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Sample records for materiaux des composants

  1. Elaboration de nouvelles approches micromecaniques pour l'optimisation des performances mecaniques des materiaux heterogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboutajeddine, Ahmed

    Les modeles micromecaniques de transition d'echelles qui permettent de determiner les proprietes effectives des materiaux heterogenes a partir de la microstructure sont consideres dans ce travail. L'objectif est la prise en compte de la presence d'une interphase entre la matrice et le renforcement dans les modeles micromecaniques classiques, de meme que la reconsideration des approximations de base de ces modeles, afin de traiter les materiaux multiphasiques. Un nouveau modele micromecanique est alors propose pour tenir compte de la presence d'une interphase elastique mince lors de la determination des proprietes effectives. Ce modele a ete construit grace a l'apport de l'equation integrale, des operateurs interfaciaux de Hill et de la methode de Mori-Tanaka. Les expressions obtenues pour les modules globaux et les champs dans l'enrobage sont de nature analytique. L'approximation de base de ce modele est amelioree par la suite dans un nouveau modele qui s'interesse aux inclusions enrobees avec un enrobage mince ou epais. La resolution utilisee s'appuie sur une double homogeneisation realisee au niveau de l'inclusion enrobee et du materiau. Cette nouvelle demarche, permettra d'apprehender completement les implications des approximations de la modelisation. Les resultats obtenus sont exploites par la suite dans la solution de l'assemblage de Hashin. Ainsi, plusieurs modeles micromecaniques classiques d'origines differentes se voient unifier et rattacher, dans ce travail, a la representation geometrique de Hashin. En plus de pouvoir apprecier completement la pertinence de l'approximation de chaque modele dans cette vision unique, l'extension correcte de ces modeles aux materiaux multiphasiques est rendue possible. Plusieurs modeles analytiques et explicites sont alors proposee suivant des solutions de differents ordres de l'assemblage de Hashin. L'un des modeles explicite apparait comme une correction directe du modele de Mori-Tanaka, dans les cas ou celui ci echoue a

  2. Mecanique et mecanisme de la dechirure des materiaux textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triki, Ennouri

    Cette thèse vise à apporter une contribution à l’étude et à la modélisation de la déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits. Notons que la résistance à la déchirure est l’une des caractéristiques mesurées pour les équipements de protection contre les agresseurs mécaniques en milieu de travail. Jusqu'à présent, ce comportement en déchirure a été étudié en mesurant la force de déchirure et le travail de déchirure. De fait, aucun critère de rupture en déchirure n’existe actuellement. Par conséquent, en s’inspirant de la théorie du Griffith et de la mécanique de la rupture, une formulation d’un nouveau critère de rupture des structures textiles a été proposée. Cette approche offre la possibilité de déterminer d’une manière plus précise l’énergie nécessaire pour la création d’une nouvelle surface de rupture. Ce critère nous permet d’analyser l’effet des caractéristiques des tissus sur la variation de l’énergie de rupture. Cette étude montre que la résistance au glissement des fils dans la structure est le principal facteur qui contrôle la propagation de la fissure. En se basant sur la théorie de la mécanique de la rupture, un modèle de calcul de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a été aussi élaboré. Ce modèle de déchirure relie l’énergie aux paramètres caractérisant les phénomènes affectant la déchirure des tissus, notamment la force de glissement et la force à la rupture des fils. Cette modélisation a tenu compte de certaines caractéristiques des tissus tels que l’épaisseur du matériau, la densité des fils, etc. Par l’étude de la variation de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure en fonction du rapport établi entre la force à la rupture et la force de glissement d’un fil ( FYB/FS), l’effet des mécanismes de la propagation de la fissure dans les tissus sur leur comportement en déchirure a été aussi observé. Les résultats obtenus

  3. Synthese, etude structurale et electrochimique des materiaux d'electrode positive d'oxydes mixtes lithium cobalt nickel oxide (0 /= 1) pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grincourt, Yves

    Depuis une dizaine d'annees, on observe un interet grandissant pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium de tension superieure a 4 volts. La commercialisation de ces batteries pour l'electronique grand marche tend de plus en plus a supplanter celle des accumulateurs Ni-Cd et Ni-MH, de tension nominate 1,2 V. Ces batteries au lithium font appel a des materiaux d'electrode positive (cathode a la decharge) du type oxydes mixtes de metaux de transition LiMnO 2, LiMn2O4, LiNiO2 ou LiCoO2. Si le compose LiCoO2 est relativement aise a synthetiser, il n'en demeure pas moins que le cobalt reste un metal plus couteux compare au nickel et au manganese. La synthese de LiNiO2, quart a elle, demeure un probleme du point de vue stoechiometrique. Un defaut de lithium (5 a 10% molaire) conduira a des proprietes electrochimiques mediocres de la batterie. Dans cette etude nous nous proposons donc de preparer par voie humide et par voie seche les materiaux d'electrode positive de la famille LiCoyNi1-yO2 aver (0 ≤ y ≤ 1) et d'etudier en detail l'influence du pourcentage de nickel et de cobalt sur les proprietes electrochimiques des oxydes mixtes Li-Ni-Co. Une des caracteristiques est la morphologie plus fine des poudres de materiaux, observes par microscopie electronique a balayage (MEB). Un traitement thermique a plus basse temperature (750°C) que pour LiCoO2 (850°C) ainsi qu'un leger exces de lithium dans la preparation, ont permis d'aboutir a un materiau de stoechiometrie quasi parfaite. Neanmoins, le role de pilfer joue par 2 a 4% de moles de Ni2+ presents sur les sites lithium, permet de conserver intacte la structure hexagonale de la maille entre deux cycles consecutifs. Afin de mieux comprendre l'influence du vieillissement dune demi-pile Li/LiMeO2 (Me = Ni, Co) a temperature ambiante, des etudes electrochimiques et d'impedance spectroscopique ont ete menees en parallele. Le vieillissement de la cellule s'accompagne seulement dune chute de son potentiel due a son auto

  4. Etude des defauts microscopiques et des proprietes optiques, electroniques et magnetiques du compose neodyme cerium oxyde de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Pierre

    La presente these, qui combine des mesures de diffusion Raman, de transmission infrarouge, de conductivite hyperfrequence et d'interferometrie ultrasonore sur les composes Nd 2-xCexCuO 4, traite des defauts d'oxygene, ainsi que des proprietes optiques, electroniques et magnetiques de ces materiaux. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus sont correles avec plusieurs donnees experimentales disponibles dans la litterature. D'abord, la caracterisation des modes Raman et des niveaux d'energie de champ cristallin de l'ion Nd3+ au moyen de techniques optiques, en fonction du dopage en cerium et du contenu en oxygene, permettent de conclure a la presence de defauts lies a une non-stoechiometrie en oxygene dans ces composes. En effet, des excitations de champ cristallin assignees a des ions Nd3+ en sites irreguliers sont observees, en plus des bandes d'absorption associees aux ions Nd3+ en site regulier, dans les spectres correspondant aux multiplets 4I11/2, 4I13/2 et 4I 15/2 de l'ion Nd3+. Les resultats experimentaux indiquent que, contrairement a la croyance largement repandue, les oxygenes apicaux, bien que presents dans les echantillons dopes, ne sont pas enleves lors du processus de reduction des echantillons necessaire pour faire apparaitre la supraconductivite dans cette famille de cuprates. Au contraire, des lacunes d'oxygene, dont le type varie en fonction du dopage, sont creees lors de ce processus. En particulier, il est montre dans ce travail que la reduction des echantillons dopes de maniere optimale conduit a la creation de lacunes d'oxygene dans les plans CuO2. Les consequences de telles lacunes sont largement discutees. En outre, il est suggere que de telles lacunes sont responsables de la perte de l'ordre antiferromagnetique a longue portee des ions Cu2+. Finalement, l'interaction d'echange anisotrope Nd3+-Cu 2+ dans le compose nondope est caracterisee au moyen de la transmission infrarouge sous champ magnetique. L'eclatement des doublets de Kramers mesure

  5. Preface: Materiaux 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheikhrouhou, Abdelwaheb

    2012-02-01

    The national conference 'MATERIAUX 2010', which took place in Mahdia (Tunisia), from 4-7 November 2010 was organized by The 'Tunisian Materials Research Society: Tu-MRS' in collaboration with the Materials Physics Laboratory of Sfax 'LPM', Faculty of Sciences, Sfax University and the Research Unit ' Physique, Informatique et Mathématiques ', Faculty of Sciences, Gafsa University The First National Conference on Materials 'MATERIAUX 2006' was organized in Douz (Tunisia) in December 2006. This was followed by 'MATERIAUX 2007' held in Hammamet (Tunisia) in April 2007 and the National Conference 'MATERIAUX 2009' organized jointly with the Second 'Journées Internationales de la Physique des Matériaux et Applications: JIPMA 2009' in Gafsa (Tunisia) from 20-24 December 2009. 'MATERIAUX 2010' is intended to provide an excellent opportunity for National, Maghreb and International researchers to make their own work on materials known to a wider audience and to have discussions with other participants. This conference will also be an opportunity to exchange experiences, create and consolidate cooperation between different research structures in the Maghreb countries and also the countries around the Mediterranean. This conference will equally promote research development, contribution to collaboration between universities and the socio-economical milieu. More than 300 senior researchers, Professors, PhD and Masters students attended this conference from Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, France, Spain and Canada. Several researchers, engineers and managers from industrial firms also attended. The conference consisted of plenary talks (8), oral contributions (40) and poster presentations (250). The topics of the Conference were: Nano-materials, nano-systems, thin films, surfaces and interfaces, applications Multifunctionnal materials, magnetic materials, dielectric materials, superconducting materials, applications,... Materials for electronics, informatics and communication

  6. Effet de la composition des materiaux composites sur la caracterisation et detection par ondes de Lamb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostiguy, Pierre-Claude

    Les matériaux composites sont de plus en plus utilisés en aéronautique. Leurs excellentes propriétés mécaniques et leur faible poids leur procurent un avantage certain par rapport aux matériaux métalliques. Ceux-ci étant soumis à diverses conditions de chargement et environnementales, ils sont suceptibles de subir plusieurs types d'endommagements, compromettant leur intégrité. Des méthodes fiables d'inspection sont donc nécessaires pour évaluer leur intégrité. Néanmoins, peu d'approches non destructives, embarquées et efficaces sont présentement utilisées. Ce travail de recherche se penche sur l'étude de l'effet de la composition des matériaux composites sur la détection et la caractérisation par ondes guidées. L'objectif du projet est de développer une approche de caractérisation mécanique embarquée permettant d'améliorer la performance d'une approche d'imagerie par antenne piézoélectriques sur des structures composite et métalliques. La contribution de ce projet est de proposer une approche embarquée de caractérisation mécanique par ultrasons qui ne requiert pas une mesure sur une multitude d'échantillons et qui est non destructive. Ce mémoire par articles est divisé en quatre parties, dont les parties deux A quatre présentant les articles publiés et soumis. La première partie présente l'état des connaissances dans la matière nécessaires à l'acomplissement de ce projet de maîtrise. Les principaux sujets traités portent sur les matériaux composites, propagation d'ondes, la modélisation des ondes guidées, la caractérisation par ondes guidées et la surveillance embarquée des structures. La deuxième partie présente une étude de l'effet des propriétés mécaniques sur la performance de l'algorithme d'imagerie Excitelet. L'étude est faite sur une structure isotrope. Les résultats ont démontré que l'algorithme est sensible à l'exactitude des propriétés mécaniques utilisées dans le modèle. Cette

  7. Detection de l'initiation de la delamination des materiaux composites par suivi de l'emission acoustique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silversides, Ian

    Cette étude, basée sur la surveillance des ondes d'émission acoustique (E.A.), présente le développement d'une approche de prédiction de l'initiation de la délamination de pièces composites soumises à des chargements statiques et en fatigue. La surveillance des ondes d'E.A. fait parti d'un nombre restreint de méthodes pouvant détecter, en continu, l'apparition et la croissance de dommages dans les matériaux composites. L'approche est comparée à des méthodes conventionnelles ainsi qu'à une modélisation numérique pour des composites à fibre de carbone unidirectionnels et tissés, sur une gamme de rapports de mode mixte. Le présent mémoire met en lumière les différentes étapes abordées durant l'étude. L'utilisation des matériaux composites est mise en contexte au premier chapitre. La complexité des matériaux composites ainsi que la nécessité de modèles de prédiction fiables sont soulignées. Le deuxième chapitre contient une revue de la littérature et présente les outils disponibles pour analyser le délaminage et bâtir un modèle prédictif de sa propagation. Les sujets traités sont la délamination dans un contexte de mécanique de la rupture, la modélisation numérique d'une propagation de fissure, l'approche du monitorage par émission acoustique puis l'analyse fractographiques des surfaces de rupture. Les résultats des essais mécaniques et de la modélisation sont présentés sous forme d'article dans le troisième chapitre. Des essais statiques et en fatigue ont permis de calculer le taux de restitution d'énergie de déformation à l'initiation de la délamination selon des méthodes classiques pour ensuite les comparer à une méthode développée, basée sur le suivi des ondes d'émission acoustique. Une série d'essais de propagation de la délamination en fatigue ont permis d'observer des corrélations entre les émissions acoustiques, la longueur de la délamination, la vitesse de croissance des fissures et la s

  8. Synthese et utilisation de fibres cellulosiques phosphatees pour la valorisation de la fibre vegetale dans l'amelioration des proprietes de surface du papier et la fabrication de materiaux ignifuges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentsolo Yalli, Gym Clerc

    Dans cette etude, nous souhaitions principalement greffer des groupements phosphates directement sur la cellulose comme materiau modele, et par la suite transposer les conditions optimales du design concu pour la cellulose, determine par modelisation a l'aide de l'outil JMP, sur la pate kraft. Ensuite, evaluer les proprietes physico-chimiques, optiques, d'hydrophilie, thermiques et d'inflammabilite des materiaux fabriques (feuilles ou pastilles fabriquees) a partir des fibres phosphorylees. Pour ce faire, nous avons pretraite la cellulose et la pate kraft dans une solution aqueuse de 10 a 15 % de LiCl a 70°C pendant 7 heures. Par la suite, nous avons procede a la reaction de phosphorylation in situ avec l'acide phosphorique et l'uree, dans des conditions de temperatures et de reactifs decrites par un design experimental, pendant 3 heures. La reaction de phosphorylation s'est realisee avec succes pour l'ensemble des resultats sur la cellulose, avec des taux de greffage variables selon les conditions operatoires. Les degres de substitutions (DSP), determines par ICP-OES, et les degres de polymerisation (DP), determines par viscosimetrie, etaient aussi variables, selon les conditions. L'etude des parametres experimentaux a permis de determiner les conditions optimales transposables sur la pate kraft (DSP = 1,47 et DP = 142,42 pour la cellulose, qui represente un taux de coupure de 38% de la fibre) et les facteurs critiques de la reaction. Les resultats de la reaction sur la fibre ont permis, non seulement de constater que les conditions utilisees pour la cellulose n'etaient directement transposables a la fibre, mais permettaient quand d'obtenir un DSP interessant ≥ a 1 avec un taux de coupure de 50 a 60 %. La structure du produit principal de la reaction (le sel de calcium du pyrophosphate d'ester de cellulose ou de pate kraft) a ete determinee par les analyses FTIR, XPS, RMN-13C et RMN-31P. L'etude de l'effet de la reaction de phosphorylation sur les proprietes

  9. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  10. Composes inter-halogenes sous pression: etude des transformations structurales dans le monobromure d'iode sous forme dense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Alexandre

    La famille des composes halogenes et inter-halogenes representent des solides moleculaires adoptant des phases denses communes avec des solides moleculaires diatomiques comme l'azote et l'hydrogene. Parmi les transformations structurales et electroniques induites sous haute pression et observees dans ces solides, on note, entre autres, la dissociation moleculaire et la metallisation. De plus, l'etude des phases denses de l'iode a permis recemment l'observation d'une structure cristalline possedant une modulation dite incommensurable, c'est-a-dire une modulation possedant une periodicite differente de celle de la structure cristalline, jetant ainsi une lumiere nouvelle sur le processus de dissociation moleculaire dans les solides halogenes. Dans ce memoire, on propose d'etudier les changements structuraux dans monobromure d'iode (IBr), un compose inter-halogene possedant des proprietes structurales semblables a celles de deux composes halogenes, soit l'iode (I 2) et le brome (Br2) sous leur forme solide. Des experiences de diffraction des rayons X de poudres en utilisant un rayonnement synchrotron ont ete realisees a temperature ambiante sur l'IBr en variant la pression jusqu'aux environs de 60 GPa. La nature chimique particuliere du compose IBr a necessite la mise au point de techniques de chargement d'echantillon destinees a preserver l'integrite chimique de la substance utilisee. On rapporte egalement l'observation d'une phase de l'IBr presentant une modulation incommensurable. Les phases observees dans l'IBr permettent d'etablir des paralleles avec les phases denses rapportees dans I2 et Br2 par le biais d'un modele phenomenologique decrivant la sequence structurale des solides halogenes sous forme condensee.

  11. Materiaux composites supraconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerjouan, Philippe; Boterel, Florence; Lostec, Jean; Bertot, Jean-Paul; Haussonne, Jean-Marie

    1991-11-01

    The new superconductor materials with a high critical current own a large importance as well in the electronic components or in the electrotechnical devices fields. The deposit of such materials with the thick films technology is to be more and more developped in the years to come. Therefore, we tried to realize such thick films screen printed on alumina, and composed mainly of the YBa2CU3O{7-δ} material. We first realized a composite material glass/YBa2CU3O{7-δ}, by analogy with the classical screen-printed inks where the glass ensures the bonding with the substrate. We thus realized different materials by using some different classes of glass. These materials owned a superconducting transition close to the one of the pure YBa2CU3O{7-δ} material. We made a slurry with the most significant composite materials and binders, and screen-printed them on an alumina substrate preliminary or not coated with a diffusion barrier layer. After firing, we studied the thick films adhesion, the alumina/glass/composite material interfaces, and their superconducting properties. Les nouveaux matériaux supraconducteurs à haute température critique ont potentiellement un rôle important à jouer dans le domaine de l'électronique et de l'électrotechnique. En particulier, le dépôt d'oxydes supraconducteurs sur divers types de substrats est une technologie amenée à se développer. Nous avons donc entrepris une étude dont l'objet est la réalisation de conducteurs sérigraphiés sur alumine et composés essentiellement du matériau YBa2CU3O{7-δ}. Nous avons tout d'abord cherché à réaliser un composite verre/YBa2CU3O{7-δ}, par analogie au principe de réalisation de couches conductrices sérigraphiées, le verre permettant d'obtenir une liaison physico-chimique avec le substrat. Une étude préliminaire a permis de réaliser divers matériaux composites massifs, utilisant différentes familles de verres. Ces matériaux massifs, se présentant sous la forme de barreaux de

  12. Evaluation experimentale et theorique du comportement a la flexion de nouveaux poteaux en materiaux composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metiche, Slimane

    La demande croissante en poteaux pour les differents reseaux d'electricite et de telecommunications a rendu necessaire l'utilisation de materiaux innovants, qui preservent l'environnement. La majorite des poteaux electriques existants au Canada ainsi qu'a travers le monde, sont fabriques a partir de materiaux traditionnels tel que le bois, le beton ou l'acier. Les motivations des industriels et des chercheurs a penser a d'autres solutions sont diverses, citons entre autre: La limitation en longueur des poteaux en bois ainsi que la vulnerabilite des poteaux fabriques en beton ou en acier aux agressions climatiques. Les nouveaux poteaux en materiaux composites se presentent comme de bons candidats a cet effet, cependant; leur comportement structural n'est pas connu et des etudes theoriques et experimentales approfondies sont necessaires avant leur mise en marche a grande echelle. Un programme de recherche intensif comportant plusieurs projets experimentaux, analytiques et numeriques est en cours a l'Universite de Sherbrooke afin d'evaluer le comportement a court et a long termes de ces nouveaux poteaux en Polymeres Renforces de Fibres (PRF). C'est dans ce contexte que s'inscrit la presente these, et notre recherche vise a evaluer le comportement a la flexion de nouveaux poteaux tubulaires coniques fabriques en materiaux composites par enroulement filamentaire et ce, a travers une etude theorique, ainsi qu'a travers une serie d'essais de flexion en "grandeur reelle" afin de comprendre le comportement structural de ces poteaux, d'optimiser la conception et de proposer une procedure de dimensionnement pour les utilisateurs. Les poteaux en Polymeres Renforces de Fibres (PRF) etudies dans cette these sont fabriques avec une resine epoxyde renforcee de fibres de verre type E. Chaque type poteaux est constitue principalement de trois zones ou les proprietes geometriques (epaisseur, diametre) et les proprietes mecaniques sont differentes d'une zone a l'autre. La difference

  13. Effets de L'anisotropie Cristalline et du Desordre Controle Sur les Proprietes Optiques et Phononiques des Composes Semiconducteurs ZIRCONIUM(1-X) Hafnium(x) SOUFRE(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Ouali, Abderrahmane

    Dans ce travail, nous presentons l'etude de l'effet de l'anisotropie cristalline et du desordre substitutionnel controle sur les proprietes electroniques et vibrationnelles des composes semiconducteurs Zr_{rm 1-x}Hf_{x} S_3. Les proprietes phononiques sont ete etudiees en spectroscopie Raman. Les mesures systematiques des spectres polarises de tous les composes nous ont permis d'identifier tous les phonons predits par la theorie des groupes et de suivre l'evolution de leur frequence avec la concentration de hafnium. L'analyse plus approfondie par un procede de lissage des spectres nous a permis detudier l'effet du desordre controle sur la largeur des modes phononiques. Les resultats de cette analyse ont ete confrontes aux predictions d'un modele developpe pour une chai ne diatomique desordonnee et ameliore suite a nos observations experimentales. La forme en cloche predite par ce dernier pour la variation de la largeur du mode optique de la chai ne est observee pour trois phonons de symetrie Bg. L'accord est excellent pour X > 0.5 pour deux des trois modes et ce, sans aucun parametre ajustable. Cette etude nous a permis, d'une part, de conclure que les modes Bg se comportent comme s'ils etaient sur une chai ne isolee et que, par consequent, les deux chai nes composant la cellule unite de nos cristaux sont tres faiblement liees et, d'autre part, de confirmer la symetrie des modes telle que deduite des spectres polarises. Les proprietes electroniques du ZrS_3 ont ete etudiees par des mesures polarisees du coefficient d'absorption pres de son gap indirect. L'evolution des spectres avec la temperature nous a permis d'identifier deux gaps paralleles differents et un gap perpendiculaire confirmant ainsi le modele de la structure de bande base sur les etats electroniques moleculaires de l'ion (S _2)^2. L'analyse detaillee des differentes structures du coefficient d'absorption indique clairement un caractere bidimensionnel du gap indirect. L'effet du desordre

  14. Fluctuations Magnetiques des Gaz D'electrons Bidimensionnels: Application AU Compose Supraconducteur LANTHANE(2-X) Strontium(x) Cuivre OXYGENE(4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, Pierre

    Nous presentons une etude des fluctuations magnetiques de la phase normale de l'oxyde de cuivre supraconducteur La_{2-x}Sr _{x}CuO_4 . Le compose est modelise par le Hamiltonien de Hubbard bidimensionnel avec un terme de saut vers les deuxiemes voisins (modele tt'U). Le modele est etudie en utilisant l'approximation de la GRPA (Generalized Random Phase Approximation) et en incluant les effets de la renormalisation de l'interaction de Hubbard par les diagrammes de Brueckner-Kanamori. Dans l'approche presentee dans ce travail, les maximums du facteur de structure magnetique observes par les experiences de diffusion de neutrons sont associes aux anomalies 2k _{F} de reseau du facteur de structure des gaz d'electrons bidimensionnels sans interaction. Ces anomalies proviennent de la diffusion entre particules situees a des points de la surface de Fermi ou les vitesses de Fermi sont tangentes, et conduisent a des divergences dont la nature depend de la geometrie de la surface de Fermi au voisinage de ces points. Ces resultats sont ensuite appliques au modele tt'U, dont le modele de Hubbard usuel tU est un cas particulier. Dans la majorite des cas, les interactions ne determinent pas la position des maximums du facteur de structure. Le role de l'interaction est d'augmenter l'intensite des structures du facteur de structure magnetique associees a l'instabilite magnetique du systeme. Ces structures sont souvent deja presentes dans la partie imaginaire de la susceptibilite sans interaction. Le rapport d'intensite entre les maximums absolus et les autres structures du facteur de structure magnetique permet de determiner le rapport U_ {rn}/U_{c} qui mesure la proximite d'une instabilite magnetique. Le diagramme de phase est ensuite etudie afin de delimiter la plage de validite de l'approximation. Apres avoir discute des modes collectifs et de l'effet d'une partie imaginaire non-nulle de la self-energie, l'origine de l'echelle d'energie des fluctuations magnetiques est examinee

  15. Qualification sous irradiation du crayon cea: de la conception des composants a l'irradiation d'assemblages en reacteur de puissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Jean-François; Pillet, Claude; François, Bernard; Morize, Pierre; Petitgrand, Sylvie; Atabek, Rose-Marie; Houdaille, Brigitte

    1982-04-01

    Cet article résume les principaux résultats obtenus au CEA au cours des dix dernières années dans la conception, la qualification et la fabrication des différents éléments originaux constitutifs d'un assemblage de réacteur à eau pressurisée, notamment: l'oxyde UO 2 obtenu par le procédé du Double Cycle Inverse, la gaine en zircaloy 4 recris talllsée, la grille à ressort papillon, la structure à grilles coulissantes. Les etudes et essais hors-pile de comportement thermomécanique du crayon et thermohydraulique des composants de l'assemblage, les irradiations paramétriques de crayons jusqu'à une combustion massique élevée, la validation à partir d'examens aprés irradiation des principaux modèles introduits dans les calculs de conception, enfin l'introduction en réacteur prototype, puis en réacteur de puissance d'assemblages comportant ces différents éléments, constituent les principales étapes de ce développement.

  16. Incertitude dans les mesures de courant : un obstacle dans la caractérisation des composants en électronique de puissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farjah, E.; Barbaroux, J.; Perret, R.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the need for the most accurate current measurement applied to the characterization of the power electronic components. The focus is on the behaviour of the normally used high quality high bandwidth current transformers and other sensors to a fast varying high di/dt test current furnished by a new developed test current generator. In this paper after explaining the new strategy of the test generator, different current transformers are tested and characterized and a detailed comparative experimental study is carried out using a non-inductive shunt as the reference. Finally some general remarks and the necessary precautions and different measurement problems are listed and discussed. Le but de cet article est d'essayer de lever les obstacles rencontrés lors des mesures de courant servant à la caractérisation des composants en électronique de puissance. Nous nous sommes penchés sur les différences entre les réponses de quelques capteurs de haute qualité. Après une brève explication du principe d'un générateur de courant de test spécialement conçu pour cette étude, nous comparons les réponses de plusieurs transformateurs de courant par rapport à un shunt aselfique pris pour référence. Enfin nous abordons les différents aspects concernant les précautions qu'il est nécessaire de prendre pour réaliser ce type de mesure.

  17. Recorder Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    The best moments happen when students begin to realize how much power they have and use that power to create. Composing as they master different instrumental stages helps students make composition and performance a natural step in learning. A step-by-step process (rhythm notation, add pitches, copy to a five-line staff, check work, and play) keeps…

  18. Adsorption de gaz sur les materiaux microporeux modelisation, thermodynamique et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Marc-Andre

    2009-12-01

    Nos travaux sur l'adsorption de gaz dans les materiaux microporeux s'inscrivent dans le cadre des recherches visant a augmenter l'efficacite du stockage de l'hydrogene a bord des vehicules. Notre objectif etait d'etudier la possibilite d'utiliser l'adsorption afin d'ameliorer l'efficacite de la liquefaction de l'hydrogene des systemes a petite echelle. Nous avons egalement evalue les performances d'un systeme de stockage cryogenique de l'hydrogene base sur la physisorption. Comme nous avons affaire a des plages de temperatures particulierement etendues et a de hautes pressions dans la region supercritique du gaz, nous avons du commencer par travailler sur la modelisation et la thermodynamique de l'adsorption. La representation de la quantite de gaz adsorbee en fonction de la temperature et de la pression par un modele semi-empirique est un outil utile pour determiner la masse de gaz adsorbee dans un systeme mais egalement pour calculer les effets thermiques lies a l'adsorption. Nous avons adapte le modele Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) pour modeliser des isothermes d'adsorption d'hydrogene, d'azote et de methane sur du charbon actif a haute pression et sur une grande plage de temperatures supercritiques en considerant un volume d'adsorption invariant. Avec cinq parametres de regression (incluant le volume d'adsorption Va), le modele que nous avons developpe permet de tres bien representer des isothermes experimentales d'adsorption d'hydrogene (de 30 a 293 K, jusqu'a 6 MPa), d'azote (de 93 a 298 K, jusqu'a 6 MPa) et de methane (de 243 a 333 K, jusqu'a 9 MPa) sur le charbon actif. Nous avons calcule l'energie interne de la phase adsorbee a partir du modele en nous servant de la thermodynamique des solutions sans negliger le volume d'adsorption. Par la suite, nous avons presente les equations de conservation de la niasse et de l'energie pour un systeme d'adsorption et valide notre demarche en comparant des simulations et des tests d'adsorption et de desorption. En plus de l

  19. Comportement des materiaux cimentaires: Actions des sulfates et de la temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarulo, Remi

    The research work presented in this Ph.D. thesis is related to the nuclear waste underground repository concept. Concrete could be used in such a repository, and would be subjected to variations of temperature in presence of sulfate, a situation that could induce expansion of concrete. The research was lead in three parts: an experimental study of the possibility of an internal sulfate attack on mortars; an experimental study and modeling of the chemical equilibriums of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O 3-SO-H2O system; and a modeling of the mechanisms of internal and external sulfate attacks, and the effect of temperature. The results show that mortars can develop expansions after a steam-cure during hydration, but also when a long steam-cure is applied to one-year-old mortars, which is a new point. Ettringite precipitation can be considered as responsible for these expansions. The experimental study of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O 3-SO3-H2O system clarified the role of Calcium Silicate Hydrates (C-S-H) on chemical equilibriums of cementitious materials. Sulfate sorption on C-S-H has been studied in detail. The quantity of sulfate bound to the C-S-H mainly depends on the sulfate concentration in solution, on the Ca/Si ratio of the C-S-H and is not significantly influenced by temperature. Aluminium inclusion in the C-S-H seems to be a significant phenomenon. Temperature increases the calcium sulfoaluminate solubilities and thus increases sulfates concentration in solution. A modeling of the chemical system is proposed. Simulations of external sulfate attack (15 mmol/L of Na2SO 4) predict ettringite precipitation at 20 and 85°C. Simulation of internal sulfate attack was performed at a local scale (a hydrated cement grain). An initial inhomogeneity can lead, after a thermal curing at 85°C, to ettringite precipitation in zones originally free from ettringite. This new-formed ettringite could be the origin of the expansions.

  20. How Composing Aloud and Computer Composing Influence Composing Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler-Nalin, Kay

    To investigate how writing might be affected by composing aloud and computer composing--two factors that are increasingly being used either to study composing processes or to alter the typical context in which students write--a study described the composing process of five junior high school students. The students wrote four compositons, one in…

  1. Contribution a l'etude des mecanismes de l'adhesion de la glace a differents materiaux et application a l'evaluation des materiaux glaciophobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalmi, Zahira

    Several Nordic countries with cold climates like Canada are often subjected to ice storms causing major economic and social losses. Ice or sticky snow adhesion on power network equipment can be a significant issue in transmission and distribution of electrical energy for companies operating in these regions. The costs of such events can be substantial, particularly due to the cessation of economic activities, equipment failures, deicing techniques (active methods), and population safety. Because of such events, power companies have understood the need to develop so-called superhydrophobic and/or icephobic surfaces, which can significantly reduce ice adhesion (passive methods). Several studies have led to the development of a variety of new nanostructured surfaces using various strategies. These studies have led to the design of superhydrophobic surfaces with contact angles greater than 150 and low ice adhesion strength. In order to optimally reduce the ice adhesion strength on different substrates, better understanding of the various mechanisms involved in the icing process is essential. It is in this context and within the framework of Canada's research chair on atmospheric icing of power networks (INGIVRE) that this thesis was carried out, aiming to improve the knowledge of atmospheric icing, and explain the forces involved at the ice/substrate interface. Furthermore, the effect of contact angle, surface roughness and porosity on icing and ice/substrate interface was investigated. This study clearly showed that the electrostatic, van der Waals and hydrogen bond forces are the main contributors to ice adhesion to a surface at the molecular level. The electrostatic energy, based on the principle of image charge, depends on the type of material in contact with the ice, the distance between the ice and the material, and the types of ice surface defects. The van der Waals energy depends on the material type, the thickness of the liquid water layer, and the temperature. For its part, the energy associated with hydrogen bonds depends on the material type, temperature, droplet mass, as well as on the static and sliding contact angles. Among these three forces, the electrostatic energy is the largest. Whereas the hydrogen bond energy is larger than the van der Waals energy. However, the latter is always present as long as ice is in contact with a solid surface. The experimental study showed that ice adhesion strength depends on the surface roughness of the substrate. In the case of metals with a thin natural protective oxide layer, higher roughness leads to higher ice adhesion strength. In other words, polished metallic surfaces exhibit lower ice adhesion strengths. However, in the case of anodized aluminum surfaces coated with PTFE, the roughened needle-like structure resulted in lower ice adhesion. The experimental results showed that PTFE coatings remain resistant to icing/deicing cycles. Even after 15 icing/deicing cycles, surfaces remain hydrophobic with a static contact angle greater than 130°.

  2. Composing and Arranging Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Elliott; And Others

    1977-01-01

    With the inspiration, the originality, the skill and craftsmanship, the business acumen, the patience, and the luck, it's possible to become a classical composer, pop/rock/country composer, jingle composer, or educational composer. Describes these careers. (Editor/RK)

  3. My Career: Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganelli, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his career as a composer and offers some advice for aspiring composers. The author works as a composer in the movie industry, creating music that supports a film's story. Other composers work on television shows, and some do both television and film. The composer uses music to tell the audience what kind of…

  4. PREFACE 2nd International Conference on Materials Physics and Applications (JIPMA 2009/MATERIAUX 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheikhrouhou, Abdelwaheb

    2010-11-01

    The 'Tunisian Materials Research Society: Tu-MRS' organized the International Days on Materials Physics and Applications 'JIPMA 2009' and the National Conference on Materials 'MATERIAUX 2009' in Gafsa (Tunisia) During the period 20-24 December 2009. The first International Days on Materials Physics and Applications 'JIPMA 2007' were organized in Annaba (Algeria) in November 2007 while the first National Conference on Materials 'MATERIAUX 2006' was organized in Douz (Tunisia) in December 2006. The 'JIPMA' conference series together with the 'MATERIAUX' intend to provide an excellent opportunity for international, Maghreb and Tunisian researchers to make their own works on materials known to a wider audience and to have discussions with other participants. This conference will also be an opportunity to exchange experiences, create and consolidate cooperation between different research structures in the Maghreb countries. This conference will equally promote research development, contribute to collaboration between universities and the socio-economical milieu. More than 300 senior researchers, Professors, PhD and Master students attended this conference from Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, France, and Spain. Several researchers, engineers and managers from industrial firms also attended this scientific meeting. The conference consists of plenary and semi-plenary talks, oral contributions and poster presentations. The topics of the conference are: Nano-materials, nano-systems, thin films, surfaces and interfaces Multifonctional Materials, Magnetic Materials, Dielectric Materials, Superconducting Materials, Applications, ... Materials for Electronics, Informatics and Communications (Semi-conducting Materials, Electronic devices, Spintronic, ... Optoelectronic Materials, Sensors Ceramics, Glasses, Polymers, ... Natural Materials: Phosphates, Clay, ... Metallic Materials, alloys, ... Materials and Environment Materials and Energy Biomaterials Elaborating Methods and

  5. Caracterisation des proprietes dielectriques de materiaux composites a base de polyethylene terephtalate recycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebarki, Fouzia

    The aim of this study is to examine the possibility of using thermoplastic composite materials for electrical applications such as supports of automotive engine ignition systems. We are particularly interested in composites based on recycled polyethylene terephtalate (PET). Conventional isolations like PET cannot meet the new prescriptive requirements. The introduction of reinforcement materials, such as glass fibers and mica can improve the mechanical characteristics of these materials. However, this enhancement may also reduce electrical properties especially since these composites have to be used under severe thermal and electric stresses. In order to estimate PET composite insulation lifetimes, accelerated aging tests were carried out at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 140°C and at a frequency of 300Hz. Studies at high temperature will help to identify the service temperature of candidate materials. Dielectric breakdown tests have been made on a large number of samples according to the standard of dielectric strength tests of solid insulating ASTM D-149. These tests have to identify the problematic samples and to check solid insulation quality. The different knowledge gained from this analysis was used to predict material performance. This will give the company the possibility to improve existing formulations and subsequently develop a material having electrical and thermal properties suitable for this application.

  6. Conception axiomatique des joints hybrides a recouvrement simple en materiaux composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellet, Marc

    Minimizing weight is a primary objective in every system design in the aerospace and automotive industry. Therefore, the use of composite materials has become an integral part of the design of mechanical components. However, in composite structure design, their complexity normally makes it impossible to design them as a single part. This leads to the necessity of using joints. Sadly, these joints introduce discontinuities in the stress distribution within the components and are often the sites of stress concentration. Therefore, they may limit the performance of a structure, in addition to increasing the overall mass significantly due to the use of mechanical fasteners such as bolts and rivets. This is why bonded joints are increasingly popular. They are much lighter than bolted or riveted joints and are often more rigid. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to inspect a bonded joint for defects since the presence of cracks in the adhesive cannot be observed with the naked eye. The main objective of this work is to propose a new design methodology for hybrid joints. To accomplish this, it is necessary to establish reliable analysis tools to improve our understanding of the behavior of these joints when subjected to an external force. A better understanding of the interactions between the parameters is also required. To improve our knowledge on the subject, a literature review was conducted. This review was structured as to emphasize on the behavior of hybrid single lap joints when subjected to an external force in tension. Following this literature review, an analysis of the stress distribution within the joint was carried out using a finite element model. The model and the results were compared with those from two papers in order to validate the quality of representation. Subsequently, a modification was made to an existing analytical model in order to add the bolts' preload as a parameter. These two models, namely the finite element model and the analytical model, were then used for a sensitivity study using a design of experiments. To perform this analysis, a kriging model was used to reduce the computing time. Finally, the hybrid single lap joint was analyzed using axiomatic design in order to propose new approach to design these joints. The results of this work can be divided into three parts. First, an analytical model identified in the literature review has been improved to take into account the bolts' preload. The results are satisfactory within the limitations of the original model. It must be pointed out that this model does not consider the non-linear behavior of materials used in the joint, which can lead to poor reliability when highly non-linear materials are used. The sensitivity analysis carried out using the analytical model and the finite element model identified the influence of the parameters on the mechanical performances of the joint. It should be noted that the width of the joint is one of the most important parameter, as well as the thickness of the adherents. The sensitivity analysis also identified the notable effect of the radial clearance of the bolt shank. This parameter should be minimized in order to maximize performances. Finally, the geometry obtained with the axiomatic design and through physical integration reduced the maximum peel stress considerably. The use of washers based on Belleville springs allowed to significantly increase the area affected by the bolts' preload. Therefore, this final geometry should significantly increase the maximum external load that can be supported by the joint and increase its fatigue life. Finally, an improved geometry was proposed using the theory of axiomatic design. The use of chamfers at the ends of the adherents, the addition of modified washers and the use of a stiffer adhesive between the two bolts have significantly reduced the maximum peel stress in the adhesive layer. These changes have also increased the rigidity of the joint. However, analyzes have not demonstrated a decrease in the maximum shear stress inside the adhesive. Therefore, further work should be considered to assess the effect of some parameters of the improved joint on the distribution of shear stress in the adhesive layer. Among the parameters to consider, the ratio between the surfaces bonded by each of the two adhesives and the dimensions of the chamfers and the modified washers should be analyzed. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  7. Modelisation des emissions de particules microniques et nanometriques en usinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khettabi, Riad

    La mise en forme des pieces par usinage emet des particules, de tailles microscopiques et nanometriques, qui peuvent etre dangereuses pour la sante. Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les emissions de ces particules pour fins de prevention et reduction a la source. L'approche retenue est experimentale et theorique, aux deux echelles microscopique et macroscopique. Le travail commence par des essais permettant de determiner les influences du materiau, de l'outil et des parametres d'usinage sur les emissions de particules. E nsuite un nouveau parametre caracterisant les emissions, nomme Dust unit , est developpe et un modele predictif est propose. Ce modele est base sur une nouvelle theorie hybride qui integre les approches energetiques, tribologiques et deformation plastique, et inclut la geometrie de l'outil, les proprietes du materiau, les conditions de coupe et la segmentation des copeaux. Il ete valide au tournage sur quatre materiaux: A16061-T6, AISI1018, AISI4140 et fonte grise.

  8. Process of timbral composing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withrow, Sam

    In this paper, I discuss the techniques and processes of timbral organization I developed while writing my chamber work, Afterimage. I compare my techniques with illustrative examples by other composers to place my work in historical context. I examine three elements of my composition process. The first is the process of indexing and cataloging basic sonic materials. The second consists of the techniques and mechanics of manipulating and assembling these collections into larger scale phrases, textures, and overall form in a musical work. The third element is the more elusive, and often extra-musical, source of inspiration and motivation. The evocative power of tone color is both immediately evident yet difficult to explain. What is timbre? This question cannot be answered solely in scientific terms; subjective factors affect our perception of it.

  9. Teaching Composing with an Identity as a Teacher-Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    I enjoy composing and feel able to write songs that I like and which feel significant to me. This has not always been the case and the change had nothing to do with my school education or my degree. Composing at secondary school did not move beyond Bach and Handel pastiche. I did not take any composing courses during my degree. What did influence…

  10. Contribution a l'etude du comportement de dalles de ponts en beton arme de barres en PRF soumises a des charges concentrees simulant les charges de roues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouguerra, Kheireddine

    Au cours des dernieres annees, la deterioration des structures en beton arme a pris une ampleur sans precedent, et ce, malgre le fait que leur duree de vie en service initialement prevue est loin d'etre atteinte. La corrosion de l'armature d'acier est un des principaux facteurs reduisant la duree de vie des ponts en beton arme d'acier. Par ailleurs, l'armature en materiaux composites de polymeres renforces de fibres (PRF) constitue une solution a l'armature metallique afin de pallier au probleme de la corrosion d'acier et a la deterioration des structures en beton arme. Aussi, les barres d'armature en materiaux composites de PRF possedent une resistance en traction elevee (environ 2 a 6 fois la limite elastique de l'acier d'armature conventionnel), ce qui leur permet de constituer un renforcement structural attrayant pour les structures en beton. Le comportement d'elements structuraux en beton arme de barres en PRF est different de ceux en beton arme de barres d'acier. En effet, les barres en PRF possedent un module d'elasticite relativement plus faible que celui de l'acier et ont des proprietes d'adherence differentes de celles des barres d'acier. L'utilisation des barres d'armature en PRF pour armer les dalles de tabliers de ponts se concretise de plus en plus avec l'avancement des recherches dans ce domaine. La recherche entamee dans le cadre de cette these s'inscrit dans un programme de travaux realises au sein de la Chaire de recherche CRSNG/Industrie sur les Materiaux composites novateurs en PRF pour les infrastructures au departement de genie civil a l'Universite de Sherbrooke. Le comportement de membrures en beton arme de PRF soumis a des sollicitations mecaniques constitue un des principaux axes de recherche. Dans le cadre de cette these, une serie d'essais a ete effectuee sur huit dalles de ponts a confinement interne a grande echelle. Les parametres des essais comprennent: (1) l'epaisseur de la dalle, (2) le type et le taux d'armature transversale de l

  11. Composing the Curriculum: Teacher Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    What is composing and how is it valued? What does a good education in composing look like; what constraints hinder it and is it possible to overcome such constraints? Can composing be a personal, creative and valuable activity for the school student? What role does the teacher play in all of this? These are questions that I discuss in this…

  12. Recuperation d'energie issue des deformations de structures aeronautiques a l'aide de materiaux piezoelectriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debeaux, Sebastien

    Aerospace structural maintenance (fuselage, wings) is a major component of operational costs which requires aircraft to be grounded and some of its parts to be dismantled in order to proceed to inspection. In order to allow in situ monitoring, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has been proposed where sensors and actuators are integrated on the structure. To avoid extensive wiring of the nodes, wireless sensors and actuators are attractive but should be self powered to fully benefit from them. One idea is to convert the mechanical energy (vibrations) available all over an aircraft into electricity using piezoelectric materials. This work investigates the potential of strain-based energy harvesters (as opposed to inertial harvesters) to supply wireless nodes on typical aircraft structures. A simple model is used to describe typical dynamic behavior of aircraft components: a beam representing the whole wing subjected to aerodynamic loading and a plate representing a fuselage panel subjected to pressure fields (jet noise and turbulent boundary layer). Various configurations of piezoelectric materials are tested such as bulk PZT, PZT fiber composite and Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) in order to evaluate the influence of their characteristics (size, polarization, electrodes' shape, capacitance...) on the harvested power. The results show that for a typical aerospace excitation of the beam (10 Hz and 56 μdef), the energy produced is up to 40 mJ with bulk PZT for a 7 minutes loading time. From the literature, this appears sufficient for RF transmission (25 μJ). For other excitation sources (for instance jet noise), the energy produced is up to only 1 mJ with bulk PZT for a 25 minutes loading time. The drawback is that we should wait for several seconds in order to charge the harvester's battery. And, considering that many other components than the RF transceiver will require energy in the meantime, the time laps between two' measures could increase to several minutes. Therefore, strain-based energy harvester could be used for supplying wireless sensor nodes but they would not allow real time measurement. However this approach is a simple and convenient way to scavenge energy compared to other kinds of harvesters (inertial, solar...) since it amounts to bonding a piezoelectric material on a flexible surface. Some design advices are eventually proposed for this kind of harvesters. They could be used for designing a harvester able to produce desired power from a known excitation. Keywords: Power harvesting, piezoelectric, piezoelectric fiber composite, vibration energy, structural health monitoring.

  13. Etude de la performance de piles a combustible microbiennes et l'effet des materiaux d'electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Edith

    Recent climate change has brought a whole new dimension to the energy field since now we must change our primary source, fossil fuels. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology emerged as a result of recent efforts in the development of alternative sources of energy. This project aims to improve the performance maximization of such celsl. It is assumed that the microbial fuel cells' functioning is influenced by the operation conditions as well as the biofilm development and other limitations. It is also appropriate to suppose that the electrode materials also have consequences on either the microorganisms' activity or the electrochemical reaction reactivity. Thus, various operating conditions and configurations are tested to identify the specific effects of these changes on cell performance. Also, the development of the biofilm is extensively studied under various conditions to improve the electrons transfer between the active biofilm and the anode. These experiments and analyses permitted to identify various effects that can improve the microbial fuel cell performance. Thus, the influence of organic load (of glucose and acetate), pH and operating temperature of the fuel cell has been shown and optimal values were determined, leading to a significant increase in the anodic biofilm activity and a decrease of the methanogens activity, the latter reducing the coulombic efficiency by diverting a non-negligible substrate amount for their benefit. Hence, organic loading of 2 to 4 g L-1 day-1, pH between 6,25 and 6,5 as well as high cathode temperature (62 °C) but moderate anode temperature (30 °C) caused a maximum power generation increase to 19,2 W m -3. During the experiments with acetate as substrate, distance between electrodes and fuel cell volume have been reduced, leading to a power density of 92,4 W m-3. All these observations are the subject of the first article presented in this thesis. Since the microbial fuel cell power generation depends on the number of anode-reducing microorganisms populating the biofilm, this relationship was deepened in the second manuscript. This article, which intended to monitor the biofilm development, highlights the influence of external load changing rate during the active biofilm growth. Thus, when the external load is adjusted rapidly to approach the cell internal resistance, electrons exchange is enhanced as well as the proliferation of microorganisms responsible of these electrons generation. By promoting faster anode-reducing microorganisms growth, other species are somewhat disadvantaged and substrate consumption is primarily involved in the electricity production rather than any other unwanted products (eg.: methane). This article also demonstrates the influence of the biofilm development level on the diffusion limitation of the anodic reaction, a limitation that becomes more pronounced as the biofilm grows. The third article clarifies the diffusion limitation of the charge transfer at the anode. Therefore, the organic load variation of acetate in microbial fuel cells with carbon felt (3D) and carbon paper (2D) anodes as well as the electrolyte conductivity decrease has targeted protons diffusion out of the biofilm as the current generation limitation. In addition, a secondary electrochemical reaction has been identified at the anode, creating an electrode resistance increase and thereby a slight power output decrease. Finally, multiple electrochemical analyses helped to establish with certainty that the electron transfer mechanism carried out by anode-reducing microorganisms is by direct contact with the anode via microorganisms themselves or the conductive biofilm matrix, cytochromes being responsible for the electrons transport in both cases. The last manuscript deals with new cathode materials (carbon, Mn 2O3 and Fe2O3) evaluation in comparison to a platinum cathode. These materials were chosen for their potential to stimulate the proliferation of microorganisms capable of influencing cathode activity in order to obtain a biocathode; however, this phenomenon has not been verified. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. How Composers Compose: In Search of the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Bernard W.

    2004-01-01

    The Genesis Project is a multi-phase research project designed for the purpose of developing an in-depth understanding of the nature of musical creativity by investigating how composers compose. In this first phase of the project, an understanding of the four dimensions of musical creativity: (1) the "person", (2) the compositional "process", (3)…

  15. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  16. Etude du stockage de l'hydrogene sur des nanostructures de carbone microporeuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Le stockage de l'hydrogene par adsorption sur des adsorbants nano-structures a ete etudie sous differentes conditions de pression et de temperature. Les adsorbants etudies sont principalement des nanotubes de carbone a simple paroi ainsi que des structures metallo-organiques. Les mesures ont ete realisees a l'aide de systemes gravimetriques et volumetriques tres sensibles specialement mis au point pour de petits echantillons necessitant un degazage in situ. Les appareils developpes, au nombre de quatre, comprennent deux systemes gravimetriques et deux systemes volumetriques. Ensemble, ces systemes couvrent la plage de pressions (0-100) bars ainsi que la plage de temperatures (77-295) K. Les differentes analyses montrent que l'adsorption d'hydrogene sur les adsorbants nano-structures etudies est maximale a 77 K et varie entre environ (1.5 et 4) % masse. A temperature ambiante, l'adsorption croit lineairement avec la pression et demeure sous les 1% masse pour des pressions inferieures a 100 bars. L'adsorption d'hydrogene sur ces materiaux dans ces conditions se compare notamment a celle obtenue sur des charbons actives. La modelisation de l'adsorption a egalement ete realisee dans des conditions cryogeniques a l'aide du modele de Dubinin-Astakhov sous une forme adaptee pour l'adsorption supercritique. Les enthalpies d'adsorption calculees a partir de ce modele varient sous les 6 kJ/mole et sont donc consistantes avec des processus de physisorption. L'applicabilite du modele de Dubinin-Astakhov suggere que l'adsorption d'hydrogene puisse etre representee par un processus de remplissage des pores par un pseudo-liquide. Ces travaux s'inscrivent dans un contexte ou la capacite d'adsorption reelle des nanostructures de carbone est sujette a la controverse. En consequence, l'approche experimentale adoptee se distingue par les differentes demarches mises de l'avant pour l'obtention de mesures fiables sur des echantillons de faibles masses ainsi que par son caractere

  17. Guidelines for Coaching Student Composers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dana

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on teaching students how to compose music. Addresses issues, such as how to get the students started and types of questions to ask students about their compositions. Discusses the musical elements involved in composition, such as melody, harmony, rhythm and meter, timbre, texture, and formal design. (CMK)

  18. Components of the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Sharon

    Information derived from an informal study of the processes through which students go as they complete papers assigned for class shows that most freshman students spend little time preparing for their writing and use a simple drafting technique in composition. This paper offers a model of the student composing process which is generalized from the…

  19. Analyse de L'ancrage des Vortex Intergrains pour le Yttrium BARYUM(2) CUIVRE(3) OXYGENE(7) Polycristallin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Patrick

    Le Modele de l'Etat Critique Generalise (MECG) est utilise pour decrire les proprietes magnetiques et de transport du YBa_2Cu_3O _7 polycristallin. Ce modele empirique permet de relier la densite de courant critique a la densite de lignes de flux penetrant dans la region intergrain. Deux techniques de mesures sont utilisees pour caracteriser nos materiaux. La premiere consiste a mesurer le champ au centre d'un cylindre creux en fonction du champ magnetique applique pour des temperatures comprises entre 20 et 85K. En variant l'epaisseur de la paroi du cylindre creux, il est possible de suivre l'evolution des cycles d'hysteresis et de determiner des champs caracteristiques qui varient en fonction de cette dimension. En utilisant un lissage des resultats experimentaux, nous determinons J _{co}, H_ {o} et n, les parametres du MECG. La forme des cylindres, avec une longueur comparable au diametre externe, entrai ne la presence d'un champ demagnetisant qui peut etre inclus dans le modele theorique. Ceci nous permet d'evaluer la fraction du volume ecrante, f _{g}, ainsi que le facteur demagnetisant N. Nous trouvons que J_{ co}, H_{o} et f_{g} dependent de la temperature, tandis que n et N (pour une epaisseur de paroi fixe) n'en dependent pas. La deuxieme technique consiste a mesurer le courant critique de lames minces en fonction du champ applique pour differentes temperatures. Nous utilisons un montage que nous avons developpe permettant d'effectuer ces mesures en contact direct avec le liquide refrigerant, i.e. dans l'azote liquide. Nous varions la temperature du liquide en variant la pression du gaz au-dessus du bain d'azote. Cette methode nous permet de balayer des temperatures entre 65K et la temperature critique du materiau ({~ }92K). Nous effectuons le lissage des courbes de courant critique en fonction du champ applique encore a l'aide du MECG, pour a nouveau obtenir ses parametres. Pour trois echantillons avec des traitements thermiques differents, les parametres

  20. Organists and organ music composers.

    PubMed

    Foerch, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case reports of patients with exceptional musical talent and education provide clues as to how the brain processes musical ability and aptitude. In this chapter, selected examples from famous and unknown organ players/composers are presented to demonstrate the complexity of modified musical performances as well as the capacities of the brain to preserve artistic abilities: both authors are active organists and academic neurologists with strong clinical experience, practice, and knowledge about the challenges to play such an outstanding instrument and share their interest to explore potentially instrument-related phenomena of brain modulation in specific transient or permanent impairments. We concentrate on the sites of lesions, suggested pathophysiology, separate positive (e.g., seizures, visual or auditory hallucinations, or synesthesia [an involuntary perception produced by stimulation of another sense]) and negative phenomena (e.g., amusia, aphasia, neglect, or sensory-motor deficits) and particularly address aspects of recent concepts of temporary and permanent network disorders.

  1. Organists and organ music composers.

    PubMed

    Foerch, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case reports of patients with exceptional musical talent and education provide clues as to how the brain processes musical ability and aptitude. In this chapter, selected examples from famous and unknown organ players/composers are presented to demonstrate the complexity of modified musical performances as well as the capacities of the brain to preserve artistic abilities: both authors are active organists and academic neurologists with strong clinical experience, practice, and knowledge about the challenges to play such an outstanding instrument and share their interest to explore potentially instrument-related phenomena of brain modulation in specific transient or permanent impairments. We concentrate on the sites of lesions, suggested pathophysiology, separate positive (e.g., seizures, visual or auditory hallucinations, or synesthesia [an involuntary perception produced by stimulation of another sense]) and negative phenomena (e.g., amusia, aphasia, neglect, or sensory-motor deficits) and particularly address aspects of recent concepts of temporary and permanent network disorders. PMID:25684298

  2. Composing Music with Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaofan; Tse, Chi K.; Small, Michael

    In this paper we study the network structure in music and attempt to compose music artificially. Networks are constructed with nodes and edges corresponding to musical notes and their co-occurrences. We analyze sample compositions from Bach, Mozart, Chopin, as well as other types of music including Chinese pop music. We observe remarkably similar properties in all networks constructed from the selected compositions. Power-law exponents of degree distributions, mean degrees, clustering coefficients, mean geodesic distances, etc. are reported. With the network constructed, music can be created by using a biased random walk algorithm, which begins with a randomly chosen note and selects the subsequent notes according to a simple set of rules that compares the weights of the edges, weights of the nodes, and/or the degrees of nodes. The newly created music from complex networks will be played in the presentation.

  3. Modelisation de materiaux composites adaptatifs munis d'actionneurs en alliage a memoire de forme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneau, Charles

    Technological development of structures having the capabilities to adapt themselves to different operating conditions is increasing in many areas of research such as aerospace. In fact, numerous works are now oriented toward the design of adaptive aircraft wings where the goal is to enhance the aerodynamic properties of the wing. Following this approach, the work realised in the framework of this master thesis presents the steps leading to the creation of a numerical model that can be used to predict the behavior of an adaptive panel, and therefore, eventually of an adaptive aircraft wing. Foremost, the adaptive panel of this project has been designed from a carbon-epoxy composite, acting as host structure, where shape memory alloy (SMA) wires, acting as actuators, have been inserted in it. SMA actuators have also been embedded asymmetrically along the direction of the panel thickness in order to generate a bending moment when the SMA wires are activated. To achieve the modeling of such structure it has been firstly shown that a numerical model composed of only solid finite elements could be used to represent the panel. However, a second numerical model composed of shell, beam and link finite elements showed that identical results can be obtained with much less nodes (the first model was composed of more than 300 000 nodes compared with 1 000 nodes for the second). The combination of shell-beam-link elements has then been chosen. Secondly, a constitutive relation had to be used for modeling the particular behavior of SMA. For the present work, a uniaxial version of the Likhachev's model is used. Due to its fairly straightforward mathematical formulation, this material law is able to model the main functional properties of SMA including the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) at zero stress obtained after a thermomechanical education treatment. The last step was to compare the results of the numerical simulations with those obtained with a prototype where 19

  4. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  5. The composing process in technical communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and application of the composing process in technical communications is addressed. The composing process of engineers, some implications for composing research for the teaching and research of technical communication, and an interpretation of the processes as creative experience are also discussed. Two areas of technical communications summarized concern: the rhetorical features of technical communications, and the theoretical background for a process-based view, a problem-solving approach to technical writing.

  6. Materiaux piézoélectriques pour moteurs ultrasonores performances requises et problèmes technologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnard, P.; Eyraud, L.; Guillemot, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    For many years ultrasonic piezoelectric motors are the subject of a great number of papers and patents. The submitted structures yield a great variety of piezoceramics shapes, of the excitation mode and the applied electric fields. The main required properties of the active materials are presented on the basis of the figure of merit (coupling factor, electromechanical transformer ratio) and on the basis of losses and aging as well. The significant technological problems presented by some structures are analysed : reverse polarizations into a same ceramic, strong silkscreen printing, achievement of a strong, conductive and non absorbing, metal-ceramic bond,... At last an industrial outlet of piezoelectric motors will mainly depend on the upper cost limit of piezoceramics when built in great number. Such a cost will be bound to the required geometries and machining. Les moteurs piézoélectriques ultrasonores font depuis plusieurs années l'objet de très nombreuses publications et brevets. La diversité des structures proposées entraîne une grande variété des formes des céramiques piézoélectriques, de leur mode d'excitation et des champs électriques appliqués. Les principales performances requises des matériaux actifs sont présentées tant sur le plan des facteurs de mérites (facteur de couplage, rapport de transformation électromécanique, ... ) que sur celui des pertes ou du vieillissement. Les importants problèmes technologiques posés par certaines structures sont analysés : polarisations inversées dans une même céramique, sérigraphies résistantes, réalisation de liaisons céramiques-métal solides, conductrices et non amorties... Enfin le débouché industriel des moteurs piézoélectriques dépendra essentiellement du coût limite en fabrication de masse des éléments céramiques, piézoélectriques qui restera très lié aux géométries et aux usinages exigés.

  7. Children Composing and the Tonal Idiom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies have demonstrated how children compose, experiment and use their imagination within the conventions of the tonal idiom with functional harmony. However, one area of research that has hardly been explored is how tonality emerges in the compositions of children who compose by transforming their own non-musical ideas, such as their…

  8. A Virtual Composer in Every Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.; Carter, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous generations applauded grant-funded programs that brought living composers into the lives of K-12 music students. The current economic climate, however, limits opportunities similar to those enjoyed in the past. We designed a virtual composer-in-residence experience that uses technology to overcome the barriers of funding limitations and…

  9. Interdiffusion de puits quantiques controlee par irradiation laser excimere pour l'integration de composants photoniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Jonathan

    L'integration de composants discrets sur un systeme unique, tel une puce electronique, augmente les performances totales du systeme, fait apparaitre de nouvelles fonctionnalites et diminue les couts associes a la fabrication des dispositifs. Ces ameliorations, appliquees au secteur de la microelectronique, sont grandement responsables des avancements importants qu'ont connus les technologies de l'information et des communications au cours des dernieres annees. Puisque la fabrication de circuits photoniques integres necessite l'integration de structures ayant des bandes interdites differentes a partir d'une meme puce semiconductrice, leur niveau d'integration est bien inferieur que celui atteint pour un microprocesseur standard. Parmi les techniques ayant le potentiel de fabriquer des circuits photoniques integres monolithiquement, l'interdiffusion de puits quantique post-expitaxial controlee spatialement augmente la bande interdite d'une heterostructure semiconductrice a l'interieur de regions definies. Le processus d'interdiffusion, active thermiquement, est accelere par la diffusion d'impuretes et de defauts ponctuels tels que les lacunes et les interstitiels. L'hypothese de depart de mes travaux de doctorat suppose que la radiation laser ultra-violette module la diffusion et la generation de defauts ponctuels dans les heterostructures reposant sur les technologies a base de GaAs et d'InP et, consequemment, controle spatialement l'interdiffusion de puits quantiques. Nous avons demontre que lorsque appliquee sur des heterostructures a base de GaAs, l'irradiation laser excimere l'interdiffusion en favorisant la croissance d'un stresseur de surface qui empeche la diffusion des defauts ponctuels vers les puits quantiques. Nous avons souligne l'influence de la vapeur d'eau physisorbee sur la croissance du stresseur et avons determine la resolution spatiale de la technique. Dans les heterostructures basees sur les technologies InP, meme sous le seuil d'ablation, l

  10. Optimisation structurale de dalles de chaussees en beton jointees avec des goujons en materiaux composites en Polymeres Renforces de Fibres de Verre (PRFV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricola, Julien

    In Quebec, the majority of the road network was built in the 60's - 70's and show obvious signs of ageing. Moreover, the increase of road traffic and the rigorous weather conditions, render the maintenance and the exploitation of roads in this Northern American part quite difficult. Indeed, these environmental conditions cause severe damages for roads, especially in winter. The degradation factor of the jointed rigid pavement is intensified by the highway salt. So, the phenomena of deteriorations appears mainly by the corrosion of the steel at the joints (structural elements) guaranteeing the durability of roads. The jointed rigid pavements or "short jointed pavements" are still mainly sized with steel dowels placed at the lining of joints. One of the main functions of these structures is to control the formation of cracking due to the thermal and environmental conditions. In order to reduce these , disorders, the Ministry of Transport of Quebec (MTQ) turned towards new techniques and innovative materials to ensure the longevity of roads. With the rapid evolution of specific methods and knowledge in roads design, joined with technologies and new products, the MTQ emphasizes the research and development. That way, advanced techniques and diverse technologies in the Quebecois context are settled. As a matter of fact, one of the axes of these development researches concerns the composite materials which have recently been given good results in the civil engineering area. That is why Glass Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) dowels bars appear as a solution to the steel corrosion. In fact, they provide better durability with lower costs: the increase of service life as well as the decrease of maintenance persons and traffics impac. Thus, this project proposes an optimization of structural design of GFRP dowels for transverse jointed highway pavement slabs, also keeping in mind their use in new projects. The GFRP dowels which are given in this essay are made by the Pultrall Inc. Company from Thetford Mines (Quebec, Canada). The resin used for the polymer materials is only vinylester resin and the dowels have diameters going from 28.6 mm to 34.9 mm. Finally, only a stiff base is used for the road, its particularity is the modulus of subgrade reaction. Keywords: concrete pavement, dowelled slab, jointed concrete pavement, GFRP dowels, optimization, structural, design .

  11. Evaluation de l'effet de la temperature de cure sur le comportement des materiaux bitumineux de type mr-5 traites a la mousse de bitume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Jose Alberto

    Cold recycling mixes and cold mixes with RAP are used in Quebec since 1991. However, this practice is not recommended at temperatures below 10 ° C. Very little research on this subject and the effects of low temperatures on the behavior of early mixes are being done. The present study compares the behavior of a MR-5 mix under different cure temperature, 0 ° C, 5 ° C, 10 ° C, and 23 ° C as the reference temperature. The cold curing conditions are explained in details. The research is based on two main aspects: the effect of curing temperature on the cold recycling materials with foamed asphalt and the comparison between two methods of testing the mechanical properties, there are the Marshall stability and the Indirect Tensile Strenght ITS. The study is divided into three stages. The first stage is the optimization of the foam properties and the mix design of test. The second stage is to prepare the specimens of MR-5 MB and the storage on the predefined cure conditions. Finally, the third stage consists of mechanical strength testing of briquettes at the curing time appointed. Meanwhile, at each stage, we evaluate the associated parameters, which are little known and highly useful in road construction. Firstly, we assess the foam index and the surface of contraction, which is used for formulating and optimization of the foam bitumen mixes. Secondly, we evaluate the index of fracture (IF) and the ductility index (ID) associated with the mechanical strength. At the end of the project, we compare the resistance of the MR-5 foamed bitumen used in this research with the MR-5 bitumen emulsion. The latter is more used in the road industry in Quebec and serves as a reference for the comparison. Both tests show that there is an increase in the resistance of the materials with time, even at temperature below 10 ° C. We notice that the percentage of increase in the resistance of the materials is significantly different in both tests. However, the ITS is highly effective in cold mixes characterization and gives more details on the behavior of the MR-5 materials in different temperature.

  12. Rectenna composed of a circular microstrip antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, K.; Ohgane, T.; Ogawa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    One of the big problems in the SPS system is reradiation of the harmonic waves generated by the rectifying diode. The authors proposed the use of a circular microstrip antenna (CMSA), since the CMSA has no higher resonance-harmonic of integer multiple of the dominant resonance frequency. However, characteristics of a large rectenna array of CMSA's have not been clarified. This paper is concerned with the absorption efficiency of the rectenna composed of the CMSA. The efficiency is estimated explicitly using an infinite array model. The results show that the absorption efficiency of the infinite rectenna array composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the CMSA. 4 references, 4 figures.

  13. Music and emotion—a composer's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Douek, Joel

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an experiential and anecdotal look at the daily lives and work of film composers as creators of music. It endeavors to work backwards from what practitioners of the art and craft of music do instinctively or unconsciously, and try to shine a light on it as a conscious process. It examines the role of the film composer in his task to convey an often complex set of emotions, and communicate with an immediacy and universality that often sit outside of common language. Through the experiences of the author, as well as interviews with composer colleagues, this explores both concrete and abstract ways in which music can bring meaning and magic to words and images, and as an underscore to our daily lives. PMID:24348344

  14. Take a Change with Aleatory Composing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambaugh, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can incorporate musical composition into their classrooms by teaching students about aleatory, or chance, music. Provides a definition of aleatory music and provides various composing techniques, focusing on aleatory music. Includes lesson plans using aleatory music, such as the "Mozart Model" for grades 4-12. (CMK)

  15. Composing for Digital Publication: Rhetoric, Design, Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyman, Douglas; Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss the state of digital publication with the claim that, at this historical moment, nearly all composition is digital composition. But, as a field, composition studies has not yet made that shift completely explicit in the discussions of composing processes and writing pedagogies. A deeper engagement with this very rapid shift in…

  16. The Composer in the Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the role of music composition within the curriculum of a typical small liberal arts college and the faculty composer's role(s) in facilitating the study of composition. The relationship between composition and campus performance is discussed, particularly in light of the increased emphasis on performance in formerly all-male…

  17. Is the Higgs boson composed of neutrinos?

    DOE PAGES

    Krog, Jens; Hill, Christopher T.

    2015-11-09

    We show that conventional Higgs compositeness conditions can be achieved by the running of large Higgs-Yukawa couplings involving right-handed neutrinos that become active at ~1013–1014 GeV. Together with a somewhat enhanced quartic coupling arising by a Higgs portal interaction to a dark matter sector, we can obtain a Higgs boson composed of neutrinos. Furthermore, this is a “next-to-minimal” dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scheme.

  18. Is the Higgs boson composed of neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Krog, Jens; Hill, Christopher T.

    2015-11-09

    We show that conventional Higgs compositeness conditions can be achieved by the running of large Higgs-Yukawa couplings involving right-handed neutrinos that become active at ~1013–1014 GeV. Together with a somewhat enhanced quartic coupling arising by a Higgs portal interaction to a dark matter sector, we can obtain a Higgs boson composed of neutrinos. Furthermore, this is a “next-to-minimal” dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scheme.

  19. Universally Composable Privacy Amplification from Causality Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masanes, Lluís

    2009-04-01

    We consider schemes for secret key distribution which use as a resource correlations that violate Bell inequalities. We provide the first security proof for such schemes, according to the strongest notion of security, the so-called universally composable security. Our security proof does not rely on the validity of quantum mechanics, it solely relies on the impossibility of arbitrarily fast signaling between separate physical systems. This allows for secret communication in situations where the participants distrust their quantum devices.

  20. Alexia without agraphia in a composer.

    PubMed

    Judd, T; Gardner, H; Geschwind, N

    1983-06-01

    A 77-year-old composer had a left occipital lobe haemorrhagic infarct giving a severe reading disturbance with well-preserved writing and without appreciable aphasia. He continued to read music and to compose. His text- and music-reading performance under different conditions suggests that this unusual dissociation was primarily due to four factors. (1) He was unusually talented musically and inferred a great deal about the music he was reading. (2) The symbols of staff music notation are more visually distinctive than the symbols of phonetic language writing systems. (3) In staff music notation, pitch is represented ordinally, and other symbols are also distinguishable by their relative positions and sizes. (4) Music notation can be usefully read by interpreting it acoustically, kinaesthetically or in terms of formal musical concepts; in contrast to written language, it need not be interpreted referentially or in terms of auditory-verbal images. His disorder fits the classic visual-verbal disconnection account of alexia without agraphia and the contemporary view that music involves a family of related but distinct skills probably involving many brain areas in both hemispheres, although different cortical areas make characteristic contributions to different musical behaviours. PMID:6850277

  1. [Mental disease in two classical music composers].

    PubMed

    Rempelakos, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D

    2012-01-01

    A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions

  2. [Mental disease in two classical music composers].

    PubMed

    Rempelakos, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D

    2012-01-01

    A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions

  3. Joint Composable Object Model and LVC Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinsmith, Richard; Wallace, Jeffrey; Bizub, Warren; Ceranowicz, Andy; Cutts, Dannie; Powell, Edward T.; Gustavson, Paul; Lutz, Robert; McCloud, Terrell

    2010-01-01

    Within the Department of Defense, multiple architectures are created to serve and fulfill one or several specific service or mission related LVC training goals. Multiple Object Models exist across and within those architectures and it is there that those disparate object models are a major source of interoperability problems when developing and constructing the training scenarios. The two most commonly used architectures are; HLA and TENA, with DIS and CTIA following close behind in terms of the number of users. Although these multiple architectures can share and exchange data the underlying meta-models for runtime data exchange are quite different, requiring gateways/translators to bridge between the different object model representations; while the Department of Defense's use of gateways are generally effective in performing these functions, as the LVC environment increases so too does the cost and complexity of these gateways. Coupled with the wide range of different object models across the various user communities we increase the propensity for run time errors, increased programmer stop gap measures during coordinated exercises, or failure of the system as a whole due to unknown or unforeseen incompatibilities. The Joint Composable Object Model (JCOM) project was established under an M&S Steering Committee (MSSC)-sponsored effort with oversight and control placed under the Joint Forces Command J7 Advanced Concepts Program Directorate. The purpose of this paper is to address the initial and the current progress that has been made in the following areas; the Conceptual Model Development Format, the Common Object Model, the Architecture Neutral Data Exchange Model (ANDEM), and the association methodology to allow the re-use of multiple architecture object models and the development of the prototype persistent reusable library.

  4. Les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose praseodyme-cerium-oxyde de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Jacques

    Ce travail etudie les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose supraconducteur a haute temperature critique dope aux electrons Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. La technique utilisee pour sonder ces fluctuations est le transport electrique DC dans le plan ab. Il s'agit, a notre connaissance, de la premiere etude de ce type dans la classe generale des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique dopes aux electrons et, plus particulierement, dans Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. De plus, l'etude est effectuee pour trois regimes de dopage, soit sous-dope x = 0.135, dopage optimal x = 0.15 et surdope x = 0.17. Les echantillons etudies sont des couches minces d'epaisseur plus grande que 100 nm crues par ablation laser. Les mesures electriques DC effectuees dans ce travail sont la resistance en reponse lineaire et les courbes IV en reponse non lineaire en fonction de la temperature. La mise en oeuvre experimentale de ces mesures a necessite une grande attention au filtrage et aux effets de chauffage a haut courant. Nous montrons que, sans cette attention, les donnees experimentales sont toujours erronees dans le regime pertinent pour nos echantillons. Les resultats pour le dopage optimal x = 0.15 sont expliques de facon tres convaincante dans le cadre de fluctuations purement 2D. D'abord, le regime des fluctuations gaussiennes est tres bien decrit par le modele d'Aslamazov-Larkin en deux dimensions. Ensuite, le regime de fluctuations critiques, se trouvant a plus basse temperature que le regime gaussien, est tres bien decrit par la physique 2D de Kosterlitz-Thouless. Dans cette analyse, les deux regimes ont des temperatures critiques coherentes entre elles, ce qui semble confirmer ce scenario 2D. Une analyse des donnees dans le cadre de fluctuations 3D est exploree mais donne des conclusions incoherentes. Les resultats pour les autres dopages sont qualitativement equivalents avec le dopage optimal et permettent donc une explication purement 2D. Par contre, contrairement au dopage optimal

  5. Effets perturbateurs endocriniens des pesticides organochlores.

    PubMed

    Charlier, C; Plomteux, G

    2002-01-01

    entreprises F.Mayo puis par la Geigy Co. a d-abord intéressé l-armée, puis l-agriculture. Dès la fin de la 2(ème) guerre mondiale, des mises en garde furent lancées à propos des effets nocifs du produit (4). Un déclin des populations de grives, d-aigles chauves, d-orfaies et de mammifères consommateurs de poissons fut constaté à partir des années 50 et dénoncé par Rachel Carson dans son célèbre appel du « Silent Spring » de 1962. Bien qu-il soit interdit en Occident depuis les années 70, ce produit a été tellement utilisé et présente une rémanence si longue qu-une contamination ubiquitaire existe aujourd-hui encore. De plus, ce produit continue à être produit aux USA pour être utilisé à des fins de démoustification dans les pays en voie de développement. Il en va de même de l-Hexachlorobenzène (HCB), un autre organochloré dont l-usage est interdit sous nos latitudes, mais reste fréquent dans d-autres pays. Ces deux exemples indiquent que le problème de la contamination continue à nous concerner, même pour des produits dont l-usage est aujourd-hui strictement réglementé ou interdit. Des effets sur la faune semblent encore actuellement devoir être attribués à ces produits. La diminution de la population des phoques dans la mer de Wadden pourrait être due à la forte contamination en composants organochlorés des poissons dont ces phoques se nourrissent (5). Exposé au DDT et à son métabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroéthylène (DDE), le Seratherodon mossambicus présente une réduction de la sécrétion de cortisol par une action toxique cytospécifique sur l-axe hypothalamo-hypophysaire (6). Des travaux récents ont montré que le DDT et le DDE se lient chez les oiseaux et les mammifères au moyen de liaisons covalentes aux cellules de la zona fasciculata - homologue du tissu interrénal du poisson - induisant des microhémorragies. Cette « défaillance » cortisolique peut s-accompagner d-une perturbation du m

  6. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  7. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  8. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  9. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  10. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  11. Sequoias, Mavericks, Open Doors...Composing Joan Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2011-01-01

    This essay interview with Joan Tower is a meditation on the importance of composing, understood as a process larger than the making of new sound combinations or musical scores, suggesting that the compositional act is self-educative and self-forming. Tower's musical life, one of teaching and learning, one of composing and self-composing, is an…

  12. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  13. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  14. Composing in Public: The Ambient Audiences of a Writing Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Although scholars have investigated the ways youths individually enact composing practices and the impact of audience on these practices, this study examines the impact of an audience physically present while composing in a shared, public space--an ambient audience. Blurring the line between traditional notions of audience and collaborator through…

  15. How Composers Approach Teaching Composition: Strategies for Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint; Sullivan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Composition pedagogy is explored from the perspective of a composer and a music teacher educator in this article. The primary goal is to help practicing music teachers develop strategies that will encourage students to create original music. The authors provide reflection about the process of helping students compose on the basis of personal…

  16. Syllabus for a Women Studies Course on Women Composers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Deborah

    An upper division college-level course dealing with women composers for both music majors and nonmusic majors is outlined. The course provides an historical and analytical survey of western music through works composed by women, with emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries. Students listen to music, participate in class discussions, and listen to…

  17. The Links between Handwriting and Composing for Y6 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwell, Jane; Strand, Steve; Wray, David

    2009-01-01

    Although handwriting is often considered a matter of presentation, a substantial body of international research suggests that the role of handwriting in children's composing has been neglected. Automaticity in handwriting is now seen as of key importance in composing but this proposition is relatively untested in the UK and the assumption has been…

  18. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  19. Collaborative Composing in High School String Chamber Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative composing in high school string chamber music ensembles. Research questions included the following: (a) How do high school string instrumentalists in chamber music ensembles use verbal and musical forms of communication to collaboratively compose a piece of music? (b) How do selected variables…

  20. The composing process of technical writers: A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, D.; Roundy, N.

    1981-01-01

    The assumption that technical writers compose as do other writers is tested. The literature on the composing process, not limited to the pure or applied sciences, was reviewed, yielding three areas of general agreement. The composing process (1) consists of several stages, (2) is reflexive, and (3) may be mastered by means of strategies. Data on the ways technical writers compose were collected, and findings were related to the three areas of agreement. Questionnaires and interviews surveying 70 writers were used. The disciplines represented by these writers included civil, chemical, agricultural, geological, mechanical, electrical, and petroleum engineering, chemistry, hydrology, geology, and biology. Those providing consulting services, or performing research. No technical editors or professional writers were surveyed, only technicians, engineers, and researchers whose jobs involved composing reports. Three pedagogical implications are included.

  1. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  2. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    PubMed

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed.

  3. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    PubMed

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed. PMID:25684289

  4. Composable IO: A Novel Resource Sharing Platform in Personal Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Wei; Lin, Ben; Miao, Kai

    A fundamental goal for Cloud computing is to group resources to accomplish tasks that may require strong computing or communication capability. In this paper we design specific resource sharing technology under which IO peripherals can be shared among Cloud members. In particular, in a personal Cloud that is built up by a number of personal devices, IO peripherals at any device can be applied to support application running at another device. We call this IO sharing composable IO because it is equivalent to composing IOs from different devices for an application. We design composable USB and achieve pro-migration USB access, namely a migrated application running at the targeted host can still access the USB IO peripherals at the source host. This is supplementary to traditional VM migration under which application can only use resources from the device where the application runs. Experimental results show that through composable IO applications in personal Cloud can achieve much better user experience.

  5. Family constellation and creativity: firstborn predominance among classical music composers.

    PubMed

    Schubert, D S; Wagner, M E; Schubert, H J

    1977-01-01

    Biographies of classical musci composers were examined for family constellation information. Usable data were found for 80 composers. Firstborns, especially only children, were found significantly more frequently than in a sample of creative writers studied by Bliss. Increased frequency of firstborns was also suggested in a study of musical performers by Raychaudhuri. Classical musci composition was seen as an ability more similar to usual academic pursuits than creative writing.

  6. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  7. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, Vladislav; Roy, Debangsu; Schultz, Moty; Klein, Lior

    2016-02-01

    We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  8. A membrane page composer - Further developments. [for holographic memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, L. S.; Stewart, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    Membrane page composers were made and were evaluated in a simulated holographic optical memory system. Calculated and experimentally determined electromechanical and optical characteristics of the circular membrane light valves used on the arrays are shown to be in close agreement. Several operating prototypes of 8 x 8 and 16 x 16 elements were produced. Measurements were made of switching time, optical contrast, and dynamic storage time of many cells on the devices. Digital patterns were stored in the arrays. The performance required of the page composer as a component of an optical memory system is considered. The fabrication techniques used can be easily extended to larger arrays.

  9. Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

  10. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  11. How One Class with One Computer Composed Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Music composition is a rewarding activity for students. Through composition, teachers not only address National Standard 4 (composing and arranging music within specified guidelines), but also cover other areas of the music curriculum such as singing, notation, improvisation, form, style, tempo, dynamics, music vocabulary, and assessment. During…

  12. When Did Classic Composers Make Their Best Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franses, Philip Hans

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note shows that classic composers created their best works when they were at a similar age when creators in other domains did their best work, namely when they were at an age that represented around 60% of their life span. This finding is very similar to earlier results for painters and authors.

  13. Non-Logical Discourse: Key to the Composing Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Richard C.

    One niche in which scholars have not looked for keys to the composing process is the sometimes illusory but vital area of nonlogical discourse, which includes fantasy, hallucination, dream, reverie, vision, trance, and meditation. Abundant evidence exists about the genesis, importance, and use of nonlogical discourse, but this evidence comes…

  14. Composing with New Technology: Teacher Reflections on Learning Digital Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David L.; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study explores teachers' reflections on their learning to compose with new technologies in the context of teacher education and/or teacher professional development. English language arts (ELA) teachers (n = 240) in 15 courses learned to use digital video (DV), completed at least one DV group project, and responded to open-ended survey…

  15. Readers as Writers Composing from Sources. Technical Report No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Nancy Nelson; King, James R.

    A study of discourse synthesis (readers/writers composing new texts by selecting, organizing, and connecting content from source texts) examined the performance of accomplished and less accomplished readers in the 6th, 8th, and 10th grades on a report-writing task. Over a 3-day period 60 English/language arts students wrote informational reports…

  16. Quiet Grove in a Savage Garden: A Composer's Bicameral Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlen, Donald

    2004-01-01

    This author, a composer, states that music has been the primal generator of his existence and the definition of living creatively; and that understanding the bicameral reality of creativity through a study of the nature of consciousness involves a symbiotic host of disciplines. In the study of the occurrence of "creativity," consciousness as well…

  17. "Convince Me!" Valuing Multimodal Literacies and Composing Public Service Announcements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfe, Richard J.; Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    For some teachers, the increasing attention to digital and multimodal composing in English and Language Arts classrooms has brought into sharp relief the profession's investment in print as the primary means of expression. Although new forms of communication that combine words, still and moving images, and animation have begun to dominate digital…

  18. Composing Songs for Teaching Science to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee Pinn Tsin, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that songs may enhance learning as they function as mnemonic devices to increase memorability. In this research, songs based on the more difficult subtopics in Chemistry were composed, encompassing many formulas, equations and facts to be remembered. This technique of song composition can be used in any subject, any point…

  19. Beyond the Enthymeme: Sorites, Critical Thinking, and the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn

    A teacher presents a writing exercise designed to facilitate audience-directed, critical thinking during the process of composing, that starts students thinking in terms of sorites and enthymemes. Students first read a CIA manual, "Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare," that instructs the Contra guerrillas in illegal acts and then free…

  20. Conversations with American Composers: Ev Grimes Interviews Otto Luening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Ev

    1986-01-01

    Otto Luening, one of the pioneers in the development of tape composition, talks about a variety of topics, including the education of musicians, the relationship between composer and teacher, his class for non-music majors, the musical training a teacher should have, and changes needed in music education. (RM)

  1. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  2. Complex simulation system infrastructure supporting composability and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsch, Matthew; Hannibal, Barbara; Skowronski, Victor; Wallace, Jeffrey

    2004-08-01

    The increased emphasis on the need for composability in simulations has led to architectures with server simulations that provide a service to several other simulations. One such architecture was the Joint Synthetic Battlespace (JSB) Spring Experiment 2002 architecture, which included a Common Synthetic Environment (CSE) server for atmospheric effects. The intent of using a CSE was to provide a standard model for all atmospheric effects. The common model would assist in the evaluation of sensor systems by removing any bias due to different environmental effects models. When the CSE server was proposed, it became apparent that the number of requests for environmental effect calculations might overwhelm the server, or cause excessive network activity. This paper examines the ability of the current architecture to scale operational levels. The paper also proposes modifications to the current architecture that can enhance the scalability of the architecture without impairing its composability.

  3. Modeling and Composing Scenario-Based Requirements with Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araujo, Joao; Whittle, Jon; Ki, Dae-Kyoo

    2004-01-01

    There has been significant recent interest, within the Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) community, in representing crosscutting concerns at various stages of the software lifecycle. However, most of these efforts have concentrated on the design and implementation phases. We focus in this paper on representing aspects during use case modeling. In particular, we focus on scenario-based requirements and show how to compose aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios so that they can be simulated as a whole. Non-aspectual scenarios are modeled as UML sequence diagram. Aspectual scenarios are modeled as Interaction Pattern Specifications (IPS). In order to simulate them, the scenarios are transformed into a set of executable state machines using an existing state machine synthesis algorithm. Previous work composed aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios at the sequence diagram level. In this paper, the composition is done at the state machine level.

  4. A Design for Composing and Extending Vehicle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.; Neuhaus, Jason R.

    2003-01-01

    The Systems Development Branch (SDB) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) creates simulation software products for research. Each product consists of an aircraft model with experiment extensions. SDB treats its aircraft models as reusable components, upon which experiments can be built. SDB has evolved aircraft model design with the following goals: 1. Avoid polluting the aircraft model with experiment code. 2. Discourage the copy and tailor method of reuse. The current evolution of that architecture accomplishes these goals by reducing experiment creation to extend and compose. The architecture mechanizes the operational concerns of the model's subsystems and encapsulates them in an interface inherited by all subsystems. Generic operational code exercises the subsystems through the shared interface. An experiment is thus defined by the collection of subsystems that it creates ("compose"). Teams can modify the aircraft subsystems for the experiment using inheritance and polymorphism to create variants ("extend").

  5. 1. General view, outbuildings. The seed house composed of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, outbuildings. The seed house composed of the greenhouse, a storeroom (shed), a classroom (over a former ice pit), and a kitchen (over a cellar)-stands on the right. The barn roof is visible at center and the gift shop (former stable) stands on the left (Note the carved stone posts framing the gateway). - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Communication patterns for interconnecting and composing medical systems.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, Venkatesh-Prasad; Kim, Yu Jin; Hatcliff, John; Robby

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a set of communication patterns to enable the construction of medical systems by composing devices and apps in Integrated Clinical Environments (ICE). These patterns abstract away the details of communication tasks, reduce engineering overhead, and ease compositional reasoning of the system. The proposed patterns have been successfully implemented on top of two distinct platforms (i.e., RTI Connext and Vert.x) to allow for experimentation. PMID:26736607

  7. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  8. System Composer: Technology for rapid system integration and remote collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Palmquist, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed an approach to the design, evaluation, deployment and operation of intelligent systems which is called System Composer. This toolkit provides an infrastructure and architecture for robot and automation system users to readily integrate system components and share mechatronic, sensor, and information resources over networks. The technology described in this paper provides a framework for real-time collaboration between researchers, manufacturing entities, design entities, and others without regard to relative location. An overview of the toolkit including its elements and architecture is provided along with examples of its use.

  9. A ferroelectric liquid crystal conglomerate composed of racemic molecules

    PubMed

    Walba; Korblova; Shao; Maclennan; Link; Glaser; Clark

    2000-06-23

    We describe the design and synthesis of a ferroelectric liquid crystal composed of racemic molecules. The ferroelectric polarization results from spontaneous polar symmetry breaking in a fluid smectic. The ferroelectric phase is also chiral, resulting in the formation of a mixture of macroscopic domains of either handedness at the isotropic-to-liquid crystal phase transition. This smectic liquid crystal is thus a fluid conglomerate. Detailed investigation of the electrooptic and polarization current behavior within individual domains in liquid crystal cells shows the thermodynamically stable structure to be a uniformly tilted smectic bow-phase (banana phase), with all layer pairs homochiral and ferroelectric (SmC(S)P(F)).

  10. Domain-Specific Languages for Composing Signature Discovery Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Ferosh; Gray, Jeff; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Baker, Nathan A.

    2012-10-23

    Domain-agnostic signature discovery entails investigation across multiple scientific disciplines. The breadth and cross-disciplinary nature of this work requires that existing executables be integrated with new capabilities into workflows, representing a wide range of user tasks. An algorithm may be written in multiple programming languages for various hardware platforms, and so workflow composition requires integrating executables from any number of remote hosts. This raises an engineering issue on how to generate web service wrappers for these heterogeneous executables and to compose them into a scientific workflow environment (e.g., Taverna). In this paper, we introduce two simple Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to automate these processes. Our Service Description Language (SDL) describes key elements of a signature discovery service and automatically generates its implementation code. The Workflow Description Language (WDL) describes the pipeline of services and generates deployable artifacts for the Taverna workflow management system. We demonstrate our approach with a real-world workflow composed of services wrapping remote executables.

  11. Surgical operation using lighting goggle composed of white LED arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Junichi; Kawakami, Yoichi; Fujita, Shigeo

    2001-12-01

    Everywhere in the world, the highest quality and quantity of lighting is required during the surgical operations. However, the surgical approach has had many types and various angles, common ceiling surgical halogen lighting system cannot provide an adequate amount of beams because the surgeons' heads hinder the illuminations from reaching the operation field. Here, we newly design surgical lighting system composed of white LEDs equipped on both sides of goggles, which controls the lighting beams to the gazing point. With this system, it is just needed for surgeons to wear light plastic goggles with high quality LEDs made by Nichia. In fact, we have succeeded in the first internal shunt operation in the left forearm using the surgical LED lighting system on 11th Sept 2000. The electrical power for the system was supplied from lithium-ion battery for 2 hours. Since the white LEDs used were composed of InGaN-blue-emitters and YAG-yellow-phosphors, the color rendering property was not sufficient in the reddish colors. Therefore, in the next approach, it is very important to develop the spectral distribution of white LED to render inherent color of raw flesh such as skin, blood, fat tissue and internal organs. To improve the color rendering in red colors, some adjustments should be given in the fluorescents layers. Design of goggle is also very important for cutting into the real practical market of white LEDs.

  12. Ecological interaction and phylogeny, studying functionality on composed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Claudia P. T.; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Corso, Gilberto

    2012-02-01

    We study a class of composed networks that are formed by two tree networks, TP and TA, whose end points touch each other through a bipartite network BPA. We explore this network using a functional approach. We are interested in how much the topology, or the structure, of TX (X=A or P) determines the links of BPA. This composed structure is a useful model in evolutionary biology, where TP and TA are the phylogenetic trees of plants and animals that interact in an ecological community. We make use of ecological networks of dispersion of fruits, which are formed by frugivorous animals and plants with fruits; the animals, usually birds, eat fruits and disperse their seeds. We analyse how the phylogeny of TX determines or is correlated with BPA using a Monte Carlo approach. We use the phylogenetic distance among elements that interact with a given species to construct an index κ that quantifies the influence of TX over BPA. The algorithm is based on the assumption that interaction matrices that follows a phylogeny of TX have a total phylogenetic distance smaller than the average distance of an ensemble of Monte Carlo realisations. We find that the effect of phylogeny of animal species is more pronounced in the ecological matrix than plant phylogeny.

  13. Music and the Nature: Input of the Czech Composers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav; Nemcova, Lidmila

    2014-05-01

    Extraordinary occasions for art of any kind - music, creative graphic and plastic arts, literature (classic, modern incl. science fiction), theatre, cinema, etc. - exist to harmonise individual personal interests with those of the humanity well-being and of the Nature and also to cultivate individual spirituality and the appropriate values. Arts can be applied as irreplaceable means for making any human being better, for improving his sense for solidarity and for increasing his ethical sensibility. An interest for the art should be cultivated already since the childhood. - How much of inspiration for numerous composers all over the world has been given by the Nature, how much of inspiration for people who by listening to such a music are increasing nobility of their behaviour as well as their friendly approach to the Nature. - Many classical music works have been written with a strong inspiration by the Nature itself from the past until today. The actual Year of the Czech Music gives the possibility to present the most famous Czech composers inspired by the Nature (selected examples only): Bedřich Smetana (1824 - 1884): At the sea shore - a concert etude for piano inspired by his stay in Göteborg (Sweden); Vltava (Moldau) - a symphonic poem from the cycle "My country" inspired by the river crossing Bohemia from the South to Prague; From the Bohemian woods and meadows - another symphonic poem from the same cycle. Antonín Dvořák (1841 - 1904): V přírodě (In the Nature) - a work for orchestra Leoš Janáček (1854 - 1928): Příhody li\\vsky Bystrou\\vsky (The Cunning Little Vixen) - an opera situated mostly in a forest. Josef Bohuslav Foerster (1859-1951): Velké širé rodné lány (Big large native fields) - a choir for men singers inspired by the nature in the region where the composer as a boy from Prague was visiting his grand-father. Vítězslav Novák (1870 - 1949): In Tatra mountains - a symphonic poem expressing the author's passion for the famous

  14. Exocytotic fusion pores are composed of both lipids and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Huan; Goldschen-Ohm, Marcel; Jeggle, Pia; Chanda, Baron; Edwardson, J Michael; Chapman, Edwin R

    2016-01-01

    During exocytosis, fusion pores form the first aqueous connection that allows escape of neurotransmitters and hormones from secretory vesicles. Although it is well established that SNARE proteins catalyze fusion, the structure and composition of fusion pores remain unknown. Here, we exploited the rigid framework and defined size of nanodiscs to interrogate the properties of reconstituted fusion pores, using the neurotransmitter glutamate as a content-mixing marker. Efficient Ca2+-stimulated bilayer fusion, and glutamate release, occurred with approximately two molecules of mouse synaptobrevin 2 reconstituted into ~6-nm nanodiscs. The transmembrane domains of SNARE proteins assumed distinct roles in lipid mixing versus content release and were exposed to polar solvent during fusion. Additionally, tryptophan substitutions at specific positions in these transmembrane domains decreased glutamate flux. Together, these findings indicate that the fusion pore is a hybrid structure composed of both lipids and proteins. PMID:26656855

  15. COMPOSE-HPC: A Transformational Approach to Exascale

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, David E; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Chavarria-Miranda, Daniel; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Elwasif, Wael R; Epperly, Tom; Foley, Samantha S; Hulette, Geoffrey C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Prantl, Adrian; Panyala, Ajay; Sottile, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the COMPOSE-HPC project is to 'democratize' tools for automatic transformation of program source code so that it becomes tractable for the developers of scientific applications to create and use their own transformations reliably and safely. This paper describes our approach to this challenge, the creation of the KNOT tool chain, which includes tools for the creation of annotation languages to control the transformations (PAUL), to perform the transformations (ROTE), and optimization and code generation (BRAID), which can be used individually and in combination. We also provide examples of current and future uses of the KNOT tools, which include transforming code to use different programming models and environments, providing tests that can be used to detect errors in software or its execution, as well as composition of software written in different programming languages, or with different threading patterns.

  16. Security and composability of randomness expansion from Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, Serge; Gelles, Ran; Schaffner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The nonlocal behavior of quantum mechanics can be used to generate guaranteed fresh randomness from an untrusted device that consists of two nonsignalling components; since the generation process requires some initial fresh randomness to act as a catalyst, one also speaks of randomness expansion. R. Colbeck and A. Kent [J. Phys. A1751-811310.1088/1751-8113/44/9/095305 44, 095305 (2011)] proposed the first method for generating randomness from untrusted devices, but without providing a rigorous analysis. This was addressed subsequently by S. Pironio [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature09008 464, 1021 (2010)], who aimed at deriving a lower bound on the min-entropy of the data extracted from an untrusted device based only on the observed nonlocal behavior of the device. Although that article succeeded in developing important tools for reaching the stated goal, the proof itself contained a bug, and the given formal claim on the guaranteed amount of min-entropy needs to be revisited. In this paper we build on the tools provided by Pironio and obtain a meaningful lower bound on the min-entropy of the data produced by an untrusted device based on the observed nonlocal behavior of the device. Our main result confirms the essence of the (improperly formulated) claims of Pironio and puts them on solid ground. We also address the question of composability and show that different untrusted devices can be composed in an alternating manner under the assumption that they are not entangled. This enables superpolynomial randomness expansion based on two untrusted yet unentangled devices.

  17. The Development of an Annotated Guide to Music by Distinguished Composers for Children's Voices. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Carl N.

    Since earlier research revealed a general scarcity of song materials, this annotated bibliography of vocal music composed for elementary children's voices by a number of distinguished 19th and 20th century composers was compiled. Correspondence with contemporary composers served as a main source of data but composers' biographies, music…

  18. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants.

  19. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  20. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  1. Hierarchical spatial heterogeneity in liquid crystals composed of graphene oxides.

    PubMed

    Shundo, Atsuomi; Hori, Koichiro; Penaloza, David P; Matsumoto, Yuji; Okumura, Yasushi; Kikuchi, Hirotsugu; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Sang Ouk; Tanaka, Keiji

    2016-08-10

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a class of two-dimensional materials with a thickness of about 1 nm and a broad distribution of lateral dimension commonly approaching several micrometers. A dispersion of GOs in water often forms a liquid crystal, which is expected to be a promising precursor for the fabrication of carbon-based materials with well-ordered structures. To accelerate the application of GO-based liquid crystals, their structures and physical properties at various sizes must be well understood. To that end, we examined the local rheological properties of GO-based liquid crystals in the nematic phase using a particle tracking technique, where local properties can be accessed by observing the thermal motion of embedded probe particles. Particle diffusion was spatially heterogeneous, and depended on the size of the particles. Such a size-dependent heterogeneity can be associated with a hierarchical local environment, which is time-dependent for this system. The anisotropic particle diffusion originated from particles trapped in between the GO layers and in isotropic-like regions. The aggregation states of the GO dispersion composed of nematic and isotropic-like regions were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  2. Hierarchical spatial heterogeneity in liquid crystals composed of graphene oxides.

    PubMed

    Shundo, Atsuomi; Hori, Koichiro; Penaloza, David P; Matsumoto, Yuji; Okumura, Yasushi; Kikuchi, Hirotsugu; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Sang Ouk; Tanaka, Keiji

    2016-08-10

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a class of two-dimensional materials with a thickness of about 1 nm and a broad distribution of lateral dimension commonly approaching several micrometers. A dispersion of GOs in water often forms a liquid crystal, which is expected to be a promising precursor for the fabrication of carbon-based materials with well-ordered structures. To accelerate the application of GO-based liquid crystals, their structures and physical properties at various sizes must be well understood. To that end, we examined the local rheological properties of GO-based liquid crystals in the nematic phase using a particle tracking technique, where local properties can be accessed by observing the thermal motion of embedded probe particles. Particle diffusion was spatially heterogeneous, and depended on the size of the particles. Such a size-dependent heterogeneity can be associated with a hierarchical local environment, which is time-dependent for this system. The anisotropic particle diffusion originated from particles trapped in between the GO layers and in isotropic-like regions. The aggregation states of the GO dispersion composed of nematic and isotropic-like regions were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:27464002

  3. Percolation in networks composed of connectivity and dependency links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashan, Amir; Parshani, Roni; Havlin, Shlomo

    2011-05-01

    Networks composed from both connectivity and dependency links were found to be more vulnerable compared to classical networks with only connectivity links. Their percolation transition is usually of a first order compared to the second-order transition found in classical networks. We analytically analyze the effect of different distributions of dependencies links on the robustness of networks. For a random Erdös-Rényi (ER) network with average degree k that is divided into dependency clusters of size s, the fraction of nodes that belong to the giant component P∞ is given by P∞=ps-1[1-exp(-kpP∞)]s, where 1-p is the initial fraction of removed nodes. Our general result coincides with the known Erdös-Rényi equation for random networks for s=1. For networks with Poissonian distribution of dependency links we find that P∞ is given by P∞=fk,p(P∞)e(-1)[pfk,p(P∞)-1], where fk,p(P∞)≡1-exp(-kpP∞) and is the mean value of the size of dependency clusters. For networks with Gaussian distribution of dependency links we show how the average and width of the distribution affect the robustness of the networks.

  4. [Alexander Borodin--physician, chemist, scientist, teacher and composer].

    PubMed

    Vik, T

    1998-12-10

    Concert programmes and CD covers suggest that the Russian composer Alexander Borodin (1833-87) was also a great scientist. In this article we examine this proposition. Borodin was born in St. Petersburg as the illegitimate son of a Russian nobleman. As a boy his talents ranged from music to chemistry and languages. Borodin studied medicine at the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg from 1850 to 1855 and defended his doctoral thesis on the similarity between arsenic and phosphoric acid in 1858. He did not, however, feel comfortable in his role as a doctor, and soon started to work as a chemist. In 1864 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Medico-Surgical Academy. In 1861, Borodin attended the first international congress of chemistry in Karlsruhe, and he was among the founders of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868. He published 42 articles and was a friend of Dmitri Mendeleev, the scientist who described the periodic system. In 1872, Borodin started the first medical courses for women in Russia. It seems warranted to conclude that Alexander Borodin was indeed a great scientist and university teacher, though his immortality was earned by his leisure time activities. PMID:9914755

  5. Coaxial nanocable composed by imogolite and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez, M.; González, R. I.; Munoz, F.; Valdivia, J. A.; Rogan, J.; Kiwi, M.

    2015-12-31

    The discovery and development of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) at the beginning of the 1990s has driven a major part of solid state research. The electronic properties of the CNTs have generated a large number of ideas, as building coaxial nanocables. In this work we propose a possible type of such nanocables, which is formed by three nanostructures: two conducting CNTs, where one of them is covered by an insulator (an inorganic oxide nanotube: the imogolite aluminosilicate). The theoretical calculations were carried out using the density functional tight-binding formalism, by means of the DFTB+ code. This formalism allows to calculate the band structure, which compares favorably with DFT calculations, but with a significantly lower computational cost. As a first step, we reproduce the calculations of already published results, where the formation of a nanocable composed by one CNT and the imogolite as an insulator. Afterwards, we simulate the band structure for the proposed structure to study the feasibility of the coaxial nanocable. Finally, using classical MD simulations, we study the possible mechanisms of formation of these nanocables.

  6. [Alexander Borodin--physician, chemist, scientist, teacher and composer].

    PubMed

    Vik, T

    1998-12-10

    Concert programmes and CD covers suggest that the Russian composer Alexander Borodin (1833-87) was also a great scientist. In this article we examine this proposition. Borodin was born in St. Petersburg as the illegitimate son of a Russian nobleman. As a boy his talents ranged from music to chemistry and languages. Borodin studied medicine at the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg from 1850 to 1855 and defended his doctoral thesis on the similarity between arsenic and phosphoric acid in 1858. He did not, however, feel comfortable in his role as a doctor, and soon started to work as a chemist. In 1864 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Medico-Surgical Academy. In 1861, Borodin attended the first international congress of chemistry in Karlsruhe, and he was among the founders of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868. He published 42 articles and was a friend of Dmitri Mendeleev, the scientist who described the periodic system. In 1872, Borodin started the first medical courses for women in Russia. It seems warranted to conclude that Alexander Borodin was indeed a great scientist and university teacher, though his immortality was earned by his leisure time activities.

  7. Coaxial nanocable composed by imogolite and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, M.; González, R. I.; Munoz, F.; Valdivia, J. A.; Rogan, J.; Kiwi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery and development of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) at the beginning of the 1990s has driven a major part of solid state research. The electronic properties of the CNTs have generated a large number of ideas, as building coaxial nanocables. In this work we propose a possible type of such nanocables, which is formed by three nanostructures: two conducting CNTs, where one of them is covered by an insulator (an inorganic oxide nanotube: the imogolite aluminosilicate). The theoretical calculations were carried out using the density functional tight-binding formalism, by means of the DFTB+ code. This formalism allows to calculate the band structure, which compares favorably with DFT calculations, but with a significantly lower computational cost. As a first step, we reproduce the calculations of already published results, where the formation of a nanocable composed by one CNT and the imogolite as an insulator. Afterwards, we simulate the band structure for the proposed structure to study the feasibility of the coaxial nanocable. Finally, using classical MD simulations, we study the possible mechanisms of formation of these nanocables.

  8. Composable Analytic Systems for next-generation intelligence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBona, Phil; Llinas, James; Barry, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is collaborating with Professor James Llinas, Ph.D., of the Center for Multisource Information Fusion at the University at Buffalo (State of NY), researching concepts for a mixed-initiative associate system for intelligence analysts to facilitate reduced analysis and decision times while proactively discovering and presenting relevant information based on the analyst's needs, current tasks and cognitive state. Today's exploitation and analysis systems have largely been designed for a specific sensor, data type, and operational context, leading to difficulty in directly supporting the analyst's evolving tasking and work product development preferences across complex Operational Environments. Our interactions with analysts illuminate the need to impact the information fusion, exploitation, and analysis capabilities in a variety of ways, including understanding data options, algorithm composition, hypothesis validation, and work product development. Composable Analytic Systems, an analyst-driven system that increases flexibility and capability to effectively utilize Multi-INT fusion and analytics tailored to the analyst's mission needs, holds promise to addresses the current and future intelligence analysis needs, as US forces engage threats in contested and denied environments.

  9. FIA: An Open Forensic Integration Architecture for Composing Digital Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Sriram; Clark, Andrew; Mohay, George

    The analysis and value of digital evidence in an investigation has been the domain of discourse in the digital forensic community for several years. While many works have considered different approaches to model digital evidence, a comprehensive understanding of the process of merging different evidence items recovered during a forensic analysis is still a distant dream. With the advent of modern technologies, pro-active measures are integral to keeping abreast of all forms of cyber crimes and attacks. This paper motivates the need to formalize the process of analyzing digital evidence from multiple sources simultaneously. In this paper, we present the forensic integration architecture (FIA) which provides a framework for abstracting the evidence source and storage format information from digital evidence and explores the concept of integrating evidence information from multiple sources. The FIA architecture identifies evidence information from multiple sources that enables an investigator to build theories to reconstruct the past. FIA is hierarchically composed of multiple layers and adopts a technology independent approach. FIA is also open and extensible making it simple to adapt to technological changes. We present a case study using a hypothetical car theft case to demonstrate the concepts and illustrate the value it brings into the field.

  10. Etude des Abondances de MG et de fe dans la Composante Stellaire des Disques des Galaxies Spirales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Dominique

    Je presente ici une technique d'observation par imagerie des disques stellaires des galaxies spirales. Je tente, a l'aide d'un modele evolutif multiphase, de determiner les abondances de fer et de magnesium dans les disques. Dans ce but, je mesure les indices Mg2 et Fe5270 du systeme de Lick. Ces elements representent un choix judicieux d'indicateurs car ils sont formes par des supernovae de deux types differents ayant des durees de vie differentes. Le rapport d'abondances de ces deux elements est un indicateur du taux de formation des populations stellaires. Je decris, en premier lieu, les observations, la technique de mesure, ainsi que son application. J'analyse ensuite les indices mesures. A partir du modele multiphase, j'explore differents parametres physiques des spirales comme le taux de formation stellaire, l'evolution des abondances, les effets possibles de la presence de la barre, etc.

  11. Composable languages for bioinformatics: the NYoSh experiment

    PubMed Central

    Simi, Manuele

    2014-01-01

    Language WorkBenches (LWBs) are software engineering tools that help domain experts develop solutions to various classes of problems. Some of these tools focus on non-technical users and provide languages to help organize knowledge while other workbenches provide means to create new programming languages. A key advantage of language workbenches is that they support the seamless composition of independently developed languages. This capability is useful when developing programs that can benefit from different levels of abstraction. We reasoned that language workbenches could be useful to develop bioinformatics software solutions. In order to evaluate the potential of language workbenches in bioinformatics, we tested a prominent workbench by developing an alternative to shell scripting. To illustrate what LWBs and Language Composition can bring to bioinformatics, we report on our design and development of NYoSh (Not Your ordinary Shell). NYoSh was implemented as a collection of languages that can be composed to write programs as expressive and concise as shell scripts. This manuscript offers a concrete illustration of the advantages and current minor drawbacks of using the MPS LWB. For instance, we found that we could implement an environment-aware editor for NYoSh that can assist the programmers when developing scripts for specific execution environments. This editor further provides semantic error detection and can be compiled interactively with an automatic build and deployment system. In contrast to shell scripts, NYoSh scripts can be written in a modern development environment, supporting context dependent intentions and can be extended seamlessly by end-users with new abstractions and language constructs. We further illustrate language extension and composition with LWBs by presenting a tight integration of NYoSh scripts with the GobyWeb system. The NYoSh Workbench prototype, which implements a fully featured integrated development environment for NYoSh is

  12. Composable languages for bioinformatics: the NYoSh experiment.

    PubMed

    Simi, Manuele; Campagne, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Language WorkBenches (LWBs) are software engineering tools that help domain experts develop solutions to various classes of problems. Some of these tools focus on non-technical users and provide languages to help organize knowledge while other workbenches provide means to create new programming languages. A key advantage of language workbenches is that they support the seamless composition of independently developed languages. This capability is useful when developing programs that can benefit from different levels of abstraction. We reasoned that language workbenches could be useful to develop bioinformatics software solutions. In order to evaluate the potential of language workbenches in bioinformatics, we tested a prominent workbench by developing an alternative to shell scripting. To illustrate what LWBs and Language Composition can bring to bioinformatics, we report on our design and development of NYoSh (Not Your ordinary Shell). NYoSh was implemented as a collection of languages that can be composed to write programs as expressive and concise as shell scripts. This manuscript offers a concrete illustration of the advantages and current minor drawbacks of using the MPS LWB. For instance, we found that we could implement an environment-aware editor for NYoSh that can assist the programmers when developing scripts for specific execution environments. This editor further provides semantic error detection and can be compiled interactively with an automatic build and deployment system. In contrast to shell scripts, NYoSh scripts can be written in a modern development environment, supporting context dependent intentions and can be extended seamlessly by end-users with new abstractions and language constructs. We further illustrate language extension and composition with LWBs by presenting a tight integration of NYoSh scripts with the GobyWeb system. The NYoSh Workbench prototype, which implements a fully featured integrated development environment for NYoSh is

  13. Electrochemical machining analysis on grid cathode composed of square cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yonghua; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Dongbiao

    2013-07-01

    During the electrochemical machining (ECM), the cathodes designed by the existing methods are mainly unitary cathodes, which can be only used to produce the workpieces with the same shapes. However, there are few researches on designing cathodes for machining the different workpieces with the different surfaces. This paper presents the grid cathode composed of the square cells to produce the workpieces with different shapes. Three types of the square cells, 2.5 mm×2.5 mm, 3 mm×3 mm, and 4 mm×4 mm, are utilized to construct the plane, the slant, and the blade cathode. The material of the cathode and the anode is CrNi18Ti9, and the ingredient of electrolyte is 15% NaCl and 15% NaNO3. The machining equilibrium machining current and time are acquired and analyzed, the machining process and the workpiece quality are compared between using the grid cathode and the unitary cathode. Moreover, the machining errors on the workpiece surface are measured and analyzed, and the error reasons are traced and discussed to obtain the better surface quality of the workpiece. The experiment and analysis results show that the grid cathode can be used to manufacture the workpieces with complex shapes in certain range of the error. The workpiece quality improves with the size of the square cell being reduced, and if the square element is small enough, the workpiece quality is almost equal to the one machined by the unitary cathode. The proposed research realizes a single cathode machining the different workpieces with the different surfaces.

  14. Composable languages for bioinformatics: the NYoSh experiment.

    PubMed

    Simi, Manuele; Campagne, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Language WorkBenches (LWBs) are software engineering tools that help domain experts develop solutions to various classes of problems. Some of these tools focus on non-technical users and provide languages to help organize knowledge while other workbenches provide means to create new programming languages. A key advantage of language workbenches is that they support the seamless composition of independently developed languages. This capability is useful when developing programs that can benefit from different levels of abstraction. We reasoned that language workbenches could be useful to develop bioinformatics software solutions. In order to evaluate the potential of language workbenches in bioinformatics, we tested a prominent workbench by developing an alternative to shell scripting. To illustrate what LWBs and Language Composition can bring to bioinformatics, we report on our design and development of NYoSh (Not Your ordinary Shell). NYoSh was implemented as a collection of languages that can be composed to write programs as expressive and concise as shell scripts. This manuscript offers a concrete illustration of the advantages and current minor drawbacks of using the MPS LWB. For instance, we found that we could implement an environment-aware editor for NYoSh that can assist the programmers when developing scripts for specific execution environments. This editor further provides semantic error detection and can be compiled interactively with an automatic build and deployment system. In contrast to shell scripts, NYoSh scripts can be written in a modern development environment, supporting context dependent intentions and can be extended seamlessly by end-users with new abstractions and language constructs. We further illustrate language extension and composition with LWBs by presenting a tight integration of NYoSh scripts with the GobyWeb system. The NYoSh Workbench prototype, which implements a fully featured integrated development environment for NYoSh is

  15. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  16. Classification of 8 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; OâNeill, C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  17. Classification of 13 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, N.; Tucker, B. E.; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Gshwend, J.; Martini, P.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  18. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  19. Classification of 2 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, C. R.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.

    2016-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  20. L'astronomie des Anciens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-04-01

    Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

  1. The Movement of Air, the Breath of Meaning: Aurality and Multimodal Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2009-01-01

    Rhetoric and composition's increasing attention to multimodal composing involves challenges that go beyond issues of access to digital technologies and electronic composing environments. As a specific case study, this article explores the history of aural composing modalities (speech, music, sound) and examines how they have been understood and…

  2. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  3. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  4. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  5. Rethinking Joseph Janangelo's "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Composition and Communication, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents several excerpts from an article written by Joseph Janangelo titled "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts." In his article, Janangelo suggested that Cornell's work and ideas about composing model intelligent ways to composing persuasive nonsequential text. Janangelo also wondered if the use of…

  6. Group Music Composing Strategies: A Case Study within a Rock Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biasutti, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the compositional processes of an Italian rock band whilst composing a new piece over seven group composing sessions. The band members were videotaped during the group composing sessions in their rehearsal room. A qualitative analysis of the video recordings was performed using the Constant Comparative Method. In the…

  7. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  8. Writing in an Electronic Age: A Case Study of L2 Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Studies on second language (L2) learners writing in English have found that composing is a recursive process requiring planning, formulating and revising. Of particular note among the many studies that have explored the composing processes of L2 writers are two characteristics: 1) They examine the composing processes of writers in real-time while…

  9. Trends, Vibes, and Energies: Building on Students' Strengths in Visual Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtyka, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the composing practices of two members of a social sorority who use visual images on the media of Tumblr and YouTube to teach potential new members about the kind of sorority experience they will have. From interviews with these composers and analyses of the artifacts they create, I distill three composing principles used to…

  10. Sheet music by mind: Towards a brain-computer interface for composing.

    PubMed

    Pinegger, Andreas; Wriessnegger, Selina C; Muller-Putz, Gernot R

    2015-08-01

    Providing brain-computer interface (BCI) users engaging applications should be one of the main targets in BCI research. A painting application, a web browser and other applications can already be controlled via BCI. Another engaging application would be a music composer for self-expression. In this work, we describe Brain Composing: A BCI controlled music composing software. We tested and evaluated the implemented brain composing system with five volunteers. Using a tap water-based electrode biosignal amplifier further improved the usability of the system. Three participants reached accuracies above 77% and were able to copy-compose a given melody. Results of questionnaires support that our brain composing system is an attractive and easy way to compose music via a BCI. PMID:26736446

  11. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  12. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrani, Salah

    La fabrication de l'aluminium est realisee dans une cellule d'electrolyse, et cette operation utilise des anodes en carbone. L'evaluation de la qualite de ces anodes reste indispensable avant leur utilisation. La presence des fissures dans les anodes provoque une perturbation du procede l'electrolyse et une diminution de sa performance. Ce projet a ete entrepris pour determiner l'impact des differents parametres de procedes de fabrication des anodes sur la fissuration des anodes denses. Ces parametres incluent ceux de la fabrication des anodes crues, des proprietes des matieres premieres et de la cuisson. Une recherche bibliographique a ete effectuee sur tous les aspects de la fissuration des anodes en carbone pour compiler les travaux anterieurs. Une methodologie detaillee a ete mise au point pour faciliter le deroulement des travaux et atteindre les objectifs vises. La majorite de ce document est reservee pour la discussion des resultats obtenus au laboratoire de l'UQAC et au niveau industriel. Concernant les etudes realisees a l'UQAC, une partie des travaux experimentaux est reservee a la recherche des differents mecanismes de fissuration dans les anodes denses utilisees dans l'industrie d'aluminium. L'approche etait d'abord basee sur la caracterisation qualitative du mecanisme de la fissuration en surface et en profondeur. Puis, une caracterisation quantitative a ete realisee pour la determination de la distribution de la largeur de la fissure sur toute sa longueur, ainsi que le pourcentage de sa surface par rapport a la surface totale de l'echantillon. Cette etude a ete realisee par le biais de la technique d'analyse d'image utilisee pour caracteriser la fissuration d'un echantillon d'anode cuite. L'analyse surfacique et en profondeur de cet echantillon a permis de voir clairement la formation des fissures sur une grande partie de la surface analysee. L'autre partie des travaux est basee sur la caracterisation des defauts dans des echantillons d'anodes crues

  13. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-07-23

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion.

  14. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion. PMID:26203921

  15. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion. PMID:26203921

  16. Composing life

    PubMed Central

    Segré, Daniel; Lancet, Doron

    2000-01-01

    Textbooks often assert that life began with specialized complex molecules, such as RNA, that are capable of making their own copies. This scenario has serious difficulties, but an alternative has remained elusive. Recent research and computer simulations have suggested that the first steps toward life may not have involved biopolymers. Rather, non-covalent protocellular assemblies, generated by catalyzed recruitment of diverse amphiphilic and hydrophobic compounds, could have constituted the first systems capable of information storage, inheritance and selection. A complex chain of evolutionary events, yet to be deciphered, could then have led to the common ancestors of today’s free-living cells, and to the appearance of DNA, RNA and protein enzymes. PMID:11256602

  17. Composing Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    The course Scientific Inquiry at California State University was developed by faculty in biology, physics and English to meet ``writing proficiency'' requirements for non-science majors. Drawing from previous work in composition studies, the position that we take in this course is that we should be engaging students in writing that replicates the work that writing does in science, rather than replicating the particular structural conventions characteristic of scientific writing. That is, scientists use writing to have, remember, share, vet, challenge, and stabilize ideas, and our course requires students use writing to achieve those aims, rather than produce writing that obeys particular conventions of scientific writing. This talk will describe how we have integrated findings from composition studies with a course on scientific inquiry, and provide examples of how scientific communication has resulted from this dialogue. Funding by NSF #1140860.

  18. Multimodal Composing in Classrooms: Learning and Teaching for the Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M., Ed.; McVee, Mary B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including…

  19. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  20. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  1. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  2. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  3. Making Judgements: Investigating the Process of Composing and Receiving Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConlogue, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have argued that tutor feedback is failing to support students' progression. The potential for peer feedback, i.e. feedback composed by peer assessors, to support learning has been under researched. The aim of this paper was to explore a case study of a peer assessor composing and receiving peer feedback. The paper reports a case…

  4. Eminence of American Composers: University Faculty Attitudes and Symphony Orchestra Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Harry E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compares 174 music theory and composition professors' opinions about eminence among contemporary U.S. composers to frequency of works performed by 29 U.S. symphony orchestras. Finds faculty-perceived eminence and programing practices moderately related. Suggests some consensus among faculty and orchestra surveys regarding composer eminence. (CH)

  5. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  6. Transforming Experience: Negotiations of Sexual Identity in the Composing Processes of Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiating meaning, knowledge, and identity is fundamental to composing processes. These negotiations occur both individually and socially for writers. Sexual identity is an intrinsic part of these negotiations, but is often overlooked by researchers. This study explored the phenomenon of negotiating sexual identity in the composing processes of…

  7. Composing with an Eye to the Unexpected: An Interview with John Heiss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Helen Bohn

    1984-01-01

    John Heiss, a teacher and composer, describes how he came to write "Songs of Nature," a song cycle with text by nineteenth-century American poets. Heiss believes that, though a composer must know his craft, there should be room for intuition and the emotions in the creative process. (CS)

  8. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  9. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  10. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  11. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  12. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  13. Transition de phase quantique de type verrouillage-deverrouillage dans les canaux lineaires coherents des phases en rayures dans les doubles puits quantiques sous champ magnetique perpendiculaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faribault, Alexandre

    On peut creer un gaz electronique bidimensionnel en utilisant le potentiel de confinement d'une couche mince d'un semiconducteur dans un substrat fait d'une autre semiconducteur de gap plus eleve. L'ajout d'un champ magnetique perpendiculaire au plan de confinement modifie de facon drastique les proprietes du gaz electronique. Pour des densites et des valeurs du champ magnetique adequatement choisies, on obtient un etat fondamental en onde de densite de charge. Dans un systeme compose de deux de ces gaz bidimensionnels suffisamment rapproches l'un de l'autre, on prevoit theoriquement l'existence d'un etat fondamental compose d'une onde de densite de charge dans chacun des puits et d'une serie de regions lineaires ou l'on a une delocalisation coherente des electrons entre les deux puits. Dans cette these, on etudie le comportement a temperature nulle de cet etat fondamental en rayures coherentes. L'etude numerique des modes collectifs de ces phases laisse croire qu'un deverrouillage des canaux coherents est envisageable dans ce systeme. Afin d'etudier cette possibilite, nous construisons d'abord un modele effectif de canaux quasi-unidimensionnels couples qui permettent de reproduire correctement les excitations collectives a basse energie de la phase en rayures coherentes du double puits quantique. Dans un systeme de coordonnees adequatement choisi, ces excitations peuvent etre decrites par des ondes de pseudospin. Les parametres de ce modele effectif simple peuvent etre extraits des calculs des fonctions de reponse realises dans l'approximation Hartree-Fock dependante du temps (appelee aussi Generalized Random Phase Approximation). On constate l'efficacite de ce modele a decrire la dynamique basse energie du systeme pour une certaine plage de distances inter-puits. En retirant de ce modele les contributions a l'hamiltonien provenant des couplages de type Josephson entre les canaux, on obtient alors un systeme ou les canaux sont deverrouilles. Un traitement en

  14. Potentiel des images satellitaires multibandes a haute resolution spatiale pour la cartographie des componsants de l'eau en milieu cotier marin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Andre

    L'objectif principal que que nous poursuivons est de developper un modele de simulation du transfert radiatif eau-atmosphere adapte aux observations faites par le capteur Thematic Mapper (TM) de Landsat. Les informations que nous cherchons ont trait au milieu cotier marin et concernent les elements qui sont en suspension dans l'eau. Les images multibandes du capteur TM dans la partie visible du spectre, sont surtout visees par nos travaux. A la base de la simulation, nous utilisons un programme de simulation atmospherique, le code 6S, auquel nous greffons un modele de simulation du transfert radiatif dans la masse d'eau. Ce dernier estime le signal en fonction de 4 composants: l'eau, les pigments chlorophylliens (chlorophylle et phaeopigments), les matieres minerales et les substances organiques dissoutes. La concentration des differents composants sert de parametre d'entree pour definir le comportement optique de la masse d'eau. Le modele permet egalement de simuler une masse d'eau stratifiee si l'on connai t les concentrations des composants dans les differentes couches. Il inclut aussi la contribution du fond, selon sa nature et sa composition, ainsi que celle du miroitement du soleil et du ciel a la surface de l'eau. Les informations d'un echantillonnage de la masse d' eau synchronise avec le passage du satellite, a la baie des Chaleurs, d'une cartographie du couvert d'algues et d'un modele bathymetrique ont ete utilisees pour fixer les parametres de simulation par le modele. La comparaison montrent que le modele se comporte relativement bien surtout dans la bande TM2. Une erreur systematique de 2 valeurs numeriques en moyenne subsiste dans les trois bandes spectrales. Les resultats nous montrent que la visibilite du fond aux faibles profondeurs est un element tres important a considerer. Par ailleurs, l'analyse de sensibilite montre que les images TM sont plus sensibles aux concentrations en matieres minerales qu'aux pigments chlorophylliens et aux substances

  15. Ostéosynthèse des fractures des métacarpiens et des phalanges de la main par mini plaque: à propos de 12 cas

    PubMed Central

    Moncef, Erraji; Abdelhafid, Derfoufi; Abdessamad, Kharraji; Omar, Agoumi; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Abdelkrim, Daoudi; Hicham, Yacoubi

    2016-01-01

    Le traitement des fractures instables des métacarpes et des phalanges reste un objet de controverse. Peu de séries ont été rapportées dans la littérature, rendant leur analyse difficile. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective comportant 12 patients, opérés par cette technique, ayant eu des fractures déplacées des métacarpes ou des phalanges, sur une période de deux ans. Les résultats globaux ont été bons dans 75% des cas, moyenne dans 16,5% des cas et mauvais dans 8,5% des cas. La stabilité du montage par mini plaques des fractures instables des métacarpiens et des phalanges ont permis une mobilisation précoce des articulations de la main, évitant ainsi la raideur. PMID:27800079

  16. Microstructural musical linguistics: composers' pulses are liked most by the best musicians.

    PubMed

    Clynes, M

    1995-06-01

    Western music is a combination of notated structure plus microstructure. Composers' pulses, as precise microstructural functions, were tested with five groups of subjects of graded musical proficiency: (1) 10 famous artists including Vladimir Ashkenazy, Yehudi Menuhin, Paul Badura-Skoda and others; (2) 14 Julliard School of Music graduate students; (3) 19 Manhattan School of Music graduate students; (4) 51 Australian conservatory students; and (5) 41 non-music students (total, 135 subjects). Composers' pulses consist of combined amplitude and timing warps specific to each composer--the composer's pulse matrix. Each subject listened to and scored 40 versions of 10 short music examples (not selected by the author) of eight bars each, composed by Beethoven, Mozart, Haydn and Schubert, performed by computer, in which composers' pulses, as developed by Clynes (1983, 1985a,b, 1986, 1987), were incorporated in a two-level hierarchic pulse configuration, and interchanged. Each example was heard with the pulses of those four composers in turn, in quasi-random sequence, one performance thus incorporating the "right" pulse and three the "wrong" ones. Results show dramatically that the greater the musical proficiency, the more marked the preference for the "right" pulse (p < .0001). Non-musicians as a group showed a similar tendency of preference, but typically to a considerably less pronounced degree. Further studies suggest that longer excerpts (32 bars) and repeated hearing would help non-musicians also to better understand composers' pulses. A theory of music as a double stream is introduced. The results suggest that the composers' pulse matrices posited by Clynes as a first approximation are in fact appropriately meaningful. Brain function aspects of the meaningful discrimination of such tiny time differences are discussed. PMID:7634761

  17. Microstructural musical linguistics: composers' pulses are liked most by the best musicians.

    PubMed

    Clynes, M

    1995-06-01

    Western music is a combination of notated structure plus microstructure. Composers' pulses, as precise microstructural functions, were tested with five groups of subjects of graded musical proficiency: (1) 10 famous artists including Vladimir Ashkenazy, Yehudi Menuhin, Paul Badura-Skoda and others; (2) 14 Julliard School of Music graduate students; (3) 19 Manhattan School of Music graduate students; (4) 51 Australian conservatory students; and (5) 41 non-music students (total, 135 subjects). Composers' pulses consist of combined amplitude and timing warps specific to each composer--the composer's pulse matrix. Each subject listened to and scored 40 versions of 10 short music examples (not selected by the author) of eight bars each, composed by Beethoven, Mozart, Haydn and Schubert, performed by computer, in which composers' pulses, as developed by Clynes (1983, 1985a,b, 1986, 1987), were incorporated in a two-level hierarchic pulse configuration, and interchanged. Each example was heard with the pulses of those four composers in turn, in quasi-random sequence, one performance thus incorporating the "right" pulse and three the "wrong" ones. Results show dramatically that the greater the musical proficiency, the more marked the preference for the "right" pulse (p < .0001). Non-musicians as a group showed a similar tendency of preference, but typically to a considerably less pronounced degree. Further studies suggest that longer excerpts (32 bars) and repeated hearing would help non-musicians also to better understand composers' pulses. A theory of music as a double stream is introduced. The results suggest that the composers' pulse matrices posited by Clynes as a first approximation are in fact appropriately meaningful. Brain function aspects of the meaningful discrimination of such tiny time differences are discussed.

  18. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  19. Cancer risk in DES daughters

    PubMed Central

    Verloop, Janneke; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Helmerhorst, Theo J. M.; van Boven, Hester H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined long-term risk of cancer in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero. Methods A total of 12,091 DES-exposed women in the Netherlands were followed prospectively from December 1992 till June 2008. Cancer incidence was assessed through linkage with the Dutch pathology database (PALGA) and the Netherlands Cancer Registry and compared with the Dutch female population. Results A total of 348 medically verified cancers occurred; median age at end of follow-up was 44.0 years. No overall increased risk of cancer was found (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91, 1.13). The risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix (CCA) was statistically significantly increased (SIR = 24.23; 95% CI = 8.89, 52.74); the elevated risk persisted above 40 years of age. The risk of melanoma diagnosed before age 40 was increased (SIR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.26). No excess risks were found for other sites, including breast cancer. Conclusions Except for an elevated risk of CCA, persisting at older ages, and an increased risk of melanoma at young ages, we found no increased risk of cancer. Longer follow-up is warranted to examine cancer risk at ages when cancer occurs more frequently. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10552-010-9526-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20204493

  20. The enhancement of existing DES Maplet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Mutalip, Rasidah Abdull; Abdullah, Kamilah

    2014-07-01

    This study pertains to the process of Data Encryption Standard, DES. DES consists of encryption and decryption processes linked with mathematical elements such as algebra and number theory. Preliminary, studies revealed that most of mathematics students face a problem in understanding the complicated process of DES. In modern learning methods, learning environment becomes more interesting with the use of computer and a variety of mathematical software packages. Several mathematical softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, Mathlab and Sage were developed in order to fulfill the specific calculation requirements. Correspondingly, motivated from that, this study incorporated with Maple to enhance the existing DES Maplet interface to be more interactive and user-friendly compared to the original version.

  1. Caracterisation pratique des systemes quantiques et memoires quantiques auto-correctrices 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier

    Cette these s'attaque a deux problemes majeurs de l'information quantique: - Comment caracteriser efficacement un systeme quantique? - Comment stocker de l'information quantique? Elle se divise done en deux parties distinctes reliees par des elements techniques communs. Chacune est toutefois d'un interet propre et se suffit a elle-meme. Caracterisation pratique des systemes quantiques. Le calcul quantique exige un tres grand controle des systemes quantiques composes de plusieurs particules, par exemple des atomes confines dans un piege electromagnetique ou des electrons dans un dispositif semi-conducteur. Caracteriser un tel systeme quantique consiste a obtenir de l'information sur l'etat grace a des mesures experimentales. Or, chaque mesure sur le systeme quantique le perturbe et doit done etre effectuee apres avoir reprepare le systeme de facon identique. L'information recherchee est ensuite reconstruite numeriquement a partir de l'ensemble des donnees experimentales. Les experiences effectuees jusqu'a present visaient a reconstruire l'etat quantique complet du systeme, en particulier pour demontrer la capacite de preparer des etats intriques, dans lesquels les particules presentent des correlations non-locales. Or, la procedure de tomographie utilisee actuellement n'est envisageable que pour des systemes composes d'un petit nombre de particules. Il est donc urgent de trouver des methodes de caracterisation pour les systemes de grande taille. Dans cette these, nous proposons deux approches theoriques plus ciblees afin de caracteriser un systeme quantique en n'utilisant qu'un effort experimental et numerique raisonnable. - La premiere consiste a estimer la distance entre l'etat realise en laboratoire et l'etat cible que l'experimentateur voulait preparer. Nous presentons un protocole, dit de certification, demandant moins de ressources que la tomographie et tres efficace pour plusieurs classes d'etats importantes pour l'informatique quantique. - La seconde

  2. Twenty-Five Years of Scholarship on Second Language Composing Processes: 1976-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Tony; Kapper, Jessie; Brice, Colleen; Matsuda, Paul Kei; Reichelt, Melinda

    2001-01-01

    This bibliography includes both an annotated and unannotated section on research conducted on second language composing processes in the last 25 years. It includes both published and unpublished material. (Author/VWL)

  3. Evaluation of the Legibility for Characters Composed of Multiple Point Sources in Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Yuki; Toyofuku, Yoshinori; Aoki, Yoshiro

    The luminance conditions were investigated, at that the characters composed of multiple point sources were as legible as a character having a uniformly luminous surface in fog, in order to make the use of variable-message signs practical at airports. As the results, it was found that the thicker the fog or the higher the illuminance, the better the legibility of the point source characters become compared with the uniformly luminous surface characters. It is supposed that the ease of extracting each individual point source makes the characters composed of multiple point sources more legible even if their luminance is low. So the results show that if the conventional luminance standard is applied to the average luminance of a character composed of multiple point sources, a character composed of multiple point sources could be recognized without any degradation in legibility.

  4. Une recension des écrits concernant la réalité psychoaffective des femmes ayant une vulvodynie : Difficultés rencontrées et stratégies développées

    PubMed Central

    Cantin-Drouin, Maude; Damant, Dominique; Turcotte, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Au cours des trois dernières décennies, une attention grandissante a été portée à l’étude du syndrome de vulvodynie, soit un inconfort vulvaire chronique inexpliqué, éprouvé en l’absence de pathologie précisée. En plus d’avoir des répercussions physiques, l’expérience de la vulvodynie comporte une dimension psychosociale. OBJECTIF : Cet article vise à faire une recension des écrits sur la réalité psychoaffective des femmes qui éprouvent une vulvodynie. MÉTHODE : Une recherche documentaire basée sur une exploration systématique de textes présentant des résultats de recherche et recensés dans les principales banques de données en sciences sociales, dont Dissertation Abstracts, Current Contents et PsycINFO, a été réalisée. RÉSULTATS : Cette recension des écrits révèle, malgré la présence de certains résultats divergents, que les femmes ayant une vulvodynie affrontent souvent des difficultés identitaires et psychologiques, qui sont influencées notamment par les normes sociales de sexualité et de féminité. Pour composer avec ces difficultés, les femmes développent différentes stratégies visant à diminuer le stress occasionné par la douleur et à améliorer leur bien-être psychologique. CONCLUSION : Les difficultés relationnelles et psychologiques vécues par les femmes ayant une vulvodynie ne découlent pas seulement de la douleur physique, mais aussi du sens qu’elles lui accordent, souvent influencé par les discours sociaux sur l’hétérosexualité et la féminité. Il importe donc d’intervenir auprès des femmes en tenant compte de l’influence du contexte social tout en poursuivant le développement des connaissances sur les aspects psychosociaux de cette expérience. PMID:18592063

  5. Syphilis in composers and musicians--Mozart, Beethoven, Paganini, Schubert, Schumann, Smetana.

    PubMed

    Franzen, C

    2008-12-01

    In the pre-antibiotics era, syphilis was an extremely common disease. The first well-recorded European outbreak of what is now known as syphilis occurred in 1494, when it appeared among French troops besieging Naples. Thereafter, the disease spread all over Europe and, in the 18th and 19th centuries, many artists became victims of syphilis, among them poets, painters, philosophers, and musicians and composers. This review presents biographies of several musicians and composers that probably suffered from syphilis.

  6. In fatal pursuit of immortal fame: Peer competition and early mortality of music composers.

    PubMed

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Kavetsos, Georgios

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the impact of peer competition on longevity using a unique historical data set of 144 prominent music composers born in the 19th century. We approximate for peer competition measuring (a) the number or (b) the share of composers located in the same area and time, (c) the time spent in one of the main cities for classical music, and (d) the quality of fellow composers. These measures suggest that composers' longevity is reduced, if they located in agglomerations with a larger group of peers or of a higher quality. The point estimates imply that, all else equal, a one percent increase in the number of composers reduces composer longevity by ∼ 7.2 weeks. Our analysis showed that the utilized concentration measures are stronger than the personal factors in determining longevity, indicating that individuals' backgrounds have minimal impact on mitigating the effect of experienced peer pressure. The negative externality of peer competition is experienced in all cities, fairly independent of their population size. Our results are reaffirmed using an instrumental variable approach and are consistent throughout a range of robustness tests. In addition to the widely known economic benefits associated with competition, these findings suggest that significant negative welfare externalities exist as well.

  7. Corrosion behaviour of materials at elevated temperatures in an oxidising atmosphere containing sulphur derivatives: influence of the compositon of aggressive phases and of the tested alloys. Final report. [Uranus S; Ni-5. 4Cr-3Al]. Tenue a la corrosion a temperature elevee de materiaux par les milieux oxydants contenant des derives soufres: influence de la composition des phases agressives et des alliages experimentes. rapport final

    SciTech Connect

    Cappelaere, M.; Lechaudel, R.; Turcot, G.

    1984-01-01

    Investigations on the resistance of Alloy 800, Uranus S, and Fe-Cr-Al (5.4% Cr, 3% Al) to sulphur dioxide have been carried out, considering three variables:- (1) duration of tests, (2) pressure of sulphur dioxide, and (3) concentration of bromine (10 and 100 x 10 to the minus 6 power by weight).

  8. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Amy; Lovell, Scott; Lorimer, Don; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Wallace, Ellen; Thompkins, Kaitlin; Archer, Kimberly; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

    2009-12-01

    With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38{alpha}), viral polymerase (HCV NS5B), and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ) were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

  9. Quantum teleportation through an entangled state composed of displaced vacuum and single-photon states

    SciTech Connect

    Podoshvedov, S. A.

    2008-03-15

    We study a teleportation protocol of an unknown macroscopic qubit by means of a quantum channel composed of the displaced vacuum and single-photon states. The scheme is based on linear optical devices such as a beam splitter and photon number resolving detectors. A method based on conditional measurement is used to generate both the macroscopic qubit and entangled state composed from displaced vacuum and single-photon states. We show that such a qubit has both macroscopic and microscopic properties. In particular, we investigate a quantum teleportation protocol from a macroscopic object to a microscopic state.

  10. Musical tradition, insurrection, and resurrection: the life and legacy of composer/bassist Charles Mingus.

    PubMed

    St Louis, E K

    1999-01-01

    Charles Mingus was perhaps the foremost straight-ahead jazz upright bassist and composer of his generation, blending the inspirational influences of gospel, jazz improvisation, and art music leanings into a unique style all his own. His demise from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in his fifth decade robbed the world of one of the great creative voices of American music. Aspects of Mingus' life, his career as a bassist, bandleader, and composer, and his neuromuscular illness are discussed, emphasizing his legacy for the disparate fields of jazz and neurology. PMID:10718524

  11. MO-A-BRD-05: Evaluation of Composed Lung Ventilation with 4DCT and Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Du, K; Bayouth, J; Reinhardt, J; Christensen, G; Zhao, B; Ding, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Regional pulmonary function can be derived using fourdimensional computed tomography (4DCT) combined with deformable image registration. However, only peak inhale and exhale phases have been used thus far while the lung ventilation during intermediate phases is not considered. In our previous work, we have investigated the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of lung ventilation and its dependence on respiration effort. In this study, composed ventilation is introduced using all inspiration phases and compared to direct ventilation. Both methods are evaluated against Xe-CT derived ventilation. Methods: Using an in-house tissue volume preserving deformable image registration, unlike the direct ventilation method, which computes from end expiration to end inspiration, Jacobian ventilation maps were computed from one inhale phase to the next and then composed from all inspiration steps. The two methods were compared in both patients prior to RT and mechanically ventilated sheep subjects. In addition, they wereassessed for the correlation with Xe-CT derived ventilation in sheep subjects. Annotated lung landmarks were used to evaluate the accuracy of original and composed deformation field. Results: After registration, the landmark distance for composed deformation field was always higher than that for direct deformation field (0IN to 100IN average in human: 1.03 vs 1.53, p=0.001, and in sheep: 0.80 vs0.94, p=0.009), and both increased with longer phase interval. Direct and composed ventilation maps were similar in both sheep (gamma pass rate 87.6) and human subjects (gamma pass rate 71.9),and showed consistent pattern from ventral to dorsal when compared to Xe-CT derived ventilation. Correlation coefficient between Xe-CT and composed ventilation was slightly better than the direct method but not significant (average 0.89 vs 0.85, p=0.135). Conclusion: More strict breathing control in sheep subjects may explain higher similarity between direct and composed ventilation

  12. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  13. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  14. 75 FR 63714 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Des Allemands Bayou, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Des Allemands Bayou, LA AGENCY: Coast... Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway swing bridge across Des Allemands Bayou, mile 14.0, in St. Charles and... INFORMATION: The Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway swing span drawbridge across Bayou Des Allemands,...

  15. Statutes of limitations: the special problem of DES suits.

    PubMed

    Feigin, C A

    1981-01-01

    In 1971, medical studies determined that DES causes a rare type of vaginal cancer in a small number of daughters of mothers who took DES during pregnancy. Subsequently, medical studies determined that exposure to DES can cause other vaginal abnormalities in the daughters, some of which may be precancerous. As a result of these discoveries, many lawsuits have been filed by these daughters against DES manufacturers. Many DES suits may be barred by statutes of limitations, both because the number of years between the daughters' exposure to DES in utero and the discovery that DES can cause injuries exceeds the statutory period, and because the cancer or other injuries caused by DES may not develop for many additional years. This Note discusses two methods that DES plaintiffs may be able to use to overcome the potential statutes of limitations bar: the discovery rule, and state provisions which toll the statute of limitations for minors. The Note contends that courts should apply an expanded discovery rule to DES suits to avoid the unfair result of barring a claim before the plaintiff could have known that she had a cause of action. In addition, the Note argues that the injury which causes the statute of limitations to begin to run in DES suits should not be rigidly defined. Finally, the Note urges that courts allow eligible DES plaintiffs to take advantage of applicable state provisions that toll the statute of limitations for minors.

  16. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. 303.24 Section 303.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile...

  17. Local Knowledge and Digital Movie Composing in an After-School Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brass, Jory J.

    2008-01-01

    A Latino teenager participated in an after school digital movie composing program called the Technology and Literacy Project. As a student of color previously identified as at risk for school failure, Horatio's case speaks to a common discrepancy highlighted in sociocultural literacy scholarship. He was competent and engaged with numerous…

  18. Transdisciplinary Dimensions in the Composing Activities of Children: Transfer of Strategies and Transformation of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies show the value of using visual expression as a means of teaching children to understand and create music. This study aspires to point out an additional valuable aspect, namely, the influence composing via visual expression--whereby children transform their own drawings--may have on children's subsequent compositional processes.…

  19. Improving Students' Memory for Musical Compositions and Their Composers: Mneme that Tune!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    Students enrolled in music appreciation and music history courses may find it difficult to remember composers' names and the titles of their compositions--particularly when retrieval is prompted by corresponding classical music themes. We sought to develop and validate a mnemonic approach in which musical themes were first recoded as more concrete…

  20. Children Composing and Their Visual-Spatial Approach to the Keyboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the already existing findings of children's compositional strategies and products. Despite the abundance of research provided regarding the manner in which children approach composing, little has been found about how children deal, specifically, with the structure of the keyboard. Therefore, from a context in which…

  1. The Heart of the Matter: Composing Music with an Adolescent with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Adam Patrick

    2008-01-01

    As a support worker for adolescents with special needs, I have found that they have few opportunities to play music. While previous research emphasizes that students with special needs can enjoy music in multiple capacities, little has been written about their ability to play, improvise, or compose. I employed a qualitative approach for this case…

  2. Spatial Stories with Nomadic Narrators: Affect, Snapchat, and Feeling Embodiment in Youth Mobile Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    While the vast majority of scholarship on mobile media, social semiotics, and multimodality highlights work done "behind" the screen, few studies have considered the embodied processes of youth composing "with" and "through" mobile technology. This study, drawn from a larger critical qualitative connective…

  3. Flipping the Composing Process: Collaborative Drafting and Résumé Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Abram

    2016-01-01

    This article argues for a flipped learning approach to business and professional communication composing processes. Flipped learning sequences can scaffold more robust engagement with prewriting activities and support opportunities for in-class collaborative and facilitated drafting exercises. These types of learning experiences offer numerous…

  4. Let Cinderella and Luke Skywalker Help You Teach the Passe Compose and Imperfect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M.

    Instructional materials for the passe compose and imperfect tenses in French use the technique of presenting familiar stories in the foreign language, written in the present tense, which students must place in the past by changing verb forms. The objective is to avoid the disadvantages of simply translating verb tenses and to allow the student to…

  5. Weighted Maximum-a-Posteriori Estimation in Tests Composed of Dichotomous and Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Tao, Jian; Chang, Hua-Hua; Shi, Ning-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    For mixed-type tests composed of dichotomous and polytomous items, polytomous items often yield more information than dichotomous items. To reflect the difference between the two types of items and to improve the precision of ability estimation, an adaptive weighted maximum-a-posteriori (WMAP) estimation is proposed. To evaluate the performance of…

  6. Residential Interior Design as Complex Composition: A Case Study of a High School Senior's Composing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Zoss, Michelle; Reed, Patty M.

    2006-01-01

    This research analyzed the composing processes of one high school student as she designed the interiors of homes for a course in interior design. Data included field notes, an interview with the teacher, artifacts from the class, and the focal student's concurrent and retrospective protocols in relation to her design of home interiors. The…

  7. Effects of high-fat diets composed of different oils on adipokine production in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated (n3) fatty acids in fish oil are shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines. In this study, we compared high-fat diets composed of different dietary oils with various le...

  8. Creative Thinking for 21st Century Composing Practices: Creativity Pedagogies across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sohui; Carpenter, Russell

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the corpus of literature on creative thinking and applied creativity in higher education to help composition teacher-scholars and writing center practitioners improve the application of creativity in written, visual, and multimodal composing practices. From studies of creative thinking investigated across…

  9. Composing: The Art of Letting Your Right Brain Recognize What Your Left Brain is Recalling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Thomas

    The purpose of this paper is to show teachers that composing is the conveying of "knowing" and that students' growth in writing is frequently stunted by teachers' stress on correct spelling, word choice, and syntax in student writing. Topics discussed in the paper include the following: the presence of "memories and experiences, cinemas, radio…

  10. It Looks Like a Goose: Composing for the Informational Needs of Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliway, David R.

    This study addressed whether "reading-as-the-reader" can improve fifth- and ninth-grade students' abilities to compose descriptive writing consistent with their readers' informational needs. There were 206 participants: 154 writers (78 fifth graders and 76 ninth graders) and 52 ninth-grade readers. The study adapted the referential communication…

  11. Composing across Multiple Media: A Case Study of Digital Video Production in a Fifth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of two students' composing processes as they developed a documentary video about the Dominican Republic in an urban, public middle school classroom. While using a digital video editing program, the students moved across multiple media (the Web, digital video, books, and writing), drawing semiotic resources from…

  12. Bending elasticity modulus of giant vesicles composed of aeropyrum pernix k1 archaeal lipid.

    PubMed

    Genova, Julia; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš; Bivas, Isak

    2015-01-01

    Thermally induced shape fluctuations were used to study elastic properties of giant vesicles composed of archaeal lipids C25,25-archetidyl (glucosyl) inositol and C25,25-archetidylinositol isolated from lyophilised Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells. Giant vesicles were created by electroformation in pure water environment. Stroboscopic illumination using a xenon flash lamp was implemented to remove the blur effect due to the finite integration time of the camera and to obtain an instant picture of the fluctuating vesicle shape. The mean weighted value of the bending elasticity modulus kc of the archaeal membrane determined from the measurements meeting the entire set of qualification criteria was (1.89 ± 0.18) × 10-19 J, which is similar to the values obtained for a membrane composed of the eukaryotic phospholipids SOPC (1.88 ± 0.17) × 10-19 J and POPC (2.00 ± 0.21) ´ 10-19 J. We conclude that membranes composed of archaeal lipids isolated from Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells have similar elastic properties as membranes composed of eukaryotic lipids. This fact, together with the importance of the elastic properties for the normal circulation through blood system, provides further evidence in favor of expectations that archaeal lipids could be appropriate for the design of drug delivery systems. PMID:25821933

  13. Tier 1 and Tier 2 Early Intervention for Handwriting and Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Rutberg, Judith E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Garcia, Noelia; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Brooks, Allison; Fulton, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Three studies evaluated Tier 1 early intervention for handwriting at a critical period for literacy development in first grade and one study evaluated Tier 2 early intervention in the critical period between third and fourth grades for composing on high stakes tests. The results contribute to knowledge of research-supported handwriting and…

  14. Reading as Mediated and Mediating Action: Composing Meaning for Literature through Multimedia Interpretive Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the effort of a small group of high school seniors to interpret the character of Laertes in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" through a "body biography," a life-sized human outline they filled with images and words representing their understanding of the character. Examines their discussion as they composed their text. (PA)

  15. Reading during Sentence Composing and Error Correction: A Multilevel Analysis of the Influences of Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Waes, Luuk; Leijten, Marielle; Quinlan, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of reading, how writers coordinate editing with other writing processes. In particular, the experiment examines how the cognitive demands of sentence composing and the type of error influence the reading and writing performance. We devised an experimental writing task in which participants corrected an…

  16. Multimodality: An Illuminating Approach to Unravelling the Complexities of Composing with ICT?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeze, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Having previously been employed to investigate science and English classrooms and listening in the music classroom, theories of multimodality would appear to have much to contribute to an examination of group composing using Information and Communications Technology (ICT), owing to the multimodal nature of music software and group discourse. This…

  17. The Organisation and Assessment of Composing at Key Stage 4 in English Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jonathan; Fautley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores secondary school music teachers' current practice with regard to the organisation and assessment of composing at Key Stage 4. It draws on research undertaken on a nation-wide basis in England, via the use of two online surveys and face-to-face interviews. In terms of the organisation of classroom composition, the study found…

  18. Writing as Embodied, College Football Plays as Embodied: Extracurricular Multimodal Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifenburg, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent explorations position multimodality as a largely curricular practice wherein the body typically is not figured as a potential mode of meaning making. Such a projection not only fails to acknowledge extracurricular uses of such a rhetoric but also fails to acknowledge the role of the body in and especially for composing. In hopes of…

  19. Donkey Kong in Little Bear Country: A First Grader's Composing Development in the Media Spotlight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    2001-01-01

    Draws on data collected in an ethnographic project in an urban first grade to examine how media use informs child composing. Focuses on the influence of visual media involving animation. Concludes with a consideration of the teaching challenges posed, and opportunities offered, by the children's media use. (Author)

  20. Reframing Multimodal Composing for Student Learning: Lessons on Purpose from the Buffalo DV Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    In a study of urban secondary teachers moving out of professional development and into their classrooms, the research team documented the learning processes of teachers and student groups during their digital video composing to make sense of the curriculum. Taken together, these ethnographic case studies provide evidence that digital video…

  1. Author in the Arts: Composing and Collaborating in Text, Music, and the Visual Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerben, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Many disciplines share similar terminology for making: creating, composing, writing, and authoring. The last term authoring, however, is problematic in how it privileges an end goal of individual authority and reward. To interrogate this term, and argue for its importance in future collaborative, interdisciplinary work, this article examines a…

  2. A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach to Composing Serial Test Sheets for Multiple Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chang, Kuang-Cheng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chan, Ying

    2006-01-01

    To accurately analyze the problems of students in learning, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria, such as the ratio of relevant concepts to be evaluated, the average discrimination degree, difficulty degree and estimated testing time. Furthermore, to precisely evaluate the improvement of student's learning performance…

  3. Note des Éditeurs scientifiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, P.

    Cette série d'articles est une revue de résultats expérimentaux sur différents "fluides" moléculaires, dans lesquels la cohésion est due à des forces de Van der Waals et à des liaisons hydrogène, l'eau étant un de ces fluides. Ces résultats sont présentés de façon à justifier expérimentalement un modèle original, non extensif, des propriétés de ces fluides, et l'ensemble se présente sous la forme de trois articles décrivant le modèle, suivis chacun par un article le comparant aux résultats expérimentaux publiés par de nombreux auteurs. Le caractère non extensif des propriétés physiques des fluides est choquant, contraire à beaucoup d'idées établies, il semble n'avoir en sa faveur qu'un argument, la comparaison avec un nombre de résultats expérimentaux assez grand pour que l'effet du hasard soit difficilement soupçonnable. En particulier, les écarts entre des résultats de mesures faits par des auteurs différents dans des conditions différentes sont expliqués, le sérieux et la compétence des différents expérimentateurs ne sont plus mis en doute : mais l'interprétation de ces résultats avec un modèle extensif non adapté est seule mise en cause. Les modèles extensifs étant utilisés systématiquement, au delà des expériences de physiciens, dans les calculs d'ingénieurs, et dans la modélisation d'appareils qui fonctionnent et de phénomènes naturels observés par tout le monde, il fallait expliquer pourquoi on pouvait renoncer à l'extensivité. Les raisons du succès pratique des modèles extensifs sont données, d'abord dans le cas des nématiques, puis dans celui des liquides ordinaires, et c'est ce qui rend l'ensemble cohérent, tant avec les mesures physiques fines qu'avec les observations quotidiennes. Il n'en reste pas moins que si l'interprétation donnée dans cette série d'articles est généralisable, une justification théorique du modèle utilisé devient nécessaire. Pour ce qui est des propriétés d

  4. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des

  5. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  6. Transmission Sur Fibres Optiques Dans Un Systeme D'Archivage Et De Communication D'Images Pour Des Applications Medicales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Gilles; Bonnard, Rene

    1984-03-01

    Dans l'hOpital, le besoin d'un reseau de communication electronique ne cesse de crottre au fur et a mesure de la numerisation des images. Ce reseau local a pour but de relier quelques sources d'images telles la radiologie numerique, la tomodensitometrie, la resonance magnetique nucleaire, l'echographie ultraso-nore etc..., a un systme d'archivage. Des consoles de visualisation interacti-ves peuvent etre utilisees dans les salles d'examens, les bureaux des medecins et les services de soins. Dans un tel systme, trois caracteristiques princi-pales doivent etre prises en compte le debit, la longueur du cable et le nombre de connexions. - Le debit est tr?)s important, en effet, un temps de reponse maxima de quel-ques secondes doit etre garanti pour des images de plusieurs millions d'ele-ments binaires. - La distance entre connexions peut etre de quelques km dans certains grands hopitaux. - Le nombre de connexions au reseau ne depasse jamais quelques dizaines car les sources d'images et les unites de traitement representent des materiels importants, par ailleurs les consoles de visualisation simples peuvent etre groupees en grappe. Toutes ces conditions sont remplies par les transmissions sur fibres optiques. Selon la topologie et la methode d'accNs, deux solutions peuvent etre envisa-gees : - Anneau actif - Etoile active ou passive Enfin, les developpements de Thomson-CSF en composants pour transmissions optiques pour les grands reseaux de tel4distribution nous apportent un support technologique et une production de masse qui diminuera les collts du materiel.

  7. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  8. The "Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The overall mission of the Conservatoire national des arts et metiers--(CNAM) [National Conservatory of Industrial Arts and Trades] is outlined. One of its centers, the "Centre national de l'entrepreneuriat"--(CNE) [National Center for Entrepreneurship] is described in greater detail. In particular, this center offers various services, notably…

  9. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  10. Absence of amusia and preserved naming of musical instruments in an aphasic composer.

    PubMed

    Tzortzis, C; Goldblum, M C; Dang, M; Forette, F; Boller, F

    2000-04-01

    M.M., a right-handed, 74 year old professional musician and composer, presented with a progressive aphasia with a severe anomia. His musical competence was apparently totally preserved, and he continued his activity as a composer. There was a striking discrepancy between his impaired naming of nonmusical stimuli and his normal naming of musical instruments' sounds. We suggest that the preservation of skills in the musical domain results from an expanded cortical representation of this function in the left hemisphere, secondary to his lifelong formal training, and to the high level of his professional competence. As for his preserved naming of musical instruments, we argue that the early age-of-acquisition and higher than "normal" frequency/familiarity for names of musical instruments facilitate the access to their lexical representation and/or their retrieval within the lexicon.

  11. Towards Composing Data Aware Systems Biology Workflows on Cloud Platforms: A MeDICi-based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan; Yin, Jian; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Wynne, Adam S.

    2011-09-08

    Cloud computing is being increasingly adopted for deploying systems biology scientific workflows. Scientists developing these workflows use a wide variety of fragmented and competing data sets and computational tools of all scales to support their research. To this end, the synergy of client side workflow tools with cloud platforms is a promising approach to share and reuse data and workflows. In such systems, the location of data and computation is essential consideration in terms of quality of service for composing a scientific workflow across remote cloud platforms. In this paper, we describe a cloud-based workflow for genome annotation processing that is underpinned by MeDICi - a middleware designed for data intensive scientific applications. The workflow implementation incorporates an execution layer for exploiting data locality that routes the workflow requests to the processing steps that are colocated with the data. We demonstrate our approach by composing two workflowswith the MeDICi pipelines.

  12. Optical memory development. Volume 3: The membrane light value page composer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, L. S.; Nagle, E. M.; Stewart, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of producing a page composer for optical memory systems using thin, deformable, membrane-mirror elements as light valves was investigated. The electromechanical and optical performances of such elements were determined both analytically and experimentally. It was found that fast switching (approximately 10 microseconds), high-contrast (10 or greater), fatigue-free operation over missions of cycles, and efficient utilization of input light could be obtained with membrane light valves. Several arrays of 64 elements were made on substrates with feedthroughs, allowing access to individual elements from the backside of the substrate. Single light valves on such arrays were successfully operated with the transistors designed and produced for selection and storage at each bit location. This simulated the operation of a prototype page composer with semiconductor chips beam-lead bonded to the back of the substrate.

  13. PepComposer: computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface.

    PubMed

    Obarska-Kosinska, Agnieszka; Iacoangeli, Alfredo; Lepore, Rosalba; Tramontano, Anna

    2016-07-01

    There is a wide interest in designing peptides able to bind to a specific region of a protein with the aim of interfering with a known interaction or as starting point for the design of inhibitors. Here we describe PepComposer, a new pipeline for the computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface. PepComposer only requires the target protein structure and an approximate definition of the binding site as input. We first retrieve a set of peptide backbone scaffolds from monomeric proteins that harbor the same backbone arrangement as the binding site of the protein of interest. Next, we design optimal sequences for the identified peptide scaffolds. The method is fully automatic and available as a web server at http://biocomputing.it/pepcomposer/webserver. PMID:27131789

  14. Modified hyperspheres algorithm to trace homotopy curves of nonlinear circuits composed by piecewise linear modelled devices.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Leal, H; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Benhammouda, B; Filobello-Nino, U; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Ramirez-Pinero, A; Marin-Hernandez, A; Huerta-Chua, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation.

  15. Particle alignment and clustering in sheared granular materials composed of platy particles.

    PubMed

    Boton, Mauricio; Estrada, Nicolas; Azéma, Emilien; Radjaï, Farhang

    2014-11-01

    By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the texture and local ordering in sheared packings composed of cohesionless platy particles. The morphology of large packings of platy particles in quasistatic equilibrium is complex due to the combined effects of local nematic ordering of the particles and anisotropic orientations of contacts between particles. We find that particle alignment is strongly enhanced by the degree of platyness and leads to the formation of face-connected clusters of exponentially decaying size. Interestingly, due to dynamics in continuous shearing, this ordering phenomenon emerges even in systems composed of particles of very low platyness differing only slightly from spherical shape. The number of clusters is an increasing function of platyness. However, at high platyness the proportion of face-face interactions is too low to allow for their percolation throughout the system.

  16. Modified Hyperspheres Algorithm to Trace Homotopy Curves of Nonlinear Circuits Composed by Piecewise Linear Modelled Devices

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Leal, H.; Jimenez-Fernandez, V. M.; Benhammouda, B.; Filobello-Nino, U.; Sarmiento-Reyes, A.; Ramirez-Pinero, A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Huerta-Chua, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation. PMID:25184157

  17. Particle alignment and clustering in sheared granular materials composed of platy particles.

    PubMed

    Boton, Mauricio; Estrada, Nicolas; Azéma, Emilien; Radjaï, Farhang

    2014-11-01

    By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the texture and local ordering in sheared packings composed of cohesionless platy particles. The morphology of large packings of platy particles in quasistatic equilibrium is complex due to the combined effects of local nematic ordering of the particles and anisotropic orientations of contacts between particles. We find that particle alignment is strongly enhanced by the degree of platyness and leads to the formation of face-connected clusters of exponentially decaying size. Interestingly, due to dynamics in continuous shearing, this ordering phenomenon emerges even in systems composed of particles of very low platyness differing only slightly from spherical shape. The number of clusters is an increasing function of platyness. However, at high platyness the proportion of face-face interactions is too low to allow for their percolation throughout the system. PMID:25412821

  18. Modified hyperspheres algorithm to trace homotopy curves of nonlinear circuits composed by piecewise linear modelled devices.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Leal, H; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Benhammouda, B; Filobello-Nino, U; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Ramirez-Pinero, A; Marin-Hernandez, A; Huerta-Chua, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation. PMID:25184157

  19. PepComposer: computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface

    PubMed Central

    Obarska-Kosinska, Agnieszka; Iacoangeli, Alfredo; Lepore, Rosalba; Tramontano, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is a wide interest in designing peptides able to bind to a specific region of a protein with the aim of interfering with a known interaction or as starting point for the design of inhibitors. Here we describe PepComposer, a new pipeline for the computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface. PepComposer only requires the target protein structure and an approximate definition of the binding site as input. We first retrieve a set of peptide backbone scaffolds from monomeric proteins that harbor the same backbone arrangement as the binding site of the protein of interest. Next, we design optimal sequences for the identified peptide scaffolds. The method is fully automatic and available as a web server at http://biocomputing.it/pepcomposer/webserver. PMID:27131789

  20. Temperature distribution in internally heated walls of heat exchangers composed of nonnuclear flow passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Low, George M

    1951-01-01

    In the walls of heat exchangers composed of noncircular passages, the temperature varies in the circumferential direction because of local variations of the heat-transfer coefficients. A prediction of the magnitude of this variation is necessary in order to determine the region of highest temperature and in order to determine the admissible operating temperatures. A method for the determination of these temperature distributions and of the heat-transfer characteristics of a special type of heat exchanger is developed. The heat exchanger is composed of polygonal flow passages and the passage walls are uniformly heated by internal heat sources. The coolant flow within the passages is assumed to be turbulent. The circumferential variation of the local heat-transfer coefficients is estimated from flow measurements made by Nikuradse, postulating similarity between velocity and temperature fields. Calculations of temperature distributions based on these heat-transfer coefficients are carried out and results for heat exchangers with triangular and rectangular passages are presented.

  1. Geometry of Prismatic Tensegrity Constructions Composed of Three and Four-strut Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejníková, Tatiana

    2014-11-01

    In the paper there is described geometry of double layer tensegrity constructions composed of prismatic cells with rhombic configuration of three or four strut bases so-called prismatic Tensegrity constructions. There are described bi-dimensional assemblies creating double layer grids of three or four-strut cells with a node-on-node junction. The grids can be planar, of one or two curvature constructions.

  2. Emil Votocek (1872-1950): A Tribute to the Chemist-Composer-Lexicographer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman*, George B.; Jursík**, Frantisek; Rae***, Ian D.

    1999-04-01

    Emil Votocek (1872-1950), Professor of Experimental Inorganic and Organic Chemistry at the Czech Technical University at Prague (1905-1939) and cofounder and coeditor of the journal Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, was an authority on the chemistry of carbohydrates, especially sugars. Although primarily known for his research on organic, analytical, inorganic, and plant chemistry, this polyglot scholar and lexicographer was also a composer who wrote nearly 60 musical compositions during the relatively short period of 15 years.

  3. Recreating the real, realizing the imaginary--a composer's preoccupation with acoustic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godman, Rob

    2002-11-01

    For centuries composers have been concerned with spatialization of sound and with the use of acoustic spaces to create feeling, atmosphere, and musical structure. This paper will explore Rob Godman's own use of sound in space, including (1) his treatment of ancient Vitruvian principles and how they are combined with new technologies; (2) an exploration of virtual journeys through real and imaginary acoustic spaces; (3) how sounds might be perceived in air, liquid, and solids; and (4) how technology has allowed composers to realize ideas that previously had only existed in the imagination. While focusing on artistic concerns, the paper will provide information on research carried out by the composer into acoustic spaces that are able to transform in real time with the aid of digital technology (Max/MSP software with sensor technology) and how these have been used in installation and pre-recorded work. It will also explore digital reconstructions of Vitruvian theatres and how we perceive resonance and ambience in the real and virtual world.

  4. Rotational viscosity of fluids composed of linear molecules: An equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. J. D.; Hansen, J. S.; Todd, B. D.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the rotational viscosity for a chlorine fluid and for a fluid composed of small linear molecules by using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The rotational viscosity is calculated over a large range of state points. It is found that the rotational viscosity is almost independent of temperature in the range studied here but exhibits a power-law dependency on density. The rotational viscosity also shows a power-law relationship with the molecular length, and the ratio between the shear and rotational viscosities approaches 0.5 for the longest molecule studied here. By changing the number of atoms or united atomic units per molecule and by keeping the molecule length fixed, we show that fluids composed of molecules which have a rodlike shape have a lower rotational viscosity. We argue that this phenomenon is due to the reduction in intermolecular connectivity, which leads to larger fluctuations around the values possessed by the fluid on average. The conclusions here can be extended to fluids composed of uniaxial molecules of arbitrary length.

  5. Constructing three-dimensional detachable and composable computer models of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Fan, Min; Dai, Peishan; Zheng, Buhong; Li, Xinchun

    2015-06-01

    The head and neck region has a complex spatial and topological structure, three-dimensional (3D) computer model of the region can be used in anatomical education, radiotherapy planning and surgical training. However, most of the current models only consist of a few parts of the head and neck, and the 3D models are not detachable and composable. In this study, a high-resolution 3D detachable and composable model of the head and neck was constructed based on computed tomography (CT) serial images. First, fine CT serial images of the head and neck were obtained. Then, a color lookup table was created for 58 structures, which was used to create anatomical atlases of the head and neck. Then, surface and volume rendering methods were used to reconstruct 3D models of the head and neck. Smoothing and polygon reduction steps were added to improve 3D rendering effects. 3D computer models of the head and neck, including the sinus, pharynx, vasculature, nervous system, endocrine system and glands, muscles, bones and skin, were reconstructed. The models consisted of 58 anatomical detachable and composable structures and each structure can be displayed individually or together with other structures.

  6. Photonic crystals composed of virtual pillars with magnetic walls: Photonic band gaps and double Dirac cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Han; Kim, Soeun; Kee, Chul-Sik

    2016-08-01

    Photonic crystals composed of virtual pillars with magnetic walls are proposed. A virtual pillar with a magnetic wall can be created inside a parallel perfect electric conductor plate waveguide by introducing a circular perfect magnetic conductor patch in the upper perfect electric conductor plate of the waveguide. The virtual pillar mimics a perfect magnetic conductor pillar with a radius less than that of the circular patch because electromagnetic waves can slightly penetrate the wall. Furthermore, the photonic band structures of a triangular photonic crystal composed of virtual pillars for the transverse electromagnetic modes of the waveguide are investigated. They are very similar to those of a triangular photonic crystal composed of infinitely long perfect electric conductor cylinders for transverse magnetic modes. The similarity between the two different photonic crystals is well understood by the boundary conditions of perfect electric and magnetic conductor surfaces. A double Dirac cone at the center of the Brillouin zone is observed and thus the virtual pillar triangular photonic crystal can act a zero-refractive-index material at the Dirac point frequency.

  7. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Zhao, Yazhao; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-04-01

    Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al2O3 from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C-A-S-H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH)2 with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl2Si2O8·4H2O and Na2Al2Si2O8·H2O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C-A-S-H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities.

  8. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  9. La microscopie ionique analytique des tissus biologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galle, P.

    Proposed in 1960 by R. Castaing and G. Slodzian, secondary ion emission microanalysis is a microanalytical method which is now largely used for the study of inert material. The instrument called the analytical ion microscope can also be used for the study of biological spécimens ; images representing the distribution of a given stable or radioactive isotope in a tissue section are obtained with a resolution of 0.5 μm. Among the characteristics of this method, two are of particular interest in biological research : its capacity for isotopic analysis and its very high sensitivity which makes possible for the first time a chemical analysis of element at a very low or even at a trace concentration in a microvolume. Proposé en 1960 par R. Castaing et G. Slodzian, la microanalyse par émission ionique secondaire est une méthode qui permet, entre autre, d'obtenir des images représentant la distribution des isotopes présents à la surface d'un échantillon solide avec une résolution de 0,5 μm. D'intérêt très général, cette méthode a été d'abord largement utilisée pour l'étude des matériaux inertes. Elle offre en outre des possibilités entièrement nouvelles dans le domaine de la recherche biomédicale. L'instrument réalisé, le microscope ionique analytique présente deux caractéristiques particulièrement intéressantes pour la biologie : la possibilité d'analyse isotopique, et l'extrême sensibilité permettant de détecter et de localiser dans une coupe histologique des éléments à des concentrations très faibles voire à l'état de trace.

  10. Étude des déplacements induits par des précipités dans des alliages à base de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillon, I.; Servant, C.; Lyon, O.

    2004-11-01

    Cette étude a pour but de mieux comprendre les premières étapes des phénomènes se produisant lors de la formation de nanoprécipités. En effet, la microstructure des alliages conditionne leurs propriétés mécaniques, et donc l'emploi de ces matériaux. Alors que l'anisotropie des déformations élastiques permet d'expliquer la morphologie des précipités formés lors des traitements thermiques de revenu, peu d'études se sont attachées à les déterminer expérimentalement. Mots clés : transformations de phases, diffusion/diffraction, synchrotron, alliages à base Cu, déplacements

  11. A novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu

    2012-04-30

    In this paper, a systematic study was conducted to investigate a novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash. The coal refuse and fly ash had different properties under various thermal activation temperatures (20 °C, 150 °C, 350 °C, 550 °C, 750 °C and 950 °C). It is known that a thermal activation temperature ranging from 20 °C to 950 °C significantly increases the flowability and pozzolanic properties of the coal refuse; however, the flowability of fly ash decreases when the activation temperature is higher than 550 °C because of a severe agglomeration phenomenon on its surface. An optimal design for this backfill material was determined to include an activated portion composed of 5% coal refuse at 750 °C and 15% fly ash at 20 °C. This combination yields the best performance with excellent flowability, a high compressive strength and a low bleeding rate. The microanalysis results corresponded well with the performance tests at different activation conditions. In the coal refuse, kaolinite peaks began to decrease because of their transformation into metakaolin at 550 °C. Chlorite peaks disappeared at 750 °C. Muscovite peaks decreased at 750 °C and disappeared at 950 °C. During this process, muscovite 2M(1) gradually dehydroxylated to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this paper examined the environmental acceptance and economic feasibility of this technology and found that this silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash not only meets EPA requirements but also has several advantages in industry feasibility when compared with hydraulic backfill, rock backfill and paste backfill.

  12. TRANSPLANTATION EN MASSE DES ORGANES ABDOMINAUX

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, T.

    2010-01-01

    Les transplantations multi-organes, comprenant les blocs foie-duodénum-pancréas, foie-estomac-duodénum-pancréas, et foie-intestin sont réalisées avec un succés croissant Ces techniques et leurs combinaisons variées de transplantation monobloc ne sont pas de pratique courante. Les techniques de prélévement, de conservation et de soins post-opératoires sont décrites pour la transplantation multi-organes compléte ainsi que pour les variantes incomplétes. Le probléme particulier à ce type de transplantation est celui de la transplantation intestinale, c’est-à-dire la transplantation d’un organe à composante lymphoréticulaire complexe ce qui peut provoquer un syndrome greffon contre hôte. Par erreur de conception, et un peu par esprit de systéme, les efforts par le passé étaient dirigés sur la modification et la destruction des systémes lymphoréticulaires grâce au traitement préalable du donneur ou des organes transplantés, par médicaments, radiation ou autres moyens. Actuellement, I’idée directrice est de garder intacte les systémes lymphoréticulaires qui deviennent alors le site d’une circulation à double sens aprés transplantation. Avec la puissante immunodépression que fournit le FK 506, les cellules lymphoréticulaires du donneur peuvent circuler chez le receveur sans créer de syndrome du greffon contre hôte clinique et les cellules de la greffe s’assimilent à celles du receveur (chimérisme local) sans provoquer de rejet. Même si I’on évite le rejet ou le syndrome greffon contre hôte, il existe, à côté de ces entités, des relations métaboliques entre les organes greffés ainsi qu’entre les organes greffés et les viscéres du receveur laissés en place, qui peuvent influencer I’avenir soit des organes greffés, soit des organes laissés en place. Parmi les échanges métaboliques les mieux connus actuellement, il y a les facteurs splanchniques hépatotrophes endogénes, dont I’insuline est la mieux

  13. Giant molecules composed of polar molecules and atoms in mixed dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ran; Tan, Shina

    2014-05-01

    Two or three polar molecules, confined to one or two dimensions, can form stable bound states with a single atom living in three dimensions, if the molecule and the atom can interact resonantly such that their mixed dimensional scattering length is large. We call these bound states ``giant molecules'' since it's a molecule composed of smaller molecules and atoms. We study their properties using techniques including exact numerical solution, exact qunatum diffusion Monte Carlo (QMC), Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), and semiclassical approximation. These bound states have a hierarchical structure reminiscent of the celestial systems.

  14. Efficient Authorization of Rich Presence Using Secure and Composed Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Chou, Wu

    This paper presents an extended Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) model for efficient authorization of rich presence using secure web services composed with an abstract presence data model. Following the information symmetry principle, the standard RBAC model is extended to support context sensitive social relations and cascaded authority. In conjunction with the extended RBAC model, we introduce an extensible presence architecture prototype using WS-Security and WS-Eventing to secure rich presence information exchanges based on PKI certificates. Applications and performance measurements of our presence system are presented to show that the proposed RBAC framework for presence and collaboration is well suited for real-time communication and collaboration.

  15. Hydrogen consentration meter utilizing a diffusion tube composed of 2 1/4 C r

    DOEpatents

    Roy, Prodyot; Sandusky, David W.; Hartle, Robert T.

    1979-01-01

    A diffusion tube hydrogen meter for improving the sensitivity and response time for the measurement of hydrogen in liquid sodium. The improved hydrogen meter has a composite membrane composed of pure nickel sleeve fitted, for example, over a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel or niobium diffusion tube. Since the hydrogen permeation rate through 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steels is a factor of four higher than pure nickel, and the permeation rate of hydrogen through niobium is two orders of magnitude greater than the 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, this results in a decrease in response time and an increase in the sensitivity.

  16. Optimization of global model composed of radial basis functions using the term-ranking approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Peng; Tao, Chao Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2014-03-15

    A term-ranking method is put forward to optimize the global model composed of radial basis functions to improve the predictability of the model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined by numerical simulation and experimental data. Numerical simulations indicate that this method can significantly lengthen the prediction time and decrease the Bayesian information criterion of the model. The application to real voice signal shows that the optimized global model can capture more predictable component in chaos-like voice data and simultaneously reduce the predictable component (periodic pitch) in the residual signal.

  17. Tunable absorption in heterostructures composed of a highly absorptive metallic film and Fibonacci fractal photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Wei; Sun, Jie; Du, Gui-Qiang

    2016-03-01

    We have theoretically investigated the anomalous optical properties of heterostructures composed of a highly absorptive metal film and a truncated Fibonacci fractal photonic crystal. It is found that one or multiple highly reflected peaks, even enhanced transmission narrowband, can be realized in the near-complete absorption broadband, where the photonic crystals are selected with various Fibonacci sequences or a given sequence as the basic unit. These properties are significant to design important reflection or transmission optical devices in the visible and near-infrared ranges.

  18. Direct growth of macroscopic fibers composed of large diameter SWNTs by CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q. H.; Bai, S.; Fournier, T.; Li, F.; Wang, G.; Cheng, H. M.; Bai, J. B.

    2003-03-01

    Macroscopic nanotube fibers, composed of aligned large diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), were prepared by a simple CVD method. These fibers, which constitute the nanotube ropes of loose structure like hemp cords, can be divided into the nanotube threads (mesoscopically) and subdivided into nanotube bundles (microscopically). The samples show good alignment at different scales. The fibers, several micrometers in diameter, have a relatively stable structure and only dissociated partially under ultrasonic dispersion. The obtained SWNTs have good crystalline structure and good purity. The influence of the CVD conditions on the fiber morphology was also investigated.

  19. Dynamics of two discrete vortices with different circulations composed of pure electron plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Soga, Yukihiro; Mihara, Yasuhiro; Park, Youngsoo

    2015-06-29

    Two-dimensional dynamics of two vortex strings with different circulations were experimentally observed. The strings were composed of pure electron plasmas and were confined in a Malmberg–Penning trap. When one of the two vortices trapped in a conventional potential well had weak circulation, the orbits of the two vortices contradicted the point vortex theory. This disagreement stems from an unavoidable external electric field that exerts a different additional E × B drift velocity on each vortex. We resolved the discrepancy between observation and theory by applying a stepwise potential to the end electrodes, which produced a less non-ideal electric field.

  20. A Magellanic origin of the DES dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-09-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves, and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of sub-haloes in Λ cold dark matter, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95) per cent confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Marginalizing over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011 M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  1. Peste des petits ruminants in Arabian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kinne, J; Kreutzer, R; Kreutzer, M; Wernery, U; Wohlsein, P

    2010-08-01

    Recurrence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was diagnosed in the United Arabian Emirates in several wild ruminants confirmed by morphological, immunohistochemical, serological and molecular findings. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus strain belongs to lineage IV, which is different to some previously isolated PPR strains from the Arabian Peninsula. This study shows that wild ruminants may play an important epidemiological role as virus source for domestic small ruminants.

  2. Inhomogeneites dans le Vent des Etoiles Wolf-Rayet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Carmelle

    1992-01-01

    Des mesures spectroscopiques effectuees avec un haut rapport signal sur bruit et une bonne resolution ont demontre l'existence de regions perturbees en mouvement dans le vent d'etoiles Wolf-Rayet (WR). L'echantillon d'objets etudies ici comprend 9 etoiles WR couvrant differents sous-types WN et WC. De nombreuses petites structures variables superposees au profil des raies d'emission formees dans le vent stellaire signalent la presence des perturbations. L'etude des variations globales des raies et l'examen des micro-structures individuelles ont permis de decrire plusieurs caracteristiques des perturbations. Entre autres, on observe des correlations significatives entre le niveau de variabilite des raies et certains parametres des etoiles qui confirment que le phenomene de variabilite est intrinseque au vent stellaire. En comparant les changements des vitesses radiales et des largeurs equivalentes des differentes raies d'une meme etoile, on conclut que les regions perturbees ont une etendue finie par rapport a l'enveloppe des etoiles. On peut facilement suivre les structures individuelles sur une periode de temps couvrant ~eq8 heures (et peut etre meme 24 heures) avant qu'elles ne disparaissent. Durant ce temps les structures se deplacent en s'eloignant du centre de la raie. A partir des differents comportements notes lors de l'analyse des variations globales et lors de l'examen des structures individuelles, on propose de representer les perturbations par un modele d'inhomogeneites discretes en expansion dans le vent. On suppose simplement que les inhomogeneites emettent comme le vent global (et absorbent aussi si le vent global montre un profil P Cyg). La superposition du graphique de l'acceleration radiale moyenne des inhomogeneites de WR140 en fonction de leur vitesse radiale et du modele theorique d'inhomogeneites qui suivent la loi generale de vitesse donne un taux d'acceleration lent, avec beta >= 3 pour les inhomogeneites de cette etoile. On obtient, entre

  3. Dermatomyosite et panniculite: place des immunoglobulines

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhafidh, Nadia Ben; Toujeni, Sana; Kefi, Asma; Bousetta, Najeh; Sayhi, Sameh; Gharsallah, Imen; Othmani, Salah

    2016-01-01

    La panniculite est une maladie inflammatoire du tissu adipeux sous-cutané rarement associée à la dermatomyosite. Elle peut survenir avant, après ou en même temps que l'atteinte musculaire. Dans la plupart des cas, l’évolution de la panniculite et des autres atteintes de la dermatomyosite est favorable sous traitement corticoïde et/ou immunosuppresseur. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 48 ans ayant présenté des lésions de panniculite précédant de 2 mois les signes musculaires. L'atteinte cutanée était résistante au traitement corticoïde associés aux immunosuppresseurs ce qui a nécessité le recours au traitement par Immunoglobulines polyvalentes permettant ainsi une amélioration à la fois de l'atteinte cutanée et musculaire. PMID:27516827

  4. Profil anthropometrique des enfants scolarises tananariviens

    PubMed Central

    Razafimanantsoa, Fetralinjiva; Razafindramaro, Notahiana; Raherimandimby, Hasina; Robinson, Annick; RakotoAlson, Olivat; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry

    2013-01-01

    Les enfants tananariviens sont en état de malnutrition chronique. Notre objectif est d’évaluer l'indice de masse corporelle (IMC) pour estimer les enfants apparemment "sains". Une enquête et une mesure de la taille et du poids des enfants scolarisés tananariviens de 6 à 11 ans ont été réalisées. Après leur accord, la taille et l'indice de masse corporelle des 442 enfants tirés au hasard ont été ainsi obtenus. L'analyse de la moyenne de la taille a révélé une différence significative à 8 ans, une différence non évidente sur l'indice de masse corporelle. La comparaison avec les valeurs de référence (OMS 2006) a montré un retard statural de 34% avec une tendance globale à la hausse et un déficit pondéral égal à 5,5% selon le z score. Ainsi, au sein d'une population malnutrie, l'indice de masse corporelle pourrait être utilisé comme un des paramètres à considérer dans l’évaluation de l’état de santé pour classer ces enfants en bonne santé apparente. PMID:24711862

  5. Newtons Universum. Materialien zur Geschichte des Kraftbegriffes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mit einem Vorwort von E. Seibold und einer Einführung von W. Neuser. This book is a selection of 15 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Impetustheorie und Intuition in der Physik (M. McCloskey). 2. Mittelalterliche Ursprünge der industriellen Revolution (T. S. Reynolds). 3. Leonardo da Vincis Beiträge zur theoretischen Mechanik (V. Foley, W. Soedel). 4. Nikolaus Kopernikus und Tycho Brahe (O. Gingerich). 5. Keplers Entdeckung der ersten beiden Planetengesetze (C. Wilson). 6. Galileis Entdeckung des Fallgesetzes (S. Drake). 7. Galileis Beobachtung des Neptun (S. Drake, C. T. Kowal). 8. Galileo Galilei und der Schatten des Giordano Bruno (L. S. Lerner, E. A. Gosselin). 9. Der Fall Galilei (O. Gingerich). 10. Newtons Apfel und Galileis "Dialog" (S. Drake). 11. Newtons Gravitationsgesetz - aus Formeln wird eine Idee (I. B. Cohen). 12. Christopher Wren: Astronom und Architekt (H. Dorn, R. Mark). 13. Atomismus und Kräfte in der Geschichte (L. Holliday). 14. Ein Elitezirkel vor 200 Jahren: Die Lunar Society von Birmingham (L. Ritchie-Calder). 15. Sadi Carnot: Technik und Theorie der Dampfmaschine (S. S. Wilson).

  6. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-24

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l’on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  7. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  8. Menstrual cycle phase alters women's sexual preferences for composers of more complex music.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2014-06-01

    Over 140 years ago Charles Darwin first argued that birdsong and human music, having no clear survival benefit, were obvious candidates for sexual selection. Whereas the first contention is now universally accepted, his theory that music is a product of sexual selection through mate choice has largely been neglected. Here, I provide the first, to my knowledge, empirical support for the sexual selection hypothesis of music evolution by showing that women have sexual preferences during peak conception times for men that are able to create more complex music. Two-alternative forced-choice experiments revealed that woman only preferred composers of more complex music as short-term sexual partners when conception risk was highest. No preferences were displayed when women chose which composer they would prefer as a long-term partner in a committed relationship, and control experiments failed to reveal an effect of conception risk on women's preferences for visual artists. These results suggest that women may acquire genetic benefits for offspring by selecting musicians able to create more complex music as sexual partners, and provide compelling support for Darwin's assertion 'that musical notes and rhythm were first acquired by the male or female progenitors of mankind for the sake of charming the opposite sex'.

  9. Magnetic properties of bimetallic clusters composed of Gd and transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Prajna; Gupta, Bikash C.; Jena, Puru

    2016-02-01

    Gadolinium, a rare earth metal, is ferromagnetic, while Mn, a transition metal atom, is antiferromagnetic in the bulk phase. Clusters of these elements, however, share some common properties; both exhibit ferrimagnetic behavior and maintain magnetic moments close to their free atomic value. Using density functional theory and generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation, we have studied the magnetic properties of bimetallic clusters composed of Gd and Mn to see if they show unusual behavior. The coupling between Gd and Mn spins is found to be antiferromagnetic, while that between Mn atoms is ferromagnetic. Moreover, the bonding between Gd and Mn atoms is stronger than that between the Gd atoms or Mn atoms, thus enabling the possibility of creating more stable magnetic particles. A systematic study of the magnetic and binding properties of clusters composed of Gd atom and other transition metal atoms such as V, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Co is also carried out to probe the effect of 3d-orbital occupation on magnetic coupling.

  10. Carrier behavior in special multilayer device composed of different transition metal oxide-based intermediate connectors

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yan-Hong; Chen, Xiang-Yu E-mail: xychen@suda.edu.cn; Ou, Qing-Dong; Wang, Qian-Kun; Jiang, Xiao-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Li, Yan-Qing E-mail: xychen@suda.edu.cn

    2014-06-02

    The impact of illumination on the connection part of the tandem organic light-emitting diodes was studied by using a special organic multilayer sample consisted of two organic active layers coupled with different transition metal oxide (TMO)-based intermediate connectors (ICs). Through measuring the current density-voltage characteristic, interfacial electronic structures, and capacitance-voltage characteristic, we observe an unsymmetrical phenomenon in current density-voltage and capacitance-voltage curves of Mg:Alq{sub 3}/MoO{sub 3} and MoO{sub 3} composed devices, which was induced by the charge spouting zone near the ICs region and the recombination state in the MoO{sub 3} layer. Moreover, Mg:Alq{sub 3}/MoO{sub 3} composed device displays a photovoltaic effect and the V{sub oc} shifts to forward bias under illumination. Our results demonstrate that the TMO-based IC structure coupled with photovoltaic effect can be a good approach for the study of photodetector, light sensor, and so on.

  11. A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase for phenol determination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was developed for phenol determination. The laminated samarium borate was synthesized by a mild solid-state-hydrothermal (S-S-H) method without any surfactant or Template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the samples. The morphology of the as-prepared materials was characterized by SEM, which shows that laminated samarium borate are uniform nanosheets with a layer-by-layer self-assembled single-crystal structure. These laminated samarium borate have typical diameters of 3 ~ 5 μm and the thickness of each layer is in the range of 10 ~ 80 nm. And then, these SmBO3 multilayers were used to immobilize the laccase. The proposed nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was successfully developed for phenol determination. Cyclic voltammetry were used to study the nanosensor. The proposed nanosensor displayed high sensitivity toward phenolic compounds. The linearity of the nanosensor for the detection of hydroquinone was obtained from 1 to 50 μM with a detection limit of 3 × 10-7 M (based on the S/N = 3). PMID:24528570

  12. Menstrual cycle phase alters women's sexual preferences for composers of more complex music

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    Over 140 years ago Charles Darwin first argued that birdsong and human music, having no clear survival benefit, were obvious candidates for sexual selection. Whereas the first contention is now universally accepted, his theory that music is a product of sexual selection through mate choice has largely been neglected. Here, I provide the first, to my knowledge, empirical support for the sexual selection hypothesis of music evolution by showing that women have sexual preferences during peak conception times for men that are able to create more complex music. Two-alternative forced-choice experiments revealed that woman only preferred composers of more complex music as short-term sexual partners when conception risk was highest. No preferences were displayed when women chose which composer they would prefer as a long-term partner in a committed relationship, and control experiments failed to reveal an effect of conception risk on women's preferences for visual artists. These results suggest that women may acquire genetic benefits for offspring by selecting musicians able to create more complex music as sexual partners, and provide compelling support for Darwin's assertion ‘that musical notes and rhythm were first acquired by the male or female progenitors of mankind for the sake of charming the opposite sex’. PMID:24759864

  13. In vitro evaluation of tissue adhesives composed of hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Miyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2012-12-01

    The effect of the hydrophobic group content in gelatin on the bonding strength of novel tissue-penetrating tissue adhesives was evaluated. The hydrophobic groups introduced into gelatin were the saturated hexanoyl, palmitoyl, and stearoyl groups, and the unsaturated oleoyl group. A collagen casing was employed as an adherend to model soft tissue for the in vitro determination of bonding strength of tissue adhesives composed of various hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate. The adhesive composed of stearoyl-modified gelatin (7.4% stearoyl; 10Ste) and disuccinimidyl tartrate showed the highest bonding strength. The bonding strength of the adhesives decreased as the degree of substitution of the hydrophobic groups increased. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 10Ste was integrated onto the surface of smooth muscle cells and showed no cytotoxicity. These results suggest that 10Ste interacted with the hydrophobic domains of collagen casings, such as hydrophobic amino acid residues and cell membranes. Therefore, 10Ste-disuccinimidyl tartrate is a promising adhesive for use in aortic dissection.

  14. PbO networks composed of single crystalline nanosheets synthesized by a facile chemical precipitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Samberg, Joshua P.; Kajbafvala, Amir; Koolivand, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of PbO networks through a simple chemical precipitation route. • The synthesis method is rapid and low-cost. • Each network is composed of single crystalline PbO nanosheets. • A possible growth mechanism is proposed for synthesized PbO networks. - Abstract: For the field of energy storage, nanostructured lead oxide (PbO) shows immense potential for increased specific energy and deep discharge for lead acid battery technologies. In this work, PbO networks composed of single crystalline nanosheets were synthesized utilizing a simple, low cost and rapid chemical precipitation method. The PbO networks were prepared in a single reaction vessel from starting reagents of lead acetate dehydrate, ammonium hydroxide and deionized water. Lead acetate dehydrate was chosen as a reagent, as opposed to lead nitrate, to eliminate the possibility of nitrate contamination of the final product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis were used to characterize the synthesized PbO networks. The reproducible method described herein synthesized pure β-PbO (massicot) powders, with no byproducts. A possible formation mechanism for these PbO networks is proposed. The growth is found to proceed predominately in the 〈1 1 1〉 and 〈2 0 0〉 directions while being limited in the 〈0 1 1〉 direction.

  15. Direct fabrication of hybrid nanofibres composed of SiO2-PMMA nanospheres via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ran; Shang, Tinghua; Yang, Guang; Jia, Xiaolong; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    The direct fabrication of hybrid nanofibres composed of poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted SiO2 (SiO2-PMMA) nanospheres via electrospinning was investigated in detail. SiO2-PMMA nanospheres were successfully prepared, with the SiO2 nanospheres synthesized via the Stober method, followed by in situ surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Electrospinning was carried out with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as the solvent to disperse SiO2-PMMA nanospheres. The size of the SiO2 core, the molecular weight of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the SiO2-PMMA/DMF solution all had substantial effects on the morphology and structure of electrospun nanofibres composed of SiO2-PMMA nanospheres. When these determining factors were well-tailored, it was found that one-dimensional necklace-like nanofibres were obtained, with SiO2-PMMA nanospheres aligned one by one along the fibre. The successful fabrication of nanofibres by directly electrospinning the SiO2-PMMA/DMF solution verified that polymer-grafted particles possess polymer-like characteristics, which endowed them with the ability to be processed into desirable shapes and structures.

  16. Menstrual cycle phase alters women's sexual preferences for composers of more complex music.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2014-06-01

    Over 140 years ago Charles Darwin first argued that birdsong and human music, having no clear survival benefit, were obvious candidates for sexual selection. Whereas the first contention is now universally accepted, his theory that music is a product of sexual selection through mate choice has largely been neglected. Here, I provide the first, to my knowledge, empirical support for the sexual selection hypothesis of music evolution by showing that women have sexual preferences during peak conception times for men that are able to create more complex music. Two-alternative forced-choice experiments revealed that woman only preferred composers of more complex music as short-term sexual partners when conception risk was highest. No preferences were displayed when women chose which composer they would prefer as a long-term partner in a committed relationship, and control experiments failed to reveal an effect of conception risk on women's preferences for visual artists. These results suggest that women may acquire genetic benefits for offspring by selecting musicians able to create more complex music as sexual partners, and provide compelling support for Darwin's assertion 'that musical notes and rhythm were first acquired by the male or female progenitors of mankind for the sake of charming the opposite sex'. PMID:24759864

  17. Interaction puissance-commande au sein des convertisseurs statiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merienne, F.; Roudet, J.

    1996-06-01

    The electrical energy conversion is increasingly conversion is increasingly used in actual electrical systems. Also, the reduction of energical losses during the energy conversion has become an important objective. Thus, the electronic switch speed has been increased and allowed to reduce losses, but the technological implantation of components induces some electromagnetic compatibility problems. This is the reason of the interest of static converter designers in the Electromagnetic Compatibility. So, the study concerns the different risks of static converter malfunctioning due to its technology. Connections between energical sources (receiver and transmitter) and electronic switches (power unit and control unit) are often constituted of printed circuit traces, wires and copper bars. This connection is not perfect and its parasitic elements can disturb the static converter, even sometimes until its malfunctioning. The proposed study remains qualitative and unfolds in two times. In a first time, malfunctioning causes are shown according to the technology. For each case, risks are evaluated and design rules outlined. In a second time, proposed rules are applied onh a power static DC/DC converter, allowing to improve layout forward a better operating safety. Dans les systèmes électriques actuels, l'électronique de puissance est de plus en plus utilisée pour conditionner l'énergie électrique. Les convertisseurs statiques ont subi une évolution technologique importante notamment pour augmenter leur rendement et leur compacité. Ces performances sont essentiellemnt dues à l'accroissement de la rapidité des interrupteurs électroniques qui permert une réduction des pertes par commutation (absence de circuit d'aide à la commutation) et l'apparition de techniques de câblage nouvelles (hybrides, SMI...). Cependant, l'implantation technologique de ces composants modernes n'est pas sans poser quelques problèmes de compatibilité électromagnétique (perturbations

  18. Les effets du travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation des etudiantes et des etudiants en formation des ingenieurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Nicolas

    Les representants des secteurs industriels et les, milieux professionnels en Amerique du Nord reprochaient aux universites de former des ingenieurs avec peu d'experience pratique en resolution de problemes et en conception. Quelques programmes de genie ont alors mis en place le travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets. Beaucoup d'ecrits font valoir les benefices de l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation des etudiants. Or, ces benefices commencent a peine a faire l'objet de recherches visant a produire des donnees probantes a ce sujet. Les travaux sur la motivation en contexte d'apprentissage et les modeles theoriques developpes sont issus d'environnements d'apprentissage marques par l'enseignement magistral. Le modele de la valeur attendue de la tache (Eccles et Wigfield, 1995; Neuville, 2004) et le modele du systeme-groupe (St-Arnaud, 2008) ont ete retenus pour mesurer les effets du travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation. La recherche visait aussi a approfondir et a nuancer la comprehension de la motivation des etudiants universitaires apprenant en contexte innovant. Les sujets constituent des etudiants (n=100) travaillant sur des projets d'integration au cours des trois sessions initiales du programme de genie mecanique d'une universite canadienne. L'analyse de regression multiple revele que les construits de la motivation expliquent un tiers de la variance de l'engagement academique dans la realisation du projet d'integration. Les perceptions de l' "expectancy", de la valeur intrinseque et utilitaire sont les determinants principaux de l'engagement des etudiants. L'analyse de variance multivariee a mesures repetees indique que la motivation des etudiants pour le travail sur les projets d'integration a augmente au cours des trois sessions initiales du parcours de formation. Finalement, malgre l'absence d'interaction significative entre les variables de motivation et de l'equipe, les reponses des sujets indiquent une

  19. How Music Technology Can Make Sound and Music Worlds Accessible to Student Composers in Further Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardos, Leah

    2012-01-01

    I am a composer, producer, pianist and part-time music lecturer at a Further Education college where I teach composing on Music Technology courses at levels 3 (equivalent to A-level) and 4 (Undergraduate/Foundation Degree). A "Music Technology" course, distinct from a "Music" course, often attracts applicants from diverse musical backgrounds; it…

  20. 17 CFR 41.15 - Exclusion from definition of narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities. 41.15 Section 41.15 Commodity and... Indexes § 41.15 Exclusion from definition of narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities. (a) An index is not a narrow-based security index if: (1)(i) Each of the securities of an...

  1. 17 CFR 41.15 - Exclusion from definition of narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities. 41.15 Section 41.15 Commodity and... Indexes § 41.15 Exclusion from definition of narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities. (a) An index is not a narrow-based security index if: (1)(i) Each of the securities of an...

  2. 17 CFR 41.15 - Exclusion from definition of narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities. 41.15 Section 41.15 Commodity and... Indexes § 41.15 Exclusion from definition of narrow-based security index for indexes composed of debt securities. (a) An index is not a narrow-based security index if: (1)(i) Each of the securities of an...

  3. La physique des bulles de champagne Une première approche des processus physico-chimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2002-07-01

    bubbles collapsing at a free surface. But, to the best of our knowledge, and surprising as it may seem, no results concerning the collateral effects on adjoining bubbles of bubbles collapsing in a bubble monolayer have been reported up to now. Actually, effervescence in a glass of champagne ideally lends to a preliminary work with bubbles collapsing in a bubble monolayer. For a few seconds after pouring, the free surface is completely covered with a monolayer composed of quite monodisperse millimetric bubbles collapsing close to each others. We took high-speed photographs of the situation which immediately follows the rupture of a bubble cap in a bubble monolayer. Adjoining bubbles were found to be literally sucked and strongly stretched toward the lowest part of the cavity left by the bursting bubble, leading to unexpected and short-lived flower-shaped structures. Stresses in distorted bubbles (petals of the flower-shaped structure) were evaluated and found to be, at least, one order of magnitude higher than stresses numerically calculated in the boundary layer around an isolated single millimetric collapsing bubble. This is a brand-new and slightly counter-intuitive result. While absorbing the energy released during collapse, as an air-bag would do, adjoining bubble caps store this energy into their thin liquid film, leading finally to stresses much higher than those observed in the boundary layer around single millimetric collapsing bubbles. Further investigation should be conducted now, and especially numerically, in order to better understand the relative influence of each pertinent parameters (bubble size, liquid density and viscosity, effect of surfactant...) on bubble deformation. L'objectif général de cet ouvrage consacré à l'étude des processus physico- chimiques de l'effervescence des vins de Champagne était de décortiquer les différentes étapes de la vie d'une bulle de champagne en conditions réelles de consommation, dans une flûte. Nous r

  4. Etude des melanges co-continus d'acide polylactique et d'amidon thermoplastique (PLA/TPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Garcia, Maria Graciela

    Les melanges co-continus sont des melanges polymeriques ou chaque composant se trouve dans une phase continue. Pour cette raison, les caracteristiques de chacun des composants se combinent et il en resulte un materiau avec une morphologie et des proprietes particulieres. L'acide polylactique (PLA) et l'amidon thermoplastique (TPS) sont des biopolymeres qui proviennent de ressources renouvelables et qui sont biodegradables. Dans ce projet, differents melanges de PLA et TPS a une haute concentration de TPS ont ete prepares dans une extrudeuse bi-vis afin de generer des structures co-continues. Grace a la technique de lixiviation selective, le TPS est enleve pour creer une structure poreuse de PLA qui a pu etre analysee au moyen de la microtomographie R-X et de la microscopie electronique a balayage MEB. L'analyse des images 2D et 3D confirme la presence de la structure co-continue dans les melanges dont la concentration en TPS. se situe entre 66% et 80%. L'effet de deux plastifiants, le glycerol seul et le melange de glycerol et de sorbitol, dans la formulation de TPS est etudie dans ce travail. De plus, nous avons evalue l'effet du PLA greffe a l'anhydride maleique (PLAg) en tant que compatibilisant. On a trouve que la phase de TPS obtenue avec le glycerol est plus grande. L'effet de recuit sur la taille de phases est aussi analyse. Grace aux memes techniques d'analyse, on a etudie l'effet du procede de moulage par injection sur la morphologie. On a constate que les pieces injectees presentent une microstructure heterogene et differente entre la surface et le centre de la piece. Pres de la surface, une peau plus riche en PLA est presente et les phases de TPS y sont allongees sous forme de lamelles. Plus au centre de la piece, une morphologie plus cellulaire est observee pour chaque phase continue. L'effet des formulations sur les proprietes mecaniques a aussi ete etudie. Les pieces injectees dont la concentration de TPS est plus grande presentent une moindre

  5. Experimental demonstration of sharp Fano resonance in optical metamaterials composed of asymmetric double bars.

    PubMed

    Moritake, Yuto; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2014-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrated Fano resonance in metamaterials composed of asymmetric double bars (ADBs) in the optical region. ADB metamaterials were fabricated by a lift-off method, and the optical spectra were measured. Around a wavelength of 1100 nm, measured optical spectra clearly showed sharp Fano resonance due to weak asymmetry of the ADB structures. The highest-quality factor (Q-factor) of the Fano resonance was 7.34. Calculated spectra showed the same tendency as the experimental spectra. Moreover, in a Fano resonant condition, out of phase of induced current flowing along each bar was revealed by electromagnetic field calculations. These antiphase currents decreased radiative loss of the Fano mode, resulting in a high Q-factor of the Fano resonance in ADB metamaterials. As the degree of asymmetry became small, the Q-factor decreased, and the Fano resonance disappeared because the effect of Joule loss became significant. PMID:24978806

  6. Ring chromosomes in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans are composed of interspersed sequences from chromosomes 17 and 22.

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, R.; Lux, M. L.; Huang, S. F.; Naber, S. P.; Corson, J. M.; Fletcher, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Ring chromosomes are found in most dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSPs), and recent reports demonstrate that portions of the DFSP ring chromosomes derive from chromosome 17. In this study we characterized ring chromosomes in three DFSPs using a combined approach of karyotyping, chromosome painting, and comparative genomic hybridization. Chromosome painting demonstrated that the ring chromosomes in each DFSP were composed of discontinuous, interwoven sequences from chromosomes 17 and 22. Amplification of chromosomes 17 and 22 sequences was confirmed in each of these cases by comparative genomic hybridization, and over-representation of chromosomes 17 and 22 sequences was also demonstrated by comparative genomic hybridization in 1 of 2 cytogenetically unremarkable DFSPs. We conclude that amplification of chromosomes 17 and 22 sequences, in ring form, is a characteristic aberration in DFSP. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7495279

  7. Filters based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons composed of planar Mach–Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Binggang; Chen, Jing; Kong, Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Filter characteristics of a planar Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structure composed of periodically thin corrugated metal films were studied here. From theoretical simulation, spoof surface plasmon polaritons can propagate along the periodically thin corrugated metal films in microwave frequency, which can be excited by a coplanar waveguide. When the two arms of the MZI have the same length with the angle between them being 60°, the MZI structure has a very wide bandwidth with 8.6 GHz. By changing the length of one of the interference arms, a novel low-pass filter based on the planar MZI structure with two notched frequencies was proposed. The proposed planar structure can find potential applications in developing surface wave devices in integrated microwave circuits and systems.

  8. Experimental demonstration of sharp Fano resonance in optical metamaterials composed of asymmetric double bars.

    PubMed

    Moritake, Yuto; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2014-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrated Fano resonance in metamaterials composed of asymmetric double bars (ADBs) in the optical region. ADB metamaterials were fabricated by a lift-off method, and the optical spectra were measured. Around a wavelength of 1100 nm, measured optical spectra clearly showed sharp Fano resonance due to weak asymmetry of the ADB structures. The highest-quality factor (Q-factor) of the Fano resonance was 7.34. Calculated spectra showed the same tendency as the experimental spectra. Moreover, in a Fano resonant condition, out of phase of induced current flowing along each bar was revealed by electromagnetic field calculations. These antiphase currents decreased radiative loss of the Fano mode, resulting in a high Q-factor of the Fano resonance in ADB metamaterials. As the degree of asymmetry became small, the Q-factor decreased, and the Fano resonance disappeared because the effect of Joule loss became significant.

  9. Development of a wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid sponge containing arginine and epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) has the ability to promote wound healing. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is able to promote the proliferation of various cell types, in addition to epidermal cells. A novel wound dressing was designed using high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HMW-HA) and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (LMW-HA). Spongy sheets composed of cross-linked high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (c-HMW-HA) were prepared by freeze-drying an aqueous solution of HMW-HA containing a crosslinking agent. Each spongy sheet was immersed into an aqueous solution of LMW-HA containing arginine (Arg) alone or both Arg and epidermal growth factor (EGF), and were then freeze-dried to prepare two types of product. One was a wound dressing composed of c-HMW-HA sponge containing LMW-HA and Arg (c-HMW-HA/LMW-HA + Arg; Group I). The other was a wound dressing composed of c-HMW-HA sponge containing LMW-HA, Arg and EGF (c-HMW-HA/LMW-HA + Arg + EGF; Group II). The efficacy of these products was evaluated in animal tests using rats. In the first experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect with a diameter of 35 mm in the abdominal region of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, leaving an intact skin island measuring 15 mm in diameter in the central area of this skin defect. Commercially available polyurethane film dressing was then applied to each wound dressing as a covering material. In the control group, the wound surface was covered with polyurethane film dressing alone. Both wound dressings (Group I and Group II) potently decreased the size of the full-thickness skin defect and increased the size of the intact skin island, when compared with the control group. The wound dressing in Group II showed particularly potent activity in increasing the distance of epithelization from the intact skin island. This suggests that EGF release from the spongy sheet serves to promote epithelization. The wound dressing in Group II enhanced early-stage inflammation after 1 week

  10. Frequency selective reflection and transmission at a layer composed of a periodic dielectric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertoni, Henry L.; Cheo, Li-Hsiang S.; Tamir, Theodor

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using a periodic dielectric layer, composed of alternating bars having dielectric constants epsilon sub 1 and epsilon sub 2, as a frequency selective subreflector in order to permit feed separation in large aperture reflecting antenna systems was examined. For oblique incidence, it is found that total transmission and total reflection can be obtained at different frequencies for proper choices of epsilon sub 1, epsilon 2, and the geometric parameters. The frequencies of total reflection and transmission can be estimated from wave phenomena occurring in a layer of uniform dielectric constant equal to the average for the periodic layers. About some of the frequencies of total transmission, the bandwidth for 90% transmission is found to be 40%. However, the bandwidth for 90% reflection is always found to be much narrower; the greatest value found being 2.5%.

  11. Implementation of Kane's Method for a Spacecraft Composed of Multiple Rigid Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoneking, Eric T.

    2013-01-01

    Equations of motion are derived for a general spacecraft composed of rigid bodies connected via rotary (spherical or gimballed) joints in a tree topology. Several supporting concepts are developed in depth. Basis dyads aid in the transition from basis-free vector equations to component-wise equations. Joint partials allow abstraction of 1-DOF, 2-DOF, 3-DOF gimballed and spherical rotational joints to a common notation. The basic building block consisting of an "inner" body and an "outer" body connected by a joint enables efficient organization of arbitrary tree structures. Kane's equation is recast in a form which facilitates systematic assembly of large systems of equations, and exposes a relationship of Kane's equation to Newton and Euler's equations which is obscured by the usual presentation. The resulting system of dynamic equations is of minimum dimension, and is suitable for numerical solution by computer. Implementation is ·discussed, and illustrative simulation results are presented.

  12. Exceptionally widespread nanomachines composed of type IV pilins: the prokaryotic Swiss Army knives.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jamie-Lee; Pelicic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Prokaryotes have engineered sophisticated surface nanomachines that have allowed them to colonize Earth and thrive even in extreme environments. Filamentous machineries composed of type IV pilins, which are associated with an amazing array of properties ranging from motility to electric conductance, are arguably the most widespread since distinctive proteins dedicated to their biogenesis are found in most known species of prokaryotes. Several decades of investigations, starting with type IV pili and then a variety of related systems both in bacteria and archaea, have outlined common molecular and structural bases for these nanomachines. Using type IV pili as a paradigm, we will highlight in this review common aspects and key biological differences of this group of filamentous structures.

  13. Formation and Characterization of Supported Lipid Bilayers Composed of Hydrogenated and Deuterated Escherichia coli Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Tania Kjellerup; Wacklin, Hanna; Schiller, Jürgen; Moulin, Martine; Haertlein, Michael; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Cárdenas, Marité

    2015-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers are widely used for sensing and deciphering biomolecular interactions with model cell membranes. In this paper, we present a method to form supported lipid bilayers from total lipid extracts of Escherichia coli by vesicle fusion. We show the validity of this method for different types of extracts including those from deuterated biomass using a combination of complementary surface sensitive techniques; quartz crystal microbalance, neutron reflection and atomic force microscopy. We find that the head group composition of the deuterated and the hydrogenated lipid extracts is similar (approximately 75% phosphatidylethanolamine, 13% phosphatidylglycerol and 12% cardiolipin) and that both samples can be used to reconstitute high-coverage supported lipid bilayers with a total thickness of 41 ± 3 Å, common for fluid membranes. The formation of supported lipid bilayers composed of natural extracts of Escherichia coli allow for following biomolecular interactions, thus advancing the field towards bacterial-specific membrane biomimics. PMID:26658241

  14. Filters based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons composed of planar Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Binggang; Chen, Jing; Kong, Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Filter characteristics of a planar Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structure composed of periodically thin corrugated metal films were studied here. From theoretical simulation, spoof surface plasmon polaritons can propagate along the periodically thin corrugated metal films in microwave frequency, which can be excited by a coplanar waveguide. When the two arms of the MZI have the same length with the angle between them being 60°, the MZI structure has a very wide bandwidth with 8.6 GHz. By changing the length of one of the interference arms, a novel low-pass filter based on the planar MZI structure with two notched frequencies was proposed. The proposed planar structure can find potential applications in developing surface wave devices in integrated microwave circuits and systems.

  15. Interference of guided modes in a two-port ring waveguide composed of dielectric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, I Ya; Gozman, M I; Blaustein, Gail S; Burin, A L

    2010-02-01

    The interference is considered of guided polariton modes in a two-port ring waveguide composed of dielectric nanospheres. The dependence of the guided polariton intensity on the relative orientation of the input and output channels is investigated. It is shown that, if the frequency of the external light source corresponds to one of the resonant modes of the waveguide ring segment, the guided polariton may be treated as two optical beams running along the ring segment in the opposite directions and interfering with each other. The multisphere Mie scattering formalism is used. The dipole approximation is shown to grasp the essence of physics. Our simple interpretation of the results is obtained in terms of scalar waves. The applications of the interference revealed in the manuscript are discussed as well. PMID:20365666

  16. Analysis of instability of systems composed by dark and baryonic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.; André, Raíla

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the dynamics of self-gravitating systems composed by dark and baryonic matter is analyzed. Searching for a description of this dynamics, a system of collisionless Boltzmann equations for the two constituents and the Poisson equation for the gravitational field are employed. Through the solution of these equations, the collapse criterion is determined from a dispersion relation. The collapse occurs in an unstable region where the solutions grow exponentially with time. It is shown that the unstable region becomes larger if the dispersion velocity of dark matter becomes larger than the one of the baryonic matter. The results obtained are also compared with the case where only the dark matter is present. The model of the present work has a higher limit of instability and therefore exhibited an advantage in the structure formation.

  17. Exceptionally widespread nanomachines composed of type IV pilins: the prokaryotic Swiss Army knives

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Jamie-Lee; Pelicic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Prokaryotes have engineered sophisticated surface nanomachines that have allowed them to colonize Earth and thrive even in extreme environments. Filamentous machineries composed of type IV pilins, which are associated with an amazing array of properties ranging from motility to electric conductance, are arguably the most widespread since distinctive proteins dedicated to their biogenesis are found in most known species of prokaryotes. Several decades of investigations, starting with type IV pili and then a variety of related systems both in bacteria and archaea, have outlined common molecular and structural bases for these nanomachines. Using type IV pili as a paradigm, we will highlight in this review common aspects and key biological differences of this group of filamentous structures. PMID:25793961

  18. Hydration kinetics of cementitious materials composed of red mud and coal gangue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hong-xu; Liu, Xiao-ming

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate the intrinsic reaction mechanism of cementitious materials composed of red mud and coal gangue (RGC), the hydration kinetics of these cementitious materials at 20°C was investigated on the basis of the Krstulović-Dabić model. An isothermal calorimeter was used to characterize the hydration heat evolution. The results show that the hydration of RGC is controlled by the processes of nucleation and crystal growth (NG), interaction at phase boundaries (I), and diffusion (D) in order, and the pozzolanic reactions of slag and compound-activated red mud-coal gangue are mainly controlled by the I process. Slag accelerates the clinker hydration during NG process, whereas the compound-activated red mud-coal gangue retards the hydration of RGC and the time required for I process increases with increasing dosage of red mud-coal gangue in RGC.

  19. Formation and Characterization of Supported Lipid Bilayers Composed of Hydrogenated and Deuterated Escherichia coli Lipids.

    PubMed

    Lind, Tania Kjellerup; Wacklin, Hanna; Schiller, Jürgen; Moulin, Martine; Haertlein, Michael; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Cárdenas, Marité

    2015-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers are widely used for sensing and deciphering biomolecular interactions with model cell membranes. In this paper, we present a method to form supported lipid bilayers from total lipid extracts of Escherichia coli by vesicle fusion. We show the validity of this method for different types of extracts including those from deuterated biomass using a combination of complementary surface sensitive techniques; quartz crystal microbalance, neutron reflection and atomic force microscopy. We find that the head group composition of the deuterated and the hydrogenated lipid extracts is similar (approximately 75% phosphatidylethanolamine, 13% phosphatidylglycerol and 12% cardiolipin) and that both samples can be used to reconstitute high-coverage supported lipid bilayers with a total thickness of 41 ± 3 Å, common for fluid membranes. The formation of supported lipid bilayers composed of natural extracts of Escherichia coli allow for following biomolecular interactions, thus advancing the field towards bacterial-specific membrane biomimics. PMID:26658241

  20. Magnetic properties of mosaic nanocomposites composed of nickel and cobalt nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Sepúlveda, S.; Corona, R. M.; Altbir, D.; Escrig, J.

    2016-10-01

    Mosaic nanocomposites composed of nickel and cobalt nanowires arranged in different configurations were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations and a simple model that considers single-domain structures including length corrections due to the shape anisotropy. Our results showed that for an ordered array both the coercivity and the remanence decrease linearly as a function of the concentration of nickel nanowires. Besides, we obtained that the magnetic properties of an array of a certain hard magnetic material (cobalt) will not change, unless we have more than 50% of nanowires of other soft magnetic material (nickel) in the array. In principle the second material could be other soft magnetic material, but could also be a nonmagnetic material or could even be a situation in which some of the pore arrays were not filled by electrodeposition. Therefore, our results allow us to predict the behavior of magnetic mosaic nanocomposites that are promising candidates for functional electrodes, sensors, and model catalysts.

  1. New Electromagnetic Absorbers Composed of Left-handed and Right-handed Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Weihai; Xu, Shanjia

    2008-08-01

    New double-layered electromagnetic absorbers are presented in this paper. The new absorbers composed of one lossy left-handed material absorbing layer and one impedance matching layer consisted of lossless right-handed material. It is indicated that the reflection loss of below -20dB can be obtained in the frequency range 7GHz 13GHz. Power attenuation achieving -50dB of narrow frequency band electromagnetic absorbers can also be obtained by modulate permittivity of right-handed material. Furthermore, the thickness of the whole absorbing structure is only 2mm, which is particularly helpful in some practical applications. The presented results are of reference significance for accurate design of the new electromagnetic absorbers and of practical prospects for stealth technology.

  2. Experimental Evolution of a Green Fluorescent Protein Composed of 19 Unique Amino Acids without Tryptophan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara-Kobayashi, Akio; Hitotsuyanagi, Mitsuhiro; Amikura, Kazuaki; Kiga, Daisuke

    2014-04-01

    At some stage of evolution, genes of organisms may have encoded proteins that were synthesized using fewer than 20 unique amino acids. Similar to evolution of the natural 19-amino-acid proteins GroEL/ES, proteins composed of 19 unique amino acids would have been able to evolve by accumulating beneficial mutations within the 19-amino-acid repertoire encoded in an ancestral genetic code. Because Trp is thought to be the last amino acid included in the canonical 20-amino-acid repertoire, this late stage of protein evolution could be mimicked by experimental evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins without tryptophan (Trp). To further understand the evolution of proteins, we tried to mimic the evolution of a 19-amino-acid protein involving the accumulation of beneficial mutations using directed evolution by random mutagenesis on the whole targeted gene sequence. We created active 19-amino-acid green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) without Trp from a poorly fluorescent 19-amino-acid mutant, S1-W57F, by using directed evolution with two rounds of mutagenesis and selection. The N105I and S205T mutations showed beneficial effects on the S1-W57F mutant. When these two mutations were combined on S1-W57F, we observed an additive effect on the fluorescence intensity. In contrast, these mutations showed no clear improvement individually or in combination on GFPS1, which is the parental GFP mutant composed of 20 amino acids. Our results provide an additional example for the experimental evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins without Trp, and would help understand the mechanisms underlying the evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins. (236 words)

  3. Apolipophorin III interaction with model membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin using differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Michael H; Wan, Chung-Ping Leon; Weers, Paul M M; Prenner, Elmar J

    2009-10-01

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) from Locusta migratoria was employed as a model apolipoprotein to gain insight into binding interactions with lipid vesicles. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure the binding interaction of apoLp-III with liposomes composed of mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and sphingomyelin (SM). Association of apoLp-III with multilamellar liposomes occurred over a temperature range around the liquid crystalline phase transition (L(alpha)). Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained from changes in the lipid phase transition upon addition of apoLp-III. Eleven ratios of DMPC and SM were tested from pure DMPC to pure SM. Broadness of the phase transition (T(1/2)), melting temperature of the phase transition (T(m)) and enthalpy were used to determine the relative binding affinity to the liposomes. Multilamellar vesicles composed of 40% DMPC and 60% SM showed the greatest interaction with apoLp-III, indicated by large T(1/2) values. Pure DMPC showed the weakest interaction and liposomes with lower percentage of DMPC retained domains of pure DMPC, even upon apoLp-III binding indicating demixing of liposome lipids. Addition of apoLp-III to rehydrated liposomes was compared to codissolved trials, in which lipids were rehydrated in the presence of protein, forcing the protein to interact with the lipid system. Similar trends between the codissolved and non-codissolved trials were observed, indicating a similar binding affinity except for pure DMPC. These results suggested that surface defects due to non-ideal packing that occur at the phase transition temperature of the lipid mixtures are responsible for apolipoprotein-lipid interaction in DMPC/SM liposomes. PMID:19647717

  4. High temperature oxidation of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanowires composed of iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, M; Brzozka, K; Lin, W S; Lin, H M; Tokarczyk, M; Borysiuk, J; Kowalski, G; Wasik, D

    2016-02-01

    This work describes an oxidation process of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanowires at temperatures between 100 °C and 800 °C. The studied nanomaterial was synthesized through a simple chemical reduction of iron trichloride in an external magnetic field under a constant flow of argon. The electron microscopy investigations allowed determining that the as-prepared nanowires were composed of self-assembled iron nanoparticles which were covered by a 3 nm thick oxide shell and separated from each other by a thin interface layer. Both these layers exhibited an amorphous or highly-disordered character which was traced by means of transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The thermal oxidation was carried out under a constant flow of argon which contained the traces of oxygen. The first stage of process was related to slow transformations of amorphous Fe and amorphous iron oxides into crystalline phases and disappearance of interfaces between iron nanoparticles forming the studied nanomaterial (range: 25-300 °C). After that, the crystalline iron core and iron oxide shell became oxidized and signals for different compositions of iron oxide sheath were observed (range: 300-800 °C) using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. According to the thermal gravimetric analysis, the nanowires heated up to 800 °C under argon atmosphere gained 37% of mass with respect to their initial weight. The structure of the studied nanomaterial oxidized at 800 °C was mainly composed of α-Fe2O3 (∼ 93%). Moreover, iron nanowires treated above 600 °C lost their wire-like shape due to their shrinkage and collapse caused by the void coalescence. PMID:26766540

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Polymersomes Composed of Poly(Butadiene-Ethylene Oxide); Healthy versus Tumor-Bearing Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; de Kruijff, R M; Abou, D; Ramos, N; Mendes, E; Franken, L E; Wolterbeek, H T; Denkova, A G

    2016-02-01

    Vesicles composed of block copolymers (i.e., polymersomes) are one of the most versatile nano-carriers for medical purposes due to their tuneable physicochemical properties and the possibility to encapsulate simultaneously hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, allowing, for instance, the combination of therapy and imaging. In cancer treatment, these vesicles need to remain long enough in the blood stream to be sufficiently taken up by tumors. Here, we have investigated the biodistribution and the pharmacokinetics of polymersomes, composed of poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) having dimensions around 80 nm. The polymersomes have been radiolabeled with ¹¹¹In via the so-called active loading method achieving a loading efficiency of 92.9 ± 0.9% with radionuclide retention in mouse serum of more than 95% at 24 h. The optimized ¹¹¹In containing polymersomes have been intravenously administered in healthy and tumor bearing mice for pharmacokinetic determination using microSPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). In healthy mice these polymersomes have been found to exhibit relatively long blood circulation (> 6 h), low liver uptake (6 ± 1.5%ID/g, 48 h p.i.) and elevated spleen uptake (188 ± 30%ID/g). The blood circulation in tumor bearing mice is dramatically reduced (< 1.5 h) most likely due to elevated splenic filtration, clearly indicating the importance of in vivo studies in diseased mice. Finally, the polymersomes have been injected subcutaneously in tumor bearing mice revealing retention of 77% in the mice, primarily accumulated at the site of injection, up to 48 hours after administration.

  6. A Novel Approach to Beam Steering Using Arrays Composed of Multiple Unique Radiating Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labadie, Nathan Richard

    Phased array antennas have found wide application in both radar and wireless communications systems particularly as implementation costs continue to decrease. The primary advantages of electronically scanned arrays are speed of beam scan and versatility of beamforming compared to mechanically scanned fixed beam antennas. These benefits come at the cost of a few well known design issues including element pattern rolloff and mutual coupling between elements. Our primary contribution to the field of research is the demonstration of significant improvement in phased array scan performance using multiple unique radiating modes. In short, orthogonal radiating modes have minimal coupling by definition and can also be generated with reduced rolloff at wide scan angles. In this dissertation, we present a combination of analysis, full-wave electromagnetic simulation and measured data to support our claims. The novel folded ring resonator (FRR) antenna is introduced as a wideband and multi-band element embedded in a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple radiating modes of a small ground plane excited by a four element FRR array were also investigated. A novel hemispherical null steering antenna composed of two collocated radiating elements, each supporting a unique radiating mode, is presented in the context of an anti-jam GPS receiver application. Both the antenna aperture and active feed network were fabricated and measured showing excellent agreement with analytical and simulated data. The concept of using an antenna supporting multiple radiating modes for beam steering is also explored. A 16 element hybrid linear phased array was fabricated and measured demonstrating significantly improved scan range and scanned gain compared to a conventional phased array. This idea is expanded to 2 dimensional scanning arrays by analysis and simulation of a hybrid phased array composed of novel multiple mode monopole on patch antenna sub-arrays. Finally, we fabricated and

  7. Cutaneous myoepithelioma: an under-recognized cutaneous neoplasm composed of myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, H; Mentzel, T; Kaddu, S; Soares, L M; Sangueza, O P; Requena, L

    2001-03-01

    Benign and malignant neoplasms of myoepithelial cells comprise a rare but well-characterized group of tumors, among which myoepithelioma of the salivary glands is the best known. Extrasalivary examples of myoepithelioma also have been described in the breast, larynx, and retroperitoneum. Recently, myoepithelioma of the soft tissue also has been reported. According to this description, myoepithelioma and mixed tumors arising in the skin and subcutis represent points along a clinicopathologic spectrum of cutaneous and soft-tissue tumors. To the best of our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an entirely cutaneous myoepithelioma in the literature. We report herein five additional examples of purely myoepithelial tumors located exclusively in the dermis. Histopathologically, the neoplasms were well-circumscribed dermal lesions composed of fascicles of spindle cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and ovoid-to spindle-shaped nuclei. Focally, neoplastic aggregations of more epithelioid cells representing large round cells with abundant pale cytoplasm arranged in solid clusters, cords, or strands were also seen. Ductal differentiation was not identified in either of these solid aggregations of epithelioid cells or in the fascicles of spindle-shaped cells. Nuclear pleomorphism in epithelioid and spindle-cell areas was mild, and mitotic figures were very sparse. In some cases, small, necrotic areas were seen within the solid aggregations of spindle-shaped cells. Neoplastic stroma was scant and composed of fibrillary collagen and abundant mucin. In one case, the stroma consisted of clusters of mature adipocytes intermingled with fascicles of myoepithelial cells. Areas of chondroid or osteoid metaplasia were not seen in any of the cases. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells expressed positivity for muscle specific actin (HHF35), alpha smooth muscle actin (IA4), S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), whereas

  8. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  9. Comparaison des effets des irradiations γ, X et UV dans les fibres optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Baggio, J.; Boukenter, A.; Meunier, J.-P.; Leray, J.-L.

    2005-06-01

    Les fibres optiques présentent de nombreux avantages incitant à les intégrer dans des applications devant résister aux environnements radiatifs associés aux domaines civil, spatial ou militaire. Cependant, leur exposition à un rayonnement entraîne la création de défauts ponctuels dans la silice amorphe pure ou dopée qui constitue les différentes parties de la fibre optique. Ces défauts causent, en particulier, une augmentation transitoire de l'atténuation linéique des fibres optiques responsable de la dégradation voire de la perte du signal propagé dans celles-ci. Dans cet article, nous comparons les effets de deux types d'irradiation: une impulsion X et une dose γ cumulée. Les effets de ces irradiations sont ensuite comparés avec ceux induits par une insolation ultraviolette (244 nm) sur les propriétés d'absorption des fibres optiques. Nous montrons qu'il existe des similitudes entre ces différentes excitations et qu'il est possible, sous certaines conditions, d'utiliser celles-ci afin d'évaluer la capacité de certaines fibres optiques à fonctionner dans un environnement nucléaire donné.

  10. 1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER AT NINTH STREET IN LOCKPORT. THE BRIDGE WAS BUILT ABOUT 1865. NOTE METAL CLAMP ON THE NEAR PIER AND THE 20TH CENTURY REINFORCED CONCRETE ADDITION. - Lockport Historic District, Stone Arch Bridge, Spanning Des Plaines River at Ninth Street, Lockport, Will County, IL

  11. Vers des boites quantiques a base de graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchaud, Simon

    Le graphene est un materiau a base de carbone qui est etudie largement depuis 2004. De tres nombreux articles ont ete publies tant sur les proprietes electroniques, qu'optiques ou mecaniques de ce materiel. Cet ouvrage porte sur l'etude des fluctuations de conductance dans le graphene, et sur la fabrication et la caracterisation de nanostructures gravees dans des feuilles de ce cristal 2D. Des mesures de magnetoresistance a basse temperature ont ete faites pres du point de neutralite de charge (PNC) ainsi qu'a haute densite electronique. On trouve deux origines aux fluctuations de conductance pres du PNC, soit des oscillations mesoscopiques provenant de l'interference quantique, et des fluctuations dites Hall quantique apparaissant a plus haut champ (>0.5T), semblant suivre les facteurs de remplissage associes aux monocouches de graphene. Ces dernieres fluctuations sont attribuees a la charge d'etats localises, et revelent un precurseur a l'effet Hall quantique, qui lui, ne se manifeste pas avant 2T. On arrive a extraire les parametres caracterisant l'echantillon a partir de ces donnees. A la fin de cet ouvrage, on effectue des mesures de transport dans des constrictions et ilots de graphene, ou des boites quantiques sont formees. A partir de ces mesures, on extrait les parametres importants de ces boites quantiques, comme leur taille et leur energie de charge.

  12. Peste des petits ruminants virus in Heilongjiang province, China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-04-01

    During March 25-May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  13. Peste des petits ruminants virus in Heilongjiang province, China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-04-01

    During March 25-May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals.

  14. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  15. Etude des systèmes protoplanétaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augereau, Jean-Charles

    2000-11-01

    Les disques de poussières et de gaz autour des étoiles rejoignant la Séquence Principale sont les sites de formation des planètes extra-solaires dont l'existence s'est vu confirmée récemment. Cette thèse aborde l'étude de la poussière des environnements circumstellaires. Elle associe des observations spatiales à haute résolution angulaire, la modélisation des propriétés physico-chimiques des poussières et leur comportement optique, la modélisation des disques optiquement fins et la dynamique des planétésimaux à l'origine des grains observés autour des étoiles âgées. Les images obtenues avec le Télescope Spatial Hubble révèlent deux nouveaux disques circumstellaires autour des étoiles HD 141569 et HD 100546, parfois classées dans la catégorie des étoiles de Herbig. Bien que les systèmes présentent des âges proches (~10 millions d'années), les morphologies très différentes des disques mettent en évidence la difficulté pour élaborer un scénario unique d'évolution des systèmes protoplanétaires. L'anneau fin de poussières autour de HR 4796A, une étoile d'âge similaire aux précédentes, est marginalement résolu depuis le sol. La modélisation complète de ce disque permet de reproduire l'ensemble des observations disponibles. Ces résultats impliquent la présence de planétésimaux, à un âge aussi peu avancé, pour repeupler le disque en poussières poreuses et essentiellement amorphes qui sont soufflées par la pression de radiation. Une modélisation dynamique du prototypique disque autour de β Pictoris est proposée. Associée à une description réaliste du comportement optique des grains, cette approche reproduit les caractéristiques générales du disque ainsi que des asymétries plus fines en supposant la présence d'une planète dans un disque de planétésimaux et en tenant compte des effets différentiels de la pression de radiation sur les grains. Enfin, le modèle de disques que j'ai développé est exploit

  16. Etude de la dynamique des porteurs dans des nanofils de silicium par spectroscopie terahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Alexandre

    Ce memoire presente une etude des proprietes de conduction electrique et de la dynamique temporelle des porteurs de charges dans des nanofils de silicium sondes par rayonnement terahertz. Les cas de nanofils de silicium non intentionnellement dopes et dopes type n sont compares pour differentes configurations du montage experimental. Les mesures de spectroscopie terahertz en transmission montre qu'il est possible de detecter la presence de dopants dans les nanofils via leur absorption du rayonnement terahertz (˜ 1--12 meV). Les difficultes de modelisation de la transmission d'une impulsion electromagnetique dans un systeme de nanofils sont egalement discutees. La detection differentielle, une modification au systeme de spectroscopie terahertz, est testee et ses performances sont comparees au montage de caracterisation standard. Les instructions et des recommendations pour la mise en place de ce type de mesure sont incluses. Les resultats d'une experience de pompe optique-sonde terahertz sont egalement presentes. Dans cette experience, les porteurs de charge temporairement crees suite a l'absorption de la pompe optique (lambda ˜ 800 nm) dans les nanofils (les photoporteurs) s'ajoutent aux porteurs initialement presents et augmentent done l'absorption du rayonnement terahertz. Premierement, l'anisotropie de l'absorption terahertz et de la pompe optique par les nanofils est demontree. Deuxiemement, le temps de recombinaison des photoporteurs est etudie en fonction du nombre de photoporteurs injectes. Une hypothese expliquant les comportements observes pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n est presentee. Troisiemement, la photoconductivite est extraite pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n sur une plage de 0.5 a 2 THz. Un lissage sur la photoconductivite permet d'estimer le nombre de dopants dans les nanofils dopes-n. Mots-cles: nanofil, silicium, terahertz, conductivite, spectroscopie, photoconductivite.

  17. Anisotropie des coefficients de diffusion dans des cristaux liquides discotiques hexagonaux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.; Gharbia, M.; Gharbi, A.

    1994-06-01

    The diffusion constants of dyes in several hexagonal discotic liquid crystals are measured and discussed. For all the liquid crystals studied, these constants are anisotropic : the diffusion in the direction parallel to the columns is faster than that in the perpendicular plane (frac{D_allel}{D_perp}>1). The effects of the length and shape of the chains bound to the triphenylene discs are shown. The effect of the dye molecular size is also described. The study of the diffusion coefficients of hexapentoxytriphenylene (C5HET) as a function of temperature has shown that the activation energies along the columns and perpendicular to the columns are comparable. The main features of dye diffusion in the hexagonal columnar liquid crystals studied are similar to those reported in nematic phases. Les mesures des constantes de diffusion de colorants dans plusieurs cristaux liquides discotiques hexagonaux sont présentées et discutées. Pour tous les cristaux liquides étudiés, ces constantes présentent une anisotropie, avec une diffusion plus rapide parallèlement aux colonnes que perpendiculairement à celles-ci (frac{D_allel}{D_perp}>1). Des effets de longueur et de forme des chaînes branchées sur les disques de triphénylène sont mis en évidence. Il en est de même pour la taille des molécules de colorants. L'étude en fonction de la température a montré que dans le cas de l'hexapentoxytriphénylène (C5HET), les énergies d'activation dans les directions parallèle et perpendiculaire aux colonnes sont comparables. Les caractéristiques de la diffusion de colorants dans les cristaux liquides colonnaires hexagonaux étudiés sont semblables à celles des nématiques.

  18. A case study of the influences of audience and purpose on the composing processes of an engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalnaker, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The design and preliminary findings of a study of composing processes (on the job) of engineers, managers, and scientists is presented. The influences of audience and purpose on the composing process of engineers was of concern; specifically, the cognitive processes, physical behaviors, and factors that influence the evoluton of a piece of writing. An overview of the study, related literature, outlines of research design, and preliminary findings from a case study of engineers are given. It is suggested that teaching be adapted to help students learn to represent rhetorical problems to guide composing for effective writing.

  19. Hans Bethe : Des etoiles a la bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Il comprit le premier comment brillent les etoiles. Il fut aussi de cette poignee de scientifiques qui, dans le secret de Los Alamos, mirent au point la tristement celebre bombe atomique. Hans Bethe est l'un des derniers geants qui auront marque la physique de ce siecle d'une empreinte indelebile. C'est dans le bureau 01 du prestigieux laboratoire Kellog de l'institut Caltech qu'il a bien voulu retracer pour nous son impressionnante carriere, et revenir sur les motivations qui ont guide ses pas.

  20. Dragging of inertial frames in the composed black-hole-ring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-11-01

    A well-established phenomenon in general relativity is the dragging of inertial frames by a spinning object. In particular, due to the dragging of inertial frames by a ring orbiting a central black hole, the angular velocity Ω ^{{BH-ring}}_{{H}} of the black-hole horizon in the composed black-hole-ring system is no longer related to the black-hole angular momentum J_{{H}} by the simple Kerr-like (vacuum) relation Ω ^{{Kerr}}_{{H}}(J_{{H}})=J_{{H}}/2M^2R_{{H}} (here M and R_{{H}} are the mass and horizon-radius of the black hole, respectively). Will has performed a perturbative treatment of the composed black-hole-ring system in the regime of slowly rotating black holes and found the explicit relation Ω ^{{BH-ring}}_{{H}}(J_{{H}}=0,J_{{R}},R)=2J_{{R}}/R^3 for the angular velocity of a central black hole with zero angular momentum, where J_{{R}} and R are respectively the angular momentum of the orbiting ring and its proper circumferential radius. Analyzing a sequence of black-hole-ring configurations with adiabatically varying (decreasing) circumferential radii, we show that the expression found by Will for Ω ^{{BH-ring}}_{{H}}(J_{{H}}=0,J_{{R}},R) implies a smooth transition of the central black-hole angular velocity from its asymptotic near-horizon value Ω ^{{BH-ring}}_{{H}}(J_{{H}}=0,J_{{R}},R→ R+_{{H}})→ 2J_{{R}}/R^3_{{H}} (that is, just before the assimilation of the ring by the central black hole), to its final Kerr (vacuum) value Ω ^{{Kerr}}_{{H}}(J^{{new}}_{{H}})= J^{{new}}_{{H}}/2{M^{{new}}}^2R^{{new}}_{{H}} [that is, after the adiabatic assimilation of the ring by the central black hole. Here J^{{new}}_{{H}}=J_{{R}}, M^{{new}}, and R^{{new}}_{{H}} are the new parameters of the resulting Kerr (vacuum) black hole after it assimilated the orbiting ring]. We use this important observation in order to generalize the result of Will to the regime of black-hole-ring configurations in which the central black holes possess non-zero angular momenta. In

  1. On the minimum size of drops composing the type of monodisperse microemulsions obtained via tip streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo, Jose Manuel; Sevilla, Alejandro; Castro-Hernandez, Elena

    2012-11-01

    On a recent paper, Castro et al. (JFM (2012), 698, 423-445, JFM12) reported the generation of concentrated monodisperse emulsions composed of drops with sizes even below 1 μm . Drops are generated from the capillary breakup of a long and thin ligament which strongly stretches downstream from the exit of an injector of radius Ri. The ligament is formed when a flow rate Qi of a fluid with a viscosity μi discharges into an immiscible liquid of viscosity μo flowing in parallel with the axis of the injector at a velocity qU0 , with q =Qi / (πRi2Uo) . It was theoretically found that the diameter of the drops obtained is Di ~Riq 1 / 2 . However, experiments showed that the predicted drop size is only found when the highly stretched ligament is formed. But this occurs for values of λ =μi /μo and the capillary number Cao =μoUo / σ , with σ the interfacial tension coefficient, above a certain threshold which depends on the flow rate ratio q. In this presentation we theoretically show that the boundaries in the (Cao , λ, q) space in which highly stretched long ligaments are formed, corresponds to the conditions under which the jet, calculated using the slender-body description of JFM12, is globally stable.

  2. Novel coprocessed excipients composed of lactose, HPMC, and PVPP for tableting and its application.

    PubMed

    Wang, SongTao; Li, JinZhi; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi; Kou, Xiang; Babu, Sreehari; Panicucci, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    New coprocessed excipients composed of α-lactose monohydrate (a filler), HPMC E3 (a binder), and PVPP (a superdisintegrant) were developed by spray drying in this study to improve the tableting properties of lactose. Factors affecting the properties of the coprocessed excipients were investigated by a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design. These factors include lactose grade (90 M, 200 M, and 450 M), percentage of HPMC (3.5%, 7.0%, and 10.5%), and percentage of PVPP (0% and 3.5%). The results show that the compactability of the excipients could be significantly improved by increasing either the percentage of HPMC or the primary particle size of lactose. The addition of 3.5% PVPP had little effect on the compactability, but significantly improved the disintegration ability. The developed coprocessed excipients have much lower yield pressures and much higher working efficiency during tableting compared to the main raw material (α-lactose monohydrate). These improvements are mainly attributed to the addition of HPMC and the proximately 30% amorphous lactose formed during process. Both HPMC and amorphous lactose were homogeneously distributed on the surface of the secondary particles, maximizing their effect. Furthermore, the low hygroscopicity and high glass transition temperature of HPMC led to a high yield. The drug loading capacity of the newly coprocessed excipients is also excellent. In summary, the tri-component coprocessed excipients investigated are promising and worthy of further development. PMID:25841572

  3. The self-composing brain: towards a glial-neuronal brain theory.

    PubMed

    Mitterauer, Bernhard; Kopp, Kristen

    2003-04-01

    A brain model is proposed which describes its structural organization and the related functions as compartments organized in time and space. On a molecular level the negative feedback loops of clock-controlled genes are interpreted as compartments. This spatio-temporal operational principle may also work on the cellular level as glial-neuronal interactions, wherein glia have a spatio-temporal boundary setting function. The synchronization of the multi-compartmental operations of the brain is compared to the harmonization in a symphony and appears as an integrated behavior of the whole organism, defined as modes of behavior. For explanation of the principle of harmonization, an example from Schubert's Symphony No. 8 has been chosen. While harmonization refers to the synchronization of diverse systems, it seems appropriate to select the brain of a composer and the structure of musical composition as a paradigm towards a glial-neuronal brain theory. Finally, some limitations of experimental brain research are discussed and robotics are proposed as a promising alternative.

  4. Stable vesicles composed of monocarboxylic or dicarboxylic fatty acids and trimethylammonium amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Caschera, F; Bernardino de la Serna, J; Löffler, P M G; Rasmussen, T E; Hanczyc, M M; Bagatolli, L A; Monnard, P-A

    2011-12-01

    The self-assembly of cationic and anionic amphiphile mixtures into vesicles in aqueous media was studied using two different systems: (i) decanoic acid and trimethyldecylammonium bromide and (ii) hexadecanedioic acid (a simple bola-amphiphile) and trimethyldecylammonium bromide. The resulting vesicles with varying amphiphile ratios were characterized using parameters such as the critical vesicle concentration, pH sensitivity, and encapsulation efficiency. We also produced and observed giant vesicles from these mixtures using the electroformation method and confocal microscopy. The mixed catanionic vesicles were shown to be more stable than those formed by pure fatty acids. Those containing bola-amphiphile even showed the encapsulation of a small hydrophilic solute (8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic-acid), suggesting a denser packing of the amphiphiles. Compression and kinetics analysis of monolayers composed of these amphiphiles mixtures at the air/water interface suggests that the stabilization of the structures can be attributed to two main interactions between headgroups, predominantly the formation of hydrogen bonds between protonated and deprotonated acids and the additional electrostatic interactions between ammonium and acid headgroups. PMID:21932777

  5. Beyond the Shannon-Khinchin formulation: The composability axiom and the universal-group entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2016-02-01

    The notion of entropy is ubiquitous both in natural and social sciences. In the last two decades, a considerable effort has been devoted to the study of new entropic forms, which generalize the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) entropy and could be applicable in thermodynamics, quantum mechanics and information theory. In Khinchin (1957), by extending previous ideas of Shannon (1948) and Shannon and Weaver (1949), Khinchin proposed a characterization of the BG entropy, based on four requirements, nowadays known as the Shannon-Khinchin (SK) axioms. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we show that there exists an intrinsic group-theoretical structure behind the notion of entropy. It comes from the requirement of composability of an entropy with respect to the union of two statistically independent systems, that we propose in an axiomatic formulation. Second, we show that there exists a simple universal family of trace-form entropies. This class contains many well known examples of entropies and infinitely many new ones, a priori multi-parametric. Due to its specific relation with Lazard's universal formal group of algebraic topology, the new general entropy introduced in this work will be called the universal-group entropy. A new example of multi-parametric entropy is explicitly constructed.

  6. Domestic sewage treatment in a pilot system composed of UASB and SBR reactors.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Foresti, E

    2001-01-01

    The results obtained from the operation of a treatment system composed of an anaerobic (up-flow sludge blanket-UASB) reactor followed by an aerobic (sequencing batch-SBR) reactor treating domestic sewage are presented and discussed. The pilot plant was monitored during 6 months, aiming to obtain performance data on organic matter, nitrogen and phosphate removal under different operating conditions. The UASB reactor was operated at a constant hydraulic detention time (0) of 6 h while the SBR performance was monitored in four different duration cycles (24, 12, 6 and 4 h) corresponding to aeration times (AT) of 22, 10, 4 and 2 h, respectively. COD and TSS overall removal efficiencies (Eo) up to 91% and 84%, respectively, were achieved independently on the aeration time applied to the SBR. In respect to nitrification and phosphate removal, AT was found to be a determining operating parameter. TKN removal of approximately 90% was achieved for AT equal to or higher than 10 h; complete nitrification occurred for AT higher than 4 h; significant phosphate removal (72%) occurred only at the AT of 2 h. It was not possible to achieve simultaneous efficient removal of nitrogen and phosphate, under the operating conditions imposed on the treatment system. PMID:11575090

  7. Effective inhibition of bacterial respiration and growth by CuO microspheres composed of thin nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Ahamed, Maqusood; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2013-11-01

    This study describes the synthesis, characterization and biocidal potential of copper oxide micro-spheres composed of thin sheets (CuOMSs-Ths). Microscopic observations of synthesized CuOMSs-Ths revealed the clusters of thin sheets arranged in small flower like micro-spheres. Diameter of each micro-sphere was determined in the range of 2-3 μm, whereas the size of each sheet was ∼ 80 nm. These micro-flowers like nanostructures were synthesized using copper nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide via solution process. The CuOMSs-Ths exhibited a broad-spectrum anti-bacterial activity involving significant growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. The IC50 values of these engineered NPs against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and M. luteus were determined to be 195, 200, 131 and 184 μg/ml, respectively. Also, the respiration of Gram+ ve organisms (M. luteus and S. aureus) was inhibited significantly (p value < 0.005) at relatively lower concentrations of 12.5 and 50 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the Gram- ve bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa), where the growth inhibition occurred at a much greater concentration of 100 μg/ml. The results explicitly demonstrated anti-microbial activity of CuOMSs-Ths with a higher level of toxicity against the Gram+ ve vis-a-vis Gram- ve bacteria.

  8. Designing a Composable Geometric Toolkit for Versatility in Applications to Simulation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Gregory S.; Campbell, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Conceived and implemented through the development of probabilistic risk assessment simulations for Project Constellation, the Geometric Toolkit allows users to create, analyze, and visualize relationships between geometric shapes in three-space using the MATLAB computing environment. The key output of the toolkit is an analysis of how emanations from one "source" geometry (e.g., a leak in a pipe) will affect another "target" geometry (e.g., another heat-sensitive component). It can import computer-aided design (CAD) depictions of a system to be analyzed, allowing the user to reliably and easily represent components within the design and determine the relationships between them, ultimately supporting more technical or physics-based simulations that use the toolkit. We opted to develop a variety of modular, interconnecting software tools to extend the scope of the toolkit, providing the capability to support a range of applications. This concept of simulation composability allows specially-developed tools to be reused by assembling them in various combinations. As a result, the concepts described here and implemented in this toolkit have a wide range of applications outside the domain of risk assessment. To that end, the Geometric Toolkit has been evaluated for use in other unrelated applications due to the advantages provided by its underlying design.

  9. A bicomponent Plasmodium falciparum investigational vaccine composed of protein-peptide conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Majadly, Fathy; Biesova, Zuzana; Mocca, Christopher P; Guo, Chunyan; Nussenzweig, Ruth; Nussenzweig, Victor; Mishra, Satish; Wu, Yimin; Miller, Louis H; Keith, Jerry M; Liu, Teh-Yung; Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel

    2010-01-19

    There is yet no licensed vaccine against malaria, a serious human disease affecting mostly children, with an annual death rate of about one million. Plasmodia, the malaria-causing parasites, have two obligatory hosts: mammals or birds, in which they multiply asexually, and mosquitoes with sexual multiplication. The most common and serious type of malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a major surface antigen of sporozoites, is a protective antigen. A unique feature of P. falciparum CSP is its large central domain composed of over 30 tetrapeptide repeats of Asn-Ala-Asn-Pro (NANP). Several NANP peptide-protein conjugates were tested clinically but elicited a low level of CSP antibodies for a short duration. To provide a CSP-based candidate vaccine, we investigated recombinant CSP and NANP conjugates of various peptide lengths, with different N-terminal amino acids, bound at different ratios to various carrier proteins. Injected into mice, CSP alone and CSP or NANP conjugates induced antibodies with booster responses and were positive by the sporozoite immunofluorescent assay. The use of the mosquito stage P. falciparum ookinete surface protein, Pfs25, cross-linked onto itself as a carrier for NANP, induced in mice high levels of uniquely long-lasting antibodies to both vaccine components with secondary biological activities, that will provide immunity to liver infection by sporozoites and block transmission by mosquitoes.

  10. Novel coprocessed excipients composed of lactose, HPMC, and PVPP for tableting and its application.

    PubMed

    Wang, SongTao; Li, JinZhi; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi; Kou, Xiang; Babu, Sreehari; Panicucci, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    New coprocessed excipients composed of α-lactose monohydrate (a filler), HPMC E3 (a binder), and PVPP (a superdisintegrant) were developed by spray drying in this study to improve the tableting properties of lactose. Factors affecting the properties of the coprocessed excipients were investigated by a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design. These factors include lactose grade (90 M, 200 M, and 450 M), percentage of HPMC (3.5%, 7.0%, and 10.5%), and percentage of PVPP (0% and 3.5%). The results show that the compactability of the excipients could be significantly improved by increasing either the percentage of HPMC or the primary particle size of lactose. The addition of 3.5% PVPP had little effect on the compactability, but significantly improved the disintegration ability. The developed coprocessed excipients have much lower yield pressures and much higher working efficiency during tableting compared to the main raw material (α-lactose monohydrate). These improvements are mainly attributed to the addition of HPMC and the proximately 30% amorphous lactose formed during process. Both HPMC and amorphous lactose were homogeneously distributed on the surface of the secondary particles, maximizing their effect. Furthermore, the low hygroscopicity and high glass transition temperature of HPMC led to a high yield. The drug loading capacity of the newly coprocessed excipients is also excellent. In summary, the tri-component coprocessed excipients investigated are promising and worthy of further development.

  11. Disaggregation of heteroaggregates composed of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and hematite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Khanh An; Chen, Kai Loon

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the disaggregation behavior and the strength of heteroaggregates composed of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and hematite nanoparticles (HemNPs) were investigated in different solution chemistries. Negatively charged CNTs and positively charged HemNPs were first allowed to undergo favorable heteroaggregation at pH 5.5 and 0.1 mM NaCl before the CNT-HemNP heteroaggregates were disaggregated through the use of an ultrasonication bath. The heteroaggregate sizes before and after ultrasonication were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) in order to determine the degree of disaggregation. When the solution chemistry was unchanged, the heteroaggregates underwent partial disaggregation and heteroaggregate re-growth was observed after ultrasonication. Conversely, when the pH was raised to 11.0 immediately before ultrasonication, the heteroaggregates were almost completely disaggregated and no aggregation took place after disaggregation. Similarly, the introduction of humic acid led to a near complete disaggregation of the CNT-HemNP heteroaggregates. The elevated pH, as well as the adsorption of humic acid on the nanoparticles, was likely to weaken the particle-particle bonds within the heteroaggregates and hence increase the propensities of the heteroaggregates to undergo disaggregation.

  12. Conductance of a single flexible molecular wire composed of alternating donor and acceptor units

    PubMed Central

    Nacci, Christophe; Ample, Francisco; Bleger, David; Hecht, Stefan; Joachim, Christian; Grill, Leonhard

    2015-01-01

    Molecular-scale electronics is mainly concerned by understanding charge transport through individual molecules. A key issue here is the charge transport capability through a single—typically linear—molecule, characterized by the current decay with increasing length. To improve the conductance of individual polymers, molecular design often either involves the use of rigid ribbon/ladder-type structures, thereby sacrificing for flexibility of the molecular wire, or a zero band gap, typically associated with chemical instability. Here we show that a conjugated polymer composed of alternating donor and acceptor repeat units, synthesized directly by an on-surface polymerization, exhibits a very high conductance while maintaining both its flexible structure and a finite band gap. Importantly, electronic delocalization along the wire does not seem to be necessary as proven by spatial mapping of the electronic states along individual molecular wires. Our approach should facilitate the realization of flexible ‘soft' molecular-scale circuitry, for example, on bendable substrates. PMID:26145188

  13. Electroactive characteristics of hydrogels composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seon Jeong; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Sun I.; Kim, In Young; Lee, Young Moo; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Taek Dong

    2003-04-01

    Hydrogels composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was prepared by the sequential-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) method. The equilibrium swelling ratio and bending behavior under electric fields of the IPN hydrogel were measured in aqueous NaCl solution. The IPN exhibited a high equilibrium swelling ratio, in the range 280~380%. When the IPN in aqueous NaCl solution is subjected to an electric field, the IPN showed significant and quick bending toward the cathode. The IPN hydrogel also showed stepwise bending behavior depending on the electric stimulus. In addition, ionic conductivity of the IPN hydrogel was measured using dielectric analysis (DEA). The ionic conductive behavior of IPN hydrogel follows the Arrhenius equation. The conductivity of IPN hydrogel and the activation energy for the form of the IPN were 1.68 ×10-5 S/cm at 36 °C and 61.0 kJ/mol, respectively.

  14. Broadband meta-hologram composed of Z-shaped nano-antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sang-Eun; Lee, Yohan; Kim, Joonsoo; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-03-01

    Metasurfaces refer to periodic arrays of thin nano-antennas which are separated by subwavelength length. Due to the strong capability of nano-antenna distributions in phase profile generation, hologram generation using metasurfaces has attracted attention of many researchers. We propose a reflective type hologram by a metasurface composed of Z-shaped nano-antennas. The proposed metasurface renders precise phase modulation with spatially varying orientation, which attributes to the increase of the level of phase distribution. It has different plasmonic resonance mode for the orthogonal linear polarized incidence that makes different phase delay effect for orthogonal input. The metasurface we propose shows phase modulation characteristics over a wide wavelength range between 800 nm and 1,500 nm. Also it achieves high polarization conversion efficiency above 80% in a broad bandwidth. Meta-hologram using the metasurface has opened the possibility of variety of structures and expanded to near-infrared region. We expect our proposal could be applied to the more complicated meta-holograms.

  15. Conventional Kinesin Holoenzymes Are Composed of Heavy and Light Chain Homodimers†

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Scott R.; You, YiMei; Szodorai, Anita; Kaminska, Agnieszka; Pigino, Gustavo; Nwabuisi, Evelyn; Wang, Bin; Estrada-Hernandez, Tatiana; Kins, Stefan; Brady, Scott T.; Morfini, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Conventional kinesin is a major microtubule-based motor protein responsible for anterograde transport of various membrane-bounded organelles (MBO) along axons. Structurally, this molecular motor protein is a tetrameric complex composed of two heavy (kinesin-1) chains and two light chain (KLC) subunits. The products of three kinesin-1 (kinesin-1A, -1B, and -1C, formerly KIF5A, -B, and -C) and two KLC (KLC1, KLC2) genes are expressed in mammalian nervous tissue, but the functional significance of this subunit heterogeneity remains unknown. In this work, we examine all possible combinations among conventional kinesin subunits in brain tissue. In sharp contrast with previous reports, immunoprecipitation experiments here demonstrate that conventional kinesin holoenzymes are formed of kinesin-1 homodimers. Similar experiments confirmed previous findings of KLC homodimerization. Additionally, no specificity was found in the interaction between kinesin-1s and KLCs, suggesting the existence of six variant forms of conventional kinesin, as defined by their gene product composition. Subcellular fractionation studies indicate that such variants associate with biochemically different MBOs and further suggest a role of kinesin-1s in the targeting of conventional kinesin holoenzymes to specific MBO cargoes. Taken together, our data address the combination of subunits that characterize endogenous conventional kinesin. Findings on the composition and subunit organization of conventional kinesin as described here provide a molecular basis for the regulation of axonal transport and delivery of selected MBOs to discrete subcellular locations. PMID:18361505

  16. An experimental vaccine composed of two adjuvants gives protection against Mycoplasma bovis in calves.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Katarzyna; Bednarek, Dariusz; Ayling, Roger D; Kycko, Anna; Szacawa, Ewelina; Karpińska, Teresa A

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen affecting cattle causing bronchopneumonia, mastitis, and other disorders. Only autogenous vaccines made specifically for individual farms are available in parts of Europe and the United States. A novel experimental vaccine composed of a field M. bovis isolate combined with saponin and Emulsigen(®) adjuvants was evaluated. Eighteen 3-4 week old calves were placed in three equal groups: vaccinated (Vac), positive control (PC) and negative control (NC). The Vac calves were subcutaneously injected with 8ml of the vaccine; the PC and NC calves received phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Three weeks later the Vac and PC calves were challenged with a virulent M. bovis strain, the NC group received PBS. Throughout the study clinical observations, microbiology and immunological tests were carried out. Three weeks post challenge two calves from each group were euthanased for necropsy and histopathological examination. The vaccine effectively stimulated the humoral immune response, with high titres of anti-M. bovis specific antibodies and total Ig concentration. This vaccine also intensified the IgA response. A clinically protective effect of the vaccine was demonstrated as it also reduced the gross pathological lung lesions and nasal shedding of M. bovis. PMID:27156637

  17. Structure elucidation of fucoidan composed of a novel tetrafucose repeating unit from sea cucumber Thelenota ananas.

    PubMed

    Yu, Long; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Xu, Xiaoqi; Ge, Lei; Liu, Guanchen; Wang, Yanchao

    2014-03-01

    Thelenota ananas is one of the most popular edible sea cucumber species consumed in China and some Southeast Asian countries. In this study, the delicate structure of fucoidan from T. ananas (Ta-FUC) was clarified. Oligosaccharides and low molecular weight polysaccharides of Ta-FUC were prepared by enzymatic degradation. Their structures, which retained primary structural features of Ta-FUC, were investigated using tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. As a result, Ta-FUC was found to be composed of a novel tetrafucose repeating unit [→3-α-L-Fucp-1→3-α-L-Fucp-1→3-α-L-Fucp2,4(OSO3(-))-1→3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1→]. Meanwhile, it was proven to possess a significant inhibitory effect on superoxide radicals with an IC50 of 17.46±0.14μg/ml. This effect was related to its sulphation pattern.

  18. Biodegradable nanoparticles composed of dendrigraft poly-L-lysine for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yukinobu; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kurosaki, Tomoaki; Egashira, Kanoko; Mine, Toyoharu; Nakagawa, Hiroo; Muro, Takahiro; Kitahara, Takashi; Higuchi, Norihide; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    We developed novel gene vectors composed of dendrigraft poly-L-lysine (DGL). The transgene expression efficiency of the pDNA/DGL complexes (DGL complexes) was markedly higher than that of the control pDNA/poly-L-lysine complex. However, the DGL complexes caused cytotoxicity and erythrocyte agglutination at high doses. Therefore, γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA), which is a biodegradable anionic polymer, was added to the DGL complexes to decrease their toxicity. The resultant ternary complexes (DGL/γ-PGA complexes) were shown to be stable nanoparticles, and those with γ-PGA to pDNA charge ratios of >8 had anionic surface charges. The transgene expression efficiency of the DGL/γ-PGA complexes was similar to that of the DGL complexes; however, they exhibited lower cytotoxicity and did not induce erythrocyte agglutination at high doses. After being intravenously administered to mice, the DGL6 complex demonstrated high transfection efficiency in the liver, lungs, and spleen, whereas the DGL6/γ-PGA8 complex only displayed high transfection efficiency in the spleen. Future studies should examine the utility of DGL and DGL/γ-PGA complexes for clinical gene therapy.

  19. Strategies for Selection from Protein Libraries Composed of de Novo Designed Secondary Structure Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Tomoaki; Plückthun, Andreas

    2004-02-01

    As more and more protein structures are determined, it has become clear that there is only a limited number of protein folds in nature. To explore whether the protein folds found in nature are the only solutions to the protein folding problem, or that a lack of evolutionary pressure causes the paucity of different protein folds found, we set out to construct protein libraries without any restriction on topology. We generated different libraries (all α-helix, all β-strand and α-helix plus β-strand) with an average length of 100 amino acid residues, composed of designed secondary structure modules (α-helix, β-strand and β-turn) in various proportions, based primarily on the patterning of polar and non-polar residues. From the analysis of proteins chosen randomly from the libraries, we found that a substantial portion of pure α-helical proteins show properties similar to native proteins. Using these libraries as a starting point, we aim to establish a selection system which allows us to enrich proteins with favorable folding properties (non-aggregating, compactly folded) from the libraries. We have developed such a method based on ribosome display. This selection is based on two concepts: (1) misfolded proteins are more sensitive to proteolysis, (2) misfolded and/or aggregated proteins are more hydrophobic. We show that by applying each of these selection criteria proteins that are compactly folded and soluble can be enriched over insoluble and random coil proteins.

  20. Preparation of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks composed of silk fibroin and poloxamer macromer.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Mi-Kyong; Kweon, Hae Yong; Lee, Kwang-Gill; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Cho, Chong-Su

    2004-08-01

    A system was designed to utilize silk fibroin (SF) as a matrix for wound dressing. For this system, we prepared a sponge type of porous semi-interpenetrating networks (SIPNs) hydrogel composed of SF and poloxamer 407 macromer to enhance the mechanical and functional properties of SF. The thermal and mechanical properties of the hydrogels as well as their swelling behaviors were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry, compressive modulus measurement, and gravimetric method, respectively. The morphology and crystalline structure of these SIPN hydrogels were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wide-angle diffractometry, respectively. Conformational change of SF from random coil to beta-sheet structure was accelerated by formation of SIPNs with poloxamer. The melting temperature of poloxamer in the SIPNs decreased due to the prevention of crystallization by the incorporation of SF. The mechanical strength of SIPNs hydrogel was much higher than those of SF itself or SF/poloxamer blend and increased with the poloxamer content. The equilibrium water content of SF was remarkably increased by formation of SIPNs with poloxamer due to the hydrophilicity of poloxamer. The crystallinity and morphology of SIPNs hydrogel were affected by SIPNs hydrogel composition. PMID:15374683

  1. Abnormal hepatic copper accumulation of spheroid composed of liver cells from LEC rats in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ueno, K; Yoshizawa, M; Satoh, T; Yoneda, S; Ohmichi, M; Yamazaki, M; Mori, Y; Suzuki, K T

    1995-11-01

    The LEC rat is a mutant strain displaying hereditary hepatitis, and shows abnormal accumulation of copper (Cu) similar to that occurring in Wilson's disease. We prepared a multicellular spheroid composed of LEC rat liver cells to investigate the mechanism for abnormal accumulation of Cu. These multicellular spheroids were prepared by detaching the monolayer on the collagen-conjugated thermo-responsive polymer coated culture dish at a temperature below the critical solution temperature and culturing on the non-adhesive substratum. Long-term cultured spheroids of LEC rat liver cells as well as SD rat liver cells were attempted. Non-parenchymal cells obtained by collagenase perfusion from the LEC liver were fewer than those from the SD liver. Cells from the LEC rat, over 11 weeks of age, did not form a cell sheet; however, a mixture of parenchymal cells from LEC rats over aged 11 weeks and non-parenchymal cells from SD rats of any age yielded intact spheroids. We examined the toxicity, the accumulation and distribution of Cu in spheroids. The accumulation of Cu in LEC spheroids was higher than that in SD spheroids. Results suggest that spheroids consisting of LEC liver cells are useful as an alternative model to in vivo tests to investigate the mechanism for abnormal accumulation of Cu in liver.

  2. A Case of Cushing's Syndrome with Multiple Adrenocortical Adenomas Composed of Compact Cells and Clear Cells.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Masahiro; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Ota, Mitsutane; Numasawa, Mitsuyuki; Sasahara, Yuriko; Takeuchi, Takato; Nakano, Yujiro; Oohara, Norihiko; Murakami, Masanori; Bouchi, Ryotaro; Minami, Isao; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Hashimoto, Koshi; Izumiyama, Hajime; Kawamura, Naoko; Kihara, Kazunori; Negi, Mariko; Akashi, Takumi; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Sasano, Hironobu; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    A 58-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for Cushingoid features and diagnosed as adrenal Cushing's syndrome due to a right adrenocortical mass (60 × 55 mm). The mass was composed of three different tumors; the first one was homogeneously lipid-poor neoplasm measuring 20 × 13 mm located at the most dorsal region, the second one was heterogeneous and lipid-rich tumor containing multiple foci of calcification measuring 50 × 32 mm located at the central region, and the last one was heterogeneous harboring dilated and tortuous vessels and lipid-poor one measuring 35 × 18 mm at the most ventral region of the adrenal gland. A right adrenalectomy was subsequently performed by open surgery. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses revealed that all three tumors were adrenocortical adenomas; the first one represents a pigmented adrenocortical adenoma, the second one adrenocortical adenoma associated with degeneration, and the third one adrenocortical adenoma harboring extensive degeneration. Immunohistochemical analysis of the steroidogenic enzymes also revealed that all of the tumors had the capacity of synthesizing cortisol. This is a very rare case of Cushing's syndrome caused by multiple adrenocortical adenomas including a pigmented adenoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of steroidogenic enzymes contributed to understanding of steroidogenesis in each of these three different adrenocortical adenomas in this case.

  3. Moderately large vibrations of doubly curved shallow open shells composed of thick layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Christoph

    2007-02-01

    This paper addresses nonlinear flexural vibrations of shallow shells composed of three thick layers with different shear flexibility, which are symmetrically arranged with respect to the middle surface. The considered shell structures of polygonal planform are hard hinged simply supported (i.e. all in-plane rotations and the bending moment vanish) with the edges fully restraint against displacements in any direction. The kinematic field equations are formulated by layerwise application of a first-order shear deformation theory. A modification of Berger's theory is employed to model the nonlinear characteristics of the structural response. The continuity of the transverse shear stress across the interfaces is specified according to Hooke's law, and subsequently the equations of motion of this higher order problem can be derived in analogy to a homogeneous single-layer shear deformable shallow shell. Numerical results of rectangular shallow shells in nonlinear steady-state vibration are presented for various ratios of shell rise to thickness, and non-dimensional load amplitude.

  4. TiO2 hollow spheres composed of highly crystalline nanocrystals exhibit superior lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Genqiang; Wu, Hao Bin; Song, Taeseup; Paik, Ungyu; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2014-11-10

    While the synthesis of TiO2 hollow structures is well-established, in most cases it is particularly difficult to control the crystallization of TiO2 in solution or by calcination. As a result, TiO2 hollow structures do not really exhibit enhanced lithium storage properties. Herein, we report a simple and cost-effective template-assisted method to synthesize anatase TiO2 hollow spheres composed of highly crystalline nanocrystals, in which carbonaceous (C) spheres are chosen as the removable template. The release of gaseous species from the combustion of C spheres may inhibit the growth of TiO2 crystallites so that instead small TiO2 nanocrystals are generated. The small size and high crystallinity of primary TiO2 nanoparticles and the high structural integrity of the hollow spheres gives rise to significant improvements in the cycling stability and rate performance of the TiO2 hollow spheres. PMID:25124735

  5. Effective inhibition of bacterial respiration and growth by CuO microspheres composed of thin nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Ahamed, Maqusood; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2013-11-01

    This study describes the synthesis, characterization and biocidal potential of copper oxide micro-spheres composed of thin sheets (CuOMSs-Ths). Microscopic observations of synthesized CuOMSs-Ths revealed the clusters of thin sheets arranged in small flower like micro-spheres. Diameter of each micro-sphere was determined in the range of 2-3 μm, whereas the size of each sheet was ∼ 80 nm. These micro-flowers like nanostructures were synthesized using copper nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide via solution process. The CuOMSs-Ths exhibited a broad-spectrum anti-bacterial activity involving significant growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. The IC50 values of these engineered NPs against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and M. luteus were determined to be 195, 200, 131 and 184 μg/ml, respectively. Also, the respiration of Gram+ ve organisms (M. luteus and S. aureus) was inhibited significantly (p value < 0.005) at relatively lower concentrations of 12.5 and 50 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the Gram- ve bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa), where the growth inhibition occurred at a much greater concentration of 100 μg/ml. The results explicitly demonstrated anti-microbial activity of CuOMSs-Ths with a higher level of toxicity against the Gram+ ve vis-a-vis Gram- ve bacteria. PMID:23816782

  6. Nanostructured CuS networks composed of interconnected nanoparticles for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wenbin; Han, Weihua; Zha, Heming; Mei, Junfeng; Li, Yunxia; Zhang, Zemin; Xie, Erqing

    2016-09-21

    Nanostructured metal sulfides with excellent electrochemical activity and electrical conductivity are particularly promising for applications in high-performance energy storage devices. Here, we report on the facile synthesis of nanostructured CuS networks composed of interconnected nanoparticles as novel battery-type materials for asymmetric supercapacitors. We find that the CuS networks exhibit a high specific capacity of 49.8 mA g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), good rate capability and cycle stability. The superior performance could be attributed to the interconnected nanoparticles of CuS networks, which can facilitate electrolyte diffusion and provide fast electron pathways. Furthermore, an aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor has been assembled by using the CuS networks as the positive electrode and activated carbon as the negative electrode. The assembled device can work at a high operating voltage of 1.6 V and show a maximum energy density of 17.7 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 504 W kg(-1). This study indicates that the CuS networks have great potential for supercapacitor applications. PMID:27539193

  7. A biomaterial composed of collagen and solubilized elastin enhances angiogenesis and elastic fiber formation without calcification.

    PubMed

    Daamen, Willeke F; Nillesen, Suzan T M; Wismans, Ronnie G; Reinhardt, Dieter P; Hafmans, Theo; Veerkamp, Jacques H; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2008-03-01

    Elastin is the prime protein in elastic tissues that contributes to elasticity of, for example, lung, aorta, and skin. Upon injury, elastic fibers are not readily replaced, which hampers tissue regeneration. Incorporation of solubilized elastin (hydrolyzed insoluble elastin fibers or elastin peptides) in biomaterials may improve regeneration, because solubilized elastin is able to promote proliferation as well as elastin synthesis. Porous biomaterials composed of highly purified collagen without and without elastin fibers or solubilized elastin were prepared by freezing and lyophilization. Solubilized elastin formed spherical structures that were incorporated in the collagenous part of the scaffolds and that persisted after chemical crosslinking of the scaffolds. Crosslinked scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in young Sprague Dawley rats. Collagen-solubilized elastin and collagen scaffolds showed no calcification in this sensitive calcification model, in contrast to scaffolds containing elastin fibers. Collagen-solubilized elastin scaffolds also induced angiogenesis, as revealed by type IV collagen staining, and promoted elastic fiber synthesis, as shown with antibodies against rat elastin and fibrillin-1. It is concluded that scaffolds produced from collagen and solubilized elastin present a non-calcifying biomaterial with a capacity for soft-tissue regeneration, especially in relation to elastic fiber synthesis.

  8. Leaching of heavy metals from artificial soils composed of sewage sludge and fly ash.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongling; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the leaching characteristics of heavy metals from artificial soils composed of sewage sludge and fly ash. A leaching experiment was carried out over a period of 90 days. The leachates from artificial soils were collected every 15 days, and the concentrations of cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, chromium, and nickel in leachates were determined. Results showed that pH values of the artificial soils leachate were stable, ranging from 6.71 to 7.62 at the end of the experiment. Except of the cadmium, the concentrations of chromium, nickel, and copper in leachates of the artificial soils reached a stable level at the end of the experiment. The final concentrations of copper in leachates varied from 27.1 to 127.5 μg L(-1), which was lower than European threshold value for drinking water, (1,000 μg L(-1)), while final nickel and chromium concentrations in leachates exceeded the European threshold ones. Amorpha fruticosa and Robina pseudoacacia grown in the artificial soils had different effects on cadmium, nickel, chromium, and copper leaching behavior. Amorpha fruticosa resulted in higher Ni and Cu concentrations in leachates, while Robina pseudoacacia enhanced leaching concentration of Cr.

  9. Songs composed for use in music therapy: a survey of original songwriting practices of music therapists.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer D

    2006-01-01

    While researchers have documented the efficacy of clinical songwriting in music therapy, limited research has been conducted on songs composed by music therapists that address clinical goals. The purpose of this research was to examine the original songwriting practices of music therapists. Professional music therapists (N = 1,364) received a 14-question survey via email asking each to identify client populations and clinical goals addressed by original songs, their length of time in clinical practice, and specifics about their acquisition of songwriting skills. The data collected from 302 completed surveys revealed that respondents who used original songs were most likely to work with children and adolescents in schools or the developmental disability field and wrote songs in order to individualize treatment. Music therapists working with persons over 65 years of age in long term care or assisted living programs were the least likely to use original songs in clinical practice, opting for interventions utilizing the client's familiar music. Most music therapists found songwriting generally easy, but only 37% indicated that they acquired this skill during their undergraduate degree. Additional research on the clinical efficacy of original songs and therapist's compositional processes is needed to identify best practices models for strategic songwriting.

  10. Tunneling magnetoresistance in junctions composed of ferromagnets and time-reversal invariant topological superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhongbo; Wan, Shaolong

    2016-02-01

    Tunneling magnetoresistance between two ferrromagnets is an issue of fundamental importance in spintronics. In this work, we show that tunneling magnetoresistance can also emerge in junctions composed of ferromagnets and time-reversal invariant topological superconductors without spin-rotation symmetry. Here the physical origin is that when the spin-polarization direction of an injected electron from the ferromagnet lies in the same plane of the spin-polarization direction of Majorana zero modes, the electron will undergo a perfect spin-equal Andreev reflection, while injected electrons with other spin-polarization directions will be partially Andreev reflected and partially normal reflected, which consequently has a lower conductance, and therefore, the magnetoresistance effect emerges. Compared to conventional magnetic tunnel junctions, an unprecedented advantage of the junctions studied here is that arbitrary high tunneling magnetoresistance can be obtained even when the magnetization of the ferromagnets are weak and the insulating tunneling barriers are featureless. Our findings provide a new fascinating mechanism to obtain high tunneling magnetoresistance.

  11. Development of an artificial dermis composed of hyaluronic acid and collagen.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Akina; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of an artificial dermis composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen (Col) with or without epidermal growth factor (EGF), both in in vitro and in vivo. The cross-linked high molecular weight HA spongy sheet was prepared by freeze-drying. The spongy sheet was immersed in a mixed solution of high molecular weight HA, low molecular weight HA, and heat-denatured Col, and then lyophilized to obtain a two-layered spongy sheet. Cross-linking among Col molecules was induced by ultraviolet irradiation to prepare the artificial dermis (Type I). In a similar manner, a two-layered artificial dermis containing EGF (Type II) was prepared using a similar mixed solution containing EGF. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that EGF released from the Type II artificial dermis stimulates fibroblasts to produce increased amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor. The therapeutic efficacy of artificial dermis was evaluated in animal tests using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The dorsal skin of the SD rat was shaved and then exposed to boiling water for 3 s to induce a deep dermal burn. The necrotic tissue was then excised 3 days later. Each artificial dermis was applied to the skin defect for 7 days and assessed for its ability to generate a wound bed. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that the Type II artificial dermis promotes angiogenesis to a greater extent at an early stage (within 3 days), and also suppresses the inflammatory reaction more successfully compared with the Type I artificial dermis. In further animal tests, an autologous skin graft was performed by excising a piece of skin from the abdominal region and then grafting it onto the wound bed prepared using each artificial dermis for 7 days. Although the Type II artificial dermis had the highest potential to promote angiogenesis, in this animal study, each artificial dermis induced excellent wound bed formation acceptable for autologous skin

  12. Dispersion of Vesicles Composed of Industrially Produced Alkyl (Oligo) Glucoside Using Diol-Boron Complexation.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Tatsuo; Asano, Yuuka; Kondo, Takeshi; Yuasa, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    Alkyl (oligo)glucosides (AOG) are known to be environmentally compatible amphiphiles whose commercial applicability should be broadened. The present paper describes the preparation of molecular assemblies of industrially produced AOG, which is a mixture composed of different length of alkyl chains (C9-C12) with oligoglucoside moiety with a few (1-3) of glucose units. It was also described that regulation of the dispersibility of the molecular assemblies prepared by diol-boron complexation between the sugar moiety on AOG and boric acid in a dispersion medium. The molecular assembly of AOG was successfully formed by mixing AOG and cholesterols (CH). When using a suitable amount of CH (20-40 mol% with respect to AOG), the molecular assembly formed a vesicle structure. The dispersion ability of the resulting vesicle was dependent on both the boric acid concentration and pH of the dispersion medium. The light-scattering and ζ-potential measurements revealed that high concentrations (≥10 mM) of boric acid improved dispersibility the vesicles. In contrast, the vesicle agglomerated at low concentrations of boric acid (1-7.5 mM). In the absence of boric acid in dispersion medium, the vesicles were completely agglomerated. The optimum pH range for vesicle dispersion was found to be from neutral to basic (7.4-10.1). The (11)B NMR study revealed that borate ester formation occurred between boric acid and the diol of the sugar moiety on AOG vesicle. The present data suggest that borate ester formation that occurred on the surface of the vesicle provided negative charge to the vesicles, contributing to their dispersion via repulsive forces. PMID:27321117

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of a very high resolution thermal neutron detector composed of glass scintillator microfibers.

    PubMed

    Song, Yushou; Conner, Joseph; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hayward, Jason P

    2016-02-01

    In order to develop a high spatial resolution (micron level) thermal neutron detector, a detector assembly composed of cerium doped lithium glass microfibers, each with a diameter of 1 μm, is proposed, where the neutron absorption location is reconstructed from the observed charged particle products that result from neutron absorption. To suppress the cross talk of the scintillation light, each scintillating fiber is surrounded by air-filled glass capillaries with the same diameter as the fiber. This pattern is repeated to form a bulk microfiber detector. On one end, the surface of the detector is painted with a thin optical reflector to increase the light collection efficiency at the other end. Then the scintillation light emitted by any neutron interaction is transmitted to one end, magnified, and recorded by an intensified CCD camera. A simulation based on the Geant4 toolkit was developed to model this detector. All the relevant physics processes including neutron interaction, scintillation, and optical boundary behaviors are simulated. This simulation was first validated through measurements of neutron response from lithium glass cylinders. With good expected light collection, an algorithm based upon the features inherent to alpha and triton particle tracks is proposed to reconstruct the neutron reaction position in the glass fiber array. Given a 1 μm fiber diameter and 0.1mm detector thickness, the neutron spatial resolution is expected to reach σ∼1 μm with a Gaussian fit in each lateral dimension. The detection efficiency was estimated to be 3.7% for a glass fiber assembly with thickness of 0.1mm. When the detector thickness increases from 0.1mm to 1mm, the position resolution is not expected to vary much, while the detection efficiency is expected to increase by about a factor of ten.

  14. Development of a wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid and collagen sponge with epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shinya; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of a wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen (Col) sponge containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) on various parameters of wound healing in vitro and in vivo. High-molecular-weight (HMW) HA solution, hydrolyzed low-molecular-weight (LMW) HA solution and heat-denatured Col solution were mixed, followed by freeze-drying to obtain a spongy sheet. Cross-linkage between Col molecules was induced by UV irradiation to the spongy sheet (Type-I dressing). In a similar manner, a spongy sheet containing EGF was prepared (Type-II dressing). The efficacy of these products was firstly evaluated in vitro. Fibroblast proliferation was assessed in culture medium in the presence or absence of a piece of each wound dressing. EGF stimulated cell proliferation after UV irradiation and dry sterilization at 110°C for 1 h. In the second experiment, fibroblasts-embedded Col gels were elevated to the air-liquid interface to create a wound surface model, on which wound dressings were placed and cultured for 1 week. Cell proliferation and the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were investigated. With Type-II dressings, the amounts of VEGF and HGF released from fibroblasts in the Col gel were significantly increased compared with Type-I dressing. Next, the efficacy of these products was evaluated in vivo using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Wound conditions after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment with the wound dressings were evaluated based on the gross and histological appearances. Type-II dressings promoted a decrease in wound size, re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis. These findings indicate that the combination of HA, Col and EGF promotes wound healing by stimulating fibroblast function.

  15. Development of a wound dressing composed of a hyaluronic acid sponge containing arginine.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Arai, Kiwako; Momose, Hitomi; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2009-01-01

    Spongy sheets composed of cross-linked high-molecular-weight (HMW) hyaluronic acid (HA) were prepared by freeze-drying an aqueous HMW-HA solution containing cross-linking agent (Group I). The Group I sheet was immersed into an aqueous low-molecular-weight (LMW) HA solution with or without L-arginine (Arg) and was then freeze-dried to prepare several types of spongy sheets (Groups II-V). The amount of Arg was 1.0 g, 0.5 g, 0.2 g and 0 g in Groups III, IV, V and II, respectively. In the first experiment, each spongy sheet was applied to a full-thickness skin defect with a diameter of 35 mm in the abdominal region of SD rats, with intact skin in the central area measuring 15 mm in diameter. Commercially available polyurethane film dressing was applied over each spongy sheet as a covering material. The control group was covered with polyurethane film dressing alone. All spongy sheets promoted epithelization, as well as angiogenesis, as compared with controls. These findings indicate that HA and Arg are essential for wound healing. Re-epithelizaion was particularly active in Groups IV and V. In the second experiment, each spongy sheet was applied to a full-thickness burn injury measuring 35 mm in diameter in the abdominal region of SD rats, after necrotic skin was surgically removed. Groups II-V showed decreased wound size when compared with Group I and controls. The present findings indicate that the release of LMW-HA and Arg from a cross-linked HMW-HA spongy sheet effectively stimulates wound healing.

  16. Neisseria meningitidis Type IV Pili Composed of Sequence Invariable Pilins Are Masked by Multisite Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Joseph; Ferber, Mathias; Machata, Silke; Imhaus, Anne-Flore; Malosse, Christian; Charles-Orszag, Arthur; Millien, Corinne; Bouvier, Guillaume; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Klinge, Kelly; Podglajen, Isabelle; Ploy, Marie Cécile; Seifert, H. Steven; Nilges, Michael; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Duménil, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to cause disease depends on their aptitude to escape the immune system. Type IV pili are extracellular filamentous virulence factors composed of pilin monomers and frequently expressed by bacterial pathogens. As such they are major targets for the host immune system. In the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, strains expressing class I pilins contain a genetic recombination system that promotes variation of the pilin sequence and is thought to aid immune escape. However, numerous hypervirulent clinical isolates express class II pilins that lack this property. This raises the question of how they evade immunity targeting type IV pili. As glycosylation is a possible source of antigenic variation it was investigated using top-down mass spectrometry to provide the highest molecular precision on the modified proteins. Unlike class I pilins that carry a single glycan, we found that class II pilins display up to 5 glycosylation sites per monomer on the pilus surface. Swapping of pilin class and genetic background shows that the pilin primary structure determines multisite glycosylation while the genetic background determines the nature of the glycans. Absence of glycosylation in class II pilins affects pilus biogenesis or enhances pilus-dependent aggregation in a strain specific fashion highlighting the extensive functional impact of multisite glycosylation. Finally, molecular modeling shows that glycans cover the surface of class II pilins and strongly decrease antibody access to the polypeptide chain. This strongly supports a model where strains expressing class II pilins evade the immune system by changing their sugar structure rather than pilin primary structure. Overall these results show that sequence invariable class II pilins are cloaked in glycans with extensive functional and immunological consequences. PMID:26367394

  17. Development of Safeguards System Simulator Composed of Multi-Functional Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Ihara, Hitoshi

    Due to the large plutonium (Pu) throughput and high burn-up fuel in an advanced reprocessing facility, we are faced with the inevitable increasing burden of nuclear material accountancy (NMA) to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards criteria. A large volume of sampling analysis and inspectors' activities result in a great cost for facility operation. Therefore, it is increasingly important to evaluate a cost-effective performance for the safeguards system. In order to design an advanced safeguards system, we have initiated the development of a safeguards system simulator. The simulator is composed of several interrelated cores and a separate core is planned to develop. The NMA core is a near-real-time accounting (NRTA) code that had been originally developed more than ten years ago and has been improved on an objective-driven pre- and post-processor. A multivariate and multi-scale core based on a principle component analysis with a wavelet technique has been developed to provide an algorithm of process monitoring. The time and frequency decomposition was verified to be an effective technique to detect an abnormal event. In addition, a multiple optimization core has been developed with a fuzzy-linear-programming technique to investigate the cost-effective performance of the conceptual safeguards system. It is shown that a combination of flow-meter and non-destructive assay can be applied to the system in a cost-effective manner. In the future, a virtual design core will be developed to support a walk-through and three dimensional visible plant model.

  18. Erythritol alters microstructure and metabolomic profiles of biofilm composed of Streptococcus gordonii and Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Hashino, E; Kuboniwa, M; Alghamdi, S A; Yamaguchi, M; Yamamoto, R; Cho, H; Amano, A

    2013-12-01

    The effects of sugar alcohols such as erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol on periodontopathic biofilm are poorly understood, though they have often been reported to be non-cariogenic sweeteners. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of sugar alcohols for inhibiting periodontopathic biofilm formation using a heterotypic biofilm model composed of an oral inhabitant Streptococcus gordonii and a periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. Confocal microscopic observations showed that the most effective reagent to reduce P. gingivalis accumulation onto an S. gordonii substratum was erythritol, as compared with xylitol and sorbitol. In addition, erythritol moderately suppressed S. gordonii monotypic biofilm formation. To examine the inhibitory effects of erythritol, we analyzed the metabolomic profiles of erythritol-treated P. gingivalis and S. gordonii cells. Metabolome analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed that a number of nucleic intermediates and constituents of the extracellular matrix, such as nucleotide sugars, were decreased by erythritol in a dose-dependent manner. Next, comparative analyses of metabolites of erythritol- and sorbitol-treated cells were performed using both organisms to determine the erythritol-specific effects. In P. gingivalis, all detected dipeptides, including Glu-Glu, Ser-Glu, Tyr-Glu, Ala-Ala and Thr-Asp, were significantly decreased by erythritol, whereas they tended to be increased by sorbitol. Meanwhile, sorbitol promoted trehalose 6-phosphate accumulation in S. gordonii cells. These results suggest that erythritol has inhibitory effects on dual species biofilm development via several pathways, including suppression of growth resulting from DNA and RNA depletion, attenuated extracellular matrix production, and alterations of dipeptide acquisition and amino acid metabolism.

  19. On overdamping phenomena in gyroscopic systems composed of high-loss and lossless components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figotin, Alexander; Welters, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Using a Lagrangian framework, we study overdamping phenomena in gyroscopic systems composed of two components, one of which is highly lossy and the other is lossless. The losses are accounted by a Rayleigh dissipation function. As we have shown previously, for such a composite system, the modes split into two distinct classes, high-loss and low-loss, according to their dissipative behavior. A principal result of this paper is that for any such system, a rather universal phenomenon of selective overdamping occurs. Namely, first of all, the high-loss modes are all overdamped, i.e., non-oscillatory, as are an equal number of low-loss modes. Second of all, the rest of the low-loss modes remain oscillatory (i.e., the underdamped modes), each with an extremely high quality factor (Q-factor) that actually increases as the loss of the lossy component increases. We prove that selective overdamping is a generic phenomenon in Lagrangian systems with gyroscopic forces and gives an analysis of the overdamping phenomena in such systems. Moreover, using perturbation theory, we derive explicit formulas for upper bound estimates on the amount of loss required in the lossy component of the composite system for the selective overdamping to occur in the generic case and give Q-factor estimates for the underdamped modes. Central to the analysis is the introduction of the notion of a "dual" Lagrangian system and this yields significant improvements on some results on modal dichotomy and overdamping. The effectiveness of the theory developed here is demonstrated by applying it to an electric circuit with a gyrator element and a high-loss resistor.

  20. Characteristics of wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate to immobilize radioactive waste salts.

    PubMed

    Park, Hwan-Seo; Cho, In-Hak; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong Zun; Lee, Han-Soo

    2011-03-01

    In the radioactive waste management, metal chloride wastes from a pyrochemical process is one of problematic wastes not directly applicable to a conventional solidification process. Different from a use of minerals or a specific phosphate glass for immobilizing radioactive waste salts, our research group applied an inorganic composite, SAP (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-P(2)O(5)), to stabilize them by dechlorination. From this method, a unique wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate could be fabricated. This study described the characteristic of the wasteform on the morphology, chemical durability, and some physical properties. The wasteform has a unique "domain-matrix" structure which would be attributed to the incompatibility between silicate and phosphate glass. At higher amounts of chemical binder, "P-rich phase encapsulated by Si-rich phase" was a dominant morphology, but it was changed to be Si-rich phase encapsulated by P-rich phase at a lower amount of binder. The domain and subdomain size in the wasteform was about 0.5-2 μm and hundreds of nm, respectively. The chemical durability of wasteform was confirmed by various leaching test methods (PCT-A, ISO dynamic leaching test, and MCC-1). From the leaching tests, it was found that the P-rich phase had ten times lower leach-resistance than the Si-rich phase. The leach rates of Cs and Sr in the wasteform were about 10(-3)g/m(2)· day, and the leached fractions of them were about 0.04% and 0.06% at 357 days, respectively. Using this method, we could stabilize and solidify the waste salt to form a monolithic wasteform with good leach-resistance. Also, the decrease of waste volume by the dechlorination approach would be beneficial in the final disposal cost, compared with the present immobilization methods for waste salt.

  1. Composite electrode composed of bimodal porous carbon and polypyrrole for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sang-Wook; Dokko, Kaoru; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) carbons having walls composed of mesosized spherical pores were prepared by a colloidal crystal templating method. A composite electrode consisting of bimodal porous carbon and polypyrrole (PPy) was prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole within the macropores of the bimodal porous carbon. The porous structure of the composite electrode was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope and by nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. It was found that the deposition of PPy decreased the porosity and specific surface area of the electrode. The electrochemical properties of the composite electrode were characterized in a mixed solution of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate containing 1 mol dm -3 LiPF 6. The discharge capacity of the carbon-PPy composite electrode was 78 mAh g carbon-PPy -1 in the potential range of 2.0-4.0 V vs. Li/Li +, which corresponded to a volumetric discharge capacity of 53 mAh cm -3. Both the double-layer capacity (31 mAh g -1) and the redox capacity of PPy (47 mAh g -1) contributed to the discharge capacity of the composite electrode. This indicates that the incorporation of PPy into the macropores of bimodal porous carbon is effective in increasing the volumetric discharge capacity of the composite electrode. The composite of carbon and PPy showed good rate capability, and its discharge capacity at a high current density of 4.0 A g -1 was as high as 49 mAh g -1.

  2. Anatomy and physiology of neurons composing the commissural ring nerve of the cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    PubMed

    Killian, K A; Bollins, J P; Govind, C K

    2000-03-01

    The commissural ring nerve (RN) of the cricket Acheta domesticus links together the two cercal motor nerves of the terminal abdominal ganglion. It contains the axons of almost 100 neurons including two bilateral clusters of eight to 13 ventrolateral neurons and approximately 75 neurons with midline somata within the terminal abdominal ganglion. The ventrolateral neurons have an ipsilateral dendritic arborization within the dorsal neuropil of the ganglion and their axons use the RN as a commissure in order to enter the contralateral nerves of the tenth ganglionic neuromere. In contrast, most midline neurons have bifurcating axons projecting bilaterally into the neuropil of the ganglion as well as into the RN where they often branch extensively before entering the contralateral tenth nerves. Most RN neurons have small, non-spiking somata with spike initiation zones distant from the soma. Many midline neurons also produce double-peaked spikes in their somata, indicative of multiple spike initiation zones. Spontaneous neuronal activity recorded extracellularly from the RN reveals several units, some with variable firing patterns, but none responding to sensory stimuli. The RN is primarily composed of small (50 nm diameter) axon profiles with a few large (0.5-1 microm diameter) profiles. Occasionally, profiles of nerve terminals containing primarily small clear vesicles and a few large dense vesicles are observed. These vesicles can sometimes be clustered about an active zone. We conclude that the primary function of the RN is to serve as a peripheral nerve commissure and that its role as a neurohemal organ is negligible. J. Exp. Zool. 286:350-366, 2000.

  3. Histological and genetic evidence for a variant of superficial spreading melanoma composed predominantly of large nests.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, Heinz; Metzler, Gisela; Argenyi, Zsolt; Requena, Luis; Palmedo, Gabriele; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno; Hantschke, Markus; Paredes, Bruno E; Schärer, Leo; Hesse, Benedikt; El-Shabrawi-Caelen, Laila; Shabrawi-Caelen, Leila El; Fried, Isabella; Kerl, Helmut; Lorenzo, Cerroni; Murali, Rajmohan; Wiesner, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Cutaneous melanomas are characterized by a range of histological appearances, and several morphological variants have been described. In this study, we report a variant of superficial spreading melanoma that is characterized by large, irregular junctional melanocytic nests. The junctional nests varied in shape and size, showed focal tendency to confluence, and were often surrounded by a cuff of epidermal keratinocytes. The melanocytes comprising the nests showed variable cytological atypia. In most of the cases, scant intraepidermal or junctional single melanocytes were seen, and other well-documented diagnostic criteria for melanoma were lacking, and as a result, histological recognition of these tumors as melanoma was difficult. Some cases were associated with an invasive dermal component or showed evidence of sun damage. To provide supporting evidence for malignancy, we analyzed these tumors for genomic aberrations. Using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we identified multiple genomic aberrations in all analyzed cases. A similar pattern of genomic aberrations was seen in a control group of bona fide superficial spreading melanomas, suggesting that these 'melanomas composed exclusively or predominantly of large nests' are indeed variants of superficial spreading melanoma. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was positive in 40% of the cases. However, using aCGH, the FISH-negative cases showed multiple genomic aberrations in regions that are not covered by FISH. The low sensitivity of the FISH test can be explained by the fact that FISH only evaluates four genomic loci for aberrations, whereas aCGH surveys the entire genome. In summary, we present histological and molecular genetic evidence for a morphological variant of superficial spreading melanoma. Awareness of the histological features will aid in their correct diagnosis as melanoma, and in difficult cases, judicious application of ancillary tests such as aCGH (rather than FISH) will

  4. Interaction of melittin with mixed phospholipid membranes composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine studied by deuterium NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, C.; Bitbol, M.; Watts, A. )

    1989-08-08

    The interaction of bee venom melittin with mixed phospholipid bilayers composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine deuterated in the {alpha}- and {beta}-methylenes of the choline head group (DMPC-d{sub 4}) and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine deuterated in the {alpha}-methylene and {beta}-CH positions of the serine head group (DMPS-d{sub 3}) was studied in ternary mixtures by using deuterium NMR spectroscopy. The changes in the deuterium quadrupole splittings of the head-group deuteriomethylenes of DMPC-d{sub 4} induced by DMPS in binary mixtures were systematically reversed by increasing concentrations of melittin, so that at a melittin concentration of 4 mol % relative to total lipid the deuterium NMR spectrum from DMPC-d{sub 4} in the ternary mixture was similar to the spectrum from pure DMPC-d{sub 4} bilayers. The absence of deuterium NMR signals arising from melittin-bound DMPS in ternary mixtures containing DMPS-d{sub 3} indicates that the reversal by melittin of the effects of DMPS on the quadrupole splittings of DMPC-d{sub 4} results from the response of the choline head group to the net surface charge rather than from phase separation of melittin-DMPS complexes. The similarity in the effects of the two cationic but otherwise dissimilar peptides indicates that the DMPS head group responds to the surface charge resulting from the presence in the bilayer of charged amphiphiles, in a manner analogous to the response of the choline head group of phosphatidylcholine to the bilayer surface charge. The presence of DMPS greatly stabilized DMPC bilayers with respect to melittin-induced micellization, indicating that the latter effect of melittin may not be important for the hemolytic activity of the peptide.

  5. Active control of sound transmission through partitions composed of discretely controlled modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leishman, Timothy W.

    This thesis provides a detailed theoretical and experimental investigation of active segmented partitions (ASPs) for the control of sound transmission. ASPs are physically segmented arrays of interconnected acoustically and structurally small modules that are discretely controlled using electronic controllers. Theoretical analyses of the thesis first address physical principles fundamental to ASP modeling and experimental measurement techniques. Next, they explore specific module configurations, primarily using equivalent circuits. Measured normal-incidence transmission losses and related properties of experimental ASPs are determined using plane wave tubes and the two-microphone transfer function technique. A scanning laser vibrometer is also used to evaluate distributed transmitting surface vibrations. ASPs have the inherent potential to provide excellent active sound transmission control (ASTC) through lightweight structures, using very practical control strategies. The thesis analyzes several unique ASP configurations and evaluates their abilities to produce high transmission losses via global minimization of normal transmitting surface vibrations. A novel dual diaphragm configuration is shown to employ this strategy particularly well. It uses an important combination of acoustical actuation and mechano-acoustical segmentation to produce exceptionally high transmission loss (e.g., 50 to 80 dB) over a broad frequency range-including lower audible frequencies. Such performance is shown to be comparable to that produced by much more massive partitions composed of thick layers of steel or concrete and sand. The configuration uses only simple localized error sensors and actuators, permitting effective use of independent single-channel controllers in a decentralized format. This work counteracts the commonly accepted notion that active vibration control of partitions is an ineffective means of controlling sound transmission. With appropriate construction, actuation

  6. Are clownfish groups composed of close relatives? An analysis of microsatellite DNA variation in Amphiprion percula.

    PubMed

    Buston, Peter M; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Wong, Alex; Harrison, Richard G

    2007-09-01

    A central question of evolutionary ecology is: why do animals live in groups? Answering this question requires that the costs and benefits of group living are measured from the perspective of each individual in the group. This, in turn, requires that the group's genetic structure is elucidated, because genetic relatedness can modulate the individuals' costs and benefits. The clown anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, lives in groups composed of a breeding pair and zero to four nonbreeders. Both breeders and nonbreeders stand to gain by associating with relatives: breeders might prefer to tolerate nonbreeders that are relatives because there is little chance that relatives will survive to breed elsewhere; nonbreeders might prefer to associate with breeders that are relatives because of the potential to accrue indirect genetic benefits by enhancing anemone and, consequently, breeder fitness. Given the potential benefits of associating with relatives, we use microsatellite loci to investigate whether or not individuals within groups of A. percula are related. We develop seven polymorphic microsatellite loci, with a number of alleles (range 2-24) and an observed level of heterozygosity (mean = 0.5936) sufficient to assess fine-scale genetic structure. The mean coefficient of relatedness among group members is 0.00 +/- 0.10 (n = 9 groups), and there are no surprising patterns in the distribution of pairwise relatedness. We conclude that A. percula live in groups of unrelated individuals. This study lays the foundation for further investigations of behavioural, population and community ecology of anemonefishes which are emerging as model systems for evolutionary ecology in the marine environment.

  7. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l’on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  8. Evaluation des connaissances des parents sur les bronchiolites aiguës

    PubMed Central

    Gueddari, Widad; Tazi, Abderrahmane; Ouardi, Amine; Nani, Samira; Zineddine, Abdelhadi

    2014-01-01

    Les infections respiratoires (IR) constituent la deuxième cause de mortalité infantile au Maroc, dû en partie à l'absence d'information et de sensibilisation. Le but de ce travail était d’évaluer les connaissances des parents sur la bronchiolite aiguë, infection respiratoire très fréquente. Nous avons réalisé une enquête basée sur un questionnaire, auprès de parents de nourrissons consultants pour toux, avec ou sans gêne respiratoire. 180 parents ont été inclus dans l’étude. Les parents pensaient que l'infection respiratoire était secondaire au climat froid (96%); seuls 4% ont évoqué une origine infectieuse. Aucun des parents ne savait que le lavage des mains était un moyen de prévention de la transmission. Les parents ont majoritairement répondu que la kinésithérapie respiratoire ne servait à rien (65%), et qu'elle était nocive (24.5%). Ce manque de connaissances fondamentales en matière d'IR et de bronchiolite en particulier, devrait inciter à entreprendre un programme de sensibilisation PMID:25328606

  9. DES the year in review: controversies.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Bourantas, C; Serruys, P W

    2013-04-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) have transformed interventional cardiology over the past decade. Whilst their efficacy has rarely been called into question, there have been concerns over the safety of the early devices, which has prompted the development of new coronary stents. Many of these new devices have entered clinical practice, however questions remain as to whether they offer the improvements in clinical outcomes that were originally anticipated. In addition, there is a debate whether the reported high efficacy of these devices enables percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to be performed in patient and lesion sub-groups previous entirely the domain of the cardiac surgeon. This review paper addresses these outstanding questions. PMID:23492595

  10. Formation et Evolution des Quasars et Contraintes cosmologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia

    2000-06-01

    Cette thèse porte sur l'étude de l'évolution des quasars. Elle en aborde certains aspects théoriques et observationnels, ainsi que la construction des grands échantillons de quasars dans le but à long terme de combiner le tout dans un test cosmologique géométrique pour déterminer les valeurs des paramètres cosmologiques Omega et Lambda. Les paramètres cosmologiques Omegaspan>et Lambdaspan>décrivent la géométrie globale de l'Univers. En faisant des hypothèses raisonnables sur la distribution spatiale et l'évolution des objets astrophysiques (galaxies, amas des galaxies, quasars), on peut déterminer les valeurs de ces paramètres qui sont cohérentes avec ces hypothèses. Les tests cosmologiques traditionnels ont besoin de ''chandelles standards'', objets dont les propriétés intrinsèques sont indépendantes des distances. De tels objets sont probablement fictifs. Néanmoins, certains de ces tests cosmologiques peuvent être adaptés si l'évolution individuelle, ou au moins l'évolution statistique d'une population d'objets est connue. La question de la nature de l'évolution des quasars a très vite été posée et des réponses ''phénoménologiques'' ont d'abord été données. Ces réponses ne faisaient que donner une forme mathématique à l'évolution mais n'expliquaient rien de la physique duphénomène. Les premières tentatives de construction d'un modèle physique, liées au processus d'accrétion sur un trou noir et à la théorie de la formation de l'Univers ont commencé à la fin des années 80. Depuis, des dizaines de modèles tentent d'expliquer les observations, qui sont les résultats de l'étude d'objets de plus en plus nombreux. Au cours de cette thèse, le test V/Vmax a été appliqué sur l'échantillon du Large Bright Quasar Survey en montrant 1) que l'échantillon était biaisé à cause des critères de sélection et 2) que la (simple) loi de Pure Evolution en Luminosité n'était pas une bonne approximation à tout

  11. Le syndrome des enfants battus: aspects cliniques et radiologiques

    PubMed Central

    Jlalia, Zied; Znaigui, Talel; Smida, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    La maltraitance physique des enfants ou le syndrome des enfants battus est responsable de plus de 75.000 décès par an en France. Ce problème de santé publique reste sous diagnostiqué en Tunisie et dans le monde. Le chemin a été laborieux pour la reconnaissance du syndrome des enfants battus dans certaines sociétés même occidentales. Nous avons voulus exposer ce problème aux praticiens afin qu'il soit mieux diagnostiqué et pris en charge. La maltraitance physique des enfants est appelée à tort syndrome de Silverman qui ne regroupe en fait que les lésions squelettiques chez ces enfants tels que les fractures. Mots clés: Fracture, maltraitance, enfant, neuro-radiologie PMID:27642408

  12. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2kqw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Kniazev, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2kqw discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (380-820nm) was obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  13. 2. Photocopied 1972 from Ecole imperiale des ponts et chaussees, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied 1972 from Ecole imperiale des ponts et chaussees, Collection de Dessins Distribues aus eleves, (n.d. and no place), ORIGINAL FINK TRUSS BRIDGE, 1852. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Fairmont Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, Fairmont, Marion County, WV

  14. Large landslides, composed of megabreccia, interbedded in Miocene basin deposits, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krieger, Medora Louise Hooper

    1977-01-01

    The landslides in the Kearny and El Capitan Mountain quadrangles, Pinal and Gila Counties, Ariz., are tabular or lens like masses of megabreccia enclosed in Miocene basin deposits. The megabreccias within individual slide blocks are composed of pervasively brecciated Precambrian and younger formations that remain in normal stratigraphic sequence, indicating that each landslide moved as a fairly coherent mass. The megabreccias consist of fresh, mostly angular rock fragments in a comminuted matrix of the same composition as the fragments. The matrix ranges in amount from sparse to abundant. Where the matrix is sparse, the fragments fit tightly with little or no rotation. Locally fragments are rotated but not moved far; most units within a slide block are lithologically homogeneous. The Kearny landslides are conformably interbedded in steeply east-dipping playa and alluvial deposits. They form map units from a few tens of meters to nearly 4 km long and from less than 1 to 270 m wide. Narrow ridges expose sections through the landslides at about right angles to the direction of movement. The upper (proximal) ends have been eroded; the lower (distal) ends are buried. The El Capitan landslide dips very gently southward. Although partly dissected during erosion of the enclosing alluvial and lakebed deposits, its approximate original outline is still preserved. It forms a thin sheet, 5-15 m thick and at least 3.8 km long; the maximum outcrop width, near its distal end, is about 1.5 km. The Kearny landslides show little evidence of having exerted differential pressure on the underlying soft playa and alluvial deposits, and the contacts with the underlying sediments have little relief. The distal end of the El Capitan landslide, on the other hand, has considerable relief. As the landslide came to an abrupt stop, the end plowed into the underlying sediments, compressing them into fol9.s and forming sandstone dikes. The source of the El Capitan landslide is a well

  15. Thermo-electrical properties of composite semiconductor thin films composed of nanocrystalline graphene-vanadium oxides.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hye-Mi; Um, Sukkee

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental comparative study involving the characterization of the thermo-electrical and structural properties of graphene-based vanadium oxide (graphene-VOx) composite thin films on insulating and conducting surfaces (i.e., fused quartz and acrylic resin-impregnated graphite) produced by a sol-gel process via dipping-pyrolysis. A combination of FE-SEM and XPS analyses revealed that the graphene-VOx composite thin films (coated onto fused quartz) exhibiting the microstructure of 2-graded nanowire arrays with a diameter of 40-80 nm were composed of graphene, a few residual oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., C-O and C=O), and the VO2 Magnéli phase. The temperature-dependent electrical resistance measured on the as-deposited thin films clearly demonstrated that the graphene-VOx composite nanowire arrays thermally grown on fused quartz act as a semiconductor switch, with a transition temperature of 64.7 degrees C in the temperature range of -20 degrees C to 140 degrees C, resulting from the contributions of graphene and graphene oxides. In contrast, the graphene-VOx composite thin films deposited onto acrylic resin-impregnated graphite exhibit a superlinear semiconducting property of extremely low electrical resistance with negative temperature coefficients (i.e., approximately four orders of magnitude lower than that of the fused quartz), despite the similar microstructural and morphological characteristics. This difference is attributed to the synergistic effects of the paramagnetic metal feature of the tightly stacked nanowire arrays consisting of hexagonal V2O3 on the intrinsic electrical properties of the acrylic resin-impregnated graphite substrate, as revealed by FE-SEM, EDX, AFM, and XRD measurements. Although the thermo-sensitive electrical properties of the graphene-VOx composite thin films are very substrate specific, the applicability of graphene sheets can be considerably effective in the formation of highly planar arrays

  16. Unmasking the effect of a precipitation pulse on the biological processes composing Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Ballesteros, Ana; Sanchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Kowalski, Andrew S.; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Domingo, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Drylands occupy 47.2% of the global terrestrial area and are key ecosystems that significantly determine the inter-annual variability of the global carbon balance. However, it is still necessary to delve into the functional behavior of arid and semiarid ecosystems due to the complexity of drivers and interactions between underpinning processes (whether biological or abiotic) that modulate net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). In this context, water inputs are crucial to biological organisms survival in arid ecosystems and frequently arrive via rain events that are commonly stochastic and unpredictable (i.e. precipitation pulses) and strongly control arid land ecosystem structure and function. The eddy covariance technique can be used to investigate the effect of precipitation pulses on NEE, but provide limited understanding of what exactly happens after a rain event. The chief reasons are that, firstly, we cannot measure separately autotrophic and heterotrophic components, and secondly, the partitioning techniques widely utilized to separate Gross Primary Production and Total Ecosystem Respiration, do not work properly in these water-limited ecosystems, resulting in biased estimations of plant and soil processes. Consequently, it is essential to combine eddy covariance measurements with other techniques to disentangle the different biological processes composing NEE that are activated by a precipitation pulse. Accordingly, the main objectives of this work were: (i) to quantify the contribution of precipitation pulse events to annual NEE using the eddy covariance technique in a semiarid steppe located in Almería (Spain), and (ii) to simulate a realistic precipitation pulse in order to understand its effect on the ecosystem, soil and plant CO2 exchanges by using a transitory-state closed canopy chamber, soil respiration chambers and continuous monitoring CO2 sensors inserted in the subsoil. Preliminary results showed, as expected, a delay between soil and plant

  17. Die Evolution des Universums. Eine Geschichte der Kosmologie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, H.

    This volume covers in an elementary course a historical overview on cosmology ranging from the ancient aspects up to big bang theory and the concepts of inflationary universe and grand unified theories. Contents: 1. Auf dem Wege zur Wissenschaft. 2. Die neue Kosmologie. 3. Die Struktur des Weltalls. 4. Dramatik im Weltall. 5. Die endliche Welt. 6. Die Evolution des frühen Universums. 7. Die Zukunft. 8. Die neue Teleologie. 9. Das Leben.

  18. [Treatment with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), endourology and dissolution for staghorn calculi composed of cystine: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Shiraiwa, K; Ben, A; Ikeda, R; Kobayashi, S; Suzuki, K; Tsugawa, R

    1990-05-01

    Two cases of complete staghorn calculi composed of cystine that were treated with ESWL, endourology and dissolution are reported. After successful dissolution in vitro using tromethamine (pH 8-10), the same solution was used to irrigate the renal collecting system via nephrostomy tube for residual fragments after ESWL and/or endourology. One patient was treated with dissolution for 60 days, the other patient for 6 days. After this therapy, these patients became almost stone-free. Our experience demonstrates that the residual fragments after ESWL and/or endourology with staghorn calculi composed of cystine can be dissolved by tromethamine.

  19. Calculation of the attenuation and phase displacement per unit of length due to rain composed of ellipsoidal drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggiori, D.

    1981-01-01

    All of the phenomena which influence the propagation of radiowaves at frequencies above 10 GHz (attenuation, depolarization, scintillation) can by intensified by parameters directly derived from a solution of individual scatter, naturally in addition to be meteorological elements which characterize the physical medium. The diffusion caused by rainy precipitation was studied using Mie's algorithm for rain composed of spherical drops, and Oguchi's algorithm for rain composed of drops in an ellipsoidal form with axes of rotational symmetry arrange along the vertical line of a generic reference point. Specific phase displacement and attenuation along the principal planes, propagation of radiowaves in generic polarization, and propagation with inclined axes are also considered.

  20. Identification et prise en charge des femmes ayant des antécédents familiaux de cancer du sein

    PubMed Central

    Heisey, Ruth; Carroll, June C.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Résumer les meilleures données portant sur les stratégies d’identification et de prise en charge des femmes qui présentent des antécédents familiaux de cancer du sein. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée sur PubMed à l’aide des mots-clés anglais suivants : breast cancer, guidelines, risk, family history, management et magnetic resonance imaging screening, entre 2000 et 2016. La plupart des données sont de niveau II. Message principal Une bonne anamnèse familiale est essentielle lors de l’évaluation du risque de cancer du sein afin d’identifier les femmes qui sont candidates à une recommandation en counseling génétique pour un éventuel test génétique. On peut sauver des vies en offrant aux femmes porteuses d’une mutation au gène BRCA des interventions chirurgicales de réduction des risques (mastectomie bilatérale prophylactique, salpingo-ovariectomie bilatérale). Il faut encourager toutes les femmes qui présentent des antécédents familiaux de cancer du sein à demeurer actives et à limiter leur consommation d’alcool à moins de 1 verre par jour; certaines femmes sont admissibles à la chimioprévention. Il faut offrir aux femmes dont le risque à vie de cancer du sein est de 20 à 25 % ou plus un dépistage poussé par imagerie par résonance magnétique en plus d’une mammographie. Conclusion Une vie saine et la chimioprévention (chez les candidates) pourraient réduire l’incidence du cancer du sein; le dépistage poussé pourrait entraîner une détection plus précoce. Le fait d’aiguiller des femmes porteuses d’une mutation au BRCA vers la chirurgie de réduction des risques sauve des vies. PMID:27737991

  1. Profil épidémiologique des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires : à propos de 154 cas

    PubMed Central

    Setti, Khadija; Mouanis, Mohamed; Moumni, Abdelmounim; Maher, Mostafa; Harmouch, Amal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les tumeurs des glandes salivaires sont des tumeurs rares représentant 3à 5% des tumeurs de la tête et du cou. La classification de l'OMS 2005 distingue les tumeurs épithéliales, les tumeurs mésenchymateuses, les tumeurs hématologiques et les tumeurs secondaires. Méthodes Notre travail consiste en une étude rétrospective réalisée sur une période de 10 ans allant de janvier 2002 à janvier 2012. Les critères d'inclusion étaient: l'âge, le sexe, le siège de la tumeur et le type histologique. Résultats L'incidence annuelle des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires dans notre série était de 15 cas par an. Cent cinquante quatre cas de tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires ont été colligés sans prédominance de sexe (78 femmes (50,6%) et 76 hommes (49,4%)). La moyenne d'âge était de 60 ans avec des extrêmes de 4 et 83 ans et un pic de fréquence entre 51et 70 ans. Deux tiers des cas (65%) avaient une localisation au niveau des glandes principales avec 66 cas au niveau de la parotide (43%) et 34 cas au niveau de la glande sous maxillaire (22%). Cinquante quatre patients avaient une tumeur maligne des glandes salivaires accessoires (35%) dont 61% au niveau du palais. Aucun cas de tumeur maligne de la glande sublinguale n'a été recensé dans notre étude. Le type histologique prédominant dans notre série était le carcinome adénoïde kystique et retrouvé chez 43 patients (27,9%), suivi de l'adénocarcinome sans autre indication chez 37 patients (24%) puis du carcinome mucoépidermoïde chez 16 patients (10,4%) et de l'adénocarcinome polymorphe de bas grade également chez 16 patients (10. 4%). Conclusion Les tumeurs malignes des glandes salivaires représentent un ensemble hétérogène de maladies de caractérisation complexe et de fréquence variable. PMID:25120861

  2. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River basins, southern Minnesota and northern Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, Christopher A.

    2000-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, located in southwestern Minnesota, and northwestern Iowa, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  3. [Le leadership en santé et l'éthique de la gestion des attentes des soignants et des patients].

    PubMed

    Browne, Alister

    2016-03-01

    Les dispensateurs de soins et les patients sont souvent déçus du niveau de soins que les hôpitaux publics peuvent prodiguer. La solution consiste à réduire les attentes. Les dispensateurs devraient être amenés à considérer que leur obligation consiste à prodiguer les meilleurs soins en fonction des ressources. Le public devrait être bien informé des services que les hôpitaux de soins actifs peuvent ou non lui offrir et participer aux prises de décision. Les leaders en santé peuvent jouer des rôles novateurs à cet égard.

  4. The ``Ciel, miroir des cultures'' exhibition: a three-year awareness campaign on the sky as a mirror of cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Las Vergnas, Olivier; Piednoël, Eric; Gautier, Gérard

    2011-06-01

    The Ciel, miroir des cultures poster-exhibition was designed by the Association Française d'Astronomie and printed in 300 copies in 2005. Each copy is composed of 14 posters introducing the different ways human beings and societies have used the sky and the heavens in history. More than three hundred cultural events have now been using the exhibition in schools and community structures as public libraries and social centres, taking place mainly in low-income urban or suburban neighbourhoods. This three-year work demonstrated the relevance of this kind of tools and events to pedagogical and social aims, specifically if the event is not limited to showing posters and also offers an opportunity for dialogue.

  5. CrusDe: A plug-in based simulation framework for composable CRUStal DEformation simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, R.

    2008-12-01

    Within geoscience, Green's method is an established mathematical tool to analyze the dynamics of the Earth's crust in response to the application of a mass force, e.g. a surface load. Different abstractions from the Earth's interior as well as the particular effects caused by such a force are expressed by means of a Green's function, G, which is a particular solution to an inhomogeneous differential equation with boundary conditions. Surface loads, L, are defined by real data or as analytical expressions. The response of the crust to a surface load is gained by a 2D-convolution (**) of the Green's function with this load. The crustal response can be thought of as an instantaneous displacement which is followed by a gradual transition towards the final relaxed state of displacement. A relaxation function, R, describing such a transition depends on the rheological model for the ductile layer of the crust. The 1D-convolution (*) of the relaxation function with a load history, H, allows to include the temporal evolution of the surface load into a model. The product of the two convolution results expresses the displacement (rate) of the crust, U, at a certain time t: Ut = (R * H)t · (G ** L) Rather than implementing a variety of specific models, approaching crustal deformation problems from the general formulation in equation~1 opens the opportunity to consider reuse of model building blocks within a more flexible simulation framework. Model elements (Green's function, load function, etc.), operators, pre- and postprocessing, and even input and output routines could be part of a framework that enables a user to freely compose software components to resemble equation~1. The simulation framework CrusDe implements equation~1 in the proposed way. CrusDe's architecture defines interfaces for generic communication between the simulation core and the model elements. Thus, exchangeability of the particular model element implementations is possible. In the presented plug

  6. Les sarcomes des tissus mous: à propos de 33 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Jiddou; Elkabous, Mustapha; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de rapporter les particularités épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des sarcomes des tissus mous à l'Institut National d'Oncologie et de définir les facteurs influençant la survie des patients. C'est une étude rétrospective de 33 cas de sarcome des tissus mous, colligés entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2010. Les critères d’éligibilité étaient un âge supérieur à 16 ans, une épreuve histologique d'un sarcome des tissus mous à l'exclusion des tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales (GIST). Les items recueillis étaient: épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, Radiologiques, et thérapeutiques. Des analyses univariées puis multivariées ont été réalisées à la recherche de facteurs influençant la survie à 2 ans. Il s'agit de 33 cas, 17 Hommes et 16 Femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,21 ans (Extrêmes= 18-76 ans). La tumeur était localisée aux extrémités dans 24 cas (72,72%). Le type histologique prédominant était le Liposarcome dans 9 cas (27,27%). Le stade tumoral était localisé dans 25 cas (75,8%), métastatique dans 8 cas (24,2%). Vingt-cinq tumeurs ont été traitées chirurgicalement dont 21 cas (84%) de chirurgie conservatrice et 4 cas (16%) de chirurgie radicale. La radiothérapie a été réalisée chez 10 patients (30,3%). La chimiothérapie a été faite chez 20 patients. En analyse univariée les facteurs pronostiques étaient l’âge (p=0,03) et le stade tumoral (p=0,09). L’âge et le stade tumoral sont des facteurs pronostiques influençant la survie des sarcomes des tissus mous. PMID:27022434

  7. Composing and Performing in the Key Stage 3 Classroom: A Study using Multi-Trait, Multi-Method Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    "Music is both a creative and a performing art" (Hallam, 2006, p. 70). Many musicians and music educators maintain that composing and performing, although related, are essentially different aspects of musical activity. In the professional musical sphere, composition and performance are almost invariably separated; academic studies have…

  8. Past and Present Intertwining When Learning Is at Stake: Composing and Learning in a Music Theatre Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mars, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study investigating musical learning among 9th grade adolescents in a Swedish lower secondary school. The adolescents collaboratively composed songs for a self-written musical, which they taught to their peers. The purpose of the study was to explore the ways in which adolescents acquire musical knowledge in this specific…

  9. A Note on Using Stratified Alpha to Estimate the Composite Reliability of a Test Composed of Interrelated Nonhomogeneous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between stratified alpha (alpha-sub(s)) and the reliability of a test composed of interrelated nonhomogeneous items is examined. It is mathematically demonstrated that when there is congeneric equivalence within the strata or subtests, the difference between the coefficients is a function of the variances of the loadings within…

  10. Methodology of Artistic Identification on the Path of the Comprehension of Composer's Works in a Piano Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meleshkina, Elena Anatolyevna; Scherbakova, Anna Iosifovna; Korsakova, Irina Anatolyevna; Slavina, Elena Vladimirovna; Kazakova, Irina Sergeevna

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the reflection on the problem of the "immersion" in the artistic world of a composer's creative work in a piano class in the beginning of the 21st century. The wealth and diversity of the music material for piano players determine the new quality of understanding music and set high goals and objectives for a…

  11. Improvement of levitation force characteristics in magnetic levitation type seismic isolation device composed of HTS bulk and permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, M.; Kawasaki, T.; Yagai, T.; Hamajima, T.

    2008-02-01

    Magnetic levitation type seismic isolation device composed of HTS bulks and permanent magnets can theoretically remove horizontal vibration completely. It is, however, not easy to generate the large levitation force by using only the levitation system composed of HTS bulk and permanent magnet (HTS-PM system). We focused on a hybrid levitation system composed of the HTS-PM system and the PM-PM system composed of only permanent magnets and investigated the suitable arranging method of the hybrid system for improving levitation force and obtaining stable levitation. In order to clarify the most suitable permanent magnet arrangement in the PM-PM system for the levitation force improvement, repulsive force between permanent magnets was measured in various kinds of the PM-PM system. The maximum repulsive force per unit area in the PM-PM system was at least three times larger than the levitation force per unit area in the HTS-PM system, so that the levitation force in the hybrid system was larger than that of the HTS-PM system. Stable levitation was also achieved in the hybrid system. This is because repulsive force in the PM-PM system against horizontal displacement was much smaller than restoring force in the HTS-PM system.

  12. Investigating Children's Musical Interactions within the Activities Systems of Group Composing and Arranging: An Application of Engestrom's Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnard, Pamela; Younker, Betty Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article applies Engestrom's Activity Theory (AT) as an analytical lens to identify defining characteristics of the collaborative creative music making activities of composing and arranging. Attention is paid to the complex interrelationships among the various elements of interaction in children's collaborative creative music making as…

  13. Body Parts, the Water Cycle, Plants, and Dolphins: Adventures in Primary-Grade Whole-Class Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the author's personal experiences leading primary grades in whole-class composing. Together they created songs inspired by topics the students were exploring in their homeroom classes. The author systematically describes the songwriting process they employed, identifying specific challenges encountered along the way. The…

  14. Pen and Paper vs. the Machine: Writers Composing in Hard Copy and Computer Conditions. CDC Technical Report No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Christina; Hayes, John R.

    A study was conducted to replicate partially John Gould's study using more advanced machines and editors, and to test several of Colette Daiute's hypotheses about writing with the computer. Gould's study indicated that expert writers using text editors required 50% more time to compose on text editors than on hard copy, and the extra time did not…

  15. Using Open Captions to Revise Writing in Digital Stories Composed by d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strassman, Barbara K.; O'Dell, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Using a nonexperimental design, the researchers explored the effect of captioning as part of the writing process of individuals who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing. Sixty-nine d/Deaf and hard of hearing middle school students composed responses to four writing-to-learn activities in a word processor. Two compositions were revised and published with…

  16. A Comparison of Text Structure and Self-Regulated Writing Strategies for Composing from Sources by Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Gillian A.; Perin, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    This study compared two techniques for teaching middle school students to compose from expository text sources, a common but difficult academic writing task. Classroom social studies content was used. Text structure instruction (TSI), which focused on text characteristics using graphic organizers, was compared with PLAN & WRITE for Summarization…

  17. Item-Weighted Likelihood Method for Ability Estimation in Tests Composed of Both Dichotomous and Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Jian; Shi, Ning-Zhong; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    For mixed-type tests composed of both dichotomous and polytomous items, polytomous items often yield more information than dichotomous ones. To reflect the difference between the two types of items, polytomous items are usually pre-assigned with larger weights. We propose an item-weighted likelihood method to better assess examinees' ability…

  18. A Randomized Rounding Approach for Optimization of Test Sheet Composing and Exposure Rate Control in Computer-Assisted Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chu-Fu; Lin, Chih-Lung; Deng, Jien-Han

    2012-01-01

    Testing is an important stage of teaching as it can assist teachers in auditing students' learning results. A good test is able to accurately reflect the capability of a learner. Nowadays, Computer-Assisted Testing (CAT) is greatly improving traditional testing, since computers can automatically and quickly compose a proper test sheet to meet user…

  19. Composing a Narrative Story in a Third Language: Multilinguals' Reliance on Multiple Languages in an L3 Linguistic Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pap, Emese Boksay

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an exploratory study that employed the concurrent think-aloud method to investigate narrative text-creating strategies of multilingual Transylvanian-Hungarians in English, their third language. The study explored the participants' reliance on their different languages as they composed a story in English based…

  20. Netscape Communicator 4.5. Volume II: Beyond the Basics. Advanced Searches, Multimedia, and Composing a Web Page.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This second of two guides on Netscape Communicator 4.5 contains six lessons on advanced searches, multimedia, and composing a World Wide Web page. Lesson 1 is a review of the Navigator window, toolbars, and menus. Lesson 2 covers AltaVista's advanced search tips, searching for information excluding certain text, and advanced and nested Boolean…

  1. La planification préalable des soins pour les patients en pédiatrie

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les progrès médicaux et technologiques ont permis d’ac-croître les taux de survie et d’améliorer la qualité de vie des nourrissons, des enfants et des adolescents ayant des maladies chroniques mettant la vie en danger. La planifi-cation préalable des soins inclut le processus relié aux discussions sur les traitements essentiels au maintien de la survie et la détermination des objectifs des soins de longue durée. Les dispensateurs de soins pédiatriques ont l’obligation éthique d’assimiler cet aspect des soins médicaux. Le présent document de principes vise à aider les dispensateurs de soins à discuter de la planification préalable des soins des patients pédiatriques dans diverses situations. La planification préalable des soins exige des communications efficaces afin de clarifier les objectifs des soins et de s’entendre sur les traitements pertinents ou non pour réaliser ces objectifs, y compris les mesures de réanimation et les mesures palliatives.

  2. SU-E-T-327: The Update of a XML Composing Tool for TrueBeam Developer Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y; Mao, W; Jiang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a major upgrade of a novel XML beam composing tool to scientists and engineers who strive to translate certain capabilities of TrueBeam Developer Mode to future clinical benefits of radiation therapy. Methods: TrueBeam Developer Mode provides the users with a test bed for unconventional plans utilizing certain unique features not accessible at the clinical mode. To access the full set of capabilities, a XML beam definition file accommodating all parameters including kV/MV imaging triggers in the plan can be locally loaded at this mode, however it is difficult and laborious to compose one in a text editor. In this study, a stand-along interactive XML beam composing application, TrueBeam TeachMod, was developed on Windows platforms to assist users in making their unique plans in a WYSWYG manner. A conventional plan can be imported in a DICOM RT object as the start of the beam editing process in which trajectories of all axes of a TrueBeam machine can be modified to the intended values at any control point. TeachMod also includes libraries of predefined imaging and treatment procedures to further expedite the process. Results: The TeachMod application is a major of the TeachMod module within DICOManTX. It fully supports TrueBeam 2.0. Trajectories of all axes including all MLC leaves can be graphically rendered and edited as needed. The time for XML beam composing has been reduced to a negligible amount regardless the complexity of the plan. A good understanding of XML language and TrueBeam schema is not required though preferred. Conclusion: Creating XML beams manually in a text editor will be a lengthy error-prone process for sophisticated plans. A XML beam composing tool is highly desirable for R and D activities. It will bridge the gap between scopes of TrueBeam capabilities and their clinical application potentials.

  3. De l'importance des orbites periodiques: Detection et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyon, Bernard

    L'ensemble des Orbites Periodiques Instables (OPIs) d'un systeme chaotique est intimement relie a ses proprietes dynamiques. A partir de l'ensemble (en principe infini) d'OPIs cachees dans l'espace des phases, on peut obtenir des quantites dynamiques importantes telles les exposants de Lyapunov, la mesure invariante, l'entropie topologique et la dimension fractale. En chaos quantique (i.e. l'etude de systemes quantiques qui ont un equivalent chaotique dans la limite classique), ces memes OPIs permettent de faire le pont entre le comportement classique et quantique de systemes non-integrables. La localisation de ces cycles fondamentaux est un probleme complexe. Cette these aborde dans un premier temps le probleme de la detection des OPIs dans les systemes chaotiques. Une etude comparative de deux algorithmes recents est presentee. Nous approfondissons ces deux methodes afin de les utiliser sur differents systemes dont des flots continus dissipatifs et conservatifs. Une analyse du taux de convergence des algorithmes est aussi realisee afin de degager les forces et les limites de ces schemes numeriques. Les methodes de detection que nous utilisons reposent sur une transformation particuliere de la dynamique initiale. Cette astuce nous a inspire une methode alternative pour cibler et stabiliser une orbite periodique quelconque dans un systeme chaotique. Le ciblage est en general combine aux methodes de controle pour stabiliser rapidement un cycle donne. En general, il faut connaitre la position et la stabilite du cycle en question. La nouvelle methode de ciblage que nous presentons ne demande pas de connaitre a priori la position et la stabilite des orbites periodiques. Elle pourrait etre un outil complementaire aux methodes de ciblage et de controle actuelles.

  4. Catalog Production for the DES Blind Cosmology Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, R. H.; Becker, M. R.; Erickson, B.; Evrard, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Blind Cosmology Challenge (BCC) is an effort by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to test analysis tools for extracting cosmological information using a set of detailed synthetic galaxy catalogs. Here, we describe the creation of these synthetic sky catalogs based on requirements of the optical (DES) and the near-IR VISTA Hemisphere Survey, producing catalogs covering a quarter of the sky to z ˜ 2, with sources complete to r ˜ 25. Starting with a nested set of lightcone outputs of large, N-body simulation, galaxies are assigned to the dark matter distribution using an empirical algorithm that is tunable to match observed evolution of low-order galaxy population properties (counts and spatial clustering) in luminosity-color-density space. Galaxies are lensed by matter along the line of sight (including magnification, shape distortion, and multiple images), using a new algorithm that calculates shear with 3.22 arcsec resolution at galaxy positions in the full catalog. The catalog is well suited to support DES+VISTA joint studies of galaxy clustering, groups and clusters of galaxies, and gravitational lensing, and we highlight their application to the ongoing DES BBCC. Catalogs include ˜320 million galaxies and ˜150 million stars, with realistic colors, shapes and photometric errors. Using the expected DES photometric errors, three independent photometric redshift codes are run on the catalog, two of which produce full probability distributions. The synthetic observable catalog includes object position, magnitudes in the DES and VISTA bands, photometric errors, photometric redshifts, size, ellipticity, for each of ˜ 500 million objects. The galaxy distribution is additionally masked appropriately for the 5000 square degree DES footprint, including the impact of bright stars. In addition, we offer separate catalogs with magnitudes for additional existing and planned surveys, including SDSS, CFHTLS, HSC, LSST, and Euclid.

  5. 75 FR 25319 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Satisfaction With the Disability Evaluation System (DES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Survey of Satisfaction With the Disability Evaluation System (DES... Control No. 2900-New (DES).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Survey of Satisfaction with the...

  6. Étude expérimentale et modélisation du comportement en compression des structures nid d'abeille

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminanda, Y.; Castanié, B.; Barrau, J. J.; Thévenet, P.; Guedra-Degeorges, D.

    2002-12-01

    Dans le domaine aéronautique les impacts, même de faible énergie, sur des structures sandwichs à âme nid d'abeille posent des problèmes majeurs en terme de résistance résiduelle. La modélisation de l'endom magement dû à l'impact nécessite la connaissance préliminaire du comportement du nid d'abeille en compression. Des essais réalisés en compression quasi-statique uniforme sur des pains de nids d'abeille en différents matériaux (Nomex, Aluminium et Canson) permettent de décomposer la séquence de formation du pli et les facteurs influents. Ces essais tendent à montrer que la force de compression transite essentiellement par les arêtes verticales du nida. Des essais complémentaires sur un motif d'arête confirme cette analyse. La modélisation issue de cette analyse propose, pour connaître la réponse d'une structure nid d'abeille en compression ou indentation, de déterminer la réponse individuelle d'une arête verticale par un essai de compression uniforme. A partir de la loi expérimentale obtenue, la réponse à l'indentation de la structure sandwich est la superposition de la réponse des arêtes pour la forme d'indenteur et la profondeur d'indentation considérée. Une bonne corrélation essais/calcul est obtenue lors d'essais de validation sur nida Nomex avec diverses formes d'indenteurs. La méthode proposée est générale et peut être étendue à divers matériaux cellulaires.

  7. Problemes en enseignement fonctionnel des langues (Problems in the Functional Teaching of Languages). Publication B-103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Gerardo, Ed.; Huot, Diane, Ed.

    Articles include: (1) "L'elaboration du materiel pedagogique pour des publics adultes" (The Elaboration of Teaching Materials for the Adult Public) by G. Painchaud-Leblanc, (2) "L'elaboration d'un programme d'etudes en francais langue seconde a partir des donnees recentes en didactique des langues" (The Elaboration of a Program of Study in French…

  8. Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks composed of silk fibroin and poly(ethylene glycol) for wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Haeyong; Yeo, Joo-hong; Lee, Kwang-gill; Lee, Hyun Chul; Na, Hee Sam; Won, Young Ho; Cho, Chong Su

    2008-09-01

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPNs) composed of silk fibroin (SF) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were prepared by photopolymerization of a PEG macromer in the presence of SF to improve the mechanical properties of SF sponge as wound dressing. The morphological structure of the SF/PEG SIPNs was observed to be composed of an interconnected microporous surface and a cross-sectional area. SF/PEG SIPNs showed non-cytotoxicity evaluated by a cell proliferation method using L929 fibroblasts. Wound contraction treated with SF/PEG SIPNs sponges was faster than that of Vaseline gauze as a control. Histological observation confirmed that the deposition of collagen in the dermis was organized by covering the wound area with SF/PEG SIPNs. The above results indicated that SF/PEG SIPNs could be used as wound dressing.

  9. Molecular model of biaxial ordering in nematic liquid crystals composed of flat molecules with four mesogenic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkunov, M. V.; Osipov, M. A.; Kocot, A.; Vij, J. K.

    2010-06-01

    Relative stability of uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases is analyzed in a model nematic liquid crystal composed of flat molecules of C2h symmetry with four mesogenic groups rigidly linked to the same center. The generalized effective quadrupole mean-field potential is proposed and its constants are evaluated numerically for the pair intermolecular potential based on Gay-Berne interaction between mesogenic groups. The dependencies of the constants on molecular shape parameters are systematically analyzed. Order parameters of the uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases are evaluated by direct minimization of the free energy at different temperatures. The corresponding phase diagrams are obtained enabling one to study the effects of molecular model parameters on the stability regions of uniaxial and biaxial phases. The results are used to clarify the nature of experimentally observed biaxial ordering in nematic liquid crystals composed of tetrapode molecules with the same symmetry.

  10. A Case Report of the Angiosarcoma Involving Epicranial Muscle and Fascia : Is the Occipitofrontalis Muscle Composed of Two Different Muscles?

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Hui Joong

    2016-01-01

    The occipitofrontalis muscle is generally regarded as one muscle composed of two muscle bellies joined through the galea aponeurotica. However, two muscle bellies have different embryological origin, anatomical function and innervations. We report a case of angiosarcoma of the scalp in a 63-year-old man whose MR showed that the superficial fascia overlying the occipital belly becomes the temporoparietal fascia and ends at the superior end of the frontal belly. Beneath the superficial fascia, the occipital belly of the occipitofrontalis muscle becomes the galea aponeurotica and inserts into the underside of the frontal belly. The presented case report supported the concept of which the occipitofrontalis muscle appears to be composed of two anatomically different muscles.

  11. Transparent and flexible thin-film transistors with channel layers composed of sintered HgTe nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jaewon; Cho, Kyoungah; Lee, Sang Heon; Kim, Sangsig

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and flexible thin film transistors (TFTs) with channel layers composed of sintered HgTe nanocrystals were fabricated on top of UV/ozone treated plastic substrates and their electrical properties were characterized. A representative TFT with a channel layer composed of sintered HgTe nanocrystals revealed typical p-type characteristics, an on/off current ratio of ∼10(3) and a field-effect mobility of 4.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). When the substrate was bent until the bending radius of the substrate reached 2.4 cm, which corresponded to a strain of 0.83% that the HgTe thin film experienced, the TFT exhibited an on/off current ratio of ∼10(3) and a field-effect mobility of 4.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

  12. The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange; tectonic setting and melange formation in the Quebec Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, P.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange (RPOM) is the largest and best exposed of the three known ophiolitic melanges that contain blocks of Chain Lakes Massif (CLM). All three lie along the Baie Verte-Brompton line, which marks the suture between the continental rocks of the Humber zone and the oceanic rocks of the Dunnage zone. The ophiolitic melange is composed of: serpentinized ultramafic rocks, some of which are sheared and/or carbonatized; blocks of amphibolitized gabbro; basalt; volcanogenic breccia; and conglomerates. It also contains continental K-rich granitoid rocks and high-grade metamorphic (upper amphibolite facies) rocks. The RPOM is part of the Saint-Daniel Melange, an accretionary prism onto which the RPOM has been tectonically emplaced. The CLM was part of a terrane accreted to the Laurentian margin during the Taconian orogeny. Blocks of the CLM along the Baie Verte-Brompton line are interpreted as fragments of this terrane caught within the suture zone. It is proposed that the CLM could be the equivalent of Grenville-derived greywacke originally laid down during the phase of continental rifting that led to the formation of the Iapetus Ocean and was later tectonized and metamorphosed during the Taconian and Acadian orogenies. The RPOM would represent the relic of a serpentinite diapir that rose within a deep oceanic fault. The presence of continental rocks like the CLM suggest that a continental magmatic arc was put in contact with an oceanic crust along this fault.

  13. Immunomagnetic Reduction Assay on Des-Gamma-Carboxy Prothrombin for Screening of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chieh, Jen-Jie; Huang, K W; Chuang, C P; Wei, W C; Dong, J J; Lee, Y Y

    2016-08-01

    The accredited biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) offers limited sensitivity and specificity in the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To improve the screening performance, des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) has been identified as another promising biomarker of HCC, combined with AFP biomarkers. The results of the commercial optical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit easily have the interference problem due to the optical methodology. The immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assay based on the magnetic measurement was utilized to assay DCP biomarkers without the excellent antiinterference performances. A DCP magnetic reagent, composed of iron-oxide (Fe3O4 ) magnetic nanoparticles coated with anti-DCP antibodies solved in phosphoryl-buffer solution, was synthesized and characterized. In the test of standard DCP antigens, superior antiinterference and sensitivity than optical ELISA were proved. In the animal test, the results indicate good agreement between the IMR assay findings and the tumor sizes of HCC rats at all time points after the HCC implantation. The feasibility of the developed DCP magnetic reagent with the IMR for the detection of DCP is verified, and demonstrates the high potential for future clinical applications.

  14. [And Sarah Félix created "L 'Eau des Fées" and "La Parfumerie des Fées"].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    century, the parisian perfumery of Sarah Felix was famous especially for her cosmetic "L'Eau des Fées" ("Water of the Fairies"), a dyeing supposed to give back to the old hair the color of their youth. Sarah Felix, sister of the famous actress Rachel, exercised several jobs before becoming perfumer. At first, she was actress, then she tried ... oyster culture in Normandy ! Abandoning these activities, Sarah Felix became really a businesswoman in Paris. She dedicated herself to perfumery, in particular to "L'Eau des Fées", from 1866. To launch its product, she was associated to competency characters (engineer, pharmacist, physician) and benefited from the protection of the imperial family. A lawsuit between the associates and the 1870 war hindered the company's early days, but "L'Eau des Fées" provided with quality pledges, imposed itself definitely. The "Parfumerie des Fées" completed the range of its cosmetics with creams, powders, etc. Sarah Félix paid attention to present "L'Eau des Fées" as a dye devoid of toxicity. Was it really the case and could il be sold nowadays? These two issues are discussed in the last part. PMID:26827551

  15. [And Sarah Félix created "L 'Eau des Fées" and "La Parfumerie des Fées"].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    century, the parisian perfumery of Sarah Felix was famous especially for her cosmetic "L'Eau des Fées" ("Water of the Fairies"), a dyeing supposed to give back to the old hair the color of their youth. Sarah Felix, sister of the famous actress Rachel, exercised several jobs before becoming perfumer. At first, she was actress, then she tried ... oyster culture in Normandy ! Abandoning these activities, Sarah Felix became really a businesswoman in Paris. She dedicated herself to perfumery, in particular to "L'Eau des Fées", from 1866. To launch its product, she was associated to competency characters (engineer, pharmacist, physician) and benefited from the protection of the imperial family. A lawsuit between the associates and the 1870 war hindered the company's early days, but "L'Eau des Fées" provided with quality pledges, imposed itself definitely. The "Parfumerie des Fées" completed the range of its cosmetics with creams, powders, etc. Sarah Félix paid attention to present "L'Eau des Fées" as a dye devoid of toxicity. Was it really the case and could il be sold nowadays? These two issues are discussed in the last part.

  16. Novel highly biodegradable biphasic tricalcium phosphates composed of alpha-tricalcium phosphate and beta-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbao; Weng, Wenjian; Tam, Kim Chiu

    2007-03-01

    Novel biodegradable biphasic tricalcium phosphates (BTCP) composed of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) were successfully synthesized by heating amorphous calcium phosphate precursors with different structures at 800 degrees C for 3 h. The ratio of alpha-TCP and beta-TCP in the calcium phosphate particle can be controlled by aging time and pH value during synthesis of the amorphous precursor.

  17. Signal enhancement in femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with a double-pulse configuration composed of two polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somekawa, Toshihiro; Otsuka, Masataka; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    Femtosecond double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been performed with a double-pulse configuration composed of two polarizers. The effect of interpulse separation on the Cu I line at 510.55, 515.32, and 521.82 nm showed an optimum enhancement at 50-150 ps delays, which is more than 3-5 times greater compared with the single-pulse excitation case. This enhanced emission may open new possibilities for remote LIBS detection.

  18. Production of Metal-Free Composites Composed of Graphite Oxide and Oxidized Carbon Nitride Nanodots and Their Enhanced Photocatalytic Performances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Yeon; Oh, Junghoon; Park, Sunghee; Shim, Yeonjun; Park, Sungjin

    2016-04-01

    A novel metal-free composite (GN) composed of two types of carbon-based nanomaterials, graphite oxide (GO) and 2D oxidized carbon nitride (OCN) nanodots was produced. Chemical and morphological characterizations reveal that GN contains a main component of GO with well-dispersed 2D OCN nanodots. GN shows enhanced photocatalytic performance for degrading an organic pollutant, Rhodamine B, under visible light.

  19. Dielectric and electro-optic studies of a bimesogenic liquid crystal composed of bent-core and calamitic units.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, R; Panov, V P; Vij, J K; Shanker, G; Tschierske, C; Merkel, K; Kocot, A

    2014-09-01

    A bimesogen, BR1, composed of a bent-core and calamitic unit, linked laterally via a flexible spacer is investigated by dielectric and electro-optic techniques. X-ray results show the presence of clusters in the nematic phase, and the cluster size is of the order of the thickness of a single layer. The splitting of the small-angle scattering Δχ/2 is about 50°, which indicates SmC like clusters with a significant tilt of the molecules in the quasilayers. The sign reversal of the dielectric anisotropy Δε' is observed as a function of frequency; the behavior is rather similar to that exhibited by the conventional dual frequency nematics, composed of a calamitic mesogen, with the exception that it occurs at much lower frequencies in this material. Interestingly, as the bimesogen enters its nematic phase, the average permittivity decreases as the temperature is lowered. This indicates the onset of antiparallel association of some of the dipoles in the system, and this type of association is much more prominent in BR1 in comparison to other bent-core liquid crystalline systems composed of the same bisbenzoate core unit. The analysis of the dielectric spectra using the Maier-Meier model confirms the onset of an antiparallel correlation of dipoles occurring at the isotropic to nematic phase transition temperature. Additionally these results support a model of the cluster where the transverse dipole moments in the neighboring layers are antiparalleled to each other.

  20. Computer Instruction in Handwriting, Spelling, and Composing for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities in Grades 4 to 9

    PubMed Central

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Nagy, William; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Rob; Abbott, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Effectiveness of iPad computerized writing instruction was evaluated for 4th to 9th graders (n=35) with diagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLDs) affecting writing: dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax composing). Each of the 18 two-hour lessons had multiple learning activities aimed at improving subword- (handwriting), word- (spelling), and syntax- (sentence composing) level language skills by engaging all four language systems (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to create a functional writing system. To evaluate treatment effectiveness, normed measures of handwriting, spelling, and composing were used with the exception of one non-normed alphabet writing task. Results showed that the sample as a whole improved significantly from pretest to posttest in three handwriting measures, four spelling measures, and both written and oral syntax construction measures. All but oral syntax was evaluated with pen and paper tasks, showing that the computer writing instruction transferred to better writing with pen and paper. Performance on learning activities during instruction correlated with writing outcomes; and individual students tended to improve in the impaired skill associated with their diagnosis. Thus, although computers are often used in upper elementary school and middle school in the United States (US) for accommodations (alternatives to pen and paper) for students with persisting SLDs affecting writing, this study shows computers can also be used for Tier 3 instruction to improve the writing skills of students in grades 4 to 9 with history of persisting writing disabilities. PMID:25378768

  1. Dielectric and electro-optic studies of a bimesogenic liquid crystal composed of bent-core and calamitic units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, R.; Panov, V. P.; Vij, J. K.; Shanker, G.; Tschierske, C.; Merkel, K.; Kocot, A.

    2014-09-01

    A bimesogen, BR1, composed of a bent-core and calamitic unit, linked laterally via a flexible spacer is investigated by dielectric and electro-optic techniques. X-ray results show the presence of clusters in the nematic phase, and the cluster size is of the order of the thickness of a single layer. The splitting of the small-angle scattering Δχ/2/ is about 50°, which indicates SmC like clusters with a significant tilt of the molecules in the quasilayers. The sign reversal of the dielectric anisotropy Δɛ' is observed as a function of frequency; the behavior is rather similar to that exhibited by the conventional dual frequency nematics, composed of a calamitic mesogen, with the exception that it occurs at much lower frequencies in this material. Interestingly, as the bimesogen enters its nematic phase, the average permittivity decreases as the temperature is lowered. This indicates the onset of antiparallel association of some of the dipoles in the system, and this type of association is much more prominent in BR1 in comparison to other bent-core liquid crystalline systems composed of the same bisbenzoate core unit. The analysis of the dielectric spectra using the Maier-Meier model confirms the onset of an antiparallel correlation of dipoles occurring at the isotropic to nematic phase transition temperature. Additionally these results support a model of the cluster where the transverse dipole moments in the neighboring layers are antiparalleled to each other.

  2. Computer Instruction in Handwriting, Spelling, and Composing for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities in Grades 4 to 9.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Virginia W; Nagy, William; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Rob; Abbott, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Effectiveness of iPad computerized writing instruction was evaluated for 4(th) to 9(th) graders (n=35) with diagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLDs) affecting writing: dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax composing). Each of the 18 two-hour lessons had multiple learning activities aimed at improving subword- (handwriting), word- (spelling), and syntax- (sentence composing) level language skills by engaging all four language systems (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to create a functional writing system. To evaluate treatment effectiveness, normed measures of handwriting, spelling, and composing were used with the exception of one non-normed alphabet writing task. Results showed that the sample as a whole improved significantly from pretest to posttest in three handwriting measures, four spelling measures, and both written and oral syntax construction measures. All but oral syntax was evaluated with pen and paper tasks, showing that the computer writing instruction transferred to better writing with pen and paper. Performance on learning activities during instruction correlated with writing outcomes; and individual students tended to improve in the impaired skill associated with their diagnosis. Thus, although computers are often used in upper elementary school and middle school in the United States (US) for accommodations (alternatives to pen and paper) for students with persisting SLDs affecting writing, this study shows computers can also be used for Tier 3 instruction to improve the writing skills of students in grades 4 to 9 with history of persisting writing disabilities. PMID:25378768

  3. Dielectric and electro-optic studies of a bimesogenic liquid crystal composed of bent-core and calamitic units.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, R; Panov, V P; Vij, J K; Shanker, G; Tschierske, C; Merkel, K; Kocot, A

    2014-09-01

    A bimesogen, BR1, composed of a bent-core and calamitic unit, linked laterally via a flexible spacer is investigated by dielectric and electro-optic techniques. X-ray results show the presence of clusters in the nematic phase, and the cluster size is of the order of the thickness of a single layer. The splitting of the small-angle scattering Δχ/2 is about 50°, which indicates SmC like clusters with a significant tilt of the molecules in the quasilayers. The sign reversal of the dielectric anisotropy Δε' is observed as a function of frequency; the behavior is rather similar to that exhibited by the conventional dual frequency nematics, composed of a calamitic mesogen, with the exception that it occurs at much lower frequencies in this material. Interestingly, as the bimesogen enters its nematic phase, the average permittivity decreases as the temperature is lowered. This indicates the onset of antiparallel association of some of the dipoles in the system, and this type of association is much more prominent in BR1 in comparison to other bent-core liquid crystalline systems composed of the same bisbenzoate core unit. The analysis of the dielectric spectra using the Maier-Meier model confirms the onset of an antiparallel correlation of dipoles occurring at the isotropic to nematic phase transition temperature. Additionally these results support a model of the cluster where the transverse dipole moments in the neighboring layers are antiparalleled to each other. PMID:25314464

  4. Donizetti and the music of mental derangement: Anna Bolena, Lucia di Lammermoor, and the composer's neurobiological illness.

    PubMed Central

    Peschel, E.; Peschel, R.

    1992-01-01

    The composer Gaetano Donizetti, who died in a state of mental derangement due to neurosyphilis, created some of opera's greatest scenes of psychosis. His letters reveal the clinical progression of his neurobiological illness, which was confirmed by autopsy. One can hypothesize that the composer's brain disease, which led to his psychosis and death, may have had an influence on his ability to create the powerful and unforgettable scenes of psychosis in his operas. In Anna Bolena, he captured in musical and dramatic terms Anne Boleyn's historically corroborated mental disorder during her imprisonment in the Tower of London. Sixteen years after having composed Anna Bolena, Donizetti himself would be locked up, against his will, in a mental institution. In Lucia di Lammermoor, Donizetti portrayed a girl given to hallucinations who, in her unforgettable "mad" scene, comes on stage, a pathetic embodiment of a human being in the throes of psychosis. Thirteen years after Lucia's première, Donizetti would die, psychotic and paralyzed, of untreated neurosyphilis. Studying Donizetti's neurosyphilis and the portrayals of psychosis in his operas can help one to appreciate the pain of human beings trapped in the prison of a brain subjected to the devastation of mental derangement. PMID:1285447

  5. Computer Instruction in Handwriting, Spelling, and Composing for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities in Grades 4 to 9.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Virginia W; Nagy, William; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Rob; Abbott, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Effectiveness of iPad computerized writing instruction was evaluated for 4(th) to 9(th) graders (n=35) with diagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLDs) affecting writing: dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax composing). Each of the 18 two-hour lessons had multiple learning activities aimed at improving subword- (handwriting), word- (spelling), and syntax- (sentence composing) level language skills by engaging all four language systems (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to create a functional writing system. To evaluate treatment effectiveness, normed measures of handwriting, spelling, and composing were used with the exception of one non-normed alphabet writing task. Results showed that the sample as a whole improved significantly from pretest to posttest in three handwriting measures, four spelling measures, and both written and oral syntax construction measures. All but oral syntax was evaluated with pen and paper tasks, showing that the computer writing instruction transferred to better writing with pen and paper. Performance on learning activities during instruction correlated with writing outcomes; and individual students tended to improve in the impaired skill associated with their diagnosis. Thus, although computers are often used in upper elementary school and middle school in the United States (US) for accommodations (alternatives to pen and paper) for students with persisting SLDs affecting writing, this study shows computers can also be used for Tier 3 instruction to improve the writing skills of students in grades 4 to 9 with history of persisting writing disabilities.

  6. Restauration adaptative des contours par une approche inspiree de la prediction des performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Kami

    En teledetection, les cartes de contours peuvent servir, entre autres choses, a la restitution geometrique, a la recherche d'elements lineaires, ainsi qu'a la segmentation. La creation de ces cartes est faite relativement tot dans la chaine de traitements d'une image. Pour assurer la qualite des operations subsequentes, il faut veiller a obtenir une carte de contours precise. Notre problematique est de savoir s'il est possible de diminuer la perte de temps liee au choix d'algorithme et de parametre en corrigeant automatiquement la carte de contours. Nous concentrerons donc nos efforts sur le developpement d'une methode de detection/restauration de contours adaptative. Notre methode s'inspire d'une technique de prediction des performances d'algorithmes de bas niveau. Elle consiste a integrer un traitement par reseau de neurones a une methode " classique " de detection de contours. Plus precisement, nous proposons de combiner la carte de performances avec la carte de gradient pour permettre des decisions plus exactes. La presente etude a permis de developper un logiciel comprenant un reseau de neurones entraine pour predire la presence de contours. Ce reseau de neurones permet d'ameliorer les decisions de detecteurs de contours, en reduisant le nombre de pixels de fausses alarmes et de contours manques. La premiere etape de ce travail consiste en une methode d'evaluation de performance pour les cartes de contours. Une fois ce choix effectue, il devient possible de comparer les cartes entre elles. Il est donc plus aise de determiner, pour chaque image, la meilleure detection de contours. La revue de la litterature realisee simultanement a permis de faire un choix d'un groupe d'indicateurs prometteurs pour la restauration de contours. Ces derniers ont servi a la calibration et a l'entrainement d'un reseau de neurones pour modeliser les contours. Par la suite, l'information fournie par ce reseau a ete combinee par multiplication arithmetique avec les cartes d

  7. Heparin enhances the catalytic activity of des-ETW-thrombin.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C A; Deadman, J J; Le Bonniec, B F; Elgendy, S; Kakkar, V V; Scully, M F

    1996-04-01

    The thrombin mutant, des-ETW-thrombin, lacking Glu(146), Thr(147), and Trp(148) within a unique insertion loop located at the extreme end of the primary specificity pocket, has been shown previously to exhibit reduced catalytic activity with respect to macromolecular and synthetic thrombin substrates and reduced or enhanced susceptibility to inhibition. Investigation of the hydrolysis of peptidyl p-nitroanilide substrates by des-ETW-thrombin showed increased activity in the presence of heparin and other sulphated glycosaminoglycans. No effect was observed upon the activity of wild-type thrombin. Heparin was found to decrease the K(m) for cleavage of four thrombin-specific substrates by des-ETW-thrombin by 3-4-fold. Similarly, pentosan polysulphate (PPS) decreased the K(m) with these substrates by 8-10-fold. Heparin also increased the rate of inhibition of des-ETW-thrombin by antithrombin III and D-phenylalanyl-prolyl-arginylchloromethane (PPACK). The inhibition of des-ETW-thrombin by a number of thrombin-specific peptide boronic acids also showed significant reduction in the final K(i) in the presence of heparin, due to reduction in the off-rate. A peptide analogue of a sequence of hirudin which binds thrombin tightly to exosite I (fibrinogen recognition site) potentiated the activity of des-ETW-thrombin against peptide p-nitroanilide substrates in a manner similar to heparin. The K(i) for the inhibition of des-ETW-thrombin by p-aminobenzamidine was decreased by these ligands from 9.7 mM to 7.5 mM, 5.1 mM, and 2.5 mM in the presence of heparin, hirudin peptide and PPS respectively, suggesting the increased catalytic activity is due to enhanced access to the primary specificity pocket. The positive influence of these ligands on des-ETW-thrombin was reversed in the presence of ATP or ADP; the latter has previously been shown to inhibit thrombin activity by blocking initial interaction with fibrinogen at exosite 1. Because the effect of heparin and PPS is similar to

  8. Comparison des donnees simulees des capteurs de SPOT et landsat-D: Application a une region agricole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint, Gilbert; Podaire, Alain

    La modélisation de la luminance spectrale des objets observés en télédétection permet d'effectuer des simulations de différents capteurs à partir de données obtenues au moyen d'un scanneur DAEDALUS aéroporté : les qualités radiométrique et géométrique ont pu être évaluées par une comparaison avec des données Landsat réelles. L'analyse sur une zone agricole met surtout en évidence le rôle important de l'accroissement de la résolution.

  9. Analyse des facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires : à propos de 500 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Les nodules thyroïdiens sont très fréquents et moins de 10% d'entre eux sont malin. Ils posent un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique surtout par rapport à leur nature bénigne ou maligne. L’étude de certains facteurs cliniques et paracliniques de présomption de malignité permet de bien codifier la stratégie thérapeutique. Le but de ce travail est d’étudier les facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires et comparer nos résultats à ceux de la littérature. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective à propos de 500 cas de goitres nodulaires opérés au service d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie (ORL) et Chirurgie cervico-faciale (CCF) de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech entre 2006 et 2012. Le pourcentage de cancers a été de 6,8%. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 46 ans, avec une sex-ratio de 5 (F/H). A la palpation cervicale; le caractère dure du nodule a été constaté dans 94,4% des cas de cancer, avec des limites irrégulières dans 64,70% des cas de cancer. Trois nodules étaient fixes et ils étaient tous malins. Les adénopathies cervicales ont été constatées chez 8 malades dont 7 présentaient des cancers. A l’échographie, 61,8% des nodules malins présentaient un aspect hypoéchogène, avec des contours flous dans 88,24% des cas. La vascularisation intra nodulaire était présente dans 35,3% de ces cas des cancers avec des microcalcifications chez 55,9% d'entre eux. Le halo hypoéchogene périnodulaire était incomplet dans 73,5% des cas de cancer. Nos patients étaient en euthyroïdie dans 84,6% des cas. Les facteurs prédictifs de malignité d'un goitre nodulaire, étaient donc dans notre étude d'abord cliniques: l’âge supérieur à 60 ans, la consistance dure du nodule, sa fixité, son caractère irrégulier et mal limité à la palpation, ainsi que la présence d'adénopathie(s) cervicale(s) à l'examen; et échographiques: le caractère hypoéchogène, les limites floues, la présence de

  10. Classification of DES16C2nm as a SLSN at z=1.998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbany, L.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Ponder, K.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Forster, F.; Hamuy, M.; Prieto, Jose Luis; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.

    2016-11-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of DES16C2nm as a superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). DES16C2nm was discovered in the first epoch of DES Y4, on 22 August 2016 at R.A. = 03:40:14.83, Decl = -29:05:53.5 with i = 23.2 mag. DES16C2nm has a non-detection in the final epoch of DES Y3 on 08 February 2016.

  11. Transport de paires EPR dans des structures mesoscopiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Emilie

    Dans cette these, nous nous sommes particulierement interesses a la propagation de paires EPR1 delocalisees et localisees, et a l'influence d'un supraconducteur sur le transport de ces paires. Apres une introduction de cette etude, ainsi que du cadre scientifique qu'est l'informatique quantique dans lequel elle s'inscrit, nous allons dans le chapitre 1 faire un rappel sur le systeme constitue de deux points quantiques normaux entoures de deux fils supraconducteurs. Cela nous permettra d'introduire une methode de calcul qui sera reutilisee par la suite, et de trouver egalement le courant Josephson produit par ce systeme transforme en SQUID-dc par l'ajout d'une jonction auxiliaire. Le SQUID permet de mesurer l'etat de spin (singulet ou triplet), et peut etre forme a partir d'autres systemes que nous etudierons ensuite. Dans le chapitre 2, nous rappellerons l'etude detaillee d'un intricateur d'Andreev faite par un groupe de Bale. La matrice T, permettant d'obtenir le courant dans les cas ou les electrons sont separes spatialement ou non, sera etudiee en detail afin d'en faire usage au chapitre suivant. Le chapitre 3 est consacre a l'etude de l'influence du bruit sur le fonctionnement de l'intricateur d'Andreev. Ce bruit modifie la forme du courant jusqu'a aboutir a d'autres conditions de fonctionnement de l'intricateur. En effet, le bruit present sur les points quantiques peut perturber le transport des paires EPR par l'intermediaire des degres de liberte. Nous montrerons que, du fait de l'"intrication" entre la charge de la paire et le bruit, la paire est detruite pour des temps longs. Cependant, le resultat le plus important sera que le bruit perturbe plus le transport des paires delocalisees, qui implique une resonance de Breit-Wigner a deux particules. Le transport parasite n'implique pour sa part qu'une resonance de Breit-Wigner a une particule. Dans le chapitre 4, nous reviendrons au systeme constitue de deux points quantiques entoures de deux fils

  12. Opération multimode transverse des OPOs: des structures classiques aux corrélations quantiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, M.; Ducci, S.; Gigan, S.; Treps, N.; Maître, A.; Fabre, C.

    2002-06-01

    Nous démontrons la formation de structures transverses sur les faisceaux émis par un oscillateur paramétrique optique (OPO) de type II en configuration confocale. D'un point de vue classique nous mettons en évidence le caractère multimode transverse de telles structures. A travers l'étude des corrélations spatiales des faisceaux générés nous montrons que ces structures sont également multimodes d'un point de vue quantique.

  13. Apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la dilatation des sténoses caustiques de l’œsophage

    PubMed Central

    Seydou, Togo; Abdoulaye, Ouattara Moussa; xing, Li; Zi, Sanogo Zimogo; sekou, Koumaré; Wen, Yang Shang; Ibrahim, Sankare; Sekou, Toure Cheik Ahmed; Boubacar, Maiga Ibrahim; Saye, Jacque; Jerome, Dakouo Dodino; Dantoumé, Toure Ousmane; Sadio, Yena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Toutes les sténoses symptomatiques de l’œsophage peuvent être dilatées par voie endoscopique. Nous évaluons l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la prise en charge de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique de l’œsophage (SCO) au Mali. Méthodes IL s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et prospective réalisée dans le service de chirurgie thoracique à l'hôpital du Mali. Au total 46 dossiers cliniques de patients on été enregistrés et subdivisés en 4 groupes en fonction de la topographie des lésions cicatricielles. Le nombre de cas d'assistance endoscopique réalisé a été déterminé afin de comprendre l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans le succès de la dilatation des SCO. Pour les 2 différentes méthodes de dilatation utilisées, le résultat du traitement et le coût ont comparés. Résultats La FOGD a été utilisée dans 19 cas (41.30%) de dilatation avec la bougie de Savary Guillard et dans 47.82% des cas dans la dilatation de Lerut. La vidéo-laryngoscopie a été utilisé 58.69% des cas de dilatation à la bougie de Lerut. Le passage de guide métallique et / ou de fil-guide a été réalisée dans 39.13% avec la vidéo laryngoscopie et dans 58.68% avec la FOGD. Dans la comparaison des deux méthodes, il existe une différence significative dans la survenue des complications (p=0.04075), l'anesthésie générale (p=0.02287), l'accessibilité à la méthode (p=0.04805) et la mortalité (p=0.00402). Conclusion La SCO est une pathologie grave et sous évaluée au Mali. Les moyens endoscopiques contribuent considérablement au succès de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique dans les différentes méthodes utilisées. PMID:27200129

  14. Transposition des processus membranaires biologiques aux traitements des effluents métallifères peu chargés. Conception et étude chimique d'une pompe ionique uranifère. Transport, contre-transport, couplage positif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasaine-Sadi, F.; Benhassaine, A.; Ait-Amar, H.

    1999-09-01

    An ionic pump has been devided thanks to au “liquid-liquid" extraction-reextration where the extraction compartment and the reextraction compartment are put in contact with one another through the membrane composed of an mediator diluted in the kerosene. We have applied this process to the system: uranyle nitrate, nitric acid-phosphate tributyle, kerosene-sodium carbonate. Interesting performances have been realised for diluted solutions (100 ppm). The chemicals parameters has allowed to obtain the variables giving the extraction and reextraction efficiency optimum. A chemical modelisation has allowed to identify the extraction mechanism. The classical behaviour obtained in agitated surroundings has been found again. The membrane can work thanks to the “activation" by the solute of the carrier at one interface and to the “deactivation" at the other interface, both of these mechanisms of the active transport creating a real “ionic pumping". Une pompe ionique est mise au point grâce à une ensemble “extraction-réextraction" “liquide-liquide" où le compartiment extraction et le compartiment réextraction sont mis en contact par l'intermédiaire d'une membrane contenant un transporteur dilué dans le kérosène. Ce procédé est appliqué aux ions uranyles. Des rendements intéressants sont obtenus pour des solutions diluées (100 ppm). L'étude des variables a permis de déterminer des paramètres chimiques donnant des rendements d'extraction et de réextration optimum. Le comportement symétrique des deux compartiments montre que nous avons un transport, contre-transport, couplage positif. Une modélisation chimique a permis d'identifier les mécanismes d'extraction. Le comportement classique obtenu en milieu agité est retrouvé. La pompe peut fonctionner grâce à l'activation du transporteur par le cosoluté contenu dans le compartiment d'extraction et à la désactivation à la sortie de la membrane par le cosoluté contenu dans le compartiment r

  15. Contribution aux Methodes Analytiques des Substances a L'aide de Faisceaux de Particules Chargees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Abdelmajid

    Nous avons vu les possibilites d'analyse par particules chargees des aerosols recueillis sur des filtres de type MILLIPORE. La meme technique a ete utilisee pour des filtres ayant servi a la filtration de l'eau du fleuve Saint-laurent. Deux techniques ont ete utilisees: (1) FAST (Forward Alpha Scattering Technique): pour analyser l'hydrogene, le carbone, l'oxygene et puis l'azote. Des alpha de 12 MeV ont ete utilises. (2) PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission): pour analyser les elements moyens et lourds, dans ce cas des protons de 3 MeV ainsi que des ions d'argon de 1 et 1.6 MeV ont ete utilises. Les etudes ont montre que sous vide, la majorite des problemes proviennent des dommages causes par l'echauffement du a l'impact du faisceau sur le filtre. L'analyse quantitative par l'intermediaire du faisceau extrait peut presenter des difficultes en ce qui concerne les elements legers pour lesquels l'absorption des rayonnements caracteristiques dans l'atmosphere externe est importante. Les ions lourds se pretent mal aux analyses des aerosols du fait de leur limite de sensibilite. L'analyse directe de liquides par des protons est particulierement interessante puisqu'elle ne necessite aucune preparation prealable des echantillons. A cet effet, un programme de calcul de concentration des elements dans la solution a analyser a ete mis au point. Nous avons determine la limite de sensibilite de la methode PIXE pour les cibles minces (filtre) et pour le cas ou la matrice est de l'eau. Enfin, la technique FAST peut etre un complement de la technique PIXE.

  16. Bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects implanted with fibrous scaffolds composed of a mixture of silicate and borate bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yifei; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the capacity of porous scaffolds composed of a single bioactive glass to regenerate bone. In the present study, scaffolds composed of a mixture of two different bioactive glasses (silicate 13-93 and borate 13-93B3) were created and evaluated for their response to osteogenic MLO-A5 cells in vitro and their capacity to regenerate bone in rat calvarial defects in vivo. The scaffolds, which have similar microstructures (porosity=58-67%) and contain 0, 25, 50 and 100 wt.% 13-93B3 glass, were fabricated by thermally bonding randomly oriented short fibers. The silicate 13-93 scaffolds showed a better capacity to support cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity than the scaffolds containing borate 13-93B3 fibers. The amount of new bone formed in the defects implanted with the 13-93 scaffolds at 12 weeks was 31%, compared to values of 25, 17 and 20%, respectively, for the scaffolds containing 25, 50 and 100% 13-93B3 glass. The amount of new bone formed in the 13-93 scaffolds was significantly higher than in the scaffolds containing 50 and 100% 13-93B3 glass. While the 13-93 fibers were only partially converted to hydroxyapatite at 12 weeks, the 13-93B3 fibers were fully converted and formed a tubular morphology. Scaffolds composed of an optimized mixture of silicate and borate bioactive glasses could provide the requisite architecture to guide bone regeneration combined with a controllable degradation rate that could be beneficial for bone and tissue healing.

  17. Solar hydrogen production by tandem cell system composed of metal oxide semiconductor film photoelectrode and dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, H.; Shiraishi, C.; Tatemoto, M.; Kishida, H.; Usui, D.; Suma, A.; Takamisawa, A.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2007-09-01

    Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical approaches to solar hydrogen production in our group were introduced. In photocatalytic water splitting system using NiO x/ TiO II powder photocatalyst with concentrated Na IICO 3 aqueous solution, solar energy conversion efficiency to H II and O II production (STH efficiency) was 0.016%. In addition, STH efficiency of visible light responding photocatalyst, NiOx/ promoted In 0.9Ni 0.1TaO 4, was estimated at 0.03%. In photoelectrochemical system using an oxide semiconductor film phptoelectrode, STH efficiencies of meosporous TiO II (Anatase) , mesoporous visible light responding S-doped TiO II (Anatase) and WO 3 film were 0.32-0.44% at applied potential of 0.35 V vs NHE, 0.14% at 0.55 V and 0.44% at 0.9 V, respectively. Finally, solar hydrogen production by tandem cell system composed of an oxide semiconductor photoelectrode, a Pt wire counter electrode and a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) was investigated. As photoelectrodes, meosporous TiO II (Anatase), mesoporous S-doped TiO II (Anatase), WO 3, BiVO 4 and Fe IIO 3 film were tested. STH efficiency of tandem cell system composed of a WO 3 film photoelectrode, and a two-series-connected DSC (Voc = 1.4 V) was 2.5-2.8%. In conclusion, it is speculated that more than 5% STH efficiency will be obtained by tandem cell system composed of an oxide semiconductor photoelectrode and a two-series-connected DSC in near future. This suggests a cost-effective and practical application of this system for solar hydrogen production.

  18. Simulations of the OzDES AGN reverberation mapping project

    SciTech Connect

    King, Anthea L.; Martini, Paul; Davis, Tamara M.; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Skielboe, Andreas; Vestergaard, Marianne; Huff, Eric; Watson, Darach; Banerji, Manda; McMahon, Richard; Sharp, Rob; Lidman, C.

    2015-08-26

    As part of the Australian spectroscopic dark energy survey (OzDES) we are carrying out a large-scale reverberation mapping study of ~500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between 16.8 mag < r < 22.5 mag. The aim of the survey is to measure time lags between fluctuations in the quasar continuum and broad emission-line fluxes of individual objects in order to measure black hole masses for a broad range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and constrain the radius–luminosity (R–L) relationship. Here we investigate the expected efficiency of the OzDES reverberation mapping campaign and its possible extensions. We expect to recover lags for ~35–45 % of the quasars. AGN with shorter lags and greater variability are more likely to yield a lag measurement, and objects with lags ≲6 months or ~1 yr are expected to be recovered the most accurately. The baseline OzDES reverberation mapping campaign is predicted to produce an unbiased measurement of the R–L relationship parameters for Hβ, MgIIλ2798, and C IVλ1549. As a result, extending the baseline survey by either increasing the spectroscopic cadence, extending the survey season, or improving the emission-line flux measurement accuracy will significantly improve the R–L parameter constraints for all broad emission lines.

  19. Recognition of Langue des Signes Quebecoise in Eastern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisot, Anne-Marie; Rinfret, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a portrait of two community-level and legal efforts in Canada to obtain official recognition of ASL and LSQ (Langue des signes quebecoise), both of which are recognized as official languages by the Canadian Association of the Deaf (CAD). In order to situate this issue in the Canadian linguistic context, the authors first…

  20. Mechanistic Enzymology of the Radical SAM Enzyme DesII

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    DesII is a member of the radical SAM family of enzymes that catalyzes radical-mediated transformations of TDP-4-amino-4,6-didexoy-D-glucose as well as other sugar nucleotide diphosphates. Like nearly all radical SAM enzymes, the reactions begin with the reductive homolysis of SAM to produce a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical which is followed by regiospecific hydrogen atom abstraction from the substrate. What happens next, however, depends on the nature of the substrate radical so produced. In the case of the biosynthetically relevant substrate, a radical-mediated deamination ensues; however, when this amino group is replaced with a hydroxyl, one instead observes dehydrogenation. The factors that govern the fate of the initially generated substrate radical as well as the mechanistic details underlying these transformations have been a key focus of research into the chemistry of DesII. This review will discuss recent discoveries pertaining to the enzymology of DesII, how it may relate to understanding other radical-mediated lyases and dehydrogenases and the working hypotheses currently being investigated regarding the mechanism of DesII catalysis.

  1. Dipole-exchange spin waves in nanotubes composed of uniaxial ferromagnets with "easy-plane" and "easy-axis" anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorobets, Yu. I.; Kulish, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    Dipole-exchange spin waves in nanotubes composed of uniaxial ferromagnets are studied. An equation for the magnetic potential of linear spin waves in uniaxial "easy plane" ferromagnets is obtained in the magnetostatic approximation taking into account magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, exchange interactions, and anisotropy effects. A solution is found for this equation and a dispersion relation for these types of spin waves is obtained. The dependence of the spin wave frequency on the total wave number is found for the case of a thin nanotube. An expression is derived for the transverse wave number spectrum.

  2. The effects of researcher-composed music at mealtime on agitation in nursing home residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shu-Yuan; Lai, Hui-Ling; Jeng, Shaw-Yeu; Tang, Chih-Wei; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chen, Pin-Wen

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effects of music at mealtimes on agitation in 22 nursing home residents with dementia. We used a pretest-posttest research design. We played researcher-composed music to residents at each of two mealtimes daily over a consecutive 4-week period. We observed and recorded agitation 24 hours daily for the 4-week period and the following 2-week period. Results revealed a significant decline in mean agitation scores. A cumulative dose effect and a short-term linger effect were observed. Findings suggest that soothing music may be beneficial in managing agitation in nursing home residents with dementia.

  3. Preparation and properties of magneto-optical micro-cavities composed of Co thin film and dielectric multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Arai, K. I.; Fujii, T.; Abe, M.

    1999-05-01

    Magneto-optical (MO) Kerr effect of micro-cavities composed of a Co thin film and SiO 2/SiN multilayer films was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The micro-cavity structure was found to be very effective for enhancing the MO Kerr effect: the MO Kerr rotation angle exceeding 10° at a designated wavelength of light was obtained, the value of which is more than 100 times larger than that of a Co single-layer film. The large MO Kerr effect is caused by the localization of light originating from the multilayer structure.

  4. All-optical flip-flop composed of a single nonlinear passive microring coupled to two straight waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrampour, A. R.; Mohammad Ali Mirzaee, S.; Farman, F.; Zakeri, S. S.

    2009-02-01

    Microrings can have different hysteresis characteristics at their different resonance frequencies. They can be used as a multi-hysteresis optical component. In this paper an optical D-flip-flop circuit composed of a single nonlinear passive microring coupled to two straight waveguide based on the Kerr effect is proposed. The proposed circuit can operate as an optical digital circuit which synchronizes input DATA with the CLOCK of the circuit. A simple analytical model for hysteresis design and the transient analysis of the proposed D-flip-flop are presented. According to our model, the switching time of the flip-flop is in the order of 10 ps.

  5. L'Infection Nosocomiale en Reanimation des Brules

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Belefqih, R.; Elouennass, M.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ihrai, I.

    2009-01-01

    Summary L'infection nosocomiale bactérienne étant l'une des principales causes de morbidité et de mortalité chez le brûlé, nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 84 patients hospitalisés au sein du service de réanimation des brûlés de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat, sur une période de 3 ans, du premier janvier 2001 au 31 décembre 2003. Les critères d'infection nosocomiale étaient ceux du Center for Disease Control d'Atlanta de 1988. Les taux d'incidence ont été calculés. La population infectée a été comparée à celle non infectée. L'écologie bactérienne du service a été décrite comme aussi l'antibiotype. Il ressort de cette étude la survenue de 87 infections nosocomiales chez 27 patients. L'incidence cumulative était de 103 infections pour 1000 jours de traitement. Pour ce qui est des caractéristiques des infections bactériennes, les sites infectés étaient la peau (77%), le sang (13,8%), les voies urinaires (8%) et les poumons (1,1%). Les principaux germes étaient: Staphylococcus sp. (33,3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23%), Enterococcus faecalis et Acinetobacter (8%). Les staphylocoques étaient méticillo-résistants dans 22,2% des cas. Le Pseudomonas et l'Acinetobacter étaient multirésistants (60%). Dans notre étude les facteurs prédictifs de survenue des infections nosocomiales que nous avons retenus après l'étude comparative des populations infectées et non infectées ont été l'âge, le body mass index, l'abbreviated burn severity index et le remplissage initial. En isolant ces paramètres, nous avons pu établir une équation à valeur prédictive de survenue d'infection nosocomiale chez le patient brûlé. PMID:21991158

  6. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la s

  7. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans

  8. La biogenèse des mélanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Delevoye, Cédric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2012-01-01

    Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

  9. Relation entre les caractéristiques des table-bancs et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Benin

    PubMed Central

    Falola, Stève Marjelin; Gouthon, Polycarpe; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fiogbe, Michel Armand; Nigan, Issiako Bio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le mobilier scolaire et la posture assise en classe sont souvent impliqués dans l'apparition des douleurs rachidiennes, influant de fait sur la qualité des tâches réalisées par les apprenants. Aucune étude n'a encore vérifié le degré d'adéquation entre les caractéristiques du mobilier et celles des écoliers au Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude transversale est donc de déterminer la relation entre les dimensions des table-bancs utilisées en classe et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Bénin. Methods Elle a été réalisée avec un échantillon probabiliste de 678 écoliers, âgés de 4 à 17 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers et les mensurations relatives aux longueurs, largeurs et hauteurs des table-bancs ont été mesurées, puis intégrées aux équations proposées dans la littérature. Les pourcentages des valeurs situées hors des limitesacceptables, dérivées de l'application des équations ont été calculés. Results La largeur et la hauteur des table-bancs utilisées par les écoliers étaient plus élevées (p < 0,05) que les valeurs de référence recommandées par les structures officielles de contrôle et de production des mobiliers scolaires au Bénin. Quel que soit le sexe, il y avait une inadéquation entre la largeur du banc et la longueur fesse-poplité, puis entre la hauteur de la table et la distance coude-bancdes écoliers. Conclusion Les résultats suggèrent de prendre en compte l’évolution des mesures anthropométriques des écoliers dans la confection des table-bancs, afin de promouvoir de bonnes postures assises en classe et de réduire le risque de troubles du rachis. PMID:25317232

  10. Guiding Young Composers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Don

    2011-01-01

    Composition is learned by discovering that musical ideas can be experienced in a variety of ways, and that new musical ideas can be created by reconfiguring learned materials in new contexts. The act of imagining, defining, and communicating unique musical ideas awakens in young people a dormant part of their brains, unlocking an awareness of the…

  11. Suppose We Compose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirt, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Explains that after the Columbus (Georgia) Symphony was awarded a National Endowment for the Arts grant for American music, the symphony director gave a portion of the money for an elementary music composition class that utilized computers for two reasons: (1) students could get immediate feedback; and (2) the computers provided motivation. (CMK)

  12. Composing (as) Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniell, Beth

    A striving for something beyond ourselves is one way of defining spirituality, and, although spiritual and religious motives have traditionally impelled students to learn to read, the intersection of literacy and spirituality has gone largely unrecognized by scholars. Six women were interviewed about how they use literacy in their spiritual lives.…

  13. Composing as a Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys recent feminist research on gender differences in social and psychological development, and shows how this research and theory may be used in examining student writing, thus suggesting directions that a feminist investigation of composition might take. (SR)

  14. Optimisation des proprietes fonctionnelles des alliages a memoire de forme suite a l'application de traitements thermomecaniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Vincent

    L'objectif de ce projet est de determiner les conditions de laminage et la temperature de traitement thermique maximisant les proprietes fonctionnelles de l'alliage a memoire de forme Ti-Ni. Les specimens sont caracterises par des mesures de calorimetrie, de microscopie optique, de gene ration de contrainte, de deformation recuperable et des essais mecaniques. Pour un cycle unique, l'utilisation d'un taux d'ecrouissage e=1.5 obtenu avec l'application d'une force de tension FT = 0.1sigma y et d'une huile minerale resulte en un echantillon droit, sans microfissure et qui apres un recuit a 400°C, produit un materiau nanostructure manifestant des proprietes fonctionnelles deux fois plus grandes que le meme materiau ayant une structure polygonisee. Pour des cycles repetes, les memes conditions de laminage sont valables mais le niveau de deformation optimal est situe entre e=0.75-2, et depend particulierement du mode de sollicitation, du niveau de stabilisation et du nombre de cycles a la rupture requis par l'application.

  15. The fatigue evaluation method for a structural stainless steel using the magnetic sensor composed of three pancake coils

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, M.; Tsuchida, Y.; Enokizono, M.; Yakushiji, T.

    2011-06-23

    May metallic structural materials, such as stainless steels, are currently used in our surroundings. If external force is repeatedly added for many years, it is thought that fatigue damage accumulates in stainless steels. When excessive fatigue damage accumulates in these metals, there is a possibility that they are destroyed by fatigue damage accumulation. Therefore, it is important to know the amount of the fatigue damage they have suffered in order to prevent them from being destroyed. We are developing the fatigue evaluation method for stainless steels with a magnetic sensor composed of three pancake type coils. In this research, the inspection object is ferritic stainless steels such as SUS430. The method of fatigue evaluation for ferritic stainless steels uses the three coil type sensor, and shows a good correlation between the number of stress cycles and the output signal of the sensor, even though the correlation between the output signal and an added stress is not completely accurate. This paper describes the evaluation method of fatigue damage in ferritic stainless steel using a magnetic sensor composed of three pancake-type coils.

  16. A single-step enzyme immunoassay capillary sensor composed of functional multilayer coatings for the diagnosis of marker proteins.

    PubMed

    Funano, Shun-ichi; Sugahara, Masato; Henares, Terence G; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Endo, Tatsuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    A single-step, easy-to-use enzyme immunoassay capillary sensor, composed of functional multilayer coatings, was developed in this study. The coatings were composed of substrate-immobilized hydrophobic coating, hydrogel coating, and soluble coating containing an enzyme-labeled antibody. The response mechanism involved a spontaneous immunoreaction triggered by capillary action-mediated introduction of a sample antigen solution and subsequent separation of unreacted enzyme-labeled antibodies and antigen-enzyme-labeled antibody complexes by the molecular sieving effect of the hydrogel. An enzyme reaction at the substrate-immobilized hydrophobic coating/hydrogel coating interface resulted in a protein-selective fluorescence response. An antigen concentration-dependent response was obtained for diagnostic marker protein samples (hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), 7.14-16.7 mg mL(-1); alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), 1.4-140 ng mL(-1); C-reactive protein (CRP), 0.5-10 μg mL(-1)) that cover a clinically important concentration range. The successful measurement of CRP in diluted serum samples demonstrated the application of this capillary sensor.

  17. The intervention composed of aerobic training and non-exercise physical activity (I-CAN) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Dover, Sara E; Nevels, Tyara R; Solar, Chelsey A; Brophy, Patricia M; Hall, Tyler R; Houmard, Joseph A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2015-11-01

    Recent data has suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior is independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independent of adequate amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated if exercise training and increasing non-exercise physical activity leads to greater reduction in cardiometabolic risk compared to aerobic training alone. The purpose of the Intervention Composed of Aerobic Training and Non-Exercise Physical Activity (I-CAN) study is to determine whether a physical activity program composed of both aerobic training (consistent with public health recommendations) and increasing non-exercise physical activity (3000 steps above baseline levels) leads to enhanced improvements in waist circumference, oral glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, body composition, and fitness compared to aerobic training alone in obese adults (N=45). Commercially available accelerometers (Fitbits) will be used to monitor physical activity levels and behavioral coaching will be used to develop strategies of how to increase non-exercise physical activity levels. In this manuscript, we describe the design, rationale, and methodology associated with the I-CAN study.

  18. Molecular spintronics based on single-molecule magnets composed of multiple-decker phthalocyaninato terbium(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Keiichi; Isshiki, Hironari; Komeda, Tadahiro; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2012-06-01

    Unlike electronics, which is based on the freedom of the charge of an electron whose memory is volatile, spintronics is based on the freedom of the charge, spin, and orbital of an electron whose memory is non-volatile. Although in most GMR, TMR, and CMR systems, bulk or classical magnets that are composed of transition metals are used, this Focus Review considers the growing use of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) that are composed of multinuclear metal complexes and nanosized magnets, which exhibit slow magnetic-relaxation processes and quantum tunneling. Molecular spintronics, which combines spintronics and molecular electronics, is an emerging field of research. Using molecules is advantageous because their electronic and magnetic properties can be manipulated under specific conditions. Herein, recent developments in [LnPc]-based multiple-decker SMMs on surfaces for molecular spintronic devices are presented. First, we discuss the strategies for preparing single-molecular-memory devices by using SMMs. Next, we focus on the switching of the Kondo signal of [LnPc]-based multiple-decker SMMs that are adsorbed onto surfaces, their characterization by using STM and STS, and the relationship between the molecular structure, the electronic structure, and the Kondo resonance of [TbPc(2)]. Finally, the field-effect-transistor (FET) properties of surface-adsorbed [LnPc(2)] and [Ln(2)Pc(3)] cast films are reported, which is the first step towards controlling SMMs through their spins for applications in single-molecular memory and spintronics devices.

  19. Behavior of osteoblast-like cells on calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite ceramics composed of particles with different shapes and sizes.

    PubMed

    Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Uno, Yuika; Ioku, Koji

    2014-01-01

    In designing the biomaterials, it is important to control their surface morphologies, because they affect the interactions between the materials and cells. We previously reported that porous calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics composed of rod-like particles had advantages over sintered porous HA ceramics; however, the effects of the surface morphology of calcium-deficient HA ceramics on cell behavior have remained unclear. Using a hydrothermal process, we successfully prepared porous calcium-deficient HA ceramics with different surface morphologies, composed of plate-like particles of 200-300, 500-800 nm, or 2-3 μm in width and rod-like particles of 1 or 3-5 μm in width, respectively. The effects of these surface morphologies on the behavior of osteoblast-like cells were examined. Although the numbers of cells adhered to the ceramic specimens did not differ significantly among the specimens, the proliferation rates of cells on the ceramics decreased with decreasing particle size. Our results reveal that controlling the surface morphology that is governed by particle shape and size is important for designing porous calcium-deficient HA ceramics.

  20. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  1. A Comparison of the Approaches of Generalizability Theory and Item Response Theory in Estimating the Reliability of Test Scores for Testlet-Composed Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guemin; Park, In-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Previous assessments of the reliability of test scores for testlet-composed tests have indicated that item-based estimation methods overestimate reliability. This study was designed to address issues related to the extent to which item-based estimation methods overestimate the reliability of test scores composed of testlets and to compare several…

  2. A ternary cathode composed of LSM, YSZ and Ce0.9Mn0.1O2-δ for the intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Zhao, Zhe; Zhang, Xiaomin; Cui, Daan; Tu, Baofeng; Ou, Dingrong; Cheng, Mojie

    2013-01-28

    The YSZ electrolyte fuel cell with a ternary cathode composed of LSM-YSZ-Ce(0.9)Mn(0.1)O(2-δ) exhibits ca. 2.6 times higher current density than that with a binary cathode composed of LSM-YSZ at 600 °C.

  3. Microscopie interférentielle X-UV : un outil pour l'étude des endommagements des surfaces optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamelot, G.; Ros, D.; Cassou, K.; Kazamias, S.; Klisnick, A.; Kozlová, M.; Mocek, T.; Homer, P.; Polan, J.; Stupka, M.

    2006-12-01

    Nous présentons des résultats récents concernant des premières investigations de microscopie interférentielle par laser X-UV d'endommagement optique. Le laser X-UV utilisé est un laser collisionnel en régime quasi-stationnaire émettant à 21.2 nm, développé au Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS, Prague, République Tchèque). Des échantillons de silice fondue de haute qualité, avec ou sans rayure, étaient irradiées en face avant par un laser bleu, correspondant au 3selectfontfontsize{7{9}{textrm{ème}}} harmonique du laser à iode du PALS (1.315 μ m), servant également à réaliser le laser X-UV à 21.2 nm. Celui-ci était utilisé, 5 ns après l'irradiation pour réaliser une imagerie microscopique et interférentielle de la face arrière de l'échantillon. Les résultats font apparaître des déformations locales transitoires. Des premières analyses mettent en évidence une probable variation de la rugosité de la surface. Cette démonstration expérimentale encourageante ouvre la voie à de futures investigations, notamment sur notre prochaine installation laser : LASERIX.

  4. Methodes iteratives paralleles: Applications en neutronique et en mecanique des fluides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaddouri, Abdessamad

    Dans cette these, le calcul parallele est applique successivement a la neutronique et a la mecanique des fluides. Dans chacune de ces deux applications, des methodes iteratives sont utilisees pour resoudre le systeme d'equations algebriques resultant de la discretisation des equations du probleme physique. Dans le probleme de neutronique, le calcul des matrices des probabilites de collision (PC) ainsi qu'un schema iteratif multigroupe utilisant une methode inverse de puissance sont parallelises. Dans le probleme de mecanique des fluides, un code d'elements finis utilisant un algorithme iteratif du type GMRES preconditionne est parallelise. Cette these est presentee sous forme de six articles suivis d'une conclusion. Les cinq premiers articles traitent des applications en neutronique, articles qui representent l'evolution de notre travail dans ce domaine. Cette evolution passe par un calcul parallele des matrices des PC et un algorithme multigroupe parallele teste sur un probleme unidimensionnel (article 1), puis par deux algorithmes paralleles l'un mutiregion l'autre multigroupe, testes sur des problemes bidimensionnels (articles 2--3). Ces deux premieres etapes sont suivies par l'application de deux techniques d'acceleration, le rebalancement neutronique et la minimisation du residu aux deux algorithmes paralleles (article 4). Finalement, on a mis en oeuvre l'algorithme multigroupe et le calcul parallele des matrices des PC sur un code de production DRAGON ou les tests sont plus realistes et peuvent etre tridimensionnels (article 5). Le sixieme article (article 6), consacre a l'application a la mecanique des fluides, traite la parallelisation d'un code d'elements finis FES ou le partitionneur de graphe METIS et la librairie PSPARSLIB sont utilises.

  5. Mesure des stades de developpement du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) par teledetection des maxima locaux sur images a tres haute resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Alain

    L'objectif principal de cette these est d'identifier les parametres cles pour lier le developpement morphologique de la cime du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) aux patrons de reflectance qu'elle genere sur une image aerienne a haute resolution. La quantite et la distribution spatiale des aiguilles dans le sapin dependent de la structure des branches. Un mecanisme de ramification particulier (la reiteration) ressort comme le parametre cle pour lier l'augmentation de la biomasse foliaire et la forme de la branche. Les reiterats forment des agglomerats de feuillage qui engendrent des inegalites dans les patrons de reflectance de la cime. La reflectance est plus elevee ou il y a une forte concentration de reiterats (maximum local). On demontre que le developpement du sapin baumier se mesure au moyen de l'analyse des maxima locaux de la cime sur une image. La biomasse de l'arbre se mesure par la teledetection et l'analyse des patrons de reflectance de la cime, c'est-a-dire la mesure du niveau de reiteration par le decompte des maxima locaux de la cime. Cette etude demontre qu'il est possible de proceder a l'inventaire du volume de bois d'un peuplement par la teledetection de l'architecture des arbres.

  6. Application of mix-salts composed of lithium borate and lithium aluminate in PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ruoyuan; Fujinami, Tatsuo

    Mix-salts were prepared by mixing lithium borate (salt A or salt B) with lithium aluminate (salt C). Polymer electrolytes were prepared by dissolving lithium salt in PEO. Mix-salt polymer electrolytes exhibited higher ionic conductivities than pure-salt polymer electrolytes. The optimum-mixing ratio was investigated. Conductivity as high as 1 × 10 -4 S cm -1 at 40 °C was obtained for the optimized electrolyte system. A potential window of 4.3 V was determined for the mix-salt electrolyte. Good charge-discharge performance was observed for the mix-salt electrolyte composed cell, LiNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2//salt A(3)/salt C(11.8) 2/1-PEO 22//Li.

  7. Free-standing crystalline CaCO3 films composed of three-dimensional microstructures with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lihong; Yang, Lijuan; Wang, Yanping; Han, Mingjuan

    2012-03-01

    Crystalline vaterite CaCO3 self-standing films composed of three-dimensional microstructures were synthesized by a simple gas diffuse method with the assistance of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The microstructures with different morphology (sphere-like, rose-like, and pumpkin-like) were self-assembled by three-dimensional oriented attachment of faceted micro-platelets, and the films were all stable in air for more than one year. The concentrations of Ca2+ ions and PVA all played important roles in the formation of vaterite crystal phase. In addition, the introduction of salt (NaCl, NaNO3) would reduce the size of the micro-platelets significantly. A possible mechanism for the formation of the self-standing films is put forward.

  8. Evolution of rheological properties of the nanofluids composed of laponite particles and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxide nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Phuoc, Tran X.; Chyu, Minking K.; Romanov, Vyacheslav

    2011-05-01

    The thixotropic clay suspensions composed of laponite particles and Mg-Fe layered double hydroxide nanosheets were examined. By adding a very small amount of the layered double hydroxide nanosheets overall theological properties of the host laponite suspension have been changed. Though the particle concentration of the mixture suspension is only about 1 wt%, the mixture quickly becomes a gel in a day by the electrostatic attraction between nano-materials. When a constant shear rate is applied to the mixture gel suspension, at short time, stress increases linearly with elastic deformation of the mixture. Beyond the maximum of stress, while the solid-like gel structure is being broken down with time of shearing, the stress increases again by reflecting shear enhanced association of solid phase. This is likely that the mixture suspension shows partially the behavior of memory effect.

  9. Optimal portfolio strategy with cross-correlation matrix composed by DCCA coefficients: Evidence from the Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuelian; Liu, Zixian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a new estimator of correlation matrix is proposed, which is composed of the detrended cross-correlation coefficients (DCCA coefficients), to improve portfolio optimization. In contrast to Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC), DCCA coefficients acquired by the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method can describe the nonlinear correlation between assets, and can be decomposed in different time scales. These properties of DCCA make it possible to improve the investment effect and more valuable to investigate the scale behaviors of portfolios. The minimum variance portfolio (MVP) model and the Mean-Variance (MV) model are used to evaluate the effectiveness of this improvement. Stability analysis shows the effect of two kinds of correlation matrices on the estimation error of portfolio weights. The observed scale behaviors are significant to risk management and could be used to optimize the portfolio selection.

  10. Antiplatelet activity of a novel formula composed of malic acid, succinic acid and citric acid from Cornus officinalis fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Chun; Zhao, Yue; Bian, Hui-Min

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the antiplatelet activity of a novel formula composed by malic acid, succinic acid and citric acid with a ratio of 3:2:2. The IC50 and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by various agonists as well as platelet adhesion were evaluated in vitro. Of note, the IC50 for the formula inhibiting adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was 0.185 mg/mL. Meanwhile, the formula showed more potent inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin than the single component at same concentration (0.37 mg/mL). Moreover, the formula could prevent platelet adhesion significantly without influence on platelet viability.

  11. Core-shell composite particles composed of biodegradable polymer particles and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Chiemi; Ushimaru, Kazunori; Horiishi, Nanao; Tsuge, Takeharu; Kitamoto, Yoshitaka

    2015-05-01

    Core-shell composite particles with biodegradability and superparamagnetic behavior were prepared using a Pickering emulsion for targeted drug delivery based on magnetic guidance. The composite particles were composed of a core of biodegradable polymer and a shell of assembled magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. It was found that the dispersibility of the nanoparticles is crucial for controlling the core-shell structure. The addition of a small amount of dispersant into the nanoparticle's suspension could improve the dispersibility and led to the formation of composite particles with a thin magnetic shell covering a polymeric core. The composite particles were also fabricated with a model drug loaded into the core, which was released via hydrolysis of the core under strong alkaline conditions. Because the core can also be biodegraded by lipase, this result suggests that the slow release of the drug from the composite particles should occur inside the body.

  12. Induction of ferroelectricity in the B2 phase of a liquid crystal composed of achiral bent-core molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etxebarria, J.; Folcia, C. L.; Ortega, J.; Ros, M. B.

    2003-04-01

    We report the observation of a transition from the antiferroelectric B2 phase to a ferroelectric phase in a liquid crystal composed of achiral bent-core (banana-shaped) molecules. The transition is induced by an electric field of magnitude larger than the switching threshold and is not reversible, i.e., the original B2 phase does not reappear upon field removal. The transformation is accompanied by a dramatic texture change, resulting in an almost optically isotropic structure in the absence of field. The ferroelectric character assigned to the structure is based on the electro-optic behavior of the material and on previously reported dielectric measurements. A short-pitch smectic-C*-type structure is proposed for the ferroelectric phase.

  13. Three-Dimensional Porous Particles Composed of Curved, Two-Dimensional, Nano-Sized Layers for Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yushin, Gleb; Evanoff, Kara; Magasinski, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Thin Si films coated on porous 3D particles composed of curved 2D graphene sheets have been synthesized utilizing techniques that allow for tunable properties. Since graphene exhibits specific surface area up to 100 times higher than carbon black or graphite, the deposition of the same mass of Si on graphene is much faster in comparison -- a factor which is important for practical applications. In addition, the distance between graphene layers is tunable and variation in the thickness of the deposited Si film is feasible. Both of these characteristics allow for optimization of the energy and power characteristics. Thicker films will allow higher capacity, but slower rate capabilities. Thinner films will allow more rapid charging, or higher power performance. In this innovation, uniform deposition of Si and C layers on high-surface area graphene produced granules with specific surface area (SSA) of 5 sq. m/g.

  14. Using open captions to revise writing in digital stories composed by d/Deaf and hard of hearing students.

    PubMed

    Strassman, Barbara K; O'Dell, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Using a nonexperimental design, the researchers explored the effect of captioning as part of the writing process of individuals who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing. Sixty-nine d/Deaf and hard of hearing middle school students composed responses to four writing-to-learn activities in a word processor. Two compositions were revised and published with software that displayed texts as captions to digital images; two compositions were revised with a word processor and published on paper. Analysis showed increases in content-area vocabulary, text length, and inclusion of main ideas and details for texts revised in the captioning software. Given the nonexperimental design, it is not possible to determine the extent to which the results could be attributed to captioned revisions. However, the findings do suggest that the images acted as procedural facilitators, triggering recall of vocabulary and details. PMID:23259353

  15. Test equipment for a flywheel energy storage system using a magnetic bearing composed of superconducting coils and superconducting bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, M.; Matsue, H.; Yamashita, T.; Hasegawa, H.; Nagashima, K.; Maeda, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Mukoyama, S.; Shimizu, H.; Horiuchi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage systems are necessary for renewable energy sources such as solar power in order to stabilize their output power, which fluctuates widely depending on the weather. Since ‘flywheel energy storage systems’ (FWSSs) do not use chemical reactions, they do not deteriorate due to charge or discharge. This is an advantage of FWSSs in applications for renewable energy plants. A conventional FWSS has capacity limitation because of the mechanical bearings used to support the flywheel. Therefore, we have designed a superconducting magnetic bearing composed of a superconducting coil stator and a superconducting bulk rotor in order to solve this problem, and have experimentally manufactured a large scale FWSS with a capacity of 100 kWh and an output power of 300 kW. The superconducting magnetic bearing can levitate 4 tons and enables the flywheel to rotate smoothly. A performance confirmation test will be started soon. An overview of the superconducting FWSS is presented in this paper.

  16. Using open captions to revise writing in digital stories composed by d/Deaf and hard of hearing students.

    PubMed

    Strassman, Barbara K; O'Dell, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Using a nonexperimental design, the researchers explored the effect of captioning as part of the writing process of individuals who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing. Sixty-nine d/Deaf and hard of hearing middle school students composed responses to four writing-to-learn activities in a word processor. Two compositions were revised and published with software that displayed texts as captions to digital images; two compositions were revised with a word processor and published on paper. Analysis showed increases in content-area vocabulary, text length, and inclusion of main ideas and details for texts revised in the captioning software. Given the nonexperimental design, it is not possible to determine the extent to which the results could be attributed to captioned revisions. However, the findings do suggest that the images acted as procedural facilitators, triggering recall of vocabulary and details.

  17. Preparation and applications of novel composites composed of metal-organic frameworks and two-dimensional materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaozhou; Yang, Kai; Tan, Chaoliang; Huang, Xiao; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-28

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), an emerging type of porous crystalline materials, have received increasing attention in recent years due to their compositional, structural and chemical versatility. Moreover, great progress has been made in the fundamental study and technological development of two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and metal dichalcogenide nanosheets, which exhibit a number of unique and attractive properties for wide applications. Recently, the smart integration of the aforementioned two types of functional materials, i.e. MOFs and 2D materials, has led to improved performance in molecular absorption, separation and storage, and shown promise in selective catalysis and biosensing. This feature article aims at providing a brief introduction to the composites composed of MOFs and 2D materials, focusing mainly on their preparation methods and applications. Finally, technical challenges and future opportunities in this field will also be discussed.

  18. Polarization beam splitters, converters and analyzers based on a metasurface composed of regularly arranged silicon nanospheres with controllable coupling strength.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jin; Li, Jinxiang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Chengyun; Dai, Qiaofeng; Tie, Shaolong; Lan, Sheng

    2016-05-30

    A metasurface composed of regularly arranged silicon (Si) nanospheres (NSs) with coupling was investigated both theoretically and numerically based on the Mie theory, the simple Lorentz line shape model and the finite-difference time-domain technique. By deliberately controlling the coupling strength between Si NSs through the design of the lattice constants of a rectangular lattice, polarization beam splitters, converters and analyzers with good performance can be successfully constructed. A square lattice as well as a large incidence angle was employed to build the polarization beam splitters and converters. At an incidence angle of 80°, the polarization beam splitters can completely reflect the s-polarized light and transmit the p-polarized light in a wavelength region of 510-620 nm. For a circularly polarized light incident on the polarization converters, one can get s-polarized light in the reflection direction and p-polarized light in the transmission direction. For the polarization beam analyzers, a rectangular lattice with deliberately chosen lattice constants was employed and the transmissivity of a linearly polarized light can be continuously adjusted from 0 to ~0.90 by simply rotating the metasurface. We revealed that the broadening of either the electric dipole resonance or the magnetic dipole resonance or both of them, which is induced by the asymmetric coupling of Si NSs, is responsible for the modification in the transmissivity spectrum of the metasurface. Our findings provide a guideline for designing photonic devices based on the metasurfaces composed of Si NSs with controllable coupling strength. PMID:27410070

  19. Evaluation of a wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid and collagen sponge containing epidermal growth factor in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shinya; Niiyama, Hayato; Yu, Akane; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen (Col) sponge containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) on wound healing in diabetic mice. High-molecular-weight (HMW) HA aqueous solution, hydrolyzed low-molecular-weight (LMW) HA aqueous solution and heat-denatured Col aqueous solution were mixed, followed by freeze-drying to obtain a spongy sheet. Cross-linkage between Col molecules was induced by UV irradiation to the spongy sheet (Type-I wound dressing). In a similar manner, a spongy sheet containing EGF (Type-II wound dressing) was prepared by freeze-drying the mixed solution of HMW-HA, LMW-HA and Col containing EGF. The efficacy of these products was evaluated in type-II diabetic BKS.Cg-+Lepr(db)/+Lepr(db) (db/db) mice. Wound dressings were applied to a full-thickness, dorsal skin defect measuring 1.5 cm × 2.0 cm, showing adipose tissue. In the control group, a commercially available artificial dermis composed of collagen spongy sheet (TERUDERMIS(®)) was used. A commercially available polyurethane film dressing (Bioclusive(®)) was applied over each wound dressing. After 1 week of application, wound conditions were evaluated based on their gross and histological appearances. Type-I and -II wound dressings promoted a decrease in wound size associated with angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation, compared with the artificial dermis. In particular, Type-II wound dressings promoted sufficient re-epithelialization. These findings indicate that the combination of HA, Col and EGF promotes wound healing by stimulating cell activity including cell migration and proliferation on the adipose tissue in a diabetic wound. Type-I and -II wound dressings would be useful to prepare a well-vascularized wound bed acceptable for split-thickness auto-skin grafting.

  20. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25973865

  1. Ia-antigen-T-cell interactions for a thymus-independent antigen composed of D amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, E; Dayan, M; Sela, M; Mozes, E

    1993-01-01

    Synthetic polypeptide antigens of L amino acids, although bearing repeating sequences, are thymus-dependent (L-TD), whereas the same polymers composed of D amino acids are thymus-independent (D-TI), probably due to a slower rate of metabolism. Yet we found that lymph-node cells of BALB/c mice immunized with D-TI proliferate in response to it in vitro. To follow T-cell activation by D-TI, we established T-cell hybridomas to D-TI and to its analog composed of L isomers, L-TD, for comparison. The T-cell hybridomas express membrane alpha/beta T-cell receptors and secrete interleukin 2 upon stimulation with the respective antigen. In addition, D-TI-specific hybridomas are stimulated, to a lesser extent, by the L-TD antigen, whereas only some L-TD-specific hybridomas recognize D-TI. Moreover, biotinylated analogs of D-TI and L-TD bind to splenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from BALB/c mice. Binding is inhibited by an excess of nonbiotinylated L-TD, and by an excess of a peptide comprising residues 259-271 of the human acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit, which binds to I-Ad and I-Ed molecules without prior processing. Analysis of APC lysates following incubation of the APCs with biotinylated D-TI and L-TD reveals that the biotinylated antigen moiety is associated with Ia molecules. D-TI and L-TD bind to Ia molecules on intact APCs with similar KD values, 5 x 10(-8) M and 3 x 10(-8) M, respectively. However, D-TI has faster kinetics of binding than L-TD, probably due to different processing requirements. Hence, we have demonstrated a major histocompatibility complex class II-mediated T-cell response to a thymus-independent antigen. Images PMID:8381541

  2. Streptococcus salivarius Fimbriae Are Composed of a Glycoprotein Containing a Repeated Motif Assembled into a Filamentous Nondissociable Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Céline; Vadeboncoeur, Christian; Chandad, Fatiha; Frenette, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius, a gram-positive bacterium found in the human oral cavity, expresses flexible peritrichous fimbriae. In this paper, we report purification and partial characterization of S. salivarius fimbriae. Fimbriae were extracted by shearing the cell surface of hyperfimbriated mutant A37 (a spontaneous mutant of S. salivarius ATCC 25975) with glass beads. Preliminary experiments showed that S. salivarius fimbriae did not dissociate when they were incubated at 100°C in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. This characteristic was used to separate them from other cell surface components by successive gel filtration chromatography procedures. Fimbriae with molecular masses ranging from 20 × 106 to 40 × 106 Da were purified. Examination of purified fimbriae by electron microscopy revealed the presence of filamentous structures up to 1 μm long and 3 to 4 nm in diameter. Biochemical studies of purified fimbriae and an amino acid sequence analysis of a fimbrial internal peptide revealed that S. salivarius fimbriae were composed of a glycoprotein assembled into a filamentous structure resistant to dissociation. The internal amino acid sequence was composed of a repeated motif of two amino acids alternating with two modified residues: A/X/T-E-Q-M/φ, where X represents a modified amino acid residue and φ represents a blank cycle. Immunolocalization experiments also revealed that the fimbriae were associated with a wheat germ agglutinin-reactive carbohydrate. Immunolabeling experiments with antifimbria polyclonal antibodies showed that antigenically related fimbria-like structures were expressed in two other human oral streptococcal species, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus constellatus. PMID:11292790

  3. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  4. Exploration des mécanismes de repliement des protéines par dynamique moléculaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilquin, B.

    2005-11-01

    Comment se replient les protéines? Cette question est ancienne. En introduction nous rappellerons ce qu'est le paradoxe de Levinthal et comment on est passé de la notion de chemin de repliement à la notion de paysage énergétique. Les simulations de dynamique moléculaire ont permis d'aborder la compréhension du processus de repliement au niveau atomique. Cependant l'échelle de temps des processus de repliement (de l'ordre de la milliseconde) n'est pas accessible aux simulations numériques (de l'ordre de la nanoseconde). Plusieurs auteurs ont donc proposé de simuler le dépliement des protéines par dynamique moléculaire. En admettant le principe de micro-réversibilité l'étude du processus de dépliement renseigne sur celui de repliement. Cependant, il est nécessaire d'accélérer le dépliement en introduisant un biais afin que les états dépliées soient accessibles aux échelles de temps des simulations. Nous présenterons un exemple de ce qui a été réalise dans le cas de l'étude de protéines de petite taille suivant un repliement simple, globalement à deux états. Nous présenterons ensuite ce que nous avons réalisé dans le cas d'une protéine de taille plus importante et pour laquelle le processus de repliement est plus complexe car il existe un intermédiaire transitoire de repliement. C'est le cas du lysozyme pour lequel les simulations de dépliement permettent d'accéder au mécanisme atomique de repliement et de comprendre pourquoi des mutants de cette protéine se replient plus lentement et forment des fibres amyloïdiques. Ainsi les intermédiaires de repliement seraient à l'origine de formes pathogènes des protéines observées dans les maladies neuro-dégéneratives. Enfin nous montrerons comment à partir de plusieurs simulations longues de dynamique moléculaire, le paysage énergétique pour de petites protéines peut être calculé.

  5. The DES Science Verification weak lensing shear catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Kacprzak, T.; Bridle, S. L.; Amara, A.; Armstrong, R.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Chang, C.; Das, R.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Gangkofner, C.; Gruen, D.; Hirsch, M.; Huff, E. M.; Jain, B.; Kent, S.; Kirk, D.; MacCrann, N.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Refregier, A.; Rowe, B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sánchez, C.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2016-08-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogues for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogues of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies, respectively. We detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. We also discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogues for the full 5-yr DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.

  6. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ishag, Osama M; Saeed, Intisar K; Ali, Yahia H

    2015-01-01

    Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54%) were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells. PMID:26304168

  7. Zweistufige Segmentierung des Tracheobronchialbaums mittels iterativen adaptiven Bereichswachstumsverfahren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergel, Ingmar; Wegner, Ingmar; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die Segmentierung des Tracheobronchialbaums aus medizinischen Bilddaten ist essentiell für unterschiedliche Anwendungen, beispielsweise der navigierten Bronchoskopie. Hierbei liegt das Hauptaugenmerk auf einer möglichst detaillierten Segmentierung der Bronchien bei möglichst geringer Laufzeit des Algorithmus. Dieser Beitrag beschreibt ein Verfahren, welches in zwei Schritten den Tracheobronchi-albaum anhand eines adaptiven Bereichswachstumsverfahrens aus CT-Aufnahmen segmentiert. Im ersten Schritt werden die großen Atemwege und im zweiten Schritt die kleinen Atemwege getrennt segmentiert. Insgesamt wird dadurch die Anzahl der Voxel, die von rechenaufwändigeren Algorithmen (bspw. Gefäß-Tracking) verarbeitet werden müssen, verringert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen bei minimaler Laufzeiterhöhung eine deutliche Steigerung der Anzahl sowie Tiefe der segmentierten Bronchien.

  8. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ishag, Osama M; Saeed, Intisar K; Ali, Yahia H

    2015-08-21

    Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54%) were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells.

  9. The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogs

    DOE PAGES

    Jarvis, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogs for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogs of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We also detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SVmore » data. Furthermore, we discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogs for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.« less

  10. Partager : des technologies de pointe au service de la société

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-14

    Médecine, climatologie, métrologie et informatique, les techniques utilisées par le LHC trouvent déjà des répercussions dans d’autres domaines scientifiques. Utilisant des techniques inédites, la physique des particules en fait bénéficier la société toute entière.

  11. Partager : des technologies de pointe au service de la société

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Médecine, climatologie, métrologie et informatique, les techniques utilisées par le LHC trouvent déjà des répercussions dans d’autres domaines scientifiques. Utilisant des techniques inédites, la physique des particules en fait bénéficier la société toute entière.

  12. Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Luis Fernando

    Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et de la vitesse d'un gaz le long de l'axe d'un jet libre vertical. Cette etude s'interesse aux effets de proximite a une surface horizontale parallele sur un jet turbulent. Nous nous interessons a son impact sur l'etendue du champ de la concentration et sur l'enveloppe inflammable en particulier. Cette etude est comparative : l'hydrogene est compare au methane. Ceci permet de degager l'influence des effets de difference de la densite sur le comportement du jet, et de comparer le comportement de l'hydrogene aux correlations experimentales, qui ont ete essentiellement etablies pour le methane. Un modele decrivant l'evolution spatio-temporelle du champ de concentration du gaz dilue est propose, base sur la mecanique des fluides computationnelle. Cette approche permet de varier systematiquement les conditions aux frontieres (proximite du jet a la surface, par exemple) et de connaitre en detail les proprietes de l'ecoulement. Le modele est implemente dans le code de simulations par volumes finis de FLUENT. Les resultats des simulations sont compares avec les lois de similitudes decoulant de la theorie des jets d'ecoulements turbulents libres ainsi qu'avec les resultats experimentaux disponibles. L'effet de la difference des masses molaires des constituantes du jet et des constituantes du milieu de dispersion est egalement etudie dans le contexte du comportement d'echelle de la region developpee du jet.

  13. Des recommandations probantes pour surveiller l’innocuité des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Davidson, Jana; Ho, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Au Canada, l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques, notamment les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération (ADG), a augmenté de façon considérable depuis cinq ans chez les enfants ayant des troubles de santé mentale. Ces médicaments ont le potentiel de causer de graves complications métaboliques et neurologiques lorsqu’on les utilise de manière chronique. OBJECTIF : Synthétiser les données probantes relatives aux effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques précis associés à l’usage d’ADG chez les enfants et fournir des recommandations probantes sur la surveillance de ces effets secondaires. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les auteurs ont procédé à une analyse systématique des essais cliniques contrôlés des ADG auprès d’enfants. Ils ont fait des recommandations à l’égard de la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG d’après un modèle de classification fondé sur le système GRADE (système de notation de l’évaluation et de l’élaboration des recommandations). Lorsque les données probantes n’étaient pas suffisantes, ils fondaient leurs recommandations sur le consensus et l’avis d’experts. Un groupe consensuel multidisciplinaire a analysé toutes les données probantes pertinentes et est parvenu à un consensus à l’égard des recommandations. RÉSULTATS : Les recommandations probantes portant sur la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG figurent dans les présentes lignes directrices. Les auteurs indiquent la qualité des recommandations relatives à des examens physiques et tests de laboratoire précis à l’égard de chaque ADG à des moments déterminés. CONCLUSION : De multiples essais aléatoires et contrôlés ont permis d’évaluer l’efficacité de bon nombre des ADG utilisés pour traiter les troubles de santé mentale en pédiatrie. Toutefois, leurs avantages ne sont pas sans risques : on observe à la fois des effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques chez les enfants traités au moyen d

  14. Simulations of the OzDES AGN reverberation mapping project

    DOE PAGES

    King, Anthea L.; Martini, Paul; Davis, Tamara M.; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Skielboe, Andreas; Vestergaard, Marianne; Huff, Eric; Watson, Darach; et al

    2015-08-26

    As part of the Australian spectroscopic dark energy survey (OzDES) we are carrying out a large-scale reverberation mapping study of ~500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between 16.8 mag < r < 22.5 mag. The aim of the survey is to measure time lags between fluctuations in the quasar continuum and broad emission-line fluxes of individual objects in order to measure black hole masses for a broad range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and constrainmore » the radius–luminosity (R–L) relationship. Here we investigate the expected efficiency of the OzDES reverberation mapping campaign and its possible extensions. We expect to recover lags for ~35–45 % of the quasars. AGN with shorter lags and greater variability are more likely to yield a lag measurement, and objects with lags ≲6 months or ~1 yr are expected to be recovered the most accurately. The baseline OzDES reverberation mapping campaign is predicted to produce an unbiased measurement of the R–L relationship parameters for Hβ, MgIIλ2798, and C IVλ1549. As a result, extending the baseline survey by either increasing the spectroscopic cadence, extending the survey season, or improving the emission-line flux measurement accuracy will significantly improve the R–L parameter constraints for all broad emission lines.« less

  15. Einstein à l'épreuve des faits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1998-02-01

    Apres plus de 80 ans d'existence, la theorie d'Einstein cherche encore des preuves, bien que plusieurs de ses predictions aient ete deja verifiees avec une incroyable precision et certains de ses effets les plus spectaculaires reconnus de facon indeniable. Plusieurs missions parmi les plus complexes jamais envisagees sont en projet ou en cours de construction dans le but unique de verifier la relativite. Pourquoi cet enjeu est-il capital pour la physique contemporaine ?

  16. Landform Variability in the Chaine Des Puys Tracing Multiple Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Grosse, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Chaîne des Puys is a highly varied, type monogenetic field, and was acknowledged by 38th WH UNESCO Committee to contain Outstanding Universal Value. The Chaîne des Puys - Limagne Fault should be presented in 2016 for World Heritage Status. The 30 km long Chaîne des Puys contains ranges from simple basaltic scoria cones to complex, multicrater cones, and small simple domes to complicated trachytic edifices. There is also a range of phreatomagmatic landforms from tuff rings to maars and vulcanian to sub plinian deposits. There is a wide range of pahoehoe and aa lava types, that have flowed over different topographies. Here we take morphometrical data to analyse the variability of the edifices using a 10 m regional topographic DTM. The volcanoes form a broad continuum of morphological features, and height/widths of domes and cones overlap. Some edifices, are smooth and elliptical, even though they have erupted complex lava sequences, while others complex shapes, but are related to simple lava flows. There seems to be no easy correlation between cone morphology and eruption histories derived from lava fields and distal tephras. In the few cones where the interior is visible, the shape of the cone is seen to vary with changing eruption events. The final shape is a combination of changing activity, with the last events having the strongest morphometic signature. The broad variations in edifice, lava field, and deposit morphology are described and quantified, however it becomes clear from the few individual eruptions already studied, that to fully appreciate the range of monogenetic eruption scenarios presented by the Chaîne des Puys, much more detailed work is required. This is being made possible by new acquisitions of LiDAR imagery, new geophysical work, and the combination of excellent preservation and extensive outcrop that is partly the result the original geology and long term responsible land management by the local populace, regional park and local

  17. Gestion des plaines inondables: Hauteur ou débit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Jabi, Nassir; Rousselle, Jean

    1983-07-01

    A stochastic model based on the recent developments in the theory of extreme values is presented to describe the flood occurrence. This model is applied to the "Rivière des Prairies", assuming that the exceedances (flood peak and/or stage above a given base flow and/or base stage) are independent and identically distributed in the time interval for a given year and season.

  18. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  19. La dysplasie fibreuse: état des lieux

    PubMed Central

    Akasbi, Nessrine; Abourazzak, Fatima Ezzahra; Talbi, Sofia; Tahiri, Latifa; Harzy, Taoufik

    2015-01-01

    La dysplasie fibreuse des os est une affection osseuse bénigne congénitale mais non héréditaire, où l'os normal est remplacé par un tissu fibreux renfermant une ostéogenèse immature. Elle est due à une mutation du gène GNAS 1sur le chromosome 20q13, une mutation activatrice de la sous-unité α de la protéine G. C'est une pathologie qui est le plus souvent silencieuse, de découverte fortuite sur une radiographie standard ou révélée par une douleur osseuse ou une fracture pathologique. L'imagerie et l'histologie, quand elle est nécessaire, permettent d’établir le diagnostic. Bien qu'il ne s'agisse pas d'une tumeur, elle est souvent classée dans la catégorie des tumeurs osseuses bénignes pour des raisons de diagnostic différentiel radiographique et anatomopathologique. Elle peut être monostotique ou polyostotique. L'approche thérapeutique est essentiellement symptomatique. Quelques publications récentes ont suggéré l'intérêt majeur d'un bisphosphonate, en particulier le pamidronate, qui diminuerait les douleurs et stimulerait une reminéralisation progressive des zones ostéolytiques chez les patients traités. D'autres traitements tels que la thérapie ciblée sont en cours d’évaluation. PMID:26401215

  20. Evolution of Bacillus subtilis to enhanced growth at low pressure: up-regulated transcription of des-desKR, encoding the fatty acid desaturase system.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Waters, Samantha M; Schuerger, Andrew C; George, Sheeja; Marois, James J; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2012-03-01

    The atmospheric pressure on Mars ranges from 1-10 mbar, about 1% of Earth pressure (∼1013 mbar). Low pressure is a growth-inhibitory factor for terrestrial microorganisms on Mars, and a putative low-pressure barrier for growth of Earth bacteria of ∼25 mbar has been postulated. In a previous communication, we described the isolation of a strain of Bacillus subtilis that had evolved enhanced growth ability at the near-inhibitory low pressure of 50 mbar. To explore mechanisms that enabled growth of the low-pressure-adapted strain, numerous genes differentially transcribed between the ancestor strain WN624 and low-pressure-evolved strain WN1106 at 50 mbar were identified by microarray analysis. Among these was a cluster of three candidate genes (des, desK, and desR), whose mRNA levels in WN1106 were higher than the ancestor on the microarrays. Up-regulation of these genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The des, desK, and desR genes encode the Des membrane fatty acid (FA) desaturase, the DesK sensor kinase, and the DesR response regulator, respectively, which function to maintain membrane fluidity in acute response to temperature downshift. Pressure downshift caused an up-regulation of des mRNA levels only in WN1106, but expression of a des-lacZ transcriptional fusion was unaffected, which suggests that des regulation was different in response to temperature versus pressure downshift. Competition experiments showed that inactivation of the des gene caused a slight, but statistically significant, loss of fitness of strain WN1106 at 50 mbar. Further, analysis of membrane FA composition of cells grown at 1013 versus 50 mbar revealed a decrease in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated FAs but an increase in the ratio of anteiso- to iso-FAs. The present study represents a first step toward identification of molecular mechanisms by which B. subtilis could sense and respond to the novel environmental stress