials from those listed above since they are covalently bonded insulators and semiconductors. A study of BC2N is then presented, which is a recently synthesized and very hard material which has a structure similar to that of diamond. The next study reported concerns polonium, which is unusual in that it is the only element that takes the simple cubic structure. The properties of the recently discovered superconductor MgB2 are then studied theoretically. First, a summary of its electronic structure and phonon properties is presented, followed by a description of the results of an anisotropic Eliashberg calculation of its superconducting properties. Finally, calculations of the electronic properties and ideal strength of MoSe nanowires are presented.

  19. Effective Mechanical Properties of Lattice Material Fabricated by Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-kyum; Rosen, David W; Duty, Chad E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a two-step homogenization method is proposed and implemented for evaluating effective mechanical properties of lattice structured material fabricated by the material extrusion additive manufacturing process. In order to consider the characteristics of the additive manufacturing process in estimation procedures, the levels of scale for homogenization are divided into three stages the levels of layer deposition, structural element, and lattice structure. The method consists of two transformations among stages. In the first step, the transformation between layer deposition and structural element levels is proposed to find the geometrical and material effective properties of structural elements in the lattice structure. In the second step, the method to estimate effective mechanical properties of lattice material is presented, which uses a unit cell and is based on the discretized homogenization method for periodic structure. The method is implemented for cubic lattice structure and compared to experimental results for validation purposes.

  20. Molecular properties of polymeric materials for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, Wynford L.; Kern, Kristen T.; Stancil, Phillip C.

    1992-01-01

    This cooperative agreement was intended to investigate the effects of a space environment on the properties of polymeric materials. In addition, efforts have been made to understand and investigate environment simulation techniques and test methodology. The results identified the changes in the properties of six aerospace structural adhesives, three neat high polymers, and two fiber-reinforced polymers, as caused by exposure to four simulated space environmental conditions. Significant property changes occurred for several of the systems as a result of one or more of the exposures. A summary of the research follows a list of related publications and presentations.

  1. Straight-Line: A nuclear material storage information management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to: (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user immediately. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  2. Straight-Line -- A nuclear material storage information management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user in a timely manner. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  3. Initiatives to Develop Web Sites Including Information about Brownfields Properties

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site was created to assist in planning, designing, and operating web sites that include information about individual brownfields properties. The report is of value to parties designing or managing such sites.

  4. Stretchable polyurethane sponge reinforced magnetorheological material with enhanced mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Lin; Xuan, Shouhu; Liao, Guojiang; Yin, Tiantian; Gong, Xinglong

    2015-03-01

    A stretchable magnetorheological material (SMRM) consisting of micro-meter carbonyl iron (CI) particles, low cross-linking polyurethane (PU) polymer and porous PU sponge has been developed. Due to the presence of the PU sponge, the high-performance MR material can be reversibly stretched or bent, just as MR elastomers. When the CI content increases to 80 wt%, the magnetic induced modulus of the MR material can reach as high as 7.34 MPa and the corresponding relative MR effect increases to 820%. A possible strengthening mechanism of the SMRM was proposed. The attractive mechanical properties make the SMRM a promising candidate for future high-performance devices.

  5. Properties and performance of materials in the coal gasification environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, V.L.; Black, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings cosponsored by the Gas Research Institute, Metal Properties Council, Inc., American Society for Metals, and US Department of Energy. A large part of the conference covered materials testing conducted in simulated and actual coal-gasification conditions under the auspices of Subcommittee 9 of the MPC. Many of the investigators who have been active in evaluating materials for coal-conversion service during the past few years also contributed to the proceedings. Accordingly, this book is a valuable reference work on materials behavior in the chemically aggressive, high-temperature, high-pressure environments of coal-gasification plants.

  6. Determination of replicate composite bone material properties using modal analysis.

    PubMed

    Leuridan, Steven; Goossens, Quentin; Pastrav, Leonard; Roosen, Jorg; Mulier, Michiel; Denis, Kathleen; Desmet, Wim; Sloten, Jos Vander

    2017-02-01

    Replicate composite bones are used extensively for in vitro testing of new orthopedic devices. Contrary to tests with cadaveric bone material, which inherently exhibits large variability, they offer a standardized alternative with limited variability. Accurate knowledge of the composite's material properties is important when interpreting in vitro test results and when using them in FE models of biomechanical constructs. The cortical bone analogue material properties of three different fourth-generation composite bone models were determined by updating FE bone models using experimental and numerical modal analyses results. The influence of the cortical bone analogue material model (isotropic or transversely isotropic) and the inter- and intra-specimen variability were assessed. Isotropic cortical bone analogue material models failed to represent the experimental behavior in a satisfactory way even after updating the elastic material constants. When transversely isotropic material models were used, the updating procedure resulted in a reduction of the longitudinal Young's modulus from 16.00GPa before updating to an average of 13.96 GPa after updating. The shear modulus was increased from 3.30GPa to an average value of 3.92GPa. The transverse Young's modulus was lowered from an initial value of 10.00GPa to 9.89GPa. Low inter- and intra-specimen variability was found.

  7. Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Xia, Re; Li, Xide; Qin, Qinghua; Liu, Jianlin; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2011-07-01

    Using the theory of surface elasticity, we investigate the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials. The classical theory of porous materials is modified to account for surface effects, which become increasingly important as the characteristic sizes of microstructures shrink to nanometers. First, a refined Timoshenko beam model is presented to predict the effective elastic modulus of nanoporous materials. Then the surface effects on the elastic microstructural buckling behavior of nanoporous materials are examined. In particular, nanoporous gold is taken as an example to illustrate the application of the proposed model. The results reveal that both the elastic modulus and the critical buckling behavior of nanoporous materials exhibit a distinct dependence on the characteristic sizes of microstructures, e.g. the average ligament width.

  8. Comparison of shrinkage related properties of various patch repair materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Fitrianto, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    A patch repair material has been developed in the form of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)-mortar. The performance and durability of this material are governed by its compatibility with the concrete being repaired. One of the compatibility issue that should be tackled is the dimensional compatibility as a result of differential shrinkage between the repair material and the concrete substrate. This research aims to evaluate such shrinkage related properties of UPR-mortar and to compare with those of other patch repair materials. The investigation includes the following aspects: free shrinkage, resistance to delamination and cracking. The results indicate that UPR-mortar poses a lower free shrinkage, lower risk of both delamination and cracking tendency in comparison to other repair materials.

  9. 36 CFR 1256.32 - How do I request access to restricted information in donated historical materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I request access to restricted information in donated historical materials? 1256.32 Section 1256.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE ACCESS TO RECORDS AND...

  10. 36 CFR § 1256.32 - How do I request access to restricted information in donated historical materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I request access to restricted information in donated historical materials? § 1256.32 Section § 1256.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE ACCESS TO...

  11. 36 CFR 1256.32 - How do I request access to restricted information in donated historical materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I request access to restricted information in donated historical materials? 1256.32 Section 1256.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE ACCESS TO RECORDS AND...

  12. 36 CFR 1256.32 - How do I request access to restricted information in donated historical materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I request access to restricted information in donated historical materials? 1256.32 Section 1256.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE ACCESS TO RECORDS AND...

  13. 36 CFR 1256.32 - How do I request access to restricted information in donated historical materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I request access to restricted information in donated historical materials? 1256.32 Section 1256.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE ACCESS TO RECORDS AND...

  14. Influence of optical material properties on the perception of liquids.

    PubMed

    van Assen, Jan Jaap R; Fleming, Roland W

    2016-12-01

    In everyday life we encounter a wide range of liquids (e.g., water, custard, toothpaste) with distinctive optical appearances and viscosities. Optical properties (e.g., color, translucency) are physically independent of viscosity, but, based on experience with real liquids, we may associate specific appearances (e.g., water, caramel) with certain viscosities. Conversely, the visual system may discount optical properties, enabling "viscosity constancy" based primarily on the liquid's shape and motion. We investigated whether optical characteristics affect the perception of viscosity and other properties of liquids. We simulated pouring liquids with viscosities ranging from water to molten glass and rendered them with nine different optical characteristics. In Experiment 1, observers (a) adjusted a match stimulus until it had the same perceived viscosity as a test stimulus with different optical properties, and (b) rated six physical properties of the test stimuli (runniness, shininess, sliminess, stickiness, warmth, wetness). We tested moving and static stimuli. In Experiment 2, observers had to associate names with every liquid in the stimulus set. We find that observers' viscosity matches correlated strongly with the true viscosities and that optical properties had almost no effect. However, some ratings of liquid properties did show substantial interactions between viscosity and optical properties. Observers associate liquid names primarily with optical cues, although some materials are associated with a specific viscosity or combination of viscosity and optics. These results suggest viscosity is inferred primarily from shape and motion cues but that optical characteristics influence recognition of specific liquids and inference of other physical properties.

  15. Tailoring material properties of a nanofibrous extracellular matrix derived hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Todd D.; Lin, Stephen Y.; Christman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    In the native tissue, the interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, mechanical stability, and signaling. It has been shown that decellularized ECMs can be processed into injectable formulations, thereby allowing for minimally invasive delivery. Upon injection and increase in temperature, these materials self-assemble into porous gels forming a complex network of fibers with nano-scale structure. In this study we aimed to examine and tailor the material properties of a self-assembling ECM hydrogel derived from porcine myocardial tissue, which was developed as a tissue specific injectable scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering. The impact of gelation parameters on ECM hydrogels has not previously been explored. We examined how modulating pH, temperature, ionic strength, and concentration affected the nanoscale architecture, mechanical properties, and gelation kinetics. These material characteristics were assessed using scanning electron microscopy, rheometry, and spectrophotometry, respectively. Since the main component of the myocardial matrix is collagen, many similarities between the ECM hydrogel and collagen gels were observed in terms of the nanofibrous structure and modulation of properties by altering ionic strength. However, variation from collagen gels was noted for the gelation temperature along with varied times and rates of gelation. These discrepancies when compared to collagen are likely due to the presence of other ECM components in the decellularized ECM based hydrogel. These results demonstrate how the material properties of ECM hydrogels could be tailored for future in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:22101810

  16. Infrared Material Property Measurements with Polarimetry and Spectropolarimetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    June 1990 Interim Infrared Material Property Measurements with Polarimetry PE: O and Spectropolarimetry (Paper) PR: 2305 TA: E2 WU: 06 Dennis H...distribution is unlimited. - Polarimetry and spectropolarimetry are optical measurement techniques which use pol- arized light to obtain...measurements are made at one infrared wavelength at a time using laser sources. Spectropolarimetry measurements are made over an entire infrared

  17. Investigation of Effective Material Properties of Stony Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Carlozzi, Alex; Bryson, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    To assess the threat posed by an asteroid entering Earth's atmosphere, one must predict if, when, and how it fragments during entry. A comprehensive understanding of the Asteroid material properties is needed to achieve this objective. At present, the meteorite material found on Earth are the only objects from an entering asteroid that can be used as representative material and be tested inside a laboratory setting. Therefore, unit cell models are developed to determine the effective material properties of stony meteorites and in turn deduce the properties of asteroids. The unit cell is representative volume that accounts for diverse minerals, porosity, and matrix composition inside a meteorite. The various classes under investigation includes H-class, L-class, and LL-class chondrites. The effective mechanical properties such as Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio of the unit cell are calculated by performing several hundreds of Monte-Carlo simulations. Terrestrial analogs such as Basalt and Gabbro are being used to validate the unit cell methodology.

  18. Learning to Apply Models of Materials While Explaining Their Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpin, Tiia; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Applying structural models is important to chemistry education at the upper secondary level, but it is considered one of the most difficult topics to learn. Purpose: This study analyses to what extent in designed lessons students learned to apply structural models in explaining the properties and behaviours of various materials.…

  19. Food material properties and early hominin processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Zink, Katherine D; Lieberman, Daniel E; Lucas, Peter W

    2014-12-01

    Although early Homo is hypothesized to have used tools more than australopiths to process foods prior to consumption, it is unknown how much the food processing techniques they used altered the material properties of foods, and therefore the masticatory forces they generated, and how well they were able to comminute foods. This study presents experimental data on changes to food material properties caused by mechanical tenderization (pounding with a stone tool) and cooking (dry roasting) of two foods likely to have been important components of the hominin diet: meat and tubers. Mechanical tenderization significantly decreased tuber toughness by 42%, but had no effect on meat toughness. Roasting significantly decreased several material properties of tubers correlated with masticatory effort including toughness (49%), fracture stress (28%) and elastic modulus (45%), but increased the toughness (77%), fracture stress (50%-222%), and elastic modulus of muscle fibers in meat (308%). Despite increasing many material properties of meat associated with higher masticatory forces, roasting also decreased measured energy loss by 28%, which likely makes it easier to chew. These results suggest that the use of food processing techniques by early Homo probably differed for meat and tubers, but together would have reduced masticatory effort, helping to relax selection to maintain large, robust faces and large, thickly enameled teeth.

  20. Studies of acoustical properties of bulk porous flexible materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic prediction and measurement of bulk porous materials with flexible frames is investigated. The acoustic properties of Kevlar 29 are examined. Various acoustic tests are employed to determine impedance, sound wave propagation, and wave pressure equations for the highly porous fiber composites. The derivation of design equations and future research goals are included.

  1. Measuring acoustic properties of materials and jet nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, P. D.; Plumblee, H. E.; Salikuddin, M.

    1980-01-01

    Method measures acoustic properties of sound-absorbent materials and jet-nozzle system. Advantages of impulse method over other methods are that test time and complication are reduced. Results obtained from impulse method have been compared with those from existing methods, both experimental and theoretical, and show excellent agreement.

  2. Tailoring material properties of a nanofibrous extracellular matrix derived hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Todd D.; Lin, Stephen Y.; Christman, Karen L.

    2011-12-01

    In the native tissue, the interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, mechanical stability, and signaling. It has been shown that decellularized ECMs can be processed into injectable formulations, thereby allowing for minimally invasive delivery. Upon injection and increase in temperature, these materials self-assemble into porous gels forming a complex network of fibers with nanoscale structure. In this study we aimed to examine and tailor the material properties of a self-assembling ECM hydrogel derived from porcine myocardial tissue, which was developed as a tissue specific injectable scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering. The impact of gelation parameters on ECM hydrogels has not previously been explored. We examined how modulating pH, temperature, ionic strength, and concentration affected the nanoscale architecture, mechanical properties, and gelation kinetics. These material characteristics were assessed using scanning electron microscopy, rheometry, and spectrophotometry, respectively. Since the main component of the myocardial matrix is collagen, many similarities between the ECM hydrogel and collagen gels were observed in terms of the nanofibrous structure and modulation of properties by altering ionic strength. However, variation from collagen gels was noted for the gelation temperature along with varied times and rates of gelation. These discrepancies when compared to collagen are likely due to the presence of other ECM components in the decellularized ECM based hydrogel. These results demonstrate how the material properties of ECM hydrogels could be tailored for future in vitro and in vivo applications.

  3. Thermal properties of hemp fibre non-woven materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freivalde, Liga; Kukle, Silvija; Russell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    This review considers the thermal properties analysis of hemp fiber non-woven materials made by three different manufacturing technologies - thermal bonding, needle-punching and hydro-entanglement. For non-wovens development two hemp fibers cultivars grown in Latvia were used - Purini and Bialobrzeskie. Thermal resistance, conductivity and the effects of several parameters on thermal performance are revised.

  4. Development of a material property database on selected ceramic matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahanta, Kamala

    1996-01-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composites, with fiber/whisker/particulate reinforcement, possess the attractive properties of ceramics such as high melting temperature, high strength and stiffness at high temperature, low density, excellent environmental resistance, combined with improved toughness and mechanical reliability. These unique properties have made these composites an enabling technology for thermomechanically demanding applications in high temperature, high stress and aggressive environments. On a broader scale, CMC's are anticipated to be applicable in aircraft propulsion, space propulsion, power and structures, in addition to ground based applications. However, it is also true that for any serious commitment of the material toward any of the intended critical thermo-mechanical applications to materialize, vigorous research has to be conducted for a thorough understanding of the mechanical and thermal behavior of CMC's. The high technology of CMC'S is far from being mature. In view of this growing need for CMC data, researchers all over the world have found themselves drawn into the characterization of CMC's such as C/SiC, SiC/SiC, SiC/Al203, SiC/Glass, SiC/C, SiC/Blackglas. A significant amount of data has been generated by the industries, national laboratories and educational institutions in the United States of America. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center intends to collect the 'pedigreed' CMC data and store those in a CMC database within MAPTIS (Materials and Processes Technical Information System). The task of compilation of the CMC database is a monumental one and requires efforts in various directions. The project started in the form of a summer faculty fellowship in 1994 and has spilled into the months that followed and into the summer faculty fellowship of 1995 and has the prospect of continuing into the future for a healthy growth, which of course depends to a large extent on how fast CMC data are generated. The 10-week long summer fellowship has concentrated

  5. Material and Flexural Properties of Fiber-reinforced Rubber Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helminger, Nicholas P.

    The purpose of this research is to determine the material properties of rubber concrete with the addition of fibers, and to determine optimal mixture dosages of rubber and fiber in concrete for structural applications. Fiber-reinforced concrete and rubberized concrete have been researched separately extensively, but this research intends to combine both rubber and fiber in a concrete matrix in order to create a composite material, fiber-reinforced rubber concrete (FRRC). Sustainability has long been important in engineering design, but much of the previous research performed on sustainable concrete does not result in a material that can be used for practical purposes. While still achieving a material that can be used for structural applications, economical considerations were given when choosing the proportions and types of constituents in the concrete mix. Concrete mixtures were designed, placed, and tested in accordance with common procedures and standards, with an emphasis on practicality. Properties that were investigated include compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility. The basis for determining the optimal concrete mixture is one that is economical, practical, and exhibits ductile properties with a significant strength. Results show that increasing percentages of rubber tend to decrease workability, unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity while the toughness is increased. The addition of steel needle fibers to rubber concrete increases unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility of the composite material.

  6. Experimental analysis of electrical properties of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiala, L.; Rovnaník, P.; Černý, R.

    2017-02-01

    Dry cement-based composites are electrically non-conductive materials that behave in electric field like dielectrics. However, a relatively low amount of electrically conductive admixture significantly increases the electrical conductivity which extends applicability of such materials in practice. Therefore, they can be used as self-monitoring sensors controlling development of cracks; as sensors monitoring moisture content or when treated by an external electrical voltage as heat sources used for deicing of material's surface layer. Alkali-activated aluminosilicates (AAA), as competing materials to cement-based materials, are intensively investigated in the present due to their superior durability and environmental impact. Whereas the electrical properties of AAA are similar to those cement-based, they can be enhanced in the same way. In both cases, it is crucial to find a reasonable amount of electrically conductive phase to design composites with a sufficient electrical conductivity at an affordable price. In this paper, electrical properties of composites based on AAA binder and electrically conductive admixture represented by carbon nanotubes (CNT) are investigated. Measurements of electrical properties are carried out by means of 2-probes DC technique on nine types of samples; reference sample without the conductive phase and samples with CNT admixture in amount of 0.1 % - 2.5 % by vol. A significant increase of the electrical conductivity starts from the amount of 0.5 % CNT admixture and in case of 2.5 % CNT is about three orders of magnitude higher compared to the reference sample.

  7. Estimation of Rubber Material Property by Successive Zooming Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young-Doo; Kwon, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Wha-Jung; Yeo, Sim-Dong

    The industrial use of various kinds of rubber-like (hyper-elastic) material is rapidly increasing and growing in importance, especially in automobiles, trains, and machinery(1). In the past, rubber engineers and designers have predicted the behavior of rubber-like materials using analytic methods for limited problems or approximate methods for general problems. Yet, with the progress of digital computers, finite element methods(2), represented by the Mooney-Rivlin model, are now widely used to analyze hyper-elastic as well as isotropic materials. The conventional method used to evaluate the properties of rubber-like materials is the least square method (LSM), however, this method has a low precision and involves a tedious pre-solving process. Accordingly, this study proposes a simple yet powerful method for estimating the properties of rubber-like materials using a successive zooming genetic algorithm (SZGA). The proposed method results in dependable and precise rubber-like properties for various Mooney-Rivlin models based on simply changing the objective function. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, it is compared with Haines & Wilson's method (LSM) and other commercial packages.

  8. Development and Analysis of Synthetic Composite Materials Emulating Patient AAA Wall Material Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margossian, Christa M.

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) rupture accounts for 14,000 deaths a year in the United States. Since the number of ruptures has not decreased significantly in recent years despite improvements in imaging and surgical procedures, there is a need for an accurate, noninvasive technique capable of establishing rupture risk for specific patients and discriminating lesions at high risk. In this project, synthetic composite materials replicating patient-specific wall stiffness and strength were developed and their material properties evaluated. Composites utilizing various fibers were developed to give a range of stiffness from 1825.75 kPa up through 8187.64 kPa with one base material, Sylgard 170. A range of strength from 631.12 kPa to 1083 kPa with the same base material was also found. By evaluating various base materials and various reinforcing fibers, a catalogue of stiffnesses and strengths was started to allow for adaptation to specific patient properties. Three specific patient properties were well-matched with two composites fabricated: silk thread-reinforced Sylgard 170 and silk thread-reinforced Dragon Skin 20. The composites showed similar stiffnesses to the specific patients while reaching target stresses at particular strains. Not all patients were matched with composites as of yet, but recommendations for future matches are able to be determined. These composites will allow for the future evaluation of flow-induced wall stresses in models replicating patient material properties and geometries.

  9. Moisture effect on mechanical properties of polymeric composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airale, A. G.; Carello, M.; Ferraris, A.; Sisca, L.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of moisture on the mechanical properties of fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs) was investigated. Four materials had been take into account considering: both 2×2-Twill woven carbon fibre or glass fibre, thermosetting matrix (Epoxy Resin) or thermoplastic matrix (Polyphenylene Sulfide). The specimens were submitted for 1800 hours to a hygrothermic test to evaluate moisture absorption on the basis of the Fick's law and finally tested to verify the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength). The results showed that the absorbed moisture decreases those properties of composites which were dominated by the matrix or the interface, while was not detectable the influence of water on the considered fibre. An important result is that the diffusion coefficient is highest for glass/PPS and lowest for carbon/epoxy composite material. The results give useful suggestions for the design of vehicle components that are exposed to environmental conditions (rain, snow and humidity).

  10. Thermal Property Measurements of Critical Materials for SPICA Payload Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, Keisuke; Mizutani, Tadahito; Fujii, Takenori; Onaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Takao; Sugita, Hiroyuki

    The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is a pre-project of JAXA in collaboration with ESA to be launched around 2025. The 3m-class infrared telescope must be below 6K, based on scientific requirements, and features effective radiant cooling into deep space at L2 point combined with a mechanical cooler system in order to cool scientific instruments as well as the telescope. The thermal design of the SPICA payload module must involve researching and measuring the thermophysical properties of materials in order to achieve a highly reliable cooling chain. Accordingly, all critical materials, particularly FRPs were determined and their thermal properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, and thermal expansion) measured. Subsequently, the measured values were compared with those in literature and included in a thermal model analysis. This paper introduces details of these thermal properties measurements, comparisons with values in literature, and a thermal model analysis of the SPICA payload module.

  11. Characterizing the temperature dependence of electronic packaging-material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chia-Yu; Ume, Charles

    1995-06-01

    A computer-controlled, temperature-dependent material characterization system has been developed for thermal deformation analysis in electronic packaging applications, especially for printed wiring assembly warpage study. For fiberglass-reinforced epoxy (FR-4 type) material, the Young's moduli decrease to as low as 20-30% of the room-temperature values, while the shear moduli decrease to as low as 60-70% of the room-temperature values. The electrical resistance strain gage technique was used in this research. The test results produced overestimated values in property measurements, and this was shown in a case study. A noncontact strau]n measurement technique (laser extensometer) is now being used to measure these properties. Discrepancies of finite-element warpage predictions using different property values increase as the temperature increases from the stress-free temperature.

  12. Effects of Material Properties on Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Song, F; Koo, H; Ren, D

    2015-08-01

    Adhesion of microbes, such as bacteria and fungi, to surfaces and the subsequent formation of biofilms cause multidrug-tolerant infections in humans and fouling of medical devices. To address these challenges, it is important to understand how material properties affect microbe-surface interactions and engineer better nonfouling materials. Here we review the recent progresses in this field and discuss the main challenges and opportunities. In particular, we focus on bacterial biofilms and review the effects of surface energy, charge, topography, and stiffness of substratum material on bacterial adhesion. We summarize how these surface properties influence oral biofilm formation, and we discuss the important findings from nondental systems that have potential applications in dental medicine. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  13. Material properties study of the MJ-2 grout

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.B.

    1988-08-01

    Material properties experimental tests using the high pressure testing equipment at LLNL have been performed on the grout used in the Mini Jade-2 event (MJ-2) as part of a high pressure equation of state study sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency in support of the Misty Echo experiment at the Nevada Test Site. The material properties tests performed at LLNL and included in this report are (1) pressure-volume compression studies to 3.6 GPa, (2) pressure-volume compression and unloading studies to /approximately/1 GPa, and (3) material strength versus confining pressure to /approximately/1 GPa. These data are compared with dynamic results and with other static data using this grout. 4 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Structure-property relationships in silica-siloxane nanocomposite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, T.A.; Derzon, D.K.; Wang, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    The simultaneous formation of a filler phase and a polymer matrix via in situ sol-gel techniques provides silica-siloxane nanocomposite materials of high strength. This study concentrates on the effects of temperature and relative humidity on a trimodal polymer system in an attempt to accelerate the reaction as well as evaluate subtle process- structure-property relations. It was found that successful process acceleration is only viable for high humidity systems when using the tin(IV) catalyst dibutyltin dilaurate. Processes involving low humidity were found to be very temperature and time dependent. Bimodal systems were investigated and demonstrated that the presence of a short-chain component led to enhanced material strength. This part of the study also revealed a link between the particle size and population density and the optimization of material properties.

  15. The properties of metal-reinforced glass ionomer materials.

    PubMed

    Chung, K H

    1993-01-01

    The physical properties and bond strengths of two glass ionomer materials reinforced with silver and amalgam alloy powders were compared with those of a conventional material from the same manufacture as well as two commercially available products. The diametral tensile strength, hardness and bonding strength are improved with the addition of either commercial available silver particles or fabricated high-copper amalgam alloy powders to the glass. Simple mixture of the metal or alloy powders with the glass ionomer cement seems to be feasible to improve the properties of the regular cement. However, further studies in formulating an optimal composition of metal or alloy, setting characteristics and long-term clinical evaluation are necessary before proposing uses for this new material.

  16. DNA-linked nanoparticle materials: optical, electrical, and structural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarides, A.; Park, S.-J.; Mirkin, C.; Storhoff, J.; Schatz, G.; Brazis, P.; Kannewurf, C.

    2001-03-01

    Novel bioinorganic materials composed of Au nanoparticles linked with DNA have been developed as colorimetric DNA sensors. In the presence of complimentary DNA, particles dressed with one of two oligonucleotide sequences are linked to form binary nanoparticle aggregates. Assemblies linked at 298K have plasmon frequency shifts that decrease with increasing linker length; annealing, however, eliminates the length dependence of the shift. Neither sedimentation rate measurements nor theoretical studies of the optical properties provide unambiguous explanation. However, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements indicate that separations between nanoparticles with or without annealing are proportional to the number of base pairs in the oligonucleotide linkers. DNA is thus shown to offer a means for tuning separations in nanoparticle materials. We have also investigated the electrical and structural properties of dry Au nanoparticle films linked by DNA. The assemblies are semiconducting, which suggests that DNA can be used as a chemically specific scaffolding material for assembly of conductive structures.

  17. Thermoelastic analysis of solar cell arrays and their material properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, M. A.; Rowe, W. M.; Yasui, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    A thermoelastic stress analysis procedure is reported for predicting the thermally induced stresses and failures in silicon solar cell arrays. A prerequisite for the analysis is the characterization of the temperature-dependent thermal and mechanical properties of the solar cell materials. Extensive material property testing was carried out in the temperature range -200 to +200 C for the filter glass, P- and N-type silicon, interconnector metals, solder, and several candidate silicone rubber adhesives. The analysis procedure is applied to several solar cell array design configurations. Results of the analysis indicate the optimum design configuration, with respect to compatible materials, effect of the solder coating, and effect of the interconnector geometry. Good agreement was found between results of the analysis and the test program.

  18. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Infrared Materials (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc. 5100 Springfield Pike, Suite 509 Dayton, OH 45431- 1264 Hardened Materials Branch (AFRL/MLPJ...flash method utilizing a Holometrix Thermaflash 2200 instrument.4 Both the instrument and method conform to ASTM EI461-01, Standard Test Methodfor...5. Test Method E1461-01 in Annual Book of ASTM Standards (American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 2001), Vol. 14.02, pp. 1-13. 6

  19. Millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric properties of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Usman Ansar

    Broadband dielectric properties of materials can be employed to identify, detect, and characterize materials through their unique spectral signatures. In this study, millimeter wave, submillimeter wave, and terahertz dielectric properties of biological substances inclusive of liquids, solids, and powders were obtained using Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DFTS). Two broadband polarizing interferometers were constructed to test materials from 60 GHz to 1.2 THz. This is an extremely difficult portion of the frequency spectrum to obtain a material's dielectric properties since neither optical nor microwave-based techniques provide accurate data. The dielectric characteristics of liquids such as cyclohexane, chlorobenzene, benzene, ethanol, methanol, 1,4 dioxane, and 10% formalin were obtained using the liquid interferometer. Subsequently the solid interferometer was utilized to determine the dielectric properties of human breast tissues, which are fixed and preserved in 10% formalin. This joint collaboration with the Tufts New England Medical Center demonstrated a significant difference between the dielectric response of tumorous and non-tumorous breast tissues across the spectrum. Powders such as anthrax, flour, talc, corn starch, dry milk, and baking soda have been involved in a number of security threats and false alarms around the globe in the last decade. To be able to differentiate hoax attacks and serious security threats, the dielectric properties of common household powders were also examined using the solid interferometer to identify the powders' unique resonance peaks. A new sample preparation kit was designed to test the powder specimens. It was anticipated that millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric characterization will enable one to clearly distinguish one powder from the other; however most of the powders had relatively close dielectric responses and only Talc had a resonance signature recorded at 1.135 THz. Furthermore, due to

  20. Material Property Measurement in Hostile Environments using Laser Acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Ken L. Telschow

    2004-08-01

    Acoustic methods are well known and have been used to measure various intrinsic material properties, such as, elastic coefficients, density, crystal axis orientation, microstructural texture, and residual stress. Extrinsic properties, such as, dimensions, motion variables or temperature are also readily determined from acoustic methods. Laser acoustics, employing optical generation and detection of elastic waves, has a unique advantage over other acoustic methods—it is noncontacting, uses the sample surface itself for transduction, requires no couplant or invasive sample surface preparation and can be utilized in any hostile environment allowing optical access to the sample surface. In addition, optical generation and detection probe beams can be focused to the micron scale and/or shaped to alter the transduction process with a degree of control not possible using contact transduction methods. Laser methods are amenable to both continuous wave and pulse-echo measurements and have been used from Hz to 100’s of GHz (time scales from sec to psec) and with amplitudes sufficient to fracture materials. This paper shall review recent applications of laser acoustic methods to determining material properties in hostile environments that preclude the use of contacting transduction techniques. Example environments include high temperature (>1000C) sintering and molten metal processing, thin film deposition by plasma techniques, materials moving at high velocity during the fabrication process and nuclear high radiation regions. Recent technological advances in solid-state lasers and telecommunications have greatly aided the development and implementation of laser acoustic methods, particularly at ultra high frequencies. Consequently, laser acoustic material property measurements exhibit high precision and reproducibility today. In addition, optical techniques provide methods of imaging acoustic motion that is both quantitative and rapid. Possible future directions for

  1. Material Properties Analysis of Structural Members in Pumpkin Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    The efficient design, service-life qualification, and reliability predictions for lightweight aerospace structures require careful mechanical properties analysis of candidate structural materials. The demand for high-quality laboratory data is particularly acute when the candidate material or the structural design has little history. The pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloon presents both challenges. Its design utilizes load members (tendons) extending from apex to base around the gas envelope to achieve a lightweight structure. The candidate tendon material is highly weight-efficient braided HM cord. Previous mechanical properties studies of Zylon have focused on fiber and yarn, and industrial use of the material in tensile applications is limited. For high-performance polymers, a carefully plamed and executed properties analysis scheme is required to ensure the data are relevant to the desired application. Because no directly-applicable testing standard was available, a protocol was developed based on guidelines fiom professional and industry organizations. Due to the liquid-crystalline nature of the polymer, the cord is very stiff, creeps very little, and does not yield. Therefore, the key material property for this application is the breaking strength. The pretension load and gauge length were found to have negligible effect on the measured breaking strength over the ranges investigated. Strain rate was found to have no effect on breaking strength, within the range of rates suggested by the standards organizations. However, at the lower rate more similar to ULDB operations, the strength was reduced. The breaking strength increased when the experiment temperature was decreased from ambient to 183K which is the lowest temperature ULDB is expected to experience. The measured strength under all test conditions was well below that resulting from direct scale-up of fiber strength based on the manufacturers data. This expected result is due to the effects of the

  2. Properties of granular analogue model materials: A community wide survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkmüller, M.; Schreurs, G.; Rosenau, M.; Kemnitz, H.

    2016-08-01

    We report the material properties of 26 granular analogue materials used in 14 analogue modelling laboratories. We determined physical characteristics such as bulk density, grain size distribution, and grain shape, and performed ring shear tests to determine friction angles and cohesion, and uniaxial compression tests to evaluate the compaction behaviour. Mean grain size of the materials varied between c. 100 and 400 μm. Analysis of grain shape factors shows that the four different classes of granular materials (14 quartz sands, 5 dyed quartz sands, 4 heavy mineral sands and 3 size fractions of glass beads) can be broadly divided into two groups consisting of 12 angular and 14 rounded materials. Grain shape has an influence on friction angles, with most angular materials having higher internal friction angles (between c. 35° and 40°) than rounded materials, whereas well-rounded glass beads have the lowest internal friction angles (between c. 25° and 30°). We interpret this as an effect of intergranular sliding versus rolling. Most angular materials have also higher basal friction angles (tested for a specific foil) than more rounded materials, suggesting that angular grains scratch and wear the foil. Most materials have an internal cohesion in the order of 20-100 Pa except for well-rounded glass beads, which show a trend towards a quasi-cohesionless (C < 20 Pa) Coulomb-type material. The uniaxial confined compression tests reveal that rounded grains generally show less compaction than angular grains. We interpret this to be related to the initial packing density after sifting, which is higher for rounded grains than for angular grains. Ring-shear test data show that angular grains undergo a longer strain-hardening phase than more rounded materials. This might explain why analogue models consisting of angular grains accommodate deformation in a more distributed manner prior to strain localisation than models consisting of rounded grains.

  3. Nuclear power plant containment metallic pressure boundary materials and plans for collecting and presenting their properties

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, C.B.

    1995-04-01

    A program is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) in their assessment of the effects of degradation (primarily corrosion) on the structural capacity and leaktight integrity of metal containments and steel liners of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to characterize and quantify manifestations of corrosion on the properties of steels used to construct containment pressure boundary components. This report describes a plan for use in collecting and presenting data and information on ferrous alloys permitted for use in construction of pressure retaining components in concrete and metal containments. Discussions about various degradation mechanisms that could potentially affect the mechanical properties of these materials are also included. Conclusions and recommendations presented in this report will be used to guide the collection of data and information that will be used to prepare a material properties data base for containment steels.

  4. International Nuclear Safety Center database on thermophysical properties of reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Sofu, T.; Ley, H.

    1997-08-01

    The International Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) database has been established at Argonne National Laboratory to provide easily accessible data and information necessary to perform nuclear safety analyses and to promote international collaboration through the exchange of nuclear safety information. The INSC database, located on the World Wide Web at http://www.insc.anl.gov, contains critically assessed recommendations for reactor material properties for normal operating conditions, transients, and severe accidents. The initial focus of the database is on thermodynamic and transport properties of materials for water reactors. Materials that are being included in the database are fuel, absorbers, cladding, structural materials, coolant, and liquid mixtures of combinations of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Zr, stainless steel, absorber materials, and concrete. For each property, the database includes: (1) a summary of recommended equations with uncertainties; (2) a detailed data assessment giving the basis for the recommendations, comparisons with experimental data and previous recommendations, and uncertainties; (3) graphs showing recommendations, uncertainties, and comparisons with data and other equations; and (4) property values tabulated as a function of temperature.

  5. New multifunction materials with both electrorheological performance and luminescence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Xing; Shang, Yan-Li; Jia, Yun-Ling; Dong, Xiang-Yu; Ren, Jing; Li, Jun-Ran

    2017-02-01

    Novel multifunctional materials, the composites AlOOH-NaYFTb5 and AlOOH-NaYFTb10, containing AlO(OH) and β-NaYF4:5%Tb3+, have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route and a simple grinding method. The boehmite [AlO(OH)], yttrium nitrate [Y(NO3)3·6H2O], terbium nitrate, [Tb(NO3)3·6H2O], sodium citrate (Na3C6H5O7·2H2O) and sodium fluoride (NaF) were used as starting materials. The composition, electrorheological (ER) performance, and luminescence property of the functional materials were studied. Our results show that the composites not only have good electrorheological (ER) performance, but also have good optics property. The relative shear stress τ r ( τ r = τ E/ τ 0, τ E and τ 0 are the shear stresses at the electric field strength E = 4 and 0 kV/mm, respectively) values of the suspension (25 wt.%) of AlOOHNaYFTb5 material in silicone oil are all larger than 50 in a shear rate ranging from 0.06 to 26 s-1, the τr value reaches 1333 at a shear rate of 0.06 s-1. The material with such high ER activity and favorable luminescence performance is advantageous in its application as a multifunctional material.

  6. Characterization of the electromechanical properties of EAP materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrita, Stewart; Bhattachary, Kaushik; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2001-01-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) are an emerging class of actuation materials. Their large electrically induced strains (longitudinal or bending), low density, mechanical flexibility, and ease of processing offer advantages over traditional electroactive materials. However, before the capability of these materials can be exploited, their electrical and mechanical behavior must be properly quantified. Two general types of EAP can be identified. The first type is ionic EAP, which requires relatively low voltages (<10V) to achieve large bending deflections. This class usually needs to be hydrated and electrochemical reactions may occur. The second type is Electronic-EAP and it involves electrostrictive and/or Maxwell stresses. This type of materials requires large electric fields (>100MV/m) to achieve longitudinal deformations at the range from 4 - 360%. Some of the difficulties in characterizing EAP include: nonlinear properties, large compliance (large mismatch with metal electrodes), nonhomogeneity resulting from processing, etc. To support the need for reliable data, the authors are developing characterization techniques to quantify the electroactive responses and material properties of EAP materials. The emphasis of the current study is on addressing electromechanical issues related to the ion-exchange type EAP also known as IPMC. The analysis, experiments and test results are discussed in this paper.

  7. Nanoindentation derived stress-strain properties of dental materials.

    PubMed

    He, Li H; Swain, Michael V

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the stress-strain response of different dental materials, especially dental brittle materials, and compare them with enamel. A nano-based indentation system (Ultra Micro-Indentation System, UMIS-2000, CSIRO, Australia) was used to determine the indentation stress-strain response of two kinds of dental ceramics (Cerec 2 Mark II and Vita VM9), one kind of dental alloy (Wiron 99) and healthy enamel. A spherical indenter was used to test the materials with nanometer and micro-Newton displacement and force resolution. Assuming the elastic modulus remained constant, a plot of contact pressure versus contact strain, H-a/R, of each material was obtained. By comparing the H-a/R curve of the different materials with enamel, it can be concluded that only the metallic alloy, has similar stress-strain response as enamel. Dental ceramics showed much higher yield stress response than enamel. VM9, a porcelain veneer component of crown/bridge structure, is slightly softer than its core, Mark II. The yield point for Mark II and VM9 are nearly 10 and 7GPa, respectively, and approximately 2GPa for Wiron alloy and enamel. H-a/R curves provide a new method to compare the mechanical properties of different dental materials. From the standpoint of structural reliability, strong and tough materials with primarily elastic response, such as toughened ceramics are required to enable dental crown/bridges to have long term reliability. On the other hand, materials with too high hardness or yield response may damage opposing teeth during occlusal contact. Future studies may establish a relationship between stress and strain property and abrasive wear of dental material.

  8. Auditory perception of geometry-invariant material properties.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhimin; Yeh, Hengchin; Klatzky, Roberta; Lin, Ming C

    2013-04-01

    Accurately modeling the intrinsic material-dependent damping property for interactive sound rendering is a challenging problem. The Rayleigh damping model is commonly regarded as an adequate engineering model for interactive sound synthesis in virtual environment applications, but this assumption has never been rigorously analyzed. In this paper, we conduct a formal evaluation of this model. Our goal is to determine if auditory perception of material under Rayleigh damping assumption is 'geometry-invariant', i.e. if this approximation model is transferable across different shapes and sizes. First, audio recordings of same-material objects in various shapes and sizes are analyzed to determine if they can be approximated by the Rayleigh damping model with a single set of parameters. Next, we design and conduct a series of psychoacoustic experiments, in subjects evaluate if audio clips synthesized using the Rayleigh damping model are from the same material, when we alter the material, shape, and size parameters. Through both quantitative and qualitative evaluation, we show that the acoustic properties of the Rayleigh damping model for a single material is generally preserved across different geometries of objects consisting of homogeneous materials and is therefore a suitable, geometry-invariant sound model. Our study results also show that consistent with prior crossmodal expectations, visual perception of geometry can affect the auditory perception of materials. These findings facilitate the wide adoption of Rayleigh damping for interactive auditory systems and enable reuse of material parameters under this approximation model across different shapes and sizes, without laborious per-object parameter tuning.

  9. Structural and material properties of human foot tendons.

    PubMed

    Morales-Orcajo, Enrique; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Losa Iglesias, Marta; Bayod, Javier

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of the main balance tendons of the human foot in vitro reporting mechanical structural properties and mechanical material properties separately. Tendon structural properties are relevant for clinical applications, for example in orthopedic surgery to elect suitable replacements. Tendon material properties are important for engineering applications such as the development of refined constitutive models for computational simulation or in the design of synthetic materials. One hundred uniaxial tensile tests were performed to obtain the mechanical response of the main intrinsic and extrinsic human foot tendons. The specimens were harvested from five frozen cadaver feet including: Extensor and Flexor tendons of all toes, Tibialis Anterior and Posterior tendons and Peroneus Brevis and Longus tendons. Cross-sectional area, load and strain failure, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile stress are reported as a reference of foot tendon mechanical properties. Two different behaviors could be differentiated. Tibialis and Peroneus tendons exhibited higher values of strain failure compared to Flexor and Extensor tendons which had higher Young's modulus and ultimate tensile stress. Stress-strain tendon curves exhibited proportionality between regions. The initial strain, the toe region and the yield point corresponded to the 15, 30 and 70% of the strain failure respectively. Mechanical properties of the lesser-studied human foot tendons are presented under the same test protocol for different engineering and clinical applications. The tendons that work at the inversion/eversion plane are more deformable at the same stress and strain rate than those that work at the flexion/extension plane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biologic properties of surgical scaffold materials derived from dermal ECM.

    PubMed

    Kulig, Katherine M; Luo, Xiao; Finkelstein, Eric B; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Goldman, Scott M; Sundback, Cathryn A; Vacanti, Joseph P; Neville, Craig M

    2013-07-01

    Surgical scaffold materials manufactured from donor human or animal tissue are increasingly being used to promote soft tissue repair and regeneration. The clinical product consists of the residual extracellular matrix remaining after a rigorous decellularization process. Optimally, the material provides both structural support during the repair period and cell guidance cues for effective incorporation into the regenerating tissue. Surgical scaffold materials are available from several companies and are unique products manufactured by proprietary methodology. A significant need exists for a more thorough understanding of scaffold properties that impact the early steps of host cell recruitment and infiltration. In this study, a panel of in vitro assays was used to make direct comparisons of several similar, commercially-available materials: Alloderm, Medeor Matrix, Permacol, and Strattice. Differences in the materials were detected for both cell signaling and scaffold architecture-dependent cell invasion. Material-conditioned media studies found Medeor Matrix to have the greatest positive effect upon cell proliferation and induction of migration. Strattice provided the greatest chemotaxis signaling and best suppressed apoptotic induction. Among assays measuring structure-dependent properties, Medeor Matrix was superior for cell attachment, followed by Permacol. Only Alloderm and Medeor Matrix supported chemotaxis-driven cell invasion beyond the most superficial zone. Medeor Matrix was the only material in the chorioallantoic membrane assay to support substantial cell invasion. These results indicate that both biologic and structural properties need to be carefully assessed in the considerable ongoing efforts to develop new uses and products in this important class of biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 36 CFR 1202.94 - What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material exemption of the... as access to records in the system would reveal the identity(ies) of the source(s) of information... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What NARA systems of...

  12. 36 CFR 1202.94 - What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material exemption of the... as access to records in the system would reveal the identity(ies) of the source(s) of information... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What NARA systems of...

  13. 36 CFR 1202.94 - What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material exemption of the... as access to records in the system would reveal the identity(ies) of the source(s) of information... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What NARA systems of...

  14. 36 CFR 1202.94 - What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material exemption of the... as access to records in the system would reveal the identity(ies) of the source(s) of information... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What NARA systems of...

  15. 36 CFR 1202.94 - What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material exemption of the... as access to records in the system would reveal the identity(ies) of the source(s) of information... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What NARA systems of...

  16. Nanoscale Materials and Devices - New Solutions for Information Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhrman, Robert

    2003-03-01

    The continual scaling down of Si C-MOS circuits, the current annual doubling of magnetic storage density, and the regularly increasing capacity of fiber optic communications have resulted in enormous technological change, including a revolutionary transformation of all areas of science and engineering. Indeed the current capabilities of these information technologies both provide the quintessential demonstration that microtechnology, which is now transitioning to nanotechnology, can have tremendous societal impact, and provide essential means and methods by which other aspects of nanotechnology R can now be pursued. If the pace of advance in these information technologies is to be continued well into the future, new approaches and new solutions will be required to overcome the challenges this objective will entail. Nanoscaled material systems and new types of nanoscale devices have substantial promise for providing the basis for effective solutions to a number of these challenges. In this presentation I will briefly discuss research in the areas of nanoelectronics, nanophotonics and nanomagnetics that seeks to establish and develop some of these solutions. These include a radical new approach to Si electronics at the 10 nm scale, the use of nanoscaled materials to enable new photonic capabilities, and a new approach to manipulate nanomagnets for potential information storage and communication applications.

  17. [Multivariate analysis of relationships between material properties and hygroscopicity of Chinese medicine raw materials].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Jie; Feng, Yi; Xu, De-Sheng; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Hong, Yan-Long; Fu, Xiao-Ju

    2012-04-01

    Material properties and hygroscopicity were determined. Principal component analysis and partial least squares regression were applied to evaluate relationships between material properties and hygroscopicity of Chinese medicine raw materials. The results showed that hygroscopicity was correlated with water content, particle size distribution, water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Balanced moisture content was positively correlated with water content, particle size distribution, water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Moisture absorption velocity was negatively correlated with particle size distribution, protruding degree and positively correlated with water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Moisture absorption acceleration was positively correlated with water content, particle size distribution and negatively correlated with water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Hygroscopicity of Chinese medicine raw materials is interpreted in terms of physics.

  18. RIM as the data base management system for a material properties data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, P. H.; Wilson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Relational Information Management (RIM) was selected as the data base management system for a prototype engineering materials data base. The data base provides a central repository for engineering material properties data, which facilitates their control. Numerous RIM capabilities are exploited to satisfy prototype data base requirements. Numerical, text, tabular, and graphical data and references are being stored for five material types. Data retrieval will be accomplished both interactively and through a FORTRAN interface. The experience gained in creating and exercising the prototype will be used in specifying requirements for a production system.

  19. RIM as the data base management system for a material properties data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, P. H.; Wilson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Relational Information Management (RIM) was selected as the data base management system for a prototype engineering materials data base. The data base provides a central repository for engineering material properties data, which facilitates their control. Numerous RIM capabilities are exploited to satisfy prototype data base requirements. Numerical, text, tabular, and graphical data and references are being stored for five material types. Data retrieval will be accomplished both interactively and through a FORTRAN interface. The experience gained in creating and exercising the prototype will be used in specifying requirements for a production system.

  20. 77 FR 38395 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activities (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0682.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment... advertising, sales materials, enrollment materials, or candidate handbooks that educational institutions...

  1. 77 FR 20886 - Proposed Information Collection (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment... advertising, sales materials, enrollment materials, or candidate handbooks that educational institutions...

  2. Thermal property of insulation material for HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yeon Suk; Kim, D. L.; Shin, D. W.; Hwang, S. D.

    2012-06-01

    The thermal property of insulation material is essential in developing a high temperature superconductor (HTS) power cable operating at around liquid nitrogen temperature. The accurate estimate of the heat flux is difficult in the nonmetallic materials because nonmetallic materials have a high thermal resistance and low temperature gradient along the specimen. The objective of the present work is to develop a precise instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of insulating materials over a temperature range of 30 K to approximately the room temperature by using a cryocooler. The thermal conductivity of Teflon is measured and the accuracy confirmation is carried out by comparing published data. In addition, the experimental results of apparent thermal conductivity of polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) are presented and the temperature dependency is also discussed

  3. Rectangular waveguide material characterization: anisotropic property extraction and measurement validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowgey, Benjamin Reid

    for characterization of a sample filling the cross-section of a waveguide. Due to the rectangular nature of the waveguide, typically three different samples are manufactured from the same material in order to characterize the six complex material parameters. The second technique for measuring the electromagnetic properties of a biaxially anisotropic material sample uses a reduced-aperture waveguide sample holder designed to accommodate a cubical sample. All the tensor material parameters can then be determined by measuring the reflection and transmission coefficients of a single sample placed into several orientations. The parameters are obtained using a root-searching algorithm by comparing theoretically computed and measured reflection and transmission coefficients. The theoretical coefficients are determined using a mode matching technique. The first technique for characterizing the electromagnetic properties of gyromagnetic materials considers requires filling the cross-section of a waveguide. The material parameters are extracted from the measured reflection and transmission coefficients. Since the cross-sectional dimensions of waveguides become prohibitively large at low frequencies, and it is at these frequencies that the gyromagnetic properties are most pronounced, sufficiently large samples may not be available. Therefore, the second technique uses a reduced-aperture sample holder that does not require the sample to fill the entire cross section of the guide. The theoretical reflection and transmission coefficients for both methods are determined using a mode matching technique. A nonlinear least squares method is employed to extract the gyromagnetic material parameters. Finally, this dissertation introduces a waveguide standard that acts as a surrogate material with both electric and magnetic properties and is useful for verifying systems designed to characterize engineered materials using the NRW technique. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the all

  4. Correlation Between Domain Behavior and Magnetic Properties of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Leib, Jeffrey Scott

    2003-01-01

    Correlation between length scales in the field of magnetism has long been a topic of intensive study. The long-term desire is simple: to determine one theory that completely describes the magnetic behavior of matter from an individual atomic particle all the way up to large masses of material. One key piece to this puzzle is connecting the behavior of a material's domains on the nanometer scale with the magnetic properties of an entire large sample or device on the centimeter scale. In the first case study involving the FeSiAl thin films, contrast and spacing of domain patterns are clearly related to microstructure and stress. Case study 2 most clearly demonstrates localized, incoherent domain wall motion switching with field applied along an easy axis for a square hysteresis loop. In case study 3, axis-specific images of the complex Gd-Si-Ge material clearly show the influence of uniaxial anisotropy. Case study 4, the only study with the sole intent of creating domain structures for imaging, also demonstrated in fairly simple terms the effects of increasing stress on domain patterns. In case study 5, it was proven that the width of magnetoresistance loops could be quantitatively predicted using only MFM. When all of the case studies are considered together, a dominating factor seems to be that of anisotropy, both magneticrostaylline and stress induced. Any quantitative bulk measurements heavily reliant on K coefficients, such as the saturation fields for the FeSiAl films, Hc in cases 1, 3, and 5, and the uniaxial character of the Gd5(Si2Ge2), transferred to and from the domain scale quite well. In-situ measurements of domain rotation and switching, could also be strongly correlated with bulk magnetic properties, including coercivity, Ms, and hysteresis loop shape. In most cases, the qualitative nature of the domain structures, when properly considered, matched quite well to what might have been expected from

  5. AB INITIO SIMULATIONS FOR MATERIAL PROPERTIES ALONG THE JUPITER ADIABAT

    SciTech Connect

    French, Martin; Becker, Andreas; Lorenzen, Winfried; Nettelmann, Nadine; Bethkenhagen, Mandy; Redmer, Ronald; Wicht, Johannes

    2012-09-15

    We determine basic thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen-helium-water mixtures for the extreme conditions along Jupiter's adiabat via ab initio simulations, which are compiled in an accurate and consistent data set. In particular, we calculate the electrical and thermal conductivity, the shear and longitudinal viscosity, and diffusion coefficients of the nuclei. We present results for associated quantities like the magnetic and thermal diffusivity and the kinematic shear viscosity along an adiabat that is taken from a state-of-the-art interior structure model. Furthermore, the heat capacities, the thermal expansion coefficient, the isothermal compressibility, the Grueneisen parameter, and the speed of sound are calculated. We find that the onset of dissociation and ionization of hydrogen at about 0.9 Jupiter radii marks a region where the material properties change drastically. In the deep interior, where the electrons are degenerate, many of the material properties remain relatively constant. Our ab initio data will serve as a robust foundation for applications that require accurate knowledge of the material properties in Jupiter's interior, e.g., models for the dynamo generation.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Kleczewska, Joanna; Pryliński, Mariusz; Podlewska, Magdalena; Sokołowski, Jerzy; Łapińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate mechanical properties of light-curing composite materials modified with the addition of calcium fluoride. The study used one experimental light-curing composite material (ECM) and one commercially available flowable light-curing composite material (FA) that were modified with 0.5–5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride. Morphology of the samples and uniformity of CaF2 distribution were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Mechanical properties were tested after 24-hour storage of specimens in dry or wet conditions. Stored dry ECM enriched with 0.5–1.0 wt% CaF2 showed higher tensile strength values, while water storage of all modified ECM specimens decreased their tensile strength. The highest Vickers hardness tested after dry storage was observed for 2.5 wt% CaF2 content in ECM. The addition of 2.0–5.0 wt% CaF2 to FA caused significant decrease in tensile strength after dry storage and overall tensile strength decrease of modified FA specimens after water storage. The content of 2.0 wt% CaF2 in FA resulted in the highest Vickers hardness tested after wet storage. Commercially available composite material (FA), unmodified with fluoride addition, demonstrated overall significantly higher mechanical properties. PMID:28004001

  7. A material selection method based on material properties and operating parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W.; Davidson, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The influence of strength, fracture toughness, and crack growth resistance on the design stress level has been determined from a mathematical model of crack growth and failure. The results show that to select materials properly, the operating parameters of desired life and initial flaw size must be considered simultaneously with the material properties. To do this, a method for constructing an operating surface is derived, discussed, and illustrated.

  8. An overview of laminate materials with enhanced dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumby, Stephen J.

    1989-03-01

    This report focuses on laminate materials (resins and reinforcements) having potential applications in the manufacture of multi-layer printed wiring boards (PWBs) that are required to efficiently transmit high-speed digital pulses. It is intended to be a primer and a reference for selection of candidate materials for such high-performance PWBs. Included are dielectric and physical properties, and where available chemical composition and/or structure, commercial availability, compatibility with typical PWB processing schemes and approximate relative cost. Recommendations are made as to the most viable candidate materials for this type of PWB application, based on a comparison of electrical and physical properties together with processing and cost considerations. The cyanate ester resin system appears promising. Such a resin may be reinforced with regular E-glass, or the more newly available S-glass, to produce a laminate useful for intermediate performance applications. For more demanding applications the E-glass will have to be replaced by a material of much lower relative permittivity. The expanded-PTFE reinforced laminates from W. L. Gore appear to be a good choice for these applications. The processing of the Gore materials can be expected to deviate from that used with FR-4 type materials, but is likely to be less problematic than laminates comprised of a fluorinated resin. Processing is a key obstacle to the implementation of any of the new materials herein. If implementation is to be successful, programs must be established to develop and optimize processing procedures. Cost will remain an important issue. However, the higher cost of the new materials may be justified in high-end products by the performance they deliver.

  9. Material property data and their use in design and analysis for an elevated temperature solar code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, I.

    1981-11-01

    Specific properties of the materials, temperatures, and operating parameters for elevated temperature solar thermal power plants are considered as a basis for developing standards of implementation. Physical and mechanical properties such as thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, expansion, strength, and creep are discussed and recommendations for ASME Code I and III materials are cited where feasible. Inelastic behavior tests involving beam bending, pipe ratcheting, torsion-torsion tests, and axial cyclic tests of various stainless steel specimens and Incoloy 800 material are reported. Peculiarities of problems for solar applications are noted to be a lack of information of basic material behavior due to the low amount of actual operational experience, a large number of transient temperature cycles, and primary creep.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications of nanosized ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, or multiferroic materials

    DOE PAGES

    Dhak, Debasis; Hong, Seungbum; Das, Soma; ...

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been an enormous increase in research activity in the field of ferroelectrics and ferromagnetics especially in multiferroic materials which possess both ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties simultaneously. However, the ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and multiferroic properties should be further improved from the utilitarian and commercial viewpoints. Nanostructural materials are central to the evolution of future electronics and information technologies. Ferroelectrics and ferromagnetics have already been established as a dominant branch in electronics sector because of their diverse applications. The ongoing dimensional downscaling of materials to allow packing of increased numbers of components into integrated circuits provides the momentum for evolutionmore » of nanostructural devices. Nanoscaling of the above materials can result in a modification of their functionality. Furthermore, nanoscaling can be used to form high density arrays of nanodomain nanostructures, which is desirable for miniaturization of devices.« less

  11. Concurrent quantitative conductivity and mechanical properties measurements of organic photovoltaic materials using AFM.

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, Maxim P; Darling, Seth B

    2013-01-23

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials are inherently inhomogeneous at the nanometer scale. Nanoscale inhomogeneity of OPV materials affects performance of photovoltaic devices. Thus, understanding of spatial variations in composition as well as electrical properties of OPV materials is of paramount importance for moving PV technology forward. In this paper, we describe a protocol for quantitative measurements of electrical and mechanical properties of OPV materials with sub-100 nm resolution. Currently, materials properties measurements performed using commercially available AFM-based techniques (PeakForce, conductive AFM) generally provide only qualitative information. The values for resistance as well as Young's modulus measured using our method on the prototypical ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PC(61)BM system correspond well with literature data. The P3HT:PC(61)BM blend separates onto PC(61)BM-rich and P3HT-rich domains. Mechanical properties of PC(61)BM-rich and P3HT-rich domains are different, which allows for domain attribution on the surface of the film. Importantly, combining mechanical and electrical data allows for correlation of the domain structure on the surface of the film with electrical properties variation measured through the thickness of the film.

  12. Characterization of the Dynamic Material Properties of Magnetostrictive Terfenol-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, Frederick T.; Flatau, Alison B.; Hall, David L.

    1996-01-01

    A major limitation in use of electromagnetic and/or magnetomechanical models for design of Terfenol-D actuators is the lack of reliable material property data for Terfenol-D. In particular data on the performance of Terfenol-D as employed in a transducer, operating under real world dynamic conditions is needed. To provide this information, Terfenol-D rod properties need to be measured under as run prestressed and magnetically biased states. Using a Terfenol-D actuator, the following properties can be measured and/or calculated: mechanical quality factor, speed of sound in the material, the resonant frequency, the anti-resonant frequency, two magnetic permeabilities (one at constant stress and one at constant strain), two Young's moduli (one at constant amplitude applied magnetic field and one at constant amplitude magnetic flux density in the material), the magnetomechanical coupling, and the axial strain coefficient. The development of the material properties measurements and calculations is based on the model of low signal, linear, magnetostriction from Clark, the linear transduction equations for a transducer from Hunt, and a one degree of freedom mechanical model of the transducer. The electrical impedance and admittance mobility loops are used to determine the resonant, anti-resonant, and half power point frequencies. The rest of the material properties indicated above can then be calculated using these frequencies, acceleration from an accelerometer mounted on the actuator arm, and readily measurable transducer and Terfenol-D rod parameters.

  13. Characterization of the Dynamic Material Properties of Magnetostrictive Terfenol-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, Frederick T.; Flatau, Alison B.; Hall, David L.

    1996-01-01

    A major limitation in use of electromagnetic and/or magnetomechanical models for design of Terfenol-D actuators is the lack of reliable material property data for Terfenol-D. In particular data on the performance of Terfenol-D as employed in a transducer, operating under real world dynamic conditions is needed. To provide this information, Terfenol-D rod properties need to be measured under as run prestressed and magnetically biased states. Using a Terfenol-D actuator, the following properties can be measured and/or calculated: mechanical quality factor, speed of sound in the material, the resonant frequency, the anti-resonant frequency, two magnetic permeabilities (one at constant stress and one at constant strain), two Young's moduli (one at constant amplitude applied magnetic field and one at constant amplitude magnetic flux density in the material), the magnetomechanical coupling, and the axial strain coefficient. The development of the material properties measurements and calculations is based on the model of low signal, linear, magnetostriction from Clark, the linear transduction equations for a transducer from Hunt, and a one degree of freedom mechanical model of the transducer. The electrical impedance and admittance mobility loops are used to determine the resonant, anti-resonant, and half power point frequencies. The rest of the material properties indicated above can then be calculated using these frequencies, acceleration from an accelerometer mounted on the actuator arm, and readily measurable transducer and Terfenol-D rod parameters.

  14. Concurrent Quantitative Conductivity and Mechanical Properties Measurements of Organic Photovoltaic Materials using AFM

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforov, Maxim P.; Darling, Seth B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials are inherently inhomogeneous at the nanometer scale. Nanoscale inhomogeneity of OPV materials affects performance of photovoltaic devices. Thus, understanding of spatial variations in composition as well as electrical properties of OPV materials is of paramount importance for moving PV technology forward.1,2 In this paper, we describe a protocol for quantitative measurements of electrical and mechanical properties of OPV materials with sub-100 nm resolution. Currently, materials properties measurements performed using commercially available AFM-based techniques (PeakForce, conductive AFM) generally provide only qualitative information. The values for resistance as well as Young's modulus measured using our method on the prototypical ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PC61BM system correspond well with literature data. The P3HT:PC61BM blend separates onto PC61BM-rich and P3HT-rich domains. Mechanical properties of PC61BM-rich and P3HT-rich domains are different, which allows for domain attribution on the surface of the film. Importantly, combining mechanical and electrical data allows for correlation of the domain structure on the surface of the film with electrical properties variation measured through the thickness of the film. PMID:23380988

  15. Estimating Energy Conversion Efficiency of Thermoelectric Materials: Constant Property Versus Average Property Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Hannah; Boese, Matthew; Carmichael, Cody; Dimich, Hannah; Seay, Dylan; Sheppard, Nathan; Beekman, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Maximum thermoelectric energy conversion efficiencies are calculated using the conventional "constant property" model and the recently proposed "cumulative/average property" model (Kim et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:8205, 2015) for 18 high-performance thermoelectric materials. We find that the constant property model generally predicts higher energy conversion efficiency for nearly all materials and temperature differences studied. Although significant deviations are observed in some cases, on average the constant property model predicts an efficiency that is a factor of 1.16 larger than that predicted by the average property model, with even lower deviations for temperature differences typical of energy harvesting applications. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the conventional dimensionless figure of merit ZT obtained from the constant property model, while not applicable for some materials with strongly temperature-dependent thermoelectric properties, remains a simple yet useful metric for initial evaluation and/or comparison of thermoelectric materials, provided the ZT at the average temperature of projected operation, not the peak ZT, is used.

  16. Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?

    PubMed

    Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex(®), ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight(®) 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young's modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young's modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape.

  17. Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?

    PubMed Central

    Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex®, ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight® 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young’s modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young’s modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape. PMID:27190472

  18. Database for properties of materials studied in experiments using shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhernokletov, M. V.; Trunin, R. F.; Gudarenko, L. F.; Trushchin, V. D.; Gushchina, O. N.

    1997-07-01

    During nearly 50-year period of development of the dynamic methods for studying material properties Russia accumulated a large amount of experimental data for more than 200 individual materials, compounds, condensed media and gases. Practically all the information is obtained at RFNC-VNIIEF. For the accumulated experimental data systematization and visualization the database being presented was developed. At its development DBMS Paradox for Windows was used. The database is a set of interconnected tables storing: the data for shock compression of continuous materials; the data for shock compression of heated materials; the data for shock compression of porous materials; the data for shock compression of materials by the second shock wave; expansion adiabats of shock-compressed continuous materials; expansion adiabats of shock-compressed porous materials; the data for the rate of scattering of shock-compressed materials to air; the data for sound speed in shock-compressed materials. Currently the database stores the data for the following material types: metals; metal hydrides and nitrides; carbides and oxides; mixtures; solid organic materials; alkali metal halogenides; minerals and rocks; water and saturated water solutions of salts; organic liquids. As the data is (and will be) transferred to the Experimental data base from a great number of various sources (papers and reports), it also stores the complete list of these sources.

  19. Millimeter-wave dielectric properties of infrared window materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, W. W.

    1987-01-01

    The millimeter-wave dielectric properties of a series of IR window materials were determined over the temperature range 23-1000 C. Materials studied included Al2O3, ZnS, ZnSe, aluminum oxynitride (ALON), and magnesium-spinel (MgAl2O4). These materials all exhibited fairly high millimeter-wave dielectric constants, but with essentially negligible room-temperature losses for most applications. However, both the dielectric constant and loss tangent increase significantly with increasing temperatures. The increases in dielectric constant with temperature can be analyzed in terms of a macroscopic dielectric virial expansion model, and are primarily due to the effective increase in volume for each polarizable unit of the material. Consequently, a strategy to overcome this degradation would be to search for new materials or composite structures with low thermal expansion coefficients. The observed millimeter-wave loss properties are characteristic of contributions from intergranular impurities and show an onset of increased absorption at about 500. However, even at 1000 C, typical loss tangents are still below 0.05, and should be acceptable in most millimeter-wave window applications for reasonable thicknesses.

  20. Temporal properties of material categorization and material rating: visual vs non-visual material features.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takehiro; Matsushima, Toshiki; Koida, Kowa; Tani, Yusuke; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    Humans can visually recognize material categories of objects, such as glass, stone, and plastic, easily. However, little is known about the kinds of surface quality features that contribute to such material class recognition. In this paper, we examine the relationship between perceptual surface features and material category discrimination performance for pictures of materials, focusing on temporal aspects, including reaction time and effects of stimulus duration. The stimuli were pictures of objects with an identical shape but made of different materials that could be categorized into seven classes (glass, plastic, metal, stone, wood, leather, and fabric). In a pre-experiment, observers rated the pictures on nine surface features, including visual (e.g., glossiness and transparency) and non-visual features (e.g., heaviness and warmness), on a 7-point scale. In the main experiments, observers judged whether two simultaneously presented pictures were classified as the same or different material category. Reaction times and effects of stimulus duration were measured. The results showed that visual feature ratings were correlated with material discrimination performance for short reaction times or short stimulus durations, while non-visual feature ratings were correlated only with performance for long reaction times or long stimulus durations. These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying visual and non-visual feature processing may differ in terms of processing time, although the cause is unclear. Visual surface features may mainly contribute to material recognition in daily life, while non-visual features may contribute only weakly, if at all. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Comparison

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Francesco; Caputi, Sergio; D'Amario, Maurizio; D'Arcangelo, Camillo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Although new elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features. The tensile properties of 17 hydrophilic impression materials with different consistencies were compared. Materials and Methods. 12 vinylpolysiloxane, 2 polyether, and 3 hybrid vinylpolyether silicone-based impression materials were tested. For each material, 10 dumbbell-shaped specimens were fabricated (n = 10), according to the ISO 37:2005 specifications, and loaded in tension until failure. Mean values for tensile strength, yield strength, strain at break, and strain at yield point were calculated. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). Results. Vinylpolysiloxanes consistently showed higher tensile strength values than polyethers. Heavy-body materials showed higher tensile strength than the light bodies from the same manufacturer. Among the light bodies, the highest yield strength was achieved by the hybrid vinylpolyether silicone (2.70 MPa). Polyethers showed the lowest tensile (1.44 MPa) and yield (0.94 MPa) strengths, regardless of the viscosity. Conclusion. The choice of an impression material should be based on the specific physical behavior of the elastomer. The light-body vinylpolyether silicone showed high tensile strength, yield strength, and adequate strain at yield/brake; those features might help to reduce tearing phenomena in the thin interproximal and crevicular areas. PMID:26693227

  2. Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Comparison.

    PubMed

    Re, Dino; De Angelis, Francesco; Augusti, Gabriele; Augusti, Davide; Caputi, Sergio; D'Amario, Maurizio; D'Arcangelo, Camillo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Although new elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features. The tensile properties of 17 hydrophilic impression materials with different consistencies were compared. Materials and Methods. 12 vinylpolysiloxane, 2 polyether, and 3 hybrid vinylpolyether silicone-based impression materials were tested. For each material, 10 dumbbell-shaped specimens were fabricated (n = 10), according to the ISO 37:2005 specifications, and loaded in tension until failure. Mean values for tensile strength, yield strength, strain at break, and strain at yield point were calculated. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). Results. Vinylpolysiloxanes consistently showed higher tensile strength values than polyethers. Heavy-body materials showed higher tensile strength than the light bodies from the same manufacturer. Among the light bodies, the highest yield strength was achieved by the hybrid vinylpolyether silicone (2.70 MPa). Polyethers showed the lowest tensile (1.44 MPa) and yield (0.94 MPa) strengths, regardless of the viscosity. Conclusion. The choice of an impression material should be based on the specific physical behavior of the elastomer. The light-body vinylpolyether silicone showed high tensile strength, yield strength, and adequate strain at yield/brake; those features might help to reduce tearing phenomena in the thin interproximal and crevicular areas.

  3. A System-Level Approach to Thermoelectric Material Property Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, D. T.; Lorimer, A.; Hannemann, C.; Reifenberg, J.; Miller, L.; Scullin, M.

    2015-06-01

    The opportunities for creating the most effective thermoelectric (TE) material can be maximized by considering the full system for a given application when developing the material. If conversion efficiency is the only consideration in the design of a TE material, then maximizing average ZT over the largest temperature range may be the best choice. If the system or end application is unknown or not well defined, this design path may also be the best choice. However, there are more factors that should affect TE material design choice than just maximizing average ZT when considering the system-level attributes of an application. The following paper demonstrates how other aspects of the design affect how TE material properties (Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity) can be tuned to get maximum performance for a given application. These other aspects include device and system level parasitic losses, constraints, and design objectives. Simulation results are provided that demonstrate how a TE material with a lower average ZT can be more effective depending on the design objective than a TE material with a higher average ZT.

  4. Synthesis & Properties of Nano-Composite Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritt, Terry

    2007-03-01

    PbTe nanocrystals have been grown in our labs by chemical vapor deposition. These materials grow in size selective regions exhibiting very high yield and have size distributions of around 100 nm to 1000 nm. These nano-materials are incorporated into a bulk matrix, making a composite material in hopes of achieving a higher thermoelectric performance due to the increased phonon scattering that the nano-materials are expected to exhibit, as well as potential for enhancement of their Seebeck coefficient. Some of the advantages as well as the challenges will be discussed. These nanocomposites give a new level of potential control as a tuning parameter with which to vary the materials' thermoelectric properties. In addition, Bi2Te3, another state of the art thermoelectric material and skutterudites (CoSb3) have been synthesized as nanomaterials using hydrothermal techniques. A brief discussion of the synthesis techniques, the characterization techniques and highlights of several systems of materials will be presented. In collaboration with Xiaohua Ji, Jian He, Bo Zhang, Nick Gothard, and Paola Alboni, Dept. of Physics, Clemson University.

  5. Intellectual property and networked health information: issues and principles.

    PubMed Central

    Cate, F H

    1996-01-01

    Information networks offer enormous potential for improving the delivery of health care services, facilitating health-related decision-making, and contributing to better health. In addition, advanced information technologies offer important opportunities for new markets, targeted information products and services, greater accessibility, lower costs and prices, and more rapid and efficient distribution. Realizing the full potential of those information resources requires the resolution of significant intellectual property issues, some of which may be affected by special features of health information. For example, the government is a significant funder and originator of health-related information. In addition, much of that information is of great importance to the population and benefits not only individual users, but also employers, insurance companies, the government, and society as a whole. The government must therefore continue to provide particularly important health information to the public, and facilitate that information's accessibility and reliability, while avoiding unnecessary competition with private information providers. Congress and courts must modify or interpret current copyright law as necessary to guarantee that it does not interfere with innovation in tailored health information or exceed its constitutional boundaries and restrict access to information, as opposed to expression. Both producers and users of information must work with the government to educate the public about the availability of health information and the rights of and limitations upon users under copyright law. PMID:8826629

  6. Electrostatic levitation technology for thermophysical properties of molten materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties of undercooled liquids often require some kind of levitator which isolates samples from container walls. We introduce in this presentation a high temperature/high vacuum electrostatic levitator (HTHVESL) which promises some unique capabilities for the studies of thermophysical properties of molten materials. Although substantial progress has been made in the past several months, this technology is still in the development stage, therefore, in this presentation we only focus on the present state of the HTHVESL(1) and point out other capabilities which might be realized in the near future.

  7. Use of thermal-inertia properties for material identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schieldge, J. P.; Kahle, A. B.; Alley, R. E.; Gillespie, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that a knowledge of the thermal inertia of the earth's surface can be used in geologic mapping as a complement to surface reflectance data as provided by Landsat. Thermal inertia, which is a body property, cannot be determined directly but can be inferred from radiation temperature measurements made at various times in the diurnal heating cycle, combined with a model of the surface heating processes. A model of this type is developed and applied along with temperature measurements made in the field and by satellite to determine thermal properties of surface materials. An example from a test site in western Nevada is used to demonstrate the utility of this technique.

  8. Statistically based material properties: A military handbook-17 perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Donald M.; Vangel, Mark G.

    1990-01-01

    The statistical procedures and their importance in obtaining composite material property values in designing structures for aircraft and military combat systems are described. The property value is such that the strength exceeds this value with a prescribed probability with 95 percent confidence in the assertion. The survival probabilities are the 99th percentile and 90th percentile for the A and B basis values respectively. The basis values for strain to failure measurements are defined in a similar manner. The B value is the primary concern.

  9. Advanced Materials Research Status and Requirements. Volume 2. Appendix: Material Properties Data Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    APPENDIX: MATERIAL PROPERTIES DATA REVIEW FINAL REPORT CONTRACT DASG60-85-C-0087 SPONSORED BY: U.S. ARMY STRATEGIC DEFENSE COMMAND DTIC c. ELECTE... properties of general interest advanced metal matrix and polymer matrix systems. qa .1 ./’r ;) 20. ;is,-icI.rON/AIAiLAS16iT’fr. ASSTRACT 1.AaSTRAZT "C...thermal, and physical properties of general interest advanced metal matrix and polymer matrix composites. 4. .Accession For r., ~~NTIS ... I By-4

  10. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (L1) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager' and the L1 Diamond '. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Fliglit Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail3-'. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar TM, Teonexm, and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  11. Advances in optical property measurements of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    1997-01-01

    Some of the instruments and experimental approaches, used for measuring the optical properties of thermal control systems, are presented. The instruments' use in studies concerning the effects of combined contaminants and space environment on these materials, and in the qualification of hardware for spacecraft, are described. Instruments for measuring the solar absorptance and infrared emittance offer improved speed, accuracy and data handling. A transient method for directly measuring material infrared emittance is described. It is shown that oxygen exposure before measuring the solar absorptance should be avoided.

  12. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (L1) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager' and the L1 Diamond '. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Fliglit Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail3-'. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar TM, Teonexm, and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  13. Materials property definition and generation for carbon-carbon and carbon phenolic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, A. R.; Mathis, J. R.; Starrett, H. S.; Koenig, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A data base program to generate statistically significant material-property data for carbon-carbon and carbon phenolic materials to be used in designs of Space Shuttle is described. The program, which will provide data necessary for thermal and stress modeling of Shuttle nozzle and exit cone structures, includes evaluation of tension, compression, shear strength, shear modulus, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, permeability, and emittance for both materials; the testing of carbon phenolic materials also includes CTE, off-gassing, pyrolysis, and RTG. Materials to be tested will be excised from Space Shuttle inlet, throat, and exit cone billets and modified involute carbon-carbon exit cones; coprocessed blocks, panels, and cylinders will also be tested.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Materials with Nanometer Scale Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    William D. Nix

    2004-10-31

    We have been engaged in research on the mechanical properties of materials with nanometer-scale microstructural dimensions. Our attention has been focused on studying the mechanical properties of thin films and interfaces and very small volumes of material. Because the dimensions of thin film samples are small (typically 1 mm in thickness, or less), specialized mechanical testing techniques based on nanoindentation, microbeam bending and dynamic vibration of micromachined structures have been developed and used. Here we report briefly on some of the results we have obtained over the past three years. We also give a summary of all of the dissertations, talks and publications completed on this grant during the past 15 years.

  15. Quantitative ultrasonic evaluation of mechanical properties of engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    Current progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength properties of engineering materials is reviewed. Even where conventional NDE techniques have shown that a part is free of overt defects, advanced NDE techniques should be available to confirm the material properties assumed in the part's design. There are many instances where metallic, composite, or ceramic parts may be free of critical defects while still being susceptible to failure under design loads due to inadequate or degraded mechanical strength. This must be considered in any failure prevention scheme that relies on fracture analysis. This review will discuss the availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions.

  16. Finite amplitude effects on drop levitation for material properties measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari Hosseinzadeh, Vahideh; Holt, R. Glynn

    2017-05-01

    The method of exciting shape oscillation of drops to extract material properties has a long history, which is most often coupled with the technique of acoustic levitation to achieve non-contact manipulation of the drop sample. We revisit this method with application to the inference of bulk shear viscosity and surface tension. The literature is replete with references to a "10% oscillation amplitude" as a sufficient condition for the application of Lamb's analytical expressions for the shape oscillations of viscous liquids. Our results show that even a 10% oscillation amplitude leads to dynamic effects which render Lamb's results inapplicable. By comparison with samples of known viscosity and surface tension, we illustrate the complicating finite-amplitude effects (mode-splitting and excess dissipation associated with vorticity) that can occur and then show that sufficiently small oscillations allow us to recover the correct material properties using Lamb's formula.

  17. Q4 Titanium 6-4 Material Properties Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Kenneth; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    This task involves development and characterization of selective laser melting (SLM) parameters for additive manufacturing of titanium-6%aluminum-4%vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V or Ti64). SLM is a relatively new manufacturing technology that fabricates complex metal components by fusing thin layers of powder with a high-powered laser beam, utilizing a 3D computer design to direct the energy and form the shape without traditional tools, dies, or molds. There are several metal SLM technologies and materials on the market today, and various efforts to quantify the mechanical properties, however, nothing consolidated or formal to date. Meanwhile, SLM material fatigue properties of Ti64 are currently highly sought after by NASA propulsion designers for rotating turbomachinery components.

  18. Quantitative ultrasonic evaluation of mechanical properties of engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    Current progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength properties of engineering materials is reviewed. Even where conventional NDE techniques have shown that a part is free of overt defects, advanced NDE techniques should be available to confirm the material properties assumed in the part's design. There are many instances where metallic, composite, or ceramic parts may be free of critical defects while still being susceptible to failure under design loads due to inadequate or degraded mechanical strength. This must be considered in any failure prevention scheme that relies on fracture analysis. This review will discuss the availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions.

  19. Patient education materials assessment tool for laryngectomy health information.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kevin; Gilad, Amir; Cohen, Michael B; Kirke, Diana N; Jalisi, Scharukh M

    2017-08-16

    The decision to undergo laryngectomy carries medical, social, and emotional consequences. This study evaluates the understandability and actionability of current laryngectomy information. Laryngectomy-related educational materials from an online search were evaluated using the validated Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT). Reading difficulty was calculated using the Flesch-Kincaid Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning-Fog Index (GFI), Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) score. Interrater agreement was assessed using Cohen's kappa. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship among readability, understandability, and actionability. Forty-four articles were included. Interrater agreement was substantial (κ = 0.71). Mean understandability was 68.3% ± 17% and mean actionability was 66.3% ± 24%. Average reading difficulty exceeded the ability of an average American adult. There was a negative correlation between readability and understandability (R = -0.49; P < .05). Most laryngectomy information is too difficult for the average person to read, understand, or act upon. Revisions may be warranted to benefit a larger readership. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report shows that recycling and reuse of materials creates jobs, while also generating local and state tax revenues. The 2016 REI Report covers the economic activities of nine sectors: ferrous metals, nonferrous metals (aluminum), glass, paper, plastics, rubber, construction and demolition, electronics and organics (including food and yard trimmings). The 2016 REI Report builds on work from a 2001 REI study. In 2001, to encourage the development of an economic market for recycling, EPA supported the creation of a national Recycling Economic Information (REI) Project and the related REI report, based upon the work of several states and regions. The REI report was a ground breaking national study demonstrating the economic value of recycling and reuse to the U.S. economy. Compiled through a cooperative agreement with the National Recycling Coalition, the study confirmed what many have known for decades: there are significant economic benefits in recycling. The 2016 report focuses on the economic impacts of recycling rather than the environmental benefits, as the environmental benefits have been researched in detail. Accurately estimating the impact that recycling has on jobs, wages and taxes is important because the results can influence policy decisions and provide a more robust picture of recycling by a

  1. Determination of thermal properties of composting bulking materials.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H K; Sauer, T J; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2009-09-01

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 12 compost bulking materials were determined in this study. Thermal properties were determined at varying bulk densities (1, 1.3, 1.7, 2.5, and 5 times uncompacted bulk density), particle sizes (ground and bulk), and water contents (0, 20, 50, 80% of water holding capacity and saturated condition). For the water content at 80% of water holding capacity, saw dust, soil compost blend, beef manure, and turkey litter showed the highest thermal conductivity (K) and volumetric heat capacity (C) (K: 0.12-0.81 W/m degrees C and C: 1.36-4.08 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Silage showed medium values at the same water content (K: 0.09-0.47 W/m degrees C and C: 0.93-3.09 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Wheat straw, oat straw, soybean straw, cornstalks, alfalfa hay, and wood shavings produced the lowest K and C values (K: 0.03-0.30 W/m degrees C and C: 0.26-3.45 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity showed a linear relationship with moisture content and bulk density, while thermal diffusivity showed a nonlinear relationship. Since the water, air, and solid materials have their own specific thermal property values, thermal properties of compost bulking materials vary with the rate of those three components by changing water content, bulk density, and particle size. The degree of saturation was used to represent the interaction between volumes of water, air, and solids under the various combinations of moisture content, bulk density, and particle size. The first order regression models developed in this paper represent the relationship between degree of saturation and volumetric heat capacity (r=0.95-0.99) and thermal conductivity (r=0.84-0.99) well. Improved

  2. Thermomechanical properties of polymeric materials and related stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sheng Yen

    1990-01-01

    The thermomechanical properties of a number of widely used polymeric materials were determined by thermomechanical analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis. A combined profile of the coefficient of thermal expansion and the modulus change over a wide temperature range obtained by the analyses shows clearly the drastic effect of the glass transition on both the CTE and the modulus of a polymer, and the damaging potential due to such effect.

  3. Mechanical properties of some materials used in airplane construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E B; Van Ewijk, L J G

    1928-01-01

    Since lightness is desirable in airplane construction, greater stresses must be tolerated than in other kinds of construction. It is therefore necessary to have a more accurate knowledge of the greatest stresses that may occur and of the actual properties of the materials used. The Aeronautic Research Laboratories took the limit of elasticity as the basis of the strength calculations. Many tests were made of different steels, woods, aluminum alloys, and fabrics.

  4. Modeling of Impact Properties of Auxetic Materials Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Modeling of Impact Properties of Auxetic Materials – Phase 2 Lei Jiang, Dustin Pearson, Tim Dunbar Martec Limited Prepared By: Martec Limited 400...Manager: Lei Jiang, 902-425-5101 PWGSC Contract Number: W7707-135609/001/HAL CSA: Dr. Jeff Szabo, Defence Scientist, 902-427-3427 The scientific or...specifies the in-plane integration rule for 4-node shell elements. With IRQUAD = 2, “2×2 Gauss quadrature integration is employed”. The

  5. Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Cantilever Shaped Materials

    PubMed Central

    Finot, Eric; Passian, Ali; Thundat, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Microcantilevers were first introduced as imaging probes in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) due to their extremely high sensitivity in measuring surface forces. The versatility of these probes, however, allows the sensing and measurement of a host of mechanical properties of various materials. Sensor parameters such as resonance frequency, quality factor, amplitude of vibration and bending due to a differential stress can all be simultaneously determined for a cantilever. When measuring the mechanical properties of materials, identifying and discerning the most influential parameters responsible for the observed changes in the cantilever response are important. We will, therefore, discuss the effects of various force fields such as those induced by mass loading, residual stress, internal friction of the material, and other changes in the mechanical properties of the microcantilevers. Methods to measure variations in temperature, pressure, or molecular adsorption of water molecules are also discussed. Often these effects occur simultaneously, increasing the number of parameters that need to be concurrently measured to ensure the reliability of the sensors. We therefore systematically investigate the geometric and environmental effects on cantilever measurements including the chemical nature of the underlying interactions. To address the geometric effects we have considered cantilevers with a rectangular or circular cross section. The chemical nature is addressed by using cantilevers fabricated with metals and/or dielectrics. Selective chemical etching, swelling or changes in Young's modulus of the surface were investigated by means of polymeric and inorganic coatings. Finally to address the effect of the environment in which the cantilever operates, the Knudsen number was determined to characterize the molecule-cantilever collisions. Also bimaterial cantilevers with high thermal sensitivity were used to discern the effect of temperature variations. When appropriate

  6. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells.

    PubMed

    Fitzer, Susan C; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-02-06

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature.

  7. Thermophysical Properties of Automotive Metallic Brake Disk Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. W.; Park, K.; Lee, S. H.; Kang, K. H.; Lim, K. T.

    2008-12-01

    The temperature distribution, the thermal deformation, and the thermal stress of automotive brake disks have quite close relations with car safety; therefore, much research in this field has been performed. However, successful and satisfactory results have not been obtained because the temperature-dependent thermophysical properties of brake disk materials are not sufficiently known. In this study, the thermophysical properties (thermal diffusivity, the specific heat, and the coefficient of thermal expansion) of three kinds of iron alloy series brake disk materials, FC250, FC170, and FCD50, and two kinds of aluminum alloy series brake disk materials, Al MMC and A356, were measured in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C, and the thermal conductivity was calculated using the measured thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and density. As expected, the results show that the two series have significant differences in respect of the thermophysical properties, and to reduce the thermal deformation of the brake disk, the aluminum alloys with a high thermal conductivity and the iron alloys with low thermal expansion are recommended.

  8. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells

    PubMed Central

    Fitzer, Susan C.; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K. Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Kamenos, Nicholas A.; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature. PMID:25540244

  9. Flexural Behavior of HPFRCC Members with Inhomogeneous Material Properties.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Joon; Jang, Kyu-Hyeon; Choi, Young-Cheol; Lee, Seong-Cheol

    2015-04-21

    In this paper, the flexural behavior of High-performance Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composite (HPFRCC) has been investigated, especially focusing on the localization of cracks, which significantly governs the flexural behavior of HPFRCC members. From four points bending tests with HPFRCC members, it was observed that almost evenly distributed cracks formed gradually, followed by a localized crack that determined the failure of the members. In order to investigate the effect of a localized crack on the flexural behavior of HPFRCC members, an analytical procedure has been developed with the consideration of intrinsic inhomogeneous material properties of HPFRCC such as cracking and ultimate tensile strengths. From the comparison, while the predictions with homogeneous material properties overestimated flexural strength and ductility of HPFRCC members, it was found that the analysis results considering localization effect with inhomogeneous material properties showed good agreement with the test results, not only the flexural strength and ductility but also the crack widths. The test results and the developed analysis procedure presented in this paper can be usefully applied for the prediction of flexural behaviors of HPFRCC members by considering the effect of localized cracking behavior.

  10. The psychomechanics of simulated sound sources: material properties of impacted thin plates.

    PubMed

    McAdams, Stephen; Roussarie, Vincent; Chaigne, Antoine; Giordano, Bruno L

    2010-09-01

    Sounds convey information about the materials composing an object. Stimuli were synthesized using a computer model of impacted plates that varied their material properties: viscoelastic and thermoelastic damping and wave velocity (related to elasticity and mass density). The range of damping properties represented a continuum between materials with predominant viscoelastic and thermoelastic damping (glass and aluminum, respectively). The perceptual structure of the sounds was inferred from multidimensional scaling of dissimilarity judgments and from their categorization as glass or aluminum. Dissimilarity ratings revealed dimensions that were closely related to mechanical properties: a wave-velocity-related dimension associated with pitch and a damping-related dimension associated with timbre and duration. When asked to categorize sounds, however, listeners ignored the cues related to wave velocity and focused on cues related to damping. In both dissimilarity-rating and identification experiments, the results were independent of the material of the mallet striking the plate (rubber or wood). Listeners thus appear to select acoustical information that is reliable for a given perceptual task. Because the frequency changes responsible for detecting changes in wave velocity can also be due to changes in geometry, they are not as reliable for material identification as are damping cues.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Composite Material Using Coal Ash and Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Isao; Kanda, Yasuyuki

    Coal ash is industry waste exhausted lots of amount by electric power plant. The particle sizes of coal ash, especially coal fly ash are very fine, and the chemical component are extremely resemble with Okinawa-Kucha clay. From the point of view that clay is composed of particles of micro meter size in diameter, we should try the application for fabrication of composite material using coal fly ash and clay. The comparison of the mechanical properties of composite material using coal fly ash and clay were performed during electric furnace burning and spark plasma sintering. As a result, the bending strength of composite material containing the coal ash 10% and fired at 1423K using the electric furnace after press forming at 30 MPa showed the highest value of 47 MPa. This phenomenon suggests a reinforcement role of coal ash particles to clay base material. In spark plasma sintering process, the bending strength of the composite material containing the clay 5-10% to fly ash base material fired at 1473K and pressured at 20 MPa showed the highest value of 88 MPa. This result indicates a binder effect of clay according to the liquid phase sintering of melted clay surrounding around coal fly ash particles surface.

  12. A comparative evaluation of mechanical properties of nanofibrous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubun, German P.; Bessudnova, Nadezda O.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration or replacement of lost or damaged hard tooth tissues remain a reconstructive clinical dentistry challenge. One of the most promising solutions to this problem is the development of novel concepts and methodologies of tissue engineering for the synthesis of three-dimensional graft constructs that are equivalent to original organs and tissues. This structural and functional compatibility can be reached by producing ultra-thin polymer filament scaffolds. This research aims through a series of studies to examine different methods of polymer filament material special preparation and test mechanical properties of the produced materials subjected to a tensile strain. Nanofibrous material preparation using chemically pure acetone and mixtures of ethanol/water has shown no significant changes in sample surface morphology. The high temperature impact on material morphology has resulted in the modification of fiber structure. In the course of mechanical tests it has been revealed the dependence of the material strength on the spinning solution compositions. The results achieved point to the possibility to develop nanofibrous materials with required parameters changing the methodology of spinning solution production.

  13. Filter properties of seam material from paved urban soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehls, T.; Jozefaciuk, G.; Sokolowska, Z.; Hajnos, M.; Wessolek, G.

    2007-08-01

    We studied pavement seam material. This is the soil substrate in joints of pervious pavements in urban areas. It is mostly 1 cm thick and develops from the original seam filling by depositions of all kinds of urban residues, including anthropogenic organic substances. It was investigated, how this unique form of organic matter influences the filter properties of seam material and how the seam material influences heavy metal transport through the pavement. The seam material is characterised by a darker munsell colour, higher organic carbon content, higher surface areas, higher cation exchange capacities, but a lower fraction of high adsorption energy sites compared to the original seam filling. The deposited anthropogenic organic matter itself could be characterised as particulate and non-polar. Compared to natural soils, it has a small surface area and a low surface charge density resulting in a small cation exchange capacity of only 75 cmol(+) kg-1C. The seam material shows stronger sorption of Pb and Cd compared to the original construction sand. The retardation capacity of seam material towards Pb is similar, towards Cd it is much smaller compared to natural soils. The simulated long term displacement scenarios for a street in Berlin do not indicate an acute contamination risk for Pb. For Cd the infiltration from ponds can lead to a displacement of Cd during only one decade.

  14. Aging and the Haptic Perception of Material Properties.

    PubMed

    Norman, J Farley; Adkins, Olivia C; Hoyng, Stevie C; Dowell, Catherine J; Pedersen, Lauren E; Gilliam, Ashley N

    2016-08-09

    The ability of 26 younger (mean age was 22.5 years) and older adults (mean age was 72.6 years) to haptically perceive material properties was evaluated. The participants manually explored (for 5 seconds) 42 surfaces twice and placed each of these 84 experimental stimuli into one of seven categories: paper, plastic, metal, wood, stone, fabric, and fur/leather. In general, the participants were best able to identify fur/leather and wood materials; in contrast, recognition performance was worst for stone and paper. Despite similar overall patterns of performance for younger and older participants, the younger adults' recognition accuracies were 26.5% higher. The participants' tactile acuities (assessed by tactile grating orientation discrimination) affected their ability to identify surface material. In particular, the Pearson r correlation coefficient relating the participants' grating orientation thresholds and their material identification performance was -0.8: The higher the participants' thresholds, the lower the material recognition ability. While older adults are able to effectively perceive the solid shape of environmental objects using the sense of touch, their ability to perceive surface materials is significantly compromised.

  15. Correlation of materials properties with the atomic density concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that the number of atoms per unit volume, accurately calculable for any substance of known real density and chemical composition, various characterizing parameters (energy levels of electrons interacting among atoms of the same or different kinds, atomic mass, bond intensity) were chosen for study. A multiple exponential equation was derived to express the relationship. Various properties were examined, and correlated with the various parameters. Some of the properties considered were: (1) heat of atomization, (2) boiling point, (3) melting point, (4) shear elastic modulus of cubic crystals, (5) thermal conductivity, and (6) refractive index for transparent substances. The solid elements and alkali halides were the materials studied. It is concluded that the number of different properties can quantitively be described by a common group of parameters for the solid elements, and a wide variety of compounds.

  16. Transition metal chalcogenides: ultrathin inorganic materials with tunable electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Heine, Thomas

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: After the discovery of graphene and the development of powerful exfoliation techniques, experimental preparation of two-dimensional (2D) crystals can be expected for any layered material that is known to chemistry. Besides graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), transition metal chalcogenides (TMC) are among the most studied ultrathin materials. In particular, single-layer MoS2, a direct band gap semiconductor with ∼1.9 eV energy gap, is popular in physics and nanoelectronics, because it nicely complements semimetallic graphene and insulating h-BN monolayer as a construction component for flexible 2D electronics and because it was already successfully applied in the laboratory as basis material for transistors and other electronic and optoelectronic devices. Two-dimensional crystals are subject to significant quantum confinement: compared with their parent layered 3D material, they show different structural, electronic, and optical properties, such as spontaneous rippling as free-standing monolayer, significant changes of the electronic band structure, giant spin-orbit splitting, and enhanced photoluminescence. Most of those properties are intrinsic for the monolayer and already absent for two-layer stacks of the same 2D crystal. For example, single-layer MoS2 is a direct band gap semiconductor with spin-orbit splitting of 150 meV in the valence band, while the bilayer of the same material is an indirect band gap semiconductor without observable spin-orbit splitting. All these properties have been observed experimentally and are in excellent agreement with calculations based on density-functional theory. This Account reports theoretical studies of a subgroup of transition metal dichalcogenides with the composition MX2, with M = Mo, or W and X = Se or S, also referred to as "MoWSeS materials". Results on the electronic structure, quantum confinement, spin-orbit coupling, spontaneous monolayer rippling, and change of electronic properties in the

  17. Material properties of the human posterior knee capsule.

    PubMed

    Rachmat, H H; Janssen, D; Verkerke, G J; Diercks, R L; Verdonschot, N

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest to develop accurate subject-specific biomechanical models of the knee. Most of the existing models currently do not include a representation of the posterior knee capsule. In order to incorporate the posterior capsule in knee models, data is needed on its mechanical properties. To quantify the mechanical properties of the human posterior knee capsule through semi-static tensile tests. Fifteen posterior knee capsule specimens (5 knees, 3 male, 2 female; age 79.2±7.9 years) were used to perform tensile tests. A medial, central and lateral specimen was taken from each knee. The cross-sectional area was measured, after which semi-static tensile tests were performed to quantify the material properties. The stiffness of the capsule was randomly distributed over the regions. The global Young's modulus and yield strength was 8.58±10.77 MPa and 1.75±1.89 MPa, respectively. A strong correlation (ρ=0.900) was found between Young's modulus and yield strength. The location of failure was not associated with smallest cross-sectional area or highest strain. The results suggest that the posterior knee capsule does not have a systematic (medial-central-lateral) distribution of material properties. The posterior capsule may play an important role in knee joint mechanics, particularly when in hyper extension.

  18. Space-Time Transfinite Interpolation of Volumetric Material Properties.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Mathieu; Fryazinov, Oleg; Adzhiev, Valery; Comninos, Peter; Pasko, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents a novel technique based on extension of a general mathematical method of transfinite interpolation to solve an actual problem in the context of a heterogeneous volume modelling area. It deals with time-dependent changes to the volumetric material properties (material density, colour, and others) as a transformation of the volumetric material distributions in space-time accompanying geometric shape transformations such as metamorphosis. The main idea is to represent the geometry of both objects by scalar fields with distance properties, to establish in a higher-dimensional space a time gap during which the geometric transformation takes place, and to use these scalar fields to apply the new space-time transfinite interpolation to volumetric material attributes within this time gap. The proposed solution is analytical in its nature, does not require heavy numerical computations and can be used in real-time applications. Applications of this technique also include texturing and displacement mapping of time-variant surfaces, and parametric design of volumetric microstructures.

  19. Silk/nano-material hybrid: properties and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, Eden; Lebedev, Victor; Laukhina, Elena; Laukhin, Vladimir; Alamo, Rufina G.; Rovira, Concepcio; Veciana, Jaume; Brooks, James S.

    2014-03-01

    Silk continues to emerge as a material of interest in electronics. In this work, the interaction between silk and conducting nano-materials are investigated. Simple fabrication methods, physical, electronic, thermal, and actuation properties are reported for spider silk / carbon nanotube (CNT-SS) and Bombyx mori / (BEDT-TTF)-based organic molecular conductor hybrids (ET-S). The CNT-SS fibers are produced via water and shear assisted method, resulting in fibers that are tough, custom-shapeable, flexible, and electrically conducting. For ET-S bilayer films, a layer transfer technique is developed to deposit linked crystallites of (BEDT-TTF)2I3 molecular conductor onto silk films, generating highly piezoresistive semi-transparent films. In both cases, the hybridization allows us to gain additional functions by harnessing the water-dependent properties of silk materials, for example, as humidity sensor and electrical current- or water-driven actuators. SEM, TEM, FT-IR, and resistance measurements under varying temperature, strain, and relative humidity reveal the synergistic interactions between the bio- and nano-materials. E.S. is supported by NSF-DMR 1005293.

  20. PREFACE: Workshop on Oxide Materials 2014: Novel Multifunctional Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, M. E.; Lopera, W.

    2015-07-01

    The 2014 Workshop on Oxide Materials: Novel Multifunctional Properties was held in Cali, Colombia, from September 15 to September 19 on the campus of Universidad del Valle. It was a great privilege to have had this workshop in Cali after the first workshop on oxide materials commemorating the first centennial of the discovery of the superconductivity in 2011. The meeting gathered an audience of 80 participants, 10 invited speakers with two or three plenary talks each, 20 short oral contributions, two poster sessions with 20 presentations each. This proceedings volume contains papers reported at the conference. The Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Oxide Materials: Novel Multifunctional Properties were edited by Maria Elena Gomez and Wilson Lopera with the assistance of Carlos William Sanchez and Albert Ortiz as copy editor. We are grateful for the financial support from COLCIENCIAS through research project COLCIENCIAS-UNIVALLE contract 002/2013; Universidad de Valle through Professor Ivan Ramos, Rector; the Faculty of Science with Professor Jaime Cantera, Dean; the Center of Excellence on Novel Materials with Professor Pedro Prieto, Director; ICETEX, and INTECO Ltda. Further details about the conference, including details of the invited speakers and plenary sessions are available in the PDF. Maria Elena Gómez, Editor Wilson Lopera, Editor

  1. Characterization of Secondary Electron Emission Properties of Plasma Facing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patino, Marlene I.; Capece, Angela M.; Raitses, Yevgeny; Koel, Bruce E.

    2015-11-01

    The behavior of wall-bounded plasmas is significantly affected by the plasma-wall interactions, including the emission of secondary electrons (SEE) from the wall materials due to bombardment by primary electrons. The importance of SEE has prompted previous investigations of SEE properties of materials especially with applications to magnetic fusion, plasma thrusters, and high power microwave devices. In this work, we present results of measurements of SEE properties of graphite and lithium materials relevant for the divertor region of magnetic fusion devices. Measurements of total SEE yield (defined as the number of emitted secondary electrons per incident primary electron) for lithium are extended up to 5 keV primary electron energy, and the energy distributions of secondary electrons are provided for graphite and lithium. Additionally, the effect of contamination on the total SEE yield of lithium was explored by exposing the material to water vapor. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to determine surface composition and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) was used to determine lithium film thickness. Results show an order of magnitude increase in total SEE yield for lithium exposed to water vapor. This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466; AFOSR grants FA9550-14-1-0053, FA9550-11-1-0282, and AF9550-09-1-0695; and DOE Office of Science Graduate Student Research Program.

  2. New Correlations Between Monotonic and Cyclic Properties of Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonfrillo, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the cyclic properties of metallic materials is often critical to correctly design structural components. However, cyclic data are not easily available in the literature, while tensile test data are easier to find in specialized sites or vendor catalogs. In this study, the cyclic strength coefficient and the cyclic strain hardening exponent of the Ramberg-Osgood law were evaluated using exclusively data obtained through monotonic tensile tests. The analyses were carried out on a large set of materials. The database used is composed of 338 alloys, mainly iron alloys, but also titanium and aluminum alloys. New subdivisions of the materials were introduced. Several original relations were suggested to correlate static and cyclic strength parameters. The evaluated values of both cyclic strength coefficient and cyclic strain hardening exponent were compared with experimental values coming from cyclic test, obtaining a satisfactory agreement and a higher accuracy if compared with similar relations found in the literature.

  3. Selected mechanical properties of fluoride-releasing restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Iazzetti, G; Burgess, J O; Gardiner, D

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical properties, diametral tensile strength (DTS) and flexural strength (FS) of six fluoride releasing materials were measured and compared. The samples were prepared and tested according to ISO specifications. The materials included a glass ionomer (Fuji IX), a resin-modified glass ionomer (Photac-Fil), two compomers (F 2000; Dyract AP) and two composites (Solitaire; Tetric Ceram). The tests were performed after the materials were stored in distilled water (DTS) and phosphate buffered saline solution (FS) at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and one week. Fluoride-releasing composite resin had the highest flexural and diametral tensile strengths and were statistically stronger than compomers, followed by resin-modified glass ionomer and conventional glass ionomer. However, a notable exception to this general trend was Solitaire, a fluoride-releasing composite resin.

  4. Nanoscale defect architectures and their influence on material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Branton

    2006-10-01

    Diffraction studies of long-range order often permit one to unambiguously determine the atomic structure of a crystalline material. Many interesting material properties, however, are dominated by nanoscale crystal defects that can't be characterized in this way. Fortunately, advances in x-ray detector technology, synchrotron x-ray source brightness, and computational power make it possible to apply new methods to old problems. Our research group uses multi-megapixel x-ray cameras to map out large contiguous volumes of reciprocal space, which can then be visually explored using graphics engines originally developed by the video-game industry. Here, I will highlight a few recent examples that include high-temperature superconductors, colossal magnetoresistors and piezoelectric materials.

  5. Gradient-modulus materials: Preparation, physical properties and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askadskii, Andrey; Goleneva, Lidiya; Afanas'ev, Egor; Petunova, Margarita; Serenko, Ol'ga; Jiang, Shengling

    2017-05-01

    The theoretical analysis of relationship of the chemical structure for polymeric networks on the modulus of elasticity fitting within the broad range from 3 to 2000 MPa has been produced. These networks contain bulky cross-linked points, connected by short flexible chains of controlled length. In this paper we prepared the networks derived from polyurethane-iso-cyan urates as well as a combination of polyurethane-iso-cyan urate and polyurethane. The materials possess elastic properties and high wear resistance due to polyurethane component. The polyurethane-iso-cyan urates and polyurethanes of various chemical structures were used for preparation of gradient-modulus materials with the elasticity modulus controlled in the broad range within the same sample or material. The gradient identified as a change in the concentration of monomers per unit distance in a specified direction. This involves creation of molecular gradient regarding the chemical structure of the sample.

  6. An apparatus for measuring the rheological properties of dental materials.

    PubMed

    Combe, E C; Moser, J B

    1976-01-01

    An indirect extrusion capillary viscometer has been developed. This has been tested for nonsetting Newtonian fluids and was found to give results close to, but slightly lower than the actual viscosity. The same apparatus has been successfully applied to a non-Newtonian fluid to determine the dependence of viscosity on shear rate. The technique described should meet the requirements for assessing the rheological characteristics important in the mixing and setting of dental materials. The developed viscometer must be coupled with a sensitive mechanical testing machine capable of an adequate range of crosshead speeds that can be changed rapidly. By obtaining force vs time curves at different shear rates for setting materials, viscosity can be calculated as a function of time. Also, the viscosity at any given time during the setting process can be calculated as a function of shear rate. This chould be of aid in the interpretation of changes in rheological properties during setting of dental materials.

  7. Characterization of damping properties of nonlinear viscoelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeriwala, Surendra N.

    1995-05-01

    The dynamic behavior of most polymeric materials become non-linear at a moderately large strain amplitude excitation. In order to optimize their uses for noise and vibration attenuation, it is necessary to characterize their damping properties as a function of strain amplitude. This work reports the strain amplitude dependent non-linear dynamic behavior of two elastomer compounds, NBR and Neoprene, studied at various frequencies and strain amplitudes using the Fourier transform mechanical analysis (FTMA) technique, developed by us. The basic theory and experimental results are presented for a one-dimensional isothermal simple shear deformation. The Green-Rivlin constitutive equation was used to model the observed behavior. The results indicate that a complete characterization of non-linear dynamic properties is rather complex. The energy dissipation is governed, however, by a simple mechanism. It is shown that the energy dissipation is governed only by the first harmonic loss modulus term of the Green-Rivlin representation, but the energy storage is related to many material functions. An expression for the energy dissipation of a non-linear viscoelastic material is derived. It is also shown that irrespective of the material constitutive law the energy dissipation can occur only at the frequency of excitation but it can be stored in a complex manner. The results are rather generalized to show that the amplitude dependence can be modeled by a power law function. It is also shown that an examination of the stress Fourier spectra can give a quantitative indication of material non-linearity and suggest a direction for developing an adequate model of these complex materials.

  8. Rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials before and during setting.

    PubMed

    McCabe, J F; Arikawa, H

    1998-11-01

    In this study, we examined the rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials, both before and during setting, to assess the clinical significance of certain key characteristics such as viscosity, pseudoplasticity, and the rate of development of elasticity. The hypothesis to be tested was that monitoring the change in tan delta is the most appropriate means of monitoring the setting characteristics of elastomers. The loss tangent (tan delta) and the dynamic viscosity (eta') for five impression materials (both unmixed pastes and mixed/setting materials) were measured by means of a controlled-stress rheometer in a cone/plate configuration. For unmixed pastes, tests were performed at various frequencies (0.1 to 10 Hz) and torques (from 1 to 50 x 10(-4) Nm), while testing on setting materials was performed at constant frequency (1 Hz) and torque (3 x 10(-3) Nm). Most base and catalyst pastes were pseudoplastic before being mixed. Immediately after being mixed, the polyether (tan delta = 9.85) and polysulfide (tan delta = 9.54) elastomers showed tan delta markedly higher than those of other mixed materials (tan delta = 4.96 to 3.01). The polyvinylsiloxane elastomers showed lower initial tan delta, which rapidly reduced even further with time. This suggests that these materials should be used as soon as possible after being mixed. The polyether elastomer had a comparatively long induction period during which the tan delta remained at a high value. These characteristics are thought to be key factors in controlling clinical efficacy and therefore support the hypothesis that monitoring tan delta is an appropriate method for evaluating the setting characteristics of elastomers. One limitation was that the controlled-stress rheometer was unable to monitor rheological properties through to completion of setting.

  9. Preparation and properties on hollow nano-structured smoke material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang-cui; Dai, Meng-yan; Fang, Guo-feng; Shi, Wei-dong; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Hai-feng; Zhang, Tong

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the weapon systems of laser guidance and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. Notwithstanding, military smoke, as a rapid and effective passive jamming means, can effectively counteract the attack of enemy precision-guided weapons by scattering and absorbability. Conventional smoke has good attenuation capability only to visible light (0.4-0.76 μm), but hardly any effect to other electromagnetic wave band. The weapon systems of laser guidance and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including near IR (1-3 μm), middle IR (3-5 μm), far IR (8-14 μm), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting and using new efficient obscurant materials, which is one of the important factors that develop smoke technology, have become a focus and attracted more interests around the world. Then nano-structured materials that are developing very quickly have turned into our new choice. Hollow nano-structured materials (HNSM) have many special properties because of their nano-size wall-thickness and sub-micron grain-size. After a lot of HNSM were synthesized in this paper, their physical and chemical properties, including grain size, phase composition, microstructure, optical properties and resistivity were tested and analysed. Then the experimental results of the optical properties showed that HNSM exhibit excellent wave-absorbing ability in ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions. On the basis of the physicochemmical properties, HNSM are firstly applied in smoke technology field. And the obscuration performance of HNSM smoke was tested in smoke chamber. The testing waveband included 1.06μm and 10.6μm laser, 3-5μm and 8-14μm IR radiation. Then the main parameters were obtained, including the attenuation rate, the transmission rate, the mass extinction coefficient, the efficiency obscuring time, and the sedimentation rate, etc. The main parameters of HNSM smoke were

  10. Salient material properties and haptic volume perception: the influences of surface texture, thermal conductivity, and compliance.

    PubMed

    Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kahrimanovic, Mirela; Niemantsverdriet, Ilona; Bogale, Kassahun; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the influences of surface texture, thermal conductivity, and compliance on the haptic perception of the volume of small cubes. It was hypothesized that an object containing highly salient material properties would be perceived as larger in volume than the same object without these properties. Blindfolded subjects were asked to explore pairs of cubes differing in their material properties and to select the one with the larger volume. The results showed that, counterintuitively, a smooth cube was perceived as being significantly larger than a rough cube of the same physical volume, with average biases of about 19 %. Furthermore, cubes with a higher thermal conductivity were perceived as significantly larger than cubes with a lower thermal conductivity (average bias of about 7 %). In addition, the magnitude of the bias in this condition was not changed by increasing or decreasing the temperature of the test objects, suggesting that the effect of thermal conductivity could not be attributed directly to the heat flow. Finally, a hard cube was perceived as significantly larger than a soft cube of equal physical volume, with an average bias of about 25 %. These results reveal that the studied material properties have significant and consistent influences on the haptic perception of volume. The observed biases provide an indication of the levels at which the processing of haptic information on volume and material properties occurs.

  11. Image Statistics and the Representation of Material Properties in the Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Elisabeth; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    We explored perceived material properties (roughness, texturedness, and hardness) with a novel approach that compares perception, image statistics and brain activation, as measured with fMRI. We initially asked participants to rate 84 material images with respect to the above mentioned properties, and then scanned 15 of the participants with fMRI while they viewed the material images. The images were analyzed with a set of image statistics capturing their spatial frequency and texture properties. Linear classifiers were then applied to the image statistics as well as the voxel patterns of visually responsive voxels and early visual areas to discriminate between images with high and low perceptual ratings. Roughness and texturedness could be classified above chance level based on image statistics. Roughness and texturedness could also be classified based on the brain activation patterns in visual cortex, whereas hardness could not. Importantly, the agreement in classification based on image statistics and brain activation was also above chance level. Our results show that information about visual material properties is to a large degree contained in low-level image statistics, and that these image statistics are also partially reflected in brain activity patterns induced by the perception of material images.

  12. Image Statistics and the Representation of Material Properties in the Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Elisabeth; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2016-01-01

    We explored perceived material properties (roughness, texturedness, and hardness) with a novel approach that compares perception, image statistics and brain activation, as measured with fMRI. We initially asked participants to rate 84 material images with respect to the above mentioned properties, and then scanned 15 of the participants with fMRI while they viewed the material images. The images were analyzed with a set of image statistics capturing their spatial frequency and texture properties. Linear classifiers were then applied to the image statistics as well as the voxel patterns of visually responsive voxels and early visual areas to discriminate between images with high and low perceptual ratings. Roughness and texturedness could be classified above chance level based on image statistics. Roughness and texturedness could also be classified based on the brain activation patterns in visual cortex, whereas hardness could not. Importantly, the agreement in classification based on image statistics and brain activation was also above chance level. Our results show that information about visual material properties is to a large degree contained in low-level image statistics, and that these image statistics are also partially reflected in brain activity patterns induced by the perception of material images. PMID:27582714

  13. Properties of granular analogue model materials: A community wide survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkmüller, Matthias; Schreurs, Guido; Rosenau, Matthias; Kemnitz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    We report the material properties of 26 granular analogue materials used in 14 analogue modelling laboratories. We determined physical characteristics such as bulk density, grain size distribution, and grain shape, and performed ring shear tests to determine friction angles and cohesion, and uniaxial compression tests to evaluate the compaction behaviour. Mean grain size of the materials varied between (c. 100 and 400 micrometer). Analysis of grain shape factors show that the four different classes of granular materials (14 quartz sands, 5 dyed quartz sands, 4 heavy mineral sands and 3 size fractions of glass beads) can be broadly divided into two groups consisting of 12 angular and 14 rounded materials. Grain shape has an influence on friction angles, with most angular materials having higher internal friction angles (between c. 35° and 40°) than rounded materials, whereas well-rounded glass beads have the lowest internal friction angles (between c. 25° and 30°). We interpret this as an effect of intergranular sliding versus rolling . Most angular materials have also higher basal friction angles (tested for a specific foil) than more rounded materials, suggesting that angular grains scratch and wear the foil., Most materials have a cohesion in the order of 10-100 Pa except for well-rounded glass beads, which show a trend towards a quasi-cohesionless (C <10 Pa) Coulomb-type material. The uniaxial confined compression tests reveal that rounded grains generally show less compaction than angular grains. We interpret this to be related to the initial packing density reached during sieving which is higher for rounded grains than for angular grains. Ring-shear test data show that angular grains undergo a longer strain-hardening phase than more rounded materials. This might explain why analogue models consisting of angular grains accommodate deformation in a more distributed manner prior to strain localisation than models consisting of rounded grains. Also, models

  14. Method and apparatus for assessing material properties of sheet-like materials

    DOEpatents

    Telschow, Kenneth L.; Deason, Vance A.

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus for producing an indication of a material property of a sheet-like material according to the present invention may comprise an excitation source for vibrating the sheet-like material to produce at least one traveling wave therein. A light source configured to produce an object wavefront and a reference wavefront directs the object wavefront toward the sheet-like material to produce a modulated object wavefront. A modulator operatively associated with the reference wavefront modulates the reference wavefront in synchronization with the traveling wave on the sheet-like material to produce a modulated reference wavefront. A sensing medium positioned to receive the modulated object wavefront and the modulated reference wavefront produces an image of the traveling wave in the sheet-like material, the image of the anti-symmetric traveling wave being related to a displacement amplitude of the anti-symmetric traveling wave over a two-dimensional area of the vibrating sheet-like material. A detector detects the image of the traveling wave in the sheet-like material.

  15. Strain weakening and localisation: material properties or boundary effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Malte C.; Leever, Karen; Rosenau, Matthias; Oncken, Onno

    2015-04-01

    Strain weakening is commonly seen as one of the major causes of localisation of deformation into shear zones in brittle media. Several studies, both numerical and physical experiments, investigate its influence. Typically, these studies choose a certain model configuration and test various material properties and their influence on localisation in that particular configuration. This approach, however, does not take into account the fundamental importance of boundary conditions on the processes of localisation, weakening and overall shear zone evolution. To address this issue, we perform physical experiments in granular materials. We create shear fractures within a sample of granular material (sand) using different experimental apparatuses that apply different boundary conditions. Among them are standard machines such as a Ring-Shear Tester and the classical Riedel set up, as well as a newly designed set up. Boundary conditions can be varied from purely kinematic to more dynamically controlled and from laterally confined to unconfined. Nevertheless, the final result of deformation is an approximately straight strike-slip shear zone in all cases. We monitor boundary force (i. e. material strength) and, where experimentally accessible, strain, at high temporal resolution during deformation. With our different set ups we are able to produce very different patterns of deformation and weakening in the same material under the same constant rate of shearing and with the same final result. Observed patterns span from nearly instantaneous formation of one single through-going shear zone to slow, step-wise growth of a complex network of interacting cracks. Weakening in all cases matches well the structural evolution. Variations of weakening for a given material in different set ups are larger than for different materials in a given set up. Our results show that for a given material the style and rate of localisation can change drastically, depending on only slight changes of

  16. PHASE I MATERIALS PROPERTY DATABASE DEVELOPMENT FOR ASME CODES AND STANDARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Lin, Lianshan

    2013-01-01

    To support the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes and Standard (BPVC) in modern information era, development of a web-based materials property database is initiated under the supervision of ASME Committee on Materials. To achieve efficiency, the project heavily draws upon experience from development of the Gen IV Materials Handbook and the Nuclear System Materials Handbook. The effort is divided into two phases. Phase I is planned to deliver a materials data file warehouse that offers a depository for various files containing raw data and background information, and Phase II will provide a relational digital database that provides advanced features facilitating digital data processing and management. Population of the database will start with materials property data for nuclear applications and expand to data covering the entire ASME Code and Standards including the piping codes as the database structure is continuously optimized. The ultimate goal of the effort is to establish a sound cyber infrastructure that support ASME Codes and Standards development and maintenance.

  17. Scanning Probe Evaluation of Electronic, Mechanical and Structural Material Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virwani, Kumar

    2011-03-01

    We present atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of a range of properties from three different classes of materials: mixed ionic electronic conductors, low-k dielectrics, and polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles. (1) Mixed ionic electronic conductors are being investigated as novel diodes to drive phase-change memory elements. Their current-voltage characteristics are measured with direct-current and pulsed-mode conductive AFM (C-AFM). The challenges to reliability of the C-AFM method include the electrical integrity of the probe, the sample and the contacts, and the minimization of path capacitance. The role of C-AFM in the optimization of these electro-active materials will be presented. (2) Low dielectric constant (low-k) materials are used in microprocessors as interlayer insulators, a role directly affected by their mechanical performance. The mechanical properties of nanoporous silicate low-k thin films are investigated in a comparative study of nanomechanics measured by AFM and by traditional nanoindentation. Both methods are still undergoing refinement as reliable analytical tools for determining nanomechanical properties. We will focus on AFM, the faster of the two methods, and its developmental challenges of probe shape, cantilever force constant, machine compliance and calibration standards. (3) Magnetic nanoparticles are being explored for their use in patterned media for magnetic storage. Current methods for visualizing the core-shell structure of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles include dye-staining the polymer shell to provide contrast in transmission electron microscopy. AFM-based fast force-volume measurements provide direct visualization of the hard metal oxide core within the soft polymer shell based on structural property differences. In particular, the monitoring of adhesion and deformation between the AFM tip and the nanoparticle, particle-by-particle, provides a reliable qualitative tool to visualize core-shell contrast without the use

  18. Gap Analysis of Material Properties Data for Ferritic/Martensitic HT-9 Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Neil R.; Serrano De Caro, Magdalena; Rodriguez, Edward A.

    2012-08-28

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), is supporting the development of an ASME Code Case for adoption of 12Cr-1Mo-VW ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steel, commonly known as HT-9, primarily for use in elevated temperature design of liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFR) and components. In 2011, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) nuclear engineering staff began assisting in the development of a small modular reactor (SMR) design concept, previously known as the Hyperion Module, now called the Gen4 Module. LANL staff immediately proposed HT-9 for the reactor vessel and components, as well as fuel clad and ducting, due to its superior thermal qualities. Although the ASME material Code Case, for adoption of HT-9 as an approved elevated temperature material for LMFR service, is the ultimate goal of this project, there are several key deliverables that must first be successfully accomplished. The most important key deliverable is the research, accumulation, and documentation of specific material parameters; physical, mechanical, and environmental, which becomes the basis for an ASME Code Case. Time-independent tensile and ductility data and time-dependent creep and creep-rupture behavior are some of the material properties required for a successful ASME Code case. Although this report provides a cursory review of the available data, a much more comprehensive study of open-source data would be necessary. This report serves three purposes: (a) provides a list of already existing material data information that could ultimately be made available to the ASME Code, (b) determines the HT-9 material properties data missing from available sources that would be required and (c) estimates the necessary material testing required to close the gap. Ultimately, the gap analysis demonstrates that certain material properties testing will be required to fulfill the necessary information package for an ASME Code Case.

  19. Synthesis and Engineering Materials Properties of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Young Joon; Westman, Matthew P.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Chun, Jaehun; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high practical hydrogen content of 14-16 wt%. This material is selected as a surrogate chemical for a hydrogen storage system. For easier transition to the existing infrastructure, a fluid phase hydrogen storage material is very attractive and thus, we investigated the engineering materials properties of AB in liquid carriers for a chemical hydrogen storage slurry system. Slurries composed of AB and high temperature liquids were prepared by mechanical milling and sonication in order to obtain stable and fluidic properties. Volumetric gas burette system was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the AB slurry and neat AB. Viscometry and microscopy were employed to further characterize slurries engineering properties. Using a tip-sonication method we have produced AB/silicone fluid slurries at solid loadings up to 40wt% (6.5wt% H2) with viscosities less than 500cP at 25°C.

  20. Frequency scanning capaciflector for capacitively determining the material properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A capaciflector sensor system scanned in frequency is used to detect the permittivity of the material of an object being sensed. A capaciflector sensor element, coupled to current-measuring voltage follower circuitry, is driven by a frequency swept oscillator and generates an output which corresponds to capacity as a function of the input frequency. This swept frequency information is fed into apparatus e.g. a digital computer for comparing the shape of the capacitance vs. frequency curve against characteristic capacitor vs. frequency curves for a variety of different materials which are stored, for example, in a digital memory of the computer or a database. Using a technique of pattern matching, a determination is made as to the identification of the material. Also, when desirable, the distance between the sensor and the object can be determined.

  1. Review of world experience and properties of materials for encapsulation of terrestrial photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, D. C.; Gaines, G. B.; Sliemers, F. A.; Kistler, C. W.; Igou, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Published and unpublished information relating to encapsulation systems and materials properties was collected by searching the literature and appropriate data bases (over 1,300 documents were selected and reviewed) and by personal contacts including site and company visits. A data tabulation summarizing world experience with terrestrial photovoltaic arrays (50 installations) is presented in the report. Based on criteria of properties, processability, availability, and cost, candidate materials were identified which have potential for use in encapsulation systems for arrays with a lifetime of over 20 years high reliability, an efficiency greater than 10 percent, a total price less than $500/kW, and a production capacity of 500,000 kW/yr. The recommended materials (all commercially available) include, depending upon the device design, various borosilicate and soda-lime glasses and numerous polymerics suitable for specific encapsulation system functions.

  2. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-García, Almudena; Martínez-García, Carmen; Cotes-Palomino, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values. PMID:28772461

  3. 41 CFR 101-42.207 - Transfer of hazardous materials and certain categories of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... materials and certain categories of property. 101-42.207 Section 101-42.207 Public Contracts and Property... AND DISPOSAL 42-UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY 42.2-Utilization of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.207 Transfer...

  4. 41 CFR 101-42.207 - Transfer of hazardous materials and certain categories of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... materials and certain categories of property. 101-42.207 Section 101-42.207 Public Contracts and Property... AND DISPOSAL 42-UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY 42.2-Utilization of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.207 Transfer...

  5. 41 CFR 101-42.207 - Transfer of hazardous materials and certain categories of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... materials and certain categories of property. 101-42.207 Section 101-42.207 Public Contracts and Property... AND DISPOSAL 42-UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY 42.2-Utilization of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.207 Transfer...

  6. 41 CFR 101-42.207 - Transfer of hazardous materials and certain categories of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... materials and certain categories of property. 101-42.207 Section 101-42.207 Public Contracts and Property... AND DISPOSAL 42-UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY 42.2-Utilization of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.207 Transfer...

  7. 14 CFR 27.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material strength properties and design....613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based on... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  8. 14 CFR 27.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material strength properties and design....613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based on... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  9. 14 CFR 29.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... § 29.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  10. 14 CFR 27.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material strength properties and design....613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based on... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  11. 14 CFR 29.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... § 29.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  12. 14 CFR 27.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material strength properties and design....613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based on... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  13. 14 CFR 29.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... § 29.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  14. 14 CFR 29.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... § 29.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  15. 14 CFR 27.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material strength properties and design....613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based on... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  16. 14 CFR 29.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... § 29.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  17. Effect of storage on tensile material properties of bovine liver.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Kemper, Andrew R; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2014-01-01

    Cadaveric tissue models play an important role in the assessment and optimization of novel restraint systems for reducing abdominal injuries. However, the effect of tissue preservation by means of freezing on the material properties of abdominal tissues remains unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of frozen storage time on the material responses of the liver parenchyma in tensile loading. Specimens from ten bovine livers were equally divided into three groups: fresh, 30-day frozen storage, and 60-day frozen storage. All preserved specimens were stored at -12°C. Dog-bone specimens from each preservation group were randomly assigned to one of three strain rates (0.01s(-1), 0.1s(-1), and 1.0s(-1)) and tested to failure in tensile loading. The local material response recorded at the tear location and the global material response of the whole specimen of the liver parenchyma specimens were investigated based on the experimental data and optimized analytical material models. The local and global failure strains decreased significantly between fresh specimens and specimens preserved for 30 days (p<0.05), and between fresh specimens and specimens preserved for 60 days (p<0.05) for all three loading rates. Changes on the material model parameters were also observed between fresh and preserved specimens. Preservation by means of frozen storage was found to affect both the material and failure response of bovine liver parenchyma in tensile loading. The stiffness of the tissue increased with increased preservation time and increased strain rate. In summary, significant changes (p<0.05) between the failure strain of previously frozen liver parenchyma samples and fresh samples were demonstrated at both global and local levels in this study. In addition, nonlinear and viscoelastic characteristics of the liver parenchyma were observed in tension for both fresh and preserved samples.

  18. Ultrasonic imaging of material flaws exploiting multipath information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xizhong; Zhang, Yimin D.; Demirli, Ramazan; Amin, Moeness G.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we consider ultrasonic imaging for the visualization of flaws in a material. Ultrasonic imaging is a powerful nondestructive testing (NDT) tool which assesses material conditions via the detection, localization, and classification of flaws inside a structure. Multipath exploitations provide extended virtual array apertures and, in turn, enhance imaging capability beyond the limitation of traditional multisensor approaches. We utilize reflections of ultrasonic signals which occur when encountering different media and interior discontinuities. The waveforms observed at the physical as well as virtual sensors yield additional measurements corresponding to different aspect angles. Exploitation of multipath information addresses unique issues observed in ultrasonic imaging. (1) Utilization of physical and virtual sensors significantly extends the array aperture for image enhancement. (2) Multipath signals extend the angle of view of the narrow beamwidth of the ultrasound transducers, allowing improved visibility and array design flexibility. (3) Ultrasonic signals experience difficulty in penetrating a flaw, thus the aspect angle of the observation is limited unless access to other sides is available. The significant extension of the aperture makes it possible to yield flaw observation from multiple aspect angles. We show that data fusion of physical and virtual sensor data significantly improves the detection and localization performance. The effectiveness of the proposed multipath exploitation approach is demonstrated through experimental studies.

  19. Filter properties of seam material from paved urban soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehls, T.; Jozefaciuk, G.; Sokolowska, Z.; Hajnos, M.; Wessolek, G.

    2008-04-01

    Depositions of all kinds of urban dirt and dust including anthropogenic organic substances like soot change the filter properties of the seam filling material of pervious pavements and lead to the formation of a new soil substrate called seam material. In this study, the impact of the particular urban form of organic matter (OM) on the seam materials CECpot, the specific surface area (As), the surface charge density (SCD), the adsorption energies (Ea) and the adsorption of Cd and Pb were assessed. The Cd and Pb displacement through the pavement system has been simulated in order to assess the risk of soil and groundwater contamination from infiltration of rainwater in paved urban soils. As, Ea and SCD derived from water vapor adsorption isotherms, CECpot, Pb and Cd adsorption isotherms where analyzed from adsorption experiments. The seam material is characterized by a darker munsell-color and a higher Corg (12 to 48g kg-1) compared to the original seam filling. Although, the increased Corg leads to higher As (16m2g-1) and higher CECpot (0.7 to 4.8cmolckg-1), with 78cmolckg-1C its specific CECpot is low compared to OM of non-urban soils. This can be explained by a low SCD of 1.2×10-6molc m-2 and a low fraction of high adsorption energy sites which is likely caused by the non-polar character of the accumulated urban OM in the seam material. The seam material shows stronger sorption of Pb and Cd compared to the original construction sand. The retardation capacity of seam material for Pb is similar, for Cd it is much smaller compared to natural sandy soils with similar Corg concentrations. The simulated long term displacement scenarios for a street in Berlin do not indicate an acute contamination risk for Pb . For Cd the infiltration from puddles can lead to a breakthrough of Cd through the pavement system during only one decade. Although they contain contaminations itself, the accumulated forms of urban OM lead to improved filter properties of the seam material and

  20. Processing and nanostructure influences on mechanical properties of thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Robert David

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials are materials that can generate an electric current from a thermal gradient, with possible service in recovery of waste heat such as engine exhaust. Significant progress has been made in improving TE conversion efficiency, typically reported according to the figure of merit, ZT, with several recent papers publishing ZT values above 2. Furthermore, cost reductions may be made by the use of lower cost elements such as Mg, Si, Sn, Pb, Se and S in TE materials, while achieving ZT values between 1.3 and 1.8. To be used in a device, the thermoelectric material must be able to withstand the applied thermal and mechanical forces without failure. However, these materials are brittle, with low fracture toughness typically less than 1.5 MPa-m1/2, and often less than 0.5 MPa-m1/2. For comparison, window glass is approximately 0.75 MPa-m1/2. They have been optimized with nanoprecipitates, nanoparticles, doping, alterations in stoichiometry, powder processing and other techniques, all of which may alter the mechanical properties. In this study, the effect of SiC nanoparticle additions in Mg2Si, SnTe and Ag nanoparticle additions in the skutterudite Ba0.3Co 4Sb12 on the elastic moduli, hardness and fracture toughness are measured. Large changes (˜20%) in the elastic moduli in SnTe 1+x as a function of x at 0 and 0.016 are shown. The effect on mechanical properties of doping and precipitates of CdS or ZnS in a PbS or PbSe matrix have been reported. Changes in sintering behavior of the skutterudite with the Ag nanoparticle additions were explored. Possible liquid phase sintering, with associated benefits in lower processing temperature, faster densification and lower cost, has been shown. A technique has been proposed for determining additional liquid phase sintering aids in other TE materials. The effects of porosity, grain size, powder processing method, and sintering method were explored with YbAl3 and Ba0.3Co4Sb 12, with the porosity dependence of