Science.gov

Sample records for materials screening test

  1. Materials screening chamber for testing materials resistance to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Carruth, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    A unique test chamber for exposing material to a known flux of oxygen atoms is described. The capabilities and operating parameters of the apparatus include production of an oxygen atom flux in excess of 5 x 10 to the 16th atoms/sq cm-sec, controlled heating of the sample specimen, RF circuitry to contain the plasma within a small volume, and long exposure times. Flux measurement capabilities include a calorimetric probe and a light titration system. Accuracy and limitations of these techniques are discussed. An extension to the main chamber to allow simultaneous ultraviolet and atomic oxygen exposure is discussed. The oxygen atoms produced are at thermal energies. Sample specimens are maintained at any selected temperature between ambient and 200 C, to within + or - 2 C. A representative example of measurements made using the chamber is presented.

  2. Subscale solid motor nozzle tests, phase 4 and nozzle materials screening and thermal characterization, phase 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J.; Dodson, J.; Laub, B.

    1979-01-01

    Subscale solid motor nozzles containing a baseline material or low cost materials to be considered as potential replacements for the baseline material are designed and tested. Data are presented from tests of four identically designed 2.5 inch throat diameter nozzles and one 7 inch throat diameter nozzle. The screening of new candidate low cost materials, as well as their thermophysical and thermochemical characterization is also discussed.

  3. Quadruple screen test

    MedlinePlus

    Quad screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - quadruple; Trisomy 21 - quadruple; Turner syndrome - quadruple; Spina bifida - ...

  4. Evaluation of some candidate materials for automobile thermal reactors in engine-dynamometer screening tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldrieve, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Fourteen materials were evaluated in engine screening tests on full-size thermal reactors for automobile engine pollution control systems. Cyclic test-stand engine operation provided 2 hours at 1040 C and a 20-minute air-cool to 70 C each test cycle. Each reactor material was exposed to 83 cycles in 200 hours of engine testing. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and distortion, the best materials included two ferritic iron alloys (Ge 1541 and Armco 18S/R), several commercial oxidation-resistant coatings on AlSl 651 (19-9 DL), and possibly uncoated AISI 310. The best commercial coatings were Cr-Al, Ni-Cr, and a glass ceramic.

  5. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Screening Tests FAQ165, September 2016 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  6. Hydramite II screening tests of potential bremsstrahlung converter debris shield materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Hedemann, M.A.; Stark, M.A.

    1986-03-01

    Results of a brief test series aimed at screening a number of potential bremsstrahlung converter debris shield materials are reported. These tests were run on Sandia National Laboratories' Hydramite II accelerator using a diode configuration which produces a pinched electron beam. The materials tested include: (1) laminated Kevlar 49/polyester and E-glass/polyester composites, (2) a low density laminated Kevlar 49 composite, and (3) two types of through-the-thickness reinforced Kevlar 49 composites. As expected, tests using laminated Kevlar 49/polyester shields showed that shield permanent set (i.e., permanent deflection) increased with increasing tantalum conversion foil thickness and decreased with increasing shield thickness. The through-the-thickness reinforced composites developed localized, but severe, back surface damage. The laminated composites displayed little back surface damage, although extensive internal matrix cracking and ply delaminations were generated. Roughly the same degree of permanent set was produced in shields made from the low density Kevlar 49 composite and the Kevlar 49/polyester. The E-glass reinforced shields exhibited relatively low levels of permanent set.

  7. Manufactured soil screening test

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to provide a screening test that can be used to evaluate the potential for manufacturing artificial soil using dredged material, cellulose waste materials (e.g., yard waste compost, sawdust, wastepaper), and biosolids (e.g., N-Viro-reconditioned sewage sludge, BIONSOIL-reconstituted cow manure). This procedure will allow the most productive blend of any dredged material (uncontaminated or contaminated), cellulose, and biosolids to be determined and recommended for use in an environmentally productive and beneficial manner.

  8. The 'BlueScreen HC' assay as a decision making test in the genotoxicity assessment of flavour and fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Etter, Sylvain; Birrell, Louise; Cahill, Paul; Scott, Heather; Billinton, Nick; Walmsley, Richard M; Smith, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    The genotoxicity of a library of 70 flavour and fragrance substances having a high proportion of in vivo and/or carcinogenicity test data has been assessed using the GADD45a-GLuc 'BlueScreen HC' genotoxicity assay, with and without exogenous metabolic activation. There are only limited genotoxicity and carcinogenicity study data for compounds in this applicability domain, but this study allowed the following conclusions: (i) The BlueScreen HC results are highly predictive of positive results from regulator-required in vitro genotoxicity assays for the test set of materials; the moderate negative predictivity of BlueScreen HC from the in vitro test set of material is mainly due to the high rate of false positive in regulatory in vitro mammalian tests. (ii) BlueScreen HC negative results are predictive of negative in vivo results and provide a specific prediction of in vivo genotoxicity assay results. (iii) In this applicability domain, which comprises a large proportion of relatively low molecular weight molecules, a 1mM testing limit maintains the sensitivity of the assay, and increases specificity. (iv) The predictive capacity and specificity to in vivo genotoxins and carcinogens, coupled to a microplate format with low compound requirement supports further investigation of the BlueScreen HC assay as a useful tool in prioritizing the assessment of new F&F materials and in filling data gaps on materials with no or limited regulatory test data for genotoxicity.

  9. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  10. Arc Jet Screening Tests Of Phase 1 Orbiter Tile Repair Materials and Uncoated RSI High Temperature Emittance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelPapa, Steven V.

    2005-01-01

    Arc jet tests of candidate tile repair materials and baseline Orbiter uncoated reusable surface insulation (RSI) were performed in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Atmospheric Reentry Materials and Structures Evaluation Facility (ARMSEF) from June 23, 2003, through August 19, 2003. These tests were performed to screen candidate tile repair materials by verifying the high temperature performance and determining the thermal stability. In addition, tests to determine the surface emissivity at high temperatures and the geometric shrinkage of bare RSI were performed. In addition, tests were performed to determine the surface emissivity at high temperatures and the geometric shrinkage of uncoated RSI.

  11. Newborn Screening Tests Approved

    MedlinePlus

    ... The screens are used to detect four rare metabolic disorders To use the sharing features on this page, ... of screening tests designed to detect four rare metabolic disorders in newborns has been approved by the U.S. ...

  12. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer symptoms. There are different kinds of screening tests. Screening tests include the following: Physical exam and ... are linked to some types of cancer. Screening tests have risks. Not all screening tests are helpful ...

  13. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    MedlinePlus

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... better nutrition, growth, and lung function. This screening test helps doctors identify children with CF before they ...

  14. TB Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: Purified Protein Derivative; PPD; Mantoux; Latent Tuberculosis Infection Test; Interferon-gamma Release Assays; IGRA; T- ... else I should know? How is it used? Tuberculosis (TB) screening tests are not used as general ...

  15. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials - Selection of methods

    SciTech Connect

    Weltens, R.; Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K.; Robbens, J.; Deprez, K.; Michiels, L.

    2012-12-15

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or - if not all compounds are identified - from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  16. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials--selection of methods.

    PubMed

    Weltens, R; Vanermen, G; Tirez, K; Robbens, J; Deprez, K; Michiels, L

    2012-12-01

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or--if not all compounds are identified--from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  17. Newborn Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... difference between lifelong impairment and healthy development. Which Tests Are Offered? Newborn screening varies by state and is subject to change, especially given advancements in technology. However, the disorders listed here are those usually ...

  18. Newborn screening tests

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn screening tests look for developmental, genetic, and metabolic disorders in the newborn baby. This allows steps to be taken before symptoms develop. Most of these illnesses are very rare, but can be treated if caught ...

  19. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  20. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare or change ...

  1. Environmental Test Screening Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeidler, Janet

    2000-01-01

    This procedure describes the methods to be used for environmental stress screening (ESS) of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) lens assembly. Unless otherwise specified, the procedures shall be completed in the order listed, prior to performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP). The first unit, S/N 001, will be subjected to the Qualification Vibration Levels, while the remainder will be tested at the Operational Level. Prior to ESS, all units will undergo Pre-ESS Functional Testing that includes measuring the on-axis and plus or minus 0.95 full field Modulation Transfer Function and Back Focal Length. Next, all units will undergo ESS testing, and then Acceptance testing per PR 460.

  2. Screening Tests for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... All people should know their HIV status. This Web page from womenshealth.gov talks about how to get tested for HIV, types of HIV tests, and confidential versus anonymous testing. Gonorrhea Fact Sheet - ...

  3. Neonatal Screening Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigue, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several laboratory experiments that are adaptations of clinical tests for certain genetic diseases in babies. Information and procedures are provided for tests for phenylketonuria (PKU), galactosemia, tyrosinemia, cystinuria, and mucopolysaccharidosis. Discusses the effects of each disease on the infants' development. (TW)

  4. Virtual screening for OLED materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halls, Mathew D.; Giesen, David J.; Hughes, Thomas F.; Goldberg, Alexander; Cao, Yixiang; Kwak, H. Shaun; Gavartin, Jacob

    2014-10-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are under widespread investigation to displace or complement inorganic optoelectronic devices for solid-state lighting and active displays. The materials comprising the active layers in OLED devices are selected or designed to provide the required intrinsic and extrinsic electronic properties needed for efficient charge injection and transport, and desired stability and emissive properties. The chemical design space for OLED materials is enormous and there is need for the development of computational approaches to help identify the most promising chemical solutions for experimental development. In this work we present a multi-scale simulation approach to efficiently screen libraries of potential OLED molecular materials. The workflow to assess potential OLED materials is: 1) evaluation based on first-principles prediction of key intrinsic properties (EHOMO, ELUMO, λe/h, Etriplet), 2) classical simulation of thin film morphology (RDF, ρ), and 3) first-principles evaluation of electron coupling for donor-acceptor pairs (Hab) from the simulated condensed phase morphology.

  5. Preschool visual acuity screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Friendly, D S

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative merits of two screening tests used for visual acuity assessment of preschool children. The tests that were compared were the Good-Lite Company versions of the E-Test and of the STYCAR (Screening Test for Young Children and Retardates). The former is the most popular method for evaluating central acuity in young children in this nation; the STYCAR is a relatively new letter-matching-test developed in England, where it is widely employed. The E-Test poses left-right orientation problems which are eliminated by the symmetrical letters H, T, O and V utilized in the Letter-Matching-Test. Both visual acuity tests were administered on two separate occasions by personnel from the Prevention of Blindness Society of Metropolitan Washington to 633 preschool children in Washington, D.C. By random selection, 150 of the children received the E-Test at both sessions, 162 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at both sessions, 160 chilt athe the second session, and 161 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at the first session and the E-Test at the second session. The author medically examined the eyes of 408 of the 633 children without knowledge of which test had been initially administered. Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the study indicated that the Letter-Matching-Test was significantly better in terms of testability rates, group and individual instruction time, and performance time. The E-Test was more reliable in terms of test-retest acuity scores and was also more valid in terms of agreement between pass-fail results obtained at the first screening session and two levels of pass-fail refraction criteria. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B PMID:754379

  6. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Member Login Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs ...

  7. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  8. Cancer Screening Test Use - United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    White, Arica; Thompson, Trevor D; White, Mary C; Sabatino, Susan A; de Moor, Janet; Doria-Rose, Paul V; Geiger, Ann M; Richardson, Lisa C

    2017-03-03

    Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) includes objectives to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (1) as recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).* Progress toward meeting these objectives is monitored by measuring cancer screening test use against national targets using data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (1). Analysis of 2015 NHIS data indicated that screening test use remains substantially below HP2020 targets for selected cancer screening tests. Although colorectal cancer screening test use increased from 2000 to 2015, no improvements in test use were observed for breast and cervical cancer screening. Disparities exist in screening test use by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and health care access indicators. Increased measures to implement evidence-based interventions and conduct targeted outreach are needed if the HP2020 targets for cancer screening are to be achieved and the disparities in screening test use are to be reduced.

  9. METC ceramic corrosion/erosion studies: turbine-material screening tests in high-temperature, low-Btu, coal-derived-gas combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Waltermire, D.M.; Hawkins, L.W.; Jarrett, T.L.

    1982-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center, through its Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies, has participated in the United States Department of Energy's High-Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Ceramic Technology Readiness. The program's overall objective is to advance the turbine firing temperature to a range of 2600/sup 0/ to 3000/sup 0/F (1700 to 1922K) with a reasonable service life using coal or coal-derived fuel. The Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies' major objective was to conduct a screening test for several ceramic materials to assess their probability of survival in turbine applications. The materials were exposed to combustion products from low heating value coal-derived gas and air at several high temperatures and velocities. The combustion product composition and temperatures simulated actual environment that may be found in stationary power generating gas turbines except for the pressure levels. The results of approximately 1000 hours of accumulative exposure time of material at the specific test conditions are presented in this report.

  10. Comparison of Two Screening Tests: Gesell Developmental Test and Meeting Street School Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Lenell; Buttery, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Pearson product-moment correlations were computed for selected subtests of The Gesell Developmental Test and The Meeting Street School Screening Test. The selected subtests are moderately correlated, suggesting that either test might be used in a battery. (Author)

  11. Smart material screening machines using smart materials and controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaei, Daryoush; Corradi, Gary; Waigand, Al

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this product is to address the specific need for improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness in physical separation technologies in the screening areas. Currently, the mining industry uses approximately 33 billion kW-hr per year, costing 1.65 billion dollars at 0.05 cents per kW-hr, of electrical energy for physical separations. Even though screening and size separations are not the single most energy intensive process in the mining industry, they are often the major bottleneck in the whole process. Improvements to this area offer tremendous potential in both energy savings and production improvements. Additionally, the vibrating screens used in the mining processing plants are the most costly areas from maintenance and worker health and safety point of views. The goal of this product is to reduce energy use in the screening and total processing areas. This goal is accomplished by developing an innovative screening machine based on smart materials and smart actuators, namely smart screen that uses advanced sensory system to continuously monitor the screening process and make appropriate adjustments to improve production. The theory behind the development of Smart Screen technology is based on two key technologies, namely smart actuators and smart Energy Flow ControlT (EFCT) strategies, developed initially for military applications. Smart Screen technology controls the flow of vibration energy and confines it to the screen rather than shaking much of the mass that makes up the conventional vibratory screening machine. Consequently, Smart Screens eliminates and downsizes many of the structural components associated with conventional vibratory screening machines. As a result, the surface area of the screen increases for a given envelope. This increase in usable screening surface area extends the life of the screens, reduces required maintenance by reducing the frequency of screen change-outs and improves throughput or productivity.

  12. Safer Aviation Materials Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of thermally stable polymer samples were tested. These materials are called low heat release materials and are designed for aircraft interior decorative materials. The materials are designed to give off a minimum amount of noxious gases when heated, which increases the possibility that people can escape from a burning aircraft. New cabin materials have suitably low heat release so that fire does not spread, toxic chemicals are not given off, and the fire-emergency escape time for crew and passengers is lengthened. These low heat-release materials have a variety of advantages and applications: interiors for ground-based facilities, interiors of space vehicles, and many commercial fire-protection environments. A microscale combustion calorimeter at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Technical Center tested NASA Langley Research Center materials samples. The calorimeter is shown. A sharp, quantitative, and reproducible heat-release-rate peak is obtained in the microscale heat-release-rate test. The newly tested NASA materials significantly reduced the heat release capacity and total heat release. The thermal stability and flammability behavior of the samples was very good. The new materials demonstrated a factor of 4 reduction in total heat release over ULTEM (a currently used material). This information is provided in the following barchart. In other tests, the materials showed greater than a factor 9 reduction in heat-release capacity over ULTEM. The newly tested materials were developed for low dielectric constant, low color, and good solubility. A scale up of the material samples is needed to determine the repeatability of the performance in larger samples. Larger panels composed of the best candidate materials will be tested in a larger scale FAA Technical Center fire facility. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Langley (Jeff Hinkley), and the FAA Technical Center (Richard Lyon) cooperatively tested these materials for the Accident Mitigation

  13. Effectiveness of common fish screen materials to protect lamprey ammocoetes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of irrigation diversions on populations of Pacific lampreyLampetra tridentata in the Columbia River basin is needed for their recovery. We tested the effectiveness of five common fish screen materials for excluding lamprey ammocoetes: interlock (IL), vertical bar (VB), perforated plate (PP), and 12-gauge and 14-gauge wire cloth (WC12) and (WC14). When fish (28–153 mm) were exposed for 60 min to screen panels perpendicular to an approach velocity of 12 cm/s in a recirculating flume, the percentage of ammocoetes entrained (i.e., passed through the screen) was 26% for the IL, 18% for the PP, 33% for the VB, 62% for the WC14, and 65% for the WC12 screens. For all screens, most fish were entrained within the first 15–20 min. Fish length significantly influenced entrainment, with the PP, VB, and IL screens preventing fish greater than 50–65 mm from entrainment and the WC14 and WC12 screens preventing entrainment of fish greater than 90–110 mm. Fish of all sizes repeatedly became impinged (i.e., contacting the screen for more than 1 s) on the screens, with the frequency of impingement events increasing during the first 5 min and becoming relatively stable thereafter. Impingement ranges were highest on the IL screen (36–62%), lowest on the WC14 and WC12 screens (13–31%), and intermediate on the PP and VB screens (23–54%). However, the WC14 and WC12 screens had fewer and larger fish remaining as time elapsed because so many were entrained. For all screen types, injuries were rare and minor, and no fish died after overnight posttest holding. Our results indicate that wire cloth screens should be replaced, where practical, with perforated plate, vertical bar, or interlocking bar screens to reduce lamprey entrainment at water diversions.

  14. Flexible Material Systems Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John K.; Shook, Lauren S.; Ware, Joanne S.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program has been undertaken to better characterize the stress-strain characteristics of flexible material systems to support a NASA ground test program for inflatable decelerator material technology. A goal of the current study is to investigate experimental methods for the characterization of coated woven material stiffness. This type of experimental mechanics data would eventually be used to define the material inputs of fluid-structure interaction simulation models. The test methodologies chosen for this stress-strain characterization are presented along with the experimental results.

  15. Stool Testing for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Douglas J; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to reduce CRC incidence and mortality and is widely recommended. However, despite the demonstrated benefits of screening and ongoing efforts to improve screening rates, a large percentage of the population remains unscreened. Noninvasive stool based tests offer great opportunity to enhance screening uptake. The evidence supporting the use of both fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and stool DNA (sDNA) has been growing rapidly and both tests are now commercially available for use. Other stool biomarkers (eg, RNA and protein based) are also actively under study both for use independently and as adjuncts to the currently available tests. This mini review provides current, state of the art knowledge about noninvasive stool based screening. It includes a more detailed examination of those tests currently in use (ie, FIT and sDNA) but also provides an overview of stool testing options under development (ie, protein and RNA).

  16. Older adults’ preferences for colorectal cancer-screening test attributes and test choice

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Christine E; Hess, Thomas M; Howard, Kirsten; Pignone, Michael P; Crutchfield, Trisha M; Hawley, Sarah T; Brenner, Alison T; Ward, Kimberly T; Lewis, Carmen L

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding which attributes of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests drive older adults’ test preferences and choices may help improve decision making surrounding CRC screening in older adults. Materials and methods To explore older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening test attributes and screening tests, we conducted a survey with a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a directly selected preferred attribute question, and an unlabeled screening test-choice question in 116 cognitively intact adults aged 70–90 years, without a history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease. Each participant answered ten discrete choice questions presenting two hypothetical tests comprised of four attributes: testing procedure, mortality reduction, test frequency, and complications. DCE responses were used to estimate each participant’s most important attribute and to simulate their preferred test among three existing CRC-screening tests. For each individual, we compared the DCE-derived attributes to directly selected attributes, and the DCE-derived preferred test to a directly selected unlabeled test. Results Older adults do not overwhelmingly value any one CRC-screening test attribute or prefer one type of CRC-screening test over other tests. However, small absolute DCE-derived preferences for the testing procedure attribute and for sigmoidoscopy-equivalent screening tests were revealed. Neither general health, functional, nor cognitive health status were associated with either an individual’s most important attribute or most preferred test choice. The DCE-derived most important attribute was associated with each participant’s directly selected unlabeled test choice. Conclusion Older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening tests are not easily predicted. Medical providers should actively explore older adults’ preferences for CRC screening, so that they can order a screening test that is concordant with their patients’ values. Effective interventions are

  17. Dementia screening using computerized tests.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, C Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The preclinical phase of dementia usually precedes the clinical diagnosis by many years. Early detection of dementing conditions during this preclinical phase may provide opportunities for treatments that may slow or mitigate progression. Conventional assessment tools usually can only detect dementia when the symptoms are overt and the disease is well-established. Computerized neurocognitive screening tools hold promise for diagnosing dementia in its early phase. The use, performance and development of several computerized screening tools to diagnose and monitor patients with pre-dementias and dementia are reviewed. The ability to accurately assess the presence of dementia clearly has direct relevance to insurance risk assessment and risk management. As new treatments appear, their role in clinical management of dementia patients will increase as well. In a future issue, the differential diagnosis of dementias related to the findings on these screening tools will be reviewed.

  18. Instrumented Materials Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation starts with an introduction to the need for materials testing. Classic failures (such as brittle ship hull fractures) are discussed before fundamental discoveries in fracture analysis (Griffith, Westergaard, and Irwin). Next standard tests are identified, followed by a look at brittle versus ductile failure. Griffith's result (the composite paradigm) that smaller composite specimens are stronger because they have smaller flaws, is covered. This leads into composite tests. And finally, stress waves are shown as an example that will initiate damage.

  19. Preparation and screening of crystalline inorganic materials

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy; Brice{hacek over }o, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

    2008-10-28

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  20. Combinatorial screening of inorganic and organometallic materials

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  1. Two-Piece Screens for Decontaminating Granular Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Douglas; Poulter, Clay; Godfrey, Max; Dutton, Melinda; Tolman, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Two-piece screens have been designed specifically for use in filtering a granular material to remove contaminant particles that are significantly wider or longer than are the desired granules. In the original application for which the twopiece screens were conceived, the granular material is ammonium perchlorate and the contaminant particles tend to be wires and other relatively long, rigid strands. The basic design of the twopiece screens can be adapted to other granular materials and contaminants by modifying critical dimensions to accommodate different grain and contaminant- particle sizes. A two-piece screen of this type consists mainly of (1) a top flat plate perforated with circular holes arranged in a hexagonal pattern and (2) a bottom plate that is also perforated with circular holes (but not in a pure hexagonal pattern) and is folded into an accordion structure. Fabrication of the bottom plate begins with drilling circular holes into a flat plate in a hexagonal pattern that is interrupted, at regular intervals, by parallel gaps. The plate is then folded into the accordion structure along the gaps. Because the folds are along the gaps, there are no holes at the peaks and valleys of the accordion screen. The top flat plate and the bottom accordion plate are secured within a metal frame. The resulting two-piece screen is placed at the bottom opening of a feed hopper containing the granular material to be filtered. Tests have shown that such long, rigid contaminant strands as wires readily can pass through a filter consisting of the flat screen alone and that the addition of the accordion screen below the flat screen greatly increases the effectiveness of removal of wires and other contaminant strands. Part of the reason for increased effectiveness is in the presentation of the contaminant to the filter surface. Testing has shown that wire type contamination will readily align itself parallel to the material direction flow. Since this direction of flow is

  2. Screening and Invasive Testing in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Monni, Giovanni; Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal screening and testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies poses a number of challenges: the exact estimate of the a priori risk of trisomy 21, the choice of prenatal screening test and/or invasive techniques to employ for the diagnosis and the impact of the result on the options of treatment in case of discordant results within a twin pair or among multiples. These different aspects are discussed below while recognizing that many issues remain unresolved. PMID:26237482

  3. Apparatus for combinatorial screening of electrochemical materials

    DOEpatents

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells , and a device , external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

    2009-12-15

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source (2) is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array (1) are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells (1) that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load (2) for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells (1), and a device (3), external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

  4. Thermal Protection System Aerothermal Screening Tests in HYMETS Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, Christine E.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Alumni, Antonella I.; Chavez-Garcia, Jose F.; Splinter, Scott C.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project has been tasked to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. A screening arc jet test of seven rigid ablative TPS material candidates was performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center, in both an air and carbon dioxide test environment. Recession, mass loss, surface temperature, and backface thermal response were measured for each test specimen. All material candidates survived the Mars aerocapture relevant heating condition, and some materials showed a clear increase in recession rate in the carbon dioxide test environment. These test results supported subsequent down-selection of the most promising material candidates for further development.

  5. Material Testing Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts led to two commercial instruments and a new subsidiary for Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSI). The FAST system, originally developed for testing the effect of space environment on materials, is now sold commercially for use in aging certification of materials intended for orbital operation. The Optical Temperature Monitor was designed for precise measurement of high temperatures on certain materials to be manufactured in space. The original research was extended to the development of a commercial instrument that measures and controls fuel gas temperatures in industrial boilers. PSI created PSI Environmental Instruments to market the system. The company also offers an Aerospace Measurement Service that has evolved from other SBIR contracts.

  6. Hematuria home screening: repeat testing results.

    PubMed

    Messing, E M; Young, T B; Hunt, V B; Newton, M A; Bram, L L; Vaillancourt, A; Hisgen, W J; Greenberg, E B; Kuglitsch, M E; Wegenke, J D

    1995-07-01

    To determine at what interval screening should be repeated to detect bladder cancer before it becomes muscle invasive 856 men who had 14 negative daily home tests for hematuria with a chemical reagent strip 9 months previously performed repeat tests. Of these men 50 (5.8%) had at least 1 positive test during the second 14-day screening period and 38 were evaluated, 15 of whom (39.5%) had significant urological pathological conditions, including 8 with malignancies. Bladder cancer was noted in 7 men, with no tumor invading the muscularis propria. The finding of 7 bladder cancers in 856 men (0.82%) who had a negative test 9 months previously indicates that bladder cancer has a brief preclinical duration and that testing must be repeated at least annually for screening to detect bladder cancer consistently before invasion occurs.

  7. Current noninvasive tests for colorectal cancer screening: An overview of colorectal cancer screening tests

    PubMed Central

    Song, Le-Le; Li, Yue-Min

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has become the third most common cancer in the world. Screening has been shown to be an effective way to identify early CRC and precancerous lesions, and to reduce its morbidity and mortality. Several types of noninvasive tests have been developed for CRC screening, including the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), the fecal immunochemical test (FIT), the fecal-based DNA test and the blood-based DNA test (the SEPT9 assay). FIT has replaced FOBT and become the major screening test due to high sensitivity, specificity and low costs. The fecal DNA test exhibited higher sensitivity than FIT but its current cost is high for a screening assay. The SEPT9 assay showed good compliance while its performance in screening needs further improvements. These tests exhibited distinct sensitivity and specificity in screening for CRC and adenoma. This article will focus on the performance of the current noninvasive in vitro diagnostic tests that have been used for CRC screening. The merits and drawbacks for these screening methods will also be compared regarding the techniques, usage and costs. We hope this review can provide suggestions for both the public and clinicians in choosing the appropriate method for CRC screening. PMID:27895817

  8. US/French joint research program regarding the behavior of polymer base materials subjected to beta radiation: Volume 2, Phase-2a screening tests: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Buckalew, W.H.; Wyant, F.J.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Tutour, P.; Le Meur, M.

    1987-09-01

    As part of the ongoing joint NRC/CEA cooperative test program to investigate the relative effectiveness of beta and gamma irradiation to produce damage in polymer base materials, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) specimens, in slab geometry, were exposed to Cobalt-60 gamma rays and accelerator produced electron beams. Specimens were irradiated and evaluated at research facilities in the US (Sandia National Laboratories) and France (Compagnie ORIS Industrie). These tests included several electron beam energies, sample thicknesses, exposure doses, and dose rates. Based on changes in the tensile properties, of the test specimens, results of these studies suggest that material damage resulting from electron and gamma irradiations can be correlated on the basis of absorbed radiation dose.

  9. Developing a matrix reference material for screening of transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Xiaofei; Wang, Yulei; Zhang, Li; Li, Yunjing; Wu, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) that are compatible with detection methods are needed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Screening is the first detection step in determining the possible presence of GMO ingredients in food or feed; however, screening has been hindered by the lack of GMO CRMs. In this study, transgenic rice materials were developed via the transformation of a construct harboring 11 commonly used screening elements. Digital PCR was utilized to identify a homozygous single-copy line termed SDrice. The qualitative detections of 11 elements in 21 transgenic materials demonstrated that the genomic DNA of the SDrice was suitable for use as a positive control in the screening of GMO ingredients. The suitability of SDrice as reference material was further checked by testing the sensitivity of 11 known conventional PCR assays, ranging from 10 to 50 copies of the SDrice genome. The standard curves that were created using SDrice DNA series as calibrators all exhibited good linearities in the relationships of the Ct values with the template copy numbers in these 11 real-time PCR assays. The LODs of the real-time PCR assays were estimated to be two to five copies of the SDrice genome. Comparisons of the SDrice with other GM rice revealed that significant differences existed in both the intercepts of the standard curves and the ΔCt values of the exogenous and reference genes for the P-35S, T-nos, HPT, T-35S, and Bar assays; the SDrice was not fit for quantification of other GM rice events. This study provided a matrix reference material (RM) that was suitable for screening GM rice, determination of sensitivity and a LOD of PCR assays, and overcame some of the drawbacks of plasmid DNA as reference material.

  10. Test equality between two binary screening tests with a confirmatory procedure restricted on screen positives.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2015-01-01

    In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula.

  11. Computational Screening of All Stoichiometric Inorganic Materials.

    PubMed

    Davies, Daniel W; Butler, Keith T; Jackson, Adam J; Morris, Andrew; Frost, Jarvist M; Skelton, Jonathan M; Walsh, Aron

    2016-10-13

    Forming a four-component compound from the first 103 elements of the periodic table results in more than 10(12) combinations. Such a materials space is intractable to high-throughput experiment or first-principle computation. We introduce a framework to address this problem and quantify how many materials can exist. We apply principles of valency and electronegativity to filter chemically implausible compositions, which reduces the inorganic quaternary space to 10(10) combinations. We demonstrate that estimates of band gaps and absolute electron energies can be made simply on the basis of the chemical composition and apply this to the search for new semiconducting materials to support the photoelectrochemical splitting of water. We show the applicability to predicting crystal structure by analogy with known compounds, including exploration of the phase space for ternary combinations that form a perovskite lattice. Computer screening reproduces known perovskite materials and predicts the feasibility of thousands more. Given the simplicity of the approach, large-scale searches can be performed on a single workstation.

  12. Screening tests: a review with examples

    PubMed Central

    Niebo, Ron; Utell, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Screening tests are widely used in medicine to assess the likelihood that members of a defined population have a particular disease. This article presents an overview of such tests including the definitions of key technical (sensitivity and specificity) and population characteristics necessary to assess the benefits and limitations of such tests. Several examples are used to illustrate calculations, including the characteristics of low dose computed tomography as a lung cancer screen, choice of an optimal PSA cutoff and selection of the population to undergo mammography. The importance of careful consideration of the consequences of both false positives and negatives is highlighted. Receiver operating characteristic curves are explained as is the need to carefully select the population group to be tested. PMID:25264934

  13. Materials Compatibility Testing in Concentrated Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, R.; Bromley, G.; Mason, D.; Crockett, D.; Martinez, L.; McNeal, C.; Lyles, G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Materials test methods from the 1960's have been used as a starting point in evaluating materials for today's space launch vehicles. These established test methods have been modified to incorporate today's analytical laboratory equipment. The Orbital test objective was to test a wide range of materials to incorporate the revolution in polymer and composite materials that has occurred since the 1960's. Testing is accomplished in 3 stages from rough screening to detailed analytical tests. Several interesting test observations have been made during this testing and are included in the paper. A summary of the set-up, test and evaluation of long-term storage sub-scale tanks is also included. This sub-scale tank test lasted for a 7-month duration prior to being stopped due to a polar boss material breakdown. Chemical evaluations of the hydrogen peroxide and residue left on the polar boss surface identify the material breakdown quite clearly. The paper concludes with recommendations for future testing and a specific effort underway within the industry to standardize the test methods used in evaluating materials.

  14. DNA analysis of abortion material assisted by histology screening.

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Rand, S P; Duchesne, A

    2001-12-01

    In cases of rape leading to fertilization, paternity testing can retrospectively identify the assailant. Abortion material commonly represents a mixture of maternal and fetal tissue and blood, which cannot be differentiated with the naked eye. Consequently, DNA typing of abortion material may be complicated, including band overlap if maternal tissue predominates. Therefore, histology screening of the abortion content for typical fetal tissue components, such as chorionic villi, followed by selected DNA typing of this sample is suggested. This combined approach is illustrated by a selected case demonstrating the reliability and concurrence of the histology and genetic results.

  15. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  16. Long-Term Materials Test Program: materials exposure test plan

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    The Long Term Materials Test Program is designed to identify promising corrosion resistant materials for coal-fired gas turbine applications. Resistance of materials to long term accelerated corrosion will be determined through realistic PFB environmental exposure of candidate turbine materials for up to 14,000 hours. Selected materials also will be evaluated for their ability to withstand the combined erosive and corrosive aspects of the PFB effluent. A pressurized fluidized bed combustor facility has been constructed at the General Electric Coal Utilization Research Laboratory at Malta, New York. The 12-inch diameter combustor will burn high sulfur coal with moderate-to-high chlorine and alkali levels and utilize dolomite as the sulfur sorbent. Hot gas cleanup is achieved using three stages of cyclone separators. Downstream of the cylone separators, a low velocity test section (approx. 30 ft/s) capable of housing 180 pin specimens 1/4'' diameter has been installed to assess the corrosion resistance of the various materials at three different temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1600/sup 0/F. Following the low velocity test section is a high velocity test section consisting of four cascades of airfoil shaped specimens, six specimens per cascade. This high velocity test section is being used to evaluate the combined effects of erosion and corrosion on the degradation of gas turbine materials at gas velocities of 800 to 1400 ft/s. This report summarizes the materials selection and materials exposure test plan for the Long Term Materials Test.

  17. Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Watkins, Casey N.

    2006-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant weight-saving potential for aerospace applications in propellant and oxidizer tanks. This application for oxygen tanks presents the challenge of being oxygen compatible in addition to complying with the other required material characteristics. This effort reports on the testing procedures and data obtained in examining and selecting potential composite materials for oxygen tank usage. Impact testing of composites has shown that most of these materials initiate a combustion event when impacted at 72 ft-lbf in the presence of liquid oxygen, though testing has also shown substantial variability in reaction sensitivities to impact. Data for screening of 14 potential composites using the Bruceton method is given herein and shows that the 50-percent reaction frequencies range from 17 to 67 ft-lbf. The pressure and temperature rises for several composite materials were recorded to compare the energy releases as functions of the combustion reactions with their respective reaction probabilities. The test data presented are primarily for a test pressure of 300 psia in liquid oxygen. The impact screening process is compared with oxygen index and autogenous ignition test data for both the composite and the basic resin. The usefulness of these supplemental tests in helping select the most oxygen compatible materials is explored. The propensity for mechanical impact ignition of the composite compared with the resin alone is also examined. Since an ignition-free composite material at the peak impact energy of 72 ft-lbf has not been identified, composite reactivity must be characterized over the impact energy level and operating pressure ranges to provide data for hazard analyses in selecting the best potential material for liquid tank usage.

  18. Colorectal cancer screening with odour material by canine scent detection

    PubMed Central

    Kohnoe, Shunji; Yamazato, Tetsuro; Satoh, Yuji; Morizono, Gouki; Shikata, Kentaro; Morita, Makoto; Watanabe, Akihiro; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Fumio; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective Early detection and early treatment are of vital importance to the successful treatment of various cancers. The development of a novel screening method that is as economical and non-invasive as the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed. A study was undertaken using canine scent detection to determine whether odour material can become an effective tool in CRC screening. Design Exhaled breath and watery stool samples were obtained from patients with CRC and from healthy controls prior to colonoscopy. Each test group consisted of one sample from a patient with CRC and four control samples from volunteers without cancer. These five samples were randomly and separately placed into five boxes. A Labrador retriever specially trained in scent detection of cancer and a handler cooperated in the tests. The dog first smelled a standard breath sample from a patient with CRC, then smelled each sample station and sat down in front of the station in which a cancer scent was detected. Results 33 and 37 groups of breath and watery stool samples, respectively, were tested. Among patients with CRC and controls, the sensitivity of canine scent detection of breath samples compared with conventional diagnosis by colonoscopy was 0.91 and the specificity was 0.99. The sensitivity of canine scent detection of stool samples was 0.97 and the specificity was 0.99. The accuracy of canine scent detection was high even for early cancer. Canine scent detection was not confounded by current smoking, benign colorectal disease or inflammatory disease. Conclusions This study shows that a specific cancer scent does indeed exist and that cancer-specific chemical compounds may be circulating throughout the body. These odour materials may become effective tools in CRC screening. In the future, studies designed to identify cancer-specific volatile organic compounds will be important for the development of new methods for early detection of CRC

  19. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  20. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  1. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  2. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  3. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  4. Screening of redox couples and electrode materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.; Swette, L.; Cahill, K.

    1976-01-01

    Electrochemical parameters of selected redox couples that might be potentially promising for application in bulk energy storage systems were investigated. This was carried out in two phases: a broad investigation of the basic characteristics and behavior of various redox couples, followed by a more limited investigation of their electrochemical performance in a redox flow reactor configuration. In the first phase of the program, eight redox couples were evaluated under a variety of conditions in terms of their exchange current densities as measured by the rotating disk electrode procedure. The second phase of the program involved the testing of four couples in a redox reactor under flow conditions with a varity of electrode materials and structures.

  5. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  6. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes > 1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa ("displacement-per-atom", the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  7. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    PubMed

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  8. Uses and Abuses of Developmental Screening and School Readiness Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the uses and abuses of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Tests and similar tests. First, discusses developmental screening and readiness tests, then focuses on the Gesell tests, specifically addressing their validity and questioning their current uses. Discusses implications of using readiness tests for assigning children to…

  9. Health Assessment of School Children II -- Screening Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Victor; Oglesby, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that adequate screening, and the use of expensive diagnostic procedures (such as medical referral) only for children who have failed a screening test, will result in the most effective use of school health time and funds. (Author)

  10. In vitro wear simulation on the RandomPOD wear testing system as a screening method for bearing materials intended for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Saikko, Vesa

    2014-08-22

    The 16-station RandomPOD wear test system, previously validated for prosthetic hip wear, was used in the simulation of knee wear mechanisms with a ball-on-flat test configuration. This consisted of a CoCr pin with a ground and polished spherical bearing surface (radius 28 mm) against a conventional, gamma-sterilized UHMWPE disk in serum lubrication. The biaxial motion, consisting of x and y translations, and the load was non-cyclic. Relative to the disk, the center of contact wandered within a circle of 10mm diameter, and the average sliding velocity was 15.5mm/s (ranging from 0 to 31 mm/s). The load varied non-cyclically between 0 and 142 N (average 73 N). In the 60-day test with 16 similar wear couples, moderate adhesive wear, the principal wear mechanism of a well-functioning prosthetic knee, dominated. This showed as a burnished, circular wear mark (diameter 13.2mm, area 137 mm(2)). The wear factor was 2.04 ± 0.03 × 10(-6)mm(3)/Nm (mean ± 95 percent confidence limit). For the first time a truly multidirectional, realistic and uniform, large capacity pin-on-disk simulation of knee wear mechanisms was implemented.

  11. European tests on materials outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwaal, A.

    1977-01-01

    With a view to international coordination of spacecraft materials, a number of European firms and institutes performed outgassing tests on identical materials at 125 C in high vacuum. The outgassing data obtained with the different types of equipment is presented and both the results and the critical parameters are discussed.

  12. Testing Requirements for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Montgomery, Eliza M.

    2010-01-01

    Launch Pads 39A and 39B currently use refractory material (Fondu Fyre) in the flame trenches. This material was initially approved for the Saturn program. This material had a lifetime of 10 years according to the manufacturer, and it has been used for over 40 years. As a consequence, the Fondu Fyre at Launch Complex 39 requires repair subsequent to almost every launch. A review of the literature indicates that the gunned Fondu Fyre refractory product (WA-1G) was never tested prior to use. With the recent severe damage to the flame trenches, a new refractory material is sought to replace Fondu Fyre. In order to replace Fondu Fyre, a methodology to test and evaluate refractory products was developed. This paper outlines this methodology and discusses current testing requirements, as well as the laboratory testing that might be required. Furthermore, this report points out the necessity for subscale testing, the locations where this testing can be performed, and the parameters that will be necessary to qualify a product. The goal is to identify a more durable refractory material that has physical, chemical, and thermal properties suitable to withstand the harsh environment of the launch pads at KSC.

  13. Testing Requirements for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Montgomery, Eliza M.

    2011-01-01

    Launch Pads 39A and 39B currently use refractory material (Fondu Fyre) in the flame trenches. This material was initially approved for the Saturn program. This material had a lifetime of 10 years according to the manufacturer, and it has been used for over 40 years. As a consequence, the Fondu Fyre at Launch Complex 39 requires repair subsequent to almost every launch. A review of the literature indicates that the gunned Fondu Fyre refractory product (WA-1G) was never tested prior to use. With the recent severe damage to the flame trenches, a new refractory material is sought to replace Fondu Fyre. In order to replace Fondu Fyre, a methodology to test and evaluate refractory products was developed. This paper outlines this methodology and discusses current testing requirements, as well as the laboratory testing that might be required. Furthermore, this report points out the necessity for subscale testing, the locations where this testing can be performed, and the parameters that will be necessary to qualify a product. The goal is to identify a more durable refractory material that has physical, chemical, and thermal properties suitable to withstand the harsh environment of the launch pads at KSC.

  14. Testing Requirements for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W,; Montgomery, Eliza M.

    2012-01-01

    Launch Pads 39A and 39B currently use refractory material (Fondu Fyre) in the flame trenches. This material was initially approved for the Saturn program. This material had a lifetime of 10years according to the manufacturer, and it has been used for over 40 years. As a consequence, the Fondu Fyre at Launch Complex 39 requires repair subsequent to almost every launch. A review of the literature indicates that the gunned Fondu Fyre refractory product (WA-1 G) was never tested prior to use. With the recent severe damage to the flame trenches, a new refractory material is sought to replace Fondu Fyre. In order to replace Fondu Fyre, a methodology to test and evaluate refractory products was developed. This paper outlines this methodology and discusses current testing requirements, as well as the laboratory testing that might be required. Furthermore, this report points out the necessity for subscale testing, the locations where this testing can be performed, and the parameters that will be necessary to qualify a product. The goal is to identify a more durable refractory material that has physical, chemical, and thermal properties suitable to withstand the harsh environment of the launch pads at KSC.

  15. Breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-12-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to cancer screening and to review relevant reports and studies. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was conducted for relevant studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 reporting breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. This study revealed no dichotomy on where screening would lower risk or cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Many screening tests did both, that is, at population level, there were both benefit (decreased disease-specific mortality) and harm (overdiagnosis and overtreatment). Therefore, we need to consider a balanced argument with citations for the potential benefits of screening along with the harms associated with screening. Although the benefits and harms can only be tested through randomized trials, important data from cohort studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, and modeling work can help define the extent of benefits and harms in the population. The health care cycle that prompt patients to undergo periodic screening tests is self-reinforcing. In most developed countries, screening test recommendations encourage periodic testing. Therefore, patients are continuing their screening. It is necessary for patients to become wise consumers of screening tests and make decisions with their physicians regarding further testing and treatments.

  16. DPI Criterion-Referenced Pre-Reading Screening Test: Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Irene; Williams, Virginia

    The DPI Criterion-Referenced Pre-Reading Screening Test is to be used as one means of identifying some strengths and weaknesses in certain areas of pre-reading skills. It is intended to be used as a screening instrument for beginning first graders. The areas of pre-reading skills to be screened are (1) auditory perception, (2) letter knowledge,…

  17. New screening methodology to select low outgassing materials for cold, spaceborne optical instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, T.; Tayor, D.; Barengoltz, J.

    1990-01-01

    Standardized techniques for outgassing tests are developed and set forth for use in the screening of materials for aerospace instruments with cooled sensors, optics, and/or detectors. Materials for optical instruments are discussed in terms of molecular outgassing, and material-outgassing test results are presented which relate to several test conditions. The existing outgassing standard is found to be inadequate, and revised outgassing standards related to four application levels are given. The test protocols are designed for the development of materials for optical instruments that operate in environments with temperatures below 20 C. Consideration is also given to potential molecular contamination in the space environment and to outgas screening of instruments with a variety of sensor/optics/detector temperatures. The standards are designed for use with existing outgassing-test data as well as contamination analyses relating to the instrument being tested.

  18. Radioactive material package seal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Simple enzymatic screening test for viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Janout, V; Englis, M; Sedlácek, V; Smékal, M

    1980-01-01

    The semi-quantitative ASAT screening examination has been used in groups of children over a period of 3 years for detection of VH cases. In these groups, 79% of VH cases, being mostly anicteric and clinically unapparent, were detected in the focus of infection in addition to the index cases. The application of this method resulted in a decrease by about one half in additional VH cases occurring in the focus after the detection of the index case. The semi-quantitative ASAT screening examination meets all general criteria required for a good screening method.

  20. Spallation source materials test program

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, S.A.; Sommer, W.F.

    1997-12-01

    A spallation source materials program has been developed to irradiate and test candidate materials (Inconel 718, 316L and 304L stainless steel, modified 9Cr-1Mo(T91), Al6061-T6, Al5052-O) for use in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) target and blanket in prototypic proton and neutron fluxes at prototypic temperatures. The study uses the 800 MeV, 1mA proton accelerator at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) which produces a Gaussian beam with 2 sigma = 3 cm. The experimental set-up contains prototypic modules of the tungsten neutron source and the lead/aluminum blanket with mechanical testing specimens of candidate APT materials placed in specific locations in the irradiation area. These specimens have been irradiated for greater than 3,600 hours with a maximum proton fluence of 4--5 {times} 10{sup 21} p/cm{sup 2} in the center of the proton beam. Specimens will yield some of the first data on the effect of proton irradiation to high dose on the materials` properties from tensile tests, 3 pt. bend tests, fracture toughness tests, pressurized tubes, U-bend stress corrosion cracking specimens, corrosion measurements and microstructural characterization of transmission electron microscopy specimens.

  1. How Are Newborn Screening Tests Done?

    MedlinePlus

    ... researchers Health Education Programs Safe to Sleep, Media-Smart Youth, Maternal/Child Health Education Program NICHD Publications ... First, hospital staff fill out a newborn screening card with the infant’s vital information—name, sex, weight, ...

  2. Strategies to Improve Repeat Fecal Occult Blood Testing Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C.; Arnold, Connie L.; Bennett, Charles L.; Wolf, Michael S.; Reynolds, Cristalyn; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Background A comparative effectiveness intervention by this team improved initial fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) rates from 3% to 53% among community clinic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and costs associated with a literacy-informed intervention on repeat FOBT testing. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, a three-arm quasi-experiential comparative effectiveness evaluation was conducted in 8 community clinics in Louisiana. Clinics were randomly assigned to receive: enhanced care, a screening recommendation and FOBT kit annually; a brief educational intervention where patients additionally received a literacy appropriate pamphlet and simplified FOBT instructions; or nurse support where a nurse manager provided the education and followed up with phone support. In year 2 all materials were mailed. The study consisted of 461 patients, ages 50–85, with a negative initial FOBT. Results Repeat FOBT rates were 38% enhanced care, 33% education, and 59% with nurse support (p=0.017). After adjusting for age, race, gender, and literacy, patients receiving nurse support were 1.46 times more likely to complete repeat FOBT screening than those receiving education (95% CI 1.14–1.06, p=0.002) and 1.45 times more likely than those in enhanced care but this was not significant (95% CI 0.93–2.26 p=0.10). The incremental cost per additional person screened was $2,450 for nurse over enhanced care. Conclusion A mailed pamphlet and FOBT with simplified instructions did not improve annual screening. Impact Telephone outreach by a nurse manager was effective in improving rates of repeat FOBT yet this may be too costly for community clinics. PMID:24192009

  3. Development and application of a general plasmid reference material for GMO screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuhua; Li, Jun; Wang, Yulei; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yunjing; Zhu, Li; Li, Jun; Wu, Gang

    The use of analytical controls is essential when performing GMO detection through screening tests. Additionally, the presence of taxon-specific sequences is analyzed mostly for quality control during GMO detection. In this study, 11 commonly used genetic elements involving three promoters (P-35S, P-FMV35S and P-NOS), four marker genes (Bar, NPTII, HPT and Pmi), and four terminators (T-NOS, T-35S, T-g7 and T-e9), together with the reference gene fragments from six major crops of maize, soybean, rapeseed, rice, cotton and wheat, were co-integrated into the same single plasmid to construct a general reference plasmid pBI121-Screening. The suitability test of pBI121-Screening plasmid as reference material indicated that the non-target sequence on the pBI121-Screening plasmid did not affect the PCR amplification efficiencies of screening methods and taxon-specific methods. The sensitivity of screening and taxon-specific assays ranged from 5 to 10 copies of pBI121-Screening plasmid, meeting the sensitivity requirement of GMO detection. The construction of pBI121-Screening solves the lack of a general positive control for screening tests, thereby reducing the workload and cost of preparing a plurality of the positive control.

  4. Wireless resonant sensor array for high-throughput screening of materials.

    PubMed

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Morris, William G

    2007-07-01

    Screening of materials arrays for their viscoelastic, gas-sorbing, and dielectric properties is important in a wide variety of combinatorial materials science applications. Impedance analysis is an attractive approach to analyze these materials properties and to generate the required new knowledge. Often, these measurements are performed by applying a material onto a suitable sensor and monitoring the changes in materials properties. However, when such a sensor is positioned into a test cell, a direct-wired connection to the analyzer becomes complicated. These complications further increase dramatically when a whole array of sensors is being tested in the test cell. To eliminate these complications, we developed a wireless proximity resonant sensor array system. In the developed system, tested materials are applied onto an array of thickness-shear mode (TSM) resonators operating at 10 MHz and arranged for performance testing in a test chamber. Each TSM resonator is coupled to a receiver coil (antenna). An array of these coils is read with a single scanning transmitter coil or an array of transmitter coils. This high-throughput screening approach of sensing materials permits their evaluation in complex environments where additional wiring is not desirable or adds a prohibitively complex design. We demonstrated the applicability of the wireless sensor materials screening approach for the rapid evaluation of the effects of conditioning of polymeric sensing films at different temperatures on the vapor-response patterns to several vapors of industrial, health, law enforcement, and security interest (ethanol, acetonitrile, and water vapors).

  5. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section 410.18... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:...

  6. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section 410.18... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:...

  7. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section 410.18... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:...

  8. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section 410.18... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:...

  9. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section 410.18... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:...

  10. Combinatorial Screening Of Inorganic And Organometallic Materials

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yi , Li, Jing , Britton, Ted W.

    2002-06-25

    A method for differentiating and enumerating nucleated red blood cells in a blood sample is described. The method includes the steps of lysing red blood cells of a blood sample with a lytic reagent, measuring nucleated blood cells by DC impedance measurement in a non-focused flow aperture, differentiating nucleated red blood cells from other cell types, and reporting nucleated red blood cells in the blood sample. The method further includes subtracting nucleated red blood cells and other interference materials from the count of remaining blood cells, and reporting a corrected white blood cell count of the blood sample. Additionally, the method further includes measuring spectrophotometric absorbance of the sample mixture at a predetermined wavelength of a hemoglobin chromogen formed upon lysing the blood sample, and reporting hemoglobin concentration of the blood sample.

  11. DNA testing and molecular screening for colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Carethers, John M

    2014-03-01

    Colon cancer develops and progresses as a consequence of abnormal cellular molecular changes, many of which result in mutant DNA. Modern molecular techniques allow examination of individual patient genetic data that ascribe risk, predict outcome, and/or modify an approach to therapy. DNA testing and molecular screening are in use today and are becoming a critical and necessary part of routine patient care. Assessing at-risk patients for hereditary colon cancer is predicted to move from individual gene testing that is commonly performed today to whole exome or whole genome sequencing, providing additional vast information of the patient's genome that might not be related to the colon cancer syndrome. Detecting mutant DNA from shed tumor cells in fecal material for colon cancer screening will increase in diagnostic accuracy over time, with improvements in the panel of mutant DNA being examined and through clinical testing. DNA mutations and other molecular changes detected directly from within the colon cancer help to inform and guide the physician for the best approach for optimal patient care and outcome. The use of epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy in advanced colon cancer patients requires knowledge of the mutation status for KRAS and BRAF genes, and knowing the mutational status of PIK3CA may predict how patients respond to aspirin to prevent colon cancer recurrence. Biologically driven decision-making, or precision medicine, is becoming increasingly adopted for optimal care and outcome for colon cancer patients. Gastroenterologists will need to be increasingly aware.

  12. Test results of chemical reactivity test (CRT) analysis of structural materials and explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Back, P.S.; Barnhart, B.V.; Walters, R.R.; Haws, L.D.; Collins, L.W.

    1980-03-21

    The chemical reactivity test, CRT, is a procedure used to screen the compatibility of component structure materials with explosives. This report contains the results of CRT materials evaluations conducted at Mound Facility. Data about materials combinations are catalogued both under the name of the explosive and the nonexplosive.

  13. Ocular screening tests of elementary school children

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of 507 abnormal retinal reflex images taken of Huntsville kindergarten and first grade students. The retinal reflex images were obtained by using an MSFC-developed Generated Retinal Reflex Image System (GRRIS) photorefractor. The system uses a 35 mm camera with a telephoto lens with an electronic flash attachment. Slide images of the eyes were examined for abnormalities. Of a total of 1835 students screened for ocular abnormalities, 507 were found to have abnormal retinal reflexes. The types of ocular abnormalities detected were hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, esotropia, exotropia, strabismus, and lens obstuctions. The report shows that the use of the photorefractor screening system is an effective low-cost means of screening school children for abnormalities.

  14. Toxicity screening of materials from buildings with fungal indoor air quality problems (Stachybotrys chartarum).

    PubMed

    E, J; M, G; S, Y C; E-L, H; M, N; B, J; R, D

    1998-06-01

    Samples of building materials visibly contaminated with moisture-related fungi (drywall, fiberglass, wallpaper, wood) were tested with indirect (FFL) and direct (MTT) cytotoxicity screening tests that are particularly sensitive toStachybotrys chartarum toxins. In addition, microscopic, chemical, immunochemical (Roridin A enzyme immunoassay) and mycological culture analyses were performed. In all cases in which building occupants had reported verifiable skin, mucous membrane, respiratory, central nervous system or neuropsychological abnormalities, cytotoxicity was identified. Results of a cytotoxicity screening test of field samples, such as the direct MTT test method, will give investigators of health problems related to indoor air quality problems important toxicity information.

  15. Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2014-01-01

    A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

  16. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preferred— Repeat Pap test in 12 months Acceptable— Reflex HPV test ‡ Preferred— Reflex HPV test ‡ Acceptable— Repeat Pap test in 12 ... of HPV type 16 and HPV type 18 ‡ Reflex HPV test: A test for the presence of ...

  17. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  18. Performance characterization of a combined material identification and screening algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Robert L.; Hargreaves, Michael D.; Gardner, Craig M.

    2013-05-01

    Portable analytical devices based on a gamut of technologies (Infrared, Raman, X-Ray Fluorescence, Mass Spectrometry, etc.) are now widely available. These tools have seen increasing adoption for field-based assessment by diverse users including military, emergency response, and law enforcement. Frequently, end-users of portable devices are non-scientists who rely on embedded software and the associated algorithms to convert collected data into actionable information. Two classes of problems commonly encountered in field applications are identification and screening. Identification algorithms are designed to scour a library of known materials and determine whether the unknown measurement is consistent with a stored response (or combination of stored responses). Such algorithms can be used to identify a material from many thousands of possible candidates. Screening algorithms evaluate whether at least a subset of features in an unknown measurement correspond to one or more specific substances of interest and are typically configured to detect from a small list potential target analytes. Thus, screening algorithms are much less broadly applicable than identification algorithms; however, they typically provide higher detection rates which makes them attractive for specific applications such as chemical warfare agent or narcotics detection. This paper will present an overview and performance characterization of a combined identification/screening algorithm that has recently been developed. It will be shown that the combined algorithm provides enhanced detection capability more typical of screening algorithms while maintaining a broad identification capability. Additionally, we will highlight how this approach can enable users to incorporate situational awareness during a response.

  19. Screening combinatorial arrays of inorganic materials with spectroscopy or microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    2004-02-03

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  20. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. If your baby has ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...

  1. Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-03-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis.

  2. Recent advances in prenatal genetic screening and testing

    PubMed Central

    Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies has dramatically changed the current practice of prenatal screening and testing for genetic abnormalities in the fetus. Expanded carrier screening panels and non-invasive cell-free fetal DNA-based screening for aneuploidy and single-gene disorders, and more recently for subchromosomal abnormalities, have been introduced into prenatal care. More recently introduced technologies such as chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing can diagnose more genetic conditions on samples obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, including many disorders that cannot be screened for non-invasively. All of these options have benefits and limitations, and genetic counseling has become increasingly complex for providers who are responsible for guiding patients in their decisions about screening and testing before and during pregnancy. PMID:27853526

  3. Recent advances in prenatal genetic screening and testing.

    PubMed

    Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies has dramatically changed the current practice of prenatal screening and testing for genetic abnormalities in the fetus. Expanded carrier screening panels and non-invasive cell-free fetal DNA-based screening for aneuploidy and single-gene disorders, and more recently for subchromosomal abnormalities, have been introduced into prenatal care. More recently introduced technologies such as chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing can diagnose more genetic conditions on samples obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, including many disorders that cannot be screened for non-invasively. All of these options have benefits and limitations, and genetic counseling has become increasingly complex for providers who are responsible for guiding patients in their decisions about screening and testing before and during pregnancy.

  4. Information-based screens for deep traps in semiconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Kim; Shah, Kunal; Jones, Dumont

    2011-03-01

    The key to a successful materials search is the ability to suggest promising materials and a priori eliminate unfruitful inquiry. For semiconducting radiation detection materials, performance is characterized by several key properties; band gap, density, electron mobility, and carrier lifetime. The material's proclivity to form defects is critical, as even simple antisite and vacancy defects can be sufficiently deep to affect effective carrier lifetime and mobility. We have developed a new model for defect formation proclivity, leveraging prior defect models (van Vechten and Feichter) and our information-based work. Our approach is based upon classification of materials chemistry and properties consistent with high concentrations of particular defects (e.g. antisites and vacancies). One issue is that nearly any charged local defect can potentially form a deep trap, so the screen must cover different defect types. Second, the screening model for new materials cannot rely on generally unknown factors such as 3D crystal geometry. The resulting model is intended to provide design guidance on expected defect behavior for candidate detection materials for which there is little or no prior information. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from U.S. Department of Homeland Security under Contract No. HSHQDC-08-X-00872.

  5. Mast material test program (MAMATEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1988-01-01

    The Mast Material Test Program (MAMATEP) at NASA Lewis is discussed. Objectives include verifying the need for, and evaluating the performance of, various protection techniques for the Solar Array Assembly mast of the Space Station Photovoltaic Power Module. Mast material samples were evaluated in terms of mass and bending modulus, measured before and after environmental exposure. Test environments included atomic oxygen exposure (RF plasma asher), thermal cycling, and mechanical flexing. Protective coatings included CV-1144 silicon, a Ni/Au/InSn eutectic, and an open weave, Al braid. Results indicate that unprotected samples degrade in an atomic oxygen environment at a steady rate. Open weave, Al braid offers little protection for the fiberglass-epoxy sample in an asher environment. Ni/Au/InSn eutectic offers excellent protection in an asher environment prior to thermal cycling and mechanical flexing. Long duration asher results from unprotected samples indicate that, even though the fiberglass-epoxy degrades, a protection technique may not be necessary to ensure structural integrity. However, a protection technique may be desirable to limit or contain the amount of debris generated by the degradation of the fiberglass-epoxy.

  6. Nondestructive Material Testing Using OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stifter, D.

    The fact that optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides information on internal structures of scattering tissue in a noninvasive way has led to a broad acceptance of OCT for dedicated biomedical imaging and diagnostics applications. Outside the biomedical field, an irreversible alteration of an object under investigation by the characterization method itself is likewise undesirable, especially in the case that such an object has to be further used with its original state maintained. For this purpose, a variety of so-called nondestructive testing (NDT) methods is nowadays at hand,with OCT as novel technique exhibiting a huge potential to add valuable contributions to nondestructive testing and evaluation of semitransparent, scattering materials with structural features on the micron scale. Therefore, within this chapter, a broad range of applications for OCT in NDT is presented, ranging from examples of industrial quality control over classification and authentication tasks to the evaluation of materials in research and development.The individual applications are listed according to the category of information obtained from the individual measurements, starting with the evaluation of the pure surface structure, proceeding to thickness measurements of layered systems, to imaging of internal 3D structures and finally leading to the determination of functional information.

  7. [Screening for renovascular hypertension in own material (1986-1998)].

    PubMed

    Wańkowicz, Z; Smoszna, J; Przedlacki, J; Stembrowicz, Z

    1998-11-01

    In 370 patients (pts) with hypertension(HT) in years 1986-1998 (168F + 202M, mean age 46 yrs) screening value of the following tests was evaluated: standard initial angioscintigraphy DTPA 99mTc(SA) in all pts(1-st screening group), significance of clinical suspicion on renovascular hypertension (RVHT) in the group of 74 pts (II-nd screening group). Captopril tests: renin captopril test(RCT) and isotopic captopril test (ICT) were performed in all 370 pts. Classical renal angiography as a reference test for renal artery stenosis (RAS) was performed in all pts suspected for RVHT on the basis of clinical anamnesis and or positive results of captopril tests. Results were as follows. Initial SA being abnormal in the whole group, appeared to be more significant for RAS only in the case of profound one side renal ischemia (GFR lower than 30% of total GFR). Resistance to three antihypertensive drugs, diastolic blood pressure > 120 mmHg and sudden onset of Ht, found in all 74 pts from the II-nd group, were the most significant clinical symptoms of RVHT, because critical RAS was found in 41, that is 55% of pts from the II-nd group. At least one positive CT was found in 37 from 42 pts with critical RAS in angiography with RTC being more sensitive and ICT more specific for hemodynamically significant RAS. The following screening protocol for RVHT was presented and discussed: precise clinical anamnesis followed by angiography or captopril tests according to the severity of clinical symptoms, aim of the study as well as accessibility and laboratory reproducibility of the captopril tests.

  8. Tests of walking balance for screening vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2012-01-01

    Few reliable tests are available for screening people rapidly for vestibular disorders although such tests would be useful for a variety of testing situations. Balance testing is widely performed but of unknown value for screening. The goal of this study was to determine the value of tests of walking balance for screening people with vestibular impairments. We tested three groups of patients with known vestibular impairments: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, unilateral vestibular weakness, and post-acoustic neuroma resection. We compared them to normal subjects. All subjects were independently ambulatory without gait aids. Subjects were tested on tandem walking (TW) with eyes open and eyes closed for 10 steps, walking with no additional head motions and with augmented head rotations in yaw for 7 m (WwHT), and an obstacle avoidance task, the Functional Mobility Test (FMT). Subjects wore a 3-D motion sensor centered at mid-torso to capture kinematic measures. Patients and normals differed significantly on some behavioral measures, such as the number of steps to perform TW, and on some but not all kinematic measures. ROC analyses, however, were at best only moderate, and failed to find strong differences and cut-points that would differentiate the groups. These findings suggest that although patients and normals differ in performance of these tests in some interesting ways the groups are not sufficiently different on these tests for easy use as screening tests to differentiate the populations.

  9. Validation testing of shallow notched round-bar screening test specimens. [for the space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vroman, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    The capability of shallow-notched, round-bar, tensile specimens for screening critical environments as they affect the material fracture properties of the space shuttle main engine was tested and analyzed. Specimens containing a 0.050-inch-deep circumferential sharp notch were cyclically loaded in a 5000-psi hydrogen environment at temperatures of +70 and -15 F. Replication of test results and a marked change in cyclic life because of temperature variation demonstrated the validity of the specimen type to be utilized for screening tests.

  10. Critical materials and dissipative losses: a screening study.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Till; Gößling-Reisemann, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with dissipative losses of critical materials between the life-cycle stages of manufacturing and end-of-life. Following the EU definition for critical materials, a screening of dissipative losses for the respective materials has been performed based on existing data and the most significant data gaps have been identified. Furthermore, a classification scheme for dissipative losses (dissipation into environment, dissipation into other material flows, dissipation to landfills) and for assessing their degree has been developed and a first qualitative assessment applying this classification scheme has been performed. In combination with existing criticality assessments, the results can be used to generate a map of metals indicating future research needs for analyzing metal dissipation in detail. The results include quantitative estimates of dissipative losses (where feasible) along the chosen life-cycle stages, and discuss research needs for analysis and avoidance of dissipative losses for improved resource efficiency.

  11. Screening in the Dark: Ethical Considerations of Providing Screening Tests to Individuals When Evidence is Insufficient to Support Screening Populations

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Ingrid M.; Kass, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, screening tests using computed tomography (CT) have disseminated into practice and been marketed to patients despite neither conclusive evidence nor professional agreement about their efficacy and cost-effectiveness at the population level. This phenomenon raises questions about physicians’ professional roles and responsibilities within the setting of medical innovation, as well as the appropriate scope of patient autonomy and access to unproven screening technology. This article explores how physicians ought to respond when new screening examinations that lack conclusive evidence of overall population benefit emerge in the marketplace and are requested by individual patients. To this end, the article considers the nature of evidence and how it influences decision-making for screening at both the public policy and individual patient levels. We distinguish medical and ethical differences between screening recommended for a population and screening considered on an individual patient basis. Finally, we discuss specific cases to explore how evidence, patient risk factors and preferences, and physician judgment ought to balance when making individual patient screening decisions. PMID:19326299

  12. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in some detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW (Westsik et al. 2012). Included within Westsik et al. (2012) is a section on the near-term needs to address Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-062-40ZZ. The objectives of the testing program to be conducted in FY 2013 and FY 2014 are to: • Determine an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form. • Evaluate sources of dry materials for preparing the LAW Cast Stone. • Demonstrate the robustness of the Cast Stone waste form for a range of LAW compositions. • Demonstrate the robustness of the formulation for variability in the Cast Stone process. • Provide Cast Stone contaminant release data for PA and risk assessment evaluations. The first step in determining an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form is to conduct screening tests to examine expected ranges in pretreated LAW composition, waste stream concentrations, dry-materials sources, and mix ratios of waste feed to dry blend. A statistically designed test matrix will be used to evaluate the effects of these key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. The second phase of testing will focus on selection of a baseline Cast Stone formulation for LAW and demonstrating that Cast Stone can meet expected waste form requirements for disposal in the IDF. It is expected that this testing will use the results of the screening tests to define a smaller suite of tests to refine the composition of the baseline Cast Stone formulation (e.g. waste concentration, water to dry mix ratio, waste loading).

  13. "Do-It-Yourself" Dementia Testing: Issues regarding an Alzheimer's Home Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kier, Frederick J.; Molinari, Victor

    2003-01-01

    The Early Alert Alzheimer's Home Screening Test (AHST) is a variant of the Smell Identification Test (SIT) and the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT), and recently became available for purchase by the general public. The validity and the practical utility of routine screening for individuals with asymptomatic cognitive impairment…

  14. The use of screening tests in spacecraft lubricant evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalogeras, Chris; Hilton, Mike; Carre, David; Didziulis, Stephen; Fleischauer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    A lubricant screening test fixture has been devised in order to satisfy the need to obtain lubricant performance data in a timely manner. This fixture has been used to perform short-term tests on potential lubricants for several spacecraft applications. The results of these tests have saved time by producing qualitative performance rankings of lubricant selections prior to life testing. To date, this test fixture has been used to test lubricants for 3 particular applications. The qualitative results from these tests have been verified by life test results and have provided insight into the function of various anti-wear additives.

  15. Screening methods for assessment of biodegradability of chemicals in seawater--results from a ring test.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, N; Kristensen, P

    1992-04-01

    An international ring test involving 14 laboratories was organized on behalf of the Commission of the European Economic Communities (EEC) with the purpose of evaluating two proposed screening methods for assessment of biodegradability in seawater: (a) a shake flask die-away test based primarily on analysis of dissolved organic carbon and (b) a closed bottle test based on determination of dissolved oxygen. Both tests are performed with nutrient-enriched natural seawater as the test medium and with no inoculum added other than the natural seawater microflora. The test methods are seawater versions of the modified OECD screening test and the closed bottle test, respectively, adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and by the EEC as tests for "ready biodegradability." The following five chemicals were examined: sodium benzoate, aniline, diethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, and 4-nitrophenol. Sodium benzoate and aniline, which are known to be generally readily biodegradable consistently degraded in practically all tests, thus demonstrating the technical feasibility of the methods. Like in previous ring tests with freshwater screening methods variable results were obtained with the other three compounds, which is believed primarily to be due to site-specific differences between the microflora of the different seawater samples used and to some extent also to differences in the applied concentrations of test material. A positive result with the screening methods indicates that the test substance will most likely degrade relatively rapidly in seawater from the site of collection, while a negative test result does not preclude biodegradability under environmental conditions where the concentrations of chemicals are much lower than the concentrations applied for analytical reasons in screening tests. Nevertheless, the screening tests are considered useful and cost-effective tools for an initial assessment of biodegradability in marine

  16. Improvement of a rapid screening test for chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Iacobini, M; Duse, M; Di Coste, A; Balducci, L

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of CGD is made by demonstrating absent or markedly reduced oxidase activity in stimulated neutrophils. The screening test proposed is based upon the naked eye evaluation of the reduction of NBT on a solid surface. It seems to be a useful tool for rapid and inexpensive detection of CGD patients, especially for large-scale screening purposes. The test was carried out on forty-five subjects: two males affected by CGD, three female carriers and forty healthy donors. The test confirmed the results obtained with flow cytometric and NBT assays.

  17. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  18. Unmanned Vehicle Material Flammability Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T’ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam; Rouvreau, Sebastian; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grande

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity combustion phenomena have been an active area of research for the past 3 decades however, there have been very few experiments directly studying spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample and environment sizes typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. All previous experiments have been limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. Terrestrial fire safety standards for all other habitable volumes on earth, e.g. mines, buildings, airplanes, ships, etc., are based upon testing conducted with full-scale fires. Given the large differences between fire behavior in normal and reduced gravity, this lack of an experimental data base at relevant length scales forces spacecraft designers to base their designs using 1-g understanding. To address this question a large scale spacecraft fire experiment has been proposed by an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status and concept of this collaborative international project to examine spacecraft material flammability at realistic scales. The concept behind this project is to utilize an unmanned spacecraft such as Orbital Cygnus vehicle after it has completed its delivery of cargo to the ISS and it has begun its return journey to earth. This experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. A computer modeling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the examination of fire behavior on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This will be

  19. Thermal Systems and Materials Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguirre, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    During my internship, I was involved in Boeing Thermal System/M&P, which handles maintenance and repairs of shuttle tiles, blankets, gap fillers, etc. One project I took part in was the revision of TPS-227, a repair process to tiles that entailed drilling out tile damage and using a cylindrical insert to fill the hole. The previous specification used minimal adhesive for application and when the adhesive cured, there would be several voids in the adhered material, causing an unsatisfactory bond. The testing compared several new methods and I analyzed the number of voids produced by each method to determine which one was most effective at eliminating void space. We revised the original process to apply a light adhesive coat to the top 25% of the borehole and a heavy coat to 100% of the insert. I was also responsible for maintaining the subnominal bond database, which records all unsatisfactory SIP (Strain Isolator Pad) bonds. I then archived each SIP physically for future referral data and statistics. In addition, I performed post-flight tile inspections for damages and wrote dispositions to have these tiles repaired. This also included writing a post-flight damage report for a section of Atlantis and creating summarized repair process guidelines for orbiter technicians.

  20. Cognitive Screening Tests Versus Comprehensive Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A National Academy of Neuropsychology Education Paper†.

    PubMed

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Glen, Tannahill; Puente, Antonio E; Denney, Robert L; Ruff, Ronald M; Hostetter, Gayle; Bianchini, Kevin J

    2017-03-10

    The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Screening tests are generally brief and narrow in scope, they can be administered during a routine clinical visit, and they can be helpful for identifying individuals in need of more comprehensive assessment. Some screening tests can also be helpful for monitoring treatment outcomes. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments are multidimensional in nature and used for purposes such as identifying primary and secondary diagnoses, determining the nature  and severity of a person's cognitive difficulties, determining functional limitations, and planning treatment and rehabilitation. Cognitive screening tests are expected to play an increasingly important role in identifying individuals with cognitive impairment and in determining which individuals should be referred for further neuropsychological assessment. However, limitations of existing cognitive screening tests are present and cognitive screening tests should not be used as a replacement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing.

  1. Material screening metrics and optimal performance of an active magnetic regenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niknia, I.; Trevizoli, P. V.; Christiaanse, T. V.; Govindappa, P.; Teyber, R.; Rowe, A.

    2017-02-01

    A variety of metrics to rank the magnetocaloric materials can be found in the literature, but a quantitative assessment showing their efficacy has not been reported. A numerical model of an active magnetic regenerator cycle is used to assess the predictive ability of a set of material metrics. The performance of eight cases of known magnetocaloric material (including first order MnFeP1-xAsx and second order materials Gd, GdDy, Tb), and 15 cases of hypothetical materials are considered. Using a fixed regenerator matrix geometry, magnetic field, and flow waveforms, the maximum exergetic cooling power of each material is identified. Several material screening metrics such as relative cooling power (RCP) are tested and a linear correlation is found between maximum RCP and the maximum exergetic cooling power. The sensitivity of performance to variations in the hot side and cold side temperatures from the conditions giving maximum exergetic power are determined.

  2. Thermal Testing and Analysis of an Efficient High-Temperature Multi-Screen Internal Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Stefan; Handrick, Karin; Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2007-01-01

    Conventional multi-layer insulations exhibit excellent insulation performance but they are limited to the temperature range to which their components reflective foils and spacer materials are compatible. For high temperature applications, the internal multi-screen insulation IMI has been developed that utilizes unique ceramic material technology to produce reflective screens with high temperature stability. For analytical insulation sizing a parametric material model is developed that includes the main contributors for heat flow which are radiation and conduction. The adaptation of model-parameters based on effective steady-state thermal conductivity measurements performed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) allows for extrapolation to arbitrary stack configurations and temperature ranges beyond the ones that were covered in the conductivity measurements. Experimental validation of the parametric material model was performed during the thermal qualification test of the X-38 Chin-panel, where test results and predictions showed a good agreement.

  3. [The usefulness of fecal tests in colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is a paradigm of neoplasms that are amenable to preventative measures, especially screening. Currently, to carry this out, there are various strategies that have proven effective and efficient. In countries that have organized population-level screening programs, the most common strategy is fecal occult blood testing. In recent years, new methods have appeared that could constitute viable alternatives in the near future, among which the detection of changes in fecal DNA is emphasized. In this article, we review the most relevant papers on colorectal cancer screening presented at the annual meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Chicago in May 2014, with special emphasis on the medium and long-term performance of strategies to detect occult blood in feces and the first results obtained with fecal DNA testing.

  4. Fire tests for airplane interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tustin, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    Large scale, simulated fire tests of aircraft interior materials were carried out in salvaged airliner fuselage. Two "design" fire sources were selected: Jet A fuel ignited in fuselage midsection and trash bag fire. Comparison with six established laboratory fire tests show that some laboratory tests can rank materials according to heat and smoke production, but existing tests do not characterize toxic gas emissions accurately. Report includes test parameters and test details.

  5. Performance of gastric cancer screening by endoscopy testing through the National Cancer Screening Program of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Park, Sohee; Jung, Kyu Won; Han, Mi Ah; Choi, Il Ju; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2011-08-01

    Recent reports have proposed endoscopy as an alternative strategy to radiography for gastric cancer (GC) screening. The current study presents the first reported population-based data from a large GC screening program that provided endoscopic examinations. A retrospective population-based study was conducted using the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database. We evaluated GC detection rates, sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value of an endoscopic screening program for the average-risk Korean population, aged 40 years and older, who underwent the NCSP from 2002 to 2005. The detection rates of GC by endoscopy in the first and subsequent rounds were 2.71 and 2.14 per 1000 examinations, respectively. Localized cancer accounted for 45.7% of screen-detected GC cases. The sensitivity of endoscopy was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-71.8). The endoscopic screening was less sensitive for the detection of localized GC (65.7%, 95% CI = 61.8-69.5) than for regional or distant GC (73.6%, 95% CI = 67.4-79.8). In the multiple logistic models for localized GC and all combined GC, the odds ratio (OR) of sensitivity for the undifferentiated type was statistically significantly higher than that for the differentiated type, whereas the OR of sensitivity for the mixed type was lower than that for the differentiated type. The sensitivity of the endoscopic test in a population-based screening was slightly higher for the detection of regional or distant GC than for localized GC. Further evaluation of the impact of endoscopic screening should take into account the balance of cost and mortality reduction.

  6. Developments in Screening Tests and Strategies for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sovich, Justin L.; Sartor, Zachary; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Background. Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and second most common in women. It is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality. In the United States, CRC is the third most common cause of cancer and second most common cause of cancer mortality. Incidence and mortality rates have steadily fallen, primarily due to widespread screening. Methods. We conducted keyword searches on PubMed in four categories of CRC screening: stool, endoscopic, radiologic, and serum, as well as news searches in Medscape and Google News. Results. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for CRC screening and the most common method in the United States. Technological improvements continue to be made, including the promising “third-eye retroscope.” Fecal occult blood remains widely used, particularly outside the United States. The first at-home screen, a fecal DNA screen, has also recently been approved. Radiological methods are effective but seldom used due to cost and other factors. Serum tests are largely experimental, although at least one is moving closer to market. Conclusions. Colonoscopy is likely to remain the most popular screening modality for the immediate future, although its shortcomings will continue to spur innovation in a variety of modalities. PMID:26504799

  7. An OxiTop(®) protocol for screening plant material for its biochemical methane potential (BMP).

    PubMed

    Pabón Pereira, C P; Castañares, G; van Lier, J B

    2012-01-01

    A protocol was developed for determining the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of plant material using the OxiTop(®) system. NaOH pellets for CO(2) absorption and different pretreatment methods were tested for their influence in the BMP test. The use of NaOH pellets in the headspace of the bottle negatively affected the stability of the test increasing the pH and inhibiting methanization. Sample comminution increased the biodegradability of plant samples. Our results clearly indicate the importance of test conditions during the assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of plant material, considering BMP differences as high as 44% were found. Guidelines and recommendations are given for screening plant material suitable for anaerobic digestion using the OxiTop(®) system.

  8. Nondestructive ultrasonic testing of materials

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrand, B.P.

    1994-08-02

    Reflection wave forms obtained from aged and unaged material samples can be compared in order to indicate trends toward age-related flaws. Statistical comparison of a large number of data points from such wave forms can indicate changes in the microstructure of the material due to aging. The process is useful for predicting when flaws may occur in structural elements of high risk structures such as nuclear power plants, airplanes, and bridges. 4 figs.

  9. Nondestructive ultrasonic testing of materials

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrand, Bernard P.

    1994-01-01

    Reflection wave forms obtained from aged and unaged material samples can be compared in order to indicate trends toward age-related flaws. Statistical comparison of a large number of data points from such wave forms can indicate changes in the microstructure of the material due to aging. The process is useful for predicting when flaws may occur in structural elements of high risk structures such as nuclear power plants, airplanes, and bridges.

  10. 46 CFR 154.430 - Material test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Material test. 154.430 Section 154.430 Shipping COAST... § 154.430 Material test. (a) The membrane and the membrane supporting insulation must be made of materials that withstand the combined strains calculated under § 154.429(c). (b) Analyzed data of a...

  11. 46 CFR 154.430 - Material test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Material test. 154.430 Section 154.430 Shipping COAST... § 154.430 Material test. (a) The membrane and the membrane supporting insulation must be made of materials that withstand the combined strains calculated under § 154.429(c). (b) Analyzed data of a...

  12. 46 CFR 154.430 - Material test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Material test. 154.430 Section 154.430 Shipping COAST... § 154.430 Material test. (a) The membrane and the membrane supporting insulation must be made of materials that withstand the combined strains calculated under § 154.429(c). (b) Analyzed data of a...

  13. 46 CFR 154.430 - Material test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Material test. 154.430 Section 154.430 Shipping COAST... § 154.430 Material test. (a) The membrane and the membrane supporting insulation must be made of materials that withstand the combined strains calculated under § 154.429(c). (b) Analyzed data of a...

  14. 46 CFR 154.430 - Material test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Material test. 154.430 Section 154.430 Shipping COAST... § 154.430 Material test. (a) The membrane and the membrane supporting insulation must be made of materials that withstand the combined strains calculated under § 154.429(c). (b) Analyzed data of a...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  18. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  19. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  20. Validation of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    Elder abuse is recognized as an under-detected and under-reported social problem. Difficulties in detecting elder abuse are compounded by the lack of a standardized, psychometrically valid instrument for case finding. The development of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) followed a larger effort to identify indicators and…

  1. Newborn Screening and Cascade Testing for FMR1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Page L.; Gane, Louise W.; Yarborough, Mark; Hagerman, Randi; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    We describe an ongoing pilot project in which newborn screening (NBS) for FMR1 mutations and subsequent cascade testing are performed by the MIND Institute at the University of California, Davis Medical Center (UCDMC). To date, out of 3042 newborns initially screened, 44 extended family members have been screened by cascade testing of extended family members once a newborn is identified. 14 newborns (7 males and 7 females) and 27 extended family members (5 males and 22 females) have been identified with FMR1 mutations. Three family histories are discussed in detail, each demonstrating some benefits and risks of NBS and cascade testing for FMR1 mutations in extended family members. While we acknowledge inherent risks, we propose that with genetic counseling, clinical follow-up of identified individuals and cascade testing, newborn screening (NBS) has significant benefits. Treatment for individuals in the extended family who would otherwise not have received treatment can be beneficial. In addition, knowledge of carrier status can lead to lifestyle changes and prophylactic interventions that are likely to reduce the risk of late onset neurological or psychiatric problems in carriers. Also with identification of carrier family members through NBS, reproductive choices become available to those who would not have known that they were at risk to have offspring with fragile X syndrome. PMID:23239591

  2. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): A Statistical Validation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Newman, Isadore; Brown, Russ

    2004-01-01

    This study extends the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; M. L. Selzer, 1971) literature base by examining 4 issues related to the validity of the MAST scores. Specifically, the authors examine the validity of the MAST scores in light of the presence of impression management, participant demographic variables, and item endorsement…

  3. Psychometric Characteristics of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    The Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) is widely used to identify "developmentally immature" children for placement in extra-year, transition programs in spite of a problematic absence of psychometric evidence and research support. In this study of psychometric characteristics of the GSRST, teacher ratings of classroom…

  4. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  5. Evaluating the Initial Version of a New Cognitive Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Marcia S.; Deuel, Lois-Lynn Stoyko; Urbano, Richard C.; Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Torres, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    The performance on a cognitive screening test of 37 children (ages 4-6) with mild mental retardation or learning disabilities was compared to their peers. The tasks constituting the initial version of the battery were evaluated in terms of their classification accuracy and yielded a set of five different cognitive tasks. (CR)

  6. On the Use of Accelerated Aging Methods for Screening High Temperature Polymeric Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Grayson, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A rational approach to the problem of accelerated testing of high temperature polymeric composites is discussed. The methods provided are considered tools useful in the screening of new materials systems for long-term application to extreme environments that include elevated temperature, moisture, oxygen, and mechanical load. The need for reproducible mechanisms, indicator properties, and real-time data are outlined as well as the methodologies for specific aging mechanisms.

  7. Computational screening of organic materials towards improved photovoltaic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shuo; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Amador-Bedolla, Carlos; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Borunda, Mario

    2015-03-01

    The world today faces an energy crisis that is an obstruction to the development of the human civilization. One of the most promising solutions is solar energy harvested by economical solar cells. Being the third generation of solar cell materials, organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials is now under active development from both theoretical and experimental points of view. In this study, we constructed a parameter to select the desired molecules based on their optical spectra performance. We applied it to investigate a large collection of potential OPV materials, which were from the CEPDB database set up by the Harvard Clean Energy Project. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) modeling was used to calculate the absorption spectra of the molecules. Then based on the parameter, we screened out the top performing molecules for their potential OPV usage and suggested experimental efforts toward their synthesis. In addition, from those molecules, we summarized the functional groups that provided molecules certain spectrum capability. It is hoped that useful information could be mined out to provide hints to molecular design of OPV materials.

  8. Solid oxide materials research accelerated electrochemical testing

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.; Arey, B.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop methods for accelerated testing of cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells under selected operating conditions. The methods would be used to evaluate the performance of LSM cathode material.

  9. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Exercise wheels and oxygen replenishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to improve the University of San Francisco/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the addition of exercise wheels to provide a different measure of incapacitation, and oxygen replenishment to offset any effect of oxygen depletion by the test animals. The addition of exercise wheels limited the number of animals in each test and doubled the required number of tests without any significant improvement in reproducibility. Oxygen replenishment appears to have an effect on survival in the last 5 minutes of the 30-minute test, but the effect is expected to be similar for most materials.

  10. Urinary Screening Tests in the Prevention of Mental Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Thomas L.; Hansen, Shirley; Macdougall, Lynne

    1966-01-01

    A substantial number of genetically determined biochemical disorders in infants and young children produce mental deficiency and serious ill health in early life. If these diseases are detected promptly, effective therapy can be instituted to prevent the development of mental defect, or, where no treatment is presently available, the parents can be given appropriate genetic counselling so that the birth of further affected children can be prevented. Eight simple urine screening tests are described which have proved useful in the early detection of metabolic disorders in apparently healthy infants. These tests can easily be performed by a physician or nurse without special training or elaborate equipment. The attention of general practitioners, pediatricians and public health physicians is directed to the real possibilities for preventing some forms of mental deficiency through the routine use of screening tests on urine and on blood. PMID:5945986

  11. MUSCULOSKELETAL SCREENING AND FUNCTIONAL TESTING: CONSIDERATIONS FOR BASKETBALL ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Markwick, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Youth participation in basketball is on the rise, with basketball one of the top five participation sports in Australia. With increased participation there is a need for greater awareness of the importance of the pre-participation examination, including musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing as part of a multidisciplinary approach to reducing the risk for future injuries. As majority of all basketball injuries affect the lower extremities, pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing should assess fundamental movement qualities throughout the kinetic chain with an emphasis on lower extremity force characteristics, specifically eccentric loading tasks. Thus, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the existing literature elucidating pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance tests that can be used as a framework for rehabilitation professionals in assessing basketball athletes’ readiness to safely perform the movement demands of their sport. Methods Relevant articles published between 2000 and 2016 using the search terms ‘musculoskeletal screening’, ‘functional testing’, ‘youth athletes’, and ‘basketball’ were identified using MEDLINE. From a basketball-specific perspective, several relevant musculoskeletal assessments were identified, including: the Functional Hop Test Combination, the Landing Error Scoring System, the Tuck Jump Assessment, the Weight-Bearing Lunge Test, and the Star Excursion Balance Test. Each of these assessments creates movement demands that allow for easy identification of inefficient and/or compensatory movement tendencies. A basic understanding of musculoskeletal deficits including bilateral strength and flexibility imbalances, lower crossed syndrome, and dominance-related factors are key components in determination of injury risk. Discussion Assessment of sport-specific movement demands through

  12. Technology matrix for pre-test survey organic emissions screening

    SciTech Connect

    Alburty, D.S.; Trenholm, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    Increased interest in pre-screening point sources for emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) prior to full-scale emissions testing has focused attention on the evaluation of several HAP measurement methodologies that provide data relatively quickly, and at low cost. Pre-screening is used to evaluate the need for full-scale testing, ensure that the appropriate methods are selected for the full-scale tests, and help determine whether there are safety concerns for the testing. MRI developed a matrix for comparing costs, practical time requirements, compounds that were identified, practical quantitation limits, and other concerns regarding six emissions screening technologies. The purpose of the matrix was to assist in evaluating the technologies with regard to the data objectives of proposed full-scale tests. Use of on-site GC/MS, on-site FTIR spectroscopy, SUMMA canisters followed by laboratory analysis, field GC/FID, VOST, and Draeger tubes are described, and the pros and cons of each are discussed.

  13. Unmanned Vehicle Material Flammability Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Jomaas, Grunde

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity fire behaviour remains poorly understood and a significant risk for spaceflight An experiment is under development that will provide the first real opportunity to examine this issue focussing on two objectives: a) Flame Spread. b) Material Flammability. This experiment has been shown to be feasible on both ESA's ATV and Orbital Science's Cygnus vehicles with the Cygnus as the current base-line carrier. An international topical team has been formed to develop concepts for that experiment and support its implementation: a) Pressure Rise prediction. b) Sample Material Selection. This experiment would be a landmark for spacecraft fire safety with the data and subsequent analysis providing much needed verification of spacecraft fire safety protocols for the crews of future exploration vehicles and habitats.

  14. Aircraft Material Fire Test Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    or inconel tubes, or equivalent shall be provided. The thermocou- pies shall be aligned in a row 1.0 ± 0.1 in (25 ± 3 mm) apart. 11.3.3 Heat Flux...152 mm) m 1. l2 3 4 5 Material: 0.031 in inconel - -sA - - -111 2 3 A = Burner extension tube O D (127 mm) Figure 11-1. Burner Extension Funnel 11-10...or inconel tubes or equivalent shall be provided.3 The thermocou- ples shall be aligned in a row 1.0 +/0.1 in (25 +/2 mm) apart. 12.3.3 Heating Rate

  15. Improved bacterial growth test for rapid water toxicity screening

    SciTech Connect

    Slabbert, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    Bacteria have several attributes which make them attractive as test organisms for the rapid screening of chemical pollution in natural waters. They have relatively short life cycles and, therefore, respond rapidly to environmental change. The degree of toxicity of chemicals to bacteria is normally established by measuring viability or growth. A very sensitive test has been described measuring cell multiplication inhibition of Pseudomonas putida, results being obtained after a 16 h incubation period. Because of their short generation time it is possible, however, that bacteria are capable of manifesting measurable growth within a shorter incubation period. In the present study P. putida was cultured under modified test conditions aiming at an equally sensitive but more rapid growth test. Subsequent to initial tests, using different growth media, a toxicity test procedure was developed which uses a medium with low complexing capacity, a standardized inoculum and a 6 h incubation period.

  16. HPV testing as a screen for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Annekathryn

    2015-06-30

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as a necessary factor in the development of pre-invasive and invasive cancers of the lower genital tract, of which cervical cancer is the most prevalent. A molecular understanding of malignant transformation and epidemiologic information has led to the development of many strategies for detection and early intervention. Newer tests for oncogenic subtypes of HPV have made it possible to predict the risk of future development of cervical cancer. This review summarizes the current understanding of HPV related disease and examines the role of HPV testing as a screening tool for cervical cancer. It summarizes the data from prospective and randomized controlled trials on HPV screening from Europe and North America and includes smaller studies from low and middle income countries where cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women.

  17. Impact Testing of Stainless Steel Materials

    SciTech Connect

    R. K. Blandford; D. K. Morton; T. E. Rahl; S. D. Snow

    2005-07-01

    Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates (10 to 200 per second) during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these materials under dynamic (impact) loads in the strain rate range of concern are not well documented. The goal of the work presented in this paper was to improve understanding of moderate strain rate phenomena on these materials. Utilizing a drop-weight impact test machine and relatively large test specimens (1/2-inch thick), initial test efforts focused on the tensile behavior of specific stainless steel materials during impact loading. Impact tests of 304L and 316L stainless steel test specimens at two different strain rates, 25 per second (304L and 316L material) and 50 per second (304L material) were performed for comparison to their quasi-static tensile test properties. Elevated strain rate stress-strain curves for the two materials were determined using the impact test machine and a “total impact energy” approach. This approach considered the deformation energy required to strain the specimens at a given strain rate. The material data developed was then utilized in analytical simulations to validate the final elevated stress-strain curves. The procedures used during testing and the results obtained are described in this paper.

  18. Quarantine testing and biocharacterization of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Mieszkuc, B. J.; Simmonds, R. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    Quarantine testing was conducted to ensure the safety of all life on earth. The plants and animals which were exposed to lunar material were carefully observed for prolonged periods to determine if any mutation or changes in growing characteristics and behavior occurred. The quarantine testing was terminated after the Apollo 14 flight when it became apparent that previously returned lunar material contained no potentially harmful agents. Further biological experimentation with the lunar material was conducted to determine its chemical, physical, and nutritional qualities.

  19. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1992-09-01

    Two legal-weight truck casks the GA-4 and GA-9, will carry four PWR and nine BWR spent fuel assemblies, respectively. Each cask has a solid neutron shielding material separating the steel body and the outer steel skin. In the thermal accident specified by NRC regulations in 10CFR Part 71, the cask is subjected to an 800{degree}C environment for 30 minutes. The neutron shield need not perform any shielding function during or after the thermal accident, but its behavior must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-AL 9897, R. H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series, a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280{degree}F. The neutron shield materials tested were boronated (0.8--4.5%) polymers (polypropylene, HDPE, NS-4). The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found.

  20. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1992-09-01

    Two legal-weight truck casks the GA-4 and GA-9, will carry four PWR and nine BWR spent fuel assemblies, respectively. Each cask has a solid neutron shielding material separating the steel body and the outer steel skin. In the thermal accident specified by NRC regulations in 10CFR Part 71, the cask is subjected to an 800[degree]C environment for 30 minutes. The neutron shield need not perform any shielding function during or after the thermal accident, but its behavior must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-AL 9897, R. H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series, a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280[degree]F. The neutron shield materials tested were boronated (0.8--4.5%) polymers (polypropylene, HDPE, NS-4). The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found.

  1. A Comparison of Screening Tests for Soil Pb

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Sarah E.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Ribaudo, Lisa; McBride, Murray B.

    2012-01-01

    Soil has been identified as a significant source of lead (Pb) exposure for both children and adults. Therefore, identifying possibly contaminated soils by soil testing is important to protect public health. Soil Pb test results are usually reported as total Pb (mg kg−1), carried out using a concentrated nitric acid digestion procedure by hot plate (EPA method 3050) or microwave (EPA method 3051) followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry to determine total Pb in the digest. However, this procedure is both time-consuming and expensive, sometimes costing homeowners and gardeners over $50 per sample. To make soil Pb testing more economically accessible to homeowners and gardeners, several university soil-testing laboratories offer less expensive screening tests designed to estimate total soil Pb. The first objective of this study was to compare three commonly used screening tests, modified Morgan (MM), Mehlich 3 (M3), and 1 M nitric acid (HNO3), to the standard total Pb testing method (EPA method 3051) to find which extractant is the most reliable predictor of total Pb. The second objective was to investigate the effect that different degrees of soil grinding have on the total Pb test and the extracted Pb concentration measured from the 1 M HNO3 test. Results indicate that the strongest predictor of total Pb is 1 M HNO3, followed by M3, and MM, and that thorough grinding is necessary if using less than five grams of soil in a Pb test, in order to adequately homogenize Pb-contaminated samples and achieve acceptable testing reproducibility. PMID:23439963

  2. Screening Tests for Women Who Have Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library Campaign Materials The Healthy Heart Handbook for Women FOR WOMEN WHO HAVE HEART DISEASE If you have heart ... blockages. COULD YOU HAVE HIDDEN HEART DISEASE? Many women have undiagnosed heart disease—even after getting tested ...

  3. Methods and instruments for materials testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansma, Paul (Inventor); Drake, Barney (Inventor); Rehn, Douglas (Inventor); Adams, Jonathan (Inventor); Lulejian, Jason (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and instruments for characterizing a material, such as the properties of bone in a living human subject, using a test probe constructed for insertion into the material and a reference probe aligned with the test probe in a housing. The housing is hand held or placed so that the reference probe contacts the surface of the material under pressure applied either by hand or by the weight of the housing. The test probe is inserted into the material to indent the material while maintaining the reference probe substantially under the hand pressure or weight of the housing allowing evaluation of a property of the material related to indentation of the material by the probe. Force can be generated by a voice coil in a magnet structure to the end of which the test probe is connected and supported in the magnet structure by a flexure, opposing flexures, a linear translation stage, or a linear bearing. Optionally, a measurement unit containing the test probe and reference probe is connected to a base unit with a wireless connection, allowing in the field material testing.

  4. Material testing of silicon carbide mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkin, David B.; Palusinski, Iwona A.

    2009-08-01

    The Aerospace Corporation is developing a space qualification method for silicon carbide optical systems that covers material verification through system development. One of the initial efforts has been to establish testing protocols for material properties. Three different tests have been performed to determine mechanical properties of SiC: modulus of rupture, equibiaxial flexural strength and fracture toughness. Testing materials and methods have been in accordance with the respective ASTM standards. Material from four vendors has been tested to date, as part of the MISSE flight program and other programs. Data analysis has focused on the types of issues that are important when building actual components- statistical modeling of test results, understanding batch-to-batch or other source material variations, and relating mechanical properties to microstructures. Mechanical properties are needed as inputs to design trade studies and development and analysis of proof tests, and to confirm or understand the results of non-destructive evaluations of the source materials. Measuring these properties using standardized tests on a statistically valid number of samples is intended to increase confidence for purchasers of SiC spacecraft components that materials and structures will perform as intended at the highest level of reliability.

  5. Real-time and online screening method for materials emitting volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changhyuk; Sul, Yong Tae; Pui, David Y. H.

    2016-09-01

    In the semiconductor industry, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the cleanroom air work as airborne molecular contamination, which reduce the production yield of semiconductor chips by forming nanoparticles and haze on silicon wafers and photomasks under ultraviolet irradiation during photolithography processes. Even though VOCs in outdoor air are removed by gas filters, VOCs can be emitted from many kinds of materials used in cleanrooms, such as organic solvents and construction materials (e.g., adhesives, flame retardants and sealants), threatening the production of semiconductors. Therefore, finding new replacements that emit lower VOCs is now essential in the semiconductor industry. In this study, we developed a real-time and online method to screen materials for developing the replacements by converting VOCs into nanoparticles under soft X-ray irradiation. This screening method was applied to measure VOCs emitted from different kinds of organic solvents and adhesives. Our results showed good repeatability and high sensitivity for VOCs, which come from aromatic compounds, some alcohols and all tested adhesives (Super glue and cleanroom-use adhesives). In addition, the overall trend of measured VOCs from cleanroom-use adhesives was well matched with those measured by a commercial thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is a widely used off-line method for analyzing VOCs. Based on the results, this screening method can help accelerate the developing process for reducing VOCs in cleanrooms.

  6. Frictional Ignition Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta, Steve; Rosales, Keisa; Robinson, Michael J.; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The space flight community has been investigating lightweight composite materials for use in propellant tanks for both liquid and gaseous oxygen for space flight vehicles. The use of these materials presents some risks pertaining to ignition and burning hazards in the presence of oxygen. Through hazard analysis process, some ignition mechanisms have been identified as being potentially credible. One of the ignition mechanisms was reciprocal friction; however, test data do not exist that could be used to clear or fail these types of materials as "oxygen compatible" for the reciprocal friction ignition mechanism. Therefore, testing was performed at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to provide data to evaluate this ignition mechanism. This paper presents the test system, approach, data results, and findings of the reciprocal friction testing performed on composite sample materials being considered for propellant tanks.

  7. Space simulation test for thermal control materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardgrove, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    Tests were run in TRW's Combined Environment Facility to examine the degradation of thermal control materials in a simulated space environment. Thermal control materials selected for the test were those presently being used on spacecraft or predicted to be used within the next few years. The geosynchronous orbit environment was selected as the most interesting. One of the goals was to match degradation of those materials with available flight data. Another aim was to determine if degradation can adequately be determined with accelerated or short term ground tests.

  8. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific time... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  9. Expanded newborn screening by mass spectrometry: New tests, future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ombrone, Daniela; Giocaliere, Elisa; Forni, Giulia; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a leading technology used in clinical chemistry and has shown to be particularly sensitive and specific when used in newborn screening (NBS) tests. The success of tandem mass spectrometry is due to important advances in hardware, software and clinical applications during the last 25 years. MS/MS permits a very rapid measurement of many metabolites in different biological specimens by using filter paper spots or directly on biological fluids. Its use in NBS give us the chance to identify possible treatable metabolic disorders even when asymptomatic and the benefits gained by this type of screening is now recognized worldwide. Today the use of MS/MS for second-tier tests and confirmatory testing is promising especially in the early detection of new disorders such as some lysosomal storage disorders, ADA and PNP SCIDs, X-adrenoleucodistrophy (X-ALD), Wilson disease, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The new challenge for the future will be reducing the false positive rate by using second-tier tests, avoiding false negative results by using new specific biomarkers and introducing new treatable disorders in NBS programs.

  10. Analytical Ultrasonics in Materials Research and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1986-01-01

    Research results in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing structural materials from metals and ceramics to composites are presented. General topics covered by the conference included: status and advances in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing material microstructures and mechanical properties; status and prospects for ultrasonic measurements of microdamage, degradation, and underlying morphological factors; status and problems in precision measurements of frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation for materials analysis; procedures and requirements for automated, digital signal acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation; incentives for analytical ultrasonics in materials research and materials processing, testing, and inspection; and examples of progress in ultrasonics for interrelating microstructure, mechanical properites, and dynamic response.

  11. Compression Testing of Textile Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.

    1996-01-01

    The applicability of existing test methods, which were developed primarily for laminates made of unidirectional prepreg tape, to textile composites is an area of concern. The issue is whether the values measured for the 2-D and 3-D braided, woven, stitched, and knit materials are accurate representations of the true material response. This report provides a review of efforts to establish a compression test method for textile reinforced composite materials. Experimental data have been gathered from several sources and evaluated to assess the effectiveness of a variety of test methods. The effectiveness of the individual test methods to measure the material's modulus and strength is determined. Data are presented for 2-D triaxial braided, 3-D woven, and stitched graphite/epoxy material. However, the determination of a recommended test method and specimen dimensions is based, primarily, on experimental results obtained by the Boeing Defense and Space Group for 2-D triaxially braided materials. They evaluated seven test methods: NASA Short Block, Modified IITRI, Boeing Open Hole Compression, Zabora Compression, Boeing Compression after Impact, NASA ST-4, and a Sandwich Column Test.

  12. Materials Compatibility in High Test Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostowski, Rudy

    1999-01-01

    Previous ratings of the compatibility of high test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) with materials are not adequate for current needs. The goal of this work was to develop a new scheme of evaluation of compatibility of HTP with various materials. Procedures were developed to enrich commercially available hydrogen peroxide to 90% concentration and to assay the product. Reactivity testing, accelerated aging of materials and calorimetry studies were done on HTP with representative metallic and non-metallic materials. It was found that accelerated aging followed by concentration determination using refractive index effectively discriminated between different Class 2 metallic materials. Preliminary experiments using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) suggest that a calorimetry experiment is the most sensitive means to assay the compatibility of HTP with materials.

  13. Sludge stabilization boat material test plan

    SciTech Connect

    De Vries, M.L.

    1995-04-05

    This document provides instructions for testing different types of potential boat materials in the HC-21C muffle furnace process. The boats must withstand corrosive environments at up to 1000 degrees C.

  14. Ares I-X USS Material Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, David S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). Material characterization tests were conducted to quantify the material behavior for use in the CIFS analyses. Fatigue crack growth rate, Charpy impact, and fracture tests were conducted on the parent and welded A516 Grade 70 steel. The crack growth rate tests confirmed that the material behaved in agreement with literature data and that a salt water environment would not significantly degrade the fatigue resistance. The Charpy impact tests confirmed that the fracture resistance of the material did not have a significant reduction for the expected operational temperatures of the vehicle.

  15. Buffered Plate Antigen Test as a Screening Test for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Nidia E.; Bolpe, Jorge E.

    1998-01-01

    Brucellosis in Argentina is currently investigated in bank donor blood by the standard plate agglutination test (PAT). This study evaluated the buffered plate antigen test (BPA), now used to screen for bovine brucellosis, as a screen for human disease. Of 57 sera from patients with culture-confirmed brucellosis, 100% were detected with the BPA. Of 142 sera positive by rose bengal (RB) and complement fixation (CF), from patients with clinical evidence of brucellosis, the BPA detected 100%. Of 307 sera from a nonsymptomatic population that were RB and CF negative, the BPA detected 99.67% of the negative sera. The data indicate that the BPA is satisfactory compared to the other agglutination tests employed. It is an inexpensive and practical screening test and reduces the nonspecific reactions detected by the PAT. PMID:9574720

  16. Electronic materials testing in commercial aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Dieter

    A device for the electronic testing of materials used in commercial aircraft engines is described. The instrument can be used for ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and nonferromagnetic metallic materials, and it functions either optically or acoustically. The design of the device is described and technical data are given. The device operates under the principle of controlled self-inductivity. Its mode of operation is described.

  17. Proposed screening test for central auditory disorders: follow-up on the dichotic digits test.

    PubMed

    Musiek, F E; Gollegly, K M; Kibbe, K S; Verkest-Lenz, S B

    1991-03-01

    A follow-up report on the dichotic digits test (DDT) demonstrates that this procedure has good sensitivity to central auditory nervous system (CANS) pathology while remaining relatively resistant to mild-to-moderate high-frequency cochlear hearing loss. The DDT's test-retest reliability and short administration time make it an attractive screening procedure for CANS disorders.

  18. Analyzing slug tests in wells screened across the watertable: A field assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanford, K.L.; McElwee, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    The slug test is the most widely used technique for the in situ estimation of hydraulic conductivity in confined and unconfined formations. Currently, there are no generally accepted methods in the groundwater literature for the analysis of response data from slug tests performed in wells screened across the watertable. A field study was undertaken in an attempt to develop a set of practical guidelines for tests conducted in such wells. Three wells, screened within unconsolidated material exhibiting a range of hydraulic conductivities (.05-30.0 m/day), were installed to depths of up to 9 m (30 ft) in Kansas River alluvium that ranges in thickness from 15 m to 21 m (50 ft to 70 ft) near Lawrence, Kansas. Intensive well-development efforts removed any drilling debris that could interfere with well-formation hydraulics. Once the wells were developed properly, a series of slug tests was performed at each well. The tests were designed to assess the role of the unsaturated zone and the appropriateness of assuming a fixed hydraulic head upper boundary. The results of this investigation can be summarized as follows: (1) the sufficiency of well development should be based on repeat slug tests and not the clarity of pumped water; (2) the effective screen radius for best model analysis should be based on a mass balance and not nominal screen dimensions; (3) the watertable can be represented as a constant head boundary and flow in the unsaturated zone can be ignored in most situations; (4) conventional techniques for the analysis of slug-test data seem to be reasonable for slug tests conducted in wells screened across the watertable, when used with the appropriate effective screen radius and normalized head range; and (5) fluctuations in the watertable elevation through time can be exploited to obtain some insight into the nature of vertical variation in hydraulic conductivity at a well. The results of this investigation indicate that multiple slug tests should be performed at

  19. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  20. Exploratory screening tests of several alloys and coatings for automobile thermal reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldrieve, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A total of 23 materials (including uncoated ferritic and austenitic iron-base alloys, uncoated nickel and cobalt-base superalloys, and several different coatings on AISI 304 stainless steel) were screened as test coupons on a rack in an automobile thermal reactor. Test exposures were generally 51 hours including 142 thermal cycles of 10 minutes at 1010 + or - 30 C test coupon temperature and 7-minutes cool-down to about 510 C. Materials that exhibited corrosion resistance better than that of Hastelloy X include: a ferritic iron alloy with 6 weight percent aluminum; three nickel-base superalloys; two diffused-aluminum coatings on AISI 304; and a Ni-Cr slurry-sprayed coating on AISI 304. Preliminary comparison is made on the performance of the directly impinged coupons and a reactor core of the same material.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mass spectrometry is a device that consists of stable isotope internal standards, control materials... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1055...

  2. CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Fitzsimmons; Dave Grimmett; Bryan McEnerney

    2007-01-31

    This report provides detailed test results consisting of test data and post-test inspections from Task 1 ''Cooled Liner Coupon Development and Test'' of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources--Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The primary objective of this development and test program is to verify that ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liner materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will successfully withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) designed and fabricated the cooled liner test assembly article that was tested in a slagging gasifier at CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The test program conducted in 2006 met the objective of operating the cooled liner test article at slagging conditions in a small scale coal gasifier at CETC-O for over the planned 100 hours. The test hardware was exposed to at least 30 high temperature excursions (including start-up and shut-down cycles) during the test program. The results of the testing has provided valuable information on gasifier startup and required cooling controls in steady state operation of future advanced gasifiers using similar liners. The test program also provided a significant amount of information in the areas of CMC materials and processing for improved capability in a gasifier environment and insight into CMC liner fabrication that will be essential for near-term advanced gasifier projects.

  3. Electrostatic testing of thin plastic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1988-01-01

    Ten thin plastic materials (Velostat, RCAS 1200, Llumalloy, Herculite 80, RCAS 2400, Wrightlon 7000, PVC, Aclar 22A, Mylar, and Polyethylene) were tested for electrostatic properties by four different devices: (1) The static decay meter, (2) the manual triboelectric testing device, (3) the robotic triboelectric testing device, and (4) the resistivity measurement adapter device. The static decay meter measured the electrostatic decay rates in accordance with the Federal Test Method Standard 101B, Method 4046. The manual and the robotic triboelectric devices measured the triboelectric generated peak voltages and the five-second decay voltages in accordance with the criteria for acceptance standards at Kennedy Space Center. The resistivity measurement adapter measured the surface resistivity of each material. An analysis was made to correlate the data among the four testing devices. For the material tested the pass/fail results were compared for the 4046 method and the triboelectric testing devices. For the limited number of materials tested, the relationship between decay rate and surface resistivity was investigated as well as the relationship between triboelectric peak voltage and surface resistivity.

  4. IHE material qualification tests description and criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Slape, R J

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the qualification tests presently being used at Pantex Plant, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory that are required by the Department of Energy prior to the approval for an explosive as an Insensitive High Explosive (IHE) material. The acceptance criteria of each test for IHE qualification is also discussed. 5 references, 10 figures.

  5. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  6. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  7. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  8. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  9. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  10. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  11. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  12. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  13. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  14. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  15. 78 FR 13069 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis,'' dated March 2013. The...

  16. The planning of cervical cancer screening programmes in eastern Europe: is viral testing a suitable alternative to smear testing?

    PubMed

    Sherlaw-Johnson, C; Gallivan, S

    2000-09-01

    Cervical cancer screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has potential advantages over conventional, smear testing in that it can predict cases in which invasive cancers are more likely to develop, may be cheaper to implement and improve compliance. In areas of the world where little formalized cervical cancer screening takes place, or where health resources are limited, HPV testing has been suggested as a possible alternative for primary screening. In this paper we demonstrate the use of mathematical modelling to evaluate the effects of setting up screening programmes in Eastern Europe with HPV DNA testing as the primary screening tool and compare it with conventional smear testing. The impact of screening is measured in terms of the life years gained and the resulting resource usage and cost. We investigate several screening options with different screening intervals and age ranges for the target population.

  17. CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Fitzsimmons; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-10-30

    The test plan detailed in this topical report supports Task 1 of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources - Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The purpose of these tests is to verify that materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed and designed the cooled liner test assembly article that will be tested at CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (CETC-O). The Test Plan TP-00364 is duplicated in its entirety, with formatting changes to comply with the format required for this Topical Report. The table of contents has been modified to include the additional material required by this topical report. Test Request example and drawings of non-proprietary nature are also included as appendices.

  18. Small crack test program for helicopter materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annigeri, Bal; Schneider, George

    1994-01-01

    Crack propagation tests were conducted to determine crack growth behavior in five helicopter materials for surface cracks between 0.005 to 0.020 inches in depth. Constant amplitude tests were conducted at stress ratios R equals 0.1 and 0.5, and emphasis was placed on near threshold data (i.e., 10-8 to 10-6 inches/cycle). Spectrum tests were conducted using a helicopter spectrum. The test specimen was an unnotched tension specimen, and cracks were initiated from a small EDM notch. An optical/video system was used to monitor crack growth. The material for the test specimens was obtained from helicopter part forgings. Testing was conducted at stresses below yield to reflect actual stresses in helicopter parts.

  19. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2003-08-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a reasonably high alkali content, thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was well within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that the aggressive alkali-iron-trisulfate constituent was present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section C, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. The analysis of Test Section C followed much the same protocol that was employed in the assessment of Test Section A. Again, the focus was on determining and documenting the relative corrosion rates of the candidate materials. The detailed results of the investigation are included in this report as a series of twelve appendices. Each appendix is devoted to the performance of one of the candidate alloys. The table below summarizes metal loss rate for the worst case sample of each of the candidate materials for both Test Sections A and C

  20. The "edge effect" with patch test materials.

    PubMed

    Fyad, A; Masmoudi, M L; Lachapelle, J M

    1987-03-01

    A positive "edge effect", i.e., the accumulation on the skin of a chemical solution (such as fluorescein 0.01% in a 50/50 water-ethanol solution) at the periphery of the patch test sites has been demonstrated. It occurs with different test materials (Finn Chamber; Silver Patch Test; Patch Test Chamber). Practical implications are discussed: this observation could be important when discussing results of laboratory investigations. In clinical practice, it could explain the occurrence of "ring-shaped" positive allergic patch test reactions to chemicals used in solution, i.e., Kathon CG or hydrocortisone.

  1. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    PubMed

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  2. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  3. Pain on Functional Movement Screen Tests and Injury Risk.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle C; Anderson, Morgan K; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H

    2015-11-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool intended to evaluate limitations or asymmetries of movement to detect individuals at risk for exercise- and sports-related injury. The purpose was to determine the association and predictive value of specific FMS tests with injury risk in physically active men. Soldiers aged 18-57 years completed the FMS (n = 2,476). Demographic and fitness data were collected by survey. Medical record data for any, overuse, and traumatic injury 6 months after the assessment were obtained. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated along with receiver operator characteristics to determine area under the curve (AUC). Risks, risk ratios, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess injury risks. Multivariate logistic regression identified that pain on 5 of the 7 tests was associated with greater risk for any injury (OR = 1.50-3.51): deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability. However, FMS registered low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC for all 7 tests for the 3 injury types (2-24% sensitivity, 16-74% PPV, and 50-58% AUC). Although the presence of pain was associated with a higher risk of injury on 5 tests, a low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC were displayed. Therefore, caution is advised when implementing the FMS as a screening tool in an Army or similarly active population as it could lead to prevention and treatment resources being directed toward individuals who are not at greater risk for injury.

  4. Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, Neil A.; Hudgins, Richard J.; McBain, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of polymer composite liquid oxygen LO2 tanks is a critical step in creating the next generation of launch vehicles. Future launch vehicles need to minimize the gross liftoff weight (GLOW), which is possible due to the 25%-40% reduction in weight that composite materials could provide over current aluminum technology. Although a composite LO2 tank makes these weight savings feasible, composite materials have not historically been viewed as "LO2 compatible." To be considered LO2 compatible, materials must be selected that will resist any type of detrimental, combustible reaction when exposed to usage environments. This is traditionally evaluated using a standard set of tests. However, materials that do not pass the standard tests can be shown to be safe for a particular application. This paper documents the approach and results of a joint NASA/Lockheed Martin program to select and verify LO2 compatible composite materials for liquid oxygen fuel tanks. The test approach developed included tests such as mechanical impact, particle impact, puncture, electrostatic discharge, friction, and pyrotechnic shock. These tests showed that composite liquid oxygen tanks are indeed feasible for future launch vehicles.

  5. The Free-Running Asthma Screening Test: An Approach to Screening for Exercise-Induced Asthma in Rural Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaman, Doris J.; Estes, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in rural elementary schools, examining the use of a free-running asthma screening test and peak expiratory flow-rate measurement for school screening. Results indicated that 5.7% of the students had EIA. Absenteeism and poverty were related to EIA. (SM)

  6. Development of an unlicensed assistive personnel job screening test.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Robin P; Steinhauser, Michele; Berk, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) competency is essential to the quality and safety of patient care. The purpose of this study was to construct a test with acceptable estimates of reliability and validity to identify UAPs who could successfully perform their job in four essential knowledge-based domains (math, patient data collection, medical terminology, and reporting abnormal data). An investigator-developed test was constructed. Psychometric testing was completed by administering the test to 145 UAPs. A cut score of 17/23 resulted in 79.7% sensitivity and 70.4% specificity. There were significant differences in mean scores between masters and nonmasters (t = -13.70, df = 79, p < .00). Master status was significantly related to the ability to take a patient's blood pressure (Phi = .503, p < .00). A score of 17 or greater indicates that the applicant demonstrates competency of basic knowledge required for the position. The test can be used as a screening tool for UAPs in nurse recruitment before candidates advance to the unit for an interview.

  7. Diagnostic Performance of Visual Screening Tests in the Elderly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lança, Carla Costa; Carolino, Elisabete

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to determine and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of visual screening tests for detecting vision loss in elderly. This study is defined as study of diagnostic performance. The diagnostic accuracy of 5 visual tests -near convergence point, near accommodation point, stereopsis, contrast sensibility and amsler grid—was evaluated by means of the ROC method (receiver operating characteristics curves), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/LR-). Visual acuity was used as the reference standard. A sample of 44 elderly aged 76.7 years (±9.32), who were institutionalized, was collected. The curves of contrast sensitivity and stereopsis are the most accurate (area under the curves were 0.814-p = 0.001, C.I.95%[0.653;0.975]— and 0.713-p = 0.027, C.I.95%[0,540;0,887], respectively). The scores with the best diagnostic validity for the stereopsis test were 0.605 (sensitivity 0.87, specificity 0.54; LR+ 1.89, LR-0.24) and 0.610 (sensitivity 0.81, specificity 0.54; LR+ 1.75, LR-0.36). The scores with higher diagnostic validity for the contrast sensibility test were 0.530 (sensitivity 0.94, specificity 0.69; LR+ 3.04, LR-0.09). The contrast sensitivity and stereopsis test's proved to be clinically useful in detecting vision loss in the elderly.

  8. New Screening Test Developed for the Blanching Resistance of Copper Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's extensive efforts towards more efficient, safer, and more affordable space transportation include the development of new thrust-cell liner materials with improved capabilities and longer lives. For rocket engines fueled with liquid hydrogen, an important metric of liner performance is resistance to blanching, a phenomenon of localized wastage by cycles of oxidation-reduction due to local imbalance in the oxygen-fuel ratio. The current liner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine combustion chamber, a Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr alloy (NARloy-Z) is degraded in service by blanching. Heretofore, evaluating a liner material for blanching resistance involved elaborate and expensive hot-fire tests performed on rocket test stands. To simplify that evaluation, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed a screening test that uses simple, in situ oxidation-reduction cycling in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The principle behind this test is that resistance to oxidation or to the reduction of oxide, or both, implies resistance to blanching. Using this test as a preliminary tool to screen alloys for blanching resistance can improve reliability and save time and money. In this test a small polished coupon is hung in a TGA furnace at the desired (service) temperature. Oxidizing and reducing gases are introduced cyclically, in programmed amounts. Cycle durations are chosen by calibration, such that all copper oxides formed by oxidation are fully reduced in the next reduction interval. The sample weight is continuously acquired by the TGA as usual.

  9. Erosion testing of hard materials and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-04-29

    Erosion is the process by which unconstrained particles, usually hard, impact a surface, creating damage that leads to material removal and component failure. These particles are usually very small and entrained in fluid of some type, typically air. The damage that occurs as a result of erosion depends on the size of the particles, their physical characteristics, the velocity of the particle/fluid stream, and their angle of impact on the surface of interest. This talk will discuss the basics of jet erosion testing of hard materials, composites and coatings. The standard test methods will be discussed as well as alternative approaches to determining the erosion rate of materials. The damage that occurs will be characterized in genera1 terms, and examples will be presented for the erosion behavior of hard materials and coatings (both thick and thin).

  10. Nuclear Material Monitoring System (NMMS) for security screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun Kim, Kwang; Hong Chang, Ji; Hyun Jung, Young

    2011-08-01

    As a Nuclear Material Monitoring System (NMMS), two large-volume plastic detectors and a NaI detector for gamma-ray sources and two He-3 tubes for neutron sources were integrated in a mobile box that can be mounted on a vehicle. Custom-made preamplifiers, shapers, and a MCA (Multi-Channel Analyzer) for each detector were conceived of and built on a compact circuit board to collect and integrate different types of data from each detector. The collected data, counts rates and spectra of the detected radiation, were continually monitored and plotted on several user-friendly display windows on a laptop computer. The system performance in the vehicle-mounted condition was tested for Co-60, Cs-137, and Cf-252 sources at various distances and speeds.

  11. Principles for supplying virus-tested material.

    PubMed

    Varveri, Christina; Maliogka, Varvara I; Kapari-Isaia, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    Production of virus-tested material of vegetatively propagated crops through national certification schemes has been implemented in many developed countries for more than 60 years and its importance for being the best virus control means is well acknowledged by growers worldwide. The two most important elements of certification schemes are the use of sensitive, reliable, and rapid detection techniques to check the health status of the material produced and effective and simple sanitation procedures for the elimination of viruses if present in candidate material before it enters the scheme. New technologies such as next-generation sequencing platforms are expected to further enhance the efficiency of certification and production of virus-tested material, through the clarification of the unknown etiology of several graft-transmissible diseases. The successful production of virus-tested material is a demanding procedure relying on the close collaboration of researchers, official services, and the private sector. Moreover, considerable efforts have been made by regional plant protection organizations such as the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO), and the European Union and the USA to harmonize procedures, methodologies, and techniques in order to assure the quality, safety, and movement of the vegetatively propagated material produced around the world.

  12. Using Thin Films to Screen Possible Scintillator Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrath, Brian D.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Joly, Alan G.; Matson, Dean W.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Olsen, Larry C.

    2009-06-30

    The discovery and optimization of new scintillators has traditionally been a rather slow process due to the difficulties of single crystal growth. This paper discusses the production of polycrystalline scintillator thin films (a few microns thick) which were tested in order to determine what characterizations could be made concerning a material’s ultimate potential as a scintillator prior to pursuing crystal growth. Thin films of CaF2(Eu), CeF3, and CeCl3, all known scintillators, were produced by vapor deposition. The hygroscopic CeCl3 was coated with multiple polymer-aluminum oxide bi-layers. Emission spectra peak wavelengths and decay times agreed with single crystal values. The films were too thin to measure gamma photopeaks, but using alpha energy deposition peaks, one could compare the relative photon yield/MeV between materials. The values obtained appear to give a relevant indication of a material’s light yield potential. The technique also appears useful for quickly determining the proper dopant amount for a given material.

  13. Shock Tube Test for Energy Absorbing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-13

    Compressed  Air  Cylinder Driver  Section Driven  Section Max Driver  Pressure: 200 PSI Diaphragm Striker Material Nylon Striker Face Diameter...part of a study of materials for an impact attenuating helmet liner project (3). Table 2. Foam materials for testing (7) (8) (9) Manufacturer...including application in helmet liners (8). Zorbium™ is the viscoelastic polyurethane foam used in military helmet suspension system pads (9). 8

  14. Testing of Space Suit Materials for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Human missions to Mars may require radical changes in our approach to EVA suit design. A major challenge is the balance of building a suit robust enough to complete 50 EVAs in the dirt under intense UV exposure without losing mechanical strength or compromising its mobility. We conducted ground testing on both current and new space suit materials to determine performance degradation after exposure to 2500 hours of Mars mission equivalent UV. This testing will help mature the material technologies and provide performance data that can be used by not only the space suit development teams but for all Mars inflatable and soft goods derived structures from airlocks to habitats.

  15. The Takeda Three Colors Combination Test: A Screening Test for Detection of Very Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tajime, Kayo; Taniguchi, Toshiatsu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and is prevalent worldwide. It is expected that AD, for which aging is a risk factor, will increase in the future. Because early detection of AD has become increasingly important, promoting demand for screening tests with adequate sensitivity. In this study, we examined the usefulness of the Takeda Three Colors Combination Test (TTCC) for screening of the very mild AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods. 154 senior persons participated in the research: 55 with very mild AD, 45 with aMCI, and 54 control group. The TTCC, which was a colored cards configuration memory task, was examined for sensitivity and specificity. Results. The sensitivity of the TTCC was 76% and 47% for the very mild AD and aMCI groups, and the specificity was 83%. Conducting TTCC (including instruction and evaluation) was accomplished within 2 minutes for all subjects. Conclusion. The TTCC is useful screening test for early detection of AD. Furthermore, administration time is short and requires no special training or skills. Thus, we believe the TTCC shows great potential for use as an AD screening test by a general practitioner in communities worldwide. PMID:25386623

  16. Durability Testing of Commercial Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schienle, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Technical efforts by AlliedSignal Engines in DOE/NASA-funded project from February, 1978 through December, 1995 are reported in the fields ceramic materials for gas turbine engines and cyclic thermal durability testing. A total of 29 materials were evaluated in 40 cyclic oxidation exposure durability tests. Ceramic test bars were cyclically thermally exposed to a hot combustion environment at temperatures up to 1371 C (2500 F) for periods of up to 3500 hours, simulating conditions typically encountered by hot flowpath components in an automotive gas turbine engine. Before and after exposure, quarter-point flexure strength tests were performed on the specimens, and fractography examinations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to determine failure origins.

  17. Polymeric Materials for Electro-Optic Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    what Langmuir Blodgett films are, how they are grown and deposited on a material, and the electro - optic effects in Langmuir/Blodgett films. Stephen...Kowel has experimented with several different types of organic dyes mixed in the films to increase the electro - optic effect in the films. The bulk of his...test integrated circuits. Keywords: Langmuir Blodgett films, Electro - optic testing, Integrated circuits, Linear electro - optic effect.

  18. Impact testing of textile composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, Marc

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this report were to evaluate the impact damage resistance and damage tolerance of a variety of textile composite materials. Static indentation and impact tests were performed on the stitched and unstitched uniweave composites constructed from AS4/3501-6 Carbon/Epoxy with a fiberglass yarn woven in to hold the fibers together while being stitched. Compression and tension were measured after the tests to determine the damage resistance, residual strength and the damage tolerance of the specimens.

  19. Tests of a screen having a working element with a nonuniform trajectory field

    SciTech Connect

    Uchitel', A.D.; Zelov, E.A.; Zasel'skii, V.I.; Lyalyuk, V.P.; Nikitenko, V.I.; Pochekailo, I.E.; Ananko, A.A.; Kolomoets, A.I.; Antoshkin, A.A.

    1988-03-01

    The authors discuss the development of a new sinter screen in a 5000-m/sup 2/ blast furnace. A distinctive feature of the screen is that the vibrator is installed at the center of percussion of the box, while the rocker forms a right angle with the principal central axis of inertia of the working element. The design provides for vibrations which are tangential to the screen in the charging zone and elliptical vibrations along the rest of the screen. The new screen is compared with GST-62B and GIST-62 screens and overall performance of the screens according to the results of the comparison tests are given.

  20. Test-Retest Reliability of a Serious Game for Delirium Screening in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C.; Lee, Jacques S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED) is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003). Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management. In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016). In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset. Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations. Materials and Methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at 8-h intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED). Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males) between the ages of 70 and 104 years (M = 81 years, SD = 7) participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r-values) between 0.5 and 0.8 across adjacent

  1. Test-Retest Reliability of a Serious Game for Delirium Screening in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C; Lee, Jacques S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED) is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003). Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management. In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016). In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset. Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations. Materials and Methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at 8-h intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED). Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males) between the ages of 70 and 104 years (M = 81 years, SD = 7) participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r-values) between 0.5 and 0.8 across adjacent

  2. "Do-it-yourself" dementia testing: issues regarding an Alzheimer's home screening test.

    PubMed

    Kier, Frederick J; Molinari, Victor

    2003-06-01

    The Early Alert Alzheimer's Home Screening Test (AHST) is a variant of the Smell Identification Test (SIT) and the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT), and recently became available for purchase by the general public. The validity and the practical utility of routine screening for individuals with asymptomatic cognitive impairment has not been established. There are considerable specific methodological concerns regarding the use of the AHST including the association of olfactory impairment with (a) age in the absence of cognitive impairment, (b) numerous acute and/or chronic medical conditions, and (c) lifestyle habits and social and/or demographic variables. General public misunderstanding of the difference between a screening and a diagnostic test, primary care physicians' frequent confusion about follow-up mechanisms for newly diagnosed patients with dementia, the possible lack of perceived counseling options for those self-diagnosed, and abuse of test findings create distinct possibilities for misuse of this test. The marketing of the AHST and its general use without appropriate public health educational safeguards is inappropriate and may be unethical.

  3. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  4. Machine tests crease durability of sheet materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, L. K.; Stanford, H. B.

    1964-01-01

    To test the crease resistance of sheet materials, the mid-section is folded over crease-control blades. One end is clamped to a motor-driven eccentric, the other to a spring, and durability is measured by the cycles required to produce failure.

  5. Radiological environmental pathway screening analysis for the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Eckart, R.; Carr, D.; Conner, B.; Janke, R.; Janke, R.

    1989-11-01

    The University of Cincinnati is working with the Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio (WMCO) to develop remedial action residual radioactive material soil guidelines for the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). As a first step in developing these soil guidelines, a radiological environmental pathway screening analysis was performed. The purpose of the pathway screening analysis was to identify the radionuclides and environmental pathways that would lead to the highest exposure or dose to humans from residual radioactivity in the soil at the FMPC. In addition, the screening analysis identifies those pathways that are critical to a particular radioisotope.

  6. Recent developments in dynamic testing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilat, Amos; Seidt, Jeremy D.

    2015-09-01

    New techniques for dynamic characterization of materials that have been developed in the last three years (since the last DYMAT conference in 2012), and results from recent dynamic testing of Inconel 718 are presented. The first development is a dynamic punch test in which three dimensional Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is used to measure the deformation of the rear surface of a specimen as it being penetrated. The second experimental technique that is under development is a dynamic tension experiment in which full-field strain measurement with DIC and full-field temperature measurement are done simultaneously during the test.

  7. Factors associated with completion of bowel cancer screening and the potential effects of simplifying the screening test algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Benjamin; Whyte, Sophie; Seaman, Helen E; Snowball, Julia; Halloran, Stephen P; Butler, Piers; Patnick, Julietta; Nickerson, Claire; Chilcott, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The primary colorectal cancer screening test in England is a guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBt). The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) interprets tests on six samples on up to three test kits to determine a definitive positive or negative result. However, the test algorithm fails to achieve a definitive result for a significant number of participants because they do not comply with the programme requirements. This study identifies factors associated with failed compliance and modifications to the screening algorithm that will improve the clinical effectiveness of the screening programme. Methods: The BCSP Southern Hub data for screening episodes started in 2006–2012 were analysed for participants aged 60–69 years. The variables included age, sex, level of deprivation, gFOBt results and clinical outcome. Results: The data set included 1 409 335 screening episodes; 95.08% of participants had a definitively normal result on kit 1 (no positive spots). Among participants asked to complete a second or third gFOBt, 5.10% and 4.65%, respectively, failed to return a valid kit. Among participants referred for follow up, 13.80% did not comply. Older age was associated with compliance at repeat testing, but non-compliance at follow up. Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with non-compliance at repeat testing and follow up. Modelling a reduction in the threshold for immediate referral led to a small increase in completion of the screening pathway. Conclusions: Reducing the number of positive spots required on the first gFOBt kit for referral for follow-up and targeted measures to improve compliance with follow-up may improve completion of the screening pathway. PMID:26766733

  8. How to report and interpret screening test properties: guidelines for driving researchers.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Bruce; Walter, Stephen D; Bédard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    One important goal of driving research is the development of a short but valid office-based screening test for fitness to drive of aging drivers. Several candidate tests have been proposed already, and no doubt others will be proposed in the future. It might seem obvious that authors advocating for the adoption of a particular screening test or procedure should report sensitivity, specificity, and other common screening test properties. Unfortunately, driving researchers have frequently failed to report any screening test properties. Others have reported screening test properties but have made basic mistakes such as calculating predictive values of positive and negative tests but reporting them incorrectly as sensitivity and specificity. These omissions and errors suggest that some driving researchers may be unaware of the importance of accurately reporting test properties when proposing a screening procedure and that others may need a refresher on how to calculate and interpret the most common screening test properties. Many good learning resources for screening and diagnostic tests are available, but most of them are intended for students and researchers in medicine, epidemiology, or public health. We hope that this tutorial in a prominent transportation journal will help lead to improved reporting and interpretation of screening test properties in articles that assess the usefulness of potential screening tools for fitness to drive.

  9. MISSE 6-Testing Materials in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S; Kinard, William H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment by placing them in space environment for several months. In this paper, a few materials and components from NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) that have been flown on MISSE 6 mission will be discussed. These include laser and optical elements for photonic devices. The pre-characterized MISSE 6 materials were packed inside a ruggedized Passive Experiment Container (PEC) that resembles a suitcase. The PEC was tested for survivability due to launch conditions. Subsequently, the MISSE 6 PEC was transported by the STS-123 mission to International Space Station (ISS) on March 11, 2008. The astronauts successfully attached the PEC to external handrails and opened the PEC for long term exposure to the space environment.

  10. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  11. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  12. An evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus oral screening test awareness and preferences in the West region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nkenfou, Celine N; Kembou, Japhette T; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Domkam, Irenee; Tchuinkam, Timoleon

    2015-01-01

    HIV serological diagnosis has evolved during the last decade to give rise to rapid testing using biological materials, such as blood or oral mucosal transudate (OMT). However, blood collection is not always welcomed, justifying the evaluation of OMT-based devices. In a cross sectional study carried out in May 2011 aimed at evaluating the level of awareness about OMT based HIV tests, questionnaires were administered to participants who consented to take part in the study. Eighty-five percent (n = 1520) of participants reported a lack of awareness of HIV oral screening before the study, and surprisingly, no association was found between the awareness of participants and their educational level (p = 0.768). There was also no association (p = 0.743) found between having had previous screening tests and awareness of oral testing. The percentage of participants who accepted the oral test before being informed about it was 31.3% (n = 1520). After sensitization, 76.3% (n = 1520)preferred oral screening for future tests (p = 0). These results reveal that if the OMT based test is affordable, its implementation as a screening tool in the general population could greatly increase participation in screening campaigns and is welcomed by those who want to self-test in a non-invasive way. This will create a better estimation of the national HIV prevalence. Its use could then have a significant public health impact on HIV prevention and clinical management.

  13. Tests Screening Reading Difficulty in Malayalam among Upper Primary School Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Design of a screening test for identifying reading difficult students in Malayalam and validation thereof among boys is made to help schools proactively intervene with such students. A battery of tests developed based on extant literature on screening tests, reviewed difficulties in reading Malayalam, and discrimination power of the draft tests is…

  14. Learning Effectiveness and Cognitive Loads in Instructional Materials of Programming Language on Single and Dual Screens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Jenq-Muh; Chang, Ting-Wen; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    The teaching and learning environment in a traditional classroom typically includes a projection screen, a projector, and a computer within a digital interactive table. Instructors may apply multimedia learning materials using various information communication technologies to increase interaction effects. However, a single screen only displays a…

  15. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  16. Incorporating human papillomavirus testing into cytological screening in the era of prophylactic vaccines.

    PubMed

    Almonte, Maribel; Sasieni, Peter; Cuzick, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Screening for, and treatment of, pre-cancerous cervical lesions has lead to dramatic reductions in cervical cancer in many countries. In all cases, cervical screening has been based on cytology, but that is beginning to change. Research studies, including randomised trials, clearly show that human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could be used to prevent a greater proportion of cervical cancer within a practical screening programme. Meanwhile, young adolescents are being vaccinated against HPV in developed countries, but cervical screening should continue for many years because it will take decades before most of those targeted by screening have been vaccinated. In the HPV vaccination era, the rate of cervical disease will decrease, and so will the positive predictive value of cytology. The screening characteristics of HPV testing make it the preferred choice for primary screening. However, questions regarding how to use HPV testing to screen vaccinated and unvaccinated women in the future remain unanswered.

  17. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2007-12-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that

  18. ESTEC wiring test programme materials related properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wires are considered as EEE parts and are covered within the ESA SCC specification series (ESA SCC 3901/XXX). This specification defines the principal properties of the wires including insulation/lay-up and electrical properties. Some additional space related materials requirements are also included, requirements such as outgassing and silver plating thickness. If a project has additional materials requirements over and above those covered by the relevant SCC specification, then additional testing is required. This is especially true for crewed spacecraft. The following topics are discussed in this context: additional requirements for manned spacecraft; flammability; arc tracking; thermal decomposition; microbial surface growth; and ageing.

  19. Calculated globulin (CG) as a screening test for antibody deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jolles, S; Borrell, R; Zouwail, S; Heaps, A; Sharp, H; Moody, M; Selwood, C; Williams, P; Phillips, C; Hood, K; Holding, S; El Shanawany, T

    2014-09-01

    Calculated globulin (total protein - albumin) is usually tested as part of a liver function test profile in both primary and secondary care and determines the serum globulin concentration, of which immunoglobulins are a major component. The main use hitherto of calculated globulin is to detect paraproteins when the level is high. This study investigated the potential to use low levels of calculated globulin to detect antibody deficiency. Serum samples with calculated globulin cut-off < 18 g/l based on results of a pilot study were collected from nine hospitals in Wales over a 12-month period. Anonymized request information was obtained and the samples tested for immunoglobulin levels, serum electrophoresis and, if appropriate, immunofixation. A method comparison for albumin measurement using bromocresol green and bromocresol purple was undertaken. Eighty-nine per cent (737 of 826) samples had an immunoglobulin (Ig)G level of < 6 g/l using the bromocresol green methodology with a cut-off of < 18 g/l, and 56% (459) had an IgG of < 4 g/l. Patients with both secondary and primary antibody deficiency were discovered and serum electrophoresis and immunofixation showed that 1·2% (10) had previously undetected small paraproteins associated with immune-paresis. Using bromocresol purple, 74% of samples had an IgG of < 6 g/l using a cut-off of < 23 g/l. Screening using calculated globulin with defined cut-off values detects both primary and secondary antibody deficiency and new paraproteins associated with immune-paresis. It is cheap, widely available and under-utilized. Antibody-deficient patients have been discovered using information from calculated globulin values, shortening diagnostic delay and time to treatment with immunoglobulin replacement therapy.

  20. CPL Materials Life Cycle Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchko, Matthew T.

    1992-07-01

    The Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) Materials Life Cycle Test Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) will identify the operational parameters controlling the performance of a CPL over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of the facility is to investigate the long-term chemical compatibility between the anhydrous ammonia working fluid and the CPL materials of construction. Chemical reactions occurring within the system may produce non-condensable gases or particulate debris that can lead to a degradation in system performance. Small liquid samples will be drawn from the system at specific time intervals and analyzed to check for the presence of non-condensable gases. Periodic maximum and minimum heat load tests will be performed on the CPL to monitor trends in the overall system performance.

  1. Apparatus Tests Peeling Of Bonded Rubbery Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crook, Russell A.; Graham, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Instrumented hydraulic constrained blister-peel apparatus obtains data on degree of bonding between specimen of rubbery material and rigid plate. Growth of blister tracked by video camera, digital clock, pressure transducer, and piston-displacement sensor. Cylinder pressure controlled by hydraulic actuator system. Linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT) and float provide second, independent measure of change in blister volume used as more precise volume feedback in low-growth-rate test.

  2. Test Methods: Cast Plastic Tooling Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1957-04-01

    The physical and working properties of room temperature curing tooling resin systems are affected by the factors listed below: (a) Temperature of...Hardeners stored exposed to moisture. (h) Presence of moisture in plasters against which the tool surfaces will be made. (i) Types of fillers used in...developed for the plastics industry and its suppliers to facilitate the exchange of test data and to promote the development of materials and techniques which will advance the use of plastics in tooling applications.

  3. Test System for Thermoelectric Modules and Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejtmánek, J.; Knížek, K.; Švejda, V.; Horna, P.; Sikora, M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a design for a complex measuring device that enables its user to assess the parameters of power-generating thermoelectric modules (TEMs) (or bulk thermoelectric materials) under a wide range of temperatures ( T cold = 25°C to 90°C, T hot < 450°C) and mechanical loading ( P = 0 N to 104 N). The proposed instrument is able to monitor the temperature and electrical output of the TEM, the actual heat flow through the module, and its mechanical load, which can be varied during the measurement. Key components of our testing setup are (i) a measuring chamber where the TEM/material is compressed between thermally shielded heating blocks equipped with a mechanical loading system and water-cooled copper-based cooler, (ii) an electrical load system, (iii) a type K thermocouple array connected to a data acquisition computer, and (iv) a thermostatic water-based cooling system with electronically controlled flow rate and temperature of cooling water. Our testing setup represents a useful tool able to assess, e.g., the thermoelectric parameters of newly developed TEMs and materials or to evaluate the thermoelectric parameters of commercially available modules and materials for comparison with values declared by the manufacturer.

  4. Irradiation Environment of the Materials Test Station

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2012-06-21

    Conceptual design of the proposed Materials Test Station (MTS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is now complete. The principal mission is the irradiation testing of advanced fuels and materials for fast-spectrum nuclear reactor applications. The neutron spectrum in the fuel irradiation region of MTS is sufficiently close to that of fast reactor that MTS can match the fast reactor fuel centerline temperature and temperature profile across a fuel pellet. This is an important characteristic since temperature and temperature gradients drive many phenomena related to fuel performance, such as phase stability, stoichiometry, and fission product transport. The MTS irradiation environment is also suitable in many respects for fusion materials testing. In particular, the rate of helium production relative to atomic displacements at the peak flux position in MTS matches well that of fusion reactor first wall. Nuclear transmutation of the elemental composition of the fusion alloy EUROFER97 in MTS is similar to that expected in the first wall of a fusion reactor.

  5. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested for long-term storage with water in the system as plarned for STS-107. This view shows the compressed sand column with the protective water jacket removed. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  6. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested for long-term storage with water in the system as plarned for STS-107. This view shows the top of the sand column with the metal platten removed. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  7. Application of Nondestructive Testing Techniques to Materials Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    7D-Al?2 605 APPLICATION OF NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING TECHNIQUES To / MATERIALS TESTING(U) STANFORD UNIV CA EDWARD L GINZTON LAB OF PHYSICS G S KIND FEB...U EDWARD L. GINTZON LAB, W.W. HANSEN LAB OF PHYSIC ! 2306/A2 (%J STANFORD CA 94305’ 11 ,. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Feb 1986...we could improve optical systems by employing modern electronic techniques within the optical system. Our purpose has been to make accurate profile

  8. Technical report: Ethical and policy issues in genetic testing and screening of children.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Ross, Laine Friedman; Saal, Howard M; David, Karen L; Anderson, Rebecca R

    2013-03-01

    The genetic testing and genetic screening of children are commonplace. Decisions about whether to offer genetic testing and screening should be driven by the best interest of the child. The growing literature on the psychosocial and clinical effects of such testing and screening can help inform best practices. This technical report provides ethical justification and empirical data in support of the proposed policy recommendations regarding such practices in a myriad of settings.

  9. Orbiter Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Advanced Sealant Systems: Screening Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.; Lewis, Ronad K.; Norman, Ignacio; Chao, Dennis; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Oxidation protection for the Orbiter reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC consists of three components: silicon carbide coating, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) impregnated into the carbon substrate and a silicon based surface sealant (designated Type A). The Orbiter Type A sealant is being consumed each mission, which results in increased carbon-carbon substrate mass loss, which adversely impacts the mission life of the RCC components. In addition, the sealant loss in combination with launch pad contamination (salt deposit and zinc oxide) results in RCC pinholes. A sealant refurbishment schedule to maintain mission life and minimize affects of pin hole formation has been implemented in the Orbiter maintenance schedule. The objective of this investigation is to develop an advanced sealant system for the RCC that extends the refurbishment schedule by reducing sealant loss/pin hole formation and that can be applied to existing Orbiter RCC components. This paper presents the results of arc jet screening tests conducted on several sealants that are being considered for application to the Orbiter RCC.

  10. Postoperative bleeding in a patient with normal screening coagulation tests.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Eva; Anvari, Reza; D'cunha, Nicholas; Thaxton, Lauren; Malik, Asim; Nugent, Kenneth

    2011-09-01

    A 54-year-old man was brought to the emergency room after a head-on collision. He had multiple fractures in his lower extremities and required immediate surgery. After surgery, the patient had a persistent drop in hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets despite red blood cell transfusions. Laboratory studies included normal prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, normal plasminogen functional activity, negative antiplatelet antibodies, normal platelet functional analysis and negative disseminated intravascular coagulation screen. Factor XIII antigen levels were 25% of predicted, and the diagnosis of factor XIII deficiency was made. The patient was treated with cryoprecipitate, and the bleeding stopped. Patients with factor XIII deficiency have either a rare congenital or acquired coagulation disorder. Both presentations have normal standard laboratory clotting tests, and the diagnosis requires an assay measuring factor XIII activity or antigen levels. The usual treatment includes cryoprecipitate, fresh-frozen plasma or recombinant factor XIII. This deficiency should be considered in patients with unexplained spontaneous, traumatic or postoperative bleeding.

  11. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a)...

  12. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a)...

  13. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a)...

  14. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a)...

  15. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a)...

  16. D.P.I. Primary Reading Criterion-Referenced Screening Test, Levels 1, 2, 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Education Center, Louisville, KY.

    The Diagnostic Prescriptive Individualized (D.P.I.) Primary Reading Criterion-Referenced Screening Test Levels 1, 2 and 3 are diagnostic tests geared toward aiding the teacher of grade 1 and 2 children in identifying the academic strengths, weaknesses, and needs of each student. These tests are concerned with the overall screening of skills of…

  17. Screening tests for aphasia in patients with stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    El Hachioui, Hanane; Visch-Brink, Evy G; de Lau, Lonneke M L; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W M E; Nouwens, Femke; Koudstaal, Peter J; Dippel, Diederik W J

    2017-02-01

    Aphasia has a large impact on the quality of life and adds significantly to the costs of stroke care. Early recognition of aphasia in stroke patients is important for prognostication and well-timed treatment planning. We aimed to identify available screening tests for differentiating between aphasic and non-aphasic stroke patients, and to evaluate test accuracy, reliability, and feasibility. We searched PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO for published studies on screening tests aimed at assessing aphasia in stroke patients. The reference lists of the selected articles were scanned, and several experts were contacted to detect additional references. Of each screening test, we estimated the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio of a positive test, likelihood ratio of a negative test, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and rated the degree of bias of the validation method. We included ten studies evaluating eight screening tests. There was a large variation across studies regarding sample size, patient characteristics, and reference tests used for validation. Many papers failed to report on the consecutiveness of patient inclusion, time between aphasia onset and administration of the screening test, and blinding. Of the three studies that were rated as having an intermediate or low risk of bias, the DOR was highest for the Language Screening Test and ScreeLing. Several screening tools for aphasia in stroke are available, but many tests have not been verified properly. Methodologically sound validation studies of aphasia screening tests are needed to determine their usefulness in clinical practice.

  18. Suitability Screening Test for Marine Corps Air Traffic Controllers Phase 3: Non-cognitive Test Validation and Cognitive Test Prototype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Operating Forces revocation to further emphasize the utility of considering non-cognitive traits in conjunction with ASVAB standards when selecting...ATC MOS designation. Taken together, the two tests are predicted to reduce attrition/ revocation and increase the quality of Marines selected for...performance, less attrition/ revocation costs, and increased diversity through fair, valid screening improvements. viii Contents Introduction

  19. The interim test effect: testing prior material can facilitate the learning of new material.

    PubMed

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A; Pyc, Mary A

    2011-12-01

    A wealth of prior research has shown that testing can improve subsequent learning of the initially tested material. In contrast, only one recent study has shown that an interim test over prior material can improve learning of subsequent new material (i.e., an interim-test effect). Five experiments replicated and extended this initial work by exploring the extent to which interim test effects generalize to complex text material. Participants were prompted to recall each section of an expository text before moving on to study the next section, or were only prompted to recall after the final section. In all experiments, recall of the final, target section was greater when prior sections had received interim tests versus no interim tests. Experiment 3 established that the effect was due to interim testing in particular rather than to intervening activity in general. Experiment 4 established that the effect was not due to test expectancy differences. In contrast to prior research, Experiment 4 also provided evidence that the effect is not due to release from proactive interference. We discuss other possible mechanisms underlying interim-test effects with text, including shifting to more effective encoding strategies.

  20. Screening Technique for Lead and Cadmium in Toys and Other Materials Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Henry

    2005-01-01

    A simple procedure to quickly screen different consumer products for the presence of lead, cadmium, and other metals is described. This screening technique avoids expending a lot of preparation time on samples known to contain low levels of hazardous metals where only samples testing positive for the desired elements need to be analyzed…

  1. Material Testing for Robotic Omnidirectional Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkoe, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    To successfully explore near-Earth Asteroids the question of mobility emerges as the key issue for any robotic mission. When small bodies have extremely low escape velocities, traditional methods, such as wheels, would send the robot hurtling off of the asteroid's surface. To solve this problem, JPL has developed an omni-directional anchoring mechanism for use in microgravity that utilizes microspine technology. These microspines are placed in circular arrays with 16 independent carriages biasing the surface of the rock. The asperities in the surface allow the gripper to hold nearly 150N in all directions. While the gripper has been proven successful on consolidated rocks, it had yet to be tested on a variety of other surfaces that are suspected to separate the large boulders on an asteroid. Since asteroid surfaces vary widely, from friable rocks to lose ponds of regolith, the gripper was tested in a large variety of materials such as, bonded pumice, sand, gravel, and loose rocks. The forces are applied tangent, at 45 degrees, and normal to the surface of the material. The immediate results from this experiment will give insight into the gripper's effectiveness across the wide spectrum of materials found on asteroids.

  2. Mechanics of Granular Materials Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown from all three sides by its video camera during STS-89. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  3. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown approximately 20 and 60 minutes after the start of an experiment on STS-89. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  4. [Screening of compounds of nitrofuran in imported meat raw materials].

    PubMed

    Zakrevskii, V V; Leleko, S N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of screening studies of quantification of the nitrofuran drugs imported in raw meat (turkey, beef pork, veal, lamb, chicken). Identification was carried out by the detection ofsuch nitrofurans metabolites as: 1-aminogidantoin (AGD), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) and 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ). There are analyzed the positive and negative effects of nitrofuran drugs. The data for the establishment of the potential risks to human health when using contaminated raw meat metabolites of nitrofurans are discussed. These drugs are prohibited in livestock in Europe since 1995 due to the adverse effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and toxic) on animals and the potential risk to humans. In the Russian Federation in accordance with SanPin 2.3.2.1078-01 01.01.2012 for the first time the was introduced rationing for nitrofurans (including furazolidone).

  5. A New Test Method for Material Flammability Assessment in Microgravity and Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; Beeson, H. D.; Haas, J. P.; Baas, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to modify the well-instrumented standard cone configuration to provide a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by or around a burning surface in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. We will then develop a standard test method with pass-fail criteria for future use in spacecraft materials flammability screening. (For example, dripping of molten material will be an automatic fail.)

  6. Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) Final Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EDSTAC Report was developed through a deliberative process that encouraged the development of consensus solutions to complex problems and issues related to developing an Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program.

  7. 33 CFR 183.114 - Test of flotation materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test of flotation materials. 183.../Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.114 Test of flotation materials. (a) Vapor test. The flotation material... gasoline test. The flotation material must not reduce in buoyant force more than 5 percent after...

  8. 33 CFR 183.114 - Test of flotation materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test of flotation materials. 183.../Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.114 Test of flotation materials. (a) Vapor test. The flotation material... gasoline test. The flotation material must not reduce in buoyant force more than 5 percent after...

  9. 33 CFR 183.114 - Test of flotation materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test of flotation materials. 183.../Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.114 Test of flotation materials. (a) Vapor test. The flotation material... gasoline test. The flotation material must not reduce in buoyant force more than 5 percent after...

  10. 33 CFR 183.114 - Test of flotation materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test of flotation materials. 183.../Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.114 Test of flotation materials. (a) Vapor test. The flotation material... gasoline test. The flotation material must not reduce in buoyant force more than 5 percent after...

  11. 33 CFR 183.114 - Test of flotation materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test of flotation materials. 183.../Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.114 Test of flotation materials. (a) Vapor test. The flotation material... gasoline test. The flotation material must not reduce in buoyant force more than 5 percent after...

  12. Integrated Performance Testing Workshop - Supplemental Materials (Scripts and Procedures)

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Gregory A.

    2014-02-01

    A variety of performance tests are described relating to: Material Transfers; Emergency Evacuation; Alarm Response Assessment; and an Enhanced Limited Scope Performance Test (ELSPT). Procedures are given for: nuclear material physical inventory and discrepancy; material transfers; and emergency evacuation.

  13. Evaluation of ELISA screening test for detecting aflatoxin in biogenic dust samples

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic chemical that is sometimes produced when agricultural commodities are infested by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus. Aflatoxin has been found to be present in air samples taken around persons handling materials likely to be contaminated. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit that was developed to screen for aflatoxin in bulk agricultural commodities, to an air sample. Samples were taken from two environments likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin, a dairy farm feed mixing operation and a peanut bagging operation. The dust collected from these environments was considered to be biogenic, in that it originated primarily from biological materials.

  14. Cryostat system for spacecraft materials testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekany, Justin

    The main cause of spacecraft failures is due to the harsh space environment; therefore, rigorous testing of materials used in modern spacecraft is imperative to ensure proper operation during the life span of the mission. Enhancing the capabilities of ground-based test facilities allows for more accurate measurements to be taken as it better simulates the environment to which spacecraft will be exposed. The range of temperature measurements has been significantly extended for an existing space environment simulation test chamber used in the study of electron emission, sample charging and discharge, electrostatic discharge and arcing, electron transport, and luminescence of spacecraft materials. This was accomplished by incorporating a new two-stage, closed-cycle helium cryostat, which has an extended sample temperature range from 450 K, with long-term controlled stability of <0.5 K. The system was designed to maintain compatibility with an existing ultrahigh vacuum chamber (base pressure <10-7 Pa) that can simulate diverse space environments. These existing capabilities include controllable vacuum and ambient neutral gases conditions (<10-7 to 10 -1 Pa), electron fluxes (5 eV to 30 keV monoenergetic, focused, pulsed sources ranging from 10-4 to 1010 nA-cm -2), ion fluxes (<0.1 to 5 keV monoenergetic sources for inert and reactive gases with pulsing capabilities), and photon irradiation (numerous continuous and pulsed monochromatic and broadband IR/VIS/UV [0.5 to 7 eV] sources). The original sample mount accommodates one to four samples of 1 cm to 2.5 cm diameter in a low- temperature carousel, which allows rapid sample exchange and controlled exposure of the individual samples. Multiple additional sample mounts have been added to allow for standalone use for constant voltage measurements, radiation induced and conductivity tests, as well as extended capabilities for electron-induced luminescent measurements to be conducted using various material sample thicknesses

  15. The time is now to implement HPV testing for primary screening in low resource settings.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Louise; Denny, Lynette

    2017-05-01

    Unacceptable disparities in cervical cancer between richer and poorer countries persist and serve as reminders of gross disparities in access to and quality of screening services. HPV testing is well-suited to address some of the barriers to implementing adequate screening programs in low resource settings. HPV testing has considerably better sensitivity than cytology providing the same extent of safety with fewer rounds of screening. New robust HPV testing platforms require little to no skill by laboratory workers and some can be used at the point-of-care. This allows for a round of screening to be accomplished in one or two visits, reducing costs and the inevitable attrition that occurs when women need to be recalled to obtain their results. HPV testing is ideal for incorporating into the new "screen-and-treat" approaches designed to overcome limitations of conventional, multi-visit, colposcopy-based approaches to screening. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is the screening test that has been used most widely in screen-and-treat programs to date but the performance characteristics of this test are poor. HPV-based screen-and-treat is more effective in reducing disease in the population and reduces over-treatment intrinsic to this approach. HPV testing can be adapted or combined with other molecular tests to improve treatment algorithms. Infrastructure established to support VIA-based screen-and-treat can effectively incorporate HPV testing. We are poised at a critical juncture in public health history to implement HPV testing as part of primary screening and thereby improve women's health in low resource settings.

  16. Fractionation of extracts from paper and board food contact materials for in vitro screening of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bengtström, Linda; Trier, Xenia; Granby, Kit; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    2014-01-01

    Paper and board used as food contact materials (FCMs) are chemically complex matrices, partly due to the naturally occurring substances in paper and board, but also due to the chemical treatment of the paper used to make it suitable for food contact. In order to assure the safety of packaging materials, information on the exposure as well as on the toxicity of substances in the packaging must be obtained. This study describes a comprehensive method for the extraction and fractionation of substances present in paper and board FCMs for further investigation by in vitro testing and chemical analysis. The extraction efficiency and the fractionation process were validated by determining recoveries in extracts from paper and board fortified with five surrogates of known concentration. The recoveries for the five surrogates were between 20% and 104% in the raw extract and between 21% and 109% after extraction and fractionation. The fractionation both reduces the number of compounds to be identified and works as a sample clean-up by reducing matrix effects. Raw extracts and fractions from two paper and board FCMs were furthermore tested in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) reporter gene assay. Both raw extracts and two of the fractions of the raw extracts gave a positive response in the AhR assay. The strategy of extraction followed by fractionation offers a powerful tool in order to make the workflow for screening FCMs for potentially adverse effects more efficient.

  17. The submitochondrial particle assay as a screening test for acute aquatic toxicity of surfactant molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bookland, E.A.; Bettermann, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Two complementary protocols of the submitochondrial particle assay (SMP) were evaluated as screening tools for predicting the acute aquatic toxicity of various classes and chain lengths of surfactant molecules. SMP contain the functionally intact mitochondrial enzyme systems responsible for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Both the Electron Transfer Assay (ETR) and the Reverse Electron Transfer Assay (RET) have been shown in prior work to generally be sensitive to agents capable of membrane and protein interactions, both suspected mechanisms of action for surfactants. The toxicity of ten compounds; four anionic surfactants, C{sub 12} alkyl sulfate (C{sub 12}AS), C{sub 12} and C{sub 15} alkyl ethoxy sulfate (C{sub 12}E{sub 4}S, C{sub 15}E{sub 4}S), linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C{sub 12.3}LAS); one nonionic surfactant, alkyl ethoxylate (C{sub 12}E{sub 3}); three cationic surfactants, C{sub 8}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 16} alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (C{sub 8}TMAC, C{sub 12}TMAC, C{sub 16}TMAC); an alcohol (C{sub 12}OH); and an amine, alkyl dimethylamine (C{sub 12}DMA); was determined. In all cases, both the ETR and the RET gave results showing equal or greater sensitivity than previously reported acute fish and invertebrate LC{sub 50}`s. In addition, increasing toxicity with increasing alkyl chain length was observed. As a rapid screening tool, the SMP bioassay avoids exposure concerns such as degradation of test material, a common concern for acute in vivo toxicity testing with rapidly degradable materials. Results indicate that the SMP bioassay can be useful as a predictive screening tool for the aquatic toxicity of surfactants.

  18. Asbestos penetration test system for clothing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, O.D.; Stampfer, J.F.; Sandoval, A.N.; Heath, C.A.; Cooper, M.H.

    1997-04-01

    For hazardous work such as asbestos abatement, there is a need to assess protective clothing fabrics and seam constructions to assure an adequate barrier against hazardous material. The penetration of aerosols through fabrics usually is measured by challenging fabric samples with an aerosol stream at a constant specified airflow. To produce the specified airflow, pressure differentials across the samples often are higher than exist in a work environment. This higher airflow results in higher aerosol velocities through the fabric and, possibly, measured penetration values not representative of those actually experienced in the field. The objective of the reported work was to develop a test method that does not require these higher airflows. The authors have designed and fabricated a new system that tests fabric samples under a low, constant, specified pressure differential across the samples. This differential is adjustable from tenths of a mm Water Gauge (hundredths of an in WG) to over 25-mm WG (1-in WG). The system operates at a pressure slightly lower than its surroundings. Although designed primarily for asbestos, the system is equally applicable to the testing of other aerosols by changing the aerosol generator and detector. Through simple modification of the sample holders, the test apparatus would be capable of evaluating seam and closure constructions.

  19. Use of clinical movement screening tests to predict injury in sport.

    PubMed

    Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2016-04-18

    Clinical movement screening tests are gaining popularity as a means to determine injury risk and to implement training programs to prevent sport injury. While these screens are being used readily in the clinical field, it is only recently that some of these have started to gain attention from a research perspective. This limits applicability and poses questions to the validity, and in some cases the reliability, of the clinical movement tests as they relate to injury prediction, intervention, and prevention. This editorial will review the following clinical movement screening tests: Functional Movement Screen™, Star Excursion Balance Test, Y Balance Test, Drop Jump Screening Test, Landing Error Scoring System, and the Tuck Jump Analysis in regards to test administration, reliability, validity, factors that affect test performance, intervention programs, and usefulness for injury prediction. It is important to review the aforementioned factors for each of these clinical screening tests as this may help clinicians interpret the current body of literature. While each of these screening tests were developed by clinicians based on what appears to be clinical practice, this paper brings to light that this is a need for collaboration between clinicians and researchers to ensure validity of clinically meaningful tests so that they are used appropriately in future clinical practice. Further, this editorial may help to identify where the research is lacking and, thus, drive future research questions in regards to applicability and appropriateness of clinical movement screening tools.

  20. Use of clinical movement screening tests to predict injury in sport

    PubMed Central

    Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical movement screening tests are gaining popularity as a means to determine injury risk and to implement training programs to prevent sport injury. While these screens are being used readily in the clinical field, it is only recently that some of these have started to gain attention from a research perspective. This limits applicability and poses questions to the validity, and in some cases the reliability, of the clinical movement tests as they relate to injury prediction, intervention, and prevention. This editorial will review the following clinical movement screening tests: Functional Movement Screen™, Star Excursion Balance Test, Y Balance Test, Drop Jump Screening Test, Landing Error Scoring System, and the Tuck Jump Analysis in regards to test administration, reliability, validity, factors that affect test performance, intervention programs, and usefulness for injury prediction. It is important to review the aforementioned factors for each of these clinical screening tests as this may help clinicians interpret the current body of literature. While each of these screening tests were developed by clinicians based on what appears to be clinical practice, this paper brings to light that this is a need for collaboration between clinicians and researchers to ensure validity of clinically meaningful tests so that they are used appropriately in future clinical practice. Further, this editorial may help to identify where the research is lacking and, thus, drive future research questions in regards to applicability and appropriateness of clinical movement screening tools. PMID:27114928

  1. Aerothermal Testing of Woven TPS Ablative Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Mairead; Feldman, Jay; Olson, Michael; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    Woven Thermal Protection Systems (WTPS) is a new TPS concept that is funded by NASAs Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) Game Changing Division. The WTPS project demonstrates the potential for manufacturing a variety of TPS materials capable of wide ranging performances demanded by a spectrum of solar system exploration missions. Currently, missions anticipated to encounter heat fluxes in the range of 1500 4000 Watts per square centimeter are limited to using one proven material fully dense Carbon Phenolic. However, fully dense carbon phenolic is only mass efficient at heat fluxes greater than 4000 Watts per square centimeter, and current mission designs suffer this mass inefficiency for lack of an alternative mid-density TPS. WTPS not only bridges this gap but also offers a replacement for carbon phenolic, which itself requires a significant and costly redevelopment effort to re-establish its capability for use in the high heat flux missions recently prioritized in the NRC Decadal survey, including probe missions to Venus, Saturn and Neptune. This poster will summarize some recent arc jet testing to evaluate the performance of WTPS. Both mid density and fully dense WTPS test results will be presented and results compared to heritage carbon phenolic where applicable.

  2. Thermal-Structures and Materials Testing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teate, Anthony A.

    1997-01-01

    Since its inception and successful implementation in 1997 at James Madison University, the Thermal Structures and Materials Testing Laboratory (T-SaMTL) funded by the NASA Langley Research Center is evolving into one of the University's premier and exemplary efforts to increase minority representation in the sciences and mathematics. Serving ten (10) students and faculty directly and almost fifty (50) students indirectly, T-SAMTL, through its recruitment efforts, workshops, mentoring program, tutorial services and its research and computational laboratories has marked the completion of the first year with support from NASA totaling $ 100,000. Beginning as an innovative academic research and mentoring program for underrepresented minority science and mathematics students, the program now boasts a constituency which consists of 50% graduating seniors in the spring of 1998 with 50% planning to go to graduate school. The program's intent is to increase the number of underrepresented minorities who receive doctoral degrees in the sciences by initiating an academically enriched research program aimed at strengthening the academic and self actualization skills of undergraduate students with the potential to pursue doctoral study in the sciences. The program provides financial assistance, academic enrichment, and professional and personal development support for minority students who demonstrate the potential and strong desire to pursue careers in the sciences and mathematics. James Madison University was awarded the first $100,000, in April 1997, by The NASA Langley Research Center for establishment and support of its Thermal Structures and Materials Testing

  3. Empirical Profiles of Academic Oral English Proficiency from an International Teaching Assistant Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ikkyu

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…

  4. XENOENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS-TIERED SCREENING AND TESTING: FILLING KEY DATA GAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery. Chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested (Tier 2). T1S...

  5. XENOENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS-TIERED SCREENING AND TESTING: FILLING KEY DATA GAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery. Chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested...

  6. Property Screening and Evaluation of Ceramic Turbine Engine Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    doped with 1% MgO, 8% Y2 03, and 15% Y20 3 ) were of lower strength than the Norton NC-132 and NCX- 34 materials, Slow crick growth was in evidence...T.L. Francis and R.L. Coble, "Creep of Polycrystalline Silicon Carbide," Jour. Amer. Ceram. Soc., 51(2) pp. 115-6 (1968). 44. P.L. Farnsworth and R.L

  7. Milestone 4: Test plan for Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS). Task 3: Composite tank materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This document is the detailed test plan for the series of tests enumerated in the preceding section. The purpose of this plan is to present the test objectives, test parameters and procedures, expected performance and data analysis plans, criteria for success, test schedules, and related safety provisions and to describe the test articles, test instrumentation, and test facility requirements. Initial testing will be performed to screen four composite materials for suitability for SSTO LH2 tank loads and environmental conditions. The laminates for this testing will be fabricated by fiber placement, which is the manufacturing approach identified as baseline for the tank wall. Even though hand layup will be involved in fabricating many of the internal structural members of the tank, no hand-layup laminates will be evaluated in the screening or subsequent characterization testing. This decision is based on the understanding that mechanical properties measured for hand-layup material should be at least equivalent to properties measured for fiber-placed material, so that the latter should provide no less than a conservative approximation of the former. A single material will be downselected from these screening tests. This material will be subsequently characterized for impact-damage tolerance and durability under conditions of mechanical and thermal cycling, and to establish a preliminary design database to support ongoing analysis. Next, testing will be performed on critical structural elements fabricated from the selected material. Finally, the 8-foot diameter tank article, containing the critical structural features of the full-scale tank, will be fabricated by fiber placement and tested to verify its structural integrity and LH2 containment.

  8. Computerized Motion Sensitivity Screening Tests in a Multicountry Rural Onchocercal Community Survey in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Babalola, O. E.; Umeh, R. E.; Mahmoud, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the Wu–Jones Motion Sensitivity Screening Test (MSST) accurately reflects the burden of optic nerve disease in several onchoendemic communities in Africa. Materials and Methods: The MSST was used to evaluate subjects in the communities of Raja in Sudan, Bushenyi in Uganda, Morogoro in Tanzania, and Ikon, Olomboro, and Gembu in Nigeria. Motion sensitivity was expressed as a percentage of motion detected in the individual eye, and this was averaged for the community. A perfectly normal eye would detect all motion and score 100%. Results: In this study, 3858 eyes of 2072 subjects were tested. The test was completed in 76% of respondents. Acceptability was high. Average test time was 120.4 s. The overall mean motion sensitivity of all eyes tested was 88.49%, ±17.49. Using a cutoff level of 50%, 6.4% of all subjects tested were subnormal. The highest proportion of subnormals recorded was in Morogoro at 12.7%. Severe defects in a community best correlated with optic nerve disease prevalence, while the proportion of the defect from a higher cutoff level best correlated with overall ocular morbidity. A repeat examination in the next 5 years following ivermectin treatment will show the influence, if any, on community-wide MSST performance. Conclusion: A wide range in community scores reflected disease diversity. The MSST appears to be a useful test in community-wide screening and diagnosis as it reflects the general level of ocular pathology and specifically, optic nerve disease. PMID:21180432

  9. A Guided Materials Screening Approach for Developing Quantitative Sol-gel Derived Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Helka, Blake-Joseph; Brennan, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Microarrays have found use in the development of high-throughput assays for new materials and discovery of small-molecule drug leads. Herein we describe a guided material screening approach to identify sol-gel based materials that are suitable for producing three-dimensional protein microarrays. The approach first identifies materials that can be printed as microarrays, narrows down the number of materials by identifying those that are compatible with a given enzyme assay, and then hones in on optimal materials based on retention of maximum enzyme activity. This approach is applied to develop microarrays suitable for two different enzyme assays, one using acetylcholinesterase and the other using a set of four key kinases involved in cancer. In each case, it was possible to produce microarrays that could be used for quantitative small-molecule screening assays and production of dose-dependent inhibitor response curves. Importantly, the ability to screen many materials produced information on the types of materials that best suited both microarray production and retention of enzyme activity. The materials data provide insight into basic material requirements necessary for tailoring optimal, high-density sol-gel derived microarrays. PMID:24022739

  10. Hypothesis testing in high-throughput screening for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Prummer, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Following the success of small-molecule high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, other large-scale screening techniques are currently revolutionizing the biological sciences. Powerful new statistical tools have been developed to analyze the vast amounts of data in DNA chip studies, but have not yet found their way into compound screening. In HTS, characterization of single-point hit lists is often done only in retrospect after the results of confirmation experiments are available. However, for prioritization, for optimal use of resources, for quality control, and for comparison of screens it would be extremely valuable to predict the rates of false positives and false negatives directly from the primary screening results. Making full use of the available information about compounds and controls contained in HTS results and replicated pilot runs, the Z score and from it the p value can be estimated for each measurement. Based on this consideration, we have applied the concept of p-value distribution analysis (PVDA), which was originally developed for gene expression studies, to HTS data. PVDA allowed prediction of all relevant error rates as well as the rate of true inactives, and excellent agreement with confirmation experiments was found.

  11. Proficiency Testing for Evaluating Aerospace Materials Test Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, D.; Motto, S.; Peyton, S.; Beeson, H.

    2006-01-01

    ASTM G 86 and ASTM G 74 are commonly used to evaluate materials susceptibility to ignition in liquid and gaseous oxygen systems. However, the methods have been known for their lack of repeatability. The inherent problems identified with the test logic would either not allow precise identification or the magnitude of problems related to running the tests, such as lack of consistency of systems performance, lack of adherence to procedures, etc. Excessive variability leads to increasing instances of accepting the null hypothesis erroneously, and so to the false logical deduction that problems are nonexistent when they really do exist. This paper attempts to develop and recommend an approach that could lead to increased accuracy in problem diagnostics by using the 50% reactivity point, which has been shown to be more repeatable. The initial tests conducted indicate that PTFE and Viton A (for pneumatic impact) and Buna S (for mechanical impact) would be good choices for additional testing and consideration for inter-laboratory evaluations. The approach presented could also be used to evaluate variable effects with increased confidence and tolerance optimization.

  12. Screen Cage Ion Plating (SCIP) and scratch testing of polycrystalline aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    A screen cage ion plating (SCIP) technique was developed to apply silver films on electrically nonconducting aluminum oxide. It is shown that SCIP has remarkable throwing power; surfaces to be coated need not be in direct line of sight with the evaporation source. Scratch tests, employing a diamond stylus with a 200 micro m radius tip, were performed on uncoated and on silver coated alumina. Subsequent surface analysis show that a significant amount of silver remains on the scratched surfaces, even in areas where high stylus load produced severe crack patterns in the ceramic. Friction coefficients were lowered during the scratch tests on the coated alumina indicating that this modification of the ion planting process should be useful for applying lubricating films of soft metals to electrical insulating materials. The very good throwing power of SCIP also strongly suggests general applicability of this process in other areas of technology, e.g., electronics, in addition to tribology.

  13. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  14. Anomalous screening in two-dimensional materials with an extremum ring in the dispersion law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Eugene B.; Straley, Joseph P.

    2016-12-01

    A variety of two-dimensional materials possess a band structure with an energy extremal ridge along a ring in momentum space. Examples are biased bilayer graphene and surfaces and interfaces with a Rashba spin-orbit interaction where at low doping the carriers fill an annulus. This topological feature causes an anomalous screening behavior, which we study using the Thomas-Fermi theory. Specifically, reducing the doping is predicted to enhance the linear screening response, whereas at zero doping the size of the screening cloud surrounding a Coulomb impurity is found to increase as the cube root of the impurity charge.

  15. The Slingerland Screening Tests for Identifying Children with Specific Language Disability: Screening for Learning Disabilities in First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinero, Thomas E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The responses on the Slingerland Screening Tests for identifying children with specific learning disabilities of 29 learning disabled and 11 nondisabled children in Grade 1 distinguished the two groups, except for copying (near vision). Copying (far vision) and auditory, visual, and kinesthetic perception and discrimination together were the…

  16. A test protocol to screen capacitors for radiation-induced charge loss.

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Hartman, E. Frederick

    2008-09-01

    This report presents a test protocol for screening capacitors dielectrics for charge loss due to ionizing radiation. The test protocol minimizes experimental error and provides a test method that allows comparisons of different dielectric types if exposed to the same environment and if the same experimental technique is used. The test acceptance or screening method is fully described in this report. A discussion of technical issues and possible errors and uncertainties is included in this report also.

  17. Predictive Validity Test of the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory (ADSI) to identify adolescents at high risk of substance use. Method: The sampling frame consisted of 26,781 surveys, and a secondary analysis was conducted. A random 25% sample was used, leaving 6,661 cases. Binary logistic regressions were run to determine the predictive…

  18. Test Review: Siegel, B. (2004). "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test--II (PDDST-II)." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; Duncan, C. Randy; Francis, Garnett C.

    2007-01-01

    The "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II)--Early Childhood Screener for Autistic Spectrum Disorders" is a clinical screening tool for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) designed for use by nonspecialist clinicians. It was designed to differentiate children as young as 18 months who…

  19. 2012 cervical cancer screening guidelines and the future role of HPV testing.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Anna M

    2013-03-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary precursor for the development of cervical cancer. Recent data demonstrating the sensitivity of HPV testing has led to consensus group updates of how to best screen women in the United States. The newest recommendations incorporate HPV testing for women 30 to 65 years of age, but do not yet recommend primary screening with HPV testing alone. With the advent of HPV vaccination and consequent shift in the prevalence of HPV-related disease, the role of cervical cytology as primary testing in national screening programs will be further called into question.

  20. Optical testing of a parabolic trough solar collector by a null screen with stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Oliva, V., I.; Campos-Garcia, M.; Granados-Agustin, F.; Arjona-Pérez, M. J.; Díaz-Uribe, R.; Avendaño-Alejo, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this work we report a method for testing a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) based on the null screen principles. For surfaces with symmetry of revolution a cylindrical null screen is used, now, for testing the PTSC we use a flat null screen. The design of the null screen with ellipsoidal spots is described; its image, which is formed by reflection on the test surface, becomes an exact square array of circular spots if the surface is perfect. Any departure from this geometry is indicative of defects on the surface. The flat null screen design and the surface evaluation algorithm are presented. Here the surface is tested in sections and the evaluation of the shape of the surface is performed with stitching method. Results of the evaluation for a square PTSC with 1000 mm by side (F/0.49) are shown.

  1. Property Screening and Evaluation of Ceramic Turbine Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    mailing list, or if the addressee is no longer employed by your organization please notify AFWAL/MLLM, W-PAFB, OH 45433 to help us maintain a current...NUMw-i-R ___ M06054-48 7. AUIŕH(,v) q CO0.4 FRACT OR GRANT NUM AF,(7) D. C. Larsen and J. W. Adams F33615-79-C-5100 9. Pzý.woFR0mHg, ORGANIZATION NAME...Thanks are due the organizations that have contributed test samples to this program. The various .personnel in the organi- zations that have contributed

  2. Comparison of different in vitro tests for biocompatibility screening of Mg alloys.

    PubMed

    Scheideler, L; Füger, C; Schille, C; Rupp, F; Wendel, H-P; Hort, N; Reichel, H P; Geis-Gerstorfer, J

    2013-11-01

    Standard cell culture tests according to ISO 10993 have only limited value for the biocompatibility screening of degradable biomaterials such as Mg alloys. The correlation between in vitro and in vivo results is poor. Standard cytotoxicity tests mimic the clinical situation to only a limited extent, since in vivo proteins and macromolecules in the blood and interstitial liquid will influence the corrosion behaviour and, hence, biocompatibility of Mg alloys to a significant extent. We therefore developed a modified cytotoxicity test simulating the in vivo conditions by use of bovine serum as the extraction vehicle instead of the cell culture medium routinely used in standard cytotoxicity testing according to ISO 10993-5. The modified extraction test was applied to eight experimental Mg alloys. Cytotoxicity was assayed by inhibition of cell metabolic activity (XTT test). When extraction of the alloy samples was performed in serum instead of cell culture medium the metabolic activity was significantly less inhibited for six of the eight alloys. The reduction in apparent cytotoxicity under serum extraction conditions was most pronounced for MgZn1 (109% relative metabolic activity with serum extracts vs. 26% in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)), for MgY4 (103% in serum vs. 32% in DMEM) and for MgAl3Zn1 (84% vs. 17%), resulting in a completely different cytotoxicity ranking of the tested materials when serum extraction was used. We suppose that this test system has the potential to enhance the predictability of in vivo corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility of Mg-based materials for biodegradable medical devices.

  3. Evaluating Material Flammability in Microgravity and Martian Gravity Compared to the NASA Standard Normal Gravity Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oslon, Sandra. L.; Ferkul, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Drop tower tests are conducted at Martian gravity to determine the flammability of three materials compared to previous tests in other normal gravity and reduced gravity environments. The comparison is made with consideration of a modified NASA standard test protocol. Material flammability limits in the different gravity and flow environments are tabulated to determine the factor of safety associated with normal gravity flammability screening. Previous testing at microgravity and Lunar gravity indicated that some materials burned to lower oxygen concentrations in low gravity than in normal gravity, although the low g extinction limit criteria are not the same as 1g due to time constraints in drop testing. Similarly, the data presented in this paper for Martian gravity suggest that there is a gravity level below Earth s at which materials burn more readily than on Earth. If proven for more materials, this may indicate the need to include a factor of safety on 1g flammability limits.

  4. Wiring test program insulation material related properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reher, Heinz-Josef

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of activities at DASA-RI concerning the testing of wires for manned spacecraft, including test facilities, arc-tracking tests, flammability tests, microgravity tests, and standardization, and outlines future activities.

  5. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Oxygen concentrations with various test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Solis, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to increase the versatility of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the use of different test conditions in order to simulate various fire environments. The use of air flow at flow rates of 16 to 48 ml/sec maintains oxygen concentrations above 19 percent throughout the 30 min exposure period, compared to above 16 percent without forced air flow. These levels of oxygen are well within the tolerance range of mice, and approach the oxygen levels found in many real fire situations. Proposed minimum oxygen levels based on experience with rats are unduly restrictive on the use of other species such as mice, and tend to eliminate the cost savings which may more than justify the selection of mice.

  6. Dessicant materials screening for backfill in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, D.R.

    1980-10-01

    Maintaining an anhydrous environment around nuclear waste stored in a salt repository is a concern which can be alleviated by using a desiccant material for backfilling. Such a desiccant should desiccate a brine yet be non deliquescent, the hydrated product should have moderate thermal stability, and the desiccant should have a high capacity and be readily available. From a literature search MgO and CaO were identified for detailed study. These oxides, and an intimate mixture of the two obtained by calcining dolomite, were used in experiments to further determine their suitability. They proved to be excellent desiccants with a high water capacity. The hydrates of both have moderate thermal stability and a high water content. Both MgO and CaO react in an alkaline chloride brine forming oxychloride compounds with different waters of crystallization. Some of these compounds are the Sorel Cements. CaO hydrates to Ca(OH)/sub 2/ which carbonates with CO/sub 2/ in air to form CaCO/sub 3/ and release the hydrated water. Thus the intimate mixture of CaO and MgO from calcined dolomite may serve as a desiccant and remove CO/sub 2/ from the repository atmosphere.

  7. Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillibridge, Sean; Stephan, Ryan; Lee, Steve; He, Hung

    2008-01-01

    Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) poses unique thermal challenges for the orbiting space craft, particularly regarding the performance of the radiators. The emitted infrared (IR) heat flux from the lunar surface varies drastically from the light side to the dark side of the moon. Due to the extremely high incident IR flux, especially at low beta angles, a radiator is oftentimes unable to reject the vehicle heat load throughout the entire lunar orbit. One solution to this problem is to implement Phase Change Material (PCM) Heat Exchangers. PCM Heat Exchangers act as a "thermal capacitor," storing thermal energy when the radiator is unable to reject the required heat load. The stored energy is then removed from the PCM heat exchanger when the environment is more benign. Because they do not use an expendable resource, such as the feed water used by sublimators and evaporators, PCM Heat Exchangers are ideal for long duration Low Lunar Orbit missions. The Advanced Thermal Control project at JSC is completing a PCM heat exchanger life test to determine whether further technology development is warranted. The life test is being conducted on four nPentadecane, carbon filament heat exchangers. Fluid loop performance, repeatability, and measurement of performance degradation over 2500 melt-freeze cycles will be performed and reported in the current document.

  8. Universal screening test based on analysis of circulating organ-enriched microRNAs: a novel approach to diagnostic screening.

    PubMed

    Sheinerman, Kira S; Umansky, Samuil

    2015-03-01

    Early disease detection leads to more effective and cost-efficient treatment. It is especially important for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, because progression of these pathologies leads to significant and frequently irreversible changes in underlying pathophysiological processes. At the same time, the development of specific screening tests for detection of each of the hundreds of human pathologies in asymptomatic stage may be impractical. Here, we discuss a recently proposed concept: the development of minimally invasive Universal Screening Test (UST) based on analysis of organ-enriched microRNAs in plasma and other bodily fluids. The UST is designed to detect the presence of a pathology in particular organ systems, organs, tissues or cell types without diagnosing a specific disease. Once the pathology is detected, more specific, and if necessary invasive and expensive, tests can be administered to precisely define the nature of the disease. Here, we discuss recent studies and analyze the data supporting the UST approach.

  9. An evaluation of chemical screening test kits for lead in paint

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, L.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act (Title X) requires abatement and management of lead-based paint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three chemical screening test kits using materials and methods from one study and subjecting the results to the statistical analysis of another. The three kits were used to predict the presence of lead in paint at ten weight concentrations from 0.04 to 3.97%. Paint was applied to four wood boards yielding a sample size of 40. Four boards were painted with lead-free paint and used as blanks. All of the boards were tested with the three test kits by an untrained individual having no knowledge of the actual lead content. Sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and negative rates were calculated for the test kit results. The manufactures` detection limits, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.80, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.42, false positive ranged from 0 to 58%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. At the 0.5% Federal threshold level, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.94, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.5, false positives ranged from 0 to 11.1%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. The observed false positive and false negative rates for all three kits were found to be significantly lower than those reported in a previous study. These results indicate that the kits perform very well at the Federal threshold, with two of the kits having false negative rates below 12.5% and false positive rates of 3.13%. These results indicate that these two kits would probably be acceptable screening tests for lead in paint.

  10. Identification and Validation of a Brief Test Anxiety Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Segool, Natasha; Putwain, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of test-based accountability policies around the world has increased the pressure placed on students to perform well on state achievement tests. Educational researchers have begun taking a closer look at the reciprocal effects of test anxiety and high-stakes testing. However, existing test anxiety assessments lack efficiency and…

  11. HPV testing for cervical cancer screening appears more cost-effective than Papanicolau cytology in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, David M.; Lőrincz, Attila; Shah, Keerti V.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández, Mauricio; Granados-García, Víctor; Pérez, Ruth; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the incremental costs and effects of different HPV testing strategies, when compared to Papanicolau cytology (Pap), for cervical cancer screening in Mexico. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) examined the specific costs and health outcomes associated with (1) no screening; (2) only the Pap test; (3) only self-administered HPV; (4) only clinician administered HPV; and (5) clinician administered HPV plus the Pap test. The costs of self- and clinician-HPV testing, as well as with the Pap test, were identified and quantified. Costs were reported in 2008 US dollars. The health outcome associated with these screening strategies was defined as the number of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer cases detected. This CEA was performed using the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Morelos, Mexico. Results Screening women between the ages of 30–80 for cervical cancer using clinical-HPV testing or the combination of clinical-HPV testing, and the Pap is always more cost-effective than using the Pap test alone. Conclusions This CEA indicates that HPV testing could be a cost-effective screening alternative for a large health delivery organization such as IMSS. These results may help policy-makers implement HPV testing as part of the IMSS cervical cancer screening program. PMID:21170578

  12. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

    2014-03-04

    A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

  13. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Final report, October 16, 1978-August 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; King, C.F.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Eight crude oils (Southern Louisiana Petroleum, H Coal Syncrude, H Coal Fuel Oil, SRC II, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Paraho Shale Oil and Geokinetics in situ Shale Oil) were distilled into, or have been received, as four fractions for analysis and screening for biological (mutagenicity and tumor initiating) activity. Results of selected analytical tests have been obtained on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Salmonella typhimurium mutation assay and an accelerated tumor initiation-promotion test have been run on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Low boiling (naphtha) fractions of all eight materials showed little or no mutagenicity or skin tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil samples, the latter were similar to the petroleum controls. Few differences were apparent in biological activity between coal derived samples of equivalent boiling range among the various coal liquefaction processes, except that the SRC II naphtha sample showed a degree of acute toxicity through skin absorption not exhibited by the other samples. Generally the results agreed closely for the various samples between the salmonella mutation assay with activation and the skin tumor initiation test.

  14. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... who perform screening functions. 1546.407 Section 1546.407 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... training. This paragraph does not prohibit the performance of screening functions during on-the-job...-job training, a screener trainee must pass the screener readiness test prescribed by TSA. (e)...

  15. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... who perform screening functions. 1546.407 Section 1546.407 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... training. This paragraph does not prohibit the performance of screening functions during on-the-job...-job training, a screener trainee must pass the screener readiness test prescribed by TSA. (e)...

  16. Preference for physician vs. nurse-initiated opt-out screening on HIV test acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kinsler, Janni J; Sayles, Jennifer N; Cunningham, William E; Mahajan, Anish

    2013-01-01

    Provider-initiated opt-out HIV screening suggests that providers should routinely order HIV tests unless a patient declines. However, data on how providers will respond to this new screening model are scarce. Documented concerns from the providers' perspectives have included time constraints of a typical patient encounter, and discomfort with discussing sexual history and risk behavior with patients. To address these potential barriers, nurse-initiated screening has been proposed as an approach to increasing screening rates in general medical and urgent care settings. This study compares patient acceptability of provider-initiated opt-out HIV screening with nurse-initiated opt-out HIV screening among 220 patients between the ages of 18-64 from two publically funded "safety-net" outpatient clinics in Los Angeles County. Our study found that 77% of patients agreed to HIV testing using opt-out screening, and that HIV test acceptance was higher with the physician-initiated opt-out model compared with the nurse-initiated opt-out model (adjusted odds ratios = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.37-6.22). These findings indicate that adding opt-out screening to primary care providers responsibilities may be an acceptable and effective strategy for addressing the perennially low HIV testing rates, particularly among low income, traditionally underserved patient populations among whom the epidemic is expanding most rapidly.

  17. Preschool Developmental Screening with Denver II Test in Semi-Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eratay, Emine; Bayoglu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reliability of screening semi-urban preschool children with Denver II, developmental and neurological status was examined in relation with one-year outcome. Methodology: Denver II developmental screening test was applied to 583 children who visited family physicians or other health centers in a province of…

  18. The Adolescent Health Review: Test of a Computerized Screening Tool in School-Based Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia A.; Beebe, Timothy J.; Funk, Eunkyung; Rancome, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Implemented a computerized screening instrument, the Adolescent Health Review, in urban school-based clinics to test the viability of a stand-alone screening process and its acceptance by patients and providers, examining the relationship between health risks and the stated purpose for the clinic visit. Patients and providers readily accepted the…

  19. Carrier screening for cystic fibrosis in US genetic testing laboratories: a survey of laboratory directors.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, D J; Katsanis, S H; Javitt, G H; Murphy, J A; Scott, J A; Hudson, K L

    2008-10-01

    Initial guidelines for cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier screening were issued in 2001 by the American College of Medical Genetics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and updated in 2004. It is unknown how these guidelines have influenced laboratory practice. This study examined the uptake of two components of these guidelines for CF screening in genetic testing laboratories. A survey of directors of US genetic testing laboratories was conducted. Of 190 respondents, 178 answered questions about CF testing. Nearly half (49%) performed some type of DNA testing for CF; most of these (92%) performed CF carrier screening. Ten percent used a 23-mutation panel for CF screening. The results of 5T tests were reported as a reflex test by 79% of laboratories, while 8% always returned 5T results and 7% never returned them. Seven percent of laboratories adopted both guidelines, 80% adopted one of the two guidelines, and 13% had not adopted either recommendation, suggesting that factors other than clinical guidelines may influence laboratories' CF screening practices. Further studies are needed to determine whether the adoption of CF screening guidelines has significant clinical or economic effects on population-based CF screening programs.

  20. Hardness testing of some fissure-sealing materials.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, H

    1977-11-01

    The mechanical properties of fissure-sealing materials are of significant importance for their durability, i.e. their wear resistance. One of the methods of evaluating a material's resistance to attrition is to apply a hardness test. In the present investigation, the surface hardness of some fissure-sealing materials was tested. Sealants made from diluted composite materials and with inclusion of inorganic filler particles appeared to have a considerable higher surface hardness than the other sealing materials tested.

  1. Detecting Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Deaf People: The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Joanna; Denmark, Tanya; Marshall, Jane; Mummery, Cath; Woll, Bencie

    2015-11-01

    To provide accurate diagnostic screening of deaf people who use signed communication, cognitive tests must be devised in signed languages with normative deaf samples. This article describes the development of the first screening test for the detection of cognitive impairment and dementia in deaf signers. The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test uses standardized video administration to screen cognition using signed, rather than spoken or written, instructions and a large norm-referenced sample of 226 deaf older people. Percentiles are provided for clinical comparison. The tests showed good reliability, content validity, and correlation with age, intellectual ability, and education. Clinical discrimination was shown between the normative sample and 14 deaf patients with dementia. This innovative testing approach transforms the ability to detect dementia in deaf people, avoids the difficulties of using an interpreter, and enables culturally and linguistically sensitive assessment of deaf signers, with international potential for adaptation into other signed languages.

  2. Raman spectroscopy as a simple, rapid, nondestructive screening test for methamphetamine in clandestine laboratory liquids.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Jeremy S; Hatfield, Jennifer A; Kaeff, Tracy L; Ramsey, Christopher R; Robinson, Susan D; Standifer, Allison F

    2013-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy has found increased use in the forensic controlled substances laboratory in recent years due to its rapid and nondestructive analysis capabilities. Here, Raman spectroscopy as a screening test for methamphetamine in clandestine laboratory liquid samples is discussed as a way to improve the efficiency of a laboratory by identifying the most probative samples for further workup among multiple samples submitted for analysis. Solutions of methamphetamine in ethanol, diethyl ether, and Coleman fuel were prepared in concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 10% w/v, and Raman spectra of each were collected. A concentration-dependent Raman peak was observed at 1003 per cm in each solution in 4% w/v and greater solutions. Case samples were analyzed and also found to reliably contain this diagnostic peak when methamphetamine was present. The use of this diagnostic indicator can save the forensic controlled substances laboratory time and materials when analyzing clandestine laboratory liquid submissions.

  3. Early Education Screening Test Battery of Basic Skills Development: Criteria for Personalizing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The development and content of the Early Education Screening Test Battery are described elsewhere (TM 000 184). This report provides norms for the Gross Motor Test (GMO), Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), four scales of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and the Behavior Rating Scale…

  4. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW{sub t} reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz-lamp-heated boilers to screen candidate boiling-stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750{degree}C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot-press-sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric-discharge-machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  5. Fluorescent screens and image processing for the APS linac test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, W.; Ko, K.

    1992-12-01

    A fluorescent screen was used to monitor relative beam position and spot size of a 56-MeV electron beam in the linac test stand. A chromium doped alumina ceramic screen inserted into the beam was monitored by a video camera. The resulting image was captured using a frame grabber and stored into memory. Reconstruction and analysis of the stored image was performed using PV-WAVE. This paper will discuss the hardware and software implementation of the fluorescent screen and imaging system. Proposed improvements for the APS linac fluorescent screens and image processing will also be discussed.

  6. Materials Tested on the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Miria Finckenor, a materials engineer, analyzes samples in her laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. The materials spent several years exposed to the harsh space env...

  7. Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillibridge, Sean; Stephan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) poses unique thermal challenges for the orbiting space craft, particularly regarding the performance of the radiators. The IR environment of the space craft varies drastically from the light side to the dark side of the moon. The result is a situation where a radiator sized for the maximal heat load in the most adverse situation is subject to freezing on the dark side of the orbit. One solution to this problem is to implement Phase Change Material (PCM) Heat Exchangers. PCM Heat Exchangers act as a "thermal capacitor," storing thermal energy when there is too much being produced by the space craft to reject to space, and then feeding that energy back into the thermal loop when conditions are more favorable. Because they do not use an expendable resource, such as the feed water used by sublimators and evaporators, PCM Heat Exchangers are ideal for long duration LLO missions. In order to validate the performance of PCM Heat Exchangers, a life test is being conducted on four n-Pentadecane, carbon filament heat exchangers. Fluid loop performance, repeatability, and measurement of performance degradation over 2500 melt-freeze cycles will be performed.

  8. On the estimation of disease prevalence by latent class models for screening studies using two screening tests with categorical disease status verified in test positives only.

    PubMed

    Chu, Haitao; Zhou, Yijie; Cole, Stephen R; Ibrahim, Joseph G

    2010-05-20

    To evaluate the probabilities of a disease state, ideally all subjects in a study should be diagnosed by a definitive diagnostic or gold standard test. However, since definitive diagnostic tests are often invasive and expensive, it is generally unethical to apply them to subjects whose screening tests are negative. In this article, we consider latent class models for screening studies with two imperfect binary diagnostic tests and a definitive categorical disease status measured only for those with at least one positive screening test. Specifically, we discuss a conditional-independent and three homogeneous conditional-dependent latent class models and assess the impact of misspecification of the dependence structure on the estimation of disease category probabilities using frequentist and Bayesian approaches. Interestingly, the three homogeneous-dependent models can provide identical goodness-of-fit but substantively different estimates for a given study. However, the parametric form of the assumed dependence structure itself is not 'testable' from the data, and thus the dependence structure modeling considered here can only be viewed as a sensitivity analysis concerning a more complicated non-identifiable model potentially involving a heterogeneous dependence structure. Furthermore, we discuss Bayesian model averaging together with its limitations as an alternative way to partially address this particularly challenging problem. The methods are applied to two cancer screening studies, and simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of these methods. In summary, further research is needed to reduce the impact of model misspecification on the estimation of disease prevalence in such settings.

  9. Harms, benefits and costs of fecal immunochemical testing versus guaiac fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Goede, S. Lucas; Rabeneck, Linda; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.; Paszat, Lawrence F.; Hoch, Jeffrey S.; Yong, Jean H. E.; Kroep, Sonja; Tinmouth, Jill; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Background The ColonCancerCheck screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Ontario, Canada, is considering switching from biennial guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) screening between age 50–74 years to the more sensitive, but also less specific fecal immunochemical test (FIT). The aim of this study is to estimate whether the additional benefits of FIT screening compared to gFOBT outweigh the additional costs and harms. Methods We used microsimulation modeling to estimate quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and costs of gFOBT and FIT, compared to no screening, in a cohort of screening participants. We compared strategies with various age ranges, screening intervals, and cut-off levels for FIT. Cost-efficient strategies were determined for various levels of available colonoscopy capacity. Results Compared to no screening, biennial gFOBT screening between age 50–74 years provided 20 QALYs at a cost of CAN$200,900 per 1,000 participants, and required 17 colonoscopies per 1,000 participants per year. FIT screening was more effective and less costly. For the same level of colonoscopy requirement, biennial FIT (with a high cut-off level of 200 ng Hb/ml) between age 50–74 years provided 11 extra QALYs gained while saving CAN$333,300 per 1000 participants, compared to gFOBT. Without restrictions in colonoscopy capacity, FIT (with a low cut-off level of 50 ng Hb/ml) every year between age 45–80 years was the most cost-effective strategy providing 27 extra QALYs gained per 1000 participants, while saving CAN$448,300. Interpretation Compared to gFOBT screening, switching to FIT at a high cut-off level could increase the health benefits of a CRC screening program without considerably increasing colonoscopy demand. PMID:28296927

  10. Counseling and testing for HIV prevention: costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness of more rapid screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, P G; Gorsky, R D; Holtgrave, D R; Jones, W K; Guinan, M E

    1996-01-01

    New rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests permit many individuals to receive test results and appropriate counseling at one clinic visit. Because currently used tests require significant time for processing, all individuals must return for a second visit for test results and counseling. Since return rates for the second visit are low, the more rapid tests present an opportunity to improve the efficiency of HIV counseling and testing. The authors compared the costs and effectiveness of the currently used counseling and testing procedure and a streamlined procedure made possible by the new, more rapid screening tests. When test-positive clients are given preliminary screening test results, the rapid procedure is more cost-effective than the current procedure. Since over 90% of the clients in most clinics will test negative, the rapid counseling and testing procedure allows the vast majority of clients to be counseled and tested and to receive their results and posttest counseling in one visit. However, in the case where the goal of HIV counseling and testing is to focus only on infected individuals, if information regarding a positive result from the rapid screening test is not given to clients at the initial visit before a confirmatory test is performed, then the rapid counseling and testing procedure is not more cost-effective than the current procedure. PMID:8610190

  11. Electronic screening for mental health in rural primary care: feasibility and user testing.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Sarah P; Zerull, Lisa M; Mahone, Irma H; Guerlain, Stephanie; Akan, Doruk; Hauenstein, Emily; Schorling, John

    2009-01-01

    Despite attention to prevention and screening for depression and alcohol use, Healthy People 2010 objectives continue to include goals to increase the detection of depression and decrease the rates of alcohol abuse. These problems remain significant. The overall goal of this study was to develop a computer-based electronic screening (eScreening) tool and determine the feasibility of implementing computer-based eScreening technology for rural visitors to a primary care clinic. The study called specifically for an electronic touch screen with voice prompts. This tool, called the eScreening tool, screens for alcohol abuse and depression among rural patients in a primary care setting. The screening was offered to rural adults who are not in acute distress and not at end of life, regardless of their stated reason for seeking medical care. Phase 1 of the pilot was used to determine the perceptions of nurses, other providers, and consumers regarding the acceptability and perceived usefulness of an eScreening tool. Phase 2 involved user testing of the eScreening tool. The longer term goals of the research program are to work with rural nurses to improve patient outcomes and develop interventions and for educational, consultation, and/or direct clinical care.

  12. Trusted materials using orthogonal testing. 2015 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to prove (or disprove) that a reasonable number of simple tests can be used to provide a unique data signature for materials, changes in which could serve as a harbinger of material deviation, prompting further evaluations. The routine tests are mutually orthogonal to any currently required materials specification tests.

  13. Radon testing behavior in a sample of individuals with high home radon screening measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W.; Kross, B.C.; Vust, L.J. )

    1993-08-01

    Although radon exposure has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer, fewer than 6% of US homeowners test their homes for radon. This report examines participants' follow-up radon testing behavior subsequent to receiving an initial screening radon level greater than 20 pCi/L. Sixty-two participants in the Iowa State-Wide Rural Radon Screening Survey who had radon screening measurements over 20 pCi/L were questioned by phone survey 3 months after receipt of their radon screening result to assess: whether participants were aware of radon's health risk; if participants recalled the radon screening results; how participants perceived the relative health risk of radon and whether participants planned follow-up radon testing. Only 19% of the respondents specifically identified lung cancer as the possible adverse health outcome of high radon exposure, and the majority of participants underestimated the health risks high radon levels pose when compared to cigarettes and x-rays. In addition, less than one third (29%) of the participants actually remembered their radon screening level within 10 pCi/L 3 months after receiving their screening results. Only 53% of the individuals correctly interpreted their screening radon level as being in the high range, and only 39% of the participants planned follow-up radon measurements. Receipt of radon screening test results indicating high radon levels was not an adequate motivational factor in itself to stimulate further radon assessment or mitigation. The findings suggest that free radon screening will not result in a dramatic increase in subsequent homeowner initiated remediation or further recommended radon testing. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K; Ault, Kevin A; Chelmow, David; Davey, Diane D; Goulart, Robert A; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kinney, Walter K; Massad, L Stewart; Mayeaux, Edward J; Saslow, Debbie; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lawson, Herschel W; Einstein, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated screening guidelines for the early detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Recommended screening strategies were cytology and cotesting (cytology in combination with hrHPV testing). These guidelines also addressed the use of hrHPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, which was not recommended for use at that time. There is now a growing body of evidence for screening with primary hrHPV testing, including a prospective US-based registration study. Thirteen experts including representatives from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Cancer Society, American Society of Cytopathology, College of American Pathologists, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, convened to provide interim guidance for primary hrHPV screening. This guidance panel was specifically triggered by an application to the FDA for a currently marketed HPV test to be labeled for the additional indication of primary cervical cancer screening. Guidance was based on literature review and review of data from the FDA registration study, supplemented by expert opinion. This document aims to provide information for healthcare providers who are interested in primary hrHPV testing and an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this strategy for screening as well as to highlight areas in need of further investigation.

  15. Relative toxicity testing of spacecraft materials. 2: Aircraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    The relative toxicity of thermodegradation (pyrolysis/combustion) products of aircraft materials was studied. Two approaches were taken to assess the biological activity of the pyrolysis/combustion products of these materials: (1) determine the acute lethality to rats from inhalation of these pyrolysates and (2) examine the tendency for sublethal exposure to the pyrolysates to disrupt behavioral (shock avoidance) performance of exposed rats. The ralative importance of lethality vs. behavioral effects in selection of a material may be dictated by whether or not individuals potentially exposed to such products, would have an opportunity to escape if they were behaviorally capable of doing so. If so, the second parameter would assume greater importance, but if not the first parameter may be of much greater importance in selecting materials.

  16. Preparation and screening of crystalline zeolite and hydrothermally-synthesized materials

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy; Briceno, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

    2005-03-08

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  17. National Transonic Facility Fan Blade prepreg material characterization tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, P. J.; Richards, W. H.; Ahl, E. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The test program for the basic prepreg materials used in process development work and planned fabrication of the national transonic facility fan blade is presented. The basic prepreg materials and the design laminate are characterized at 89 K, room temperature, and 366 K. Characterization tests, test equipment, and test data are discussed. Material tests results in the warp direction are given for tensile, compressive, fatigue (tension-tension), interlaminar shear and thermal expansion.

  18. USE OF THE LABORATORY RAT AS A MODEL IN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening and testing program the US Environmental Protection Agency is currently developing to detect endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. EDCs have been shown to alter the following activities: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG] function; estrogen, androge...

  19. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY - OBJECTIVE 2: DEVELOPING APPROACHES FOR PRIORITIZING CHEMICALS FOR SUBSEQUENT SCREENING AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic objectives of the Computational Toxicology Program is to develop approaches for prioritizing chemicals for subsequent screening and testing. Approaches currently available for this process require extensive resources. Therefore, less costly and time-extensi...

  20. 77 FR 4544 - CPSC Symposium on Phthalates Screening and Testing Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ...(a)(2)) defines a ``children's product'' as a consumer product designed or intended primarily for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CPSC Symposium on Phthalates Screening and Testing Methods AGENCY: Consumer Product...

  1. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE OR REPLACE THE USE OF ANIMALS IN THE ENDOCRINE SCREENING AND TESTING PROGRAM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone synthesis and androgen (AR...

  2. Improving the biomarker pipeline to develop and evaluate cancer screening tests.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stuart G

    2009-08-19

    The biomarker pipeline to develop and evaluate cancer screening tests has three stages: identification of promising biomarkers for the early detection of cancer, initial evaluation of biomarkers for cancer screening, and definitive evaluation of biomarkers for cancer screening. Statistical and biological issues to improve this pipeline are discussed. Although various recommendations, such as identifying cases based on clinical symptoms, keeping biomarker tests simple, and adjusting for postscreening noise, have been made previously, they are not widely known. New recommendations include more frequent specimen collection to help identify promising biomarkers and the use of the paired availability design with interval cases (symptomatic cancers detected in the interval after screening) for initial evaluation of biomarkers for cancer screening.

  3. A simplified screening test for identifying people with low vision in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, J. E.; Lovie-Kitchin, J. E.; Maclean, H.; Taylor, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    Simple but effective tests have been produced for screening subjects with low vision in developing countries. These tests of distance and near vision, based on the E test, were evaluated and validated in trials with people aged 4-90 years, and have been field tested in the health, education and rehabilitation services in 32 developing countries. Their sensitivity and specificity as screening tools for low vision have been calculated; sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 96% for the distance vision test, and sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 84% for the near vision test. The content and format of the tests have been demonstrated to be appropriate for developing countries, and their effectiveness for screening for low vision has been confirmed. PMID:9002333

  4. Toward Joint Hypothesis-Tests Seismic Event Screening Analysis: Ms|mb and Event Depth

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale; Selby, Neil

    2012-08-14

    Well established theory can be used to combine single-phenomenology hypothesis tests into a multi-phenomenology event screening hypothesis test (Fisher's and Tippett's tests). Commonly used standard error in Ms:mb event screening hypothesis test is not fully consistent with physical basis. Improved standard error - Better agreement with physical basis, and correctly partitions error to include Model Error as a component of variance, correctly reduces station noise variance through network averaging. For 2009 DPRK test - Commonly used standard error 'rejects' H0 even with better scaling slope ({beta} = 1, Selby et al.), improved standard error 'fails to rejects' H0.

  5. SRM propellant and polymer materials structural test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Carleton J.

    1988-01-01

    The SRM propellant and polymer materials structural test program has potentially wide application to the testing and structural analysis of polymer materials and other materials generally characterized as being made of viscoelastic materials. The test program will provide a basis for characterization of the dynamic failure criteria for Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) propellant, insulation, inhibitor and liners. This experimental investigation will also endeavor to obtain a consistent complete set of materials test data. This test will be used to improve and revise the presently used theoretical math models for SRM propellant, insulators, inhibitor, liners, and O-ring seals.

  6. Discriminant validity of the Visual Motor Integration Test in screening children with handwriting dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shao-Hsia; Yu, Nan-Ying

    2009-12-01

    To examine the discriminant validity of the Visual Motor Integration test in screening children with handwriting dysfunction, 599 children in Grade 2, including 41 children with handwriting dysfunction identified by their teachers and 558 typically developing children, were assessed. The Visual Motor Integration test, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.894), showed high accuracy regarding screening purposes. Judging from the values for sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, hit rate, Youden's index, and odds ratio, a standard score of 85 was the best cutoff point for screening children for handwriting dysfunction.

  7. NSGC practice guideline: prenatal screening and diagnostic testing options for chromosome aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K L; Czerwinski, J L; Hoskovec, J M; Noblin, S J; Sullivan, C M; Harbison, A; Campion, M W; Devary, K; Devers, P; Singletary, C N

    2013-02-01

    The BUN and FASTER studies, two prospective multicenter trials in the United States, validated the accuracy and detection rates of first and second trimester screening previously reported abroad. These studies, coupled with the 2007 release of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Practice Bulletin that endorsed first trimester screening as an alternative to traditional second trimester multiple marker screening, led to an explosion of screening options available to pregnant women. ACOG also recommended that invasive diagnostic testing for chromosome aneuploidy be made available to all women regardless of maternal age. More recently, another option known as Non-invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) became available to screen for chromosome aneuploidy. While screening and testing options may be limited due to a variety of factors, healthcare providers need to be aware of the options in their area in order to provide their patients with accurate and reliable information. If not presented clearly, patients may feel overwhelmed at the number of choices available. The following guideline includes recommendations for healthcare providers regarding which screening or diagnostic test should be offered based on availability, insurance coverage, and timing of a patient's entry into prenatal care, as well as a triage assessment so that a general process can be adapted to unique situations.

  8. Astrophysical tests of gravity: a screening map of the nearby universe

    SciTech Connect

    Cabré, Anna; Vikram, Vinu; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: vinu@sas.upenn.edu E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu

    2012-07-01

    Astrophysical tests of modified gravity theories in the nearby universe have been emphasized recently by Hui 2009 and Jain 2011. A key element of such tests is the screening mechanism whereby general relativity is restored in massive halos or high density environments like the Milky Way. In chameleon theories of gravity, including all f(R) models, field dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and therefore feel an extra force, as opposed to screened galaxies. The first step to study differences between screened and unscreened galaxies is to create a 3D screening map. We use N-body simulations to test and calibrate simple approximations to determine the level of screening in galaxy catalogs. Sources of systematic errors in the screening map due to observational inaccuracies are modeled and their contamination is estimated. We then apply our methods to create a map out to 200 Mpc in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint using data from the Sloan survey and other sources. In two companion papers this map will be used to carry out new tests of gravity using distance indicators and the disks of dwarf galaxies. We also make our screening map publicly available.

  9. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  12. Method and apparatus for testing surface characteristics of a material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David L. (Inventor); Kersker, Karl D. (Inventor); Richardson, David E. (Inventor); Stratton, Troy C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method, apparatus and system for testing characteristics of a material sample is provided. The system includes an apparatus configured to house the material test sample while defining a sealed volume against a surface of the material test sample. A source of pressurized fluid is in communication with, and configured to pressurize, the sealed volume. A load applying apparatus is configured to apply a defined load to the material sample while the sealed volume is monitored for leakage of the pressurized fluid. Thus, the inducement of surface defects such as microcracking and crazing may be detected and their effects analyzed for a given material. The material test samples may include laminar structures formed of, for example, carbon cloth phenolic, glass cloth phenolic, silica cloth phenolic materials or carbon-carbon materials. In one embodiment the system may be configured to analyze the material test sample while an across-ply loading is applied thereto.

  13. [Return for HIV test results after voluntary screening in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Ngangue, Patrice-Alain; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Bedard, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs, perceptions and attitudes that may influence the return for test results after voluntary HIV testing in six district hospitals of the city of Douala in Cameroon.Methods: A qualitative study based on theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and using semi-structured interviews (N = 33) was conducted among individuals who underwent a voluntary HIV test in the prevention and voluntary testing and counselling centres (PVTCCs) located in six district hospitals of the city of Douala in Cameroon.Results: Participants identified a) seven advantages to return for their results (e.g., “knowing about my health condition,” “take the medication in the case of a positive result “and four disadvantages (e.g., fear of positive result); b) four groups of people that may influence their decision to return for HIV test results (e.g., family, friends/colleagues; c) one barrier (lack of time) and four factors that can facilitate return for the results after an HIV testing (e.g., the career project).Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that individuals who voluntarily undergo an HIV test in PVTCCs of the Douala district hospitals in Cameroon perceived real advantages and very few disadvantages and barriers to know their HIV status. Particular attention should be given to organizational factors that may be responsible for failure to return for HIV test results and post-test counselling.

  14. Administering Cognitive Tests Through Touch Screen Tablet Devices: Potential Issues.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Amy; Lindsay, Stephen; Eslambolchilar, Parisa; Thornton, Ian M; Tales, Andrea

    2016-10-04

    Mobile technologies, such as tablet devices, open up new possibilities for health-related diagnosis, monitoring, and intervention for older adults and healthcare practitioners. Current evaluations of cognitive integrity typically occur within clinical settings, such as memory clinics, using pen and paper or computer-based tests. In the present study, we investigate the challenges associated with transferring such tests to touch-based, mobile technology platforms from an older adult perspective. Problems may include individual variability in technical familiarity and acceptance; various factors influencing usability; acceptability; response characteristics and thus validity per se of a given test. For the results of mobile technology-based tests of reaction time to be valid and related to disease status rather than extraneous variables, it is imperative the whole test process is investigated in order to determine potential effects before the test is fully developed. Researchers have emphasized the importance of including the 'user' in the evaluation of such devices; thus we performed a focus group-based qualitative assessment of the processes involved in the administration and performance of a tablet-based version of a typical test of attention and information processing speed (a multi-item localization task), to younger and older adults. We report that although the test was regarded positively, indicating that using a tablet for the delivery of such tests is feasible, it is important for developers to consider factors surrounding user expectations, performance feedback, and physical response requirements and to use this information to inform further research into such applications.

  15. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening

    PubMed Central

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  16. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  17. The use of kinetic modelling as a fast way to screen thermal endurance of space materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, M.; Heltzel, S.; Semprimoschnig, C.; Garcia Martin, G.

    2003-09-01

    Currently planned missions of ESA (European Space Agency) to the inner part of the solar system will require the use of materials at an extreme radiation and temperature environment. A major concern regarding the selection of these materials is the thermal behaviour and the thermal stability. In this paper two kinetic models, the one following the ASTM E 1641 and ASTM E 1877 standards and the other following the Model Free Kinetics (MFK) approach, are presented. These models allow an easy and fast way to screen the thermal endurance of organic materials by running Thermo Gravimetric Analyses (TGA) temperature scans.

  18. Pathogen-tested, or certified planting material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certification programs have been developed to provide plant material that meets a predetermined level of plant health. The primary objective of these programs is to limit pathogen incidence in plant material in order to minimize losses by growers. For many fruit and nut crops plantings are expecte...

  19. Outreach sexual infection screening and postal tests in men who have sex with men: are they comparable to clinic screening?

    PubMed

    Wood, Martyn; Ellks, Rachael; Grobicki, Moira

    2015-05-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher rates of poor sexual health. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has produced guidance on increasing the uptake of HIV testing to reduce undiagnosed infection in MSM. We report the results of a pilot outreach sexually transmitted infection service using nurse-delivered screening and self-sampled postal testing at a sex on premises venue with comparison made against a sexual health clinic service. Thirty men were included in each group. Users of the nurse-delivered and postal services were older (nurse service median age 57.5 years vs. postal kit service 47 years vs. clinic 35.5 years, p ≤ 0.001). Outreach groups were less likely to have undertaken sexually transmitted infection testing previously than the clinic group (53.3% and 60% vs. 93.3%, p ≤ 0.001). Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae testing uptake was comparable across groups (nurse outreach 86.6%, 'do it yourself' postal kit 100% vs. clinic 100%, p = 0.032), but uptake for blood tests was lower in the postal kit group (nurse outreach 83.3%, postal kit 53.3% vs. clinic 100%, p ≤ 0.001). No significant difference in active sexually transmitted infection positivity across the groups was observed. This combination outreach screening approach is effective in targeting MSM who use sex on premises venues.

  20. Survey of hazardous materials used in nuclear testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, E.A.; Fabryka-Martin, J.

    1991-02-01

    The use of hazardous'' materials in routine underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site has been reviewed. In addition the inventory of test yields, originally reported in 1976 has been updated. A trail down-hole inventory'' has been conducted for a selected test. The inorganic hazardous materials introduced during testing (with the exception of lead and the fissionable materials) produce an incremental change in the quantity of such materials already present in the geologic media surrounding the test points. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  1. Cervical cancer screening of HPV vaccinated populations: Cytology, molecular testing, both or none.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Mariam; Richardson, Lyndsay; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer control includes primary prevention through vaccination to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and secondary prevention through screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. This review summarizes the evidence for the population impact of vaccines against oncogenic HPV types in reducing the prevalence of cervical precancerous lesions. We examine the gradual shift in screening technology from cervical cytology alone to cytology and HPV cotesting, and finally to the recognition that HPV testing can serve alone as the new screening paradigm, particularly in the initial post-vaccination era. We should expect an impact on screening performance and practices, as cohorts of HPV-vaccinated girls and adolescents reach cervical cancer screening age. In preparation for changes in the screening paradigm for the vaccination era, we propose that policymaking on cervical cancer screening should mirror current practices with other cancers as benchmarks. Cervical precancerous lesions will become a very rare condition following the widespread implementation of HPV vaccines with broader coverage in the number of preventable oncogenic types. Irrespective of screening technology, the false positive results will far outnumber the true positive ones, a tipping point that will herald a new period when the harms from cervical cancer screening will outweigh its benefits. We present a conceptual framework to guide decision making when we reach this point within 25-30 years.

  2. Predictive Properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test within Samples from Two Treatment Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerji, Madhabi

    The predictive properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRT) were examined, taking into account the stated purposes of the test and the context of test use. Two samples were used: (1) a control sample of 55 students (21 males and 34 females) whose GSRT scores were not used for placement or tracking; and (2) a treatment sample of…

  3. Preliminary Report on a National Cross-Validation of the Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Deirdre J.; Pliske, Rebecca M.

    A study was conducted to validate the Army's Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST), using data from 2,240 applicants from 60 army recruiting stations across the nation. CAST is a computer-assisted adaptive test used to predict performance on the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT). AFQT scores are computed by adding four subtest scores of…

  4. The Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) as a Predictor of Third-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichta, Lawrence J., Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated the Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) using a sample of 28 third graders. The third graders' scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test were correlated with their total STAR scores from prekindergarten testing. Results showed the STAR is a useful instrument for predicting third grade achievement. (Author/JAC)

  5. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  6. Jules Horowitz Reactor: a high performance material testing reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iracane, Daniel; Chaix, Pascal; Alamo, Ana

    2008-04-01

    The physical modelling of materials' behaviour under severe conditions is an indispensable element for developing future fission and fusion systems: screening, design, optimisation, processing, licensing, and lifetime assessment of a new generation of structure materials and fuels, which will withstand high fast neutron flux at high in-service temperatures with the production of elements like helium and hydrogen. JANNUS and other analytical experimental tools are developed for this objective. However, a purely analytical approach is not sufficient: there is a need for flexible experiments integrating higher scales and coupled phenomena and offering high quality measurements; these experiments are performed in material testing reactors (MTR). Moreover, complementary representative experiments are usually performed in prototypes or dedicated facilities such as IFMIF for fusion. Only such a consistent set of tools operating on a wide range of scales, can provide an actual prediction capability. A program such as the development of silicon carbide composites (600-1200 °C) illustrates this multiscale strategy. Facing the long term needs of experimental irradiations and the ageing of present MTRs, it was thought necessary to implement a new generation high performance MTR in Europe for supporting existing and future nuclear reactors. The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) project copes with this context. It is funded by an international consortium and will start operation in 2014. JHR will provide improved performances such as high neutron flux ( 10 n/cm/s above 0.1 MeV) in representative environments (coolant, pressure, temperature) with online monitoring of experimental parameters (including stress and strain control). Experimental devices designing, such as high dpa and small thermal gradients experiments, is now a key objective requiring a broad collaboration to put together present scientific state of art, end-users requirements and advanced instrumentation. To cite this

  7. Automated screening of propulsion system test data by neural networks, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, W. Andes; Whitehead, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of propulsion system test and flight performance data involves reviewing an extremely large volume of sensor data generated by each test. An automated system that screens large volumes of data and identifies propulsion system parameters which appear unusual or anomalous will increase the productivity of data analysis. Data analysts may then focus on a smaller subset of anomalous data for further evaluation of propulsion system tests. Such an automated data screening system would give NASA the benefit of a reduction in the manpower and time required to complete a propulsion system data evaluation. A phase 1 effort to develop a prototype data screening system is reported. Neural networks will detect anomalies based on nominal propulsion system data only. It appears that a reasonable goal for an operational system would be to screen out 95 pct. of the nominal data, leaving less than 5 pct. needing further analysis by human experts.

  8. Adaptation of high-throughput screening in drug discovery-toxicological screening tests.

    PubMed

    Szymański, Paweł; Markowicz, Magdalena; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the newest techniques used in drug design and may be applied in biological and chemical sciences. This method, due to utilization of robots, detectors and software that regulate the whole process, enables a series of analyses of chemical compounds to be conducted in a short time and the affinity of biological structures which is often related to toxicity to be defined. Since 2008 we have implemented the automation of this technique and as a consequence, the possibility to examine 100,000 compounds per day. The HTS method is more frequently utilized in conjunction with analytical techniques such as NMR or coupled methods e.g., LC-MS/MS. Series of studies enable the establishment of the rate of affinity for targets or the level of toxicity. Moreover, researches are conducted concerning conjugation of nanoparticles with drugs and the determination of the toxicity of such structures. For these purposes there are frequently used cell lines. Due to the miniaturization of all systems, it is possible to examine the compound's toxicity having only 1-3 mg of this compound. Determination of cytotoxicity in this way leads to a significant decrease in the expenditure and to a reduction in the length of the study.

  9. Adaptation of High-Throughput Screening in Drug Discovery—Toxicological Screening Tests

    PubMed Central

    Szymański, Paweł; Markowicz, Magdalena; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the newest techniques used in drug design and may be applied in biological and chemical sciences. This method, due to utilization of robots, detectors and software that regulate the whole process, enables a series of analyses of chemical compounds to be conducted in a short time and the affinity of biological structures which is often related to toxicity to be defined. Since 2008 we have implemented the automation of this technique and as a consequence, the possibility to examine 100,000 compounds per day. The HTS method is more frequently utilized in conjunction with analytical techniques such as NMR or coupled methods e.g., LC-MS/MS. Series of studies enable the establishment of the rate of affinity for targets or the level of toxicity. Moreover, researches are conducted concerning conjugation of nanoparticles with drugs and the determination of the toxicity of such structures. For these purposes there are frequently used cell lines. Due to the miniaturization of all systems, it is possible to examine the compound’s toxicity having only 1–3 mg of this compound. Determination of cytotoxicity in this way leads to a significant decrease in the expenditure and to a reduction in the length of the study. PMID:22312262

  10. Status of the irradiation test vehicle for testing fusion materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Palmer, A.J.; Ingram, F.W.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1998-09-01

    The design of the irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been completed. The main application for the ITV is irradiation testing of candidate fusion structural materials, including vanadium-base alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low-activation steels. Construction of the vehicle is underway at the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO). Dummy test trains are being built for system checkout and fine-tuning. Reactor insertion of the ITV with the dummy test trains is scheduled for fall 1998. Barring unexpected difficulties, the ITV will be available for experiments in early 1999.

  11. Europa Missions: Generic Materials Test Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses: radiation fundamentals, radiation damage, how radiation dosage is determined, fluence testing approaches, ionization damage exposure, displacement damage exposure, Europa energy "bins", rationale for group flux (energy bins), electron/proton group fluences, electron beam exposure testing, proton sources, reactor exposures, gamma exposures, preliminary exposure findings, testing caveats, preliminary conclusions, internal discharge, and electron dose depth curves.

  12. The Possible Effects on Socio-Economic Inequalities of Introducing HPV Testing as Primary Test in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Baldacchini, Flavia; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. Aim: To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the introduction of HPV-based screening. Methods: The putative HPV-based screening algorithm has been analyzed to identify critical points for inequalities. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted searching PubMed on HPV screening coverage, participation, and compliance. Results were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Results: Knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was lower in women with low socio-economic status and in disadvantaged groups. A correct communication can reduce differences. Longer intervals will make it easier to achieve high-population coverage, but higher cost of the test in private providers could reduce the use of opportunistic screening by disadvantaged women. There are some evidences that inviting for HPV test instead of Pap increases participation, but there are no data on social differences. Self-sampling devices are effective in increasing participation and coverage. Some studies showed that the acceptability of self-sampling is higher in more educated women, but there is also an effect on hard-to-reach women. Communication of HPV positivity may increase anxiety and impact on sexual behaviors, the effect is stronger in low educated and disadvantaged women. Finally, many studies found indirect evidence that unvaccinated women are or will be more probably under-screened. Conclusion: The introduction of HPV test may increase population coverage, but non-compliance to protocols and interaction with opportunistic screening can increase the

  13. Neither One-Time Negative Screening Tests nor Negative Colposcopy Provides Absolute Reassurance against Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Rodríguez, Ana C.; Burk, Robert D.; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Solomon, Diane; Sherman, Mark E.; Jeronimo, Jose; Alfaro, Mario; Morales, Jorge; Guillén, Diego; Hutchinson, Martha L.; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A population sample of 10,049 women living in Guanacaste, Costa Rica was recruited into a natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia study in 1993–4. At the enrollment visit, we applied multiple state-of-the-art cervical cancer screening methods to detect prevalent cervical cancer and to prevent subsequent cervical cancers by the timely detection and treatment of precancerous lesions. Women were screened at enrollment with 3 kinds of cytology (often reviewed by more than one pathologist), visual inspection, and Cervicography. Any positive screening test led to colposcopic referral and biopsy and/or excisional treatment of CIN2 or worse. We retrospectively tested stored specimens with an early HPV test (Hybrid Capture Tube Test) and for >40 HPV genotypes using a research PCR assay. We followed women typically 5–7 years and some up to 11 years. Nonetheless, sixteen cases of invasive cervical cancer were diagnosed during follow-up. Six cancer cases were failures at enrollment to detect abnormalities by cytology screening; three of the six were also negative at enrollment by sensitive HPV DNA testing. Seven cancers represent failures of colposcopy to diagnose cancer or a precancerous lesion in screen-positive women. Finally, three cases arose despite attempted excisional treatment of precancerous lesions. Based on this evidence, we suggest that no current secondary cervical cancer prevention technologies applied once in a previously under-screened population is likely to be 100% efficacious in preventing incident diagnoses of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:19569231

  14. Cost-Effectiveness between Double and Single Fecal Immunochemical Test(s) in a Mass Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shan-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Huang, Yan-Qin; Li, Qi-Long; Ma, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Zheng, Shu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the cost-effectiveness between double and single Fecal Immunochemical Test(s) (FIT) in a mass CRC screening. A two-stage sequential screening was conducted. FIT was used as a primary screening test and recommended twice by an interval of one week at the first screening stage. We defined the first-time FIT as FIT1 and the second-time FIT as FIT2. If either FIT1 or FIT2 was positive (+), then a colonoscopy was recommended at the second stage. Costs were recorded and analyzed. A total of 24,419 participants completed either FIT1 or FIT2. The detection rate of advanced neoplasm was 19.2% among both FIT1+ and FIT2+, especially high among men with age ≥55 (27.4%). About 15.4% CRC, 18.9% advanced neoplasm, and 29.9% adenoma missed by FIT1 were detected by FIT2 alone. Average cost was $2,935 for double FITs and $2,121 for FIT1 to detect each CRC and $901 for double FITs and $680 for FIT1 to detect each advanced neoplasm. Double FITs are overall more cost-effective, having significantly higher positive and detection rates with an acceptable higher cost, than single FIT. Double FITs should be encouraged for the first screening in a mass CRC screening, especially in economically and medically underserved populations/areas/countries. PMID:27144171

  15. Double Cantilever Beam Fracture Toughness Testing of Several Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Jeff A.; Adams, Donald F.

    1992-01-01

    Double-cantilever beam fracture toughness tests were performed by the Composite Materials Research Group on several different unidirectional composite materials provided by NASA Langley Research Center. The composite materials consisted of Hercules IM-7 carbon fiber and various matrix resin formulations. Multiple formulations of four different families of matrix resins were tested: LaRC - ITPI, LaRC - IA, RPT46T, and RP67/RP55. Report presents the materials tested and pertinent details supplied by NASA. For each material, three replicate specimens were tested. Multiple crack extensions were performed on each replicate.

  16. Ballistic Testing of Personnel Armor Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-06

    Identity by block number) 7e)scribes methods for evaluating the resistance of personnel armor material. to perforation by attacking projectile fragments... armor vests, face shields , torso shield , leg armor , and protective suits. It is relatively light in weight, usually between 1/4 and 4 pounds per square...quantitative measures of the ability of body armor materials to completely stop or reduce the velocity (therefore lethality) of attacking fragments of various

  17. Primary HPV testing: a proposal for co-testing in initial rounds of screening to optimise sensitivity of cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Herbert, A

    2017-02-01

    As explained by Kitchener in a previous issue of Cytopathology (2015;26:4-6), primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is likely to be introduced in the UK for all women aged 25-64 years following pilot site studies already in place. This will be necessary when the prevalence of cervical cancer and its precursors declines when vaccination takes effect but there is a risk in abandoning cytology as a primary test: a risk that would be most apparent in the present unvaccinated population in which the prevalence of cervical cancer and its precursors is exceptionally high. HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology but has a significant false-negative rate that could be detrimental to a successful screening programme if introduced without cytology backup. Accurate cytology would be needed for triage and could be compromised if HPV-negative tests were excluded from examination. This article proposes a compromise: cytology and HPV co-testing for the first two screening tests to optimise the sensitivity of the test as a whole. Registrations of invasive and in situ carcinoma of the uterine cervix in England indicate that the prevalence of the disease is highest in young women in the early rounds of screening. Calculations of the likely impact on the workload of this proposal have been based on a service evaluation of 295 cytology tests received at St Thomas' Hospital, which suggests that the volume of cytology tests would be reduced by approximately 60% compared with 80% for primary HPV testing alone. This proposal should be debated openly before irrevocable changes are made to a skilled workforce.

  18. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) for Infection with Treponema pallidum (Syphilis),'' dated October 2013. The draft guidance document provides establishments that make donor eligibility......

  19. Validation of a Low-Cost Paper-Based Screening Test for Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Piety, Nathaniel Z.; Yang, Xiaoxi; Kanter, Julie; Vignes, Seth M.; George, Alex; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The high childhood mortality and life-long complications associated with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in developing countries could be significantly reduced with effective prophylaxis and education if SCA is diagnosed early in life. However, conventional laboratory methods used for diagnosing SCA remain prohibitively expensive and impractical in this setting. This study describes the clinical validation of a low-cost paper-based test for SCA that can accurately identify sickle trait carriers (HbAS) and individuals with SCA (HbSS) among adults and children over 1 year of age. Methods and Findings In a population of healthy volunteers and SCA patients in the United States (n = 55) the test identified individuals whose blood contained any HbS (HbAS and HbSS) with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for both visual evaluation and automated analysis, and detected SCA (HbSS) with 93% sensitivity and 94% specificity for visual evaluation and 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity for automated analysis. In a population of post-partum women (with a previously unknown SCA status) at a primary obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola (n = 226) the test identified sickle cell trait carriers with 94% sensitivity and 97% specificity using visual evaluation (none of the women had SCA). Notably, our test permits instrument- and electricity-free visual diagnostics, requires minimal training to be performed, can be completed within 30 minutes, and costs about $0.07 in test-specific consumable materials. Conclusions Our results validate the paper-based SCA test as a useful low-cost tool for screening adults and children for sickle trait and disease and demonstrate its practicality in resource-limited clinical settings. PMID:26735691

  20. A Paper-Based Test for Screening Newborns for Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Piety, Nathaniel Z; George, Alex; Serrano, Sonia; Lanzi, Maria R; Patel, Palka R; Noli, Maria P; Kahan, Silvina; Nirenberg, Damian; Camanda, João F; Airewele, Gladstone; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2017-04-03

    The high cost, complexity and reliance on electricity, specialized equipment and supplies associated with conventional diagnostic methods limit the scope and sustainability of newborn screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited areas worldwide. Here we describe the development of a simple, low-cost, rapid, equipment- and electricity-free paper-based test capable of detecting sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in newborn blood samples with a limit of detection of 2% HbS. We validated this newborn paper-based test in a cohort of 159 newborns at an obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola. Newborn screening results using the paper-based test were compared to conventional isoelectric focusing (IEF). The test detected the presence of HbS with 81.8% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity, and identified SCD newborns with 100.0% sensitivity and 70.7% specificity. The use of the paper-based test in a two-stage newborn screening process could have excluded about 70% of all newborns from expensive confirmatory testing by IEF, without missing any of the SCD newborns in the studied cohort. This study demonstrates the potential utility of the newborn paper-based test for reducing the overall cost of screening newborns for SCD and thus increasing the practicality of universal newborn SCD screening programs in resource-limited settings.

  1. A Paper-Based Test for Screening Newborns for Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Piety, Nathaniel Z.; George, Alex; Serrano, Sonia; Lanzi, Maria R.; Patel, Palka R.; Noli, Maria P.; Kahan, Silvina; Nirenberg, Damian; Camanda, João F.; Airewele, Gladstone; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2017-01-01

    The high cost, complexity and reliance on electricity, specialized equipment and supplies associated with conventional diagnostic methods limit the scope and sustainability of newborn screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited areas worldwide. Here we describe the development of a simple, low-cost, rapid, equipment- and electricity-free paper-based test capable of detecting sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in newborn blood samples with a limit of detection of 2% HbS. We validated this newborn paper-based test in a cohort of 159 newborns at an obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola. Newborn screening results using the paper-based test were compared to conventional isoelectric focusing (IEF). The test detected the presence of HbS with 81.8% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity, and identified SCD newborns with 100.0% sensitivity and 70.7% specificity. The use of the paper-based test in a two-stage newborn screening process could have excluded about 70% of all newborns from expensive confirmatory testing by IEF, without missing any of the SCD newborns in the studied cohort. This study demonstrates the potential utility of the newborn paper-based test for reducing the overall cost of screening newborns for SCD and thus increasing the practicality of universal newborn SCD screening programs in resource-limited settings. PMID:28367971

  2. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Effect of air flow and effect of fabric dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    One sample each of commercial polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams were evaluated using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. Air flow rates of 0, 0.16, 16, and 48 ml/sec were used to determine the effect of air flow on relative toxicity. Time to first sign of incapacitation and time to death were substantially reduced with both polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams by the introduction of 16 to 48 ml/sec air flow. The relative toxicity rankings of these materials were not altered by changes in air flow. Under these test conditions, the polyurethane foam consistently appeared more toxic than the polychloroprene foam. Samples of six different colors from the same fabric were evaluated separately, using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method, to determine the effect of fabric dye, if any. The material was an upholstery fabric, consisting of 46 percent cotton, 33 percent wool, and 21 percent nylon. There appeared to be no significant effect of fabric dye on relative toxicity, for this material under these test conditions.

  3. Comprehensive Carrier Screening and Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Recessive Childhood Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kingsmore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Of 7,028 disorders with suspected Mendelian inheritance, 1,139 are recessive and have an established molecular basis. Although individually uncommon, Mendelian diseases collectively account for ~20% of infant mortality and ~18% of pediatric hospitalizations. Molecular diagnostic testing is currently available for only ~300 recessive disorders. Preconception screening, together with genetic counseling of carriers, has resulted in remarkable declines in the incidence of several severe recessive diseases including Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis. However, extension of preconception screening and molecular diagnostic testing to most recessive disease genes has hitherto been impractical. Recently, we reported a preconception carrier screen / molecular diagnostic test for 448 recessive childhood diseases. The current status of this test is reviewed here. Currently, this reports analytical validity of the comprehensive carrier test. As the clinical validity and clinical utility in the contexts described is ascertained, this article will be updated. PMID:22872815

  4. The Double Knee Swing Test - a practical example of The Performance Matrix Movement Screen.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Warrick

    2014-07-01

    Movement screens have been suggested as an appropriate tool to identify 'uncontrolled movement' within the human neuromusculoskeletal system. Movement screens test the Central Nervous System along with the muscular system, for their combined ability to successfully control low threshold forces, such as those affecting posture and alignment, or, high threshold forces, such as those requiring muscular strength to control. Further information such as the identification of an anatomical site and direction of a potential uncontrolled movement can be elicited by this type of testing. This paper describes a low threshold, movement screen test, designed to be part of a battery of tests, which when used as a whole, can identify injury risk or factors affecting performance limitations. The testing is suggested to be a suitable assessment tool for Pilates Teachers working in a rehabilitative environment.

  5. Determination of Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Screening Tests using a Mathematical Formula in Place of Invasive Blood Tests

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neeru; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Kohli, Charu; Kumar, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction True prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus in a population can be obtained by using invasive tests but it is practically difficult on large scale. Aim To find out the feasibility of mass non-invasive screening test to detect the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in rural population of India with the help of a mathematical formula. Materials and Methods From population of 18800 residing in two adjacent rural areas of Delhi, a systematic random sample of 1005 adult subjects was screened for diabetes by using urine benedicts test, Canrisk questionnaire, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation-Indian Diabetic Risk Score (MDRF-IDRS) and determined prevalence of diabetes (pA) gauzed by each of these screening tests. Simultaneously, each subject’s glycaemic status was confirmed by standard fasting Plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG) levels. The blood test was also used to determine true prevalence which was cross-checked with the prevalence estimated (Pe) by the above stated screening tests using a mathematical formula. Results The true prevalence of T2DM in more than 18 years of population by Fasting Plasma Sugar (FPS) was 4.5% while that by using mathematical formulae that estimated by urine test, Canrisk test and MDRF-IDRS was 4.4%, 4.4 and 4.3% respectively. When more than 35 years age-group was selected, true prevalence was 7.4% and estimated prevalence by Canrisk test was 7.1% (as against gold standard of Fasting) and 6.9% (as against PP). By fasting urine test it came out to be 7.2% and by PP urine test it was 7.4%. In population l8-35 years, the prevalence of diabetes was 1.1% by plasma glucose test. By using Canrisk, it came out to be 1.04%. Conclusion Individual screening tests such as urine, Canrisk and MDRF-IDRS can be used to estimate prevalence rates of diabetes in rural areas by means of mathematical formula which would be close to true estimates. PMID:26894093

  6. Screening and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism: an attempt at test reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Fragu, P; Alpérovitch, A; Patois, E

    1979-01-01

    A sequencial strategy for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism has been prospectively appraised on 410 patients using a pocket calculator-aided diagnostic system. It was found that for 64% of the patients final diagnosis could be established from nine clinical signs, ankle jerk time and free thyroxin index. For the 36% of doubtful subjects, T3 determination permitted the reduction of uncertainty to 9%. No misdiagnosis was observed. By comparing this strategy with the physician's usual diagnosis process, in which all clinical signs and several thyroid function tests were used, it appeared that the number of tests was reduced by 65% for T3 requests and by 70% for other tests (99mTc uptake and TRH). The cost-saving was estimated to be about 28%. The interest of this calculator-aided decision model resides in the possibility for the general practitioner to refer only doubtful and hyperthyroid subjects to a thyroid unit. PMID:509001

  7. Screening and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism: an attempt at test reduction.

    PubMed

    Fragu, P; Alpérovitch, A; Patois, E

    1979-09-01

    A sequencial strategy for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism has been prospectively appraised on 410 patients using a pocket calculator-aided diagnostic system. It was found that for 64% of the patients final diagnosis could be established from nine clinical signs, ankle jerk time and free thyroxin index. For the 36% of doubtful subjects, T3 determination permitted the reduction of uncertainty to 9%. No misdiagnosis was observed. By comparing this strategy with the physician's usual diagnosis process, in which all clinical signs and several thyroid function tests were used, it appeared that the number of tests was reduced by 65% for T3 requests and by 70% for other tests (99mTc uptake and TRH). The cost-saving was estimated to be about 28%. The interest of this calculator-aided decision model resides in the possibility for the general practitioner to refer only doubtful and hyperthyroid subjects to a thyroid unit.

  8. Optimisation and Assessment of Three Modern Touch Screen Tablet Computers for Clinical Vision Testing

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Humza J.; Murray, Ian J.; Parry, Neil R. A.; Aslam, Tariq M.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration. PMID:24759774

  9. Colorectal cancer screening programme by faecal occult blood test in Tuscany: first round results.

    PubMed

    Grazzini, G; Castiglione, G; Ciabattoni, C; Franceschini, F; Giorgi, D; Gozzi, S; Mantellini, P; Lopane, P; Perco, M; Rubeca, T; Salvadori, P; Visioli, C B; Zappa, M

    2004-02-01

    Screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has been shown to be effective in reducing mortality from colorectal cancer. Tuscany was the first region in Italy in which a screening programme for colorectal cancer by FOBT was initiated region-wide. The aim of the paper was to describe organizational aspects, a quality control model and the results of this experience. From June 2000 to December 2001, 192583 subjects aged 50-70 were invited to undergo a 1-day immunochemical test without any dietary restriction. A total of 78505 subjects (41%) performed the screening test, of whom 4537 responders had a positive test result (5.8%). Among them, 1122 refused any form of assessment or underwent a colonoscopy outside the screening referral centres, with an overall assessment compliance of 75.3%. Malignancies were found in 193 patients and at least a high-risk adenomatous polyp in 692 patients. In about a quarter of the positive subjects who underwent assessment, cancer or high-risk adenoma was detected. In conclusion, data from this experience supported the feasibility of biennial colorectal screening programme by FOBT, particularly regarding invitation compliance and positivity rate. Further efforts are necessary to implement screening extension and to improve data collection.

  10. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Humza J; Murray, Ian J; Parry, Neil R A; Aslam, Tariq M

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  11. Improved Manufacturing Performance of Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes through Material Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Eifion; Philip, Bruce; Greenwood, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Printed carbon graphite materials are the primary common component in the majority of screen printed sensors. Screen printing allows a scalable manufacturing solution, accelerating the means by which novel sensing materials can make the transition from laboratory material to commercial product. A common bottleneck in any thick film printing process is the controlled drying of the carbon paste material. A study has been undertaken which examines the interaction between material solvent, printed film conductivity and process consistency. The study illustrates that it is possible to reduce the solvent boiling point to significantly increase process productivity while maintaining process consistency. The lower boiling point solvent also has a beneficial effect on the conductivity of the film, reducing the sheet resistance. It is proposed that this is a result of greater film stressing increasing charge percolation through greater inter particle contact. Simulations of material performance and drying illustrate that a multi layered printing provides a more time efficient manufacturing method. The findings have implications for the volume manufacturing of the carbon sensor electrodes but also have implications for other applications where conductive carbon is used, such as electrical circuits and photovoltaic devices. PMID:27355967

  12. Improved Manufacturing Performance of Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes through Material Formulation.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Eifion; Philip, Bruce; Greenwood, Peter

    2016-06-27

    Printed carbon graphite materials are the primary common component in the majority of screen printed sensors. Screen printing allows a scalable manufacturing solution, accelerating the means by which novel sensing materials can make the transition from laboratory material to commercial product. A common bottleneck in any thick film printing process is the controlled drying of the carbon paste material. A study has been undertaken which examines the interaction between material solvent, printed film conductivity and process consistency. The study illustrates that it is possible to reduce the solvent boiling point to significantly increase process productivity while maintaining process consistency. The lower boiling point solvent also has a beneficial effect on the conductivity of the film, reducing the sheet resistance. It is proposed that this is a result of greater film stressing increasing charge percolation through greater inter particle contact. Simulations of material performance and drying illustrate that a multi layered printing provides a more time efficient manufacturing method. The findings have implications for the volume manufacturing of the carbon sensor electrodes but also have implications for other applications where conductive carbon is used, such as electrical circuits and photovoltaic devices.

  13. Introducing a High-Risk HPV DNA Test Into a Public Sector Screening Program in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Cremer, Miriam L.; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla M.; Kim, Jane J.; Ditzian, Lauren R.; Villalta, Sofia; Alonzo, Todd A.; Felix, Juan C.; Castle, Philip E.; Gage, Julia C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective In a primary human papillomavirus (HPV) screening program, we compared the 6-month follow-up among colposcopy and noncolposcopy-based management strategies for screen-positive women. Materials and Methods Women aged 30 to 49 years were screened with HPV DNA tests using both self-collection and provider collection of samples. Women testing positive received either (1) colposcopy management (CM) consisting of colposcopy and management per local guidelines or (2) screen-and-treat (ST) management using visual inspection with acetic acid to determine cryotherapy eligibility, with eligible women undergoing immediate cryotherapy. One thousand women were recruited in each cohort. Of these, 368 (18.4%) of 2000 women were recruited using a more intensive outreach strategy. Demographics, HPV positivity, and treatment compliance were compared across recruitment and management strategies. Results More women in the ST cohort received treatment within 6 months compared with those in the CM cohort (117/119 [98.3%] vs 64/93 [68.8%]; p < .001). Women recruited through more intensive outreach were more likely to be HPV positive, lived in urban areas, were more educated, and had higher numbers of lifetime sexual partners and fewer children. Conclusions Women in the CM arm were less likely to complete care than women in the ST arm. Targeted outreach to underscreened women successfully identified women with higher prevalence of HPV and possibly higher disease burden. PMID:26890683

  14. VIBRATION TESTING OF RESILIENT PACKAGE CUSHIONING MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    government and industry. Testing equipment which meets tentative ASTM requirements was developed. Preliminary tests were conducted on a resilient expanded ... polystyrene foam (in 3 densities) and a polyether urethane foam (in one density). When vibrated under static loads known to provide optimum shock

  15. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY ON POROUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The efficacy of antimicrobial treatments to eliminate or control biological growth in the indoor environment can easily be tested on nonporous surfaces. However, the testing of antimicrobial efficacy on porous surfaces, such as those found in the indoor environment [i.e., gypsum ...

  16. 16 CFR 1610.5 - Test apparatus and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test apparatus and materials. 1610.5 Section... STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.5 Test apparatus and materials. (a) Flammability apparatus. The flammability test apparatus consists of a draft-proof ventilated chamber...

  17. 16 CFR 1610.5 - Test apparatus and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test apparatus and materials. 1610.5 Section... STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.5 Test apparatus and materials. (a) Flammability apparatus. The flammability test apparatus consists of a draft-proof ventilated chamber...

  18. 16 CFR 1610.5 - Test apparatus and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test apparatus and materials. 1610.5 Section... STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.5 Test apparatus and materials. (a) Flammability apparatus. The flammability test apparatus consists of a draft-proof ventilated chamber...

  19. 16 CFR 1610.5 - Test apparatus and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test apparatus and materials. 1610.5 Section... STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.5 Test apparatus and materials. (a) Flammability apparatus. The flammability test apparatus consists of a draft-proof ventilated chamber...

  20. 16 CFR 1610.5 - Test apparatus and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test apparatus and materials. 1610.5 Section... STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.5 Test apparatus and materials. (a) Flammability apparatus. The flammability test apparatus consists of a draft-proof ventilated chamber...

  1. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  2. Screening for tuberculosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Zambian prisons

    PubMed Central

    Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To improve the Zambia Prisons Service’s implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Methods For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia’s prisons. Findings In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100 000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Conclusion Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere. PMID:25883402

  3. MISSE-X Tests the Materials of Tomorrow's Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Technology Demonstration Missions (TDM) focus on maturing technology for use in future missions. The Materials on International Space Station Experiment-X, MISSE-X, will test numerous materi...

  4. Inoculation testing of Apollo 12 materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    E. Landrum Young, Brown and Root Northrop, injects a young Japanese quail with a suspension of pulvarized Apollo 12 lunar material within a quarantine cabinet in the Invertebrate, Aves and Fish Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, bldg 37, Manned Spacecraft Center. The bird is being inoculated in the abdominal cavity.

  5. Materials Testing in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Army (RDA), Wash ington, DC 20310 ATTN: Or . J. G. Prather, Dep far Sci & Tec h Dr. J . R. Sculley , SARD Deputy Chief of Staff , Resear ch, De ve...The John Hopkins Univers i ty, Department of Ci vil Engineer ing/ Materials Sc ience and Eng ineer ing, Ba l t imore, MD 28218 ATTN: Or. R. E

  6. Quality Assurance Protocol for AFCI Advanced Structural Materials Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Jeremy T

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this letter is to inform you of recent progress on the development of advanced structural materials in support of advanced fast reactors and AFCI. As you know, the alloy development effort has been initiated in recent months with the procurement of adequate quantities of the NF616 and HT-UPS alloys. As the test alloys become available in the coming days, mechanical testing, evaluation of optimizing treatments, and screening of environmental effects will be possible at a larger scale. It is therefore important to establish proper quality assurance protocols for this testing effort in a timely manner to ensure high technical quality throughout testing. A properly implemented quality assurance effort will also enable preliminary data taken in this effort to be qualified as NQA-1 during any subsequent licensing discussions for an advanced design or actual prototype. The objective of this report is to describe the quality assurance protocols that will be used for this effort. An essential first step in evaluating quality protocols is assessing the end use of the data. Currently, the advanced structural materials effort is part of a long-range, basic research and development effort and not, as yet, involved in licensing discussions for a specific reactor design. After consultation with Mark Vance (an ORNL QA expert) and based on the recently-issued AFCI QA requirements, the application of NQA-1 quality requirements will follow the guidance provided in Part IV, Subpart 4.2 of the NQA-1 standard (Guidance on Graded Application of QA for Nuclear-Related Research and Development). This guidance mandates the application of sound scientific methodology and a robust peer review process in all phases, allowing for the data to be qualified for use even if the programmatic mission changes to include licensing discussions of a specific design or prototype. ORNL has previously implemented a QA program dedicated to GNEP activities and based on an appropriately graded

  7. Individual differences in aversion to ambiguity regarding medical tests and treatments: association with cancer screening cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Paul K.J.; Williams, Andrew E.; Haskins, Amy; Gutheil, Caitlin; Lucas, F. Lee; Klein, William M.P.; Mazor, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aversion to “ambiguity”—uncertainty about the reliability, credibility, or adequacy of information—regarding medical tests and treatments is an important psychological response that varies among individuals, but little is known about its nature and extent. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual-level ambiguity aversion relates to important health cognitions related to different cancer screening tests. Methods A survey of 1074 adults, aged 40–70, was conducted in four integrated US healthcare systems. The Ambiguity Aversion in Medicine (AA-Med) scale, a measure of individual differences in aversion to ambiguity (AA) about medical tests and treatments, was administered along with measures of several cancer screening-related cognitions: perceived benefits and harms of colonoscopy, mammography, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, and ambivalence and future intentions regarding these tests. Multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the associations between AA-Med scores and cancer screening cognitions. Results Individual-level AA as assessed by the AA-Med scale was significantly associated (p<.05) with lower perceived benefits, greater perceived harms, and greater ambivalence regarding all three screening tests, and lower intentions for colonoscopy but not mammography or PSA screening. Conclusion Individual-level AA is broadly and simultaneously associated with various pessimistic cognitive appraisals of multiple cancer screening tests. The breadth of these associations suggests the influence of individual-level AA is insensitive to the degree and non-specific with respect to the causes of ambiguity. Impact Individual-level AA constitutes a measurable, wide-ranging cognitive bias against medical intervention, and more research is needed to elucidate its mechanisms and effects. PMID:25258015

  8. Glycosylated serum protein level as a screening and diagnostic test for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, F J; Harbert, G M; Paulsen, E P; Thiagarajah, S

    1986-09-01

    Glycosylated serum protein assay was examined as an alternative to standard glucose screening and glucose tolerance testing. In a comparison of two groups of gravid women having abnormal 1-hour 50 gm glucose screening tests, there was no difference in glycosylated protein level in the group with abnormal glucose tolerance test results (9.4% +/- 2.0%, mean +/- SD; n = 8) versus normal results (9.2% +/- 1.07%, mean +/- SD; n = 11). Furthermore, correlation of glycosylated serum protein level with glucose screening test results was poor (r = 0.185, p = 0.23, n = 17). Glycosylated serum protein assay is not useful in detecting mild metabolic aberrations associated with gestational diabetes.

  9. Rapid toxicity screening tests for aquatic biota. 1. Methodology and experiments with Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G. )

    1993-04-01

    A promising new and rapid toxicity screening test was developed, the concept and principles of which are presented. The method consists of visual observation of in vivo inhibition of an enzymatic process, using a fluorescent substrate. Juvenile Daphnia magna was exposed to a toxicant dilution series for 1 h, after which the substrate was added and the enzymatic inhibition was observed visually, using a long-wave UV light. The 1-h EC50 results of 11 pure compounds are presented and compared to the conventional 24- and 48-h Daphnia magna EC50s. All 1-h fluorescence EC50s were of the same order of magnitude and correlated very well with the 24- and 48-h EC50s. The sensitivity and reproducibility of this cost-effective screening test were compared to those of the Microtox[reg sign] test. The scope for application and the potential of this new rapid toxicity screening test are evaluated.

  10. Measuring the quality-of-life effects of diagnostic and screening tests.

    PubMed

    Swan, J Shannon; Miksad, Rebecca A

    2009-08-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a central concept for understanding the outcomes of medical care. When used in cost-effectiveness analysis, HRQL is typically measured for conditions persisting over long time frames (years), and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) values are generated. Consequently, years are the basic unit of time for cost-effectiveness analysis results: dollars spent per QALY gained. However, shorter term components of health care may also affect HRQL, and there is increased interest in measuring and accounting for these events. In radiology, the short-term HRQL effects of screening and diagnostic testing may affect a test's cost-effectiveness, even though they may only last for days. The unique challenge in radiology HRQL assessment is to realistically tap into the testing and screening experience while remaining consistent with QALY theory. The authors review HRQL assessment and highlight methods developed to specifically address the short-term effects of radiologic screening and testing.

  11. Automation software for a materials testing laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive software system for automating much of the experimental process has recently been completed at the Lewis Research Center's high-temperature fatigue and structures laboratory. The system was designed to support experiment definition and conduct, results analysis and archiving, and report generation activities. This was accomplished through the design and construction of several software systems, as well as through the use of several commercially available software products, all operating on a local, distributed minicomputer system. Experimental capabilities currently supported in an automated fashion include both isothermal and thermomechanical fatigue and deformation testing capabilities. The future growth and expansion of this system will be directed toward providing multiaxial test control, enhanced thermomechanical test control, and higher test frequency (hundreds of hertz).

  12. Direct laser immobilization of photosynthetic material on screen printed electrodes for amperometric biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Boutopoulos, Christos; Zergioti, Ioanna; Touloupakis, Eleftherios; Pezzotti, Ittalo; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2011-02-28

    This letter demonstrates the direct laser printing of photosynthetic material onto low cost nonfunctionalized screen printed electrodes for the fabrication of photosynthesis-based amperometric biosensors. The high kinetic energy of the transferred material induces direct immobilization of the thylakoids onto the electrodes without the use of linkers. This type of immobilization is able to establish efficient electrochemical contact between proteins and electrode, stabilizing the photosynthetic biomolecule and transporting electrons to the solid state device with high efficiency. The functionality of the laser printed biosensors was evaluated by the detection of a common herbicide such as Linuron.

  13. Fissile material disposition program: Screening of alternate immobilization candidates for disposition of surplus fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.

    1996-01-08

    With the end of the Cold War, the world faces for the first time the need to dismantle vast numbers of ``excess`` nuclear weapons and dispose of the fissile materials they contain, together with fissile residues in the weapons production complex left over from the production of these weapons. If recently agreed US and Russian reductions are fully implemented, tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, containing a hundred tons or more of plutonium and hundreds of tonnes* of highly enriched uranium (HEU), will no longer be needed worldwide for military purposes. These two materials are the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, and limits on access to them are the primary technical barrier to prospective proliferants who might desire to acquire a nuclear weapons capability. Theoretically, several kilograms of plutonium, or several times that amount of HEU, is sufficient to make a nuclear explosive device. Therefore, these materials will continue to be a potential threat to humanity for as long as they exist.

  14. Multi-laboratory testing of a screening method for world trade center (WTC) collapse dust.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Jacky A; Bern, Amy M; Willis, Robert D; Blanchard, Fredrick T; Conner, Teri L; Kahn, Henry D; Friedman, David

    2008-02-15

    The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) covered a large area of downtown New York City with dust and debris. This paper describes the testing of an analytical method designed to evaluate whether sampled dust contains dust that may have originated from the collapse of the WTC. Using dust samples collected from locations affected and not affected (referred to as 'background' locations) by the collapse, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis method was developed to screen for three materials that are believed to be present in large quantities in WTC dusts: slag wool, concrete, and gypsum. An inter-laboratory evaluation of the method was implemented by having eight laboratories analyze a number of 'blind' dust samples, consisting of confirmed background dust and confirmed background dust spiked with varying amounts of dust affected by the WTC collapse. The levels of gypsum and concrete in the spiked samples were indistinguishable from the levels in the background samples. Measurements of slag wool in dust demonstrated potential for distinguishing between spiked and background samples in spite of considerable within and between laboratory variability. Slag wool measurements appear to be sufficiently sensitive to distinguish dust spiked with 5% WTC-affected dust from 22 out of 25 background dust samples. Additional development work and inter-laboratory testing of the slag wool component will be necessary to improve the precision and accuracy of the method and reduce inter- and intra-laboratory variability from levels observed in the inter-laboratory evaluation.

  15. Screening Tests for Enhanced Shielding Against Hypervelocity Particle Impacts for Future Unmanned Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzar, Robin; Hupfer, Jan; Aridon, Gwenaelle; Gergonne, Bernard; David, Matthieu; Bourke, Paul; Cougnet, Claude

    2013-08-01

    Protection of components of unmanned spacecraft against particle impacts is typically provided by the spacecraft's structure together with the intrinsic protection capabilities of the components themselves. Thus to increase the survivability of future spacecraft, one option is to enhance the protection already provided using enhanced materials and additional shielding. As part of the EU funded FP7 research project ReVuS ("Reducing the Vulnerability of Space systems"), the configurations of equipment typically found on board unmanned spacecraft were identified. For each of those configurations, potential solutions have been identified which enhance the robustness against particle impacts. The solutions are broken down into a number of shielding components that include e.g. additional protective layers made from aluminum, Kevlar, Nextel, stainless steel mesh and ceramics. To evaluate the characteristics and performances of these shielding components, a number of screening hypervelocity impact tests were performed. During these tests, representative configurations have been subjected to impacts of aluminum spheres of 3 mm and 5 mm diameter at a nominal impact velocity of 7 km/s. This paper describes the targets and presents and compares the results.

  16. History, evolution, and current status of radiologic imaging tests for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Levine, Marc S; Yee, Judy

    2014-11-01

    Colorectal cancer screening is thought to be an effective tool with which to reduce the mortality from colorectal cancer through early detection and removal of colonic adenomas and early colon cancers. In this article, we review the history, evolution, and current status of imaging tests of the colon-including single-contrast barium enema, double-contrast barium enema, computed tomographic (CT) colonography, and magnetic resonance (MR) colonography-for colorectal cancer screening. Despite its documented value in the detection of colonic polyps, the double-contrast barium enema has largely disappeared as a screening test because it is widely perceived as a labor-intensive, time-consuming, and technically demanding procedure. In the past decade, the barium enema has been supplanted by CT colonography as the major imaging test in colorectal cancer screening in the United States, with MR colonography emerging as another viable option in Europe. Although MR colonography does not require ionizing radiation, the radiation dose for CT colonography has decreased substantially, and regular screening with this technique has a high benefit-to-risk ratio. In recent years, CT colonography has been validated as an effective tool for use in colorectal cancer screening that is increasingly being disseminated.

  17. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of...) Citizenship. A screener must be a citizen or national of the United States. (d) Screener readiness...

  18. Psychometric Characteristics and Appropriate Use of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the adequacy of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) to gauge 46 kindergartners' readiness. Found agreement between GSRST and teacher assessments of student readiness. Test-retest and interrater reliability were below acceptable levels, and lower than figures yielded by a quantitative scoring method. Concluded that GSRST…

  19. Manual for the Deaf-Blind Program and Ability Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, J.; And Others

    Presented are a manual and a screening test to assist teachers and professionals to determine the functional ability level and individual program needs of deaf blind and multiply handicapped children. It is noted that the individually administered 10-minute test, based on Gesell's developmental theory, consists of items in seven basic…

  20. Does sensitivity measured from screening test-sets predict clinical performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, BaoLin P.; Lee, Warwick B.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia R.; Tapia, Kriscia A.; Ryan, John; Hung, Wai Tak; Thompson, Graham J.; Heard, Rob; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2014-03-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between sensitivity measured from the BREAST test-set and clinical performance. Background: Although the UK and Australia national breast screening programs have regarded PERFORMS and BREAST test-set strategies as possible methods of estimating readers' clinical efficacy, the relationship between test-set and real life performance results has never been satisfactorily understood. Methods: Forty-one radiologists from BreastScreen New South Wales participated in this study. Each reader interpreted a BREAST test-set which comprised sixty de-identified mammographic examinations sourced from the BreastScreen Digital Imaging Library. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to compare the sensitivity measured from the BREAST test-set with screen readers' clinical audit data. Results: Results shown statistically significant positive moderate correlations between test-set sensitivity and each of the following metrics: rate of invasive cancer per 10 000 reads (r=0.495; p < 0.01); rate of small invasive cancer per 10 000 reads (r=0.546; p < 0.001); detection rate of all invasive cancers and DCIS per 10 000 reads (r=0.444; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Comparison between sensitivity measured from the BREAST test-set and real life detection rate demonstrated statistically significant positive moderate correlations which validated that such test-set strategies can reflect readers' clinical performance and be used as a quality assurance tool. The strength of correlation demonstrated in this study was higher than previously found by others.

  1. Simple Screening Test for Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm in the Middle School Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Tyler J.; Baker, Rachel H.; Weiss, Jason B.; Weiss, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This article recommends and provides results from a simple screening test that could be incorporated into a standardized school evaluation for all children participating in sports and physical education classes. The test can be employed by physical educators utilizing their own gym to identify children who demonstrate signs of exercise-induced…

  2. Assessment of an Interactive Computer-Based Patient Prenatal Genetic Screening and Testing Education Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jennifer M.; Sorenson, James R.; Bowling, J. Michael; Jennings-Grant, Tracey

    2005-01-01

    The Enhancing Patient Prenatal Education study tested the feasibility and educational impact of an interactive program for patient prenatal genetic screening and testing education. Patients at two private practices and one public health clinic participated (N = 207). The program collected knowledge and measures of anxiety before and after use of…

  3. Memory-Context Effects of Screen Color in Multiple-Choice and Fill-In Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestera, Gustavo E.; Clariana, Roy; Peck, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In this experimental study, 44 undergraduates completed five computer-based instructional lessons and either two multiplechoice tests or two fill-in-the-blank tests. Color-coded borders were displayed during the lesson, adjacent to the screen text and illustrations. In the experimental condition, corresponding border colors were shown at posttest.…

  4. The use of rapid diagnostic tests for transfusion infectious screening in Africa: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pruett, Cristina R; Vermeulen, Marion; Zacharias, Pete; Ingram, Charlotte; Tayou Tagny, Claude; Bloch, Evan M

    2015-01-01

    Infectious risk associated with blood transfusion remains a major public health challenge in Africa, where prevalence rates of the major transfusion-transmissible infections (ie, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus, and syphilis) are among the highest in the world. Resource-limited blood services often operate with minimal predonation screening safeguards, prompting exclusive reliance on laboratory testing to mitigate infectious risk. Transfusion screening with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has been adopted in areas that lack the capacity to support the routine use of more sophisticated technologies. However, uncertainty surrounding the performance of some RDTs in the field has spurred debate regarding their application to blood donation screening. Our review of the literature identified 17 studies that evaluated RDTs for the infectious screening of blood donors in Africa. The review highlights the variable performance of available RDTs and the importance of their use in a quality-assured manner. Deficiencies in performance observed with some RDTs underscore the need to validate test kits prior to use under field conditions with locally acquired samples. Suboptimal sensitivities of some available tests, specifically hepatitis B virus rapid assays, question their suitability in single-test algorithms, particularly in high-prevalence regions. Although RDTs have limitations, many of which can be addressed through improved training and quality systems, they are frequently the only viable option for infectious screening in resource-poor African countries. Therefore, additional studies and specific guidelines regarding the use of RDTs in the context of blood safety are needed.

  5. Evaluation of Hydroxyatrazine in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program’s Male and Female Pubertal Protocols.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of Hydroxyatrazine in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program’s Male and Female Pubertal Protocols. ABSTRACT Two critical components of the validation of any in vivo screening assay are to demonstrate sensitivity (ability to detect weak endocrine ...

  6. Cibachrome testing. [photographic processing and printing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The use of Cibachrome products as a solution to problems encountered when contact printing Kodak film type SO-397 onto Kodak Ektrachrome color reversal paper type 1993 is investigated. A roll of aerial imagery consisting of Kodak film types SO-397 and 2443 was contact printed onto Cibachrome and Kodak materials and compared in terms of color quality, resolution, cost, and compatibility with existing equipment and techniques. Objective measurements are given in terms of resolution and sensitometric response. Comparison prints and transparencies were viewed and ranked according to overall quality and aesthetic appeal. It is recommended that Cibachrome Print material be used in place of Kodak Ektachrome paper because it is more easily processed, the cost is equivalent, and it provides improved resolution, color quality, and image fade resistance.

  7. Material Damage Test for ILC Collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez Hernando, J.L.; Blair, G.A.; Boogert, S.T.; Ellwood, G.E.; Greenhalgh, J.; Keller, L.; Watson, N.K.; /Birmingham U.

    2007-08-14

    Simulations were completed to determine the energy deposition of an ILC bunch using FLUKA, Geant4 and EGS4 to a set of different spoiler designs. These shower simulations were used as inputs to thermal and mechanical studies using ANSYS. This paper presents a proposal to optimize the material choice and mechanical design of ILC spoilers jaws using ATF and benchmark the energy deposition simulations and the ANSYS studies giving the researchers valuable data which will help achieve a definitive ILC spoiler design.

  8. Acoustic emission from composite materials. [nondestructive tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visconti, I. C.; Teti, R.

    1979-01-01

    The two basic areas where the acoustic emission (AE) technique can be applied are materials research and the evaluation of structural reliability. This experimental method leads to a better understanding of fracture mechanisms and is an NDT technique particularly well suited for the study of propagating cracks. Experiments are described in which acoustic emissions were unambiguously correlated with microstructural fracture mechanisms. The advantages and limitations of the AE technique are noted.

  9. Partial Testing Can Potentiate Learning of Tested and Untested Material from Multimedia Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Carole L.; Soderstrom, Nicholas C.; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2015-01-01

    Test-potentiated learning occurs when testing renders a subsequent study period more effective than it would have been without an intervening test. We examined whether testing only a subset of material from a multimedia lesson would potentiate the restudy of both tested and untested material. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants studied a…

  10. The Clinical and Economic Benefits of Co-Testing Versus Primary HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Juan C.; Lacey, Michael J.; Lenhart, Gregory M.; Spitzer, Mark; Kulkarni, Rucha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Consensus United States cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend use of combination Pap plus human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for women aged 30 to 65 years. An HPV test was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for primary cervical cancer screening in women age 25 years and older. Here, we present the results of clinical-economic comparisons of Pap plus HPV mRNA testing including genotyping for HPV 16/18 (co-testing) versus DNA-based primary HPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping and reflex cytology (HPV primary) for cervical cancer screening. Methods: A health state transition (Markov) model with 1-year cycling was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from healthcare databases and published literature. A hypothetical cohort of one million women receiving triennial cervical cancer screening was simulated from ages 30 to 70 years. Screening strategies compared HPV primary to co-testing. Outcomes included total and incremental differences in costs, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases, ICC deaths, number of colposcopies, and quality-adjusted life years for cost-effectiveness calculations. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: In a simulation cohort of one million 30-year-old women modeled up to age 70 years, the model predicted that screening with HPV primary testing instead of co-testing could lead to as many as 2,141 more ICC cases and 2,041 more ICC deaths. In the simulation, co-testing demonstrated a greater number of lifetime quality-adjusted life years (22,334) and yielded $39.0 million in savings compared with HPV primary, thereby conferring greater effectiveness at lower cost. Conclusions: Model results demonstrate that co-testing has the potential to provide improved clinical and economic outcomes when compared with HPV primary. While actual cost and outcome data are evaluated, these findings are relevant to U.S. healthcare payers and women's health policy advocates

  11. Recent developments in dynamic testing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilat, A.; Seidt, J. D.

    2012-08-01

    Three new testing configurations that have been developed since the last DYMAT conference in 2009 are presented. The first is high strain rate testing of Kevlar cloth and Kevlar yarn in a tensile Split Hopkinson Bar (SHB) apparatus. The Kevlar cloth/yarn is attached to the bars by specially designed adaptors that keep the impedance constant. In addition to determining the specimen's stress and strain from the recorded waves in the bars the deformations are also measured with Digital Image Correlation (DIC). The second testing configuration is a high strain rate shear test for sheet metal. The experiment is done by using a flat notched specimen in a tensile SHB apparatus. The shear strain is measured using DIC within the notch and on the boundary. The third development is a compression apparatus for testing at intermediate strain rates ranging from 20 s-1 to 200 s-1. The apparatus is a combination of a hydraulic actuator and a compression SHB. The stress in the specimen is determined from the stress wave in a very long transmitter bar and the strain and strain rate is determined by using DIC. The results show clean stress strain curves (no ringing).

  12. High-throughput screening of inorganic compounds for the discovery of novel dielectric and optical materials.

    PubMed

    Petousis, Ioannis; Mrdjenovich, David; Ballouz, Eric; Liu, Miao; Winston, Donald; Chen, Wei; Graf, Tanja; Schladt, Thomas D; Persson, Kristin A; Prinz, Fritz B

    2017-01-31

    Dielectrics are an important class of materials that are ubiquitous in modern electronic applications. Even though their properties are important for the performance of devices, the number of compounds with known dielectric constant is on the order of a few hundred. Here, we use Density Functional Perturbation Theory as a way to screen for the dielectric constant and refractive index of materials in a fast and computationally efficient way. Our results constitute the largest dielectric tensors database to date, containing 1,056 compounds. Details regarding the computational methodology and technical validation are presented along with the format of our publicly available data. In addition, we integrate our dataset with the Materials Project allowing users easy access to material properties. Finally, we explain how our dataset and calculation methodology can be used in the search for novel dielectric compounds.

  13. High-throughput quantum chemistry and virtual screening for OLED material components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halls, Mathew D.; Giesen, David J.; Hughes, Thomas F.; Goldberg, Alexander; Cao, Yixiang

    2013-09-01

    Computational structure enumeration, analysis using an automated simulation workflow and filtering of large chemical structure libraries to identify lead systems, has become a central paradigm in drug discovery research. Transferring this paradigm to challenges in materials science is now possible due to advances in the speed of computational resources and the efficiency and stability of chemical simulation packages. State-of-the-art software tools that have been developed for drug discovery can be applied to efficiently explore the chemical design space to identify solutions for problems such as organic light-emitting diode material components. In this work, virtual screening for OLED materials based on intrinsic quantum mechanical properties is illustrated. Also, a new approach to more reliably identify candidate systems is introduced that is based on the chemical reaction energetics of defect pathways for OLED materials.

  14. High-throughput screening of inorganic compounds for the discovery of novel dielectric and optical materials

    PubMed Central

    Petousis, Ioannis; Mrdjenovich, David; Ballouz, Eric; Liu, Miao; Winston, Donald; Chen, Wei; Graf, Tanja; Schladt, Thomas D.; Persson, Kristin A.; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2017-01-01

    Dielectrics are an important class of materials that are ubiquitous in modern electronic applications. Even though their properties are important for the performance of devices, the number of compounds with known dielectric constant is on the order of a few hundred. Here, we use Density Functional Perturbation Theory as a way to screen for the dielectric constant and refractive index of materials in a fast and computationally efficient way. Our results constitute the largest dielectric tensors database to date, containing 1,056 compounds. Details regarding the computational methodology and technical validation are presented along with the format of our publicly available data. In addition, we integrate our dataset with the Materials Project allowing users easy access to material properties. Finally, we explain how our dataset and calculation methodology can be used in the search for novel dielectric compounds. PMID:28140408

  15. High-throughput screening of inorganic compounds for the discovery of novel dielectric and optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petousis, Ioannis; Mrdjenovich, David; Ballouz, Eric; Liu, Miao; Winston, Donald; Chen, Wei; Graf, Tanja; Schladt, Thomas D.; Persson, Kristin A.; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2017-01-01

    Dielectrics are an important class of materials that are ubiquitous in modern electronic applications. Even though their properties are important for the performance of devices, the number of compounds with known dielectric constant is on the order of a few hundred. Here, we use Density Functional Perturbation Theory as a way to screen for the dielectric constant and refractive index of materials in a fast and computationally efficient way. Our results constitute the largest dielectric tensors database to date, containing 1,056 compounds. Details regarding the computational methodology and technical validation are presented along with the format of our publicly available data. In addition, we integrate our dataset with the Materials Project allowing users easy access to material properties. Finally, we explain how our dataset and calculation methodology can be used in the search for novel dielectric compounds.

  16. [History of the development of screening tests for cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Yelda A; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the best known malignancies. Currently, it is accepted that the etiological factor is persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Even before the identification of its etiological factors, methods such as Pap cytology and colposcopy were developed as tools for early diagnosis on CC and its precursor lesions. At the time when such tests were being developed, they were not fully accepted by the scientific community of the time; however, as time went by, the dissemination of knowledge, and more extensive application, these tests were finally included within the international guidelines. The implementation of programs with adequate coverage and quality allowed a significant reduction in the incidence and mortality of CC. However this did not occur widely, and CC is still a public health problem in developing countries. From the epidemiological and molecular viewpoint, knowledge on HPVs laid the foundations for the development of new prevention strategies based on vaccination and molecular detection of the causal agent, currently accepted as strategies for primary and secondary prevention. It is expected that the implementation of these strategies will have a greater impact on the control on CC and other malignancies associated with HPV infection.

  17. Screen channel liquid acquisition device outflow tests in liquid hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, J. W.; Chato, D. J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325 × 2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3-24.2 K), pressures (100-350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010-0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  18. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  19. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in an HIV testing clinic; uptake and prevalence.

    PubMed Central

    Madge, S; Elford, J; Lipman, M C; Mintz, J; Johnson, M A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the acceptability of STD screening among people seeking an HIV antibody test in an established free standing HIV testing clinic. DESIGN: A 9 month period prevalence study conducted between August 1993 and April 1994. SETTING: The Same Day Testing Clinic (SDTC) for HIV antibodies at the Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust Hospital, London. SUBJECTS: 242 males and 160 females attending the Same Day Testing Clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of STDs including gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis and hepatitis B and the percentage of clinic attenders accepting an STD screen. RESULTS: Of those invited to take part in the study 69% of the males (242/350) and 59% (160/269) of the females agreed to be screened although for a variety of reasons not everyone agreed to a full screen. Two cases of untreated syphilis, no cases of gonorrhoea and six cases of chlamydia were detected. Four people had active, previously undiagnosed herpes while three had genital warts. Evidence of previously unknown hepatitis B infection was found in 26 people. Despite a high level of previous contact with genitourinary medicine services, uptake of hepatitis B vaccination among those homosexual men eligible for immunisation was low (28%; 23/83). Nine (4%) of the males, but none of the females screened for STD were found to be HIV antibody positive. CONCLUSION: Among people seeking an HIV antibody test in an established free standing HIV testing clinic, the prevalence of acute STDs was low. However, evidence of previously undiagnosed hepatitis B infection was found in a number of subjects and uptake of vaccination among those most at risk had been low. While opportunistic screening for STD was acceptable to almost two thirds of HIV testing clinic attenders, a substantial minority nonetheless declined this offer. Selective STD screening could be offered to those people seeking an HIV test who report never having been

  20. Bin-scale tests dry test bin assembly [Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report consists of engineering drawings of the following areas of the WIPP facility: dry test bin assembly; internal bin manifold modified design; dry test bin details; humid bin RCB lid; SWB lid modification for RCB lid assembly and details; TRUPACT II standard waste box assembly; waste handling building 411 ground floor slab-sump plans and sections; and waste handling floor building 411 ground floor slab plan.

  1. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K; Ault, Kevin A; Chelmow, David; Davey, Diane D; Goulart, Robert A; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kinney, Walter K; Massad, L Stewart; Mayeaux, Edward J; Saslow, Debbie; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lawson, Herschel W; Einstein, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated screening guidelines for the early detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Recommended screening strategies were cytology or cotesting (cytology in combination with high-risk human papillomavirus [hrHPV] testing). These guidelines also addressed the use of hrHPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, which was not recommended for use at that time. There is now a growing body of evidence for screening with primary hrHPV testing, including a prospective U.S.-based registration study. Thirteen experts, including representatives from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Cancer Society, the American Society of Cytopathology, the College of American Pathologists, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, convened to provide interim guidance for primary hrHPV screening. This guidance panel was specifically triggered by an application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for a currently marketed HPV test to be labeled for the additional indication of primary cervical cancer screening. Guidance was based on literature review and review of data from the FDA registration study, supplemented by expert opinion. This document aims to provide information for health care providers who are interested in primary hrHPV testing and an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this strategy for screening as well as to highlight areas in need of further investigation.

  2. High-throughput ab initio screening for two-dimensional electride materials.

    PubMed

    Tada, Tomofumi; Takemoto, Seiji; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-10-06

    High-throughput ab initio screening of approximately 34000 materials in the Materials Project was conducted to identify two-dimensional (2D) electride materials, which are composed of cationic layers and anionic electrons confined in a 2D empty space. The screening was based on three indicators: (1) a positive total formal charge per formula unit; (2) layered structures for two-dimensionality; (3) empty spaces between the layer units. Three nitrides, Ca2N, Sr2N, and Ba2N, and the carbide Y2C were identified as 2D electrides, where Ca2N is the only experimentally confirmed 2D electride (Lee, K.; et al. Nature 2013, 494, 336-341). Electron density analysis using ionic radii revealed a smaller number of anionic electrons in Y2C than those in the three nitrides as a result of the partial occupation of the anionic electrons in the d orbitals of Y. In addition, no candidates were identified from the p-block elements, and thus the ab initio screening indicates that the s-block elements (i.e., alkali or alkaline-earth metals) are highly preferable as cation elements. To go beyond the database screening, a tailored modeling was conducted to determine unexplored compounds including the s-block elements that are suitable for 2D electrides. The tailored modeling found that (1) K2Cl, K2Br, Rb2Cl, and Rb2Br dialkali halides are highly plausible candidates, (2) Li2F and Na2Cl dialkali halides are highly challenging candidates, and (3) the Cs2O(1-x)F(x) halogen-doped dialkali oxide is a promising candidate.

  3. Electrochemical Corrosion Testing of Neutron Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tedd Lister; Ron Mizia; Arnold Erickson; Tammy Trowbridge

    2007-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of crevice-corrosion tests for six alloys in solutions representative of ionic compositions inside the Yucca Mountain waste package should a breech occur. The alloys in these tests are Neutronit A978a (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled), Neutrosorb Plus 304B4 Grade Ab (powder metallurgy, hot rolled), Neutrosorb Plus 304B5 Grade Ab (powder metallurgy, hot rolled), Neutrosorb Plus 304B6 Grade Ab (powder metallurgy, hot rolled), Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy2 (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled), and Alloy 22 (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled).

  4. Primary care provider practices and beliefs related to cervical cancer screening with the HPV test in Federally Qualified Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Roland, K.B.; Benard, V.B.; Greek, A.; Hawkins, N.A.; Manninen, D.; Saraiya, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer screening using the human papillomavirus (HPV) test and Pap test together (co-testing) is an option for average-risk women ≥30 years of age. With normal co-test results, screening intervals can be extended. The study objective is to assess primary care provider practices, beliefs, facilitators and barriers to using the co-test and extending screening intervals among low-income women. Method Data were collected from 98 providers in 15 Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinics in Illinois between August 2009 and March 2010 using a cross-sectional survey. Results 39% of providers reported using the co-test, and 25% would recommend a three-year screening interval for women with normal co-test results. Providers perceived greater encouragement for co-testing than for extending screening intervals with a normal co-test result. Barriers to extending screening intervals included concerns about patients not returning annually for other screening tests (77%), patient concerns about missing cancer (62%), and liability (52%). Conclusion Among FQHC providers in Illinois, few administered the co-test for screening and recommended appropriate intervals, possibly due to concerns over loss to follow-up and liability. Education regarding harms of too-frequent screening and false positives may be necessary to balance barriers to extending screening intervals. PMID:23628517

  5. [Cost effectiveness of human papilloma virus testing in cervical cancer screening: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Mejía, Aurelio; Salas, Walter

    2008-03-01

    Human papilloma virus DNA testing may improve the cost effectiveness of cervical cancer screening programs. However, the circumstances to get this improvement are not the same between countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of introducing human papilloma virus testing in the current screening practice both in developed and developing countries. We conducted a review of published articles since January 2000 until December 2006 related to the cost effectiveness of introducing human papilloma virus testing in cervical cancer screening programs. A total of 17 original researches and six reviews were analyzed. Human papilloma virus testing is cost effective in developed countries only if it is a complementary test to Pap test and used to determine the management of women with atypical squamus cells of undetermined significance, the interval among tests is increased more than two years and it is performed in women over 30 years. On the other hand, developing countries should establish first organized screening programs and guarantee full coverage and access to diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Test cells comprise specimen sand contained in a latex membrane (with a grid pattern for CCD cameras) between metal end plates and housed in a water-filled Lexan jacket. Experiment flown on STS-79 and STS-89. Principal Investigator: Dr. Stein Sture.

  7. Innovations in thermoelectric materials research: Compound agglomeration, testing and preselection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez de Cardenas, Hugo Francisco Lopez

    Thermoelectric materials have the capacity to convert a temperature differential into electrical power and vice versa. They will represent the next revolution in alternative energies once their efficiencies are enhanced so they can complement other forms of green energies that depend on sources other than a temperature differential. Progress in materials science depends on the ability to discover new materials to eventually understand them and to finally improve their properties. The work presented here is aimed at dynamizing the screening of materials of thermoelectric interest. The results of this project will enable: theoretical preselection of thermoelectric compounds based on their bandgap and a rapid agglomeration method that does not require melting or sintering. A special interest will be given to Iodine-doped TiSe2 that generated extraordinary results and a new set of equations are proposed to accurately describe the dependence of the power factor and the figure of merit on the intrinsic properties of the materials.

  8. Means for ultrasonic testing when material properties vary

    DOEpatents

    Beller, Laurence S.

    1979-01-01

    A device is provided for maintaining constant sensitivity in an ultrasonic testing device, despite varying attenuation due to the properties of the material being tested. The device includes a sensor transducer for transmitting and receiving a test signal and a monitor transducer positioned so as to receive ultrasonic energy transmitted through the material to be tested. The received signal of the monitor transducer is utilized in analyzing data obtained from the sensor transducer.

  9. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials, test series 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Bricker, R. W.; Kuminecz, J. F.; Supkis, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft flammability tests in which the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials was evaluated by comparing their burning characteristics with those of other fire-resistant aircraft materials were described. New-fire-resistant materials that are more economical and better suited for aircraft use than the previously tested fire-resistant materials were tested. The fuel ignition source for one test was JP-4; a smokeless fuel was used for the other test. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. The results indicate that, similar to the fire-resistant materials tested previously, the new materials decompose rather than ignite and do not support fire propagation. Furthermore, the new materials did not produce a flash fire.

  10. [Gestational diabetes and the new screening test's impact].

    PubMed

    Massa, Ana Catarina; Rangel, Ricardo; Cardoso, Manuela; Campos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Em 2011, foi introduzido um novo rastreio para a diabetes gestacional que permitiu um diagnóstico mais precoce e de maior número de casos com o intuito de reduzir complicações maternas e perinatais. O objectivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da diabetes gestacional, comparar resultados obstétricos e perinatais do anterior e presente rastreio e os resultados e realização da prova de reclassificação pós-parto. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo em gestações simples e diabetes gestacional diagnosticados em 2009 (n = 223) e 2012 (n = 237), vigiadas na Maternidade Dr. Alfredo da Costa, Portugal. Após consulta de processos clínicos procedeu-se à análise de características demográficas, história médica e obstétrica, aumento ponderal durante a gravidez, idade gestacional do diagnóstico, terapêutica utilizada, resultados perinatais e reclassificação pós-parto, seguida de comparação destas variáveis entre os anos de 2009 e 2012. Resultados: Em 2012, houve maior prevalência de diabetes gestacional, ganho ponderal inferior (p < 0,001), maior recurso à terapêutica farmacológica (p < 0,001) e aumento dos casos diagnosticados no primeiro e segundo trimestres (p < 0,001). Relativamente aos resultados neonatais, o peso médio do recém-nascido ao nascer foi significativamente menor (p = 0,001) com diminuição dos recém-nascidos grandes para a idade gestacional (p = 0,002). A taxa de reclassificação pós-parto foi semelhante nos dois anos mas em 2012 houve um aumento dos resultados normais e diminuição das anomalias da glicémia em jejum. Discussão: Critérios mais apertados do actual rastreio permitiram a redução da maioria das complicações da diabetes gestacional levantando novas questões. Conclusão: A introdução do actual rastreio resultou num aumento de prevalência, diagnóstico mais precoce e redução da macrossomia.

  11. Rolling element fatigue testing of gear materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahm, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    Rolling element fatigue lives of eleven alloys were evaluated. The eleven alloys studied were three nitriding alloys (Super Nitralloy, Nitralloy 135, and Nitralloy N), four case carburizing alloys (AISI 9310, CBS 600, CBS 1000M and Vasco X-2), and four throughhardening alloys (Vasco Matrix II,AISI W-1, AISI S-2 and AISI O-2). Several different heat treatments and/or melting processes were studied on the three carburizing alloy steels. Metallurgical analyses were made before and after the RC rig tests. Test data were statistically analyzed using the Weibull distribution function. B-10 lives were compared versus VIM-VAR AISI M-50 and carburized VAR AISI 9310, as reference alloys.

  12. Microscale material testing of single crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Taechung

    The mechanical properties of single crystalline silicon (SCS) in microscale are characterized using a uniaxial tension test. The samples are prepared using, various micromachining techniques. The dimensions of the tension specimen at the maximum stress region are 5 to 10 mum in thickness and 20 to 100 mum in width. The sample has two illumination marks on the top surface for strain measurement. The uniaxial tension test setup has been built to accommodate requirements such as sample handling, sample alignment, and friction elimination. Stress is measured using a commercial load cell. Strain is measured by laser interferometry. All the components are connected to a data acquisition board and controlled by a personal computer. Measured Young's moduli in three directions agree well with the reference values and verify the reliability of the setup and measurement procedure. The measured fracture strength is 0.6 GPa to 1.2 GPa, depending on sample preparation methods and loading directions. Preliminary work for fracture toughness measurements using a sharp initial crack is also presented. Future works include further investigation of fracture surfaces, fracture toughness measurement using crack opening criteria, and improvement of the testing apparatus.

  13. Factors which influence the rate of receiving a routine second newborn screening test in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D L; Sanderson, M; Bentvelzen, J; Fineman, R M

    1995-12-04

    This study was conducted to determine whether newborns from different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in Washington State are equally likely to have a routine second newborn screening (NBS) test and if there are identifiable factors associated with not having a second test. For many years, the standard of care for NBS in Washington has been that newborns should receive a routine second screening test at age 7-10 days. However, data collected by State Department of Health (DOH) staff for the past several years indicated that only about 80% of newborns receive a routine second NBS test. The data presented here suggest that identifiable factors (i.e., barriers) exist in accessing a routine second NBS test in Washington. Increased educational efforts targeting certain high-risk infants, their parent/caretakers, and primary care providers are apparently needed to ensure equal access to a routine second test.

  14. History of the use of HPV testing in cervical screening and in the management of abnormal cervical screening results.

    PubMed

    Cox, J Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Twenty years have passed since the first studies using human papillomavirus (HPV) testing began in clinical settings. At that time controversy regarding the role of HPV in cervical carcinogenesis still divided the scientific world. Epidemiological and natural history studies on HPV and cervical cancer in the ensuing two decades secured the necessary role of high-risk (carcinogenic) HPV in the genesis of cervical cancer, providing the rationale for testing for its cause. Subsequently, cross sectional studies and large randomized trials have provided clinical validation for high-risk HPV testing in triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), in postcolposcopy management of women referred for ASC-US, atypical squamous cells "cannot rule out high grade" (ASC-H), atypical glandular cells "not otherwise specified" (AGC NOS) and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and not found to have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+ or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) at initial colposcopy, in post-treatment of CIN 2+ surveillance, and in cotesting with the Papanicolaou (Pap) test of women age 30 and over. This is the story of the road traveled that brought the clinical use of HPV testing from its genesis only a few years after Dr. zur Hausen's discovery to its present eminent role in both primary cervical cancer screening and abnormal Pap management.

  15. Syringe test screening of microbial gas production activity: Cases denitrification and biogas formation.

    PubMed

    Østgaard, Kjetill; Kowarz, Viktoria; Shuai, Wang; Henry, Ingrid A; Sposob, Michal; Haugen, Hildegunn Hegna; Bakke, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Mass produced plastic syringes may be applied as vessels for cheap, simple and large scale batch culture testing. As illustrated for the cases of denitrification and of biogas formation, metabolic activity was monitored by direct reading of the piston movement due to the gas volume formed. Pressure buildup due to friction was shown to be moderate. A piston pull and slide back routine can be applied before recording gas volume to minimize experimental errors due to friction. Inoculum handling and activity may be conveniently standardized as illustrated by applying biofilm carriers. A robust set of positive as well as negative controls ("blanks") should be included to ensure quality of the actual testing. The denitrification test showed saturation response at increasing amounts of inoculum in the form of adapted moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers, with well correlated nitrate consumption vs. gas volume formed. As shown, the denitrification test efficiently screened different inocula at standardized substrates. Also, different substrates were successfully screened and compared at standardized inocula. The biogas potential test showed efficient screening of different substrates with effects of relative amounts of carbohydrate, protein, fat. A second case with CO2 capture reclaimer waste as substrate demonstrated successful use of co-feeding to support waste treatment and how temperature effects on kinetics and stoichiometry can be observed. In total, syringe test screening of microbial gas production seems highly efficient at a low cost when properly applied.

  16. Red-dot card test of the paracentral field as a screening test for optic nerve disease in onchocerciasis.

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, I.; Jones, B. R.; Babalola, O. E.; Cousens, S. N.; Bolarin, I.; Abiose, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new screening test for optic nerve pathology is described, consisting of a series of four red targets presented at an angle of 12 degrees in the paracentral field above and below the horizontal meridian. Nonperception and desaturation of the targets are recorded. Inter-observer variability studies found a kappa value = 0.8. A total of 6831 individuals aged > or = 5 years in communities that were mesoendemic for savanna onchocerciasis in Kaduna State, northern Nigeria, were screened using the test. Of the participants 22% were unable to complete the test; almost two-thirds of these (62%) were aged 5-8 years. After exclusion of those visually impaired or blind according to WHO criteria and those unable to complete the test, the test showed a sensitivity of 40% and a specificity of 98% for optic nerve disease when inability to visualize one or more targets was used as the definition of test failure. The sensitivity increased to 54% with a specificity of 96% when the criterion for failure included desaturation of one or more targets. These values compare favourably with those for other available screening methods. The test took 1-2 minutes to perform and was readily accepted by patients and nurses. Images Fig. 1 PMID:9060216

  17. Preparation and Use of Polish Mushroom Proficiency Testing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina

    2008-08-14

    Mushroom reference materials have been prepared and characterized for the use in proficiency tests according to a procedure established within the frame of an IAEA Interregional Technical Cooperation Project. The materials were used for conducting the proficiency tests in Poland in 2005-2007. The results obtained by participating laboratories are presented and discussed.

  18. Hypertonic sabouraud broth as a simple and powerful test for Candida dubliniensis screening.

    PubMed

    Alves, Sydney Hartz; Milan, Eveline Pipolo; de Laet Sant'Ana, Priscilla; Oliveira, Loiva O; Santurio, Janio M; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2002-05-01

    We developed a new screening test for C. dubliniensis based on its inability to grow on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 6.5% NaCl. A total of 266 clinical yeast isolates and 3 reference strains were tested, including 250 C. albicans and 19 C. dubliniensis strains. All C. albicans isolates tested exhibited significant growth on hypertonic Sabouraud broth up to 96 h, while, all C. dubliniensis isolates did not exhibit any visually detectable growth during the same period.

  19. Screening of halogenated aromatic compounds in some raw material lots for an aluminium recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Sinkkonen, Seija; Paasivirta, Jaakko; Lahtiperä, Mirja; Vattulainen, Antero

    2004-05-01

    Four samples of scrap raw materials for an aluminium recycling plant were screened for the occurrence of persistent halogenated aromatic compounds. The samples contained waste from handling of electric and electronic plastics, filter dust from electronic crusher, cyclone dust from electronic crusher and light fluff from car shredder. In our screening analyses, brominated flame retardants were observed in all samples. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) were identified in all samples in amounts of 245-67450 ng/g. The major PBDE congeners found were decabromo- and pentabromodiphenyl ethers. 1,1-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, hexabromobenzene, ethyl-pentabromobenzene, tetrabromobisphenol-A, pentabromotoluene and dimethyl tetrabromobenzene were observed in all scrap samples. The concentrations of PCBs, PCNs (polychlorinated naphthalenes) and nona- to undecachlorinated terphenyls in some of these scrap samples were remarkably high.

  20. High temperature ultrasonic testing of materials for internal flaws

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Linzer, M.

    1988-08-23

    An apparatus is disclosed for nondestructive evaluation of defects in hot materials, such as metals and ceramics, by sonic signals, which includes a zirconia buffer in contact with a hot material being tested, a liquid couplant of borax in contact with the zirconia buffer and the hot material to be tested, transmitting means mounted on the zirconia buffer sending sonic signals through the buffer and couplant into the hot material, and receiving means mounted on the zirconia buffer receiving sonic signals reflected from within the hot material through the couplant and the buffer. 2 figs.

  1. High temperature ultrasonic testing of materials for internal flaws

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Linzer, M.

    1990-02-06

    This patent describes an apparatus disclosed for nondestructive evaluation of defects in hot materials, such as metals and ceramics, by sonic signals. It comprises: a zirconia buffer in contact with a hot material being tested, a liquid couplant of borax in contact with the zirconia buffer and the hot material to be tested, a transmitter mounted on the zirconia buffer sending sonic signals through the buffer and couplant into the hot material, and a receiver mounted on the zirconia buffer receiving sonic signals reflected from within the hot material through the couplant and the buffer.

  2. Microwave sensors for nondestructive testing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasri, Tuami; Glay, David; Mamouni, Ahmed; Leroy, Yves

    1999-10-01

    Much of today's applications in nondestructive testing by microwaves use an automatic network analyzer. As a result, there is a need for systems to reduce the cost of this kind of techniques. Fortunately, now we can benefit from the cost reduction of the microwave components, induced by the considerable development of the communication market, around 2 and 10 GHz. So, it seems reasonable to think that microwaves will take advantage of this new situation to assert themselves in this application field. In this context we conceive and develop original equipment competitive in term of price and reliability.

  3. Evaluation of the blue formazan spot test for screening glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pujades, A; Lewis, M; Salvati, A M; Miwa, S; Fujii, H; Zarza, R; Alvarez, R; Rull, E; Corrons, J L

    1999-06-01

    Several screening tests for glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have been reported thus far, and a standardized method of testing was proposed by the International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH). The screening test used in any particular laboratory depends upon a number of factors such as cost, time required, temperature, humidity, and availability of reagents. In this study, a direct comparison between three different G6PD screening methods has been undertaken. In 71 cases (50 hematologically normal volunteers, 9 hemizygous G6PD-deficient males, and 12 heterozygous deficient females), the blue formazan spot test (BFST) was compared with the conventional methemoglobin reduction test (HiRT) and the ICSH-recommended fluorescent spot test (FST-ICSH). In all cases, the results obtained with the three screening tests were correlated with the enzyme activity assayed spectrophotometrically. In hemizygous G6PD-deficient males, all cases were equally detected with the three methods: BFST (4.7-6.64, controls: 11.1-13.4), BMRT (score +3 in all 9 cases), and FST (no fluorescence in 9 cases). In heterozygous G6PD-deficient females, two methods detected 7 out of 12 cases (BFST: 8.71-11.75, controls: 11.1-13.4; and BMRT: score +3 in 7 cases), whereas the FST-ICSH missed all 12 cases that presented a variable degree of fluorescence. Although the sensitivity for G6PD-deficient carrier detection is the same for the BMRT and the BFST, the latter has the advantage of being semiquantitative and not merely qualitative. Unfortunately, none of the three screening tests compared here allowed the detection of the 100% heterozygote carrier state of G6PD deficiency.

  4. Good laboratory practices for biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    2012-04-06

    Biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening are essential laboratory services for the screening, detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism or inherited metabolic disorders. Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) regulations, laboratory testing is categorized on the basis of the level of testing complexity as either waived (i.e., from routine regulatory oversight) or nonwaived testing (which includes tests of moderate and high complexity). Laboratories that perform biochemical genetic testing are required by CLIA regulations to meet the general quality systems requirements for nonwaived testing and the personnel requirements for high-complexity testing. Laboratories that perform public health newborn screening are subject to the same CLIA regulations and applicable state requirements. As the number of inherited metabolic diseases that are included in state-based newborn screening programs continues to increase, ensuring the quality of performance and delivery of testing services remains a continuous challenge not only for public health laboratories and other newborn screening facilities but also for biochemical genetic testing laboratories. To help ensure the quality of laboratory testing, CDC collaborated with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Food and Drug Administration, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institutes of Health to develop guidelines for laboratories to meet CLIA requirements and apply additional quality assurance measures for these areas of genetic testing. This report provides recommendations for good laboratory practices that were developed based on recommendations from the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, with additional input from the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society; the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; and representatives of newborn

  5. Rolling element fatigue testing of gear materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahm, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    Rolling element fatigue lives of nine alloys were evaluated in Rolling Contact (RC) rigs. Test conditions included a Hertzian stress at 4,826 MPa (700 ksi), a rolling speed of 6.23 m/sec (245 in/sec.). Tests were run with a Type I oil (MIL-L-7808G) at room temperature. B-10 lives (10% failure rate) of alloys were compared versus reference alloys, VIM-VAR AISI M-50 and VAR AISI 9310. Six case carburizing alloys (AISI 9310, CBS600, CBS1000M, EX00014, Vasco X-2 and EX00053) and three through-hardening alloys (AISI M-50, VascoMax 350 and Vasco Matrix 2 evaluated, showed RCF performance inferior or equivalent to that of AISI 9310 and AISI M-50. It was also found that the effects of vacuum melting processes, different tempering temperatures, freezing cycle during heat treating, shot peening, gold plating and chrome plating employed in the present investigation did not significantly affect RCF life.

  6. A nine-test screening battery for athletes: a reliability study.

    PubMed

    Frohm, A; Heijne, A; Kowalski, J; Svensson, P; Myklebust, G

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that reduced neuromuscular control or strength increases the risk of acute injuries. It is hypothesized that a non-functional movement pattern can predispose for injuries. In the present paper a detailed description of a test battery consisting of nine different tests to screen athletic movement pattern is provided. The aim was to evaluate the inter- and intra-rater reliability of the test battery on a group of male elite soccer players. Twenty-six healthy elite soccer players (17-28 years) were screened. Eighteen participated at a second occasion 7 days later. No significant difference (P=0.31) was found between test occasion 1 (LS means 18.3, 95% confidence interval 14.9-21.7) and test occasion 2 (18.0, 14.4-21.7) in the mean total score of the test battery. No significant difference in the inter-rater reliability was found between the eight physiotherapists at the two test occasions. The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.80 and 0.81, respectively. The test battery showed good inter- and intra-rater reliability. The screening battery is easy to use for familiarized professionals and requires minimal equipment. However, further studies are needed to confirm the validity of the test battery in injury prevention, rehabilitation and performance enhancement.

  7. Prototype testing of a solar dryer of granular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The results of testing a two module prototype solar convection dryer are presented. Collected data showed that the 540 square foot dryer can evaporate up to 900 pounds of water from a wet granular material over a 24 hour period in the Philadelphia climate. Testing included experimentation with different materials handling systems to determine the best method of moving each wet material through the dryer.

  8. Handbook of photothermal test data on encapsulant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.; Oda, K. L.; Chung, S. Y.; Smith, M. V.; Gupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory tests performed to characterize candidate encapsulation materials with respect to changes in their physical and chemical properties caused by photothermal aging are described. Several key material properties relating directly to material degradation and deterioration of performance were identified and were monitored as functions of aging conditions and time. A status report on accelerated testing activities is provided and experimental data are presented. It will be updated periodically as more data become available.

  9. Flexible screen printed thick film thermoelectric generator with reduced material resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Z.; Koukharenko, E.; Torah, R. N.; Tudor, J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a flexible thick-film Bismuth Tellurium/Antimony Tellurium (BiTe/SbTe) thermoelectric generator (TEG) with reduced material resistivity fabricated by screen printing technology. Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) was introduced to lower the resistivity of the printed thermoelectric materials. The Seebeck coefficient (α) and the resistivity (ρ) of printed materials were measured as a function of applied pressure. A prototype TEG with 8 thermocouples was fabricated on flexible polyimide substrate. The dimension of a single printed element was 20 mm × 2 mm × 78.4 pm. The coiled-up prototype produced a voltage of 36.4 mV and a maximum power of 40.3 nW from a temperature gradient of 20 °C.

  10. Testing and Selection of Fire-Resistant Materials for Spacecraft Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Jackson, Brian; Olson, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft fire-safety strategy emphasizes prevention, mostly through the selection of onboard items classified accord- ing to their fire resistance. The principal NASA acceptance tests described in this paper assess the flammability of materials and components under "worst-case" normal-gravity conditions of upward flame spread in controlled-oxygen atmospheres. Tests conducted on the ground, however, cannot duplicate the unique fire characteristics in the nonbuoyant low-gravity environment of orbiting spacecraft. Research shows that flammability an fire-spread rates in low gravity are sensitive to forced convection (ventilation flows) and atmospheric-oxygen concentration. These research results are helping to define new material-screening test methods that will better evaluate material performance in spacecraft.

  11. VAMAS tests of structural materials on aluminum alloy and composite material at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, T.; Evans, D.

    1997-06-01

    A Technical Working Area 17, cryogenic structural materials, has been organized in the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) to promote the prestandardization program on material properties tests of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite materials and alloys at liquid helium temperature. A series of international interlaboratory comparisons of both tensile and fracture toughness tests for aluminum alloy 2219 and compression and shear tests for composite material G-10CR were performed. Nine research institutes from seven nations have participated in this project. The results prove that there are few problems in cryogenic tensile tests for alloy materials. In compression and shear tests, the amount of data scatter was identified and further experiments are planned. This paper presents the program details and interim results of round robin tests.

  12. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet.

    PubMed

    Northrup, Jason C; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-07-28

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term "Internet addiction" is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  13. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Northrup, Jason C.; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:26226007

  14. Analysis of Screen Channel LAD Bubble Point Tests in Liquid Methane at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; McQuillen, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of varying the liquid temperature and pressure on the bubble point pressure for screen channel Liquid Acquisition Devices in cryogenic liquid methane using gaseous helium across a wide range of elevated pressures and temperatures. Testing of a 325 x 2300 Dutch Twill screen sample was conducted in the Cryogenic Components Lab 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Test conditions ranged from 105 to 160K and 0.0965 - 1.78 MPa. Bubble point is shown to be a strong function of the liquid temperature and a weak function of the amount of subcooling at the LAD screen. The model predicts well for saturated liquid but under predicts the subcooled data.

  15. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain.

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective.

  17. Highly Sensitive Gamma-Spectrometers of Gerda for Material Screening: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Budjas, Dusan; Hampel, W.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Keillor, Marty; Laubenstein, M.; Maneschg, W.; Rugel, G.; Schonert, S.; Simgen, H.; Strecker, H.

    2007-04-21

    The previous article about material screening for Gerda points out the importance of strict material screening and selection for radioimpurities as a key to meet the aspired background levels of the Gerda experiment. This is directly done using low-level gammaspectroscopy. In order to provide sufficient selective power in the mBq/kg range and below, the employed gamma-spectrometers themselves have to meet strict material requirements, and make use of an elaborate shielding system. This article gives an account of the setup of two such spectrometers. Corrado is located in a depth of 15 m w.e. at the MPI-K in Heidelberg (Germany), Gempi III is situated at the Gran-Sasso underground laboratory at 3500 m w.e. (Italy). The latter one aims at detecting sample activities of the order ~10 μBq/kg, which is the current state-of-the-art level. The applied techniques to meet the respective needs are discussed and demonstrated by experimental results.

  18. Results of Materials Testing for ElectroSpark Deposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Results of materials testing for ElectroSpark Deposition Norma Price Advanced Surfaces and Processes, Inc. HCAT Program Review Meeting Hilton San...Results of materials testing for ElectroSpark Deposition 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT... ElectroSpark Deposition (ESD) as technically feasible and commercially viable for a production-scale process, and to perform the tests necessary to

  19. Correlating Flammability of Materials with FTIR Analysis Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Robin; Whitfield, Steve

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to correlate flammability data with FTIR test results. Kydex 100 is a blend of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and polymethylmethacrylate, with some filler materials. Samples supplied were 0.125 in. thick. 10 samples were taken from a sheet of Kydex and analyzed for flammability and by FTIR spectroscopy. This material was utilized as a round robin sample for flammability testing. The flammability test results were found to vary across the same sheet.

  20. [Chemical or immunological tests for the detection of fecal occult blood in colorectal cancer screening?].

    PubMed

    Quintero, Enrique

    2009-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be prevented by screening programs in the population at average risk (men and women aged between 50 and 74 years) and at high risk (first degree relatives, CRC hereditary syndromes and chronic inflammatory bowel disease). Early CRC (with submucosal invasion) and advanced adenomas (size > or =10mm, with severe dysplasia or >20% villous component) produce intermittent microscopic blood losses that can be detected through chemical and immunological testing for fecal occult blood (C-FOBT and I-FOBT). Among the screening strategies in the population at average risk, annual or biannual fecal occult blood testing is the most widely used due to its non-invasiveness and low cost. Four randomized clinical trials have shown that annual or biannual screening with guaiac-based tests (C-FOBT) reduces overall mortality due to CRC by 16% and CRC incidence by 20% and 17% respectively. However, these tests have major drawbacks, especially their low sensitivity in detecting early CRC and advanced adenoma, their lack of specificity in detecting human hemoglobin (Hb), and their high fecal Hb detection threshold (>300microgHb/gfeces). In the last few years, major developments have occurred in immunological tests (I-FOBT), based on an antigen-antibody reaction that specifically detects human Hb, and these tests are currently available as an alternative to C-FOBT. Their main advantages are as follows: firstly, I-FOBT specifically detect human Hb in stools and at much lower levels (40-300microgHb/gfeces) than C-FOBT; secondly, automated analysis avoids subjectivity in reading qualitative tests and allows large population groups to be studied in a short time, making I-FOBT ideal for population-based screening; thirdly, I-FOBT fairly accurately selects individuals for colonoscopy so that approximately half of patients with an I-FOBT test show clinically significant colorectal neoplasia (advanced adenoma or invasive CRC); fourthly, the cut-off point for fecal Hb

  1. GeMSE: A new low-background facility for meteorite and material screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivers, M. V.; Hofmann, B. A.; Rosén, Å. V.; Schumann, M.

    2015-08-01

    We are currently setting up a facility for low-background gamma-ray spectrometry based on a HPGe detector. It is dedicated to material screening for the XENON and DARWIN dark matter projects as well as to the characterization of meteorites. The detector will be installed in a medium depth (˜620 m.w.e.) underground laboratory in Switzerland with several layers of shielding and an active muon-veto. The GeMSE facility will be operational by fall 2015 with an expected background rate of ˜250 counts/day (100-2700 keV).

  2. Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... or risky drinking. Two instruments in particular, the AUDIT and the CAGE, are cited throughout this issue— ... in a very specific population—pregnant women. The AUDIT, CAGE, and T-ACE are presented here in ...

  3. Cervical screening by visual inspection, HPV testing, liquid-based and conventional cytology in Amazonian Peru.

    PubMed

    Almonte, Maribel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Winkler, Jennifer L; Cuzick, Jack; Tsu, Vivien; Robles, Sylvia; Takahashi, Rina; Sasieni, Peter

    2007-08-15

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem in many developing countries, where cytology screening has been ineffective. We compared four tests to identify the most appropriate for screening in countries with limited resources. Nineteen midwives screened 5,435 women with visual inspection (VIA) and collected cervical samples for HPV testing, liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). If VIA was positive, a doctor performed magnified VIA. CC was read locally, LBC was read in Lima and HPV testing was done in London. Women with a positive screening test were offered colposcopy or cryotherapy (with biopsy). Inadequacy rates were 5% and 11% for LBC and CC respectively, and less than 0.1% for VIA and HPV. One thousand eight hundred eighty-one women (84% of 2,236) accepted colposcopy/cryotherapy: 79 had carcinoma in situ or cancer (CIS+), 27 had severe- and 42 moderate-dysplasia on histology. We estimated a further 6.5 cases of CIS+ in women without a biopsy. Sensitivity for CIS+ (specificity for less than moderate dysplasia) was 41.2% (76.7%) for VIA, 95.8% (89.3%) for HPV, 80.3% (83.7%) for LBC, and 42.5% (98.7%) for CC. Sensitivities for moderate dysplasia or worse were better for VIA (54.9%) and less favourable for HPV and cytology. In this setting, VIA and CC missed the majority of high-grade disease. Overall, HPV testing performed best. VIA gives immediate results, but will require investment in regular training and supervision. Further work is needed to determine whether screened-positive women should all be treated or triaged with a more specific test.

  4. A New Tribological Test for Candidate Brush Seal Materials Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700 C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  5. A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fellenstein, J.A.; DellaCorte, C.

    1994-10-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  6. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  7. Cryogenic Chamber for Servo-Hydraulic Materials Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, John J.; Tuttle, James

    2009-01-01

    A compact cryogenic test chamber can be cooled to approximately 5 to 6 Kelvin for materials testing. The system includes a temperature controller and multiple sensors to measure specimen temperature at different locations. The testing chamber provides a fast and easy method to perform materials testing at lower than liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The purpose of the chamber is to cool a composite lap shear specimen to approximately 20 K so that tensile test force and displacement data may be acquired at this cryogenic temperature range.

  8. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... who perform screening functions. 1544.407 Section 1544.407 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...-job training as provided in § 1544.409 (b). (b) Use of training programs. Training for screeners must.... Before beginning on-the-job training, a screener trainee must pass the screener readiness test...

  9. The Use of the Denver Developmental Screening Test in Infant Welfare Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a single Denver Developmental Screening Test performance on 823 infants attending maternal and child health centers were compared with developmental information recorded by public health nurses during routine well baby care of these same infants. Journal Avaliability: J.B. Lippincott Co; E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, PA 19105.…

  10. The Use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration as a Group Screening Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryzwansky, Walter B.

    1977-01-01

    This article investigates teacher use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) as a screening instrument with groups of young school-age children. Findings argue for some refinement in the scoring system in order to improve consistency in scoring. (Author)

  11. Capacity-to-Consent in Psychiatric Research: Development and Preliminary Testing of a Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayas, Luis H.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Perez, M. Carmela

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Assuring research participants' capacity to provide informed consent has become increasingly important in health and mental health research, and each study faces unique capacity-assessment challenges, possibly requiring its own screening tool. This article describes the development and preliminary testing of a capacity-to-consent tool…

  12. Cathode material for lithium ion accumulators prepared by screen printing for Smart Textile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrový, T.; Kazda, T.; Syrová, L.; Vondrák, J.; Kubáč, L.; Sedlaříková, M.

    2016-03-01

    The presented study is focused on the development of LiFePO4 based cathode for thin and flexible screen printed secondary lithium based accumulators. An ink formulation was developed for the screen printing technique, which enabled mass production of accumulator's cathode for Smart Label and Smart Textile applications. The screen printed cathode was compared with an electrode prepared by the bar coating technique using an ink formulation based on the standard approach of ink composition. Obtained LiFePO4 cathode layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements at different loads. The discharge capacity, capacity retention and stability at a high C rate of the LiFePO4 cathode were improved when Super P and PVDF were replaced by conductive polymers PEDOT:PSS. The achieved capacity during cycling at various C rates was approximately the same at the beginning and at the end, and it was about 151 mAh/g for cycling under 1C. The obtained results of this novelty electrode layer exceed the parameters of several electrode layers based on LiFePO4 published in literature in terms of capacity, cycling stability and overcomes them in terms of simplicity/industrial process ability of cathode layer fabrication and electrode material preparation.

  13. Simple Screened Hydrogen Model of Excitons in Two-Dimensional Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Thomas; Latini, Simone; Rasmussen, Filip; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2016-02-01

    We present a generalized hydrogen model for the binding energies (EB ) and radii of excitons in two-dimensional (2D) materials that sheds light on the fundamental differences between excitons in two and three dimensions. In contrast to the well-known hydrogen model of three-dimensional (3D) excitons, the description of 2D excitons is complicated by the fact that the screening cannot be assumed to be local. We show that one can consistently define an effective 2D dielectric constant by averaging the screening over the extend of the exciton. For an ideal 2D semiconductor this leads to a simple expression for EB that only depends on the excitonic mass and the 2D polarizability α . The model is shown to produce accurate results for 51 transition metal dichalcogenides. Remarkably, over a wide range of polarizabilities the binding energy becomes independent of the mass and we obtain EB2 D≈3 /(4 π α ), which explains the recently observed linear scaling of exciton binding energies with band gap. It is also shown that the model accurately reproduces the nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in WS2 and can account for screening from the environment.

  14. Simple Screened Hydrogen Model of Excitons in Two-Dimensional Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Thomas; Latini, Simone; Rasmussen, Filip; Thygesen, Kristian

    We present a generalized hydrogen model for the binding energies (EB) of excitons in two-dimensional (2D) materials that sheds light on the fundamental differences between excitons in two and three dimensions. In contrast to the well-known hydrogen model of three-dimensional (3D) excitons, the description of 2D excitons is complicated by the fact that the screening cannot be assumed to be local. We show that one can consistently define an effective 2D dielectric constant by averaging the screening over the extend of the exciton. For an ideal 2D semiconductor this leads to a simple expression for EB that only depends on the excitonic mass and the 2D polarizability α. The model is shown to produce accurate results for 51 transition metal dichalcogenides. Remarkably, over a wide range of polarizabilities the expression becomes independent of the mass and we obtain EB2 D ~ 3 / (4 πα) , which explains the recently observed linear scaling of exciton binding energies with band gap. It is also shown that the model accurately reproduces the non-hydrogenic Rydberg series in WS2 and can account for screening from the environment.

  15. Comparison and evaluation of three screening tests of hereditary spherocytosis in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi-feng; Deng, Zeng-fu; Liao, Lin; Qiu, Yu-ling; Chen, Wen-qiang; Lin, Fa-quan

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the diagnostic value of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) by three screening tests, comparing mean spherical corpuscular volume (MSCV) to mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and flow cytometric osmotic fragility test. Peripheral blood was collected from 237 participators diagnosed at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, including 56 hereditary spherocytosis patients, 86 thalassemia patients, and 95 healthy people. The samples were examined by three tests, and the three screening tests were evaluated by the sensitivity and specificity of tests. The sensitivity was only 41.07%, and specificity was 94.47% when using MCHC >355 g/L as diagnostic criteria. The sensitivity was 89.28%, and specificity was 96.14% when using MSCV < MCV as the optimum cutoff point. When using the residual red cell percentage <23.6% as the diagnostic threshold in flow cytometric osmotic fragility test, the sensitivity was 85.71% and the specificity was 97.24%. Flow cytometry osmotic fragility test or comparing MSCV to MCV combined with smear examination of peripheral red blood cells morphology can be a simple, practical, and accurate hereditary spherocytosis (HS) laboratory screening method.

  16. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Gelbard, Fred; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford Tank Farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  17. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-05-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford tank farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  18. Arc Jet Testing of Thermal Protection Materials: 3 Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Conley, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Arc jet testing is used to simulate entry to test thermal protection materials. This paper discusses the usefulness of arc jet testing for 3 cases. Case 1 is MSL and PICA, Case 2 is Advanced TUFROC, and Case 3 is conformable ablators.

  19. Materials selection for long life in low earth orbit - A critical evaluation of atomic oxygen testing with thermal atom systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Albyn, K.; Leger, L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of thermal atom test methods as a materials selection and screening technique for low-earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft is critically evaluated. The chemistry and physics of thermal atom environments are compared with the LEO environment. The relative reactivities of a number of materials determined in thermal atom environments are compared with those observed in LEO and in high-quality LEO simulations. Reaction efficiencies (cu cm/atom) measured in a new type of thermal atom apparatus are one-thousandth to one ten-thousandth those observed in LEO, and many materials showing nearly identical reactivities in LEO show relative reactivities differing by as much as a factor of eight in thermal atom systems. A simple phenomenological kinetic model for the reaction of oxygen atoms with organic materials can be used to explain the differences in reactivity in different environments. Certain speciic thermal atom test environments can be used as reliable materials screening tools.

  20. High temperature ultrasonic testing of materials for internal flaws

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Linzer, Melvin

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for nondestructive evaluation of defects in hot terials, such as metals and ceramics, by sonic signals, which includes a zirconia buffer in contact with a hot material being tested, a liquid couplant of borax in contact with the zirconia buffer and the hot material to be tested, a transmitter mounted on the zirconia buffer sending sonic signals through the buffer and couplant into the hot material, and a receiver mounted on the zirconia buffer receiving sonic signals reflected from within the hot material through the couplant and the buffer.